WorldWideScience

Sample records for absorption renal function

  1. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background Hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatremia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective Renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status; the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and Patients In 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result In hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR Increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels (> 1.1mg/dl) compared to control group (p value .000). In patients mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value= .002).

  2. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongun, Sakir; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demir, Omer; Cimen, Sertac; Aslan, Guven

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI) that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8%) with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF) as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9%) had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 18 patients (78.2%) had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5%) had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions.

  3. Markers of renal function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaraj Gowda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The markers of renal function test assess the normal functioning of kidneys. These markers may be radioactive and non radioactive. They indicate the glomerular filtration rate, concentrating and diluting capacity of kidneys (tubular function. If there is an increase or decrease in the valves of these markers it indicates dysfunction of kidney. Aim: The aim of this review is to compare and analyze the present and newer markers of renal function tests which help in diagnosis of clinical disorders. Material & Methods: An extensive literature survey was done aiming to compare and compile renal function tests makers required in diagnosis of diseases. Results: Creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes are makers for routine analysis whereas several studies have confirmed and consolidated the usefulness of markers such as cystatin C and β-Trace Protein. Conclusion: We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these biomarkers in terms of usefulness in assessing renal function.

  4. Renal function after renal artery stenting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George S. Hanzel; Mark Downes; Peter A. McCullough

    2005-01-01

    @@ Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS), a common clinical finding, is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. ARAS is seen in ~ 7% of persons over 65 years of age1 and in ~ 20% of patients at the time of coronary angiography.2 It is an important cause of chronic kidney disease and may result in 11-14% of cases of end stage renal disease.3

  5. Renal function after solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekroelofs, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis focus on the problem of renal chronic function loss following solid organ transplantation form a nephrologist point of view. Nephrologists have been and are still confionted with renal function loss in native kidney diseases. The last 3 decades chronic renal func

  6. Improvement of renal function after opening occluded atherosclerotic renal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Hiroshi; Toma, Masanao; Fukatsu, Atsushi

    2009-09-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) with stenting has been effective in the control of hypertension, renal function and pulmonary edema caused by atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS). However, concerning the viability of renal function, this procedure has not been fully established, especially in the presence of renal atrophy or severe renal parenchymal disease. We report a dramatically improved case of acute renal failure caused by acute worsening ARAS treated by stenting. A 72-year-old female was admitted for accelerated renal dysfunction (serum ceatinine; 1.2-2.3 mg/dl) and hypertension (190/100 mmHg). At 10 days after admission, the patient's serum ceatinine increased to 6.7 mg/dl, her pulmonary edema was exaggerated and hemodialysis was required. Ultrasonography showed bilateral high-echoic kidneys, but no apparent finding of renal artery stenosis (RAS). At day 15, computed tomographic angiography indicated bilateral ostial RAS. Renal angiography demonstrated total occlusion of the right and severe (90%) disease in the left. ARAS was diagnosed by intravascular ultrasonography. The guidewire was inserted in both renal arteries, PTRA with stenting was performed in the right and a stent was directly implanted in the left. Immediately, each kidney enlarged to almost normal size, leading to satisfactory urination. She was released from hemodialysis the next day since her serum creatinine was normal and the pulmonary edema was improved. Although there is still no reliable prognostic factor including resistive index or kidney size, it is important that PTRA with stenting in ARAS should be considered in a case of accelerated renal dysfunction because of the possible improvement. PMID:19726830

  7. Renal venous thrombosis with calcification and preservation of renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, A.G. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Dept. of Radiology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Murphy, A.V. [Dept. of Nephrology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Stewart, G. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Paisley (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    Two neonates were found on US to have branching linear calcification in the renal parenchyma, right sided in one and bilateral in the other. CT confirmed the presence of branching calcification in the kidneys and demonstrated calcified thrombus in the inferior vena cava in both babies. Antenatal detection of adrenal haemorrhage in one baby and presence of calcification at the age of 3 days in the other indicate that thrombosis probably occurred before birth. The kidneys remained normal in size, and uptake of {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-labelled dimercaptosuccinic acid ({sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA) was normal on follow-up examination. The presence of branching calcification and normal renal size probably indicates good prognosis for renal function in neonates in whom renal venous thrombosis is found and may indicate prenatal thrombosis. (orig.)

  8. Detecting reduced renal function in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Erlandsen, Erland J;

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the ability of renal indicators [serum creatinine (SCr), cystatin C (SCysC)] and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-models to discriminate normal and reduced renal function. As a single cut-off level will always lead to false classifications, we propose...

  9. Correlation between differential renal function estimation using CT-based functional renal parenchymal volume and 99mTc - DTPA renal scan

    OpenAIRE

    Sarma, Debanga; Barua, Sasanka K.; Rajeev, T. P.; Baruah, Saumar J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Objective: Nuclear renal scan is currently the gold standard imaging study to determine differential renal function. We propose helical CT as single modality for both the anatomical and functional evaluation of kidney with impaired function. In the present study renal parenchymal volume is measured and percent total renal volume is used as a surrogate marker for differential renal function. The objective of this study is to correlate between differential renal function estima...

  10. Renal function in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabla, Pradeep Kumar

    2010-05-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. Cardiovascular and renal complications share common risk factors such as blood pressure, blood lipids, and glycemic control. Thus, chronic kidney disease may predict cardiovascular disease in the general population. The impact of diabetes on renal impairment changes with increasing age. Serum markers of glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria identify renal impairment in different segments of the diabetic population, indicating that serum markers as well as microalbuminuria tests should be used in screening for nephropathy in diabetic older people. The American Diabetes Association and the National Institutes of Health recommend Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated from serum creatinine at least once a year in all people with diabetes for detection of kidney dysfunction. eGFR remains an independent and significant predictor after adjustment for conventional risk factors including age, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking, obesity, blood pressure, and glycemic and lipid control, as well as presence of diabetic retinopathy. Cystatin-C (Cys C) may in future be the preferred marker of diabetic nephropathy due differences in measurements of serum creatinine by various methods. The appropriate reference limit for Cys C in geriatric clinical practice must be defined by further research. Various studies have shown the importance of measurement of albuminuria, eGFR, serum creatinine and hemoglobin level to further enhance the prediction of end stage renal disease. PMID:21537427

  11. Drawbacks of the use of indirect estimates of renal function to evaluate the effect of risk factors on renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, JC; Gansevoort, RT; Hillege, HL; De Zeeuw, D; Curhan, GC; De Jong, PE

    2004-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies presently aim to evaluate the effect of risk factors on renal function. As direct measurement of renal function is cumbersome to perform, epidentiologic studies generally use an indirect estimate of renal function. The consequences of using different methods of renal funct

  12. Computerized technique for evaluating renal transplant function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was undertaken to improve the assessment of renal transplant function in the early post-operative period when the usual measures of renal function afford little useful information. A simplified mathematical model of I-131 hippurate transport allows separation of renal uptake and excretion. Uptake (U) is defined as the fraction of I-131 hippurate in the plasma picked up by the kidney per minute, and excretion (E), the fraction of I-131 hippurate in the kidney excreted into the bladder per minute. Scintillation camera data from the region of the renal allograft are framed at 4/min by a computer system for up to 30 minutes post injection. After regions of interest are flagged over the kidney, bladder and background regions, the activity-time curves are analyzed, and values for U and E are output in a report updated through punched paper tape for any values from previous studies. The entire analysis of a patient study requires about 5 minutes of technologist time. Over 150 studies on 24 patients have been analyzed using the above technique. In the immediate post-operative state when anuria or severe oliguria is often present, sequential estimation of U was found to be a sensitive measure of renal transplant viability. In the period beyond one week reductions in U and E appeared to be sensitive measures of rejection, while increases in U and E heralded amelioration of the rejection episode. Changes in U and E appeared to be more sensitive measures of changes in renal function than routine qualitative scintiphotographic analysis. This technique has proven useful in following the renal function status of the kidney transplant recipient through acute tubular necrosis and rejection episodes and has been a significant adjunct to routine scintigraphy

  13. Renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery; renal function recovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Kandler, Kristian; Agerlin Windeløv, Nis;

    2013-01-01

    To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy.......To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy....

  14. Impaired renal allograft function is associated with increased arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneifel, M; Scholze, A; Burkert, A;

    2006-01-01

    It is important whether impairment of renal allograft function may deteriorate arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients. In a cross-sectional study, arterial vascular characteristics were non-invasively determined in 48 patients with renal allograft using applanation tonometry and digital...... of large arteries S1 and small arteries S2 in renal transplant recipients (each p renal allograft (p ...-Wallis test between groups). It is concluded that impairment of renal allograft function is associated with an increased arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients....

  15. Wegener's granulomatosis with renal involvement: patient survival and correlations between initial renal function, renal histology, therapy and renal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrassy, K; Erb, A; Koderisch, J; Waldherr, R; Ritz, E

    1991-04-01

    Patient survival and renal outcome were followed in 25 patients with biopsy confirmed Wegener's granulomatosis and renal involvement. Fourteen out of 25 patients required dialysis on admission, 11/25 patients did not. All patients were treated with a novel protocol comprising methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. The median follow-up observation was 36 months (12-113 months). With the exception of 1 patient (who died from causes not related to Wegener's granulomatosis) all patients are alive. Among the patients initially requiring dialysis (n = 14) 4 are in terminal renal failure after 0, 7, 21 and 38 months respectively. In the nondialysis group (n = 11) only 1 patient subsequently required chronic dialysis 30 months after clinical admission. Renal failure was due to non-compliance with immunosuppressive therapy in at least 2 patients. Percentage of obsolescent glomeruli and the degree of tubulointerstitial lesions, but not active glomerular lesions (crescents, necroses) predicted renal outcome. The major cause of renal functional impairment was relapse of Wegener's granulomatosis usually within 2 years after clinical remission. Therefore prolonged treatment with cyclophosphamide for at least 2 years after clinical remission is recommended. Two patients with initially negative immunohistology had a second renal biopsy which revealed de novo appearance of mesangial IgA deposits.

  16. Recovery of renal function in dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patlovany Matthew

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although recovery of renal functions in dialysis dependent patients is estimated to be greater than 1%, there are no indicators that actually suggest such revival of renal function. Residual renal function in dialysis patients is unreliable and seldom followed. Therefore renal recovery (RR in dialysis dependent patients may remain unnoticed. We present a group of dialysis dependent patients who regained their renal functions. The aim of this project is to determine any indicators that may identify the recovery of renal functions in dialysis dependent patients. Methods All the discharges from the chronic dialysis facilities were identified. Among these discharges deaths, transplants, voluntary withdrawals and transfers either to another modality or another dialysis facility were excluded in order to isolate the patients with RR. The dialysis flow sheets and medical records of these patients were subsequently reviewed. Results Eight patients with a mean age of 53.8 ± 6.7 years (± SEM were found to have RR. Dialysis was initiated due to uremic symptoms in 6 patients and fluid overload in the remaining two. The patients remained dialysis dependent for 11.1 ± 4.2 months. All these patients had good urine output and 7 had symptoms related to dialysis. Their mean pre-initiation creatinine and BUN levels were 5.21 ± 0.6 mg/dl and 72.12 ± 11.12 mg/dl, respectively. Upon discontinuation, they remained dialysis free for 19.75 ± 5.97 months. The mean creatinine and BUN levels after cessation of dialysis were 2.85 ± 0.57 mg/dl and 29.62 ± 5.26 mg/dl, respectively, while the mean creatinine clearance calculated by 24-hour urine collection was 29.75 ± 4.78 ml/min. One patient died due to HIV complications. One patient resumed dialysis after nine months. Remaining continue to enjoy a dialysis free life. Conclusion RR must be considered in patients with good urine output and unresolved acute renal failure. Dialysis intolerance may be

  17. Application of pharmacokinetics local model to evaluate renal function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics local model was used to evaluate renal function.Some typical kinds of renal function cases, normal or disorder, were selected to be imaged with SPECT and those data measured were treated by the pharmacokinetics local model computer program (PLM).The results indicated that parameters, including peak value, peak time, inflexion time, half-excretion time, and kinetic equation played and importantrole in judging renal function.The fact confirms that local model isvery useful in evaluating renal function.

  18. Effect of tobacco smoking on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ross G

    2006-09-01

    Nicotine is one of many substances that may be acquired through active and passive smoking of tobacco. In man, nicotine is commonly consumed via smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes. The addictive liability and pharmacological effects of smoking are primarily mediated by the major tobacco alkaloid nicotine. High stress jobs favour repeated smoking and further reinforce addictive behaviours. There are elevated serum cadmium and lead levels in smokers resulting in glomerular dysfunction. Nephropathies are accelerated by nicotine with an increased incidence of microalbuminuria progressing to proteinuria, followed by type-1 diabetes mellitus induced renal failure. Cigarette smoke-induced renal damage is due, at least in part, to activation of the sympathetic nervous system resulting in an elevation in blood pressure. Ethanol, nicotine, or concurrent intake significantly increases lipid peroxidation in liver, and decreased superoxide dismutase activity and increased catalase activity in the kidney. This review describes the effects of nicotine, smoking, smoke extracts and other tobacco constituents on renal and cardiovascular functions, and associated effects on the nervous system. Both active and passive smoking is toxic to renal function. PMID:17085829

  19. Split renal function measured by triphasic helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackstein, Nils [Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis am Evangelischen Krankenhaus, Paul-Zipp-Str. 171, 35398 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: nils.hackstein@radiol.med.uni-giessen.de; Buch, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikstr. 36, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, 35385 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: thomas.buch@radiol.med.uni-giessen.de; Rau, Wigbert S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikstr. 36, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, 35385 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: wigbert.rau@uniklinikum-giessen.de; Weimer, Rolf [Department of Internal Medicine, Klinikstr. 36, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, 35385 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: Rolf.Weimer@innere.med.uni-giessen.de; Klett, Rigobert [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Friedrichstr. 25, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, 35385 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: rigobert.klett@radiol.med.uni-giessen.de

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To present a method for calculating split renal function solely from routine triphasic helical computed tomography (CT). Subjects and methods: We retrospectively included 26 adult patients who received renal scintigraphy and triphasic CT within 4 weeks in the years 2003 and 2004. All scans were performed using a standard abdominal protocol. Split renal function was calculated as relative single-kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using a simplified 'two-point Patlak plot' technique. As a reference method, split renal function was determined from renal scintigraphy using the standard technique. Results: Linear correlation between the two methods was r = 0.91, split renal function (CT) = 0.0266 + 0.9573 x split renal function (scintigraphy). Conclusion: Split renal function can be measured accurately by minimally extended triphasic CT.

  20. Anatrophic nephrolithotomy: preservation of renal function demonstrated by differential quantitative radionuclide renal scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belis, J.A.; Morabito, R.A.; Kandzari, S.J.; Lai, J.C.; Gabriele, O.F.

    1981-06-01

    Differential quantitative radionuclide renal scans have been used to confirm that early removal of staghorn calculi by anatrophic nephrolithotomy preserves renal parenchyma without significant renal damage by the surgical procedure. The /sup 99m/technetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scan was useful in predicting recovery of function in the involved kidney, while the /sup 131/iodine orthoiodohippurate scan provided a quantitative evaluation of the effect of the surgical procedure on individual kidney function. All of 13 consecutive patients evaluated by /sup 131/iodine orthoiodohippurate renal scans had stable or improved effective renal plasma flow to the involved kidney and an unchanged or improved total excretory index 6 months after nephrolithotomy.

  1. Can dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy be used to assess global renal function?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, E.; Prigent, A. [Service de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris (France)

    2000-06-01

    Use of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been proposed for the assessment of both relative and absolute renal function. Our aim was to test whether the renal absolute DMSA uptake (ADU) can reflect the absolute renal function from a theoretical point of view. A simple model was used to compute the ADU in the case of injury to one kidney. It was found that the assumption that ADU correctly reflects the absolute renal function may lead to a more than 50% overestimation of the function of both the normal and the impaired kidney. The later the measurement is made and the more impaired is the kidney, the more important is the error. Although DMSA can reliably quantify the relative renal function, it should not be used to assess absolute renal function lest major overestimation should occur. (orig.)

  2. Renal function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P K; Christiansen, J S; Steven, K;

    1981-01-01

    Renal function was examined with micropuncture methods in the insulin-treated streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.21 ml/min) than in the control group (0.84 ml/min) Nephron glomerular filtration rate increased in proportion...... to the rise in kidney glomerular filtration rate (diabetic rats: 37.0 nl/min; control rats: 27.9 nl/min). Likewise renal plasma flow was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (4.1 ml/min) than in the control group (3.0 ml/min). Glomerular capillary pressure was identical in both groups (56.0 and 56.0 mm......-1mmHg-1). Kidney weight was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.15 g; control rats: 0.96 g) while body weight was similar in both groups (diabetic rats: 232 g; control rats: 238 g). Calculations indicate that the increases in transglomerular hydraulic pressure, renal plasma flow...

  3. Renal filtration function in patients with gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Kushnarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study circadian blood pressure (BP profile in patients with gout depending on the presence of arterial hypertension (HT and their relationship to the renal filtration function.Material and methods. Patients with gout (n=87 were included into the study. All the patients underwent ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM with the assessment of circadian BP profile, determination of uric acid serum levels, glomerular filtration rate (GFR was evaluated by CKD-EPI method. Depending on GFR level, all the patients were divided into 2 groups - with renal dysfunction or without one.Results. ABPM revealed circadian BP dysregulation in 55% of gout patients both with HT and without HT. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was revealed in 72.4% of male patients, with the prevalence in patients with HT (76.6 vs 61%; p<0.001. Correlations between uric acid levels and some ABPM indicators and GFR were determined.Conclusion. Obtained data suggest the contribution of hyperuricemia in disorders of systemic and renal hemodynamics, leading to the early development of CKD.

  4. The effect of nifedipine on renal function in normotensive cyclosporin-A-treated renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, P G; Walls, J; Feehally, J

    1990-01-01

    Intrarenal vasoconstriction is a characteristic feature of CsA nephrotoxicity. The influence of nifedipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker and potent renal vasodilator, on renal haemodynamics was investigated in 11 cyclosporin A (CsA)- and 9 azathioprine (Aza)-treated normotensive long-term renal allograft recipients. Baseline Cr51-EDTA clearance and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were similar in both groups. Nifedipine 20 mg twice daily for 28 days significantly increased Cr51-EDTA clearance (+14.8%) in the CsA group; however, ERPF, renal vascular resistance (RVR), and filtration fraction did not change. Nifedipine did not influence renal haemodynamics in the azathioprine group. The increase in Cr51-EDTA clearance in the CsA group did not correlate with baseline renal function, CsA dose or whole blood levels, donor age, duration of graft, or renal functional reserve capacity. This study suggests that nifedipine confers a beneficial effect on renal haemodynamics in long-term CsA-treated renal allograft recipients and appears to improve renal function by a non-haemodynamic mechanism.

  5. [Falls and renal function: a dangerous association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgi, Alfredo; Fabbian, Fabio; Pala, Marco; Mallozzi Menegatti, Alessandra; Misurati, Elisa; Manfredini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Falls are an important health problem and the risk of falling increases with age. The costs due to falls are related to the progressive decline of patients' clinical conditions, with functional inability inducing increasing social costs, morbidity and mortality. Renal dysfunction is mostly present in elderly people who often have several comorbidities. Risk factors for falls have been classified as intrinsic and extrinsic, and renal dysfunction is included among the former. Chronic kidney disease per se is an important risk factor for falls, and the risk correlates negatively with creatinine clearance. Vitamin D deficiency, dysfunction of muscles and bones, nerve degeneration, cognitive decline, electrolyte imbalance, anemia, and metabolic acidosis have been reported to be associated with falls. Falls seem to be very frequent in dialysis patients: 44% of subjects on hemodialysis fall at least once a year with a 1-year mortality due to fractures of 64%. Male sex, comorbidities, predialysis hypotension, and a history of previous falls are the main risk factors, together with events directly related to renal replacement therapy such as biocompatibility of the dialysis membrane, arrhythmias, fluid overload and length of dialysis treatment. Peripheral nerve degeneration and demyelination as well as altered nerve conduction resulting in muscular weakness and loss of peripheral sensitivity are frequent when the glomerular filtration rate is less than 12 mL/min. Moreover, depression and sleep disorders can also increase the risk of falls. Kidney function is an important parameter to consider when evaluating the risk of falls in the elderly, and the development of specific guidelines for preventing falls in the uremic population should be considered. PMID:22718453

  6. The rebirth of interest in renal tubular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Jerome; Grantham, Jared J

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of glomerular filtration rate by the clearance of inulin or creatinine has evolved over the past 50 years into an estimated value based solely on plasma creatinine concentration. We have examined some of the misconceptions and misunderstandings of the classification of renal disease and its course, which have followed this evolution. Furthermore, renal plasma flow and tubular function, which in the past were estimated by the clearance of the exogenous aryl amine, para-aminohippurate, are no longer measured. Over the past decade, studies in experimental animals with reduced nephron mass and in patients with reduced renal function have identified small gut-derived, protein-bound uremic retention solutes ("uremic toxins") that are poorly filtered but are secreted into the lumen by organic anion transporters (OATs) in the proximal renal tubule. These are not effectively removed by conventional hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Residual renal function, urine produced in patients with advanced renal failure or undergoing dialysis treatment, may represent, at least in part, secretion of fluid and uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, mediated by proximal tubule OATs and might serve as a useful survival function. In light of this new evidence of the physiological role of proximal tubule OATs, we suggest that measurement of renal tubular function and renal plasma flow may be of considerable value in understanding and managing chronic kidney disease. Data obtained in normal subjects indicate that renal plasma flow and renal tubular function might be measured by the clearance of the endogenous aryl amine, hippurate.

  7. The rebirth of interest in renal tubular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Jerome; Grantham, Jared J

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of glomerular filtration rate by the clearance of inulin or creatinine has evolved over the past 50 years into an estimated value based solely on plasma creatinine concentration. We have examined some of the misconceptions and misunderstandings of the classification of renal disease and its course, which have followed this evolution. Furthermore, renal plasma flow and tubular function, which in the past were estimated by the clearance of the exogenous aryl amine, para-aminohippurate, are no longer measured. Over the past decade, studies in experimental animals with reduced nephron mass and in patients with reduced renal function have identified small gut-derived, protein-bound uremic retention solutes ("uremic toxins") that are poorly filtered but are secreted into the lumen by organic anion transporters (OATs) in the proximal renal tubule. These are not effectively removed by conventional hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Residual renal function, urine produced in patients with advanced renal failure or undergoing dialysis treatment, may represent, at least in part, secretion of fluid and uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, mediated by proximal tubule OATs and might serve as a useful survival function. In light of this new evidence of the physiological role of proximal tubule OATs, we suggest that measurement of renal tubular function and renal plasma flow may be of considerable value in understanding and managing chronic kidney disease. Data obtained in normal subjects indicate that renal plasma flow and renal tubular function might be measured by the clearance of the endogenous aryl amine, hippurate. PMID:26936872

  8. Evaluation of recovery in hydronephrosis using renal functional CT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using renal functional CT studies, we studied 22 patients who underwent surgical treatment for unilateral hydronephrosis. The tissue-plasma ratio of contrast enhancement (TPR), which is an indicator of renal function per unit of parenchymal volume, improved after the operation. On the other hand, the renal parenchymal volume (PV) decreased in proportion to the shrinkage of the kidney. The pre and postoperative values of renal functional index (RFI), the product of the TPR and PV, showed a good correlation (r=0.928, p<0.01). Therefore, RFI values were found to be useful for assessing the recovery of hydronephrosis. (author)

  9. Novel approaches to assessing renal function in cirrhotic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Andrew J; Austin, Mark; Heneghan, Michael A

    2007-09-01

    Renal dysfunction is common in patients with end-stage liver disease. Etiological factors include conditions as diverse as acute tubular necrosis, immunoglobulin A nephropathy and hepatorenal syndrome. Current standard tests of renal function, such as measurement of serum urea and creatinine levels, are inaccurate as the synthesis of these markers is affected by the native liver pathology. This article reviews novel markers of renal function and their potential use in patients with liver disease.

  10. Dietary protein, blood pressure and renal function in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den E.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Gans, R.O.B.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and cardiovascular events. Protein intake has been claimed to affect blood pressure (BP) in the general population and may affect renal function. We examined the association of dietary protei

  11. Quantitation of renal function using radioisotopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, J P; Ziessman, H A

    1993-03-01

    Radioisotopic methods are practical for clinical use because they do not require continuous intravenous infusion or urine collection. This obviously is of great advantage in infants and small children, in whom accurate urine collection is difficult, but the techniques apply to adults as well. The ability to determine individual kidney function is a major benefit. Accuracies of the radioisotopic techniques vary but generally are within clinically acceptable ranges. The need for accuracy and reproducibility can be balanced with the desire for speed and convenience when choosing among the different techniques. Methods that use plasma sampling provide greater accuracy and are recommended in cases of severe dysfunction, whereas methods such as Gates' camera method, which eliminates plasma samples, can be completed in minutes. Radioisotopic techniques are most useful in the ranges of mild to moderately decreased function, in which serum creatinine concentration is nondiagnostic, and although they are much less accurate at markedly low renal function levels, so is 24-hour creatinine clearance. In conclusion, radiopharmaceutical agents offer a wide array of possible techniques for simple, accurate, and noninvasive measurement of global as well as individual GFR and ERPF. PMID:8462269

  12. Effects of radiofrequency ablation on individual renal function: assessment by technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine renal scintigraphy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasu,Yasutomo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We quantitatively evaluated total and individual renal function by technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy before and after radiofrequency ablation (RFA of renal tumors. Eleven patients who underwent Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy 1 week before and after RFA were evaluated (7 men and 4 women ; age range : 23-83 years ; mean age : 60.6 years. Five patients had solitary kidneys, and five had normally or minimally functioning contralateral kidneys. One patient had a renal cell carcinoma in the contralateral kidney. One patient with a solitary kidney underwent RFA a second time for a residual tumor. In patients with a solitary kidney, MAG3 clearance decreased after 5 of 6 RFAs, and in patients with a normally functioning contralateral kidney, MAG3 clearance decreased after 4 of 5 RFAs, but no significant differences were observed between before and after treatments. In addition to the total MAG3 clearance, the split MAG3 clearance was evaluated in patients with a normally functioning contralateral kidney. MAG3 clearance decreased in 4 of 5 treated kidneys, while it adversely increased in the contralateral kidneys after 4 of 5 RFAs. No significant differences, however, were observed between before and after treatments. The results of our study revealed no significant differences in sCr, BUN, CCr, or MAG3 clearance between pre- and post-RFA values. These results support data regarding the functional impact and safety of renal RFA in published reports. We evaluated total and individual renal function quantitatively using Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy before and after treatment. This scintigraphy was very useful in assessing the effects of RFA on renal function.

  13. Evaluation of restenosis, renal function and blood pressure after the renal artery stenting in patients with atherosclerosis renovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焱

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the restenosis, renal function and blood pressure after renal artery stenting in patients with atherosclerosis renovascular disease. Methods Percutaneous renal artery stent (PTRAS) was performed in 135 patients with single or bilateral renal artery stenosis (≥70%). Clinical data of above patients were studied during follow-up period. Results A total of 147

  14. Copeptin, a Surrogate Marker of Vasopressin, Is Associated With Accelerated Renal Function Decline in Renal Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Esther; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Jong, Paul E.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; van Son, Willem J.; Struck, Joachim; Lems, Simon P. M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Chronically elevated vasopressin (VP) plasma levels have been shown to induce accelerated renal function decline in rats with chronic renal failure. Whether endogenous VP is a renal risk factor in humans has not been investigated yet. We aimed to investigate whether, in renal transplant

  15. No effect of dietary fish oil on renal hemodynamics, tubular function, and renal functional reserve in long-term renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J M; Løkkegaard, H; Høy, Carl-Erik;

    1995-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been suggested to protect the kidney against cyclosporin A (CsA) toxicity. This study investigated the effects of a 10-wk dietary supplementation with fish oil on renal function and renal functional reserve in healthy...... and effective RPF were measured as the renal clearances of (99mTc)DTPA and (131I)hippuran, respectively. Renal tubular function was evaluated by use of the renal clearance of lithium and the urinary excretion of beta 2-microglobulin. Fish oil did not change baseline values of effective RPF, GFR, lithium...... clearance, and urinary excretion of beta 2-microglobulin in any of the groups. The infusion of amino acids induced a comparable increase in GFR, lithium clearance, and the urinary excretion rate of beta 2-microglobulin in all three groups with no additional effect of fish oil. Thus, long-term renal...

  16. Effect of sludge ice cooling on renal function and renal histology in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbaeys, A; Oosterlinck, W; Lameire, N; Cuvelier, C; De Sy, W A

    1981-01-01

    The effect of sludge ice surface cooling on the compensatory hypertrophied dog kidney was investigated. Renal function was measured prior to and on days 1, 3 and 7 after the cooling procedure by means of inulin clearance, PAH clearance and sodium excretion capacity during normal hydration and after volume expansion. No alteration in renal function was shown. No freezing lesions or thromboses were seen on histological examination.

  17. Renal Function in Children with Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan AFSHARKHAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Afsharkhas L, Tavasoli A. Renal Function in Children with Febrile Convulsions.Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4:57-61.AbstractObjectiveFebrile convulsions (FC are the most frequent seizure disorder in children.Some studies have detected serum electrolyte disturbances in patients with FC.This study determines serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and frequency of urinary tract infection in hospitalized children with FC.Materials & MethodsIn this descriptive, cross sectional study, we evaluated 291 children with FC admitted to the Neurology ward of Ali-Asghar Children’s Hospital from 2008–2013. Data was recorded on age, sex, type (simple, complex, and recurrence of seizures, family history of FC and epilepsy, serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and urinary tract infections.ResultsA total of 291 patients with diagnosis of FC were admitted to our center. Of these 291 patients, 181 (62.2% were male. The mean age was 24.4 ± 14.6 months.There were simple, complex, and recurrent FCs in 215 (73.9%, 76 (26.1% and 61 (21% of patients, respectively. Urinary tract infections (UTI were found in 13 (4.5% patients, more present in females (p-value = 0.03 and under 12 months of age (p-value = 0.003. Hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypokalemia was detected in 32 (11%, 16 (5.5%, and 4 (1.4% of cases, respectively. Twentyfour (8.2% patients had a glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2.There were no abnormalities in serum magnesium, BUN, and creatinine levels.ConclusionDuring FCs, mild changes may occur in renal function but a serum electrolyte evaluation is not necessary unless patients are dehydrated. In children with FC, urinary tract infections should be ruled out. ReferencesGhofrani M. Febrile Convulsion: Another look at an old subject. Iran J Child Neurology 2006 June:1(1:5-9.Swaiman K, Ashwal S, Ferriero D, Schor N. Swaiman’s Pediatric Neurology: Principles and Practice. 5th edition

  18. The colon: Absorptive, seccretory and metabolic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, J G

    1975-01-01

    The role which the human colon fulfils in digestion and metabolism remains largely undocumented. Its capacity to conserve water and electrolytes is well known although how this is controlled is uncertain. In the animal kingdom, calcium and magnesium absorption from the colon are improtant as are absorption and synthesis of vitamins. The abundant microflora of the human colon gives it unique properties. Dietary residue is metabolised forming short-chain fatty acids, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane; whilst 20% of urea synthesised in man is broken down in the colon to ammonia, which is reabsorbed, and carbonic acid. The microflora also degrades a wide variety of organic compounds including food additives, drugs, bile salts, and cholesterol which may be relevant to the development of colon cancer. Regional differences in colonic function also exist making interpretation of data from this relatively inaccessible organ more difficult. PMID:1205009

  19. A re-appraisal of volume status and renal function impairment in chronic heart failure : combined effects of pre-renal failure and venous congestion on renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinkeler, Steef J.; Damman, Kevin; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Hillege, Hans; Navis, Gerjan

    2012-01-01

    The association between cardiac failure and renal function impairment has gained wide recognition over the last decade. Both structural damage in the form of systemic atherosclerosis and (patho) physiological hemodynamic changes may explain this association. As regards hemodynamic factors, renal imp

  20. Incidence of renal carcinoma in non-functioning kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZENGIN, KURSAD; TANIK, SERHAT; SENER, NEVZAT CAN; ALBAYRAK, SEBAHATTIN; EKICI, MUSA; BOZKURT, IBRAHIM HALIL; BAKIRTAS, HASAN; GURDAL, MESUT; IMAMOGLU, MUHAMMED ABDURRAHIM

    2015-01-01

    The objective of This study was to report our pathological findings in nephrectomy specimens from patients treated for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease. A total of 97 patients who underwent nephrectomy for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidneys between January, 2011 and June, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A non-functioning kidney was defined as one having paper-thin parenchyma on urinary ultrasound or computed tomography, exhibiting no contrast visualization in the collecting duct system on intravenous urography and having a split renal function of <10% on nuclear renal function studies. Following pathological evaluation, 9 patients were diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, 9 with malignant tumors and 79 with chronic pyelonephritis. Of the patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 2 also had renal adenomas. The malignant tumors included 3 transitional cell carcinomas (TCC), 2 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 3 renal cell carcinomas (RCC) (1 sarcomatoid, 1 papillary and 1 clear cell RCC), whereas 1 patient had concurrent RCC and TCC. In conclusion, non-functioning kidneys, particularly those with kidney stones, should be managed as possible malignancies, due to the higher incidence of malignant tumors in such patients compared with the normal population. PMID:26171211

  1. Renal Function Assessment During Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Belkis; Tuncel, Murat

    2016-09-01

    Theranostics labeled with Y-90 or Lu-177 are highly efficient therapeutic approaches for the systemic treatment of various cancers including neuroendocrine tumors and prostate cancer. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been used for many years for metastatic or inoperable neuroendocrine tumors. However, renal and hematopoietic toxicities are the major limitations for this therapeutic approach. Kidneys have been considered as the "critical organ" because of the predominant glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption by the proximal tubules, and interstitial retention of the tracers. Severe nephrotoxity, which has been classified as grade 4-5 based on the "Common Terminology Criteria on Adverse Events," was reported in the range from 0%-14%. There are several risk factors for renal toxicity; patient-related risk factors include older age, preexisting renal disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, previous nephrotoxic chemotherapy, metastatic lesions close to renal parenchyma, and single kidney. There are also treatment-related issues, such as choice of radionuclide, cumulative radiation dose to kidneys, renal radiation dose per cycle, activity administered, number of cycles, and time interval between cycles. In the literature, nephrotoxicity caused by PRRT was documented using different criteria and renal function tests, from serum creatinine level to more accurate and sophisticated methods. Generally, serum creatinine level was used as a measure of kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation based on serum creatinine was preferred by several authors. Most commonly used formulas for estimation of GFR are "Modifications of Diet in Renal Disease" (MDRD) equation and "Cockcroft-Gault" formulas. However, more precise methods than creatinine or creatinine clearance are recommended to assess renal function, such as GFR measurements using Tc-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), Cr-51-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), or

  2. Renal involvement in leptospirosis: the effect of glycolipoprotein on renal water absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Regina Cesar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirotic renal lesions frequently produce a polyuric form of acute kidney injury with a urinary concentration defect. Our study investigated a possible effect of the glycolipoprotein, (GLPc extracted from L. interrogans, on vasopressin (Vp action in the guinea pig inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD. METHODS: The osmotic water permeability (Pf µm/s was measured by the microperfusion in vitro technique. AQP2 protein abundance was determined by Western Blot. Three groups were established for study as follows: Group I, IMCD from normal (ngp, n = 5 and from leptospirotic guinea-pigs (lgp-infected with L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, GLPc, n = 5; Group II, IMCD from normal guinea-pigs in the presence of GLPc (GLPc group, n = 54; Group III, IMCD from injected animals with GLPc ip (n = 8. RESULTS: In Group I, PFS were: ngp--61.8±22.1 and lgp--8.8±12.4, p<0.01 and the urinary osmolalities were: lgp--735±64 mOsm/Kg and ngp--1,632±120 mOsm/Kg. The lgp BUN was higher (176±36 mg% than the ngp (56±9 mg%. In Group II, the Pf was measured under GLPc (250 µg/ml applied directly to the bath solution of the microperfused normal guinea-pig IMCDs. GLPc blocked Vp (200 pg/ml, n = 5 action, did not block cAMP (10(-4 M, and Forskolin (Fors--10(-9 M action, but partially blocked Cholera Toxin (ChT--10(-9 M action. GLP from L.biflexa serovar patoc (GLPp, non pathogenic, 250 µg did not alter Vp action. In Group III, GLPc (250 µg injected intraperitoneally produced a decrease of about 20% in IMCD Aquaporin 2 expression. CONCLUSION: The IMCD Pf decrease caused by GLP is evidence, at least in part, towards explaining the urinary concentrating incapacity observed in infected guinea-pigs.

  3. Occurrence of chronic renal failure in liver transplantation: monitoring of pre- and posttransplantation renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbro, I; Tinti, F; Piselli, P; Fiacco, F; Giannelli, V; Di Natale, V; Zavatto, A; Merli, M; Rossi, M; Ginanni Corradini, S; Poli, L; Berloco, P B; Mitterhofer, A P

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of middle and long-term chronic renal failure (CRF) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in relation to acute renal failure (ARF). We prospectively monitored 75 patients, studying renal function on the basis of serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate as estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula before as well as 1,6, and 12 months after OLT. The prevalence of ARF was 56% classified by the Acute Kidney injury Network criteria (52% stage 1, 29% stage 2, and 19% stage 3). The occurrences of CRF were 18.6% (11/59), 11.5% (6/52), and 14% (6/43) at 1, 6, and 12 months after OLT, respectively. The occurrence of CRF before OLT was 14.7%. We did not find any association between ARF and post-OLT CRF. The most relevant result of our study was the association between CRF at 6 and 12 months after transplantation with pre-OLT CRF on univariate and multivariate analysis. We suggest that evaluation of pre-OLT renal function should always be considered in the follow-up of liver transplant patients. Pre-OLT renal dysfunction must be recognized to be a risk factor for post-OLT CRF, representing important criterion to define specific therapeutic interventions to reduce patient morbidity and mortality.

  4. Evaluation of renal function in children with moderate or severe hydronephrosis after operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨屹; 吉士俊; 赵国贵

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate postoperative renal function in children with congenital moderate or severe hydronephrosis. Methods 99m Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid scintigraphy was performed in 50 children with unilateral moderate or severe hydronephrosis to determine postoperative renal function. We also analyzed the factors influencing renal function recovery. Results Average postoperative renal function in 50 cases was 40.62%±10.09%. Among them, 32% of patients had nearly normal renal function and differentiated renal function reached up to 45%. Average preoperative and postoperative renal function in 25 cases was 23.89%±11.65% and 39.33%±8.59% respectively and the increase of renal function was about 15.44%±11.18% (P=0.0003). Renal parenchyma thickness was negatively correlated with postoperative renal function (r=-0.62, P=0.0009). The follow-up period was positively correlated with postoperative renal function (r=0.58, P=0.0026). The patients'age had no correlation with renal function recovery (r=-0.05, P=0.80). Recovery of renal function in hydronephrosis with extrarenal pelvis was greater than that in hydronephrosis with intrarenal pelvis (P=0.016). Conclusions Postoperative renal function in children with moderate or severe hydronephrosis can recover to normal. Recovery of renal function was more obvious in hydronephrosis with thinner renal parenchyma, longer follow-up period and extrarenal pelvis.

  5. A simple and accurate grading system for orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the assessment of post-transplant renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaki, S.K.; Bretan, P.N.; Go, R.T.; Rehm, P.K.; Streem, S.B.; Novick, A.C. (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Orthoiodohippurate renal scanning has proved to be a reliable, noninvasive method for the evaluation and followup of renal allograft function. However, a standardized system for grading renal function with this test is not available. We propose a simple grading system to distinguish the different functional phases of hippurate scanning in renal transplant recipients. This grading system was studied in 138 patients who were evaluated 1 week after renal transplantation. There was a significant correlation between the isotope renographic functional grade and clinical correlates of allograft function such as the serum creatinine level (p = 0.0001), blood urea nitrogen level (p = 0.0001), urine output (p = 0.005) and need for hemodialysis (p = 0.007). We recommend this grading system as a simple and accurate method to interpret orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the evaluation and followup of renal allograft recipients.

  6. Angiography for renal artery stenosis: no additional impairment of renal function by angioplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lufft, Volkmar; Fels, Lueder M.; Egbeyong-Baiyee, Daniel; Olbricht, Christoph J. [Abteilung Nephrologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Hoogestraat-Lufft, Linda; Galanski, Michael [Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare renal function between patients with renal angiography and patients with renal angiography and angioplasty (AP) for renal artery stenosis (RAS). Forty-seven patients with suspected RAS were prospectively investigated by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) using non-ionic low osmolar contrast media (CM). In 22 patients RAS was detected and in 16 cases an angioplasty was performed in the same session. The following parameters were determined 1 day prior to and after the DSA, respectively: serum creatinine (S-Crea, {mu}mol/l) and single-shot inulin clearance (In-Cl, ml/min) for the evaluation of renal function; and urine alpha 1-microglobuline (AMG, {mu}g/g Crea) and beta-N-acetyl-glucoseaminidase (beta-NAG, U/g Crea) as markers of tubular toxicity. Serum creatinine was measured additionally 2 days after CM had been injected. In both groups with and without AP 174{+-}65 and 104{+-}56 ml of CM (p<0.0005) were used, respectively. There were no differences with regard to renal function or risk factors for CM nephrotoxicity between both groups. In the group with AP S-Crea and In-Cl (each: mean{+-}SD) did not change significantly (before DSA: 171{+-}158 and 61{+-}24, after DSA: 189{+-}177 and 61{+-}25, respectively), beta-NAG (median) rose from 4 to 14 (p<0.05) and AMG from 8 to 55 (n.s., because of high SD). In the group without AP S-Crea increased from 134{+-}109 to 141{+-}113 (p<0.01), In-Cl dropped from 65{+-}26 to 62{+-}26 (p<0,01), beta NAG (median) rose from 4 to 8 (p=0.01), and AMG from 7 to 10 (n.s.). A rise in baseline S-Crea by more than 25% or 44 {mu}mol/l occurred in 4 and 2 patients in the group with and without AP, respectively. Creatinine increase was reversible in all cases within 7 days. In this study using sensitive methods to detect changes of renal function and tubular toxicity no additional renal function impairment in DSA with angioplasty for RAS compared with DSA alone could be demonstrated. Our data suggest

  7. Serum Levels of the Adipokine Progranulin Depend on Renal Function

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Judit; Focke, Denise; Ebert, Thomas; Kovacs, Peter; Bachmann, Anette; Lössner, Ulrike; Kralisch, Susan; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Beige, Joachim; Anders, Matthias; Bast, Ingolf; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Fasshauer, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Progranulin has recently been introduced as a novel adipokine inducing insulin resistance and obesity. In the current study, we investigated renal elimination, as well as association of the adipokine with markers of the metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Progranulin serum levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and correlated to anthropometric and biochemical parameters of renal function and glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as inflammation, in 5...

  8. Renal Function Outcomes for Multifocal Renal Neoplasms Managed by Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate renal function changes related to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms. Methods: This is an institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant retrospective study of all patients treated with computed tomography guided RFA for multifocal renal neoplasms at one institution. Fifty-seven subjects, mean age 70 (range 37–88) years, underwent RFA of 169 renal neoplasms (average size 2.0 cm). Subjects had between 2 and 8 (mean 2.96) neoplasms ablated. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was measured before and after RFA. Complications related to RFA were recorded. Results: eGFR decreased on average of 4.4 % per tumor treated and 6.7 % per ablation session (average 1.76 tumors treated per session). For subjects with the largest neoplasm measuring >3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 14.5 % during the course of their treatment. If the largest neoplasm measured 2–3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 7.7 %, and if the largest neoplasm measured <2 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 3.8 %. Subjects with reduced baseline renal function were more likely to have a greater decline in eGFR after RFA. There was a minor complication rate of 6.3 % (6 of 96 sessions), none of which required treatment, and a major complication rate of 4.2 % (4 of 96 sessions). Conclusion: RFA for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms results in mild decline of renal function

  9. Renal Function Outcomes for Multifocal Renal Neoplasms Managed by Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Pushpender, E-mail: pugupta@wakehealth.edu; Allen, Brian C., E-mail: bcallen2@wakehealth.edu; Chen, Michael Y., E-mail: mchen@wakehealth.edu; Childs, David D., E-mail: dchilds@wakehealth.edu; Kota, Gopi, E-mail: gkota@wakehealth.edu; Zagoria, Ronald J., E-mail: rzagoria@wakehealth.edu [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate renal function changes related to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms. Methods: This is an institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant retrospective study of all patients treated with computed tomography guided RFA for multifocal renal neoplasms at one institution. Fifty-seven subjects, mean age 70 (range 37-88) years, underwent RFA of 169 renal neoplasms (average size 2.0 cm). Subjects had between 2 and 8 (mean 2.96) neoplasms ablated. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was measured before and after RFA. Complications related to RFA were recorded. Results: eGFR decreased on average of 4.4 % per tumor treated and 6.7 % per ablation session (average 1.76 tumors treated per session). For subjects with the largest neoplasm measuring >3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 14.5 % during the course of their treatment. If the largest neoplasm measured 2-3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 7.7 %, and if the largest neoplasm measured <2 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 3.8 %. Subjects with reduced baseline renal function were more likely to have a greater decline in eGFR after RFA. There was a minor complication rate of 6.3 % (6 of 96 sessions), none of which required treatment, and a major complication rate of 4.2 % (4 of 96 sessions). Conclusion: RFA for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms results in mild decline of renal function.

  10. Evaluation of split renal function in models of unilateral renal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and filtration fraction (FF) were measured using radionuclide techniques in rat models with ureteral obstruction and transient occlusion of the renal vein or artery to determine which parameter is helpful in evaluating changes in split renal function. Three microcuries of iodine-131 orthoiodohippuric acid (I-131 hipurran) and 7 μCi of technetium-99m dietylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) were injected into the femoral vein 30 min, 3 hr, 6 hr, 2 days, and one week after obstruction of the left ureter, or after releasing occlusion of the left renal vein or artery for 30 min. Blood samples were serially obtained, and immediately after that, the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder were excised. Split ERPF and GFR were evaluated by obtaining blood clearances of I-131 hippuran and Tc-99m DTPA, respectively. With ureteral obstruction, the split ERPF, GFR, and FF on the obstructed side were decreased significantly 6 hr, 2 days and one week after the obstruction. With transient occlusion of the renal vein or artery, the split ERPF, GFR, and FF were decreased on the occluded side. The decrease in GFR was greater than that in ERPF on the obstructed or occluded side. Tc-99m DTPA, a glomerular agent, was more useful than I-131 hipurran, a tubular agent, in evaluating acute renal dysfunction. (N.K.)

  11. Serum amylase activity and renal amylase activity clearance in patients with severely impaired renal function and in patients treated with renal allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Brock, A; Kornerup, H J

    1976-03-01

    Serum amylase activity was measured in 29 nondialysed patients with severe renal failure, in 24 uraemic patients treated with chronic haemodialysis, and in 29 patients treated with renal allotransplantation. Simultaneous measurement of renal amylase activity clearance (CAm) and creatinine clearance (CCr) was performed in 25 patients with severe renal failure and in 19 transplanted patients. Serum amylase activity was elevated in all three groups. CAm was significantly correlated to CCr both in the group with severe renal failure and in the transplanted group. Unlike in the group of transplanted patients, the ratio CAm/CCr was significantly increased in patients with severe impaired renal function. It is concluded that the elevation of serum amylase activity in patients with impaired renal function is primarily due to decreased glomerular filtration rate. The value of CAm/CCr for diagnosing acute pancreatitis is doubtful in patients with severe renal disease.

  12. Epidermal growth factor enhances renal tubule cell regeneration and repair and accelerates the recovery of renal function in postischemic acute renal failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Humes, H D; Cieslinski, D A; T.M. Coimbra; Messana, J M; Galvao, C.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the timing and location of renal cell regeneration after ischemic injury to the kidney and to assess whether exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances this regenerative repair process to accelerate recovery of renal function, experiments were undertaken in rats undergoing 30 min of bilateral renal artery clamp ischemia followed by reperfusion for varying time intervals. Renal cell regeneration, as reflected by incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine within the kidney, bega...

  13. Vascular function and mild renal impairment in stable coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Harst, P; Smilde, TDJ; Buikema, H; Voors, AA; Navis, G; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van Gilst, WH

    2006-01-01

    Objective - In patients with coronary artery disease, the concomitant presence of renal function impairment is associated with decreased survival. We aimed to assess whether in coronary artery diseased patients renal function impairment is associated with systemic vascular function, functional param

  14. Renal functional CT studies of patients with nephrolithotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal functions of 13 patients, who underwent nephrolithotomy, were examined by the functional CT study. The warm ischemic time was 41+/-10 (mean+/-SD). After the operation, the tissueplasma ratio of contrast enhancement values failed to improve satisfactorily compared to that of the nonischemic hydronephrosis patients. Parenchymal volume decreased as much as that in the non-ischemic patients. As a result, Renal Functional Index (RFI) decreased significantly after nephrolithotomy. As RFI does not usually change in non-ischemic hydronephrosis after release of obstruction, the postischemic decrease of RFI may be caused mainly by ischemic damage and the effects of parechymal incision may not be dominant. (author)

  15. Effect of TGF-β1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide on renal function in chronic renal failure rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Law Chung HIONG; Kiew Lik VOON; Nor Azizan ABDULLAH; Munavvar A SATTAR; Nazarina AbduRAHMAN; Abdul Hye KHAN; Edward James JOHNS

    2008-01-01

    Aim:The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of trans-forming growth factor (TGF)-β1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) in ame-liorating deteriorated kidney function in rats with puromycin-induced chronic renal failure (CRF). Methods:Saline, puromycin, puromycin+TGF-β1 antisense ODN or puromycin+scrambled ODN were administered to unilaterally nephrecto-mized rats. Renal hemodynamic and excretory measurements were taken in the anaesthetized rats that had undergone surgical procedure. Results:It was ob-served that in the CRF rats, there was a marked reduction in the renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), severe proteinuria, and almost 6-fold in-creased fractional excretion of sodium (FE Na+) as compared to that in the control rats (all P<0.05). It was further observed that in the CRF rats, the treatment with TGF-β1 antisense, but not scrambled ODN, markedly attenuated the reduction of RBF, GFR, and proteinuria and markedly prevented the increase of the FE Na+ (all P<0.05). In addition, the renal hypertrophy in the CRF group (P<0.05 vs non-renal failure control) was markedly attenuated after treatment with TGF-1 antisense ODN (P<0.05). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was evident only in the un-treated and scrambled ODN-treated CRF groups. An interesting observation of this study was that in the CRF rats, although there was marked attenuating and preventive effects of the TGF-β1 antisense ODN on the deteriorated renal functions, the antisense treatment did not cause any marked change in the renal expression of TGF-β1 at the protein level. Conclusion:Collectively, the data obtained sug-gests that TGF-β1 antisense ODN possesses beneficial effects in puromycin-induced chronic renal failure and that the deterioration in morphology and im-paired renal function in this pathological state is in part dependent upon the action of TGF-β1 within the kidney.

  16. Incidence of renal carcinoma in non-functioning kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zengin, Kursad; TANIK, SERHAT; Sener, Nevzat Can; Albayrak, Sebahattin; Ekici, Musa; Bozkurt, Ibrahim Halil; Bakirtas, Hasan; Gurdal, Mesut; Imamoglu, Muhammed Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of This study was to report our pathological findings in nephrectomy specimens from patients treated for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease. A total of 97 patients who underwent nephrectomy for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidneys between January, 2011 and June, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A non-functioning kidney was defined as one having paper-thin parenchyma on urinary ultrasound or computed tomography, exhibiting no contrast vis...

  17. Digitalis pharmacokinetics and therapy with respect to impaired renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, P

    1977-01-01

    The various cardiac glycosides differ significantly in their retention as a result of renal failure. In the case of digoxin, digitoxin, and strophanthin the retention is directly related to the normal renal clearance of these cardiac glycosides: Strophanthin has the highest clearance and the most marked prolongation of pharmacological action in renal failure, whereas digitoxin shows the lowest renal clearance and even in uremic patients a total elimination comparable to normal subjects as a result of increased hepatic clearance; digoxin takes an intermediate position. The quantity of a cardiac glycoside and its metabolites excreted by the kidneys depends, besides the renal clearance, on the plasma concentration which increases considerably during the first days after onset of treatment. From the daily dose approximately 90% of strophanthin, 70% of digoxin, 50% of digitoxin plus metabolites are excreted by normal kidneys under steady-state conditions. The efficiency of hemodialysis in the elimination of cardiac glycosides is low (3-5%) if estimated in relation to a single dose injected before dialysis and high (30-50%) if estimated in relation to the excretory capacity of normal kidneys during a period corresponding to the duration of a dialysis. During hemodialysis the plasma concentration of digoxin decreases as rapidly as in patients with normal renal function. Beside the efficiency of dialysis this finding may be explained by the decrease in the apparent volume of distribution of cardiac glycosides in patients with advanced renal failure; a reduced tissue protein binding seems likely to be the main reason for these changes in chronic renal insufficiency. A reduced volume of distribution and a reduced myocardial sensitivity are the main reasons for a very low predictability of the necessary individual maintenance dose of cardiac glycosides from the creatinine clearance. In patients with advanced renal insufficiency the tolerance to cardiac glycosides is reduced

  18. Comparison between doppler ultrasonography and renal scintigraphy in assessment of post-transplant renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeo Chang; Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Kim, Seong Min; Ahn, Moon Sang; Yang, Shin Seok [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To compare the usefulness of Doppler ultrasonography and renal scintigraphy in the assessment of short- and long-term function of transplanted kidneys. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 79 patients who underwent Doppler ultrasonography and technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid renal scintigraphy on the same day, within 4 days of renal transplantation. Image parameters were evaluated for statistical differences. There was a strong positive correlation between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as measured by renal scintigraphy and the estimated GFR (eGFR) based on serum creatinine levels (correlation coefficient = 0.71). Scan grade according to the time-activity curve, resistive index, and end diastolic velocity showed moderate correlations with the eGFR (correlation coefficients = -0.557, -0.329, and 0.370, respectively) in the early post-transplantation period. The mean survival time was longer in patients with lower resistive indices (≤ 0.68, 54.9 months vs. > 0.68, 29.5 months) and lower pulsatility indices (≤ 1.32, 53.8 months vs. > 1.32, 28.7 months); however, there were no statistically significant differences in the long-term follow-up period (p = 0.121 for resistive index and p = 0.074 for pulsatility index). Renal scintigraphy is a more sensitive method than Doppler ultrasonography for assessing transplanted kidney function in the early post-transplantation period. Doppler ultrasonography might reflect the long-term survival time. However, it is difficult to predict long-term renal function using either method.

  19. [Methods for the estimation of the renal function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontseré Baldellou, Néstor; Bonal I Bastons, Jordi; Romero González, Ramón

    2007-10-13

    The chronic kidney disease represents one of the pathologies with greater incidence and prevalence in the present sanitary systems. The ambulatory application of different methods that allow a suitable detection, monitoring and stratification of the renal functionalism is of crucial importance. On the basis of the vagueness obtained by means of the application of the serum creatinine, a set of predictive equations for the estimation of the glomerular filtration rate have been developed. Nevertheless, it is essential for the physician to know its limitations, in situations of normal renal function and hyperfiltration, certain associate pathologies and extreme situations of nutritional status and age. In these cases, the application of the isotopic techniques for the calculation of the renal function is more recommendable.

  20. Renal hemodynamic effects of candesartan in normal and impaired renal function in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buter, H; Navis, G; deZeeuw, D; deJong, PE

    1997-01-01

    The effects of angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist candesartan cilexitil, 8 mg once daily, were studied after single dose and after five days treatment in 17 hypertensive patients [median mean arterial pressure (MAP) 118 mm Hg, range 84 to 134] with renal function impairment of different sever

  1. EFFECT OF LITHIUM CARBONATE ON RENAL AND EXTRA-RENAL FUNCTIONS OF RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Effect of high doses of lithium carbonate (40 rag/Kg.i.p. and p.o.) and lithium chloride (40 mg/Kg.i.p.) on renal and extra-renal functions were studied in normal male Charles Foster Strain of rats. Insignificant effect on urine output, creatinine clerance, sodium, potassium and lithium excretion was observed with these salts. Antidiuretic hormone levels were also not effected. However lithium clearance was significantly raised in both groups with lithium carbonate and with lithium ch...

  2. Effects of contrast media on renal graft function and survival after cerebral angiography of cadaveric donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of intravascularly administered ionic contrast media on renal graft function and survival were retrospectively evaluated in 211 recipients of cadaveric renal transplants. The renal grafts were explanted from the donors within 24 hours (mean 16 hours) after cerebral angiography. There were no differences in renal function of graft survival between those exposed and those not exposed to contrast media before nephrectomy. (orig.)

  3. [Assessment of renal function, iatrogenic hyperkalemia and acute renal dysfunction in cardiology. Contrast-induced nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górriz Teruel, José Luis; Beltrán Catalán, Sandra

    2011-12-01

    Renal impairment influences the prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease and increases cardiovascular risk. Renal dysfunction is a marker of lesions in other parts of the vascular tree and detection facilitates early identification of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular events. In patients with cardiovascular disease, renal function is assessed by measuring albuminuria in a spot urine sample and by estimating the glomerular filtration rate using creatinine-derived predictive formulas or equations. We recommend the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration or the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formulas. The Cockcroft-Gault formula is a possible alternative. The administration of drugs that block the angiotensin-renin system can, on occasion, be associated with acute renal dysfunction or hyperkalemia. We need to know when risk of these complications exists so as to provide the best possible treatment: prevention. Given the growing number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the field of cardiology that use intravenous contrast media, contrast-induced nephrotoxicity represents a significant problem. We should identify the risk factors and patients at greatest risk, and prevent it from appearing.

  4. Gut-Microbiota-Metabolite Axis in Early Renal Function Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios, Clara; Beaumont, Michelle; Pallister, Tess; Villar, Judith; Goodrich, Julia K.; Clark, Andrew; Pascual, Julio; Ley, Ruth E.; Spector, Tim D; Bell, Jordana T.; Menni, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several circulating metabolites derived from bacterial protein fermentation have been found to be inversely associated with renal function but the timing and disease severity is unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between indoxyl-sulfate, p-cresyl-sulfate, phenylacetylglutamine and gut-microbial profiles in early renal function decline. Results Indoxyl-sulfate (Beta(SE) = -2.74(0.24); P = 8.8x10-29), p-cresyl-sulfate (-1.99(0.24), P = 4.6x10-16), and phe...

  5. Gut-Microbiota-Metabolite Axis in Early Renal Function Decline.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Barrera, Clara; Beaumont, Michelle; Pallister, Tess; Villar Garc??a, Judit; Goodrich, Julia K.; Clark, Andrew; Pascual Santos, Julio; Ley, Ruth E.; Spector, Tim D; Bell, Jordana T.; Menni, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Several circulating metabolites derived from bacterial protein fermentation have been found to be inversely associated with renal function but the timing and disease severity is unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between indoxyl-sulfate, p-cresyl-sulfate, henylacetylglutamine and gut-microbial profiles in early renal function decline. RESULTS: Indoxyl-sulfate (Beta(SE) = -2.74(0.24); P = 8.8x10-29), p-cresyl-sulfate (-1.99(0.24), P = 4.6x10-16), and p...

  6. Vesicoureteral Reflux Detected with 99mTc-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy during Evaluation of Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Manevska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR and reflux nephropathy (RN in children. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal, severe bilateral VUR was detected by voiding urethrocytography. US and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy performed in the first month of life showed small left kidney that participated with 2% in the global renal function. Bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy has been performed in order to obtain good renal drainage and promote optimal renal growth. Twelve months later, classic antireflux procedure was done. Control 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy, 5 ys after antireflux surgery, revealed persisting radioactivity during the diuretic phase, in the left kidney that indicated antireflux procedure failure with VUR reappearance. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is the first method of choice for long-term monitoring of individual kidney function in children with VUR and other congenital urinary tract anomalies. Additionally, it can be used as indirect radionuclide cystography when rising of radioactivity in the kidney region, during the diuretic phase can indicate presence of VUR.

  7. Vesicoureteral Reflux Detected with 99mTc-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy during Evaluation of Renal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Majstorov, Venjamin; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Zdraveska, Nikolina; Kuzmanovska, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux nephropathy (RN) in children. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US) pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal, severe bilateral VUR was detected by voiding urethrocytography. US and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy performed in the first month of life showed small left kidney that participated with 2% in the global renal function. Bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy has been performed in order to obtain good renal drainage and promote optimal renal growth. Twelve months later, classic antireflux procedure was done. Control 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy, 5 ys after antireflux surgery, revealed persisting radioactivity during the diuretic phase, in the left kidney that indicated antireflux procedure failure with VUR reappearance. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is the first method of choice for long-term monitoring of individual kidney function in children with VUR and other congenital urinary tract anomalies. Additionally, it can be used as indirect radionuclide cystography when rising of radioactivity in the kidney region, during the diuretic phase can indicate presence of VUR. PMID:27275347

  8. The correct renal function evaluation in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeoni, Mariadelina; Cerantonio, Annamaria; Pastore, Ida; Liguori, Rossella; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Gulletta, Elio; Brunetti, Antonio; Fuiano, Giorgio

    2016-05-01

    Thyroid dysfunction induces several renal derangements involving all nephron portions. Furthermore, dysthyroidism is a recognized risk factor associated with the development of chronic kidney disease. Current data, in fact, demonstrate that either subclinical or overt thyroid disease is associated with significant changes in creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, measured glomerular filtration rate and Cystatin C. Herein, we systematically reviewed several relevant studies aiming at the identification of the most sensitive and specific parameter for the correct renal function evaluation in patients with thyroid dysfunction, that are usually treated as outpatients. Our systematic review indicates that estimated glomerular filtration rate, preferably with CKD-EPI equation, appears to be the most reliable and wieldy renal function parameter. Instead, Cystatin C should be better used in the grading of thyroid dysfunction severity. PMID:26511999

  9. Increased renal production of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in patients with cirrhosis and functional renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülberg, V; Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl;

    2000-01-01

    homeostasis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of CNP in renal function disturbances in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. METHODS: Peripheral venous and urinary concentrations of CNP were determined in samples from 11 healthy controls, 20 cirrhotic patients...... with normal renal function (creatinine clearance 117 (8) ml/min), and 20 cirrhotic patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance 35 (4) ml/min). In a second protocol, arterial and renal venous plasma concentrations of CNP were determined in 37 patients with cirrhosis of the liver to estimate...... renal extraction ratios of CNP. A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was applied after solid phase extraction of samples. RESULTS: Plasma CNP was lower in cirrhotic patients with normal and impaired renal function than in controls (3.0 (0.4) and 2.7 (0.2) v. 4.2 (0.4) pg/ml, respectively; p

  10. Effect of Shenkang injection combined with hemodialysis treatment on renal function, renal anemia and cytokine levels in patients with chronic renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of Shenkang injection combined with hemodialysis treatment on renal function, renal anemia and cytokine levels in patients with chronic renal failure. Methods: A total of 68 patients with chronic renal failure who received hemodialysis treatment in our hospital during between October 2013 and February 2016 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, the observation group received Shenkang injection treatment in the process of dialysis, and the control group only received conventional symptomatic and supportive treatment. 8 weeks after treatment, serum was collected to determine the levels of renal function indexes, nutritional status indexes, anemia indexes and cytokines, and urine was collected to determine renal function indexes.Results:β2-MG, UA, Cr, phosphorus, IL-17, IL-23, CTGF, TGF-β1, FGF-2 and FGF-23 levels in serum as well as NGAL, KIM-1 and RBP levels in urine of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, and TP, Alb, PA, calcium, Hb, EPO, Fe, TRF and FER levels in serum were significantly higher than those of control group.Conclusion:Shenkang injection combined with hemodialysis treatment helps to improve renal function, nutritional status and renal anemia, and reduce the synthesis of inflammation and renal interstitial fibrosis-related cytokines in patients with chronic renal failure.

  11. Expression and function of renal and hepatic organic anion transporters in extrahepatic cholestasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anabel Brandoni; María Herminia Hazelhoff; Romina Paula Bulacio; Adriana Mónica Torres

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice occurs in patients suffering from cholelithiasis and from neoplasms affecting the pancreas and the common bile duct.The absorption,distribution and elimination of drugs are impaired during this pathology.Prolonged cholestasis may alter both liver and kidney function.Lactam antibiotics,diuretics,non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,several antiviral drugs as well as endogenous compounds are classified as organic anions.The hepatic and renal organic anion transport pathways play a key role in the pharmacokinetics of these compounds.It has been demonstrated that acute extrahepatic cholestasis is associated with increased renal elimination of organic anions.The present work describes the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of the expression and function of the renal and hepatic organic anion transporters in extrahepatic cholestasis,such as multidrug resistanceassociated protein 2,organic anion transporting polypeptide 1,organic anion transporter 3,bilitranslocase,bromosulfophthalein/bilirubin binding protein,organic anion transporter 1 and sodium dependent bile salt transporter.The modulation in the expression of renal organic anion transporters constitutes a compensatory mechanism to overcome the hepatic dysfunction in the elimination of organic anions.

  12. Role of hemodialysis in baclofen overdose with normal renal function

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Lorraine S.; Vivek, G; M Manthappa; Acharya, Raviraja V

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of baclofen overdose is primarily supportive. There have been case reports of hemodialysis being used in patients with chronic kidney disease with baclofen overdose. A case report of hemodialysis in a baclofen-overdose patient with normal renal function is presented. Review of literature has also been provided.

  13. Role of hemodialysis in baclofen overdose with normal renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine S Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of baclofen overdose is primarily supportive. There have been case reports of hemodialysis being used in patients with chronic kidney disease with baclofen overdose. A case report of hemodialysis in a baclofen-overdose patient with normal renal function is presented. Review of literature has also been provided.

  14. Assessment of compensatory renal function and [125I]iothalamate clearance in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippich, L J; English, P B; Ainscow, J

    1985-11-01

    Compensatory renal function and sodium [125I]iothalamate clearance were studied in 4 adult Merino ewes. Renal clearances of inulin (CIN), iothalamate (CIOT), and p-aminohippurate (CPAH) were used to measure renal function before and 7 and 170 days after 50% and 75% reductions in renal mass. Renal mass reduction to 50% of normal was achieved by ligation of the right renal artery, and to 25% of normal by ligating the right renal artery and branches of the left renal artery. Renal function (CIN and CPAH) after 50% renal mass reduction was 78% of normal on postligation day (PLD) 7 and 64% of normal on PLD 170. This decrease in renal function between PLD 7 and 170 was significant (P less than 0.05). Renal function (CIN and CPAH) after 75% renal mass reduction was 55% of normal on PLD 7 and 48% on PLD 170; however, this decrease in renal function between PLD 7 and 170 was not significant. Results indicated that, shortly after 50% renal mass reduction by renal arterial ligation, renal function in ewes was greater than that previously reported after unilateral nephrectomy and that a further decrease in renal function developed within 6 months after ligation. The mean CIOT in healthy ewes was 2.46 ml/min/kg of body weight. In healthy ewes and in ewes after renal mass reduction, regression of the simultaneous CIOT and CIN was CIOT = 0.276 + 1.05 CIN. The CIOT was higher than the corresponding CIN, and remained significantly (P less than 0.01) and consistently higher. Therefore, iothalamate can be used to estimate glomerular filtration rate in sheep, although a correction factor is required.

  15. Effects of dietary lipids on renal function of aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Gamba C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging is accompanied by renal functional and morphological deterioration and dietetic manipulation has been used to delay this age-related decline. We examined the effects of chronic administration of diets containing 5% lipid-enriched diet (LD, w/w on renal function of rats at different ages. Three types of LD were tested: canola oil, fish oil and butter. Mean systemic tail-cuff blood pressure and glycemia remained within the normal range whatever the age and the diet of the animals. Proteinuria began to rise from the 8th month in the groups ingesting LD, while in the control group it increased significantly (above 10 mg/24 h only after the 10th month. With age, a significant and progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal plasma flow was observed in the LD groups but after 6 months of lipid supplementation, the decline in these parameters was more marked in the butter and fish oil groups. By the 18th month, the lowest GFR level was observed in the group ingesting the butter diet (2.93 ± 0.22 vs 5.01 ± 0.21 ml min-1 kg-1 in control, P<0.05. Net acid excretion, evaluated in 9- and 18-month-old rats, was stimulated in the fish oil group when compared both to control and to the other two LD groups. These results suggest that even low levels of LD in a chronic nutritional regimen can modify the age-related changes in renal function and that the impact of different types of lipid-supplemented diets on renal function depends on the kind of lipid present in the diet.

  16. Measuring residual renal function in dialysis patients: can we dispense with 24-hour urine collections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Residual renal function is associated with improved survival and quality of life for dialysis patients. Whereas residual renal function is monitored in peritoneal dialysis patients, many hemodialysis centers simply concentrate on achieving dialyzer urea clearance targets. Accurately quantifying residual renal function from urine collections is arduous. Thus, there is a clinical need to develop alternative methods of assessing residual renal function based on serum testing, especially for patients receiving less than thrice weekly dialysis.

  17. The effects of tempol on renal function and hemodynamics in cyclosporine-induced renal insufficiency rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Tan Y; Sattar, Munavvar A; Abdulla, Mohammed H; Rathore, Hassaan A; Ahmad, Fiaz ud Din; Kaur, Gurjeet; Abdullah, Nor A; Johns, Edward J

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of tempol, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic and L-NAME, a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor on the renal function and hemodynamics in cyclosporine A (CsA) induced renal insufficiency rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either vehicle (C), tempol (T, 1 mmol/L in drinking fluid), L-NAME (L, 1 mmol/L in drinking fluid), CsA (Cs, 25 mg/kg/day via gavage), CsA plus tempol (TCs), CsA plus L-NAME (LCs) or CsA plus a combination of tempol and L-NAME (TLCs) for 21 consecutive days. At the end of treatment regimen, the renal responses to noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), methoxamine and angiotensin II (Ang II) were determined. Cs and LCs rats had lower creatinine clearance (0.7 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.5 vs. 1.3 ± 0.2 mL/min/kg) and fractional excretion of sodium (0.12 ± 0.02 and 0.17 ± 0.01 vs. 0.67 ± 0.04%) but higher systolic blood pressure (145 ± 2 and 178 ± 4 vs. 116 ± 2) compared to the control (all p < 0.05), respectively. Tempol treatment in TCs or TLCs prevented the increase in blood pressure and improved creatinine clearance and sodium excretion compared to untreated Cs. The renal vasoconstriction in Cs or LCs to NA, PE and Ang II were lower than control by ∼35-48% (all p < 0.05). In TCs or TLCs, there was enhanced renal vasoconstriction to all agonist by ∼39-114% compared to Cs. SOD is important to counterbalance the hypertensive effect of a defective NO system and to allow the normal vasoconstrictor response of the renal vasculature to adrenergic agonists and Ang II in a model of CsA-induced renal insufficiency. PMID:23822648

  18. Drosophila provides rapid modeling of renal development, function, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Julian A T; Romero, Michael F

    2010-12-01

    The evolution of specialized excretory cells is a cornerstone of the metazoan radiation, and the basic tasks performed by Drosophila and human renal systems are similar. The development of the Drosophila renal (Malpighian) tubule is a classic example of branched tubular morphogenesis, allowing study of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transitions, stem cell-mediated regeneration, and the evolution of a glomerular kidney. Tubule function employs conserved transport proteins, such as the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and V-ATPase, aquaporins, inward rectifier K(+) channels, and organic solute transporters, regulated by cAMP, cGMP, nitric oxide, and calcium. In addition to generation and selective reabsorption of primary urine, the tubule plays roles in metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics, and in innate immunity. The gene expression resource FlyAtlas.org shows that the tubule is an ideal tissue for the modeling of renal diseases, such as nephrolithiasis and Bartter syndrome, or for inborn errors of metabolism. Studies are assisted by uniquely powerful genetic and transgenic resources, the widespread availability of mutant stocks, and low-cost, rapid deployment of new transgenics to allow manipulation of renal function in an organotypic context.

  19. Is antibiotic dosing appropriate for renal function in older adults?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.S.Dharmarajan; RanganathanRajendran; MarilouCorpuz; EdwardP.Norkus

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective observational study was used to detennine if antibiotic dosing practices in older adults were adjusted for age or disease related changes in renal function in 196 patients, 17 to 99 years, hospitalized for urosepsis or pneumonia. Appropriate or inappropriate antibiotic dosing, based on ereatinine clearance, was assessed in three groups categorized by age and renal function. Duration of antibiotic therapy (iv, oral and total) was statistically equivalent across the three age groups. Older patients had significantly higher serum BUN (P<0.0000), creatinine (P=0.0078), renal impairment (P<0.000), and hospital deaths (P<0.000) compared to the young. Older adults were prescribed inappropriately higher antibiotic dosages significantly more often (P<0.000) than the young. The very old, prescribed excessive antibiotic doses (P=0.005) not adjusted for renal status, had an increased rate of Clostridium difficile colitis infection (P=0.014). In conclusion, excessive antibiotic dosing, not adjusted for ereatinine clearance, occurs in the elderly and we believe that it is correctable.

  20. Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stent is effective for blood pressure control and renal function improvement in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Chuan-jun; YANG Bao-zhong; WANG Zhong-gao

    2012-01-01

    Background Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stent is an effective procedure for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.However,the decision to perform this procedure has recently raised considerable debate.The aim of this study was to assess the effects of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stent in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients,especially as it relates to blood pressure control and renal function improvement.Methods A retrospective analysis was made of the clinical data from 125 atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty from July 2004 to June 2008 in the Department of Vascular Surgery of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital.We compared blood pressure,number of oral antihypertensive medications,and renal function changes pre and post-procedure at 24 months follow-up.Results A total of 125 atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients underwent percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty and 143 stents were placed.At 24 months follow-up,both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the number of oral antihypertensive medications were significantly reduced (P <0.05).Overall,the estimated glomerular filtration rate did not change significantly (P >0.05); however,a significant increase in estimated glomerular filtration rate was observed in the subgroup of patients with a lower baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and in the subgroup of patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis (P <0.05).Conclusion Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty is a safe procedure for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients,providing a significant improvement in blood pressure control and reduction in the number of oral antihypertensive medications.

  1. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael;

    1995-01-01

    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  2. Oncological and functional outcomes of salvage renal surgery following failed primary intervention for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando G. Abarzua-Cabezas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To assess the oncologic and functional outcomes of salvage renal surgery following failed primary intervention for RCC. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for suspected RCC during 2004-2012. We identified 839 patients, 13 of whom required salvage renal surgery. Demographic data was collected for all patients. Intraoperative and postoperative data included ischemic duration, blood loss and perioperative complications. Preoperative and postoperative assessments included abdominal CT or magnetic resonance imaging, chest CT and routine laboratory work. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was calculated according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results The majority (85% of the patients were male, with an average age of 64 years. Ten patients underwent salvage partial nephrectomy while 3 underwent salvage radical nephrectomy. Cryotherapy was the predominant primary failed treatment modality, with 31% of patients undergoing primary open surgery. Pre-operatively, three patients were projected to require permanent post-operative dialysis. In the remaining 10 patients, mean pre- and postoperative serum creatinine and eGFR levels were 1.35 mg/dL and 53.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared to 1.43 mg/dL and 46.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Mean warm ischemia time in 10 patients was 17.4 min and for all patients, the mean blood loss was 647 mL. The predominant pathological stage was pT1a (8/13; 62%. Negative surgical margins were achieved in all cases. The mean follow-up was 32.9 months (3.5-88 months. Conclusion While salvage renal surgery can be challenging, it is feasible and has adequate surgical, functional and oncological outcomes.

  3. Predictive capacity of pre-donation GFR and renal reserve capacity for donor renal function after living kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, M; Hofker, HS; van Son, WJ; van der Heide, JJH; Ploeg, RJ; Navis, GJ

    2006-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is important to reduce organ shortage. Reliable pre-operative estimation of post-donation renal function is essential. We evaluated the predictive potential of pre-donation glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (iothalamate) and renal reserve capacity for post-do

  4. Renal cortical volume measured using automatic contouring software for computed tomography and its relationship with BMI, age and renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between renal cortical volume, measured by an automatic contouring software, with body mass index (BMI), age and renal function. Materials and methods: The study was performed in accordance to the institutional guidelines at our hospital. Sixty-four patients (34 men, 30 women), aged 19 to 79 years had their CT scans for diagnosis or follow-up of hepatocellular carcinoma retrospectively examined by a computer workstation using a software that automatically contours the renal cortex and the renal parenchyma. Body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated based on data collected. Statistical analysis was done using the Student t-test, multiple regression analysis, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The ICC for total renal and renal cortical volumes were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. Renal volume measurements yielded a mean cortical volume of 105.8 cm3 ± 28.4 SD, mean total volume of 153 cm3 ± 39 SD and mean medullary volume of 47.8 cm3 ± 19.5 SD. The correlation between body weight/height/BMI and both total renal and cortical volumes presented r = 0.6, 0.6 and 0.4, respectively, p < 0.05, while the correlation between renal cortex and age was r = -0.3, p < 0.05. eGFR showed correlation with renal cortical volume r = 0.6, p < 0.05. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that renal cortical volume had a moderate positive relationship with BMI, moderate negative relationship with age, and a strong positive relationship with the renal function, and provided a new method to routinely produce volumetric assessment of the kidney.

  5. Renal cortical volume measured using automatic contouring software for computed tomography and its relationship with BMI, age and renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Natalia Sayuri, E-mail: nataliamuto@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Kamishima, Tamotsu, E-mail: ktamotamo2@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Harris, Ardene A., E-mail: ardene_b@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Kato, Fumi, E-mail: fumikato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Onodera, Yuya, E-mail: yuyaonodera@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Terae, Satoshi, E-mail: saterae@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki, E-mail: shirato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between renal cortical volume, measured by an automatic contouring software, with body mass index (BMI), age and renal function. Materials and methods: The study was performed in accordance to the institutional guidelines at our hospital. Sixty-four patients (34 men, 30 women), aged 19 to 79 years had their CT scans for diagnosis or follow-up of hepatocellular carcinoma retrospectively examined by a computer workstation using a software that automatically contours the renal cortex and the renal parenchyma. Body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated based on data collected. Statistical analysis was done using the Student t-test, multiple regression analysis, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The ICC for total renal and renal cortical volumes were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. Renal volume measurements yielded a mean cortical volume of 105.8 cm{sup 3} {+-} 28.4 SD, mean total volume of 153 cm{sup 3} {+-} 39 SD and mean medullary volume of 47.8 cm{sup 3} {+-} 19.5 SD. The correlation between body weight/height/BMI and both total renal and cortical volumes presented r = 0.6, 0.6 and 0.4, respectively, p < 0.05, while the correlation between renal cortex and age was r = -0.3, p < 0.05. eGFR showed correlation with renal cortical volume r = 0.6, p < 0.05. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that renal cortical volume had a moderate positive relationship with BMI, moderate negative relationship with age, and a strong positive relationship with the renal function, and provided a new method to routinely produce volumetric assessment of the kidney.

  6. Renal pyramid echogenicity in ureteropelvic junction obstruction: correlation between altered echogenicity and differential renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavhan, Govind; Daneman, Alan; Lim, Ruth; Traubici, Jeffrey [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [University of Toronto, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Toronto (Canada); Langlois, Valerie [University of Toronto, Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Improvement in resolution and use of high-frequency transducers in US has enabled visualization of previously unreported changes in medullary pyramid echogenicity in children with obstructive hydronephrosis. To determine whether these unreported changes in echogenicity and morphology of the renal pyramids in ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction correlate with differential renal function (DRF) of the kidney as determined by technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine ({sup 99m}Tc-MAG3) scan. Renal sonograms in 60 children with UPJ obstruction were retrospectively reviewed. Children were divided into three groups based on the echogenicity of the pyramids: (1) normal echogenicity of the pyramids, (2) increased echogenicity of the pyramids with maintained corticomedullary differentiation (CMD), and (3) loss of CMD. DRF, as determined by {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 scan, of the obstructed kidney of {>=}45% was considered normal and of {<=}44% was considered abnormal based on a published study correlating histological changes with DRF. Fisher's exact test was performed for assessing the association between DRF and altered echogenicity of the pyramids. In group 1, which consisted of 13 patients with normal pyramids on US, DRF was normal in 11 and abnormal in two. In group 2, which consisted of 33 patients with echogenic pyramids and preserved CMD, DRF was normal in 15 and abnormal in 18. In group 3, which consisted of 14 patients with complete loss of CMD, DRF was normal in 2 and abnormal in 12. There was a strong correlation between abnormal pyramids and DRF (P=0.0009). The risk ratio (RR) of DRF becoming abnormal for those kidneys with abnormal echogenicity of the pyramids with preserved CMD (group 2) compared to normal pyramid echogenicity (group 1) was 1.56 (95% CI 1.088-2.236). The RR of DRF becoming abnormal for those kidneys with loss of CMD (group 3) compared to normal pyramid echogenicity (group 1) was 5.571 (95% CI 1.530-20.294). We observed that in obstructed kidneys

  7. Renal Function and Hemodynamic Study in Obese Zucker Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Kwang; Kang, Sung Kyew

    1995-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the renal function and hemodynamic changes in obesity and hyperinsulinemia which are characteristics of type II diabetes. Methods Studies were carried out in two groups of female Zucker rats. Group 1 rats were obese Zucker rats with hereditary insulin resistance. Group 2 rats were lean Zucker rats and served as controls. In comparison with lean Zucker rats, obese Zucker rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia but normoglycemia. Micropuncture studies and morphologic studies w...

  8. Gut-Microbiota-Metabolite Axis in Early Renal Function Decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Barrios

    Full Text Available Several circulating metabolites derived from bacterial protein fermentation have been found to be inversely associated with renal function but the timing and disease severity is unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between indoxyl-sulfate, p-cresyl-sulfate, phenylacetylglutamine and gut-microbial profiles in early renal function decline.Indoxyl-sulfate (Beta(SE = -2.74(0.24; P = 8.8x10-29, p-cresyl-sulfate (-1.99(0.24, P = 4.6x10-16, and phenylacetylglutamine(-2.73 (0.25, P = 1.2x10-25 were inversely associated with eGFR in a large population base cohort (TwinsUK, n = 4439 with minimal renal function decline. In a sub-sample of 855 individuals, we analysed metabolite associations with 16S gut microbiome profiles (909 profiles, QIIME 1.7.0. Three Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs were significantly associated with indoxyl-sulfate and 52 with phenylacetylglutamine after multiple testing; while one OTU was nominally associated with p-cresyl sulfate. All 56 microbial members belong to the order Clostridiales and are represented by anaerobic Gram-positive families Christensenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae. Within these, three microbes were also associated with eGFR.Our data suggest that indoxyl-sulfate, p-cresyl-sulfate and phenylacetylglutamine are early markers of renal function decline. Changes in the intestinal flora associated with these metabolites are detectable in early kidney disease. Future efforts should dissect this relationship to improve early diagnostics and therapeutics strategies.

  9. Comparison of renal function following donor nephrectomy versus radical nephrectomy for renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Etafy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared renal function in patients after donor nephrectomy (DN and radical nephrectomy (RN. We retrospectively reviewed 68 patients (mean follow-up 15 months, including 30 patients who had undergone DN and 38 patients who had undergone RN. The study was performed between April 2006 and July 2010 at a single institute. Patients were matched for age and co-morbidities (hypertension and diabetes mellitus. We calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study group equation. Parameters studied included GFR (≥60 to 2.0 mg/dL, metabolic acidosis (serum bicarbonate 30 mg. There were no significant demographic differences between the two study groups. After a mean follow-up of 15 months, low eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 was seen in 28% and 6.7% of patients in the RN and DN groups, respectively (P = 0.03. Similarly, proteinuria was seen in 21% vs 0%, P = 0.007, and de novo elevated creatinine was seen in 13% vs 0%, respectively P = 0.04; thus the changes were greater in the RN group. Our study shows that undergoing RN had a significantly greater risk of developing renal insufficiency and proteinuria compared with age-and co-morbidity-matched patients undergoing DN. We concluded that patients undergoing RN show a significantly greater risk of developing renal insufficiency and proteinuria compared with the patients undergoing DN.

  10. Improvement in renal function after everolimus introduction and calcineurin inhibitor reduction in maintenance thoracic transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Satish; Gude, Einar; Sigurdardottir, Vilborg;

    2012-01-01

    The NOCTET (NOrdic Certican Trial in HEart and lung Transplantation) trial demonstrated that everolimus improves renal function in maintenance thoracic transplant (TTx) recipients. Nevertheless, introduction of everolimus is not recommended for patients with advanced renal failure. We evaluated N...

  11. The tacrolimus metabolism rate influences renal function after kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Thölking

    Full Text Available The effective calcineurin inhibitor (CNI tacrolimus (Tac is an integral part of the standard immunosuppressive regimen after renal transplantation (RTx. However, as a potent CNI it has nephrotoxic potential leading to impaired renal function in some cases. Therefore, it is of high clinical impact to identify factors which can predict who is endangered to develop CNI toxicity. We hypothesized that the Tac metabolism rate expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the dose (C/D ratio is such a simple predictor. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of the C/D ratio on kidney function after RTx. Renal function was analyzed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after RTx in 248 patients with an immunosuppressive regimen including basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. According to keep the approach simple, patients were split into three C/D groups: fast, intermediate and slow metabolizers. Notably, compared with slow metabolizers fast metabolizers of Tac showed significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR values at all the time points analyzed. Moreover, fast metabolizers underwent more indication renal biopsies (p = 0.006 which revealed a higher incidence of CNI nephrotoxicity (p = 0.015 and BK nephropathy (p = 0.024 in this group. We herein identified the C/D ratio as an easy calculable risk factor for the development of CNI nephrotoxicity and BK nephropathy after RTx. We propose that the simple C/D ratio should be taken into account early in patient's risk management strategies.

  12. The tacrolimus metabolism rate influences renal function after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thölking, Gerold; Fortmann, Christian; Koch, Raphael; Gerth, Hans Ulrich; Pabst, Dirk; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Kabar, Iyad; Hüsing, Anna; Wolters, Heiner; Reuter, Stefan; Suwelack, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The effective calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) tacrolimus (Tac) is an integral part of the standard immunosuppressive regimen after renal transplantation (RTx). However, as a potent CNI it has nephrotoxic potential leading to impaired renal function in some cases. Therefore, it is of high clinical impact to identify factors which can predict who is endangered to develop CNI toxicity. We hypothesized that the Tac metabolism rate expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the dose (C/D ratio) is such a simple predictor. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of the C/D ratio on kidney function after RTx. Renal function was analyzed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after RTx in 248 patients with an immunosuppressive regimen including basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. According to keep the approach simple, patients were split into three C/D groups: fast, intermediate and slow metabolizers. Notably, compared with slow metabolizers fast metabolizers of Tac showed significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values at all the time points analyzed. Moreover, fast metabolizers underwent more indication renal biopsies (p = 0.006) which revealed a higher incidence of CNI nephrotoxicity (p = 0.015) and BK nephropathy (p = 0.024) in this group. We herein identified the C/D ratio as an easy calculable risk factor for the development of CNI nephrotoxicity and BK nephropathy after RTx. We propose that the simple C/D ratio should be taken into account early in patient's risk management strategies. PMID:25340655

  13. Low dose aspirin therapy and renal function in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Rotimi Oluyombo,2 Paul Sunday Ogunro,3 Adetunji Oladeni Adeniji,4 Oluyomi Olusola Okunola,5 Olugbenga Edward Ayodele21Department of Medicine, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 3Department of Chemical Pathology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 5Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaPurpose: To determine whether low dose aspirin has any deleterious effects on renal function in elderly patients.Methods: We conducted a prospective pilot study of 30 Nigerians older than 60 years with various chronic ailments necessitating the use of low dose aspirin. Patients gave their consent, and institutional ethical clearance was obtained. Each patient's baseline samples at enrolment (before commencing aspirin use served as a control, and subsequent weekly samples were compared. The weekly mean of each parameter was calculated, and the differences of means from baseline were determined, and values were compared for statistical differences with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16.Results: We found that a majority of patients (86.67% had basal renal functions at chronic kidney disease stages 1 and 2. When compared with the corresponding baseline parameters, the mean weekly serum and urinary electrolytes, urea, creatinine, and uric acid parameters did not change, and the P-value did not show any statistical significance. However, there was positive statistical significance for the creatinine clearance (P = 0.025. Also, unlike in previous studies, anemia and hypoalbuminemia did not affect the renal function parameters.Conclusion: This study did not show any deleterious effects with short-term, low dose (75 mg daily aspirin use on kidney functions in

  14. Effects of renal artery stenting on renal function and blood pressure in patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奇; 沈卫峰; 张瑞岩; 张建盛; 胡健; 张宪

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of percutaneous renal artery intervention on renal function and blood pressure in patients with renal artery stenosis. Methods Eighty-seven patients with severe uni- or bi-lateral renal artery stenosis (luminal diameter narrowing ≥70%) and clinical hypertension received renal artery stenting between January 2002 and December 2002. The changes in blood pressure and serum creatinine level and creatinine clearance (CCr) 48 hours after intervention and during 6 months of follow-up were assessed.Results Renal stenting was performed in 98 stenotic arteries of 87 patients, and the procedural success rate was 100%. Serum creatinine level was slightly elevated from (176±21) μmol/L to (179±11) μmol/L (P=0.15) 48 hours after the procedure, but significantly decreased to (149±15) μmol/L at 6 months (P<0.001). CCr was also greatly improved [(37±11) ml/min before versus (51±8) ml/min at 6 months, P<0.001]. During follow-up, 61% of the patients experienced a normal renal function. Despite conventional medical treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were also significantly decreased after stenting [(163±23)/(96±13) mm Hg before versus (148±12)/(79±15) mm Hg at 6 months, all P<0.001], and hypertension was well controlled in 67% of the patients at 6 months ' follow-up.Conclusion Renal artery stenting has a high success rate and is effective in improving renal function and blood pressure for patients with severe renal artery stenosis.

  15. TREATMENT OF RENAL STONES WITH PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTOMY IMPROVES RENAL FUNCTIONS IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of percutaneous nephrolitotomy on kidney functions in stage III or higher chronic renal failure patients using glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine level. Material and Method:Between 2010 and 2014, percutaneous nephrolithotomy was applied to patients who had glomerular filtration rate below 60 mL/min/1.73m2. Pre-operative demographic features, stone burden and localization, urine analysis and microbial test, serum creatinine level, direct urinary system graphy, and spiral non-enhanced computerized tomography were obtained. Intraoperative renal unit counts, anesthesia and surgery time, and X-ray exposure time were calculated. Early and late post-operative complications, hospitalization time, stone-free rate, and glomerular function rate were evaluated, retrospectively. Findings:Pre-operatively, mean creatinine value was 2,42±0.76 mg/dL, mean glomerular filtration rate was 45.3±13mL/min/1.73m2, mean stone burden was 393±40 mm², mean intervention time was 79±34 min and 12 patients were stone free (70.5%. Decrease of hemoglobin 1,6 g/dL and transfusion was done only two patients (11.8% due to excessive bleeding. In early and long term follow-up, mean creatinine values and glomerular filtration rate were 1.98±0.72mg/dL, 2.16±0.78mL/dL and 54.1±14 mL/min/1.73m2and 51.8±15 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively. Comparison of pre-operative and post-operative creatinine and glomerular filtration rates revealed significant decrease in creatinine level and increase in glomerular filtration rate. Results:Percutaneous nephrolithotomy which eliminates urinary obstruction is safely used in the treatment of kidney stones with minimal damage on kidney functions. Stage III or higher renal failure patients who have obstructive kidney stones or recurrent urinary tract infections can effectively be treated and this may help patients to prevent progression to end-stage renal failure.

  16. Genetic association for renal traits among participants of African ancestry reveals new loci for renal function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ti Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing global public health concern, particularly among populations of African ancestry. We performed an interrogation of known renal loci, genome-wide association (GWA, and IBC candidate-gene SNP association analyses in African Americans from the CARe Renal Consortium. In up to 8,110 participants, we performed meta-analyses of GWA and IBC array data for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, CKD (eGFR 30 mg/g and interrogated the 250 kb flanking region around 24 SNPs previously identified in European Ancestry renal GWAS analyses. Findings were replicated in up to 4,358 African Americans. To assess function, individually identified genes were knocked down in zebrafish embryos by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides. Expression of kidney-specific genes was assessed by in situ hybridization, and glomerular filtration was evaluated by dextran clearance. Overall, 23 of 24 previously identified SNPs had direction-consistent associations with eGFR in African Americans, 2 of which achieved nominal significance (UMOD, PIP5K1B. Interrogation of the flanking regions uncovered 24 new index SNPs in African Americans, 12 of which were replicated (UMOD, ANXA9, GCKR, TFDP2, DAB2, VEGFA, ATXN2, GATM, SLC22A2, TMEM60, SLC6A13, and BCAS3. In addition, we identified 3 suggestive loci at DOK6 (p-value = 5.3×10(-7 and FNDC1 (p-value = 3.0×10(-7 for UACR, and KCNQ1 with eGFR (p = 3.6×10(-6. Morpholino knockdown of kcnq1 in the zebrafish resulted in abnormal kidney development and filtration capacity. We identified several SNPs in association with eGFR in African Ancestry individuals, as well as 3 suggestive loci for UACR and eGFR. Functional genetic studies support a role for kcnq1 in glomerular development in zebrafish.

  17. Sequential and functional renal scintiscanning in diabetic and hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    47 diabetics (94 kidneys), 30 diabetics with concurrent hypertension (60 kidneys), and 23 hypertensives (46 kidneys) were examined by renal serial functional scintiscanning with 131I-ortho-iodo-hippuric acid. For evaluation, camera nephrographs of the whole kidney, renal hemispheres, and renal cortex were used according to the technique of 'regions of interest', and the parameters of secretory value, maximum secretion, and elimination half-life were determined on this basis. With regard to the extent of hypertension, there are significant differences between all three groups for the elimination half-life; as far as the secretory value was concerned, there was a difference between the group with high hypertension and the two other groups. Significant differences in secretory value and elimination half-life were also observed in hypertensives with and without changes in the fundus of the eye. There was no noticeable difference between the three parameters in groups with and without albuminuria. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 MKO

  18. Diuretics induced uremia and nonrecovery of renal function in a patient with acute renal failure caused by sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, P. K.; Pal, A.; Panda, J.; Patnaik, S.

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is a clinical syndrome related to severe infection and is characterized by systemic inflammation and injury to multiple organs and functional systems. Sepsis is one of the main causes of acute renal failure (ARF). Diuretics are frequently administered during ARF. However, there is scant evidence that diuretics provide any benefit to the patients with ARF. This case report highlights the occurrence of uremia and nonrecovery of renal function after administration of diuretics in a patient with ARF caused by sepsis. It is suggested that physicians should be cautious in prescribing diuretics to patients with ARF due to septicemia. Diuretics cause uremia and may lead to false diagnosis of chronic renal failure and nonrecovery of renal function. The patient may unnecessarily require prolonged dialysis. PMID:22022011

  19. Diuretics induced uremia and nonrecovery of renal function in a patient with acute renal failure caused by sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a clinical syndrome related to severe infection and is characterized by systemic inflammation and injury to multiple organs and functional systems. Sepsis is one of the main causes of acute renal failure (ARF. Diuretics are frequently administered during ARF. However, there is scant evidence that diuretics provide any benefit to the patients with ARF. This case report highlights the occurrence of uremia and nonrecovery of renal function after administration of diuretics in a patient with ARF caused by sepsis. It is suggested that physicians should be cautious in prescribing diuretics to patients with ARF due to septicemia. Diuretics cause uremia and may lead to false diagnosis of chronic renal failure and nonrecovery of renal function. The patient may unnecessarily require prolonged dialysis.

  20. Sirolimus conversion efficacy for graft function improvement and histopathology in renal recipients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Dong Jin; Yang, Chul Woo; Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Lim, Beom Jin; Huh, Kyu Ha; Chung, Byung Ha; Choi, Yeong Jin; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Yu Seun

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether sirolimus (SRL) conversion effectively improves renal function and histopathology in calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-treated renal recipients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency. SRL conversion from CNI was performed in patients who underwent kidney transplantation from 6 months to 5 yr prior to screening. Forty-five patients were enrolled. The effect of SRL conversion on graft function was evaluated, and protocol biopsies were performed preconversion and 1 yr after conversion. Overall graft function after SRL conversion gradually improved, and the improvement in renal function was closely associated with the shorter duration of CNI exposure. When we divided the patients by the duration of CNI exposure, the patients with less than 1 yr of CNI exposure demonstrated significant improvement, but patients with a greater than 1 yr CNI exposure did not exhibit significant improvement. In contrast, protocol biopsies demonstrated no significant improvements in the modified "ah" score or other Banff scores after SRL conversion. Furthermore, the duration of CNI treatment prior to SRL conversion was not associated with histological findings 1 yr after SRL conversion. SRL conversion improved graft function in renal recipients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency, but this effect is not accompanied by histological improvement.

  1. The association between atherosclerotic risk factors and renal function in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, JC; Hillege, HL; Burgerhof, JGM; Gansevoort, RT; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, PE

    2005-01-01

    Background. Generalized atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an important cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We questioned to what extent atherosclerotic risk factors determine renal function in the general population. Methods. We used baseline data of the Prevention of Renal and Vasc

  2. Renal function and risk of myocardial infarction in an elderly population: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Brugts (Jasper); A.M. Knetsch (Anneke); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Renal insufficiency is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with renal disease or coronary heart disease; however, it is unknown whether renal function is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in the general population. Methods: We investigated wh

  3. RENAL-FUNCTION AND KIDNEY SIZE IN GLYCOGEN-STORAGE-DISEASE TYPE-I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    REITSMABIERENS, WCC; SMIT, GPA; TROELSTRA, JA

    1992-01-01

    Renal failure has been reported recently as a late complication of glycogen storage disease type I (GSD I). We studied the renal function of 23 patients, mean age 10.9 years (range 2.2-21.6 years). The mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were 188 +/- 50 and 9

  4. MR velocity mapping measurement of renal artery blood flow in patients with impaired kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, M; Petersen, L.J.; Stahlberg, F;

    1996-01-01

    . MR velocity mapping was performed in both renal arteries using an ECG-triggered gradient echo pulse sequence previously validated in normal volunteers. Effective renal plasma flow was calculated from the clearance rate of PAH during constant infusion and the split of renal function was evaluated by...

  5. Renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation during cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass: a modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Sgouralis, Ioannis; Evans, Roger G.; Gardiner, Bruce S; Smith, Julian A.; Fry, Brendan C.; Layton, Anita T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury, a prevalent complication of cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), is thought to be driven partly by hypoxic damage in the renal medulla. To determine the causes of medullary hypoxia during CPB, we modeled its impact on renal hemodynamics and function, and thus oxygen delivery and consumption in the renal medulla. The model incorporates autoregulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and the utilization of oxygen for tubular ...

  6. Renal Function and Ultrasound Imaging in Elderly Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Zanoli; Giulia Romano; Marcello Romano; Stefania Rastelli; Francesco Rapisarda; Antonio Granata; Pasquale Fatuzzo; Mariano Malaguarnera; Pietro Castellino

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated in elderly subjects (a) the ability of GFR formulas to discriminate chronic kidney disease (CKD), (b) the correlation between renal morphology and function, and (c) the usefulness of combined r-US and GFR formulas to detect CKD. A total of 72 patients were enrolled (mean age 80 ± 7 years, male sex 44%, serum creatinine 0.98 ± 0.42 mg/dL, and CKD 57%). Cockcroft-Gault showed the highest sensitivity (78%) and specificity (94%) for CKD and was correlated with kidney volume (R = 0.68...

  7. Effect of renal function on pemetrexed-induced haematotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Yosuke; Hayashi, Takahiro; Ujita, Moeko; Murai, Sumie; Ohta, Hideki; Ito, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Teppei; Funatsu, Minori; Ikeda, Yoshiaki; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Kawada, Kenji; Yasuda, Kimio; Yamada, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pemetrexed (PEM) is an anticancer agent used for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, malignant pleural mesothelioma and thymoma. Reportedly, PEM has higher efficacy and safety when used in combination with platinum-based agents. However, there are only few reports on the safety of PEM in patients with an eGFR of ≤45 mL/min. We examined the effect of renal function on the safety of regimens containing PEM. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 221 patients with lung cancer, mali...

  8. Periodontal disease characterization in dogs with normal renal function or chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbudo-Selmi Glenda Ramalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate periodontal disease (PD in dogs with chronic renal failure (CRF and to compare it to PD in dogs with normal renal function (NRF. Twelve dogs with CRF and 24 dogs with NRF, all presenting dental pocket formation, were compared. In all dogs, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine specific gravity and total red and white blood cells were determined. A complete oral examination was also performed including evaluation of bacterial plaque, gingivitis, gingival recession, pocket, calculus, dental mobility, dental loss, and ulcers. These data were used to calculate plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI and periodontal destruction index (PDI. PD was graded as mild, moderate or severe based on the results. Mild, moderate or severe PD was observed in dogs with NRF, whereas dogs with CRF presented either mild or severe PD. Dogs with NRF showed higher involvement of the maxillary teeth, whereas dogs with CRF showed a higher involvement of the mandibular teeth. Plaque index was significantly higher in dogs with NRF. It was concluded that lesion distribution and periodontal disease progression may be altered in dogs with CRF, and gingival inflammatory response differs in dogs with NRF and CRF regarding to the stage of periodontal disease.

  9. Equimolar carbon dioxide absorption by ether functionalized imidazolium ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series [C3Omim][X] of imidazolium cation-based ILs, with ether functional group on the alkyl side-chain have been synthesized and structure of the materials were confirmed by various techniques like 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy, MS-ESI, FTIR spectroscopy and EA. More specifically, the influence of changing the anion with same cation is carried out. The absorption capacity of CO2 for ILs were evaluated at 30 and 50 .deg. C at ambient pressure (0-1.6 bar). Ether functionalized ILs shows significantly high absorption capacity for CO2. In general, the CO2 absorption capacity of ILs increased with a rise in pressure and decreased when temperature was raised. The obtained results showed that absorption capacity reached about 0.9 mol CO2 per mol of IL at 30 .deg. C. The most probable mechanism of interaction of CO2 with ILs were investigated using FTIR spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy and result shows that the absorption of CO2 in ether functionalized ILs is a chemical process. The CO2 absorption results and detailed study indicates the predominance of 1:1 mechanism, where the CO2 reacts with one IL to form a carbamic acid. The CO2 absorption capacity of ILs for different anions follows the trend: BF4 6 2N. Moreover, the as-synthesized ILs is selective, thermally stable, long life operational and can be recycled at a temperature of 70 .deg. C or under vacuum and can be used repeatedly

  10. Can a structured questionnaire identify patients with reduced renal function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, Manal; Rømsing, Janne; Thomsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a structured questionnaire in identifying outpatients with renal dysfunction before MRI or CT in various age groups.......To evaluate a structured questionnaire in identifying outpatients with renal dysfunction before MRI or CT in various age groups....

  11. Anticoagulation in patients with impaired renal function and with haemodialysis. Anticoagulant effects, efficacy, safety, therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harenberg, J; Hentschel, V A-T; Du, S; Zolfaghari, S; Krämer, R; Weiss, C; Krämer, B K; Wehling, M

    2015-01-01

    Patients with impaired renal function are exposed to an increased risk for bleeding complications depending on the amount of the anticoagulant eliminated by the kidneys. The elimination of unfractionated heparins, vitamin K antagonists and argatroban is only minimally influenced by a reduced renal function. Low-molecular weight heparins, fondaparinux, danaparoid, hirudins and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) cause a variably increased bleeding risk in renal impairment. Dose reductions are recommended for all of these anticoagulants in renal impairment, some are even contraindicated at certain levels of renal impairment. Their benefit over the conventional anticoagulants is preserved if renal dosing is employed. For end-stage renal disease patients specific treatment regimens are required. PMID:25405246

  12. Comparison of renal toxicity after injection of CT contrast medium and MR contrast medium: change of renal function in acute renal failure rat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine renal toxicity through changes in renal function after the injection of CT and MRI contrast media into rats in which acute renal failure (ARF) was induced. To cause acute renal failure, the abdominal cavity of 110 male rats each weighing 250-300 gm was opened via a midline incision under anesthesia. Microvascular clamps were placed on both renal arteries and veins to completely block renal blood flow for 45 minutes, and were then removed, allowing blood flow to return to the kidneys. ARF, defined as a two-fold difference in the creatinine level before ARF and 48 hours after, was successfully induced in 60 of the rats. These were divided into two groups: one was injected with CT contrast medium and the other with MRI contrast medium. Each CT and MRI group was divided into a low dose (0.5 cc/kg, 0.2 ml/kg), standard dose (2 cc/kg, 0.8 ml/kg), and high dose (8 cc/kg, 3.2 ml/kg) sub-group; thus, there was a total of six groups with ten rats in each. Blood samples were obtained before ARF, 48 hours after, and 48 hours after contrast injection, and CT scanning and MRI were performed after blood sampling at 48 hours. In each group, creatinine levels 48 hours after contrast injection were compared by means of the ANOVA test. There were no significant differences in creatinine levels between the CT and MRI contrast medium groups (p=0.116), nor between the animals to which different doses of CT and MRI contrast medium, were administered. After both standard and high doses, CT and MRI provided good images. In rats in which acute renal failure was induced, renal function did not change according to whether CT or MRI contrast medium was injected. Thus, the two media induce similar levels of toxicity

  13. Renal function and histology in children after small bowel transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Olivia; Noto, Cristian; De Serre, Natacha Patey-Mariaud; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Dechaux, Michèle; Goulet, Olivier; Niaudet, Patrick; Lacaille, Florence

    2013-02-01

    CKD is a frequent long-term complication after SBTx. CNIs are a well-known factor, but probably not the only cause. We assessed the incidence, risk factors, and severity of CKD in 27 children with SBTx (15 combined liver/SBTx) and prednisone/TAC-based maintenance immunosuppression. Median follow-up was seven yr (3-21). A renal biopsy was performed in 14 patients, 1-18 yr post-SBTx. A reduced GFR was observed in 17 children (63%) during the follow-up with none requiring dialysis. CNI toxicity was observed in 11/14 biopsies, as early as two yr post-transplant, and could occur with a normal mGFR. The dose of TAC was reduced by 50% in 13 patients with CKD and/or significant kidney histological lesions, and six were also given MMF. This led to a significant improvement in renal function: mGFR normalized in eight patients and improved or stabilized in five. No rejection occurred. At last follow-up, 37% had CKD stage 2 and 15% had CKD stage 3. In conclusion, CKD is frequent in children after SBTx and probably multifactorial. Less nephrotoxic immunosuppressive protocols may improve mGFR and should be further considered. The kidney histology helps in designing personalized immunosuppression strategies for patients.

  14. Effects of flurbiprofen on renal function in patients with moderate renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M D; Greene, P K; Brater, D C; Manatunga, A K; Hall, S D

    1992-01-01

    1. Renal function was assessed in eight patients with chronic renal insufficiency following the administration of flurbiprofen 50 mg as a single dose and after chronic administration of 50 mg four times daily for 8 and 27 days. Diet and fluid intake were controlled. 2. Inulin and creatinine clearances and urinary excretion of sodium were measured at baseline and every 20 min for at least 3 h after dosing. The time of the mean peak concentration of (S)-flurbiprofen was used to guide the analysis of the clearances. Creatinine clearance, urinary excretion of sodium, and serum sodium and potassium were also assessed for 24 h after the dose and on a daily basis. Body weight and blood pressure were measured on a daily basis. 3. Decrements in inulin and creatinine clearances were small and reversible within 3 h of an oral dose of flurbiprofen. Comparison of baseline clearances for the three study periods (first dose and at 8 and 27 days of chronic dosing) revealed a lack of chronic effect on glomerular filtration rate. 4. In contrast, flurbiprofen caused a substantial (73 to 86%) and progressive decrease in the urinary excretion of sodium that reached a nadir within 4-5 h after drug administration. However, comparison of baseline values did not differ, indicating that balance conditions had been re-established. 5. Results of 24 h assessments were in agreement with the clearance study results. Reduced urinary excretion of sodium appeared to be limited to the first few days of flurbiprofen administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1576067

  15. Functional renal failure (FRF) in cirrhosis of the liver and liver carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesin, P.; Traverso, H.

    1975-01-01

    The term ‘functional renal failure’ has been used to describe the renal failure developing in advanced cirrhosis in which tubular function and structure remain intact. It may develop spontaneously, in which case prognosis is poor, but may be secondary to gastro-intestinal haemorrhage or excessive use of diuretics, in which case correction of the precipitating factor leads to improvement in renal function. It is suggested that the renal failure is due to a reduction in effective circulating plasma volume. PMID:1234327

  16. Estimation of renal function in the intensive care unit: the covert concepts brought to light

    OpenAIRE

    Sunder, Sham; Jayaraman, Rajesh; Mahapatra, Himanshu Sekhar; Sathi, Satyanand; Ramanan, Venkata; Kanchi, Prabhu; Gupta, Anurag; Daksh, Sunil Kumar; Ram, Pranit

    2014-01-01

    Frantic efforts have been made up to this date to derive consensus for estimating renal function in critically ill patients, only to open the Pandora's box. This article tries to explore the various methods available to date, the newer concepts, and the uncared issues that may still prove to be useful in estimating renal function in intensive care unit patients. The concept of augmented renal clearance, which is frequently encountered in critically ill patients, should always be taken into ac...

  17. Effect of cisplatin on renal haemodynamics and tubular function in the dog kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Abildgaard, U; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1987-01-01

    Administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg) to dogs results in polyuric renal failure due initially to a proximal tubular functional impairment. 48-72 h after the cisplatin administration the depressed renal function can be attributed to impairment of proximal as well as distal tubular reabsorptive...... capacities associated with increased renal vascular resistance. The polyuria seems to be due to the impaired reabsorption rate in the distal nephron segments....

  18. Rapid improvement in renal function in patients with multiple myeloma and renal failure treated with bortezomib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qayum Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Myeloma (MM frequently presents with renal dysfunction apart from other manifestations. Development of renal failure in patients with MM carries a poor prognosis. Bortezo-mib is a new addition to drugs used in MM and has shown good efficacy and safety profiles. Previous trials have shown its efficacy in relapsed and refractory MM as well. Studies have also shown that bortezomib is also effective in patients with MM who present with renal failure. We report here six cases of renal failure secondary to MM treated with bortezomib. All patients had poor performance status of 3-4 on ECOG scale. Five out of six patients showed satisfactory anti-myeloma response to bortezomib. Reversal of renal failure was observed in all six patients. Adverse effects to bortezomib were mild and manageable. Reversal of renal failure persisted despite incomplete response to MM in two cases, and progression of disease in one patient. It appears that bortezomib may have an effect on the kidneys in reversal of renal failure, other than its anti-myeloma effect. In conclusion, borte-zomib appears to be an effective treatment for patients with advanced MM and renal failure irres-pective of performance status and age.

  19. EFFECT OF DIETARY FISH-OIL ON RENAL-FUNCTION AND REJECTION IN CYCLOSPORINE-TREATED RECIPIENTS OF RENAL-TRANSPLANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHEIDE, JJH; BILO, HJG; DONKER, JM; WILMINK, JM; TEGZESS, AM

    1993-01-01

    Background. Dietary fish oil exerts effects on renal hemodynamics and the immune response that may benefit renal-transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine. To evaluate this possibility, we studied the effect of fish oil on renal function, blood pressure, and the incidence of acute rejection ep

  20. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  1. Functional imaging of the renal transplant; Nuklearmedizinische Beurteilung der Nierentransplantatfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Evaluation of renal transplants by nuclear medicine techniques has been important in differential diagnosis of medical and surgical complications of the early post-transplantation period and in the long-term follow up, mainly in patients with anuric acute tubular necrosis and in patients with developing chronic rejection. Early recognition of this condition should permit treatment and delay of retransplantation. It is recommended to perform a flow study, scintigraphy of the kidneys, prevoid and postvoid bladder images, time activity curves of the graft and bladder and quantitative data of perfusion function and tracer transit. {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA can be used for this studies. (orig.)

  2. Renal function in children with congenital neurogenic bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Previdi Olandoski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Preservation of renal function in children with congenital neurogenic bladder is an important goal of treatment for the disease. This study analyzed the evolution of renal function in patients with congenital neurogenic bladder. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 58 pediatric patients with respect to the following attributes: gender, age, etiology of neurogenic bladder, reason for referral, medical/surgical management, episodes of treated urinary tract infections, urodynamics, DMSA scintigraphy, weight, height, blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, microalbuminuria and metabolic acidosis. Statistical analysis was performed, adopting the 5% significance level. RESULTS: The mean age at presentation was 4.2 ± 3.5 years. Myelomeningocele was the most frequent etiology (71.4%. Recurrent urinary tract infection was the reason for referral in 82.8% of the patients. Recurrent urinary tract infections were diagnosed in 84.5% of the patients initially; 83.7% of those patients experienced improvement during follow-up. The initial mean glomerular filtration rate was 146.7 ± 70.1 mL/1.73 m²/min, and the final mean was 193.6 ± 93.6 mL/1.73 m²/min, p = 0.0004. Microalbuminuria was diagnosed in 54.1% of the patients initially and in 69% in the final evaluation. Metabolic acidosis was present in 19% of the patients initially and in 32.8% in the final assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Patient referral to a pediatric nephrologist was late. A reduction in the number of urinary tract infections was observed with adequate treatment, but microalbuminuria and metabolic acidosis occurred frequently despite adequate management.

  3. Rapid estimation of split renal function in kidney donors using software developed for computed tomographic renal volumetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Fumi, E-mail: fumikato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kamishima, Tamotsu, E-mail: ktamotamo2@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Morita, Ken, E-mail: kenordic@carrot.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Urology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Muto, Natalia S., E-mail: nataliamuto@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Okamoto, Syozou, E-mail: shozo@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Omatsu, Tokuhiko, E-mail: omatoku@nirs.go.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Oyama, Noriko, E-mail: ZAT04404@nifty.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Terae, Satoshi, E-mail: saterae@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kanegae, Kakuko, E-mail: IZW00143@nifty.ne.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Nonomura, Katsuya, E-mail: k-nonno@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki, E-mail: shirato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the speed and precision of split renal volume (SRV) measurement, which is the ratio of unilateral renal volume to bilateral renal volume, using a newly developed software for computed tomographic (CT) volumetry and to investigate the usefulness of SRV for the estimation of split renal function (SRF) in kidney donors. Method: Both dynamic CT and renal scintigraphy in 28 adult potential living renal donors were the subjects of this study. We calculated SRV using the newly developed volumetric software built into a PACS viewer (n-SRV), and compared it with SRV calculated using a conventional workstation, ZIOSOFT (z-SRV). The correlation with split renal function (SRF) using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy was also investigated. Results: The time required for volumetry of bilateral kidneys with the newly developed software (16.7 {+-} 3.9 s) was significantly shorter than that of the workstation (102.6 {+-} 38.9 s, p < 0.0001). The results of n-SRV (49.7 {+-} 4.0%) were highly consistent with those of z-SRV (49.9 {+-} 3.6%), with a mean discrepancy of 0.12 {+-} 0.84%. The SRF also agreed well with the n-SRV, with a mean discrepancy of 0.25 {+-} 1.65%. The dominant side determined by SRF and n-SRV showed agreement in 26 of 28 cases (92.9%). Conclusion: The newly developed software for CT volumetry was more rapid than the conventional workstation volumetry and just as accurate, and was suggested to be useful for the estimation of SRF and thus the dominant side in kidney donors.

  4. 75 FR 13562 - Revised Draft Guidance for Industry on Pharmacokinetics in Patients With Impaired Renal Function...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... 15, 1998 (63 FR 27094), FDA announced the availability of a guidance entitled ``Pharmacokinetics in... Patients With Impaired Renal Function--Study Design, Data Analysis, and Impact on Dosing and Labeling... ``Pharmacokinetics in Patients With Impaired Renal Function--Study Design, Data Analysis, and Impact on Dosing...

  5. Drug-induced renal function impairment : a population-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monster, TBM; de Jong, PE; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    2003-01-01

    Purpose The knowledge that drugs can affect renal function is mainly based on experimental studies or case reports. Thus, it has only been investigated in selected populations. Here we describe drug groups associated with altered renal function in the general population. Methods To study this, we us

  6. Prevention of radiographic-contrast-agent-induced reductions in renal function by acetylcysteine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; van der Giet, M; Schwarzfeld, C;

    2000-01-01

    Radiographic contrast agents can cause a reduction in renal function that may be due to reactive oxygen species. Whether the reduction can be prevented by the administration of antioxidants is unknown.......Radiographic contrast agents can cause a reduction in renal function that may be due to reactive oxygen species. Whether the reduction can be prevented by the administration of antioxidants is unknown....

  7. Value of renal cortical thickness as a predictor of renal function impairment in chronic renal disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Rafael Yamashita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the presence of linear relationship between renal cortical thickness, bipolar length, and parenchymal thickness in chronic kidney disease patients presenting with different estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs and to assess the reproducibility of these measurements using ultrasonography. Materials and Methods: Ultrasonography was performed in 54 chronic renal failure patients. The scans were performed by two independent and blinded radiologists. The estimated GFR was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Interobserver agreement was calculated and a linear correlation coefficient (r was determined in order to establish the relationship between the different renal measurements and estimated GFR. Results: The correlation between GFR and measurements of renal cortical thickness, bipolar length, and parenchymal thickness was, respectively, moderate (r = 0.478; p < 0.001, poor (r = 0.380; p = 0.004, and poor (r = 0.277; p = 0.116. The interobserver agreement was considered excellent (0.754 for measurements of cortical thickness and bipolar length (0.833, and satisfactory for parenchymal thickness (0.523. Conclusion: The interobserver reproducibility for renal measurements obtained was good. A moderate correlation was observed between estimated GFR and cortical thickness, but bipolar length and parenchymal thickness were poorly correlated.

  8. Comparison of Renal Function and Other Health Outcomes in Vegetarians versus Omnivores in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chih-Kuang; Lin, Deng-Juin; Yen, Chi-Hwa; Chen, Shiuan-Chih; Chen, Chun-Chieh; Wang, Tsun-Yen; Chou, Ming-Chih; Chang, Horng-Rong; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2010-01-01

    Renal disease is one of the top 10 leading causes of death, and the incidence of end-stage renal disease in Taiwan is the highest in the world. Many dietitians consider the diet of plant origin consumed by vegans to be ‘lighter’ and ‘more healthful’ than the diet of both plant and animal origin consumed by omnivores. Dietary protein has significant effects on renal functions. The study explored the effects of both the diets on renal functions. The study subjects included 102 Buddhist nun vege...

  9. The effect of prostaglandin E_1 on recovery of early renal graft functions after transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on recovery of early renal graft functions after transplantation. Methods One hundred and seven patients after renal transplantation were allocated in the treated group, and treated by conventional treatment with injection of 10 μg prostaglandin E1 additionally twice a day for 14 days. And eighty-eight patients who received conventional treatment alone after renal transplantation at the corresponding period were allocated in the control group. I...

  10. Associations of proanthocyanidin intake with renal function and clinical outcomes in elderly women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L Ivey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Progression to chronic renal failure involves accelerated atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction play a role in renal failure pathophysiology. In addition to improving vascular health and function, proanthocyanidins have been shown to exert renoprotective effects in animal models. Thus we hypothesize that proanthocyanidins may contribute to the maintenance of healthy renal function. OBJECTIVE: Determine the association of habitual proanthocyanidin intake with renal function and the risk of clinical renal outcomes in a population of elderly women. DESIGN: 948 women aged over 75 y, free of prevalent renal disease at baseline, were randomly selected from ambulant Caucasian women. Proanthocyanidin consumption was determined using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the United States Department of Agriculture proanthocyanidin food content database. Fasting serum cystatin C and creatinine were assessed at baseline. Renal failure hospitalisations and deaths were assessed over 5 years of follow-up through the Western Australia Data Linkage System. RESULTS: Compared to participants with low consumption, participants in the highest tertile of proanthocyanidin intake had a 9% lower cystatin C concentration (P<0.001. High proanthocyanidin consumers were at 50% lower risk of moderate chronic kidney insufficiency, and 65% lower risk of experiencing a 5-year renal disease event (P<0.05. These relationships remained significant following adjustment for renal disease risk factors and diet-related potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Increased consumption of proanthocyanidins was associated with better renal function and substantially reduced renal associated events, which has been supported by mechanistic and animal model data. Proanthocyanidin intake should be further examined as a dietary contributor to better renal health.

  11. Formoterol Restores Mitochondrial and Renal Function after Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jesinkey, Sean R.; Funk, Jason A.; Stallons, L. Jay; Wills, Lauren P.; Megyesi, Judit K.; Beeson, Craig C.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis may be an adaptive response necessary for meeting the increased metabolic and energy demands during organ recovery after acute injury, and renal mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AKI. We proposed that stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis 24 hours after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)–induced AKI, when renal dysfunction is maximal, would accelerate recovery of mitochondrial and renal function in mice. We recently showed that formoterol,...

  12. Determinants and consequences of renal function variations with aldosterone blocker therapy in heart failure patients after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossignol, Patrick; Cleland, John G F; Bhandari, Sunil;

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of the selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone on renal function and the interaction between changes in renal function and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction after an acute myocardi...

  13. Changes in renal function in cats following treatment of hyperthyroidism using 131I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W H; Daniel, G B; Legendre, A M; Gompf, R E; Grove, C A

    1997-01-01

    Changes in renal function of twenty-two cats treated for hyperthyroidism using radioiodine were evaluated. Serum thyroxine (T4), serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urine specific gravity were measured before treatment and 6 and 30 days after treatment. Twenty-two cats had pretreatment and 21 cats had 6 day posttreatment measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using nuclear medicine imaging techniques. There were significant declines in serum T4 at 6 days following treatment, but the changes in GFR, serum creatinine and BUN were not significant. At 30 days following treatment, there were significant increases in BUN and serum creatinine and further significant declines in serum T4. Nine cats were in renal failure prior to treatment and 13 cats were in renal failure 30 days following treatment. Renal failure was defined as BUN greater than 30 mg/dl and/or serum creatinine greater than 1.8 mg/dl with concurrent urine specific gravity less than 1.035. These 13 cats included eight of 9 cats in renal failure prior to treatment and 5 cats not previously in renal failure. Follow up information beyond 30 days following treatment on 9 of these 13 cats indicated that all remained in renal failure. Based on receiver operating curve analysis of pretreatment glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in predicting posttreatment renal failure, a value of 2.25 ml/kg/min as a point of maximum sensitivity (100%) and specificity (78%) was derived. Fifteen of 22 cats had pretreatment GFR measurements of less than 2.25 ml/kg/min. These 15 cats included all 9 cats in renal failure and 5 cats with normal renal clinicopathologic values prior to treatment. At 30 days following treatment, 13 of these 15 cats were in renal failure. The 2 cats not in renal failure had persistently increased serum T4 values. Seven of 22 cats had pretreatment GFR measurements greater than 2.25 ml/kg/min. None of these 7 cats was in renal failure at 30 days following treatment, all cats having normal

  14. Risks of rapid decline renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Jing; Sheen; Wayne; HH; Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Progressive rising population of diabetes and related nephropathy, namely, diabetic kidney disease and associated end stage renal disease has become a major global public health issue. Results of observational studies indicate that most diabetic kidney disease progresses over decades; however, certain diabetes patients display a rapid decline in renal function, which may lead to renal failure within months. Although the definition of rapid renal function decline remained speculative, in general,it is defined by the decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate(e GFR) in absolute rate of loss or percent change. Based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2012 clinical practice guidelines, a rapid decline in renal function is defined as a sustained declinein e GFR of > 5 m L/min per 1.73 m2 per year. It has been reported that potential factors contributing to a rapid decline in renal function include ethnic/genetic and demographic causes, smoking habits, increased glycated hemoglobin levels, obesity, albuminuria, anemia, low serum magnesium levels, high serum phosphate levels, vitamin D deficiency, elevated systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity values, retinopathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. This article reviews current literatures in this area and provides insight on the early detection of diabetic subjects who are at risk of a rapid decline in renal function in order to develop a more aggressive approach to renal and cardiovascular protection.

  15. Worsening renal function in heart failure: the need for a consensus definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, Noella J; Newton, Phillip J; Macdonald, Peter S; Leung, Dominic Y C; Sibbritt, David; Spicer, Stephen Timothy; Johnson, Kay; Krum, Henry; Davidson, Patricia M

    2014-07-01

    Acute decompensated heart failure is a common cause of hospitalisation. This is a period of vulnerability both in altered pathophysiology and also the potential for iatrogenesis due to therapeutic interventions. Renal dysfunction is often associated with heart failure and portends adverse outcomes. Identifying heart failure patients at risk of renal dysfunction is important in preventing progression to chronic kidney disease or worsening renal function, informing adjustment to medication management and potentially preventing adverse events. However, there is no working or consensus definition in international heart failure management guidelines for worsening renal function. In addition, there appears to be no concordance or adaptation of chronic kidney disease guidelines by heart failure guideline development groups for the monitoring of chronic kidney disease in heart failure. Our aim is to encourage the debate for an agreed definition given the prognostic impact of worsening renal function in heart failure. We present the case for the uptake of the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria for acute kidney injury with some minor alterations. This has the potential to inform study design and meta-analysis thereby building the knowledgebase for guideline development. Definition consensus supports data element, clinical registry and electronic algorithm innovation as instruments for quality improvement and clinical research for better patient outcomes. In addition, we recommend all community managed heart failure patients have their baseline renal function classified and routinely monitored in accordance with established renal guidelines to help identify those at increased risk for worsening renal function or progression to chronic kidney disease.

  16. Effect of chronic accumulation of aluminum on renal function, cortical renal oxidative stress and cortical renal organic anion transport in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Stella T; Gionotti, Marisa; Millen, Néstor; Elías, María Mónica

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the nephrotoxicity of aluminum lactate administered for 3 months (0.57 mg/100 g bodyweight aluminum, i.p., three times per week) to male Wistar rats. Renal function was studied after 6 weeks of treatment (urine was obtained from rats in metabolic cages) and at the end of the treatment using clearance techniques. Another group of rats was used as kidneys donors at the end of treatment. The renal cortex was separated and homogenized to determine glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. Renal cortex slices were also used to study the p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) accumulation during steady-state conditions and the kinetics of uptake process. Clearance results, at the end of the treatment, indicated that renal functions in treated-rats were not different from those measured in control rats, although the renal concentration parameters differ when they were measured in treated rats after 24 h of food and water deprivation. Balances of water and sodium were also modified at both 1.5 and 3 months of treatment. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) relative to inulin excreted in urine was significantly impaired: controls 2.2+/-0.6 IUI/mg, Al-treated 5.1+/-0.5 IU/mg, Prats. Renal accumulation of PAH, estimated as slice-to-medium ratio, decreased significantly in the Al-treated rats: control rats 3.06+/-0.02 ( n=12), Al-treated rats 2.26+/-0.04 ( n=12), Prats, while the apparent affinity remained unchanged. All these results indicate that aluminum accumulation in renal tissue affects cellular metabolism, promotes oxidative stress and induces alterations in renal tubular PAH transport, together with an impairment in sodium and water balance only detected under conditions of water deprivation, without other evident changes in glomerular filtration rate or other global functions measured by clearance techniques at least at this time of chronic toxicity.

  17. The Impact of Endovascular Repair of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm on the Gastrointestinal and Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Makar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Systemic effects of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA may be altered by the mode of surgery. This study aimed to determine systemic effects of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR compared to open repair (OR. Patients and Methods. Consecutive patients with rAAA were repaired by OR or EVAR according to computerised tomographic (CT findings. Renal function was monitored by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, serum urea and creatinine, and urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR. Hepatic function was assessed postoperatively for 5 days. Intestinal function was determined by the paracetamol absorption test. Intestinal permeability was assessed by urinary lactulose/mannitol ratio. Results. 30 rAAA patients were included. Fourteen had eEVAR and sixteen eOR. Serum urea were higher in eOR, while creatinine was similar between groups. Hepatic function showed no intergroup difference. Paracetamol absorption was increased in eEVAR group at day 3 compared to day 1 (P=0.03, with no similar result in eOR (P=0.24. Peak lactulose/mannitol ratio was higher in eOR (P=0.03, with higher urinary L/M ratio in eOR at day 3 (P=0.02. Clinical intestinal function returned quicker in eEVAR (P=0.02. Conclusion. EVAR attenuated the organ dysfunction compared to open repair. However, a larger comparative trial would be required to validate this. The clinical trial is registered with reference number EUDRACT: 2013-003373-12.

  18. How does your kidney smell? Emerging roles for olfactory receptors in renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Blythe D; Pluznick, Jennifer L

    2016-05-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are chemosensors that are responsible for one's sense of smell. In addition to this specialized role in the nose, recent evidence suggests that ORs are also found in a variety of additional tissues including the kidney. As this list of renal ORs continues to expand, it is becoming clear that they play important roles in renal and whole-body physiology, including a novel role in blood pressure regulation. In this review, we highlight important considerations that are crucial when studying ORs and present the current literature on renal ORs and their emerging relevance in maintaining renal function. PMID:26264790

  19. Prognosis of renal transplant function by renography with radioactive hippuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, G.; Fill, H.; Hilty, E.; Leidlmair, K.

    1986-01-01

    The relation of the functional prognosis of a kidney graft to the results of renography with radioactive hippuran (OIH-RG) was assessed in 96 patients after renal allograft transplantation in 1982. By October 1, 1984 26 of these kidneys had lost their function. The curves obtained from the gamma-camera OIH-RG are classified into six different curve patterns (curve types 1 to 6) as published earlier. For the evaluation of the long-term prognosis, the survival times of the kidneys were related to the curve types. The distribution of the curve types obtained in patients with a kidney survival longer than 144 weeks differs significantly from the curve type distribution when the kidney survival is shorter than 144 weeks. The individual survival times in the collective 26 lost kidneys show a relation to the different curve types. All kidneys with curve type 4 in the last examination before hospital discharge are lost within the first 20 weeks while curve types 1 and 2 promise a functional survival up to 144 weeks. Serum creatinine time courses and their relation to the OIH-RG curve patterns are analyzed by analyses of variance and covariance with repeated measurement. These statistical analyses reveal significant differences between the creatinine courses in the single curve types and, in addition, a significant interaction of the curve types with the creatinine courses. In curve type 1, a rapid normalization of an elevated creatinine level can be predicted, while in curve type 4 no improvement of the creatinine level and thus of kidney function can be expected at least within the five days following discharge.

  20. Human embryonic stem cells differentiate into functional renal proximal tubular-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Karl M; Tasnim, Farah; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Annegret; Ni, Ming; Gao, Shujun; Gopalan, Began; Zink, Daniele; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-04-01

    Renal cells are used in basic research, disease models, tissue engineering, drug screening, and in vitro toxicology. In order to provide a reliable source of human renal cells, we developed a protocol for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into renal epithelial cells. The differentiated stem cells expressed markers characteristic of renal proximal tubular cells and their precursors, whereas markers of other renal cell types were not expressed or expressed at low levels. Marker expression patterns of these differentiated stem cells and in vitro cultivated primary human renal proximal tubular cells were comparable. The differentiated stem cells showed morphological and functional characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells, and generated tubular structures in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the differentiated stem cells contributed in organ cultures for the formation of simple epithelia in the kidney cortex. Bioreactor experiments showed that these cells retained their functional characteristics under conditions as applied in bioartificial kidneys. Thus, our results show that human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into renal proximal tubular-like cells. Our approach would provide a source for human renal proximal tubular cells that are not affected by problems associated with immortalized cell lines or primary cells.

  1. Targeting complement activation in brain-dead donors improves renal function after transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, Jeffrey; Hoeger, Simone; Boneschansker, Leo; Theruvath, Ashok; Waldherr, Ruediger; Leuvenink, Henri G.; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Yard, Benito A.; Seelen, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Kidneys recovered from brain-dead donors have inferior outcomes after transplantation compared to kidneys from living donors. Since complement activation plays an important role in renal transplant related injury, targeting complement activation in brain-dead donors might improve renal function afte

  2. Factors influencing recoverability of renal function after urinary diversion through percutaneous nephrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: CT, parenchymal echogenicity, CMD, pre-PCN creatinine, and status of c/l kidney are the only independent variables which can predict the renal function while other variables like renal size, urine output, infection, hydronephrosis lost their statistical significance in multivariate analysis. Furthermore, IPP measured before PCN directly correlated with daily urine output and diff. %CrCl.

  3. Are angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors superior to beta blockers in retarding progressive renal function decline?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanEssen, GG; Apperloo, AJ; Rensma, PL; Stegeman, CA; Sluiter, WJ; deZeeuw, D; deJong, PE

    1997-01-01

    We questioned the superiority of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to beta blocking drugs with regard to renal function outcome in patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency and normal to moderately elevated blood pressure (BP). We therefore studied 89 patients in a prospective

  4. Endothelial function predicts the development of renal damage after combined nephrectomy and myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodnicky, Peter; de Zeeuw, Dick; Henning, Robert H.; Kluppel, C. Alex; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    2006-01-01

    It was demonstrated that individual renal endothelial dilatory function of the healthy rat predicts susceptibility to subsequent renal damage induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. In addition, it is reported that myocardial infarction (MI) that was performed upon unilateral nephrectomy (UNx) induced highly va

  5. Renal function after unilateral nephrectomy for Wilms' tumour : The influence of radiation therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGraaf, SSN; vanGent, H; ReitsmaBierens, WCC; vanLuyk, WHJ; Dolsma, WV; Postma, A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of therapy on renal function after unilateral nephrectomy for Wilms' tumour was studied. In the second year following unilateral nephrectomy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were estimated simultaneously by measuring I-125-iothalamate clearance and

  6. Association of renal function with cardiac calcifications in older adults : the cardiovascular health study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Katz, Ronit; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Fried, Linda F.; Gottdiener, John S.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Siscovick, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Aortic valve sclerosis (AVS) and mitral annulus calcification (MAC) are highly prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease. It is less well established whether milder kidney disease is associated with cardiac calcifications. We evaluated the relationships between renal function an

  7. A central body fat distribution is related to renal function impairment, even in lean subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Navis, G; Janssen, WMT; de Zeeuw, D; Gans, ROB; de Jong, PE

    2003-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are believed to be associated with renal damage. Whether this depends on fat distribution is not known. We hypothesize that in addition to overweight, fat distribution may be associated with renal function abnormalities. Methods: We studied the relation between body

  8. Renal function in atrial fibrillation patients switched from warfarin to a direct oral anticoagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Anum S; Jiang, Qingmei; Gu, Xiaokui; Haymart, Brian; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Almany, Steve; Kozlowski, Jay; Krol, Gregory D; Kaatz, Scott; Froehlich, James B; Barnes, Geoffrey D

    2016-11-01

    All available direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are at least partially eliminated by the kidneys. These agents are increasingly being used as alternatives to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to identify changes in renal function and associated DOAC dosing implications in a multicenter cohort of atrial fibrillation patients switched from warfarin to DOAC treatment. We included all patients in the Michigan Anticoagulation Quality Improvement Initiative cohort who switched from warfarin to a DOAC with atrial fibrillation as their anticoagulant indication between 2009 and 2014, and who had at least two creatinine values. Compliance with FDA-recommended dosing based on renal function was assessed. Of the 189 patients switched from warfarin to a DOAC, 34 (18.0 %) had a baseline creatinine clearance renal function. Of these 23 patients, 6 (26.1 %) should have impacted the DOAC dosing, but only 1 patient actually received an appropriate dose adjustment. Additionally, 15 (7.9 %) of patients on DOACs had a dose change performed, but only one patient demonstrated a change in renal function to justify the dose adjustment. Most atrial fibrillation patients who switched from warfarin to a DOAC had stable renal function. However, the majority of patients who had a change in renal function did not receive the indicated dose change. As the use of DOACs expands, monitoring of renal function and appropriate dose adjustments are critical.

  9. The relationship between the renal clearance of creatinine and the apparent renal clearance of beta-2-microglobulin in patients with normal and impaired kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vree, T B; Guelen, P J; Jongman-Nix, B; Walenkamp, G H

    1981-07-18

    The renal clearances of creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin of patients with either normal or impaired kidney function were measured. The renal clearance of beta 2-microglobulin depends on the urinary pH and must be considered as an apparent renal clearance because after tubular reabsorption the compound is metabolized in the kidney. Impaired kidney function reduces the percentage of tubular reabsorption of beta 2-microglobulin. PMID:6166414

  10. Targeted reduction of advanced glycation improves renal function in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harcourt, Brooke E; Sourris, Karly C; Coughlan, Melinda T;

    2011-01-01

    if treatments that lower tissue AGE burden in patients and mice would improve obesity-related renal dysfunction. Overweight and obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 26-39¿kg/m(2)) were recruited to a randomized, crossover clinical trial involving 2 weeks each on a low- and a high-AGE-containing diet. Renal......-lowering pharmaceutical, alagebrium, and mice in which the receptor for AGE (RAGE) was deleted. Obesity, resulting from a diet high in both fat and AGE, caused renal impairment; however, treatment of the RAGE knockout mice with alagebrium improved urinary albumin excretion, creatinine clearance, the inflammatory profile...

  11. Renal function maturation in children: is normalization to surface area valid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Gamma camera DTPA renograms were analysed to measure renal function by the rate at which the kidneys took up tracer from the blood. This was expressed either directly as the fractional uptake rate (FUR), which is not related to body size, or it was converted to a camera-based GFR by the formula GFR blood volume x FUR, and this GFR was normalized to a body surface area of 1.73 m2. Most of the patients studied had one completely normal kidney, and one kidney with reflux but normal function and no large scars. The completely normal kidneys contributed, on average, 50% of the total renal function. The results were considered in age bands, to display the effect of age on renal function. The camera-GFR measurements showed the conventional results of poor renal function in early childhood, with a slow rise to near-adult values by the age of 2 years, and somewhat low values throughout childhood. The uptake values showed a different pattern, with renal function rising to adult equivalent values by the age of 4 months, and with children having better renal function than adults throughout most of their childhood. The standard deviations expressed as coefficients of variation (CV) were smaller for the FUR technique than the GFR (Wilcoxon rank test, P < 0.01). These results resemble recent published measurements of absolute DMSA uptake, which are also unrelated to body size and show early renal maturation. The results also suggest that the reason children have lower serum creatinine levels than adults is that they have better renal function. If this were confirmed, it would raise doubts about the usefulness of normalizing renal function to body surface area in children

  12. Renal Function and Ultrasound Imaging in Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Zanoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated in elderly subjects (a the ability of GFR formulas to discriminate chronic kidney disease (CKD, (b the correlation between renal morphology and function, and (c the usefulness of combined r-US and GFR formulas to detect CKD. A total of 72 patients were enrolled (mean age 80 ± 7 years, male sex 44%, serum creatinine 0.98 ± 0.42 mg/dL, and CKD 57%. Cockcroft-Gault showed the highest sensitivity (78% and specificity (94% for CKD and was correlated with kidney volume (R=0.68, P<0.001. All formulas failed to provide a reliable estimate of GFR. In multivariate analysis, Cockcroft-Gault < 52 mL/min and kidney sinus section area < 28 cm2 showed the highest accuracy for the identification of CKD subjects (AUC 0.90, P<0.001. MDRD and CKD-EPI differed significantly for GFR ≥90 mL/min. Conclusions. Cockcroft-Gault < 52 mL/min was able to discriminate subjects with CKD but all formulas failed to provide a reliable estimate of GFR. The combined use of r-US and Cockcroft-Gault formula improved the ability to discriminate CKD in elderly subjects.

  13. Renal Function and Cardiovascular Response to Mental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, Stephen L.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Weir, Matthew R.; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims Cardiovascular reactivity (CVR), defined as an exaggerated hemodynamic response to mental stress, is a putative vascular risk factor and may reflect sympathetic hyperactivity. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and vascular risk, but its relationship with CVR is unknown. Methods CVR was assessed in 107 individuals without overt cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Blood pressure and heart rate responses were elicited by three experimental tasks designed to evoke mental stress. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using the MDRD formula. General linear models estimated the association between renal function and CVR, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Mean age was 66 years and 11% had eGFR of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. After multivariate adjustment, a low eGFR was associated with a greater stress response of systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and pulse pressure. Associations were only partially attenuated after adjustment for lipids and glucose tolerance. When considered as a continuous variable, lower eGFR was associated with a greater blood pressure response after adjustment for glycemia. Conclusion Although there were relatively few participants with CKD, these results suggest a relationship between CKD and greater CVR. Further investigation is warranted into factors that mediate this relationship and potential clinical consequences of this exaggerated response to stress in CKD. PMID:18025779

  14. Regulation of Vascular and Renal Function by Metabolite Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Kishore, Bellamkonda K; Pluznick, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    To maintain metabolic homeostasis, the body must be able to monitor the concentration of a large number of substances, including metabolites, in real time and to use that information to regulate the activities of different metabolic pathways. Such regulation is achieved by the presence of sensors, termed metabolite receptors, in various tissues and cells of the body, which in turn convey the information to appropriate regulatory or positive or negative feedback systems. In this review, we cover the unique roles of metabolite receptors in renal and vascular function. These receptors play a wide variety of important roles in maintaining various aspects of homeostasis-from salt and water balance to metabolism-by sensing metabolites from a wide variety of sources. We discuss the role of metabolite sensors in sensing metabolites generated locally, metabolites generated at distant tissues or organs, or even metabolites generated by resident microbes. Metabolite receptors are also involved in various pathophysiological conditions and are being recognized as potential targets for new drugs. By highlighting three receptor families-(a) citric acid cycle intermediate receptors, (b) purinergic receptors, and PMID:26667077

  15. Longitudinal change in renal function after nephroureterectomy in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Chou

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: In this study, it was found that the average renal function of the patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma is not as good as the general population. More than half of the normal renal function patients have new onset chronic kidney disease after surgery. For preventing further deterioration of renal function, the implication of partial nephrectomy or segmental ureterectomy for selected patients with localized urothelial carcinoma should be re-examined. Besides, neoadjuvant chemotherapy should be considered for those who are not good candidates for local treatment.

  16. The effect of prostaglandin E1 on recovery of early renal graft functions after transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Huanjin; Xue Wujun; Tian Xiaohui; Li Yang; Ding Chenguang; Ding Xiaoming; Feng Xinshun; Jin Zhankui

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of prostaglandin E: (PGE1) on recovery of early renal graft functions after transplantation. Methods One hundred and seven patients after renal transplantation were allocated in the treated group, and treated by conventional treatment with injection of 10 μg prostaglandin E1 additionally twice a day for 14 days. And eighty-eight patients who received conventional treatment alone after renal transplantation at the corresponding period were allocated in the control group. Indexes of the two groups, including incidence of delayed graft function and acute rejection reaction, volume of urine, serum certaintie (SCr), endogenous certainties clearance rate (CCr), the blood flow resistance in graft as well as blood viscosity (BV), and platelet aggregation rate (PAR), were determined. Results The urinary volume and endogenous certainties clearance rate of the treated group were significantly higher, but the level of SCr, incidence of renal function recovery retardation, BV, PAR and blood flow resistance in graft were significantly lower than these of the control group (P0.05). Conclusion Prostaglandin E1 can improve blood microcirculation and decrease the incidence of renal function recovery retardation. These effects are helpful for recovery of renal function after renal transplantation.

  17. Effects of renal function on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lesinurad in adult volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillen M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael Gillen,1 Shakti Valdez,2 Dongmei Zhou,2 Bradley Kerr,2 Caroline A Lee,2 Zancong Shen2 1AstraZeneca LP, Gaithersburg, MD, 2Ardea Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA Introduction: Lesinurad is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor approved for the treatment of gout in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI in patients who have not achieved target serum uric acid (sUA levels with an XOI alone. Most people with gout have chronic kidney disease. The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of lesinurad were assessed in subjects with impaired renal function. Methods: Two Phase I, multicenter, open-label, single-dose studies enrolled subjects with normal renal function (estimated creatinine clearance [eCrCl] >90 mL/min; N=12 or mild (eCrCl 60–89 mL/min; N=8, moderate (eCrCl 30–59 mL/min; N=16, or severe (eCrCl <30 mL/min; N=6 renal impairment. Subjects were given a single oral lesinurad dose of 200 mg (N=24 or 400 mg (N=18. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for plasma lesinurad concentrations and serum and urine uric acid concentrations. Safety was assessed by adverse events and laboratory data. Results: Mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment increased lesinurad plasma area under the plasma concentration–time curve by 34%, 54%–65%, and 102%, respectively. Lesinurad plasma Cmax was unaffected by renal function status. Lower renal clearance and urinary excretion of lesinurad were associated with the degree of renal impairment. The sUA-lowering effect of a single dose of lesinurad was similar between mild renal impairment and normal function, reduced in moderate impairment, and greatly diminished in severe impairment. Lesinurad increased urinary urate excretion in normal function and mild renal impairment; the increase was less with moderate or severe renal impairment. Lesinurad was well tolerated by all subjects. Conclusion: Lesinurad exposure increased with decreasing renal function; however, the

  18. Evaluation of the relationship between renal function and renal volume-vascular indices using 3D power Doppler ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansu, Aysegul, E-mail: drcansu@gmail.com; Kupeli, Ali; Kul, Sibel; Eyuboglu, Ilker; Oguz, Sukru; Ozturk, Mehmet Halil; Dinc, Hasan

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between renal function and total renal volume-vascular indices using 3D power Doppler ultrasound (3DPDUS). Materials and methods: One hundred six patients with hypertensive proteinuric nephropathy (HPN) (49 male, 57 female) and 65 healthy controls (32 male, 33 female) were evaluated prospectively using 3DPDUS. Total renal volume (RV), vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) were calculated using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL). The estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) of the patients with HPN and the control group were calculated. The patients with HPN were divided into two groups on the basis of GFR, normal (≥90) or reduced (<90). Differences between groups were compared using ANOVA. Correlations between GFR, renal volume and vascular indices were analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The mean total RV, VI, FI and VFI values in the reduced GFR, normal GFR and control groups were RV (ml): 234.7, 280.7 and 294.6; VI: 17.6, 27.6 and 46.8; FI: 79.1, 88.7 and 93.9 and VFI: 7.1, 12.7 and 23.8. There were statistically significant differences between the groups (p < 0.001). Total RVs and vascular indices exhibited significant correlations with estimated GFR (r = 0.53–0.59, p < 0.001) Conclusion: Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound is a reliable predictive technique in renal function analysis.

  19. Improved Structure and Function in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Rat Kidneys with Renal Tubular Cell Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K J Kelly

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is a truly catastrophic monogenetic disease, causing death and end stage renal disease in neonates and children. Using PCK female rats, an orthologous model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease harboring mutant Pkhd1, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous renal cell transplantation with normal Sprague Dawley male kidney cells would improve the polycystic kidney disease phenotype. Cytotherapy with renal cells expressing wild type Pkhd1 and tubulogenic serum amyloid A1 had powerful and sustained beneficial effects on renal function and structure in the polycystic kidney disease model. Donor cell engraftment and both mutant and wild type Pkhd1 were found in treated but not control PCK kidneys 15 weeks after the final cell infusion. To examine the mechanisms of global protection with a small number of transplanted cells, we tested the hypothesis that exosomes derived from normal Sprague Dawley cells can limit the cystic phenotype of PCK recipient cells. We found that renal exosomes originating from normal Sprague Dawley cells carried and transferred wild type Pkhd1 mRNA to PCK cells in vivo and in vitro and restricted cyst formation by cultured PCK cells. The results indicate that transplantation with renal cells containing wild type Pkhd1 improves renal structure and function in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and may provide an intra-renal supply of normal Pkhd1 mRNA.

  20. Transient acute renal failure and functional hemispheric depression after cerebral arteriography in diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Lund, P; Praestholm, J

    1981-01-01

    Cerebral angiography was carried out in two diabetic patients in the evaluation of minor vascular ischemic episodes. A transient acute renal failure following cerebral angiography was accompanied by a transient comatose episode with severe unilateral neurological deficits. A functional depression...

  1. Forty-five-year follow-up on the renal function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund, M; Oturai, P S; Toson, B;

    2016-01-01

    reflex triggering (63%), bladder expression (22%), indwelling catheter (5%), normal voiding (4%), ileal conduit (3%) and clean intermittent catheterisation (2%). The cumulative risk of moderate renal deterioration (functional distribution outside 40-60% on renography or relative glomerular filtration...... rate (GFR) ⩽75% of expected according to age and gender) was 58%. The cumulative risk of severe renal deterioration (functional distribution outside 30-70% on renography or relative GFR⩽51%) was 29% after 45 years postinjury. Only dilatation of UUT and renal/ureter stone requiring removal significantly...

  2. Resistance of the rat to development of lead-induced renal functional deficits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flaherty, E.J.; Adams, W.D.; Hammond, P.B.; Taylor, E.

    1986-01-01

    Lead nephropathy, characterized functionally by depression of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and maximum glucose reabsorption rate, is associated with prolonged occupational exposure to lead. Production of comparable lead-related renal functional deficits in rats has been difficult to achieve. The authors have examined in rats some of the factors that might be expected to influence the development of lead-induced renal functional damage, using GFR (as inulin clearance). ERPF (as para-aminohippurate clearance), and maximum glucose readsorption rates as indices of renal functional competence. Although lead produces a significant weight loss, this can be accounted for by reduced food intake and is not associated with reduction in renal function. Even exposure to large amounts of lead in conjunction with other factors; such as controlled diet (NIH-07 and AIN-76) and early age of initial exposure, that might have been expected to increase the rats' susceptibility has not resulted in the development of renal functional deficits. It is unlikely that the rat can be successfully explored as an animal model of human lead nephropathy with accompanying functional deficits.

  3. Elimination of 3H-methylguanidine at limited renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serum levels, hepatic and renal excretions and the tissue concentrations of 3H methyl guanidine 60 to 90 minutes after intravenous injection were measured in rats with healthy kidneys and rats with experimental renal insufficiences. The following results were obtained: Methyl guanidine is quickly eliminated through the kidney and the liver of organisms with healthy kidneys. In the case of experimental renal insufficiency, the renal excretion of methyl guanidine is reduced, whilst the hepatic excretion is increased. Methyl guanidine is subject to an enterohepatic circuit. Methyl guanidine can accumulate to much higher levels in various tissues examined than in serum. The highest organ accumulation level of methyl guanidine was found in the case of renal insufficiency. The most important finding of the study accordingly is the partial rehabilitation of methyl guanidine as a potential uremic poison. In the author's opinion, too much attention has so far been paid to the serum concentration, and too little attention to the tissue level of the substance. (orig.)

  4. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shriner

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.

  5. The effect of gold nanoparticle on renal function in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Doudi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: This study aimed to address the gold nanoparticle(GNP-dose and exposure duration effect on the kidney function of rats: in vivo.   Materials and Methods: A total of 32 healthy male Wistar rats were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into groups, three GNP-treated groups and control group. Group 1, 2 and 3 received. /5 cc of solution containing 5, 10,100 ppm Au via IP injection for 7 successive days, respectively. The control group was treated with 0.5% normal saline. Several biochemical parameters such as BUN (blood urea nitrogen, creatine and uric acid were evaluated at various time points (7 and 14 days. After 14 days, the tissue of kidney was collected and investigated. Results: There was no significant difference between the control and the intervention group regarding the amount of creatine-BUN and uric acid. The amount of creatine-BUN and uric acid showed increase in all the groups [except group1 (creatine and group 2 (uric acid] in the 7 and 14 days after intervention compared to the control group, but this difference was not significant. Results of histopatological tissue kidney showed: in group 1 and 3, complete destruction of the proximal tubules and distal cortical, in group 2, almost complete destruction of proximal tubules and distal. Conclusions: The induced histological alterations might be an indication of injured renal tubules due to GNPs toxicity that become unable to deal with the accumulated residues resulting from metabolic and structural disturbances caused by these NPs.

  6. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graceli, J.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Cicilini, M.A.; Bissoli, N.S.; Abreu, G.R.; Moysés, M.R. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2013-07-02

    The maintenance of extracellular Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1}, sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1}, sc). We assessed Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} fractional excretion (FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}} and FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}}, FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}}, FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen

  7. Effects of dietary salt intake on renal function: a 2-year study in healthy aged cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Chetboul, V; Nguyen, P.; Testault, I; Concordet, Didier; Carlos Sampedrano, C; Elliott, J.; Trehiou-Sechi, E; Abadie, J.; Biourge, V; Lefebvre, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing salt intake to promote diuresis has been suggested in the management of feline lower urinary tract disease. However, high dietary salt intake might adversely affect blood pressure and renal function The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effects of increased salt intake on renal function in healthy aged cats This study was controlled, randomized, and blinded. Twenty healthy neutered cats (10.1 ± 2.4 years) were randomly allocated into 2 matched groups. One group...

  8. Impaired renal function impacts negatively on vascular stiffness in patients with coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Sabrina H.; McQuarrie, Emily P.; Miller, William H.; Mackenzie, Ruth M; Dymott, Jane A.; Moreno, María U.; Taurino, Chiara; Miller, Ashley M.; Neisius, Ulf; Berg, Geoffrey A.; Valuckiene, Zivile; Hannay, Jonathan A; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Delles, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are independently associated with increased vascular stiffness. We examined whether renal function contributes to vascular stiffness independently of CAD status. Methods We studied 160 patients with CAD and 169 subjects without CAD. The 4-variable MDRD formula was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); impaired renal function was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity ...

  9. RENAL FUNCTION AND ADAPTIVE CHANGES AFTER RADICAL OR PARTIAL NEPHRECTOMY: A SINGLE CENTRE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Suraj; Harish; Shameer; Sadasukhi; Manish; Gupta

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To study the renal function before partial or total nephrectomy and to study change in renal function and adaptive change in the retained kidney after partial or total nephrectomy. Place and Duration: The prospective study of 40 patients was conducted by the Dept. of Nephrology and Dept. of Urology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur from July 2012 to July 2014 METHODS The data for the study was obtained from all the patients undergoing...

  10. Intra-Parenchymal Renal Resistive Index Variation (IRRIV) Describes Renal Functional Reserve (RFR): Pilot Study in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoni, Sara; Nalesso, Federico; Meola, Mario; Villa, Gianluca; De Cal, Massimo; De Rosa, Silvia; Petrucci, Ilaria; Brendolan, Alessandra; Rosner, Mitchell H; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    An increase of glomerular filtration rate after protein load represents renal functional reserve (RFR) and is due to afferent arteriolar vasodilation. Lack of RFR may be a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI), but is cumbersome to measure. We sought to develop a non-invasive, bedside method that would indirectly measure RFR. Mechanical abdominal pressure, through compression of renal vessels, decreases blood flow and activates the auto-regulatory mechanism which can be measured by a fall in renal resistive index (RRI). The study aims at elucidating the relationship between intra-parenchymal renal resistive index variation (IRRIV) during abdominal pressure and RFR. In healthy volunteers, pressure was applied by a weight on the abdomen (fluid-bag 10% of subject's body weight) while RFR was measured through a protein loading test. We recorded RRI in an interlobular artery after application of pressure using ultrasound. The maximum percentage reduction of RRI from baseline was compared in the same subject to RFR. We enrolled 14 male and 16 female subjects (mean age 38 ± 14 years). Mean creatinine clearance was 106.2 ± 16.4 ml/min/1.73 m(2). RFR ranged between -1.9 and 59.7 with a mean value of 28.9 ± 13.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Mean baseline RRI was 0.61 ± 0.05, compared to 0.49 ± 0.06 during abdominal pressure; IRRIV was 19.6 ± 6.7%, ranging between 3.1% and 29.2%. Pearson's coefficient between RFR and IRRIV was 74.16% (p renal susceptibility to different exposures and the consequent risk for AKI.

  11. Intra-Parenchymal Renal Resistive Index Variation (IRRIV) Describes Renal Functional Reserve (RFR): Pilot Study in Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoni, Sara; Nalesso, Federico; Meola, Mario; Villa, Gianluca; De Cal, Massimo; De Rosa, Silvia; Petrucci, Ilaria; Brendolan, Alessandra; Rosner, Mitchell H.; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    An increase of glomerular filtration rate after protein load represents renal functional reserve (RFR) and is due to afferent arteriolar vasodilation. Lack of RFR may be a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI), but is cumbersome to measure. We sought to develop a non-invasive, bedside method that would indirectly measure RFR. Mechanical abdominal pressure, through compression of renal vessels, decreases blood flow and activates the auto-regulatory mechanism which can be measured by a fall in renal resistive index (RRI). The study aims at elucidating the relationship between intra-parenchymal renal resistive index variation (IRRIV) during abdominal pressure and RFR. In healthy volunteers, pressure was applied by a weight on the abdomen (fluid-bag 10% of subject's body weight) while RFR was measured through a protein loading test. We recorded RRI in an interlobular artery after application of pressure using ultrasound. The maximum percentage reduction of RRI from baseline was compared in the same subject to RFR. We enrolled 14 male and 16 female subjects (mean age 38 ± 14 years). Mean creatinine clearance was 106.2 ± 16.4 ml/min/1.73 m2. RFR ranged between −1.9 and 59.7 with a mean value of 28.9 ± 13.1 ml/min/1.73 m2. Mean baseline RRI was 0.61 ± 0.05, compared to 0.49 ± 0.06 during abdominal pressure; IRRIV was 19.6 ± 6.7%, ranging between 3.1% and 29.2%. Pearson's coefficient between RFR and IRRIV was 74.16% (p < 0.001). Our data show the correlation between IRRIV and RFR. Our results can lead to the development of a “stress test” for a rapid screen of RFR to establish renal susceptibility to different exposures and the consequent risk for AKI. PMID:27458386

  12. The association between renal impairment and cardiac structure and function in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Mads; Valeur, Nana; Hassager, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) is an important predictor of short- and long-term outcome. Cardiac abnormalities dominated by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy are common in patients with chronic renal dysfunction. However, limited data exists...... on the association between LV systolic- and diastolic function assessed by comprehensive echocardiography and renal dysfunction in contemporary unselected patients with acute MI. METHODS: We prospectively included 1054 patients with acute MI (mean age 63 years, 73% male) and performed echocardiographic assessment...... fraction or GLS attenuated its importance considerably. CONCLUSION: Renal dysfunction in patients with acute MI is independently associated with echocardiographic evidence of increased LV filling pressure. However, the prognostic importance of renal dysfunction is attenuated to a greater degree by LV...

  13. What physicians need to know about renal function in outpatients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldum-Grevbo, Bård

    2015-01-01

    The majority of outpatients with heart failure (HF) have chronic kidney disease (CKD) as an important comorbidity. Both glomerular filtration rate and abnormal urinary albumin excretion are major predictors of outcome in HF patients. Despite this, patients with renal dysfunction have been systematically excluded from the large randomized HF trials. There is lack of evidence for optimal treatment in these cardiorenal patients and treatment nihilism may account in part for their bad prognosis. Identifying and monitoring the progression of renal disease and making an effort to preserve renal function should be an important task in the management of all patients with HF. In this review, the current understanding of the pathophysiology of renal dysfunction in outpatients with HF will be summarized. Furthermore, important principles of the identification and management of cardiorenal patients will be described in order to make the physician more capable of managing outpatients with HF and renal dysfunction. PMID:25966919

  14. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome with improvement of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, P; Del Bufalo, F; Nicoletti, A; Romano, V; Gatto, A; Leoni, C; Zampino, G

    2010-05-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a chromosomal disorder characterized by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4. We describe a girl with a de novo unbalanced traslocation t(4;7)(p16.2;p22), associated with a mild version of a classical WHS phenotype. She did not present major urinary tract abnormalities but had parenchymal hyperechogenicity at renal ultrasound at the birth with normal renal scintigraphy. She had also a reduction of GFR with elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum potassium until the age of 6 months. We followed the patient with periodic clinical examination and laboratory and radiological investigations and observed at the age of 5 years a normal renal ultrasound without parenchymal hyperechogenicity. PMID:20425837

  15. Relationship Between Renal Function and Functional Decline: Role of the Estimating Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, Claudio; Corsonello, Andrea; Bandinelli, Stefania; Pizzarelli, Francesco; Ferrucci, Luigi; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2016-01-01

    Background Several formulas are available to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at the bedside. A decrease in GFR has been associated with poorer performance. We hypothesized that it is related to worsening disability as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formulas can predict worsening disability better than the classic Cockcroft-Gault formula or the measured creatinine clearance. Methods We studied 666 participants in the InCHIANTI study with 6 years of follow-up data. We evaluated whether directly measured creatinine clearance and GFR estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and Cockcroft-Gault formulas predict new disability defined as the loss of ≥1 ADL over the 6-year follow-up. Results The mean age was 73.1 years (SD: 6.1), 57.7% were women. Fewer than 5% of participants were disabled at baseline. Eighty-one (12.2%) participants experienced a decline in activities of daily life score at follow-up. Declining GFR was associated with increasing risk of worsening disability (Mantel-Haenszel P < .001), with an increased steepness in the curve at GFR below 60 mL/min. The relative risks for worsening disability in people with GFR less than 60 mL/min/m were 3.19 (95% CI: 2.12–4.79) and 4.40 (95% CI: 2.80–6.94) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and the Cockcroft-Gault equations, respectively. The corresponding figures obtained with measured creatinine clearance was 3.95 (95% CI: 2.60–6.01). After adjustment for potential confounders, however, these estimates were substantially reduced. Conclusion Estimation of renal function with the Cockcroft-Gault or Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formulas can help to identify elderly at risk of worsening disability. The mechanism by which reduced kidney function predicts disability should be further investigated. PMID:21450248

  16. Biomarkers of renal injury and function: diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Ruilope, Luis M; Maisel, Alan S; Damman, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Heart failure guidelines suggest evaluating renal function as a routine work-up in every patient with heart failure. Specifically, it is advised to calculate glomerular filtration rate and determine blood urea nitrogen. The reason for this is that renal impairment and worsening renal function (WRF) are common in heart failure, and strongly associate with poor outcome. Renal function, however, consists of more than glomerular filtration alone, and includes tubulointerstitial damage and albuminuria. For each of these renal entities, different biomarkers exist that have been investigated in heart failure. Hypothetically, and in parallel to data in nephrology, these markers may aid in the diagnosis of renal dysfunction, or for risk stratification, or could help in therapeutic decision-making. However, as reviewed in the present manuscript, while these markers may carry prognostic information (although not always additive to established markers of renal function), their role in predicting WRF is limited at best. More importantly, none of these markers have been evaluated as a therapeutic target nor have their serial values been used to guide therapy. The evidence is most compelling for the oldest-serum creatinine (in combination with glomerular filtration rate)-but even for this biomarker, evidence to guide therapy to improve outcome is circumstantial at best. Although many new renal biomarkers have emerged at the horizon, they have only limited usefulness in clinical practice until thoroughly and prospectively studied. For now, routine measurement of (novel) renal biomarkers can help to determine cardiovascular risk, but there is no role for these biomarkers to change therapy to improve clinical outcome in heart failure.

  17. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cristóbal-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks and short-term (3 weeks effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW, OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water, OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW, or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  18. Green tea inhibited the elimination of nephro-cardiovascular toxins and deteriorated the renal function in rats with renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Sweet, Douglas H; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Yu, Chung-Ping; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are highly protein-bound nephro-cardiovascular toxins, which are not efficiently removed through hemodialysis. The renal excretions of IS and PCS were mediated by organic anion transporters (OATs) such as OAT1 and OAT3. Green tea (GT) is a popular beverage containing plenty of catechins. Previous pharmacokinetic studies of teas have shown that the major molecules present in the bloodstream are the glucuronides/sulfates of tea catechins, which are putative substrates of OATs. Here we demonstrated that GT ingestion significantly elevated the systemic exposures of endogenous IS and PCS in rats with chronic renal failure (CRF). More importantly, GT also significantly increased the levels of serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in CRF rats. Mechanism studies indicated that the serum metabolites of GT (GTM) inhibited the uptake transporting functions of OAT1 and OAT3. In conclusion, GT inhibited the elimination of nephro-cardiovascular toxins such as IS and PCS, and deteriorated the renal function in CRF rats. PMID:26552961

  19. Effect of medical ozone therapy on renal blood flow and renal function of patients with chronic severe hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xi-bing; YANG Xiao-juan; ZHU Hong-ying; XU Yue-qin; LIU Xia-ying

    2010-01-01

    Background Medical ozone therapy system was reported to have certain effects on the treatment of severe hepatitis,but its mechanism is not very clear. One of the causes of death of severe hepatitis is complication of renal damage or hepatorenal syndrome. The present study aimed to observe effects of medical ozone therapy system on plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin Ⅱ (AⅡ), aldosterone (ALD), renal blood flow and renal function of patients with chronic severe hepatitis and explore mechanisms of medical ozone therapy in the treatment of severe hepatitis.Methods Eighty-five cases with chronic severe hepatitis were randomly divided into ozone therapy group (43 cases)and control group (42 cases). The patients in the ozone therapy group were treated with basic treatments plus ozone therapy system. Basic autohemotherapy was used. One hundred milliliter venous blood was drawn from each patient,and was mixed with 100 ml (35 μg/ml) medical ozone and then was returned the blood to the patient intravenously, once every other day for 20 days. Only the basic treatments were given to the control group. PRA, All, ALD, renal blood flow and damage to renal function of the two groups before treatment and 20 days after treatment were compared. Survival rates were also compared.Results Twenty days after the treatment, in ozone therapy group, PRA was (1.31±0.12) ng·ml-1·h-1, All (111.25±17.35)pg/ml, ALD (251.31 ±22.60) pg/ml, which decreased significantly compared with those before treatment (PRA (2.23±0.13)ng·ml-1 ·h1, AⅡ (155.18±19.13) pg/ml, ALD (405.31±29.88) pg/ml, t=4.67-14.23, P <0.01), also lower than those of control group 20 days after the treatment (PRA (2.02±0.11) ng·ml-1·h-1, All (162.21±15.32) pg/ml, ALD (401.20±35.02) pg/ml,t=4.97-15.61, P <0.01); renal blood flow was (175.15±28.20) ml/min, which increased compared with that before the treatment ((125.68±21.25) ml/min) and was higher than that of control group 20 days after the treatment

  20. Usefulness of basic renal function tests in decision-making in children with loss of renal parenchyma and/or dilation of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Nieto, Víctor M; Luis Yanes, Maria Isabel; Arango Sancho, Pedro; Sotoca Fernandez, Jorge V

    2016-01-01

    Basic renal function tests such as maximum urine osmolality and urinary elimination of albumin and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase often reveal abnormalities in clinical cases involving hyperpressure in the urinary tract or loss of renal parenchyma. However, in all the available algorithms dedicated to the study of children with urinary tract infection or dilation, the benefit of using these functional parameters is not mentioned. In this review, we provide information about the practical usefulness of assessing the basic renal function parameters. From these data, we propose an algorithm that combines morphological and functional parameters to make a reasoned case for voiding cystourethrography.

  1. l-Carnitine improves cognitive and renal functions in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ahmad, Nur; Armaly, Zaher; Berman, Sylvia; Jabour, Adel; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Mosenego-Ornan, Efrat; Avital, Avi

    2016-10-01

    Over the past decade, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has reached epidemic proportions. The search for novel pharmacological treatment for CKD has become an area of intensive clinical research. l-Carnitine, considered as the "gatekeeper" responsible for admitting long chain fatty acids into cell mitochondria. l-Carnitine synthesis and turnover are regulated mainly by the kidney and its levels inversely correlate with serum creatinine of normal subjects and CKD patients. Previous studies showed that l-carnitine administration to elderly people is improving and preserving cognitive function. As yet, there are no clinical intervention studies that investigated the effect of l-carnitine administration on cognitive impairment evidenced in CKD patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of l-carnitine treatment on renal function and on the cognitive performance in a rat model of progressive CKD. To assess the role of l-carnitine on CKD condition, we estimated the renal function and cognitive abilities in a CKD rat model. We found that all CKD animals exhibited renal function deterioration, as indicated by elevated serum creatinine, BUN, and ample histopathological abnormalities. l-Carnitine treatment of CKD rats significantly reduced serum creatinine and BUN, attenuated renal hypertrophy and decreased renal tissue damage. In addition, in the two way shuttle avoidance learning, CKD animals showed cognitive impairment which recovered by the administration of l-carnitine. We conclude that in a rat model of CKD, l-carnitine administration significantly improved cognitive and renal functions.

  2. Extrarenal citrulline disposal in mice with impaired renal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endogenous synthesis of arginine, a semiessential amino acid, relies on the production of citrulline by the gut and its conversion into arginine by the kidney in what has been called the "intestinal-renal axis" for arginine synthesis. Although the kidney is the main site for citrulline disposal,...

  3. Post re-anastomosis demonstration of regain in function in non-visualized upper half of kidney in a dual arterial allogenic renal graft on renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young male patient with end stage renal disease underwent renal allograft having dual arterial supply. Immediate post-operative urine output dropped, an urgent Technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) renogram revealed non-visualized upper-half and the preserved perfusion and parenchymal function of the small transplant kidney. Patient was re-explored and re-anastomosis was performed. A renogram at 24h post re-anastomosis revealed increase in the size of renal allograft, with preserved perfusion to the upper-half of transplant. Transplant kidney biopsy of the Upper-half showed acute tubular necrosis. 99mTc-MAG3renogram at 10 days post re-vascularization remains unchanged with persistent improvement at 2 months follow-up. We conclude that early recognition of renal functional loss allows early management and the high probability of salvaging the renal function

  4. Ischemic preconditioning protects post-ischemic renal function in anesthetized dogs: role of adenosine and adenine nucleotides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan-zhu LI; Shoji KIMURA; Akira NISHIYAMA; Matlubur RAHMAN; Guo-xing ZHANG; Youichi ABE

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of renal ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on both renal hemodynamics and the renal interstitial concentrations of adenosine and adenine nucleotides induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury.Methods: Renal hemodynamics responses to ischemia-reperfusion injury in mongrel dog models were determined with or without multiple brief renal ischemic preconditioning treatments, as well as the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist (KW-3902),respectively.The renal interstitial concentrations of adenosine and adenine nucleotides in response to ischemia-reperfusion injury, either following 1-3 cycles of IPC or not, were measured simultaneously using microdialysis sampling technology.Results: One 10-min IPC, adenosine A1 receptor antagonist (KW3902) also shortened the recovery time of renal blood flow (RBF) and urine flow (UF), as well as mean blood pressure (BP).Advanced renal IPC attenuated the increment of adenosine and adenine nucleotides, as well as recovery time during the 60-min reperfusion which followed the 60-min renal ischemia.All of these recovery times were dependent on the cycles of 10-min IPC.The renal interstitial concentrations of adenosine and adenine nucleotides increased and decreased during renal ischemia and reperfusion, respectively.Conclusion: A significant relativity in dog models exists between the cycles of 10-min renal IPC and the recovery time of BP, UF, and RBF during the 60-min renal reperfusion following 60-min renal ischemia, respectively.Renal IPC can protect against ischemiareperfusion injury and the predominant effect of endogenous adenosine induced by prolonged renal ischemia; renal adenosine A1 receptor activation during the renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is detrimental to renal function.

  5. Association between antiretroviral exposure and renal impairment among HIV-positive persons with normal baseline renal function : the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryom, Lene; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole; Worm, Signe W; Kamara, David A; Reiss, Peter; Ross, Michael; Fux, Christoph A; Morlat, Philippe; Moranne, Olivier; Smith, Colette; Lundgren, Jens D; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several antiretroviral agents (ARVs) are associated with chronic renal impairment, but the extent of such adverse events among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons with initially normal renal function is unknown. METHODS: D:A:D study participants with an estimated glomerul

  6. Targeting complement activation in brain-dead donors improves renal function after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Jeffrey; Hoeger, Simone; Boneschansker, Leo; Theruvath, Ashok; Waldherr, Ruediger; Leuvenink, Henri G; Ploeg, Rutger J; Yard, Benito A; Seelen, Marc A

    2011-05-01

    Kidneys recovered from brain-dead donors have inferior outcomes after transplantation compared to kidneys from living donors. Since complement activation plays an important role in renal transplant related injury, targeting complement activation in brain-dead donors might improve renal function after transplantation. Brain death (BD) was induced in Fisher rats by inflation of an epidurally placed balloon catheter and ventilated for 6h. BD animals were treated with soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1) 1h before or 1h after BD. Kidney transplantation was performed and 7 days after transplantation animals were sacrificed. Plasma creatinine and urea were measured at days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 after transplantation. Renal function was significantly better at day 1 after transplantation in recipients receiving a sCR1 pre-treated donor kidney compared to recipients of a non-treated donor graft. Also treatment with sCR1, 1h after the diagnosis of BD, resulted in a better renal function after transplantation. Gene expression of IL-6, IL-1beta and TGF-beta were significantly lower in renal allografts recovered from treated donors. This study shows that targeting complement activation, during BD in the donor, leads to an improved renal function after transplantation in the recipient.

  7. Health status, renal function, and quality of life after multiorgan failure and acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulhaber-Walter R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert Faulhaber-Walter,1,2 Sebastian Scholz,1,3 Herrmann Haller,1 Jan T Kielstein,1,* Carsten Hafer1,4,* 1Department of Renal and Hypertensive Disease, Medical School Hannover, Hannover, Germany; 2Facharztzentrum Aarberg, Waldshut-Tiengen, Germany; 3Sanitaetsversorgungszentrum Wunstorf, Wunstorf, Germany; 4HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Erfurt, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI in need of renal replacement therapy (RRT may have a protracted and often incomplete rehabilitation. Their long-term outcome has rarely been investigated. Study design: Survivors of the HANnover Dialysis OUTcome (HANDOUT study were evaluated after 5 years for survival, health status, renal function, and quality of life (QoL. The HANDOUT study had examinded mortality and renal recovery of patients with AKI receiving either standard extendend or intensified dialysis after multi organ failure. Results: One hundred fifty-six former HANDOUT participants were analyzed. In-hospital mortality was 56.4%. Five-year survival after AKI/RRT was 40.1% (86.5% if discharged from hospital. Main causes of death were cardiovascular complications and sepsis. A total of 19 survivors presented to the outpatient department of our clinic and had good renal recovery (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 72.5±30 mL/min/1.73 m2; mean proteinuria 89±84 mg/d. One person required maintenance dialysis. Seventy-nine percent of the patients had a pathological kidney sonomorphology. The Charlson comorbidity score was 2.2±1.4 and adjusted for age 3.3±2.1 years. Numbers of comorbid conditions averaged 2.38±1.72 per patient (heart failure [52%] > chronic kidney disease/myocardial infarction [each 29%]. Median 36-item short form health survey (SF-36™ index was 0.657 (0.69 physical health/0.66 mental health. Quality-adjusted life-years after 5 years were 3.365. Conclusion: Mortality after severe AKI is higher than

  8. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and renal function. A review of the current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L

    1991-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are well established in the treatment of hypertension and cardiac failure. Experimental studies in rats have suggested that these agents may protect renal function in chronic nephropathy by a mechanism other than simply lowering the systemic blood...... pressure. In human studies of incipient diabetic nephropathy, worsening of microalbuminuria was prevented during 3 years of ACE inhibition. ACE inhibitors reduce arterial blood pressure in chronic nephropathy, and may cause a fall in glomerular filtration rate. In diabetic nephropathy, proteinuria...... studies have been published to date. In chronic renal failure, ACE inhibitors may worsen anaemia and hyperkalaemia. Renovascular hypertension can be treated with ACE inhibitors, but the treatment may lead to a compromised renal function. The dosage of these drugs should be reduced in renal failure...

  9. Urinary NGAL Levels Correlate with Differential Renal Function in Patients with Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction Undergoing Pyeloplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost, Nicholas G.; Noh, Paul H.; Devarajan, Prasad; Ivancic, Vesna; Reddy, Pramod P.; Minevich, Eugene; Bennett, Michael; Haffner, Christopher; Schulte, Marion; DeFoor, W. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent investigations described the use of NGAL, a sensitive biomarker for kidney injury, in the setting of ureteropelvic junction obstruction. We prospectively evaluated urinary NGAL levels in the affected renal pelvis and bladder of children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction undergoing unilateral dismembered pyeloplasty. Our hypothesis was that higher NGAL in the kidney and bladder would correlate with decreased ipsilateral differential function. Materials and Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study in patients treated with unilateral dismembered pyeloplasty from 2010 to 2012. Urine was obtained intraoperatively from the bladder and obstructed renal pelvis. A control population of unaffected children was recruited to provide a voided bladder specimen. Bladder NGAL levels were compared between the study and control populations. We tested our study hypothesis by correlating bladder and renal pelvic NGAL levels with the differential renal function of the affected kidney. Results: A total of 61 patients with a median age at surgery of 1.62 years (range 0.12 to 18.7) were enrolled in the study. Median bladder NGAL was 18.6 ng/mg (range 1.4-1,650.8) and median renal pelvic NGAL was 26.2 ng/mg (range 1.2-18,034.5, p = 0.004). Median bladder NGAL was significantly higher than in controls (p = 0.004). The correlation of bladder and renal pelvic NGAL with differential renal function was r = −0.359 (p = 0.004) and r = −0.383 (p = 0.002), respectively. Conclusions: Bladder NGAL is increased in children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Renal pelvic and bladder normalized urinary NGAL levels correlate inversely with the relative function of the affected kidney in cases of unilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction. PMID:23791906

  10. eGFR is a reliable preoperative renal function parameter in patients with gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki; Kosuge; Tokihiko; Sawada; Yoshimi; Iwasaki; Junji; Kita; Mitsugi; Shimoda; Nobumi; Tagaya; Keiichi; Kubota

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the validity of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a preoperative renal function parameter in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 147 patients with gastric cancer. Preoperative creatinine clearance (Ccr), eGFR, and preand postoperative serum creatinine (sCr) data were examined. Preoperative Ccr and eGFR were then compared for their reliability in predicting postoperative renal dysfunction. RESULTS: Among 110 patients with normal preo...

  11. Impaired renal function in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymai infected with Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Weller

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired renal function was observed in sixteen Aotus nancymai 25 and 3 months following infection with the Uganda Palo Alto strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Decrease were noted in the clearance of endogenous creatinine, creatinine excretion, and urine volume while increases were observed in serum urea nitrogen, urine protein, urine potassium, fractional excretion of phosphorus and potassium, and activities of urinary enzymes. The results were suggestive of glomerulonephropathy and chronic renal disease.

  12. Hemodynamic and neurochemical determinates of renal function in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Cameron; Cherney, David Z I; Parker, Andrea B; Mak, Susanna; Floras, John S; Al-Hesayen, Abdul; Parker, John D

    2016-01-15

    Abnormal renal function is common in acute and chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) and is related to the severity of congestion. However, treatment of congestion often leads to worsening renal function. Our objective was to explore basal determinants of renal function and their response to hemodynamic interventions. Thirty-seven patients without CHF and 59 patients with chronic CHF (ejection fraction; 23 ± 8%) underwent right heart catheterization, measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR; inulin) and renal plasma flow (RPF; para-aminohippurate), and radiotracer estimates of renal sympathetic activity. A subset (26 without, 36 with CHF) underwent acute pharmacological intervention with dobutamine or nitroprusside. We explored the relationship between baseline and drug-induced hemodynamic changes and changes in renal function. In CHF, there was an inverse relationship among right atrial mean pressure (RAM) pressure, RPF, and GFR. By contrast, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index (CI), and measures of renal sympathetic activity were not significant predictors. In those with CHF there was also an inverse relationship among the drug-induced changes in RAM as well as pulmonary artery mean pressure and the change in GFR. Changes in MAP and CI did not predict the change in GFR in those with CHF. Baseline values and changes in RAM pressure did not correlate with GFR in those without CHF. In the CHF group there was a positive correlation between RAM pressure and renal sympathetic activity. There was also an inverse relationship among RAM pressure, GFR, and RPF in patients with chronic CHF. The observation that acute reductions in RAM pressure is associated with an increase in GFR in patients with CHF has important clinical implications.

  13. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on renal function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodosios; D; Filippatos; Moses; S; Elisaf

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1)receptor agonists result in greater improvements in glycemic control than placebo and promote weight loss with minimal hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.A number of case reports show an association of GLP-1receptor agonists,mainly exenatide,with the development of acute kidney injury.The present review aims to present the available data regarding the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on renal function,their use in subjects with chronic renal failure and their possible association with acute kidney injury.Based on the current evidence,exenatide is eliminated by renal mechanisms and should not be given in patients with severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease.Liraglutide is not eliminated by renal or hepatic mechanisms,but it should be used with caution since there are only limited data in patients with renal or hepatic impairment.There is evidence from animal studies that GLP-1 receptor agonists exert protective role in diabetic nephropathy with mechanisms that seem to be independent of their glucose-lowering effect.Additionally,there is evidence that GLP-1 receptor agonists influence water and electrolyte balance.These effects may represent new ways to improve or even prevent diabetic nephropathy.

  14. The Role of Vitamin D in Blood Pressure, Endothelial and Renal Function in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C. Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that plays an essential role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Aims: To review the extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D on blood pressure, endothelial and renal function with emphasis on recent findings in postmenopausal women. Methods: Included in this review was a PubMed database search for English language articles through March 2013. This review discussed the physiology and definition of vitamin D deficiency, the recent evidence for the role vitamin D in blood pressure, vascular and renal function. Results: Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that vitamin D plays an important role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Low vitamin D concentrations appear to significantly associate with hypertension, endothelial and renal dysfunction. However, the results of clinical trials have generally been mixed. Studies specifically conducted among postmenopausal women are limited and findings are still inconsistent. Conclusions: Definitive studies are warranted to elucidate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on vascular and renal function and a more detailed work is needed to outline the route, duration and optimal dose of supplementation. It is premature to recommend vitamin D as a therapeutic option in the improvement of vascular and renal function at the current stage.

  15. SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling preserves microvascular integrity and renal function in chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hao Chen

    Full Text Available The progressive decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by both disruption of the microvascular architecture and the accumulation of fibrotic matrix. One angiogenic pathway recently identified as playing an essential role in renal vascular development is the stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway. Because similar developmental processes may be recapitulated in the disease setting, we hypothesized that the SDF-1/CXCR4 system would regulate microvascular health in CKD. Expression of CXCR4 was observed to be increased in the kidneys of subtotally nephrectomized (SNx rats and in biopsies from patients with secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, a rodent model and human correlate both characterized by aberration of the renal microvessels. A reno-protective role for local SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling was indicated by i CXCR4-dependent glomerular eNOS activation following acute SDF-1 administration; and ii acceleration of renal function decline, capillary loss and fibrosis in SNx rats treated with chronic CXCR4 blockade. In contrast to the upregulation of CXCR4, SDF-1 transcript levels were decreased in SNx rat kidneys as well as in renal fibroblasts exposed to the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β, the latter effect being attenuated by histone deacetylase inhibition. Increased renal SDF-1 expression was, however, observed following the treatment of SNx rats with the ACE inhibitor, perindopril. Collectively, these observations indicate that local SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling functions to preserve microvascular integrity and prevent renal fibrosis. Augmentation of this pathway, either purposefully or serendipitously with either novel or existing therapies, may attenuate renal decline in CKD.

  16. Structural and functional MRI in children with renal disease. First experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This MRI study demonstrates our first clinical experiences with structural and functional evaluation in children with renal dysfunction, and communicates our experience with quantitative measurements of renal function compared to reference values found employing radionucleotides. We included renal impaired children who were recruited for clinical radioisotopic GFR measurements (n=8). MRI was performed 2 hours after Cr-EDTA measurements and was conducted using a protocol involving both anatomical/structural sequences and a dynamic contrast-enhanced sequence. Data obtained with the dynamic MRI sequence were processed using the graphical Patlak approach to obtain estimates of GFR. We were able to characterize the intrarenal configuration (cortex, medulla, pelvicalyceal arrangement) in all cases. Functional analyses of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealed an overall underestimation of GFR measured by MRI compared to Cr-EDTPA measures (range: -2% to -43%). We advocate the use of MRI as a single-modality approach in the structural and functional evaluation of impaired kidneys in children, and concurrently, we presented a clinically available strategy for estimations of renal cortical volume and single kidney function. However, the use of MRI contrast agents have recently become controversial in renal patients due to the risk of NSF. (orig.)

  17. Structural and functional MRI in children with renal disease. First experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Bettina; Froekiaer, Joergen [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Michael [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). MR Research Centre; Joergensen, Troels Munch [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Urology; Rittig, Soeren [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Paediatrics

    2010-07-01

    This MRI study demonstrates our first clinical experiences with structural and functional evaluation in children with renal dysfunction, and communicates our experience with quantitative measurements of renal function compared to reference values found employing radionucleotides. We included renal impaired children who were recruited for clinical radioisotopic GFR measurements (n=8). MRI was performed 2 hours after Cr-EDTA measurements and was conducted using a protocol involving both anatomical/structural sequences and a dynamic contrast-enhanced sequence. Data obtained with the dynamic MRI sequence were processed using the graphical Patlak approach to obtain estimates of GFR. We were able to characterize the intrarenal configuration (cortex, medulla, pelvicalyceal arrangement) in all cases. Functional analyses of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealed an overall underestimation of GFR measured by MRI compared to Cr-EDTPA measures (range: -2% to -43%). We advocate the use of MRI as a single-modality approach in the structural and functional evaluation of impaired kidneys in children, and concurrently, we presented a clinically available strategy for estimations of renal cortical volume and single kidney function. However, the use of MRI contrast agents have recently become controversial in renal patients due to the risk of NSF. (orig.)

  18. A Population- and Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study of Renal Function in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben M; Carlson, Nicholas; Mogensen, Ulla Brasch;

    2016-01-01

    similar basement membrane defects might occur in renal tissue. Our objective was to investigate a possible association between HS and renal dysfunction. We performed a hospital and population-based cross-sectional study using estimated Glomerular-Filtration-Rate (eGFR) to assess renal function. Thirty......-two hospital individuals with HS, 430 population individuals with HS, and 20, 780 population individuals without HS were identified. The age-sex-smoking-BMI-hypertension-diabetes adjusted analysis revealed a statistically significant higher eGFR for the hospital group with HS and a mean difference in eGFR of 6.......81 (1.27-12.35) ml/min/1.73 m between the hospital group with HS and the population group without HS. The observed higher eGFR in the hospital group with HS indicates a possible association of HS and renal dysfunction....

  19. Phenolsulfonphthalein test in healthy sheep and in sheep with reductions in functional renal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippich, L J; English, P B; Ainscow, J

    1985-03-01

    The phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) plasma clearance and urinary excretion tests were applied to sheep before and after 50% and 75% reductions in functional renal mass. The PSP determinants found most useful as indicators of renal mass reduction were the 15-minute urinary excretion percentage and the 60-minute (PSP60) plasma concentration. Although both of these determinants could be used to detect renal mass reduction, the 15-minute PSP excretion percentage was the more sensitive. The PSP60 value was influenced by factors other than reduced nephron numbers; the contraction of the PSP volume of distribution that occurred after renal mass reduction was one important influencing factor. Overall, the PSP tests more accurately reflected the volume of blood delivered to the kidney than the proximal tubular secretory capacity.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of the Long‐Acting Basal Insulin LY2605541 in Subjects With Varying Degrees of Renal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnebjerg, Helle; Choi, Siak Leng; Lam, Eric Chen Quin; Mace, Kenneth F.; Hodgson, Teri S.; Sinha, Vikram P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The pharmacokinetics of LY2605541 (basal insulin peglispro), a novel long‐acting basal insulin analogue, was evaluated in 5 groups of subjects with varying degrees of renal function based on creatinine clearance: normal renal function (>80 mL/min), mild renal impairment (51–80 mL/min), moderate renal impairment (30–50 mL/min), severe renal impairment (renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis. Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analyses were collected up to 12 days following a single 0.33 U/kg subcutaneous dose of LY2605541. The apparent clearance (CL/F) and half‐life across groups were not affected by renal function. Cmax values were lower in subjects with increasing severity of renal impairment; however, the small decrease in Cmax did not affect the overall exposure. Regression analysis showed that LY2605541 clearance is independent of renal function (slope = 0.000863; P = .885). The mean fraction of LY2605541 eliminated by a single hemodialysis session was 13% in subjects with ESRD. LY2605541 was generally well tolerated in healthy subjects and those with renal impairment following a single 0.33 U/kg subcutaneous dose. Given these data, no dose adjustment of LY2605541 based on pharmacokinetics is recommended in renal impairment or in patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:27163501

  1. Renal and cardiac function during alpha1-beta-blockade in congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, M; Davidsen, U; Stokholm, K H;

    2002-01-01

    The kidney and the neurohormonal systems are essential in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF) and the physiologic response. Routine treatment of moderate to severe CHF consists of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and beta-blockade. The need for control...... of renal function during initiation of ACE-inhibition in patients with CHF is well known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation by a combined alpha1-beta-blockade to diuretics and ACE-inhibition might improve cardiac function without reducing renal function....

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC prevented the progression of renovascular hypertension, improved renal function and architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B Oliveira-Sales

    Full Text Available Renovascular hypertension induced by 2 Kidney-1 Clip (2K-1C is a renin-angiotensin-system (RAS-dependent model, leading to renal vascular rarefaction and renal failure. RAS inhibitors are not able to reduce arterial pressure (AP and/or preserve the renal function, and thus, alternative therapies are needed. Three weeks after left renal artery occlusion, fluorescently tagged mesenchymal stem cells (MSC (2×10(5 cells/animal were injected weekly into the tail vein in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. Flow cytometry showed labeled MSC in the cortex and medulla of the clipped kidney. MSC prevented a further increase in the AP, significantly reduced proteinuria and decreased sympathetic hyperactivity in 2K-1C rats. Renal function parameters were unchanged, except for an increase in urinary volume observed in 2K-1C rats, which was not corrected by MSC. The treatment improved the morphology and decreased the fibrotic areas in the clipped kidney and also significantly reduced renal vascular rarefaction typical of 2K-1C model. Expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α angiotensinogen, ACE, and Ang II receptor AT1 were elevated, whereas AT2 levels were decreased in the medulla of the clipped kidney. MSC normalized these expression levels. In conclusion, MSC therapy in the 2K-1C model (i prevented the progressive increase of AP, (ii improved renal morphology and microvascular rarefaction, (iii reduced fibrosis, proteinuria and inflammatory cytokines, (iv suppressed the intrarenal RAS, iv decreased sympathetic hyperactivity in anesthetized animals and v MSC were detected at the CNS suggesting that the cells crossed the blood-brain barrier. This therapy may be a promising strategy to treat renovascular hypertension and its renal consequences in the near future.

  3. Early release of neonatal ureteral obstruction preserves renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Yimin; Pedersen, Michael; Li, Chunling;

    2004-01-01

    .05) after 24 wk. Similarly, glomerular filtration rate of the obstructed kidney was severely reduced at 24 wk: 172 ± 36 vs. 306 ± 42 μl·min−1·100 g body wt−1 (P reduction in total protein content...... downregulation of Na-K-ATPase to 62 ± 7%, aquaporin-1 to 53 ± 3%, and aquaporin-3 to 53 ± 7% of sham levels. Release after 1 wk completely prevented development of hydronephrosis, reduction in RBF and glomerular filtration rate, and downregulation of renal transport proteins, whereas release after 4 wk had...

  4. Body mass index and comorbidity are associated with postoperative renal function after nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lael Reinstatler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To explore the association of body mass index (BMI and comorbidity with renal function after nephrectomy.Materials and Methods:We retrospectively analyzed 263 patients submitted to partial or radical nephrectomy from 2000-2013. Variables assessed included BMI, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI, race, tobacco use, tumor histology, surgical approach, Fuhrman nuclear grade, and tumor (T classification. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was estimated using the Cockroft-Gault equation, adjusted for gender. Logistic regression was performed and included all interaction terms.Results:Median follow-up was 19.6 months (IQR 5.2, 53.7. Median preoperative GFR was 86.2mL/min/1.73m2 and median postoperative GFR was 68.4mL/min/1.73m2. BMI (OR 1.07, 95%CI 1.02-1.11, CCI (OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.04-1.37, and radical nephrectomy (OR 3.09, 95%CI 1.51-6.33 were significantly associated with a decline in renal function of ≥25%.Conclusion:BMI and CCI are associated with postoperative decline in renal function after nephrectomy. Additionally, radical nephrectomy is significantly associated with decreasing renal function compared to partial nephrectomy. These findings highlight the importance of assessing patient comorbidity in the decision making process for patients presenting with a renal mass.

  5. Body mass index and comorbidity are associated with postoperative renal function after nephrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstatler, Lael; Klaassen, Zachary; Barrett, Brittani; Terris, Martha K.; Moses, Kelvin A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore the association of body mass index (BMI) and comorbidity with renal function after nephrectomy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 263 patients submitted to partial or radical nephrectomy from 2000-2013. Variables assessed included BMI, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), race, tobacco use, tumor histology, surgical approach, Fuhrman nuclear grade, and tumor (T) classification. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the Cockroft-Gault equation, adjusted for gender. Logistic regression was performed and included all interaction terms. Results: Median follow-up was 19.6 months (IQR 5.2, 53.7). Median preoperative GFR was 86.2mL/min/1.73m2 and median postoperative GFR was 68.4mL/min/1.73m2. BMI (OR 1.07, 95%CI 1.02-1.11), CCI (OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.04-1.37), and radical nephrectomy (OR 3.09, 95%CI 1.51-6.33) were significantly associated with a decline in renal function of ≥25%. Conclusion: BMI and CCI are associated with postoperative decline in renal function after nephrectomy. Additionally, radical nephrectomy is significantly associated with decreasing renal function compared to partial nephrectomy. These findings highlight the importance of assessing patient comorbidity in the decision making process for patients presenting with a renal mass. PMID:26401862

  6. An Active Learning Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Nephron Function: Anatomy and Physiology of Renal Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.

    2016-01-01

    Renal transport is a central mechanism underlying electrolyte homeostasis, acid base balance and other essential functions of the kidneys in human physiology. Thus, knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the nephron is essential for the understanding of kidney function in health and disease. However, students find this content difficult to…

  7. Prenatal programming-effects on blood pressure and renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Eberhard; Amann, Kerstin; Koleganova, Nadezda; Benz, Kerstin

    2011-03-01

    Impaired intrauterine nephrogenesis-most clearly illustrated by low nephron number-is frequently associated with low birthweight and has been recognized as a powerful risk factor for renal disease; it increases the risks of low glomerular filtration rate, of more rapid progression of primary kidney disease, and of increased incidence of chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Another important consequence of impaired nephrogenesis is hypertension, which further amplifies the risk of onset and progression of kidney disease. Hypertension is associated with low nephron numbers in white individuals, but the association is not universal and is not seen in individuals of African origin. The derangement of intrauterine kidney development is an example of a more general principle that illustrates the paradigm of plasticity during development-that is, that transcription of the genetic code is modified by epigenetic factors (as has increasingly been documented). This Review outlines the concept of prenatal programming and, in particular, describes its role in kidney disease and hypertension. PMID:21283139

  8. Assessment of various parameters in the estimation of differential renal function using technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lythgoe, M.F.; Gordon, I.; Khader, Z.; Smith, T.; Anderson, P.J. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-02-01

    Differential renal function (DRF) is an important parameter that should be assessed from virtually every dynamic renogram. With the introduction of technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine ({sup 99m}Tc-MAG3), a tracer with a high renal extraction, the estimation of DRF might hopefully become accurate and reproducible both between observers in the same institution and also between institutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different parameters on the estimation of DRF. To this end we investigated two groups of children: group A, comprising 35 children with a single kidney (27 of whom had poor renal function), and group B, comprising 20 children with two kidneys and normal global function who also had an associated {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan ({sup 99m}Tc-DMSA). The variables assessed for their effect on the estimation of DRF were: different operators, the choice of renal regions of interest (ROIs), the applied background subtraction, and six different techniques for analysis of the renogram. The six techniques were based on: linear regression of the slopes in the Rutland-Patlak plot, matrix deconvolution, differential method, integral method, linear regression of the slope of the renograms, and the area under the curve of the renogram. The estimation of DRF was less dependent upon both observer and method in patients with two normally functioning kidneys than in patients with a single kidney. The inter-observer comparison among children in either group was not dependent on either ROI or background subtraction. However, in patients with poor renal function the method of choice for the estimation of DRF was dependent on background subtraction, though not ROI. In children with two kidneys and normal renal function, the estimation of DRF from the 24 techniques gave similar results. Methods that produced DRF values closest to expected results, from either group of children, were the Rutland-Patlak plot and matrix deconvolution methods

  9. Role of radiopharmaceutical renal function studies in the medical surveillance of patients with transplanted kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study group of 35 patients having received a total of 37 kidneys 204 renal function scintiscans were obtained following administration of 99mTc DTPA and analysed with regard to the question as to whether radiopharmaceutical investigations using a gamma camera are a useful auxiliary tool to detect and diagnose functional disorders in the transplant that occur soon after surgery. In all of 13 patients showing complications in the form of prolonged anuria or oliguria during a period of up to 14 days following surgical intervention, the renal function scintiscans either permitted as firm diagnosis to be established or revealed conclusive findings that pointed to the necessity of further specific tests. Long-term follow-up studies carried out in 33 individuals failed or were slow to reveal acute or chronic rejection processes in one quarter of the patients, whereas the renal function scintiscans gave the earliest warning of functional disorders, unfavourable developments and complications in another quarter of patients; in the remaining part, the test results were in keeping with the clinical findings. Renal function scintiscans were thus judged to be a valuable diagnostic tool to ascertain and identify disorders occurring soon after surgery as well as to detect the early signs of functional disorders in the transplant during long-term follow-up studies. In view of the fact, however, that the sensitivity of the method in this field of application only is of the order of 75%, further research work appears to be required here. (TRV)

  10. Aortic Blood Flow Reversal Determines Renal Function: Potential Explanation for Renal Dysfunction Caused by Aortic Stiffening in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Junichiro; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2015-07-01

    Aortic stiffness determines the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and predicts the progressive decline of the GFR. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains obscure. Recent evidence has shown a close link between aortic stiffness and the bidirectional (systolic forward and early diastolic reverse) flow characteristics. We hypothesized that the aortic stiffening-induced renal dysfunction is attributable to altered central flow dynamics. In 222 patients with hypertension, Doppler velocity waveforms were recorded at the proximal descending aorta to calculate the reverse/forward flow ratio. Tonometric waveforms were recorded to measure the carotid-femoral (aortic) and carotid-radial (peripheral) pulse wave velocities, to estimate the aortic pressure from the radial waveforms, and to compute the aortic characteristic impedance. In addition, renal hemodynamics was evaluated by duplex ultrasound. The estimated GFR was inversely correlated with the aortic pulse wave velocity, reverse/forward flow ratio, pulse pressure, and characteristic impedance, whereas it was not correlated with the peripheral pulse wave velocity or mean arterial pressure. The association between aortic pulse wave velocity and estimated GFR was independent of age, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and antihypertensive medication. However, further adjustment for the aortic reverse/forward flow ratio and pulse pressure substantially weakened this association, and instead, the reverse/forward flow ratio emerged as the strongest determinant of estimated GFR (P=0.001). A higher aortic reverse/forward flow ratio was also associated with lower intrarenal forward flow velocities. These results suggest that an increase in aortic flow reversal (ie, retrograde flow from the descending thoracic aorta toward the aortic arch), caused by aortic stiffening and impedance mismatch, reduces antegrade flow into the kidney and thereby deteriorates renal function.

  11. The Renal Effects of Vanadate Exposure: Potential Biomarkers and Oxidative Stress as a Mechanism of Functional Renal Disorders—Preliminary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ścibior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The alterations in the levels/activities of selected biomarkers for detecting kidney toxicity and in the levels of some oxidative stress (OS markers and elements were studied in male rats to evaluate biochemically the degree of kidney damage, investigate the role of OS in the mechanism of functional renal disorders, reveal potential biomarkers of renal function, and assess the renal mineral changes in the conditions of a 12-week sodium metavanadate (SMV, 0.125 mg V/mL exposure. The results showed that OS is involved in the mechanism underlying the development of SMV-induced functional renal disturbances. They also suggest that the urinary cystatin C (CysCu and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1u could be the most appropriate to evaluate renal function at the conditions of SMV intoxication when the fluid intake, excreted urinary volume (EUV, body weight (BW, and the urinary creatinine excretion (Creu decreased. The use of such tests as the urinary lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (LDHu, ALPu, GGTPu, and NAGu seems not to be valid given their reduced activities. The use of only traditional biomarkers of renal function in these conditions may, in turn, be insufficient because their alterations are greatly influenced by the changes in the fluid intake and/or BW.

  12. Estimation of the Functional Renal Condition by Glomerular Filtration Rate in the Pregnant with Preeclampsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana G. Cherniukh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Creatitine clearance (CC by Reberg-Tareyev test has been analyzed with an essential condition to take urine analysis during 24 hours from pregnant women with various degree of preeclampsia. To characterize the renal excretory function in the regulation of nitrogen balance the indices of proteinemia and proteinuria have been used. Probable changes of the renal functional condition depending on the volume of 24-hour diuresis have been found. The necessity to analyze the indices using the standards for the pregnant according to the trimester of pregnancy is indicated.

  13. Impact of intensive care on renal function before graft harvest: results of a monocentric study

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Valéry; Leone, Marc; Bouvenot, Julien; Geissler, Alain; Albanèse, Jacques; Martin, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of life-support measures in brain-dead donors is to preserve the functional value of their organs. In renal transplantation, serum creatinine level is one of the criteria for graft harvest. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of intensive care on donor renal function through two criteria: preharvesting serum creatinine level above 120 μmol/L and the elevation of serum creatinine level above 20% between intensive care unit (ICU) admission and graft harvest. Method...

  14. [Effects of repeated sevoflurane anesthesia on hepatic and renal function in a pediatric patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, M; Mitsuhata, H; Shimizu, R; Akazawa, S; Fukuda, H; Saitoh, K; Hirabayashi, Y; Togashi, H

    1994-10-01

    A 10-yr-old boy with an injured lower extremity received sevoflurane anesthesia 5 times within 40 days. Laboratory tests for hepatic and renal function i.e., serum transaminase (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), serum cholinesterase, plasma protein, serum cholinesterase, serum bilirubine, serum lactic dehydrogenase, serum prothrombin time, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-D-glucosamidase and 24 hr-creatinine clearance remained within normal ranges throughout his perioperative period. Repeated sevoflurane anesthesia did not exert any adverse effect on hepatic and renal function in this patient.

  15. Magnetisation transfer MR imaging of the kidney: evaluation at 3.0 T in association with renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Katsuyoshi [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Kurashiki Daiichi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Hayashida, Minoru; Izumitani, Shogo; Fujimine, Tomoko; Onishi, Takeo; Genba, Katsuhiro [Kurashiki Daiichi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of using magnetisation transfer (MT) MRI of the kidney at 3.0 T to assess renal function. Forty-four patients who underwent abdominal MRI on a 3.0-T system including gradient-echo (GRE) sequences with and without MT pulse were included. In each patient, MT ratio (MTR) of the renal cortex and medulla was measured by using regions of interest (ROIs) placed on the MTR map image. Regression analysis showed good correlation between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and MTR of the renal cortex (r = -0.645, P < 0.0001). Among 44 patients, 22 were categorised as the normal renal function group and 22 were classified as the decreased eGFR group. The mean MTR of the renal cortex in patients with decreased eGFR (mean MTR, 30.7 {+-} 3.2 %) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than that in patients with normal renal function (mean MTR, 25.3 {+-} 2.2 %), although the mean MTRs of the renal medulla in the two groups were not significantly different. There was good correlation between eGFR and MTR of the renal cortex derived from MT MRI at 3.0 T. This technique may have the potential to evaluate the degree of renal function non-invasively in patients with renal impairment. (orig.)

  16. Major influence of renal function on hyperlipidemia after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Ling; Kai Wang; Di Lu; Hai-Jun Guo; Wen-Shi Jiang; Xiang-Xiang He; Xiao Xu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the impact of renal and graft function on post-transplant hyperlipidemia (PTHL) in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).METHODS:A total of 115 adult patients undergoing LDLT from January 2007 to May 2009 at a single center were enrolled.Data were collected and analyzed by the China Liver Transplant Registry retrospectively.PTHL was defined as serum triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL or serum cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL or the need for pharmacologic treatment at the sixth month after LDLT.Early renal dysfunction (ERD) was defined as serum creatinine ≥ 2 mg/dL and/or the need for renal replacement therapy in the first post-transplant week.RESULTS:In 115 eligible patients,the incidence of PTHL was 24.3%.Recipients with PTHL showed a higher incidence of post-transplant cardiovascular events compared to those without PTHL (17.9% vs 4.6%,P=0.037).Serum creatinine showed significant positive correlations with total serum triglycerides,both at posttransplant month 1 and 3 (P < 0.01).Patients with ERD had much higher pre-transplant serum creatinine levels (P < 0.001) and longer duration of pre-transplant renal insufficiency (P < 0.001) than those without ERD.Pretransplant serum creatinine,graft-to-recipient weight ratio,graft volume/standard liver volume ratio,body mass index (BMI) and ERD were identified as risk factors for PTHL by univariate analysis.Furthermore,ERD [odds ratio (OR) =9.593,P < 0.001] and BMI (OR =6.358,P =0.002) were identified as independent risk factors for PTHL by multivariate analysis.CONCLUSION:Renal function is closely associated with the development of PTHL in LDLT.Post-transplant renal dysfunction,which mainly results from pre-transplant renal insufficiency,contributes to PTHL.

  17. Creatinine, arsenic metabolism, and renal function in an arsenic-exposed population in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandilyn A Peters

    Full Text Available Kidney disease is emerging as an arsenic (As-linked disease outcome, however further evidence of this association is warranted. Our first objective for this paper was to examine the potential renal toxicity of As exposure in Bangladesh. Our second objective relates to examining whether the previously reported positive association between urinary creatinine (uCrn and As methylation may be explained by renal function. We had hypothesized that these associations relate to supply and demand for s-adenosylmethionine, the methyl donor for both creatine synthesis and As methylation. Alternatively, renal function could influence both As and creatinine excretion, or the As metabolites may influence renal function, which in turn influences uCrn. We conducted a cross-sectional study (N = 478 of adults, composed of a sample recruited in 2001 and a sample recruited in 2003. We assessed renal function using plasma cystatin C, and calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. Consistent with renal toxicity of As, log-uAs had a marginal inverse association with eGFR in the 2003 sample (b = -5.6, p = 0.07, however this association was not significant in the 2001 sample (b = -1.9, p = 0.24. Adjustment for eGFR did not alter the associations between uCrn and the %uAs metabolites, indicating that GFR does not explain these associations. Increased eGFR was associated with increased odds of having %uInAs >12.2% (2001: OR = 1.01, 95%CI (1.00,1.03; 2003: OR = 1.04, 95%CI (1.01,1.07. In the 2003 sample only, there was a negative association between eGFR and %uDMA (b = -0.08, p = 0.02. These results may indicate differential effects of renal function on excretion of InAs and DMA. Alternatively, a certain methylation pattern, involving decreased %InAs and increased %DMA, may reduce renal function. Given that these studies were cross-sectional, we cannot distinguish between these two possibilities. Discrepancies between the

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Renal Function After Adult Cardiac Surgery With Pulsatile Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myung Ji; Lim, Choon Hak; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Yong Hwi; Choi, Hyuk; Son, Ho Sung; Lim, Hae Ja; Sun, Kyung

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether pulsatile perfusion during cardiac surgery has a lesser effect on renal dysfunction than nonpulsatile perfusion after cardiac surgery in randomized controlled trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were used to identify available articles published before April 25, 2014. Meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effects of pulsatile perfusion on postoperative renal functions, as determined by creatinine clearance (CrCl), serum creatinine (Cr), urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and the incidences of acute renal insufficiency (ARI) and acute renal failure (ARF). Nine studies involving 674 patients that received pulsatile perfusion and 698 patients that received nonpulsatile perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were considered in the meta-analysis. Stratified analysis was performed according to effective pulsatility or unclear pulsatility of the pulsatile perfusion method in the presence of heterogeneity. NGAL levels were not significantly different between the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups. However, patients in the pulsatile group had a significantly higher CrCl and lower Cr levels when the analysis was restricted to studies on effective pulsatile flow (P < 0.00001, respectively). The incidence of ARI was significantly lower in the pulsatile group (P < 0.00001), but incidences of ARF were similar. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that the use of pulsatile flow during CPB results in better postoperative renal function.

  19. Determination of Lead in Human Calculi and Its Effects on Renal Function of Lead Occupational Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Memon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five samples of renal and eighteen samples of supra gingival calculi of lead recycling workers were collected over the period of seven years (2008-2014 and studied for the accumulation of lead. The results were compared with those of non exposed subjects. The lead content of calculi was investigated for its dependence on type and composition of calculi, blood lead, job status and duration of exposure. The effect of blood lead and renal calculi was also investigated in relation to kidney function of respective subjects. The mean lead levels of various types of calculi were found to follow the order as phosphate > oxalate > urate .> cystine while single principal group of supra gingival calculi resulted in lower levels of metal. The lead content of calculi positively correlated with phosphate content of both of the renal (r = 0.655 and supra gingival calculi (r= 0.866, Impaired renal function was more pronounced in active workers and depended on blood lead levels in addition to presence of metal in renal calculi

  20. Impaired insulin signaling affects renal organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3 function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusorn Lungkaphin

    Full Text Available Organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3 is a major renal Oats expressed in the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubule cells. We have recently reported decreases in renal Oat3 function and expression in diabetic rats and these changes were recovered after insulin treatment for four weeks. However, the mechanisms by which insulin restored these changes have not been elucidated. In this study, we hypothesized that insulin signaling mediators might play a crucial role in the regulation of renal Oat3 function. Experimental diabetic rats were induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg. One week after injection, animals showing blood glucose above 250 mg/dL were considered to be diabetic and used for the experiment in which insulin-treated diabetic rats were subcutaneously injected daily with insulin for four weeks. Estrone sulfate (ES uptake into renal cortical slices was examined to reflect the renal Oat3 function. The results showed that pre-incubation with insulin for 30 min (short term stimulated [3H]ES uptake into the renal cortical slices of normal control rats. In the untreated diabetic rats, pre-incubation with insulin for 30 min failed to stimulate renal Oat3 activity. The unresponsiveness of renal Oat3 activity to insulin in the untreated diabetic rats suggests the impairment of insulin signaling. Indeed, pre-incubation with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ inhibitors inhibited insulin-stimulated renal Oat3 activity. In addition, the expressions of PI3K, Akt and PKCζ in the renal cortex of diabetic rats were markedly decreased. Prolonged insulin treatment in diabetic rats restored these alterations toward normal levels. Our data suggest that the decreases in both function and expression of renal Oat3 in diabetes are associated with an impairment of renal insulin-induced Akt/PKB activation through PI3K/PKCζ/Akt/PKB signaling pathway.

  1. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rinder, Christiane; Beige, Joachim;

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure.......Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure....

  2. Creatinine-based estimation of rate of long term renal function loss in lung transplant recipients. Which method is preferable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekroelofs, J; Stegeman, CA; Navis, GJ; de Haan, J; van der Bij, W; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, PE

    2000-01-01

    Background: Progressive renal function loss during long-term follow up is common after lung transplantation and close monitoring is warranted, Since changes in creatinine generation and excretion may occur after lung transplantation, the reliability of creatinine-based methods of renal function asse

  3. Renal function at the time of a myocardial infarction maintains prognostic value for more than 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Thomas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Kober, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    Renal function is an important predictor of mortality in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), but changes in the impact over time have not been well described.We examined the importance of renal function by estimated GFR (eGFR) and se-creatinine as an independent long-term prognostic factor....

  4. One-year follow-up of renal function in endemic nephropathy families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenović Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endemic nephropathy is familial, chronic tubulointerstitial disease with an insidious onset and asymptomatic, slow progressive course. Objective. The present study was undertaken with the aim to find out whether new persons with renal disorders can be detected among members of endemic families in the village of Šopić (Kolubara River region, Serbia. Methods. The study involved 44 members of five endemic families without history of renal disorders. Objective survey and laboratory analyzes that enabled determination of kidney functions (creatinine clearance, proteinuria, urine specific gravity and osmolality, fractional sodium excretion (FENa, the rate of tubular phosphate reabsorption (TRP, urine N-acetil-D-glycosaminidase and intestinal alkaline phosphatase were done in all examined persons three times during the 6-month intervals. Results. At the first examination, hypertension was detected in 23 (52% person, decreased creatinine clearance in two and proteinuria in 10 persons included in the study. In addition, proteinuria and tubular disorders were detected in 6, hypertension, proteinuria and/or tubular disorders in 9 persons. The analysis of the results obtained by three check-ups undertaken during one year showed that proteinuria and tubular disorders appeared intermittently in half of the examined endemic family members. All persons with detected renal disorders required further examination in order to establish accurate diagnosis of renal disease. Conclusion. Three check-ups performed at six-month intervals in the members of five endemic families detected various renal disorders including renal hypofunction. Regular systematic check-ups of endemic families could enable early detection of the disease and early initiation of measures for slowing down chronic renal disease progression.

  5. Assessment of Differential Renal Function in Children with Hydronephrosis: Comparison of DMSA and MAG-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Akbal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Nuclear imaging techniques such as 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA and 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG-3 are widely used for the diagnosis and follow-up of urinary tract obstructions. Both imaging techniques provide the differential renal function (DRF in slightly different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the MAG-3 scan as an adjunct or alternative to DMSA for evaluating DRF in children with hydronephrosis. Materials and Methods Eighty-one patients with hydronephrosis were enrolled in this study. Patient age, sex, anteroposterior renal pelvis diameter (RPD at the time of diagnosis, parenchymal thickness and the DRF percentage found by both DMSA and MAG-3 were recorded. DMSA scintigraphy was used for detecting renal scars and estimating DRF. MAG-3 scintigraphy was used for evaluation of renal clearance, the collecting system’s outflow pattern and estimating DRF. Results A total of 102 renal units (38 left, 22 right and 21 bilateral were evaluated. High correlation rates were found when we compared both tests’ DRF values according to antero-posterior renal pelvic diameter and patient age (p>0.05. In all groups compared in the present study, both tests demonstrated very similar results and DRF values. Statistical analysis of cut-offs (45%, 40%, 10% were also similar in both methods (p>0.05, kappa >0.7, r=0.926 Pearson. Conclusion DMSA and MAG-3 are tests that are of assistance in the evaluation of hydronephrosis. Compared to DMSA, MAG-3 also provides valuable information to evaluate DRF values in hydronephrotic renal unit (RU. Avoiding unnecessary DMSA imaging will save time and cost and prevent over-radiation of the pediatric population.

  6. Radiopharmaceuticals for renal function imaging; Radiopharmaka fuer die Nierenfunktionsdiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandau, W. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Arbeitsgruppe Nuklearchemie und Radiopharmazie, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    Due to its favourable physical properties, [{sup 99m}Tc]Technetium is the mostly used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. It can only be used as metal complexes, whose pharmacokinetics cannot be predicted easily. By systematic variations of a known compound, Tc-complexes could be synthesized which are actively excreted by the kidneys. Thus, on the one hand, the tubular extraction rate can now be quantified in addition to the glomerular filtration rate and on the other hand, scintigraphic imaging is possible by the use of Tc-pharmaceuticals, which are eliminated by active tubular transport. (orig.) [German] [{sup 99m}Tc]Technetium ist aufgrund seiner optimalen physikalischen Eigenschaften fuer die Bildgebung das meistverwendete Radionuklid in der Nuklearmedizin. Es kann aber nur in Form von Metallkomplexen eingesetzt werden, deren in vivo Verhalten schwer vorhersagbar ist. In den letzten Jahren ist es jedoch durch systematische Variation einer Leitstruktur gelungen, Technetium-Radiopharmaka zu entwickeln, die renal aktiv transportiert werden. Dadurch kann einerseits neben der Glomerulaeren Filtrationsrate nun auch die Tubulaere Extraktionsrate quantifiziert werden, andererseits ist erstmals die Szintigraphie mit Technetiummarkierten Substanzen moeglich, die tubulaer sezerniert werden. (orig.)

  7. Influence of renal function on the elimination of morphine and morphine glucuronides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Jesper; Bigler, Dennis Richard; Christensen, C B;

    1988-01-01

    The influence of renal function, measured by 51Cr-EDTA clearance, on morphine and morphine glucuronide kinetics has been studied in 13 patients after a single i.v. injection of morphine. Unconjugated morphine and morphine glucuronides were measured by a sensitive, specific RIA after extraction fr...

  8. Relationship between blood pressure variability and different renal function impairment stages in elderly hypertension patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the change of blood pressure variability(BPV)in elderly hypertension patients,and to analyze the correlation between BPV and stages of renal function damage.Methods 127 elderly primary hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD)were divided into three groups:stage 2 CKD group(aged 60-

  9. Renal function and incidence of chronic kidney disease in HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Magnus G; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Impaired renal function is of major concern in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Methods: We used a mixed effects linear regression model to determine estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) in a population-based cohort of incident Danish HIV patient...

  10. Effect of donor GFR on early renal function of recipients with living donor transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯敬财

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of donor GFR on the early renal function in recipients undergoing living donor transplantation. Methods A total of 172 living donor transplant recipients in our kidney transplantation center from 2006 to 2011 were enrolled into this study. Among them,166 were genetically related

  11. Renal Function Is Related to Severity of Coronary Artery Calcification in Elderly Persons : The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Barzouhi, Abdelilah; Elias-Smale, Suzette; Dehghan, Abbas; Vliegenthart-Proenca, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been proposed to be the underlying mechanism of the increased risk of coronary heart disease with reductions in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Since renal function diminishes with aging we examined the association between GFR and CAC in the Rott

  12. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamara, David A; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Ross, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90ml/min/1.73m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data...

  13. Analysis of nonstationarity in renal autoregulation mechanisms using time-varying transfer and coherence functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chon, Ki H; Zhong, Yuru; Moore, Leon C;

    2008-01-01

    The extent to which renal blood flow dynamics vary in time and whether such variation contributes substantively to dynamic complexity have emerged as important questions. Data from Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were analyzed by time-varying transfer functions...

  14. Vascular endothelial cell function and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, A B; Eidemak, I; Jensen, T;

    1995-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors and markers of endothelial cell function were studied in nondiabetic patients with mild to moderate chronic renal failure. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin and the plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, and plasma lipids were measured in 29...

  15. The triad of renal function, erythropoietin and haemoglobin in old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Jorien M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of physiological changes in renal function, EPO and haemoglobin level and their impact at old age are essential for clinicians especially those working with older patients. The results of the studies presented in this thesis provide more insight in the physiological aspects of age related

  16. Deteriorating renal function and clinical outcomes in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocroft, A.; Ryom, L.; Begovac, J.; Monforte, A.D.; Vassilenko, A.; Gatell, J.; Florence, E.; Ormaasen, V.; Kirk, O.; Lundgren, J.D.; Burger, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between measures of renal function [current estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proportion of follow-up with a low eGFR (%FU

  17. Bowel preparation in CT colonography: electrolyte and renal function disturbances in the frail and elderly patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick

    2010-03-01

    Elderly patients are at increased risk of biochemical disturbances secondary to cathartic medications. This study investigates the renal function, electrolyte and clinical disturbances associated with CT colonography (CTC) with sodium picosulphate-magnesium citrate (SPS-MC) in a subgroup of frail, elderly patients.

  18. Arterial stiffness, renal function and renal blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasilievna Oskola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AimTo investigate the relationship between changes in indicators of arterial stiffness of various types of vessels, hemodynamic pulsatility, renal function and renal blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and arterial hypertension in the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Materials and MethodsThe study included 96 patients with CAD and arterial hypertension; among them, 54 subjects had T2DM and 42 did not. Сarbohydrate and lipid metabolism, renal function, stiffness of various types of arteries, parameters of hemodynamic pulsatility and renal blood flow were investigated.ResultsArterial stiffness of various types of vessels was increased in the T2DM group: carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity as a marker of aortic stiffness (a vessel of the elastic type was increased by 16% (p <0.001, index β of the common carotid artery (a vessel of the muscular elastic type was increased by 7.6% (p <0.05 and index β of the brachial artery (a vessel of the muscular type was increased by 22% (p <0.05. The level of microalbuminuria was 5-fold higher (p <0.05 and the renal resistive index was 12.5% higher (p <0.05 in the diabetics group. Significant correlations were found between aortic stiffness, parameters of hemodynamic pulsatility (pulse pressure, measured at the brachial artery, the central pulse pressure, augmentation index and renal function and renal blood flow in patients in both groups.ConclusionThe results may indicate the general pathogenetic mechanisms and the relationship between the development of increased aortic stiffness and renal dysfunction in patients with CAD, arterial hypertension and T2DM.

  19. Induction of renal senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) expression by testosterone and its contribution to urinary calcium absorption in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Han; Jian, Cai-Yun; Chou, Jou-Chun; Chen, Chien-Wei; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Soong, Christina; Hu, Sindy; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Wang, Paulus S.; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of androgen, mainly testosterone, in the expression of renal senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) in male rats. We found that the renal SMP30 expression was up-regulated by endogenous testosterone stimulation during puberty. Interestingly, androgen-deficient orchidectomized (ORX) rats exhibited lower SMP30 mRNA and protein expression in the kidney, and that was restored by testosterone propionate (TP) replacement. Abrogation of androgen receptor (AR) activity by co-treatment with flutamide abolished testosterone-induced SMP30 expression in the kidney as well as in the NRK52E cells. However, SMP30 expression was unaltered in the liver of ORX rats. We also showed a positive correlation between renal SMP30 expression and plasma testosterone level during the aging process. TP-induced SMP30 expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was observed and was an evidence to explain the gender difference of SMP30 levels. Immunofluorescence assay showed that renal SMP30 was specifically expressed in the proximal tubular segments of the kidney. The urinary Ca2+ level was increased in both ORX and male aging rats. Taken together, our results indicate a novel role of testosterone in regulating SMP30 expression specifically in the kidney to contribute to urinary calcium absorption. PMID:27553527

  20. Study of the renal function in diabetic patients by 99sup(m)Tc-DTPA and 131I-Hippuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-six patients with diabetes in different stages were studied by radioisotopic techniques in an attempt to detect early alterations of renal function. Renal scintillography, 99sup(m)Tc-DTPA glomerular filtration rate, renogram and 131I-Hippuran effective renal plasma flow were the techniques employed. Renal evaluation was filled out by biochemical analysis of plasmatic urea and creatinine, 24 h-proteinuria and funduscopy of patients. The renal disease of diabetic patient is a result of the sum of many factors and subclinical functional alterations that appear can be ascribed to reversible hemodynamic alterations, such as decrease of plasma flow with increase of ultrafiltrated plasma fraction and of glomerular filtration. Mechanisms that lead to these alterations are not yet stablished. This work suggests that the diabetic patients well metabolic compensated present less incidence of degenerative complications, among them renal lesions. (Author)

  1. Pharmacokinetic disposition of 14C-glyburide in patients with varying renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pharmacokinetics of 14C-labeled glyburide were studied in 13 men with varying degrees of renal impairment. Patients received a single, 5 mg oral dose of glyburide as a solution (10 microCi/ml/mg) after a high-carbohydrate breakfast. Serial plasma and breath samples were collected for 48 hours and urine and feces were collected for 5 to 7 days. Patients with normal to moderately impaired renal function (creatinine clearance [CLCR] of 29 to 131 ml/min/1.7 m2) had glyburide plasma t1/2 values of 2.0 to 5.0 hours, with no relationship between CLCR and glyburide clearance. One subject with severe renal impairment (CLCR = 5 ml/min/1.7 m2) had decreased glyburide clearance that resulted in a t1/2 of 11 hours. The elimination of metabolites was more dependent on renal status but was only significantly affected in the patient with severe renal impairment

  2. Effects of iodinated contrast media on renal function in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case histories of 89 patients with definite myoloma of the years 1959 to 1974 were investigated in a retrospective study. 41 intravenous urographies were carried out in 31 of these patients. There was no correlation between deterioration of the renal function and contrast medium application. Relevant literature on the subject has been compiled. By 1979, 19 case studies and 5 general studies had been published which have been summarized in tables in the present study. Analyses of these case histories have shown that acute renal failure was often due to other causes and not to contrast medium application. If these cases are left out of account 8 cases remain in which lethal renal failure occurred after intravenous urography of myeloma patients. The diiodinated contrast media formerly used was less well tolerated than the present triiodinated contrast media. Further risk factors were dehydratation and/or abdominal compression. Both measures are no longer employed in intravenous urography. (orig./MG)

  3. Effect of hypoxaemia on water and sodium homeostatic hormones and renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1995-01-01

    the advantage of opposing excessive sodium and water retention, which characterizes acute mountain sickness. Short-term isocapnic or hypocapnic hypoxaemia in spontaneously breathing humans causes moderate if any increases in renal blood flow and only minor changes in GFR. In contrast, renal blood flow and GFR......Changes in body fluid homeostasis during acute hypoxaemia suggest a crucial role of renal function in acclimatization processes. Hypoxaemia stimulates sympathetic nervous activity, and also the cardiovascular system is affected with increases in heart rate and cardiac output. In most subjects......, a hypoxic ventilatory response produces hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis. Acute hypoxaemia depresses aldosterone secretion secondary to a direct effect on adrenal cells. Also plasma renin is decreased in resting hypoxaemic conditions, but the mechanism remains unknown. These hormonal changes may have...

  4. Does renal function influence the prognostic impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Russo

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: In patients with CHF and reduced LVEF the prognostic impact of T2DM depends on the degree of renal dysfunction. Its contribution in all-cause mortality risk prediction is limited to mild–moderate renal dysfunction subgroup, while prognostic power is lost in normal renal function and in severe renal dysfunction patients.

  5. Evaluation of renal function by dynamic MR imaging. Effect of water load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the evaluation of renal function, with particular attention to the effects of water load. Ten healthy volunteers underwent dynamic MR imaging after an injection of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) as a contrast agent to evaluate renal function by the following four methods: the positive method [longitudinal relaxation time (T1) shortening is the dominant effect], the negative method [transverse relaxation time (T2) shortening is the dominant effect] and two intermediate methods by switching the Gd-DTPA concentrations used in the positive and negative methods. A prolonged cortical peak time and a reduced medullary peak level were observed by the positive method under a dehydrated condition, suggesting that these variables were slightly influenced by Gd-DTPA concentrated in the medulla. By the negative method, low signals due to T2* (T2* is the effective transverse relaxation time, typically shorter than T2) shortening appeared in the medulla under normal conditions, but these signals were unclear when the subject was under an overhydrated condition. These results indicate that water metabolism, in addition to imaging parameters and Gd-DTPA dose levels, should be considered when renal function is evaluated by dynamic MR imaging. Analysis of both the pattern of MR images and the time-signal intensity curves may be useful in the evaluation of renal function. The results also indicate that the positive method is perferred when the patient is overhydrated as it allows the evaluation of the local renal kinetic function by recording changes in the regional contract agent levels. (author)

  6. Sexual hormones modulate compensatory renal growth and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. Azurmendi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The role played by sexual hormones and vasoactive substances in the compensatory renal growth (CRG that follows uninephrectomy (uNx is still controversial. Intact and gonadectomized adult Wistar rats of both sexes, with and without uNx, performed at 90 days age, were studied at age 150 days. Daily urine volume, electrolyte excretion and kallikrein activity (UKa were determined. Afterwards, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure were measured, the kidneys weighed and DNA, protein and RNA studied to determine nuclei content and cell size. When the remnant kidney weight at age 150 days was compared with the weight of the kidney removed at the time of uNx, male uNx rats showed the greatest CRG (50% while growth in the other uNx groups was 25%, 15% and 19% in orchidectomized, female and ovariectomized rats, respectively. The small CRG observed in the uNx female rats was accompanied by the lowest glomerular filtration value, 0.56 ± 0.02 ml/min/g kwt compared, with the other uNx groups, p < 0.05. Cell size (protein or RNA/DNA was similar for all the groups except for uNx orchidectomized rats. In this group the cytoplasmatic protein or RNA content was lower than in the other groups while DNA (nuclei content was similar. Some degree of hyperplasia was determined by DNA content in the uNx groups. Male sexual hormones positively influenced CRG and its absence modulated cell size. Female sexual hormones, instead, did not appear to stimulate CRG. The kallikrein kinin system may not be involved in CRG.

  7. Association of ABCB1 genetic variants with renal function in Africans and in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston Robert C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, is expressed in human endothelial and mesangial cells, which contribute to control renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate. We investigated the association of ABCB1 variants with renal function in African and Caucasian subjects. Methods In Africans (290 subjects from 62 pedigrees, we genotyped the 2677G>T and 3435 C>T ABCB1 polymorphisms. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was measured using inulin clearance and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF using para-aminohippurate clearance. In Caucasians (5382 unrelated subjects, we analyzed 30 SNPs located within and around ABCB1, using data from the Affymetrix 500 K chip. GFR was estimated using the simplified Modification of the Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD and Cockcroft-Gault equations. Results In Africans, compared to the reference genotype (GG or CC, each copy of the 2677T and 3435T allele was associated, respectively, with: GFR higher by 10.6 ± 2.9 (P P = 0.06 mL/min; ERPF higher by 47.5 ± 11.6 (P P = 0.007 mL/min; and renal resistances lower by 0.016 ± 0.004 (P P = 0.004 mm Hg/mL/min. In Caucasians, we identified 3 polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene that were strongly associated with all estimates of GFR (smallest P value = 0.0006, overall P = 0.014 after multiple testing correction. Conclusion Variants of the ABCB1 gene were associated with renal function in both Africans and Caucasians and may therefore confer susceptibility to nephropathy in humans. If confirmed in other studies, these results point toward a new candidate gene for nephropathy in humans.

  8. Renal function markers and thyroid hormone status in undialyzed chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Rajagopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to quantify thyroid hormones in undialyzed chronic kidney disease patients’ verses controls and to study the correlation between renal function markers and thyroid hormones. Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with a higher prevalence of primary hypothyroidism (HT, but at the same studies on thyroid hormone status in uremic patients has reported conflicting results. Methods: Thyroid hormones and renal function parameters like serum urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, total protein and albumin were estimated and correlations between thyroid hormones and renal function parameters were studied in 60 undialyzed chronic kidney disease patients’ verses 100 healthy controls. Results: We found both T3 and T4 were significantly reduced (p<0.0001 for T3 and 0.007 for T4 whereas TSH remains to be unchanged in patient group compared to controls. We also observed that urea and creatinine were negatively correlated whereas creatinine clearance was positively correlated with both T3 and T4 that has high statistical (two-tailed significance at 0.01 level. But urea alone is negatively correlated with TSH that has statistical (two-tailed significance at 0.05 level. Conclusion: From our data, we speculate that renal insufficiency may lead to thyroid hormone disturbances.

  9. Heritability of Renal Function and Inflammatory Markers in Adult Male Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Paolo; Su, Shaoyong; Karohl, Cristina; Veledar, Emir; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Vaccarino, Viola

    2010-01-01

    Background Loss of renal function is accompanied by a progressive increase in markers of inflammation; it is unknown whether they share common genetic pathways. Study Design We evaluated the shared heritability of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in 524 twin males from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry; 9 twins were excluded due to incomplete or incorrect data. Models were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, prior coronary artery disease and intercurrent medications. Results The mean eGFR was 89 ± 13 ml/min/1.73 m2 (range 35–146); eGFR, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) and TNF-α receptor (TNF-αR) were moderately heritable (all ∼50%), while IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and P-selectin were highly heritable (68 and 76%, respectively). IL-6R and TNF-αR showed a significant inverse association with eGFR (p = 0.04 and p renal function and inflammation. Thus, increased inflammation represents a response to declining renal function rather than being a mechanism contributing to renal deterioration. PMID:20720405

  10. Acute Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Coadministration of Levofloxacin and Simvastatin in a Patient with Normal Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paparoupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of severe acute rhabdomyolysis in association with coadministration of levofloxacin and simvastatin in a patient with normal renal function. A 70-year-old Caucasian male was treated due to community acquired pneumonia with levofloxacin in a dosage of 500 mg once and then twice a day. On the 8th day of hospitalization the patient presented with acute severe rhabdomyolysis requiring an intensive care support. After discontinuation of levofloxacin and concomitant medication with simvastatin 80 mg/day, clinical and laboratory effects were totally reversible. Up to now, levofloxacin has been reported to induce rhabdomyolysis mainly in patients with impaired renal function, as the medication has a predominant renal elimination. In our case renal function remained normal during the severe clinical course. According to a recent case report rhabdomyolysis was observed due to interaction of simvastatin and ciprofloxacin. To our best knowledge this is the first case of interaction between simvastatin and levofloxacin to be reported. This case emphasizes the need of close monitoring of creatine kinase in patients under more than one potentially myotoxic medication especially when patients develop muscle weakness.

  11. Elevated urine heparanase levels are associated with proteinuria and decreased renal allograft function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Shafat

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains, leading to structural modifications that loosen the extracellular matrix barrier and associated with tumor metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In addition, the highly sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important constituents of the glomerular basement membrane and its permselective properties. Recent studies suggest a role for heparanase in several experimental and human glomerular diseases associated with proteinuria such as diabetes, minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Here, we quantified blood and urine heparanase levels in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and assessed whether alterations in heparanase levels correlate with proteinuria and renal function. We report that in transplanted patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated, inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, suggesting a relationship between heparanase and graft function. In CKD patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated and associated with proteinuria, but not with eGFR. In addition, urinary heparanase correlated significantly with plasma heparanase in transplanted patients. Such a systemic spread of heparanase may lead to damage of cells and tissues alongside the kidney.The newly described association between heparanase, proteinuria and decreased renal function is expected to pave the way for new therapeutic options aimed at attenuating chronic renal allograft nephropathy, leading to improved graft survival and patient outcome.

  12. Hemodynamic evaluation of uterine artery and renal artery in preeclampsia patients and its relationship with endothelial function and invasive function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Feng Shu; Peng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the hemodynamic condition of uterine artery and renal artery in preeclampsia patients and its relationship with endothelial function and invasive function. Methods:Preeclampsia puerperas were enrolled in observation group of the research, including 20 cases each with mild preeclampsia, moderate preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia; healthy puerperas were enrolled in control group. Then color Doppler ultrasound was used to detect hemodynamic parameters of uterine spiral artery and bilateral renal interlobar artery, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect endothelial function indexes in serum, and PCR was used to detect invasive function parameters in placenta.Results: S/D, PI and RI of uterine spiral artery and bilateral renal interlobar artery in mild, moderate and severe preeclampsia patients were all higher than those of control group; the more severe the preeclampsia condition was, the higher the S/D, PI and RI of uterine spiral artery and bilateral renal interlobar artery were; mRNA contents of Cst L, Cst D and MMP-9 in placenta of mild, moderate and severe preeclampsia patients were lower than those of control group, and mRNA contents of RECK as well as serum sFlt-1, sEng, AT1-AA and AngII contents were higher than those of control group; the more severe the disease degree was, the lower the mRNA contents of Cst L, Cst D, and MMP-9 were, the higher the mRNA contents of RECK as well as serum sFlt-1, sEng, AT1-AA and AngII contents were.Conclusion:Resistance of uterine artery and renal artery in preeclampsia patients increases, and it is closely related to endothelial dysfunction and invasive function loss.

  13. Renal function in high dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell support treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, A; Shpall, E J; Jones, R B; Archer, P G; Schrier, R W

    1996-09-01

    Autologous and allogeneic bone marrow grafting both require cytoreductive therapy but only the allogeneic procedure requires immunosuppressive agents. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has been reported to be associated with a high incidence of both renal failure and veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver, the combination of which is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. There is less known about the frequency and severity of these complications in patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation. In the present study renal, hepatic and other complications were examined in 232 patients with Stages II/III and IV breast cancer who were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell support with either marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cells. The post-treatment severity of the renal dysfunction was classified as follows: Grade 0, normal renal function [ 25% decrement in GFR but twofold rise in serum creatinine but no need for dialysis; Grade 3 > than twofold rise in serum creatinine and need for dialysis. There were 102 patients (44%) who were classified as Grade 0 and 81 patients (35%) who were classified as Grade 1 renal dysfunction. Severe renal dysfunction (Grades 2 and 3) was observed in 49 of the 232 patients (21%). This severe renal dysfunction of 21% compares with a previously reported 53% incidence of severe renal dysfunction for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Similarly, the frequency of hepatic VOD was less (4.7% or 11 of 232 patients) in this autologous bone marrow transplant study as compared to a reported incidence of hepatic VOD ranging from 22 to 53% in large series of allogeneic bone marrow transplant patients. The severe renal dysfunction (Grades 2 and 3) in the present autologous hematopoietic cell support study correlated most significantly with sepsis, liver and pulmonary dysfunction. The major fall in GFR occurred during chemotherapy but before hematopoietic cell support, thus

  14. Recovery of Native Renal Function in Patients with Hepatorenal Syndrome Following Combined Liver and Kidney Transplant with Mercaptoacetyltriglycine-3 Renogram: Developing a Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Bains, Sukhkarn N.; Carlson, David; Qian, Jesse; Liou, Douglas; Wojciechowski, David; Werner, Jacob; Khan, Sana; Kroll, Cameron; Sandhu, Manreet; Nguyen, Nhan; Hawkins, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) end up receiving a combined liver and kidney transplant (CKLT) with preservation of native kidneys, specially type 1 HRS since is characterizes by a very rapid deterioration of renal function. Eventually, most of the patients regain renal function, but it is unknown if this is due to the transplanted kidney, the recovery of native renal function, or both. The aim of this study is to evaluate if there is recovery of native renal function in patient...

  15. Smoking and renal function in people living with human immunodeficiency virus: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlström MG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnus Glindvad Ahlström,1 Bo Feldt-Rasmussen,2 Rebecca Legarth,1 Gitte Kronborg,3 Court Pedersen,4 Carsten Schade Larsen,5 Jan Gerstoft,1 Niels Obel1 1Department of Infectious Diseases, 2Department of Nephrology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 3Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, 4Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark Introduction: Smoking is a main risk factor for morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV, but its potential association with renal impairment remains to be established. Methods: We did a nationwide population-based cohort study in Danish PLHIV to evaluate the association between smoking status and 1 overall renal function and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD, 2 risk of any renal replacement therapy (aRRT, and 3 mortality following aRRT. We calculated estimated creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft–Gault equation (CG-CrCl, and evaluated renal function graphically. We calculated cumulative incidence of CKD (defined as two consecutive CG-CrCls of ≤60 mL/min, ≥3 months apart and aRRT and used Cox regression models to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs for risk of CKD, aRRT, and mortality rate ratios (MRRs following aRRT. Results: From the Danish HIV Cohort Study, we identified 1,475 never smokers, 768 previous smokers, and 2,272 current smokers. During study period, we observed no association of smoking status with overall renal function. Previous and current smoking was not associated with increased risk of CKD (adjusted IRR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7–1.7; adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9–1.8 or aRRT (adjusted IRR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4–1.7; adjusted IRR: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.5–1.7. Mortality following aRRT was high in PLHIV and increased in smokers vs never smokers (adjusted MRR: 3

  16. Ischemic Postconditioning and Subanesthetic S(+-Ketamine Infusion: Effects on Renal Function and Histology in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. C. de Resende

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ischemic postconditioning (IP in renal Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI models improves renal function after IRI. Ketamine affords significant benefits against IRI-induced acute kidney injury (AKI. The present study investigated the effects of IP and IP associated with subanesthetic S(+-ketamine in ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI. Methods. Forty-one Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: CG (10, control; KG (10, S(+-ketamine infusion; IPG (10, IP; and KIPG (11, S(+-ketamine infusion + IP. All rats underwent right nephrectomy. IRI and IP were induced only in IPG and KIPG by left kidney arterial occlusion for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Complete reperfusion was preceded by three cycles of 2 min of reocclusion followed by 2 min of reperfusion. Renal function was assessed by measuring serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. Tubular damage was evaluated by renal histology. Results. Creatinine and BUN were significantly increased. Severe tubular injury was only observed in the groups with IRI (IPG and KIPG, whereas no injury was observed in CG or KG. No significant differences were detected between IPG and KIPG. Conclusions. No synergic effect of the use of subanesthetic S(+-ketamine and IP on AKI was observed in this rat model.

  17. Tissue elasticity quantification by acoustic radiation force impulse for the assessment of renal allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wan-Yuan; Jin, Yun-Jie; Wang, Wen-Ping; Li, Chao-Lun; Ji, Zheng-Biao; Yang, Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) quantification, a novel ultrasound-based elastography method, has been used to measure liver fibrosis. However, few studies have been performed on the use of ARFI quantification in kidney examinations. We evaluated renal allograft stiffness using ARFI quantification in patients with stable renal function (n = 52) and those with biopsy-proven allograft dysfunction (n = 50). ARFI quantification, given as shear wave velocity (SWV), was performed. The resistance index (RI) was calculated by pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound, and clinical and laboratory data were collected. Morphologic changes in transplanted kidneys were diagnosed by an independent pathologist. Mean SWV was more significantly negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = -0.657, p renal allograft dysfunction were 72.0% and 86.5% (cutoff value = 2.625), respectively. The latter values were better than those of RI, which were 62.0% and 69.2% (cutoff value = 0.625), respectively. The coefficient of variation for repeat SWV measurements of the middle part of transplanted kidney was 8.64%, and inter-observer agreement on SWV was good (Bland-Altman method, ICC = 0.890). In conclusion, tissue elasticity quantification by ARFI is more accurate than the RI in diagnosing renal allograft function.

  18. Reduced aminolevulinate dehydrase activity in rats with functional renal failure induced by cyclosporin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanellas, A; Herrero, J A; Enríquez de Salamanca, R

    1997-01-01

    Patients with chronic failure evidence various abnormalities in heme metabolism, primarily erythrocyte aminolevulinate dehydrase hypoactivity and increased plasma and erythrocyte porphyrin levels. Such abnormalities have also been observed in animals with both acute and chronic experimental renal failure. The aim of this work was to study these parameters of porphyrin metabolism in an experimental model of functional renal failure. A group of 11 male Wistar rats received 13 doses (25 mg/kg body weight/day) of cyclosporin A. Serum creatinine did not vary, but the blood urea nitrogen levels increased and a significant decrease in the creatinine clearance was observed. The drug also caused a marked decrease in the erythrocyte aminolevulinate dehydrase activity, a slight reduction of the hematocrit value, and increased levels of blood porphyrins. The plasma of treated rats showed capacity to inhibit aminolevulinate dehydrase activity when incubated in vitro with erythrocytes from control rats. Porphyrin metabolism remained unchanged in the liver. The daily diuresis was significantly decreased in the cyclosporin as compared to the control group; however, the porphyrinuria showed no changes. The derangements in the erythrocyte heme biosynthesis pathway observed in patients with chronic renal failure are reproducible in an experimental model of cyclosporin A-induced functional renal failure.

  19. Natural progression of renal function in the elderly: analysis of poor prognosis factors associated with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Manuel; García-Cosmes, Pedro; Fernández-Reyes, María J; Sánchez, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years a debate has emerged on the range of normal renal function and the rate at which renal disease progresses in the elderly. In this review we analysed, on the basis of the results of the study Ancianos con enfermedad renal crónica del Hospital General de Segovia (Elderly people with chronic kidney disease of the Hospital General de Segovia), the poor prognosis factors associated with this disease: proteinuria, episodes of acute renal failure and heart failure, and the role of uric acid. Elderly people with chronic kidney disease who present these poor prognosis factors may benefit from follow-up by Nephrology. PMID:23897177

  20. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of chronic medical nephropathies with impaired renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla-Palma, L.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Cova, M.; Meduri, S. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Trieste (Italy); Panzetta, G.; Galli, G. [Hemodialysis Service, Ospedale Maggiore, Trieste (Italy)

    2000-02-01

    We examined the value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronic renal disease with renal insufficiency. In 33 consecutive patients (21 vascular nephropathy, 12 glomerular nephropathy) MRI was performed using a 1.5-T unit and a body coil, with SE T1-weighted (TR/TE = 600/19 ms) and dynamic TFFE T1-weighted sequences (TR/TE = 12/5 ms, flip angle = 25 ) after manual bolus injection (via a cubital vein) of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA-BMA. Morphological evaluation was performed in unblinded fashion by three radiologists, evaluating renal size, cortical thickness, and corticomedullary differentiation. Functional analysis was performed by one reviewer. Time-signal intensity curves, peak intensity value (P), time to peak intensity (T), and the P/T ratio were obtained at the cortex, medulla, and pyelocaliceal system of each kidney. The relationship of these parameters to serum creatinine and with creatinine clearance was investigated. A good correlation between morphological features of the kidneys and serum creatinine values was found. Morphological findings could not distinguish between vascular and glomerular nephropathies. A statistically significant correlation (P <0.01) between cortical P, cortical P/T, medullary P, and serum creatinine and creatinine clearance was found. A significant correlation (P <0.01) was also found between cortical T, medullary P/T, T of the excretory system, and creatinine clearance. The cortical T value was significantly higher (P <0.01) in vascular nephropathy than in glomerular nephropathy. Thus in patients with chronic renal failure dynamic MRI shows both morphological and functional changes. Morphological changes are correlated with the degree of renal insufficiency and not with the type of nephropathy; the functional changes seem to differ in vascular from glomerular nephropathies. (orig.)

  1. Renal failure (chronic)

    OpenAIRE

    Clase, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterised by a gradual and sustained decline in renal clearance or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelone...

  2. Effects of gentamicin on the recovery of renal function after unilateral hydronephrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Nobumitsu [Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-06-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of complications in hydronephrosis, and antibiotics such as gentamicin are indicated for the treatment. However, gentamicin is known to cause drug-induced nephropathy. Using a rat kidney model, we investigated the effects of gentamicin treatment on the functional recovery from unilateral hydronephrosis. Quantitative separate renal function study by means of Technetium-99m DMSA renoscintigraphy revealed that contralateral kidney was affected by the treatment right after the release of complete ureteral obstruction. Moreover, in the case of incomplete ureteral obstruction, bilateral kidneys were affected by the treatment. Morphological studies using in situ DNA3' -end labeling and immunohistochemical methods showed that regeneration in the bilateral kidney followed gentamicin treatment right after the release. These results suggest that we should take account of separate renal function failure after gentamicin administration in the perihydronephrotic periods. (author)

  3. Percutaneous Access: Acute Effects on Renal Function and Structure in a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Rajash K.; Willis, Lynn R.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.; Ying, Jun; Fat-Anthony, William; Wind, Kelli R.; Johnson, Cynthia D.; Blomgren, Philip M.; Estrada, Mark C.; Paterson, Ryan F.; Kuo, Ramsay L.; Kim, Samuel C.; Matlaga, Brian R.; Miller, Nicole L.; Watkins, Stephanie L.; Handa, Shelly E.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-04-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) involves gaining access into the urinary collecting system to remove kidney stones. Animal studies demonstrated that a reduction in renal filtration and perfusion in both kidneys, and a decline in tubular organic anion transport in the treated kidney characterizes the acute (hours) functional response to unilateral percutaneous access. The acute morphologic and histological changes in the treated kidney were consistent with blunt trauma and ischemia. Only tubular organic anion transport remained depressed during the late (3-day) response to the access procedure. Human studies revealed an acute decline in glomerular function and bilateral renal vasoconstriction following unilateral PCNL. Therefore, percutaneous access is not a benign procedure, but is associated with acute functional and structural derangements.

  4. Development of a living membrane comprising a functional human renal proximal tubule cell monolayer on polyethersulfone polymeric membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schophuizen, Carolien M S; De Napoli, Ilaria E; Jansen, Jitske; Teixeira, Sandra; Wilmer, Martijn J; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Van den Heuvel, Lambert P W; Masereeuw, R.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The need for improved renal replacement therapies has stimulated innovative research for the development of a cell-based renal assist device. A key requirement for such a device is the formation of a "living membrane", consisting of a tight kidney cell monolayer with preserved functional organic ion

  5. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion is not related to impaired renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, Eva; Friberg, Lars; Mølvig, Jens;

    2010-01-01

    Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at 5-years of follow-up. To further explore UOER in relation to local renal physiological phenomena, we studied renal glomerular and tubular functions in patients...... with type 2 diabetes and normal or increased UOER....

  6. Full loss of residual renal function causes higher mortality in dialysis patients; findings from a marginal structural model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, W.M. van der; Noordzij, M.; Dekker, F.W.; Boeschoten, E.W.; Krediet, R.T.; Korevaar, J.C.; Geskus, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Declining residual renal function, as indicated by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), is associated with an increased mortality risk in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis. METHODS: We monitored GFR and mortality in 1800 haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis

  7. Disease progression in pre-dialysis patients : renal function, symptoms, and health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeij, Moniek Cornelia Maria de

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigated the effect of several risk factors on objectively assessed disease progression (renal function decline and time until the start of renal replacement therapy) and subjectively assessed disease progression (disease-related symptoms and health-related quality of life) in patien

  8. Effect of contrast media on renal function in elderly patients suffering from ischemic cerebral vasular disease and undergoing angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍钦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the low-osmolar nonionic contrast media on renal function in elderly patients suffering from ischemic cerebral vascular disease and undergoing angiography.To study the incidence and risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy(CIN).Methods 276 elderly patients who were going to receive selective cranial angiography and bilateral renal angiogra-

  9. Galectin-3, Renal Function, and Clinical Outcomes: Results from the LURIC and 4D Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, Christiane; Delgado, Graciela; Wanner, Christoph; Blouin, Katja; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Kleber, Marcus E; Dressel, Alexander; Willmes, Christoph; Krane, Vera; Krämer, Bernhard K; März, Winfried; Ritz, Eberhard; van Gilst, Wiek H; van der Harst, Pim; de Boer, Rudolf A

    2015-09-01

    Galectin-3 has been linked to incident renal disease, experimental renal fibrosis, and nephropathy. However, the association among galectin-3, renal function, and adverse outcomes has not been described. We studied this association in two large cohorts of patients over a broad range of renal function. We measured galectin-3 concentrations in baseline samples from the German Diabetes mellitus Dialysis (4D) study (1168 dialysis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus) and the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study (2579 patients with coronary angiograms). Patients were stratified into three groups: eGFR of ≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). We correlated galectin-3 concentrations with demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters. The association of galectin-3 with clinical end points was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression within 10 years (LURIC) or 4 years (4D) of follow-up. Mean±SD galectin-3 concentrations were 12.8±4.0 ng/ml (eGFR≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 15.6±5.4 ng/ml (eGFR 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 23.1±9.9 ng/ml (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), and 54.1±19.6 ng/ml (dialysis patients of the 4D study). Galectin-3 concentration was significantly associated with clinical end points in participants with impaired kidney function, but not in participants with normal kidney function. Per SD increase in log-transformed galectin-3 concentration, the risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and fatal infection increased significantly. In dialysis patients, galectin-3 was associated with the combined end point of cardiovascular events. In conclusion, galectin-3 concentrations increased with progressive renal impairment and independently associated with cardiovascular end points, infections, and all-cause death in patients with impaired renal function. PMID:25568176

  10. Estimation of renal function in the intensive care unit: the covert concepts brought to light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder, Sham; Jayaraman, Rajesh; Mahapatra, Himanshu Sekhar; Sathi, Satyanand; Ramanan, Venkata; Kanchi, Prabhu; Gupta, Anurag; Daksh, Sunil Kumar; Ram, Pranit

    2014-01-01

    Frantic efforts have been made up to this date to derive consensus for estimating renal function in critically ill patients, only to open the Pandora's box. This article tries to explore the various methods available to date, the newer concepts, and the uncared issues that may still prove to be useful in estimating renal function in intensive care unit patients. The concept of augmented renal clearance, which is frequently encountered in critically ill patients, should always be taken into account, as correct therapeutic dosage of drugs sounds vital which in turn depends on correctly calculated glomerular filtration rate. Serum creatinine and creatinine-based formulae have their own demerits that are well known and established. While Cockcroft-Gault and 4-variable modification of diet in renal diseases formulae are highly inadequate in the intensive care setup for estimating glomerular filtration rate, employing isotopic methods is impractical and cumbersome. The 6-variable modification of diet in renal diseases formula fairs better as it takes into account the serum albumin and blood urea nitrogen, too. Jelliffe's and modified Jelliffe's equations take into account the rate of creatinine production and volume of distribution which in turn fluctuates heavily in a critically ill patient. Twenty-four-hour and timed creatinine clearances offer values close to reality although not accurate and cannot provide immediate results. Cystatin C is a novel agent that offers a sure promise as it is least influenced by factors that affect serum creatinine to a major extent. Aminoglycoside clearance, although still in the dark area, may prove a simple yet precise way of estimating glomerular filtration rate in those patients in whom these drugs are therapeutically employed. Optic ratiometric method has emerged as the most sophisticated one in glomerular filtration rate estimation in critically ill patients. PMID:25520843

  11. Molecular clock is involved in predictive circadian adjustment of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Annie Mercier; Centeno, Gabriel; Pradervand, Sylvain; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Maquelin, Lionel; Cardinaux, Léonard; Bonny, Olivier; Firsov, Dmitri

    2009-09-22

    Renal excretion of water and major electrolytes exhibits a significant circadian rhythm. This functional periodicity is believed to result, at least in part, from circadian changes in secretion/reabsorption capacities of the distal nephron and collecting ducts. Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms in the distal nephron segments, i.e., distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and connecting tubule (CNT) and the cortical collecting duct (CCD). Temporal expression analysis performed on microdissected mouse DCT/CNT or CCD revealed a marked circadian rhythmicity in the expression of a large number of genes crucially involved in various homeostatic functions of the kidney. This analysis also revealed that both DCT/CNT and CCD possess an intrinsic circadian timing system characterized by robust oscillations in the expression of circadian core clock genes (clock, bma11, npas2, per, cry, nr1d1) and clock-controlled Par bZip transcriptional factors dbp, hlf, and tef. The clock knockout mice or mice devoid of dbp/hlf/tef (triple knockout) exhibit significant changes in renal expression of several key regulators of water or sodium balance (vasopressin V2 receptor, aquaporin-2, aquaporin-4, alphaENaC). Functionally, the loss of clock leads to a complex phenotype characterized by partial diabetes insipidus, dysregulation of sodium excretion rhythms, and a significant decrease in blood pressure. Collectively, this study uncovers a major role of molecular clock in renal function.

  12. Study of renal functions in preterm and full term new born in relation to parity of the mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra P. Bhatnagar; Virendra K. Gupta; Shagun Gupta; Alok Purohit

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the intrauterine life, placenta performs the function of maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and removing harmful waste products. The renal function is related more closely to gestational age, postnatal age and parity of mother. Objective of the study was to study renal functions in preterm and full term new born in relation to the parity of mother (primiparous versus multiparous mother). Methods: The study was conducted from January 2015 to December 2015 on 500 he...

  13. GFR, serum creatinine and 24-hour urine protein in evaluating renal function of patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Diabetes nephropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus patients. Early detection of renal impairment can improve the quality of life of patients. Purpose: The value of total GFR, serum creatinine, 24-hour urine protein excretion in diabetes mellitus patients with renal impairment were evaluated. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 147 patients with diabetes undergoing routine renal dynamic imaging was undertaken. The cases were divided into three groups according to the illness duration: group I of not more than five years, group 2 of five to ten years, Gr.3: more than ten years. The 22 renal transplant donors were selected as the normal control group, The total GFR, serum creatinine and 24-hour urinary protein excretion of all patients were measured before the treatments, and the data were statistically analyzed. Results: There was no significant differences in renal function between the two kidneys of in the diabetes mellitus patients (P=0.536). Serum creatinine and total GFR had significant correlation (R2=0.762), but no significant relationship between the 24-hour urine protein and the total GFR or serum creatinine. In the early and middle times of renal function impairment, the total GFR and serum creatinine have significant difference in different time periods (P<0.05). During the mid-late times of renal function impairment, total GFR and serum creatinine have no statistically significant differences (P value is 0.781, 0.297). 24-hour urine protein quality had no statistical differences in each stage. However: the total GFR is more sensitive than the serum creatinine in evaluation of early impairing of renal function. Conclusions: There is significant correlation between serum creatinine and total GFR. Both of them can reflect the degree of diabetic renal injury, but the total GFR is more sensitive than serum creatinine in early degree. 24-hour urine protein quantitative can not evaluate the degree of impaired renal function alone

  14. Severe Hydronephrosis Caused by Uterine Prolapse with Non Specific Symptoms and Normal Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Altok

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic organ prolapse (POP, is the descent of pelvic organs (bladder, uterus, rectum until protrusion through the vagina and related to the loss of normal attachment and support of the pelvic floor. Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is a common problem in elderly women and usually causes various urologic symptoms. One of the most important complications of POP is hydronephrosis. The hydronephrosis is usually mild. Severe hydronephrosis is very rare. Hydronephrosis caused by POP may lead to renal dysfunction and serious urinary infections. Early detection and treatment is very important for preventing irreversible renal damage.Hereby, we report a case of 65-years-old woman who had massive uterine prolapse with silent severe bilateral hydronephrosis. She had no complaint except a protruding tissue out of her vagina. Renal function was normal and hydronephrosis was detected incidentally. The symptoms may be non-specific and silent until a serious infection or renal dysfunction. Therefore patients with a POP especially with severe POP need to have evaluation and imaging about the condition or the urinary system before a serious pathology occur

  15. Agmatine improves renal function in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kashef, Dalia H; El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; Abdel Rahim, Mona; Suddek, Ghada M; Salem, Hatem A

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to explore the possible protective effects of agmatine, a known nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, we quantitatively evaluated gentamicin-induced renal structural and functional alterations using histopathological and biochemical approaches. Furthermore, the effect of agmatine on gentamicin-induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) was evaluated. Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely control, gentamicin (100 mg/kg, i.p.), and gentamicin plus agmatine (40 mg/kg, orally). At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed and then blood and urine samples and kidneys were taken. Administration of agmatine significantly decreased kidney/body mass ratio, serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), renal malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), NO, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) while it significantly increased creatinine clearance and renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity when compared with the gentamicin-treated group. Additionally, agmatine ameliorated tissue morphology as evidenced by histological evaluation and reduced the responses of isolated bladder rings to ACh. Our study indicates that agmatine administration with gentamicin attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation, restoring NO level and inhibiting inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α. PMID:26641937

  16. Sulphasalazine induced renal failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Dwarakanath, A D; Michael, J.; Allan, R. N.

    1992-01-01

    Two men with longstanding ulcerative colitis who were treated with sulphasalazine for several years and who developed chronic renal failure are reported. Renal biopsy specimens showed histological changes consistent with drug induced chronic intestinal nephritis. Extensive investigation made other causes of chronic renal failure unlikely. One of these patients underwent renal transplantation, the other has impaired but stable renal function.

  17. Evaluation of radioimmunoassay for renal functions in senile patients with cor pulmonale without respiratory failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of RIA about serum β2-MG and urine β2-MG, Alb, IgG in the senile patients with cor pulmonale are reported. The contents of sβ2-MG, uβ2-MG, uAlb in non-respiratory failure group are higher than that of the control group. The contents of sβ2-MG, uβ2-MG, uAlb and uIgG in the respiratory failure group are higher than that of the non-respiratory failure group. The results show that the renal glamorous and renal tubules functions are slightly damaged in non-respiratory failure group, while functions of the respiratory failure group become worse

  18. Epigenetic Markers of Renal Function in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Bomotti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing concern in the United States due to its rapidly rising prevalence, particularly among African Americans. Epigenetic DNA methylation markers are becoming important biomarkers of chronic diseases such as CKD. To better understand how these methylation markers play a role in kidney function, we measured 26,428 DNA methylation sites in 972 African Americans from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. We then evaluated (1 whether epigenetic markers are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, (2 whether the significantly associated markers are also associated with traditional risk factors and/or novel biomarkers for eGFR, and (3 how much additional variation in eGFR is explained by epigenetic markers beyond established risk factors and biomarkers. The majority of methylation markers most significantly associated with eGFR (24 out of the top 30 appeared to function, at least in part, through pathways related to aging, inflammation, or cholesterol. However, six epigenetic markers were still able to significantly predict eGFR after adjustment for other risk factors. This work shows that epigenetic markers may offer valuable new insight into the complex pathophysiology of CKD in African Americans.

  19. Simulation of the pharmacokinetics of bisoprolol in healthy adults and patients with impaired renal function using whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-fu LI; Kun WANG; Rui CHEN; Hao-ru ZHAO; Jin YANG; Qing-shan ZHENG

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To develop and evaluate a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) model of bisoprolol and to simulate its exposure and disposition in healthy adults and patients with renal function impairment.Methods:Bisoprolol dispositions in 14 tissue compartments were described by perfusion-limited compartments.Based the tissue composition equations and drug-specific properties such as log P,permeability,and plasma protein binding published in literatures,the absorption and whole-body distribution of bisoprolol was predicted using the ‘Advanced Compartmental Absorption Transit’ (ACAT)model and the whole-body disposition model,respectively.Renal and hepatic clearances were simulated using empirical scaling methods followed by incorporation into the WB-PBPK model.Model refinements were conducted after a comparison of the simulated concentration-time profiles and pharmacokinetic parameters with the observed data in healthy adults following intravenous and oral administration.Finally,the WB-PBPK model coupled with a Monte Carlo simulation was employed to predict the mean and variability of bisoprolol pharmacokinetics in virtual healthy subjects and patients.Results:The simulated and observed data after both intravenous and oral dosing showed good agreement for all of the dose levels in the reported normal adult population groups.The predicted pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC,Cmax,and Tmax) were reasonably consistent (<1.3-fold error) with the observed values after single oral administration of doses ranging from of 5 to 20 mg using the refined WB-PBPK model.The simulated plasma profiles after multiple oral administration of bisoprolol in healthy adults and patient with renal impairment matched well with the observed profiles.Conclusion:The WB-PBPK model successfully predicts the intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of bisoprolol across multiple dose levels in diverse normal adult human populations and patients with renal insufficiency.

  20. Kidney-to-liver ratio. A simple scintigraphic parameter for routine individual renal function assessment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, B C; Sostre, S

    1994-03-01

    DTPA renography is commonly used for measuring relative renal function. However, in patients with bilateral renal disease or solitary kidneys, split function studies are of no value. Available techniques to quantify individual renal function are either time consuming or inaccurate. The authors validate the kidney-to-liver ratio at 3 minutes (K3/L3) as an index of renal function, showing excellent correlation with GFR. Normal K3/L3 ranges were then computed in 113 pediatric kidneys (age 2 days to 16 years) and 24 adults. Indicative of renal maturation, the K3/L3 rapidly rose from a value of 1.32 at birth to 2.02 at 6 months. Subsequently, it increased slowly to reach a peak of 2.34 at age 2, followed by gradual decline to adult values after age 5. This decrease is due likely to continued growth of the hepatic blood pool after renal maturation. GFR followed the same maturation pattern to reach a plateau around 2 years of age. K3/L3 reflects individual kidney function, and it requires no blood sampling or urine collection. By establishing normal values at different stages of maturity, this method provides identification and quantification of renal dysfunction in infants, children, and adults. PMID:8033475

  1. A CLINICAL STUDY OF POSTERIOR URETHRAL VALVE AND ITS IMPACT ON RENAL FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nischal Prasad Reddy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: T he most common congenital anomaly is Posterior Urethral valve (PUV and has as incidence of 1 in 8000 male births. It is the most common obstructive cause of end stage renal disease in children. Vesicoureteric reflux, recurrent UTI, voiding dysfunction and late onset renal failure are the long term major problems in these children. There are few long term outcome studies of children with PUV from India. These studies mainly concentrate on the surgical aspects. The study is aimed to assess the long term impact of PUV on renal function and th e growth of these children. METHODS: The study was conducted at AJ hospital, Mangalore between July 2010 - June 2011. Thirty children, with posterior urethral valve, five years or more post - surgery were included in the study. The details of children were obtained from records regarding age, presenting symptoms serum creatinine, presence of or absence of vesicoureteric reflux. Outcomes measured were stunting, renal failure (GFR, tubular functions and bladder functions. Results were analysed. RESULTS: Thirt y children were analysed. The age at presentation varied from antenatal detection to six years. About 46.6% of patients presented between 0 - 1 month, 36.6% between one month to one year, 16.8% between one to six years. The median age at presentation was thr ee months. Primary surgery done in the neonatal period in 33% children. Of the 28 children who had antenatal ultrasound, 20 had normal USS and eight had antenatally detected hydronephrosis (28.6%. Five out of eight had associated oligohydramnios. All thes e five children had GFR <90 m/m/1.73m 2 at follow up. CONCLUSION: Poor bladder function was seen in one - third of patients. Interventions as and when needed on follow - up are important in the management of all children with posterior urethral valve. Comprehen sive care should be the rule by a team comprising paediatrician, pediatric surgeon and pediatric nephrologists

  2. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy--repercussion on cardiovascular and renal functioning of male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ingrid L B; Rodrigues, Aline F A C; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; Campos, Ruy R; Hirata, Aparecida E; Tufik, Sergio; Xylaras, Beatriz D P; Visniauskas, Bruna; Chagas, Jair R; Gomes, Guiomar N

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the maternal environment can induce fetal adaptations that result in the progression of chronic diseases in the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal chronic sleep restriction on blood pressure, renal function and cardiac baroreflex response on male offspring at adult age. Female 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: control (C) and chronic sleep restricted (CSR). Pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal smear. Chronic sleep restricted females were subjected to sleep restriction by the multiple platform technique for 20 h daily, between the 1st and 20th day of pregnancy. After birth, the litters were reduced to 6 rats per mother, and were designated as offspring from control (OC) and offspring from chronic sleep restricted (OCSR). Indirect blood pressure (BPi - tail cuff) was measured by plethysmography in male offspring at 3 months old. Following, the renal function and cardiac baroreflex response were analyzed. Values of BPi in OCSR were significantly higher compared to OC [OC: 127 ± 2.6 (19); OCSR: 144 ± 2.5 (17) mmHg]. The baroreflex sensitivity to the increase of blood pressure was reduced in OCSR [Slope: OC: -2.6 ± 0.15 (9); OCRS: -1.6 ± 0.13 (9)]. Hypothalamic activity of ACE2 was significantly reduced in OCSR compared to OC [OC: 97.4 ± 15 (18); OSR: 60.2 ± 3.6 (16) UAF/min/protein mg]. Renal function alteration was noticed by the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) observed in OCSR [OC: 6.4 ± 0.2 (10); OCSR: 7.4 ± 0.3 (7)]. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy caused in the offspring hypertension, altered cardiac baroreflex response, reduced ACE-2 activity in the hypothalamus and renal alterations. Our data suggest that the reduction of sleeping time along the pregnancy is able to modify maternal homeostasis leading to functional alterations in offspring.

  3. The relationship between adiponectin, ageing and renal function in a bi-ethnic sample

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Hugo Willem; Kruger, Iolanthe Marike; Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Ageing is associated with elevated adiponectin levels. Our aim was to assess whether age-related increase in adiponectin is associated with a decrease in renal function. The study comprised African (N = 277) and Caucasian (N = 326) men and women. Adiponectin levels, estimated creatinine clearance rate and obesity indices were determined. African men revealed significantly higher adiponectin levels compared to Caucasian men (p < 0.01), reflecting the lower adiposity levels of the African men. ...

  4. IGFBP2 is a biomarker for predicting longitudinal deterioration in renal function in type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Ram P; Fu, Bo; Heald, Adrian H; Siddals, Kirk W.; Oliver, Robert L.; Hudson, Julie E; Payton, Antony; Anderson, Simon G; White, Anne; Ollier, William E R; Gibson, J Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective Insulin-like growth factors are implicated in the development of diabetic nephropathy. IGF-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) and IGF2 are expressed in the kidney, but their associations with diabetic nephropathy are unclear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that circulating levels of IGF2 and IGFBP2 predict longitudinal renal function in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Design and methods IGFBP2 and IGF2 measurements were performed in 436 individuals (263 males) with type 2 diabetes. Li...

  5. Life-threatening hyperkalemia in a patient with normal renal function

    OpenAIRE

    Ayach, Taha; Nappo, Robert W.; Paugh-Miller, Jennifer L.; Ross, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    With media focus on benefits from reducing sodium intake, there is increased popularity of salt substitutes, typically potassium chloride. While viewed by the public as a healthy alternative to standard table salt, less appreciated is the severe risk with certain comorbidities and medications. We report the case of an elderly female with chronically high salt substitute intake, normal renal function, diabetes, hypertension treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and beta blockade...

  6. Comparison of renal function between normal-weight and overweight children

    OpenAIRE

    Falakaflaki, B.; Mazloomzadeh, S.; Moradzade, A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in children is associated with hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, colon cancer, and kidney disease. Most of the studies that evaluate the association between obesity and kidney disease have been done in adults. This study was planned to compare renal function between normal-weight and overweight children. In this case-control study, 92 children (45 boys, 47 girls) aged 7-12 years were included in the analysis. 46 children (23 boys, 23 girls) with BM...

  7. Tests of renal function in patients with quiescent colitis: effects of drug treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, S.A.; Lloyd, D R; Mani, V.

    1992-01-01

    Mesalazine has structural similarities to aspirin and phenacetin and is nephrotoxic when given intravenously in high doses to rats. A number of cases of nephrotoxicity has been reported recently in patients taking oral mesalazine. Sensitive indicators of renal function in a group of patients maintained on long term, delayed release mesalazine and a comparable group on sulphasalazine have been studied. Sixty two patients (32 men, aged 28-82 years) with quiescent colitis were studied. Thirty fo...

  8. Development of chronic heart failure in a young woman with hypertension associated with renal artery stenosis with preserved renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Christina; Abdulla, Jawdat

    2014-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman with presumed essential hypertension and symptoms equivalent to New York Heart Association class II was suspected of heart failure and referred to echocardiography. The patient's ECG showed a left bundle branch block. Electrolytes, serum creatinine and estimated-glomerular fil......A 33-year-old woman with presumed essential hypertension and symptoms equivalent to New York Heart Association class II was suspected of heart failure and referred to echocardiography. The patient's ECG showed a left bundle branch block. Electrolytes, serum creatinine and estimated......-glomerular filtration rate as well as urine test for protein were all normal. The patient had no peripheral oedema. The transthoracic echocardiography confirmed systolic and diastolic dysfunction and an ejection fraction of 25% and left ventricular hypertrophy. Ultrasound of renal arteries and renal CT angiography...... (renal CTA) revealed a significant stenosis and an aneurysm corresponding to the right renal artery with challenges to traditional interventions....

  9. Residual renal function and nutritional status in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Nataša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction During the last years, an increasing number of patients with end-stage renal failure caused by various underlying diseases, all over the world, is treated by renal replacement therapy. Nutritional status Malnutrition is often found in patients affected by renal failure; it is caused by reduced intake of nutritional substances due to anorexia and dietary restrictions hormonal and metabolic disorders, comorbid conditions and loss of proteins, amino-acids, and vitamins during the dialysis procedure itself. Nutritional status significantly affects the outcome of patients on chronic dialysis treatment. Recent epiodemiological trials have proved that survival on chronic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis program depends more on residual renal function (RRF than on peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine. Material and methods The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of RRF on common biochemical and anthropometric markers of nutrition in 32 patients with end-stage renal failure with various underlying diseases during the first 6 months on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. The mean residual creatinine clearance was 8,3 ml/min and the mean RRF was 16,24 week in our patients at the beginning of the chronic peritoneal dialysis treatment. Results and conclusion During the follow-up, the RRF slightly decreased, while the nutritional status of patients significantly improved. Gender and age, as well as the leading disease and peritonitis didn't influence the RRF during the first 6 months of CAPD treatment. We found several positive correlations between RRF and laboratory and anthropometric markers of nutrition during the follow-up, proving the positive influence of RRF on nutritional status of patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

  10. Evaluation of renal allograft function early after transplantation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberger, Ute; Frey, Felix J. [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Bern (Switzerland); Thoeny, Harriet C. [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Binser, Tobias; Boesch, Chris [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Gugger, Mathias [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Pathology, Bern (Switzerland); Vermathen, Peter [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Department of Clinical Research/AMSM, Pavillon 52, Inselspital, P.O. Box 35, Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the inter-patient variability of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and concurrent micro-circulation contributions from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) in renal allografts early after transplantation, and to obtain initial information on whether these measures are altered in histologically proven acute allograft rejection (AR). DW-MRI was performed in 15 renal allograft recipients 5-19 days after transplantation. Four patients presented with AR and one with acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Total ADC (ADC{sub T}) was determined, which includes diffusion and micro-circulation contributions. Furthermore, diffusion and micro-circulation contributions were separated, yielding the ''perfusion fraction'' (F{sub P}), and ''perfusion-free'' diffusion (ADC{sub D}). Diffusion parameters in the ten allografts with stable function early after transplantation demonstrated low variabilities. Values for ADC{sub T} and ADC{sub D} were (x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s) 228 {+-} 14 and 203 {+-} 9, respectively, in cortex and 226 {+-} 16 and 199 {+-} 9, respectively, in medulla. F{sub P} values were 18 {+-} 5% in cortex and 19 {+-} 5% in medulla. F{sub P} values were strongly reduced to less than 12% in cortex and medulla of renal transplants with AR and ATN. F{sub P} values correlated with creatinine clearance. DW-MRI allows reliable determination of diffusion and micro-circulation contributions in renal allografts shortly after transplantation; deviations in AR indicate potential clinical utility of this method to non-invasively monitor derangements in renal allografts. (orig.)

  11. Early drop in systolic blood pressure and worsening renal function in acute heart failure : renal results of Pre-RELAX-AHF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Adriaan A.; Davison, Beth A.; Felker, G. Michael; Ponikowski, Piotr; Unemori, Elaine; Cotter, Gadi; Teerlink, John R.; Greenberg, Barry H.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Teichman, Sam L.; Metra, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Aims We aimed to determine the relation between baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), change in SBP, and worsening renal function (WRF) in acute heart failure (AHF) patients enrolled in the Pre-RELAX-AHF trial. Methods and results The Pre-RELAX-AHF study enrolled 234 patients within 16 h of admiss

  12. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertoni Borghese, María F; Ortiz, María C; Balonga, Sabrina; Moreira Szokalo, Rocío; Majowicz, Mónica P

    2016-01-01

    Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA). The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth. PMID:26872270

  13. Effect of strenuous maternal exercise before and during pregnancy on rat progeny renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira A.O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of strenuous exercise before and during pregnancy on the renal function and morphological alterations of the progeny were determined in a study on female Wistar rats. This research was done based on a previous study carried out in our laboratory, which showed morphological alterations in rats submitted to this kind of exercise. As the form is related to the function, the physiological relevance of submitting a pregnant female to a high-intensity exercise training regimen could be explained by the fact that morphological alterations can influence kidney function. The animals were assigned to one of two groups: control animals that did not exercise during pregnancy and trained animals that swam for 120 min 5 days a week for 8 weeks before pregnancy and daily for 60 min over a period of 8 weeks starting on the second day of pregnancy. Seven rats of each group were analyzed for morphological alterations and for renal function. The progeny of the rats used for morphological evaluation were born by cesarean section and the progeny of the animals used to evaluate renal function were born normally. The progeny were two months old when renal function was evaluated. Fertility and morbidity were the same for both groups. Strenuous maternal exercise had no significant influence on glomerular filtration rate (GFR but renal plasma flow was lower in the progeny of the trained group (mean ± SD, 16.65 ± 3.77 ml min-1 kg-1 compared to the progeny of the control group (33.42 ± 2.56 ml min-1 kg-1. Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects on the progeny of the trained group were observed, since urine flow as percentage of GFR and the fraction of urinary sodium excretion were lower in this group (1.38 ± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.04%, respectively compared to the progeny of the control group (2.36 ± 0.11 and 1.55 ± 0.20%, respectively. Moreover, in this exercise program, fetuses from trained animals were small-sized (2.45 ± 0.19 vs 4.66 ± 2.45 g for

  14. Effects of environmental levels of cadmium, lead and mercury on human renal function evaluated by structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Gardiner, Lesley; Parrish, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between exposure to heavy metals, including lead and cadmium, and renal dysfunction has long been suggested. However, modeling of the potential additive, or synergistic, impact of metals on renal dysfunction has proven to be challenging. In these studies, we used structural equation modeling (SEM), to investigate the relationship between heavy metal burden (serum and urine levels of lead, cadmium and mercury) and renal function using data from the NHANES database. We were able to generate a model with goodness of fit indices consistent with a well-fitting model. This model demonstrated that lead and cadmium had a negative relationship with renal function, while mercury did not contribute to renal dysfunction. Interestingly, a linear relationship between lead and loss of renal function was observed, while the maximal impact of cadmium occurred at or above serum cadmium levels of 0.8 µg/L. The interaction of lead and cadmium in loss of renal function was also observed in the model. These data highlight the use of SEM to model interaction between environmental contaminants and pathophysiology, which has important implications in mechanistic and regulatory toxicology. PMID:24769258

  15. Incremental Hemodialysis Schedule in Patients with Higher Residual Renal Function at the Start of Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Fernández Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an observational study to evaluate a progressive schedule of dose of dialysis, starting with 2 HD/week, when the renal clearance of urea was equal to or greater than 2,5 mL/min/1,73 m2 and the patient is in a stable clinical situation. From 2006 to 2011, 182 patients started hemodialysis in our center, of which 134 were included in the study. Residual renal function (RRF, Kt/V, eKru, nPCR, hemoglobin, weekly erythropoietin dose, and beta-2-microglobulin were determined at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after dialysis initiation. Seventy patients (52% began with the progressive schedule of 2 HD/week and 64 (48% patients began with the conventional thrice-weekly schedule (3 HD/week. The decline of RRF was lower in the group of 2 HD/week: 0,20 (0,02–0,53 versus 0,50 (0,14–1,08 mL/min/month (median and interquartile range, P=0,009. No relationship was found between the decline rate and the basal RRF. Survival analysis did not show differences between both groups. Our experience demonstrates that patients with higher residual renal function may require less than conventional 3 HD sessions per week at the start of dialysis. Twice-weekly hemodialysis schedule is safe and cost-effective and may have additional benefit in maintaining the residual renal function.

  16. Comparative scintigraphic study of renal function with 99mTc-Mercaptoacetyl-triglycine and 99mTc-Ethylenedicysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Beiki D.; Eftekhari M; Fallahi B.; Gheisari F.; Hozhabrosadati M.; Fard-Esfahani A.; Takavar A; Gholamrezanezhad A.; Saghari M. Ansari Gilani K.

    2008-01-01

    99mTc-MAG3 is a standard radiotracer for renal dynamic functional study. Despite its"nproperties for clinical uses, it has numerous technical limitations. 99mTc-EC is also a tubular"nradiotracer for renal imaging, which has not been used worldwide. In this study, the use of 99mTc-EC"nand 99mTc-MAG3 for renal functional study were compared."nMethods: Thirty five patients (20 male, 15 female; mean age of 34.63 ±10.69 years) were entered in"nthe study. About 1...

  17. Absorption Spectra of Ni and Co Nanoparticles using Density Functional Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) demonstrate excellent electronic properties due to quantum confinement effects and have tremendous applications in catalysts, optics, single-electron devices, bio-chemical sensors, etc. We propose quantum mechanics method for the calculation of absorption spectra of conduction electrons of some transition metal NPs using time-independent Schrodinger equation and approximate the solution by density functional theory. The total energy functional is obtained from the ground-state energy functional of Thomas-Fermi-Dirac- Weizsaecker atomic system. The absorption function was derived and replaced the density function in the final Euler-Lagrange equation. The total energy functional can then be computed numerically for isolated Ni and Co NPs having fcc lattice structure and different nano sizes. The results show a red-shift absorption peak increase with increasing diameter of nanosphere correspond to the number of atoms required to form nanoparticles of respective sizes. (author)

  18. Iohexol plasma clearance, a simple and reliable method to measure renal function in conscious mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis-Lima, Sergio; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana Elena; Martín-Higueras, Cristina; Sierra-Ramos, Catalina; Carrara, Fabiola; Arnau, María Rosa; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Salido, Eduardo; Gaspari, Flavio; Porrini, Esteban

    2016-09-01

    In mice, renal function evaluated by serum creatinine has limitations. Gold standard methods using radioactive markers are cumbersome. We aimed to develop the iohexol plasma clearance as a simple assessment of renal function in conscious mice. We used two groups of mice: testing and validation, formed by 16 animals (8 male and 8 female) each. Iohexol was injected intravenously into the tail vein (6.47 mg), and tail tip blood samples were collected at 1, 3, 7, 10, 15, 35, 55, and 75 min. Iohexol plasma clearances were calculated in two ways: (1) two-compartment model (CL2) using all time points and (2) one-compartment model (CL1) using only the last four points. In the testing group, CL1 overestimated the true clearance (CL2). Therefore, CL1 was recalculated applying a correction factor calculated as the ratio between CL2/CL1. The latter was considered as the simplified method. CL2 averaged 223.3 ± 64.3 μl/min and CL1 252.4 ± 76.4 μl/min, which lead to a CF of 0.89. Comparable results for CL2, CL1, and simplified method were observed in the validation group. Additionally, we demonstrated the capacity of the simplified method to quantitatively assess different degrees of renal function in three mouse models: hyperoxaluric-CKD (87.4 ± 28.3 μl/min), heminephrectomized (135-0 ± 50.5 μl/min), and obese (399.6 ± 112.1 μl/min) mice. We have developed a simple and reliable method to evaluate renal function in conscious mice under diverse clinical conditions. Moreover, the test can be repeated in the same animal, which makes the method useful to examine renal function changes over time. PMID:27315812

  19. Association of blood pressure with decline in renal function and time until the start of renal replacement therapy in pre-dialysis patients: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijpkens Yvo WJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate whether high blood pressure accelerates renal function decline in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD, we studied the association of systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP with decline in renal function and time until the start of renal replacement therapy (RRT in patients with CKD stages IV-V on pre-dialysis care. Methods In the PREPARE-1 cohort 547 incident pre-dialysis patients, referred as part of the usual care to outpatient clinics of eight Dutch hospitals, were included between 1999 and 2001 and followed until the start of RRT, mortality, or end of follow-up (January 1st 2008. Main outcomes were rate of decline in renal function, estimated as the slope of available eGFR measurements, and time until the start of RRT. Results A total of 508 patients, 57% men and median (IQR age of 63 (50-73 years, were available for analyses. Mean (SD decline in renal function was 0.35 (0.75 ml/min/1.73 m2/month. Every 10 mmHg increase in SBP or DBP resulted in an accelerated decline in renal function (adjusted additional decline 0.04 (0.02;0.07 and 0.05 (0.00;0.11 ml/min/1.73 m2/month respectively and an earlier start of RRT (adjusted HR 1.09 (1.04;1.14 and 1.16 (1.05;1.28 respectively. Furthermore, patients with SBP and DBP above the BP target goal of 2/month and an earlier start of RRT (adjusted HR 2.08 (1.25;3.44, compared to patients who achieved the target goal (11%. Comparing the decline in renal function and risk of starting RRT between patients with only SBP above the target (≥ 130 mmHg and patients with both SBP and DBP below the target (2/month and adjusted HR 2.24 (1.26;3.97. Therefore, it seems that especially having SBP above the target is harmful. Conclusions In pre-dialysis patients with CKD stages IV-V, having blood pressure (especially SBP above the target goal for CKD patients (

  20. Renal Function Recovery in Donors and Recipients after Live Donor Nephrectomy: Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic vs. Open Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bum Soo; Yoo, Eun Sang; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwon, Tae Gyun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is associated with less postoperative pain and faster recovery times in living kidney donors. However, pneumoperitoneum, which is required in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, can result in adverse effects on renal function in donors and recipients. We compared renal function in donors and recipients after hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN) and open donor nephrectomy (ODN). Materials and Methods Between January 1997 and January 2008, 241 ...

  1. Copeptin Is Associated with Kidney Length, Renal Function, and Prevalence of Simple Cysts in a Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Vuistiner, Philippe; Guessous, Idris; Ehret, Georg; Alwan, Heba; Youhanna, Sonia; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Vogt, Bruno; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has a key role in osmoregulation by facilitating water transport in the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that AVP may have additional effects on renal function and favor cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease. Whether AVP also affects kidney structure in the general population is unknown. We analyzed the association of copeptin, an established surrogate for AVP, with parameters of renal function and morphology in a multicentric population-based cohort. Pa...

  2. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy promotes the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Urt Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute renal failure (ARF is an extremely important public health issue in need of novel therapies. The present study aimed to evaluate the capacity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy to promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model. Wistar rats were used as the experimental model, and our results show that cisplatin (5mg/kg can efficiently induce ARF, as measured by changes in biochemical (urea and creatinine and histological parameters. MSC therapy performed 24h after the administration of chemotherapy resulted in normalized plasma urea and creatinine levels 30 and 45d after the onset of kidney disease. Furthermore, MSC therapy significantly reduced histological changes (intratubular cast formation in protein overload nephropathy and tubular hydropic degeneration in this ARF model. Thus, considering that current therapies for ARF are merely palliative and that MSC therapy can promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in this model system, we suggest that innovative/alternative therapies involving MSCs should be considered for clinical studies in humans to treat ARF.

  3. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of nifedipine on early renal allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, M E; Beer, J C; Evans, S J; Raftery, M J; Lord, R H; Moore, R; Marsh, F P

    1994-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of nifedipine on early renal allograft function when added to a triple therapy immunosuppression regime comprising low-dose cyclosporin (CsA), prednisolone and azathioprine. Fifty adult cadaveric renal allograft recipients were randomized to placebo (group P n = 17), nifedipine 10 mg preoperatively and 20 mg b.d. postoperatively for 48 h, followed by matching placebo for 3 months (group NS n = 16) or nifedipine 10 mg preoperatively and 20 mg b.d. postoperatively for 3 months (group NL n = 17). Donor and recipient exclusion criteria included recent calcium antagonist treatment. At 3 months after transplantation mean GFR adjusted for graft loss was significantly higher in group NL than in NS (mean +/- SD 61 +/- 28 versus 34 +/- 25 ml/min/1.73 m2; P nifedipine commenced preoperatively and continued for 3 months following transplantation has beneficial effects on early renal allograft function when incorporated as part of an immunotherapy regimen based on cyclosporin.

  4. STUDY OF RENAL FUNCTION TESTS IN PATIEN TS OF ACUTE HAEMORRHAGIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Vardhan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study renal function tests in patients with acute haemorrhagic stroke and to find association of abnormal renal function with adverse outcome in patients with acute haemorrhagic stroke . MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted at Darbhanga Medical College & Hospital , Laheriasarai , Darbhanga during the period from January 2012 to September 2013 . This was an observational study . A total of 100 patients presenting with acute haemorrhagic stroke admitted to the hospital or reporting in OPD/Emergency for stroke were included in this study after having taken written informed consent . Cases were selected by random sampling . OBSERVATION: Out of 100 patients with acute haemorrhagic stroke 92 patients had intracerebral haemorrhage and 8 patie nts had subarachnoid haemorrhage . Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of estimated glomerular filtration rate ( eGFR . Group A ( eGFR > 60 ml/min/1 . 73 m 2 BSA comprised of 71% of total stroke patients and group B ( eGFR 98umol/L and 15 ( 68 . 60% patients had blood urea >6 . 8mmol/L . CONCLUSION: This study clearly indicated that renal dysfunction as evidenced by ( a eGFR 98umol/L & c Blood urea >6 . 8mmol/L , are not only an important risk factor for acute haemorrhagic stroke but are also an independent predictor of mortality within 30 days of presentation .

  5. Renal Function and NODM in De Novo Renal Transplant Recipients Treated with Standard and Reduced Levels of Tacrolimus in Combination with EC-MPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Information is lacking concerning concomitant administration of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium with tacrolimus (EC-MPS+Tac in renal transplant recipients (RTxR. In this 6-month, prospective, open-label, multicenter study, de novo RTxR were randomized (1 : 1 to low-dose (LD or standard-dose (SD Tac with basiliximab, EC-MPS 720 mg bid, and steroids. Primary objective was to compare renal function at 6-month posttransplantation. Secondary objectives were to compare the incidences of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR, graft loss and death, and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM. 292 patients (LD n=151, SD n=141 were included. Mean Tac levels were at the low end of the target range in standard-exposure patients (SD, n=141 and exceeded target range in low-exposure patients (LD = 151 throughout the study. There was no significant difference in mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR between treatments (ITT-population: 63.6 versus 61.0 mL/min. Incidence of BPAR was similar (10.6% versus 9.9%. NODM was significantly less frequent in LD Tac (17% versus 31%; P=0.02; other adverse effects (AEs were comparable. EC-MPS+Tac (LD/SD was efficacious and well tolerated with well-preserved renal function. No renal function benefits were demonstrated, possibly related to poor adherence to reduced Tac exposure.

  6. Chemistry and biology of Tc-99m renal function agents. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major aim of the project was to develop a Tc-99m renal tubular function radiopharmaceutical. Progress was made in synthesizing and evaluating Tc-99m 2,3-dimercaptoaceta-midoprepanoate (CO2DADS). In animals and clinical studies the A epimer (early component on reversed phase HPLC) demonstrated high efficiency and specificity for renal tubular secretion. We were unable to obtain only the desired stereoisomer. Synthesis of about twenty diamide dimercaptide N2S2 ligand analogs suggested two others that were of comparable efficiency in humans, but with less difference between stereoisomers; Tc-99m 1,3-dimercaptoacetamide-2-hydroxypropane (HoDADS) and 1,8-dithiol- 2,7-dioxo-3,6-diazanonanoate (α -S-CO2DADS). 15 refs

  7. Renal function, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and other adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canga, Ana; Kislikova, Maria; Martínez-Gálvez, María; Arias, Mercedes; Fraga-Rivas, Patricia; Poyatos, Cecilio; de Francisco, Angel L M

    2014-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a fibrosing disorder that affects patients with impaired renal function and is associated with the administration of gadolinium-based contrast media used in MRI. Despite being in a group of drugs that were considered safe, report about this potentially serious adverse reaction was a turning point in the administration guidelines of these contrast media. There has been an attempt to establish safety parameters to identify patients with risk factors of renal failure. The close pharmacovigilance and strict observation of current regulations, with special attention being paid to the value of glomerular filtration, have reduced the published cases involving the use of gadolinium-based contrast media. In a meeting between radiologists and nephrologists we reviewed the most relevant aspects currently and recommendations for its prevention.

  8. Imaging fetal renal function by means of a fast MR imaging sequence with Gd-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in obstetrics has been reported, this modality has not yet been shown to offer more or different information than ultrasound. The authors studied fetal renal function by injecting Gd-DTPA (100 μg/kg) into a fetal lamb indwelling femoral vein catheter at the start of a fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence (repetition time, 06 sec; echo time, 13 msec; flip angle, 400 or 200, one acquisition). Identically positioned images were generated every 8 seconds for 5 minutes and less frequently thereafter. Newborn and older lambs and some adult sheep were similarly studied for comparison. Time-intensity curves from several distinct regions of interest in the kidney demonstrate maturation-related changes in renal handling of the contrast agent

  9. Renal function and morphology in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale M Y Smets

    Full Text Available Objectives of this study were to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (GFR, renal structural changes and proteinuria in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone (HC administration. Eleven Beagle dogs ≥10 years old were treated with either hydrocortisone (HC group, n = 6 or placebo (control group, n = 5. Urinary markers, GFR and kidney biopsies were evaluated before (T0, during (T16 wks and after discontinuing HC administration (T24 wks. Results indicate that HC administration causes a significant increase in GFR. At all time points except T16 wks, proteinuria was higher in the control group than in the HC group, and there was no significant difference in urinary markers between groups. At T16 wks, proteinuria, urinary albumin-to-creatinine (c ratio, immunoglobulin G/c and retinol-binding protein/c were higher compared to baseline in the HC group. At T0, rare to mild renal lesions were detected in all HC dogs and rare to moderate changes in all control dogs. Glomerulosclerosis progressed in both groups until T24 wks. Tubular atrophy was detected in three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, but also in five control dogs throughout the study. At every time point, five HC dogs and all control dogs had rare to moderate interstitial inflammation. Rare to mild interstitial fibrosis was found in up to three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, and severe fibrosis in one HC dog at T24 wks. Up to four control dogs had rare to mild fibrosis at all time points. These findings indicate that clinically healthy, aged Beagle dogs may have considerable renal lesions and proteinuria, which could have implications for experimental or toxicological studies. Additional research is needed to elucidate glucocorticoid effects on renal structure, but functional changes such as hyperfiltration and proteinuria warrant attention to kidney function of canine patients with Cushing's syndrome or receiving exogenous glucocorticoids.

  10. Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Hepatic Venous Outflow and Renal Function after Conventional versus Piggyback Liver Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília D'Elboux Guimarães Brescia

    Full Text Available This randomized prospective clinical trial compared the hepatic venous outflow drainage and renal function after conventional with venovenous bypass (n = 15 or piggyback (n = 17 liver transplantation.Free hepatic vein pressure (FHVP and central venous pressure (CVP measurements were performed after graft reperfusion. Postoperative serum creatinine (Cr was measured daily on the first week and on the 14th, 21st and 28th postoperative days (PO. The prevalence of acute renal failure (ARF up to the 28th PO was analyzed by RIFLE-AKIN criteria. A Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE approach was used for comparison of longitudinal measurements of renal function.FHVP-CVP gradient > 3 mm Hg was observed in 26.7% (4/15 of the patients in the conventional group and in 17.6% (3/17 in the piggyback group (p = 0.68. Median FHVP-CVP gradient was 2 mm Hg (0-8 mmHg vs. 3 mm Hg (0-7 mm Hg in conventional and piggyback groups, respectively (p = 0.73. There is no statistically significant difference between the conventional (1/15 and the piggyback (2/17 groups regarding massive ascites development (p = 1.00. GEE estimated marginal mean for Cr was significantly higher in conventional than in piggyback group (2.14 ± 0.26 vs. 1.47 ± 0.15 mg/dL; p = 0.02. The conventional method presented a higher prevalence of severe ARF during the first 28 PO days (OR = 3.207; 95% CI, 1.010 to 10.179; p = 0.048.Patients submitted to liver transplantation using conventional or piggyback methods present similar results regarding venous outflow drainage of the graft. Conventional with venovenous bypass technique significantly increases the harm of postoperative renal dysfunction.ClinicalTrials.gov https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01707810.

  11. Rapid decline in 51Cr-EDTA measured renal function during the first weeks following lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, M.; Iversen, M.; Steffensen, I.;

    2009-01-01

    We previously described a 54% decline in renal function at 6 months after lung transplantation (LTx). We hypothesized that this decline is a very early event following LTx. Thirty-one consecutive patients (16 females/15 males), mean age 49 (+/-13) years, with emphysema, cystic fibrosis....../bronchiectasis or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were included in an analysis of renal function before and after LTx. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured using the (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid plasma clearance single injection technique (mGFR) at baseline before transplantation and at 1, 2.......0001), acute renal failure within 2 weeks post-LTx (p = 0.0003), use of heart and lung machine (p = 0.04), and the use of ephedrine (p = 0.048), as well as increasing age, older than 18 years at LTx (p = 0.006). These data demonstrate that renal function, measured with an isotope method, decreases dramatically...

  12. Relative renal function estimate by renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA: influence of attenuation correction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Amaro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction – The estimate of relative renal function (RRF through scintigraphy with dimercaptosuccinic acid labelled with Technetium-99 metastable (99mTc-DMSA may be influenced by kidney depth (KD, due to attenuation by soft tissue surrounding the kidneys. Considering that rarely this KD is known, several methods for attenuation correction (AC have been developed, namely those using empirical formulae, such as Raynaud, Taylor or Tonnesen methods, or by direct calculation of the geometric mean (GM. Objectives – To identify the influence of different AC methods on RRF estimateby scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA and to evaluate the respective KD variability. Methods: Thirty-one patients were referred for 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy and underwent the same acquisition protocol. Processing was performed by 2 independent operators, three times per exam, changing for the same processing the methods for the FRR determination: Raynaud’s method, Taylor’s method, Tonnesen´s method, GM and without AC (WAC. Friedman’s test was used to identify the influence of the different AC methods on RRF estimate and Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the association and significance between KD and the variables age, weight and height. Results – Friedman’s test indicated that there were significant differences between methods (p=0.000, except for WAC/Raynaud, Tonnesen/GM and Taylor/GM (p=1.000 comparisons, for both kidneys. Pearson’stest showed a strong positive correlation between weight and the three methods of KD estimation. Conclusions – Taylor’s method, regarding the three methods of KD calculation, is the closest to GM. The choice of the attenuation correction method influences significantly the quantitative parameters of FRR.

  13. Cholesterol-crystal embolism presenting with delayed graft function and impaired long-term function in renal transplant recipients: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliquett Rainer U

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Impaired renal function and/or pre-existing atherosclerosis in the deceased donor increase the risk of delayed graft function and impaired long-term renal function in kidney transplant recipients. Case presentation We report delayed graft function occurring simultaneously in two kidney transplant recipients, aged 57-years-old and 39-years-old, who received renal allografts from the same deceased donor. The 62-year-old donor died of cardiac arrest during an asthmatic state. Renal-allograft biopsies performed in both kidney recipients because of delayed graft function revealed cholesterol-crystal embolism. An empiric statin therapy in addition to low-dose acetylsalicylic acid was initiated. After 10 and 6 hemodialysis sessions every 48 hours, respectively, both renal allografts started to function. Glomerular filtration rates at discharge were 26 ml/min/1.73m2 and 23.9 ml/min/1.73m2, and remained stable in follow-up examinations. Possible donor and surgical procedure-dependent causes for cholesterol-crystal embolism are discussed. Conclusion Cholesterol-crystal embolism should be considered as a cause for delayed graft function and long-term impaired renal allograft function, especially in the older donor population.

  14. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  15. Partial Recovery of Delayed Graft Function due to Cholesterol Emboli after Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackoundou-N'Guessan C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man who received a deceased renal allograft in September 2001. The donor of the allograft was a 54-year-old hypertensive man who expired from intracerebral hemorrhage. Atheroma with hard plaques was present in both renal arteries and aortic patches. After vascular anastomosis and clamp release, the allograft recolo-ration was inadequate, and the patient remained anuric. Computerized tomography scan demonstrated disseminated infarction areas, suggesting cholesterol emboli, which was confirmed later by a graft biopsy. As approximately 50% of the renal parenchyma was perfused, graft nephrectomy was not indicated and dialysis was restarted. Diuresis was over 3000 ml/day and serum creatinine decreased and stabilized at 360 µmol/L by the 32 nd postoperative day. The allograft supported the patient for only two years, and he eventually was successfully retransplanted in June 2003. We believe that delayed graft function due to cholesterol emboli disease may be reversible if areas of infarction are not too large.

  16. ED 04-3 ASSESSMENT OF RENAL FUNCTION DURING FOLLOW UP OF HYPERTENSIVE SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sadayoshi

    2016-09-01

    The presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a strong risk factor not only for end stage kidney disease (ESKD) but also cerebro-cardiovascular disease (CVD). CKD is defined as GFR < 60ml/min/1.73m and/or the evidence of renal damages for more than 3 months. Epidemiological studies have shown that albuminuria even as little as 10mg/gCr is a strong risk factor for CVD, especially stroke. The significance of albuminuria can be recognized when we think of the fact that the amount of albumin in 24 hour-GFR is as large as 6 kg (4.0g/dL × 150 L/day) in normal: why such a miniscule amount of albumin in urine (as little as 10 mg of 6 kg) can be so closely related to CVD even in the presence of normal GFR? We have pointed out that in vital organs such as brain, heart and kidney, there are unique circulatory system where microvessels are branched off directly from large high pressure arteries. We refer these vessel as Strain Vessel, and have shown that close linkage between microalbuminuria CVD is based on strain vessel injuries. In addition, we have recently shown that urine pH is associated with vascular and renal damages. In this lecture, I will discuss the meaning of measurement of urinary protein (albumin) and pH as well as renal function during follow up of hypertensive subjects. PMID:27643069

  17. Does injection of metanephric mesenchymal cells improve renal function in rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-qing Jiao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a massive global health-care problem. Cell therapy offers a potential treatment for CKD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the administration of a population of stem cells could be used to treat adriamycin (ADR-induced glomerulopathy in rats, a form of CKD. We intravenously transplanted metanephric mesenchymal cells (MMCs into rats treated with ADR. We also induced MMC differentiation in vitro using a medium derived from serum and homogenates of ADR-induced glomerulopathy rats. We detected the induction of an early epithelial phenotype (cytokeratin-18 expression and a proximal tubule phenotype (vitamin D receptor expression in vitro, and MMC-derived epithelial cells corresponding to the proximal tubule and glomeruli in vivo. Transplantation of MMCs after induction of glomerulopathy significantly increased the creatinine clearance rate (Ccr, a marker for glomerular filtration rate, but had no significant effect on other parameters (24-hour urinary protein excretion, serum albumin, total cholesterol. In addition, there was no significant difference in blood urea nitrogen or serum creatinine levels in rats with and without ADR administration. Our results indicate that MMCs might survive, engraft and differentiate into renal epithelia in vivo when transplanted into ADR-treated rats. However, further studies are needed to determine whether MMC transplantation improves renal function and causes renal repair in this model.

  18. Renal function affects absorbed dose to the kidneys and haematological toxicity during {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Johanna; Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Waengberg, Bo [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Goeteborg (Sweden); Larsson, Maria [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden); Forssell-Aronsson, Eva; Bernhardt, Peter [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Medical Bioengineering, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2015-05-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has become an important treatment option in the management of advanced neuroendocrine tumours. Long-lasting responses are reported for a majority of treated patients, with good tolerability and a favourable impact on quality of life. The treatment is usually limited by the cumulative absorbed dose to the kidneys, where the radiopharmaceutical is reabsorbed and retained, or by evident haematological toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate how renal function affects (1) absorbed dose to the kidneys, and (2) the development of haematological toxicity during PRRT treatment. The study included 51 patients with an advanced neuroendocrine tumour who received {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment during 2006 - 2011 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg. An average activity of 7.5 GBq (3.5 - 8.2 GBq) was given at intervals of 6 - 8 weeks on one to five occasions. Patient baseline characteristics according to renal and bone marrow function, tumour burden and medical history including prior treatment were recorded. Renal and bone marrow function were then monitored during treatment. Renal dosimetry was performed according to the conjugate view method, and the residence time for the radiopharmaceutical in the whole body was calculated. A significant correlation between inferior renal function before treatment and higher received renal absorbed dose per administered activity was found (p < 0.01). Patients with inferior renal function also experienced a higher grade of haematological toxicity during treatment (p = 0.01). The residence time of {sup 177}Lu in the whole body (range 0.89 - 3.0 days) was correlated with grade of haematological toxicity (p = 0.04) but not with renal absorbed dose (p = 0.53). Patients with inferior renal function were exposed to higher renal absorbed dose per administered activity and developed a higher grade of haematological toxicity during {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment. The study confirms the

  19. Voigt Profile Fitting to Quasar Absorption Lines: A Simple Approximation to the Voigt-Hjerting Function

    CERN Document Server

    García, T T

    2006-01-01

    The Voigt-Hjerting function is fundamental in order to correctly model the profiles of absorption lines imprinted in the spectra of bright background sources (e.g quasars) by intervening neutral hydrogen. In this work we present a simple analytical approximation to this function in the context of intergalactic neutral hydrogen absorption-line profiles. Using basic calculus tools, we derive an expression that contains only fourth order polynomial and Gaussian functions, and that approximates this function with an accuracy better than $10^{-3}$ per cent. In connection with the absorption coefficient of intergalactic neutral hydrogen, $\\tau_{\\mathrm{H I}}(\\lambda)$, this approximation is valid for an arbitrary wavelength baseline, for column densities up to $\

  20. Participation of functionally active plasma cells in acute rejection and response to therapy in renal allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Zeenat Yousuf; Bostwick, David G; Hossain, Deloar; Zeng, Xu

    2014-07-01

    Acute rejection (AR) includes T-cell-mediated and antibody-mediated rejection. The inflammatory infiltrate comprised not only T cells but also varying amounts of B cells (CD20(+)) and plasma cells (CD138(+)). The latter are associated with poor clinical outcomes, but their functional status is not clear. The phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein (p-S6RP) is present in cells that are metabolically active, thus identifying functionally active antibody-secreting plasma cells. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical significance of functionally active p-S6RP plasma cells in AR in renal allografts. Renal allografts with biopsy evidence of AR during 2006-2009 were included. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD20, CD138, and p-S6RP was performed on paraffin-embedded slides and scaled as 0-6. The response to antirejection treatment was assessed by the serum creatinine ratio (CrR) at rejection episode (time 0) and following treatment (4 and 12 weeks). Patients with lower scores (0-2) were compared with a higher scored group (3-6). The T-test was conducted using statistical significance of p<0.05. A total of 28 patients (40.7 ± 14.3 year; M:F=15:13) were diagnosed with acute T-cell-mediated rejection (I and II). The p-S6RP staining in the high-score group had a significantly higher CrR (p<0.05) than the low-score group at the time of biopsy, 4 and 12 weeks following treatment. There was no significant difference in the CrR between groups for CD20 or CD138 staining. Functional antibody-secreting p-S6RP plasma cells are actively participating in AR and associated with poor response to treatment in renal allografts. PMID:24684655

  1. Treatment of pressure ulcers in patients with declining renal function using arginine, glutamine and ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Y; Yuki, N; Sukegane, A; Nishi, T; Miyake, Y; Sato, H; Miyamoto, C; Mihara, C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy on healing pressure ulcers (PU) of using a supplement combination containing arginine, glutamine and ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate, which was given to two elderly patients with renal dysfunction. The PU was surgically opened, decompressed and treated by drugs. A half quantity of the defined dose of the supplement combination, with an enteral nutrition product, was administered to the patients twice a day. This combination improved the PUs, with no effect on renal function. This novel finding may provide a nutritional rationale of arginine, glutamine and ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate for PUs associated with renal dysfunction.

  2. Functional transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 channels along different segments of the renal vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, L; Kaßmann, M; Sendeski, M;

    2015-01-01

    that TRPV1/4 plays a role in endothelium-dependent vasodilation of renal blood vessels. METHODS: We studied the distribution of functional TRPV1/4 along different segments of the renal vasculature. Mesenteric arteries were studied as control vessels. RESULTS: The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin relaxed mouse...... mesenteric arteries with an EC50 of 25 nm, but large mouse renal arteries or rat descending vasa recta only at >100-fold higher concentrations. The vasodilatory effect of capsaicin in the low-nanomolar concentration range was endothelium-dependent and absent in vessels of Trpv1 -/- mice. The TRPV4 agonist...

  3. Long-term follow-up of patients after acute kidney injury: patterns of renal functional recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Macedo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients who survive acute kidney injury (AKI, especially those with partial renal recovery, present a higher long-term mortality risk. However, there is no consensus on the best time to assess renal function after an episode of acute kidney injury or agreement on the definition of renal recovery. In addition, only limited data regarding predictors of recovery are available. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: From 1984 to 2009, 84 adult survivors of acute kidney injury were followed by the same nephrologist (RCRMA for a median time of 4.1 years. Patients were seen at least once each year after discharge until end stage renal disease (ESRD or death. In each consultation serum creatinine was measured and glomerular filtration rate estimated. Renal recovery was defined as a glomerular filtration rate value ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. A multiple logistic regression was performed to evaluate factors independently associated with renal recovery. RESULTS: The median length of follow-up was 50 months (30-90 months. All patients had stabilized their glomerular filtration rates by 18 months and 83% of them stabilized earlier: up to 12 months. Renal recovery occurred in 16 patients (19% at discharge and in 54 (64% by 18 months. Six patients died and four patients progressed to ESRD during the follow up period. Age (OR 1.09, p<0.0001 and serum creatinine at hospital discharge (OR 2.48, p = 0.007 were independent factors associated with non renal recovery. The acute kidney injury severity, evaluated by peak serum creatinine and need for dialysis, was not associated with non renal recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Renal recovery must be evaluated no earlier than one year after an acute kidney injury episode. Nephrology referral should be considered mainly for older patients and those with elevated serum creatinine at hospital discharge.

  4. Renal Perfusion and Function during Pneumoperitoneum: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlé, Michiel C.; Hooijmans, Carlijn R.

    2016-01-01

    Both preclinical and clinical studies indicate that raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) associated with pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgical procedures can cause renal damage, the severity of which may be influenced by variables such as pressure level and duration. Several of these variables have been investigated in animal studies, but synthesis of all preclinical data has not been performed. This systematic review summarizes all available pre-clinical evidence on this topic, including an assessment of its quality and risk of bias. We performed meta-analysis to assess which aspects of the pneumoperitoneum determine the severity of its adverse effects. A systematic search in two databases identified 55 studies on the effect of pneumoperitoneum on renal function which met our inclusion criteria. There was high heterogeneity between the studies regarding study design, species, sex, pressure and duration of pneumoperitoneum, and type of gas used. Measures to reduce bias were poorly reported, leading to an unclear risk of bias in the majority of studies. Details on randomisation, blinding and a sample size calculation were not reported in ≥80% of the studies. Meta-analysis showed an overall increase in serum creatinine during pneumoperitoneum, and a decrease in urine output and renal blood flow. Subgroup analysis indicated that for serum creatinine, this effect differed between species. Subgroup analysis of pressure level indicated that urine output decreased as IAP level increased. No differences between types of gas were observed. Data were insufficient to reliably assess whether sex or IAP duration modulate the effect of pneumoperitoneum. Four studies assessing long-term effects indicated that serum creatinine normalized ≥24 hours after desufflation of pneumoperitoneum at 15mmHg. We conclude that harmful effects on renal function and perfusion during pneumoperitoneum appear to be robust, but evidence on long-term effects is very limited. The

  5. Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Renal Function in Obese Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhibin; Di, Jianzhong; Han, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Weijie; Ren, Qinggui; Zhang, Pin

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is an independent risk factor of development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on the benefits of bariatric surgery in obese patients with impaired kidney function have been conflicting. Objective To explore whether there is improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria or albuminuria after bariatric surgery. Methods We comprehensively searched the databases of MEDLINE, Embase, web of science and Cochrane for randomized, controlled trials and observational studies that examined bariatric surgery in obese subjects with impaired kidney function. Outcomes included the pre- and post-bariatric surgery GFR, proteinuria and albuminuria. In obese patients with hyperfiltration, we draw conclusions from studies using measured GFR (inulin or iothalamate clearance) unadjusted for BSA only. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results 32 observational studies met our inclusion criteria, and 30 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No matter in dichotomous data or in dichotomous data, there were statistically significant reduction in hyperfiltration, albuminuria and proteinuria after bariatric surgery. Limitations The main limitation of this meta-analysis is the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Another limitation is the lack of long-term follow-up. Conclusions Bariatric surgery could prevent further decline in renal function by reducing proteinuria, albuminuria and improving glomerular hyperfiltration in obese patients with impaired renal function. However, whether bariatric surgery reverses CKD or delays ESRD progression is still in question, large, randomized prospective studies with a longer follow-up are needed. PMID:27701452

  6. The changes in renal function after a single dose of intravenous furosemide in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mejirisky Yoram; kayal Mohib; Assy Nimer; Gorenberg Miguel; Hussein Osamah; Schlesinger Sorina

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with compensated Child-A cirrhosis have sub clinical hypovolemia and diuretic treatment could result in renal impairment. Aim To evaluate the changes in renal functional mass as reflected by DMSA uptake after single injection of intravenous furosemide in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis. Methods Eighteen cirrhotic patients were divided in two groups; eight patients (group 1, age 56 ± 9.6 yrs, Gender 5M/3F, 3 alcoholic and 5 non alcoholic) were given low i...

  7. Comparing Heparin-Coated and Non-Coated Oxygenators on Renal Functions in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bektaş Battaloğlu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal damage and subsequent acute renal failure is one of the most important complications in patients who had cardiac surgery. Multicenter studies with thousands of patients which exposed the risk factors for acute renal failure has been published especially in the last decade. This study is designed for evaluation of heparin-coated and non-coated oxygenators on the renal functions. Methods: This study has been performed prospectively with 50 patients who had undergone coronary bypass surgery in our clinic from March 2006 to September 2006. The patients have been divided into two groups as non-coated oxygenators (n = 25, Group 1 used and heparin-coated oxygenators (n = 25, Group 2 used. Blood samples were collected at the preoperative, and at 1st, 24th and 96th postoperative hours. The demographic data were similar in two groups. Results: There was no early mortality in both groups. Operative and postoperative parameters were similar in both groups. There were no statistical differences between the evaluated parameters like BUN, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, phosphorus, urine protein, creatinine clearence, urine sodium, urine calcium and urine chloride tests at preoperative period in both groups. We did not detect renal dysfunction in any patients. There are no statistical differences in the creatinine clearance in preoperative and postoperative periods in both groups. In group one, creatinin levels were lower than group two at 24 hours after surgery and these differences were statistically important in two groups. We found no significant difference between two groups regarding the other parameters for renal function during the postoperative period. Conclusion: In this study, there were not any significant difference between coated and non-coated oxygenators’ effects over renal functions of patients whose renal functions were normal preoperatively.

  8. Association between microalbuminuria and subclinical atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid artery intima-media in elderly patients with normal renal function

    OpenAIRE

    Kong XiangLei; Jia XiaoYan; Wei Yong; Cui MeiYu; Wang ZunSong; Tang LiJun; Li WenBin; Zhu ZhuXian; Chen Ping; Xu DongMei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Moderate to severe renal insufficiency and albuminuria have been shown to be independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the direct association between subclinical atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and microalbuminuria in elderly patients with normal renal function. Methods Subjects were 272 elderly patients (age  ≥ 60 years) with normoalbuminuria (n = 238) and microalbuminuria (n = 34). Carotid IMT wa...

  9. Effect of naringin on hemodynamic changes and left ventricular function in renal artery occluded renovascular hypertension in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Asjad Visnagri; Mohammad Adil; Amit D Kandhare; Subhash L. Bodhankar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal artery occlusion (RAO) induced hypertension is a major health problem associated with structural and functional variations of the renal and cardiac vasculature. Naringin a flavanone glycoside derived possesses metal-chelating, antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive activity of naringin in RAO induced hypertension in rats. Material and Methods: Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were divided...

  10. Value of detection of myocardial enzymes, troponin T, liver and renal function in children with severe pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Wang; Bin Wang; Lin Fu; Xue Ren

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the significance of myocardial enzymes, cardiac troponin T (Troponin T, cTnT), liver and renal function in children with severe pneumonia. Methods:A total of 164 children with pneumonia who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2014 to March, 2015 were included in the study and divided into the severe pneumonia group (n=82) and the common pneumonia group (n=82). The myocardial enzymes (AST,α-HBDH, LD, CK-MB), troponin T, and liver and renal function indicators (UCr, Alb, ALT) in the two groups were observed and compared. According to the arterial partial pressure of oxygen, the children with severe pneumonia were divided into the varying degrees of hypoxia groups, i.e. mild hypoxia group, moderate hypoxia group, and severe hypoxia group. The myocardial enzymes, troponin T, and liver and renal function in the three groups were compared. The correlation of partial pressure of blood oxygen with myocardial enzymes, troponin T, and liver and renal function was analyzed. Results:In the severe pneumonia group, the myocardial enzymes AST, LD, CK, HBDH, CK-MB was significantly higher than that in the ordinary pneumonia group;UCr, Alb ALT troponin T was significantly higher than that in the ordinary pneumonia group;With the increasing hypoxia degree, the levels of myocardial enzymes, troponin T, and liver and renal function indicators in the mild hypoxia group, moderate hypoxia group, and severe hypoxia group were elevated. In the severe pneumonia group, the partial pressure of blood oxygen was negatively correlated with myocardial enzymes, troponin T, and liver and renal function. Conclusions:Timely monitoring of the levels of myocardial enzymes, troponin T, and liver and renal function indicators in the clinic is extremely crucial to evaluate the progression in children with severe pneumonia.

  11. Renal function three years after early conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor to everolimus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mjörnstedt, Lars; Schwartz Sørensen, Søren; von Zur Mühlen, Bengt;

    2015-01-01

    In a 36-month, open-label, multicenter trial, 202 kidney transplant recipients were randomized at week 7 post-transplant to convert to everolimus or remain on cyclosporine: 182 were analyzed to month 36 (92 everolimus, 90 controls). Mean (SD) change in measured GFR (mGFR) from randomization to mo......, but discontinuation was more frequent with everolimus (33.7% vs. 10.0%). Conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus at 7 weeks post-transplant was associated with a significant benefit in renal function at 3 years when everolimus was continued....

  12. The Impact of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Renal Function in Children with Overweight/Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Lucia; Bonci, Enea; Andreoli, Gian Marco; Di Martino, Michele; Gallozzi, Alessia; De Luca, Ester; Chiesa, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic kidney disease has attracted interest and attention over recent years. However, no data are available in children. We determined whether children with NAFLD show signs of renal functional alterations, as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin excretion. We studied 596 children with overweight/obesity, 268 with NAFLD (hepatic fat fraction ≥5% on magnetic resonance imaging) and 328 without NAFLD, and 130 healthy normal-weight controls. Decreased GFR was defined as eGFR disease. PMID:27472326

  13. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy--repercussion on cardiovascular and renal functioning of male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L B Lima

    Full Text Available Changes in the maternal environment can induce fetal adaptations that result in the progression of chronic diseases in the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal chronic sleep restriction on blood pressure, renal function and cardiac baroreflex response on male offspring at adult age. Female 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: control (C and chronic sleep restricted (CSR. Pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal smear. Chronic sleep restricted females were subjected to sleep restriction by the multiple platform technique for 20 h daily, between the 1st and 20th day of pregnancy. After birth, the litters were reduced to 6 rats per mother, and were designated as offspring from control (OC and offspring from chronic sleep restricted (OCSR. Indirect blood pressure (BPi - tail cuff was measured by plethysmography in male offspring at 3 months old. Following, the renal function and cardiac baroreflex response were analyzed. Values of BPi in OCSR were significantly higher compared to OC [OC: 127 ± 2.6 (19; OCSR: 144 ± 2.5 (17 mmHg]. The baroreflex sensitivity to the increase of blood pressure was reduced in OCSR [Slope: OC: -2.6 ± 0.15 (9; OCRS: -1.6 ± 0.13 (9]. Hypothalamic activity of ACE2 was significantly reduced in OCSR compared to OC [OC: 97.4 ± 15 (18; OSR: 60.2 ± 3.6 (16 UAF/min/protein mg]. Renal function alteration was noticed by the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR observed in OCSR [OC: 6.4 ± 0.2 (10; OCSR: 7.4 ± 0.3 (7]. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy caused in the offspring hypertension, altered cardiac baroreflex response, reduced ACE-2 activity in the hypothalamus and renal alterations. Our data suggest that the reduction of sleeping time along the pregnancy is able to modify maternal homeostasis leading to functional alterations in offspring.

  14. Chronic Sleep Restriction during Pregnancy - Repercussion on Cardiovascular and Renal Functioning of Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ingrid L. B.; Rodrigues, Aline F. A. C.; Bergamaschi, Cássia T.; Campos, Ruy R.; Hirata, Aparecida E.; Tufik, Sergio; Xylaras, Beatriz D. P.; Visniauskas, Bruna; Chagas, Jair R.; Gomes, Guiomar N.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the maternal environment can induce fetal adaptations that result in the progression of chronic diseases in the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal chronic sleep restriction on blood pressure, renal function and cardiac baroreflex response on male offspring at adult age. Female 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: control (C) and chronic sleep restricted (CSR). Pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal smear. Chronic sleep restricted females were subjected to sleep restriction by the multiple platform technique for 20 h daily, between the 1st and 20th day of pregnancy. After birth, the litters were reduced to 6 rats per mother, and were designated as offspring from control (OC) and offspring from chronic sleep restricted (OCSR). Indirect blood pressure (BPi – tail cuff) was measured by plethysmography in male offspring at 3 months old. Following, the renal function and cardiac baroreflex response were analyzed. Values of BPi in OCSR were significantly higher compared to OC [OC: 127±2.6 (19); OCSR: 144±2.5 (17) mmHg]. The baroreflex sensitivity to the increase of blood pressure was reduced in OCSR [Slope: OC: −2.6±0.15 (9); OCRS: −1.6±0.13 (9)]. Hypothalamic activity of ACE2 was significantly reduced in OCSR compared to OC [OC: 97.4±15 (18); OSR: 60.2±3.6 (16) UAF/min/protein mg]. Renal function alteration was noticed by the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) observed in OCSR [OC: 6.4±0.2 (10); OCSR: 7.4±0.3 (7)]. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy caused in the offspring hypertension, altered cardiac baroreflex response, reduced ACE-2 activity in the hypothalamus and renal alterations. Our data suggest that the reduction of sleeping time along the pregnancy is able to modify maternal homeostasis leading to functional alterations in offspring. PMID:25405471

  15. Associations between plasma tenofovir concentration and renal function markers in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwila Mulubwa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF has been associated with kidney tubulardys function and reduced renal function. Limited studies were performed in Europe and Asia that related plasma tenofovir (TFV concentration with renal function; no such studies to date have been performed on Africans.Objective: To investigate the correlation between plasma tenofovir (TFV concentration and certain renal function markers in HIV-infected women on TDF antiretroviral therapy (ART.These markers were also compared to a HIV-uninfected control group.Methods: HIV-infected women (n = 30 on TDF-based ART were matched with 30 controls forage and body mass index. Renal markers analysed were estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, creatinine clearance (CrCl, serum creatinine, albuminuria, glucosuria, serum urea, serum uric acid, urine sodium and maximum tubular reabsorption of phosphate. Baseline eGFR and CrCl data were obtained retrospectively for the HIV-infected women. Plasma TFV was assayed using a validated HPLC-MS/MS method. Step wise regression, Mann–Whitney test, unpaired and paired t-tests were applied in the statistical analyses.Results: TFV concentration was independently associated with albuminuria (adjusted r2 = 0.339; p = 0.001 in HIV-infected women. In the adjusted (weight analysis, eGFR (p = 0.038,CrCl (p = 0.032 and albuminuria (p = 0.048 were significantly higher in HIV-infected compared to the uninfected women, but eGFR was abnormally high in HIV-infected women. Both eGFR (p < 0.001 and CrCl (p = 0.008 increased from baseline to follow-up in HIV-infected women.Conclusion: Plasma TFV concentration was associated with increased albuminuria in HIV infected women in this sub-study. Both eGFR and CrCl were increased in HIV-infected women from baseline. These findings should be confirmed in larger studies, and hyperfiltration in HIV-infected women warrants further investigation.

  16. Effects of Acute Grayanotoxin-I Administration on Hepatic and Renal Functions in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    AŞÇIOĞLU, Meral

    2000-01-01

    The effects of acute Grayanotoxin-I (GTX-I) administration on hepatic and renal functions in rats were investigated. GTX-I was administrated to the animals of groups 1, 2 and 3 at a single i.p. dose of 1 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg and 0.25 mg/kg respectively, and group 4 (control) received i.p. saline (0.9 %) solution only. One hour following the administration of GTX-I or saline, urine analysis (leukocytes, urobilinogen, protein, pH, blood, ketone, glucose, nitrites) was performed and serum...

  17. Change in renal function after sodium phosphate preparation for screening colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong; Choon; Seol; Sung; Noh; Hong; Jeong; Hwan; Kim; In; Kyung; Sung; Hyung; Seok; Park; Jung; Hyun; Lee; Chan; Sup; Shim

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the changes in renal function at 12-24 mo in patients following sodium phosphate(NaP) preparation for screening colonoscopy.METHODS:We carried out a retrospective study on the results from patients who received health check-up services as part of an employer-provided wellness program performed between August 2006 and May 2008 and who were followed up for 12-24 mo.Prior to screening colonoscopy,224 patients underwent bowel cleansing with NaP(NaP group) and 113 patients with polyethylene gl...

  18. Renal function parameters of Thai vegans compared with non-vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-01-01

    In Asia, vegetarianism is a well-established eating behavior. It appears that the adoption of a vegan diet leads to a lessening of several health risk factors. Although vegetarianism has some notable effects on the hematological system, the effect on the nephrological system has not been well clarified. The pattern of renal function parameters was studied in 25 Thai vegans compared with 25 non-vegetarians. Of the studied parameters, it was found that urine protein was significantly different (p vegans and controls. Vegans had significantly lower urine protein level.

  19. Polarized Synchrotron Emissivities and Absorptivities for Relativistic Thermal, Power-Law, and Kappa Distribution Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Pandya, Alex; Chandra, Mani; Gammie, Charles F

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron emission and absorption determine the observational appearance of many astronomical systems. In this paper, we describe a numerical scheme for calculating synchrotron emissivities and absorptivities in all four Stokes parameters for arbitrary gyrotropic electron distribution functions, building on earlier work by Leung, Gammie, and Noble. We use this technique to evaluate the emissivities and the absorptivities for a thermal (Maxwell-J\\"uttner), isotropic power-law, and isotropic kappa distribution function. The latter contains a power-law tail at high particle energies that smoothly merges with a thermal core at low energies, as is characteristic of observed particle spectra in collisionless plasmas. We provide fitting formulae and error bounds on the fitting formulae for use in codes that solve the radiative transfer equation. The numerical method and the fitting formulae are implemented in a compact C library called ${\\tt symphony}$. We find that: the kappa distribution has a source function th...

  20. Effects of PEG-PLA-nano artificial cells containing hemoglobin on kidney function and renal histology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun Chang; Chang, Thomas M S

    2008-01-01

    This study is to investigate the long-term effects of PEG-PLA nano artificial cells containing hemoglobin (NanoRBC) on renal function and renal histology after 1/3 blood volume top loading in rats. The experimental rats received one of the following infusions: NanoRBC in Ringer lactate, Ringer lactate, stroma-free hemoglobin (SFHB), polyhemoglobin (PolyHb), autologous rat whole blood (rat RBC). Blood samples were taken before infusions and on days 1, 7 and 21 after infusions for biochemistry analysis. Rats were sacrificed on day 21 after infusions and kidneys were excised for histology examination. Infusion of SFHB induced significant decrease in renal function damage evidenced by elevated serum urea, creatinine and uric acid throughout the 21 days. Kidney histology in SFHb infusion group revealed focal tubular necrosis and intraluminal cellular debris in the proximal tubules, whereas the glomeruli were not observed damaged. In all the other groups, NanoRBC, PolyHb, Ringer lactate and rat RBC, there were no abnormalities in renal biochemistry or histology. In conclusion, injection of NanoRBC did not have adverse effects on renal function nor renal histology.

  1. CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and improves neurological functions in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-jing Xie; Hong-quan Yu; Yu Zhang; Qun Liu; Hong-mei Meng

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes are positively associated with hematoma absorption. The monocyte-macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163, plays an important role in the metabolism of hemoglobin, and a soluble form of CD163 is present in plasma and other tissue lfuids;therefore, we speculated that serum CD163 affects hematoma absorption after intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were divided into high-and low-level groups according to the average CD163 level (1,977.79 ± 832.91 ng/mL). Compared with the high-level group, the low-level group had a signiifcantly slower hematoma absorption rate, and signiifcantly increased National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores and modiifed Rankin Scale scores. These results suggest that CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and the recovery of neurological function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

  2. Effect of Losartan on the Cardiac and Renal Function in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To explore the effect of losartan on cardiac and renal function in patients with chronic heart failure (CI-IF). Methods Sixty-five patients with CHF were divided into two groups using a randomized, control and single blind method: losartan group ( n = 30) and convention group ( n = 35 ), with a treatment course of 8 weeks for both groups. The concentrations of cystatin C (cys C) in serum, microamount albumin (MA) in urine were measured by immunoturbidimetry. The concentration of aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) was determined by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the heart contractile function was measured by echocardiography before and after treatment respectively. Results Comparing with routine treatment group, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDd) decreased significantly, while left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening ( LVFS ) increased significantly in losartan group. The levels of cys C in serum and MA, AQP-2 in urine were significantly lower in losartan group than in routine treatment group. Conclusion Losartan can improve cardiac and renal function in patients with CHF.

  3. Safety of Eplerenone for Kidney-Transplant Recipients with Impaired Renal Function and Receiving Cyclosporine A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Bertocchio

    Full Text Available Animal studies have highlighted the role of vascular mineralocorticoid receptor during Cyclosporine A-induced nephrotoxicity. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists could improve kidney survival but are not commonly used during renal impairment and in association with several immunosuppressive drugs due to a supposed higher risk of adverse events. We tested the tolerance of eplerenone according to its expected adverse events: hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, hypotension, acute kidney failure, or any other adverse event.We conducted a single-center, prospective, open-label study in 31 kidney-transplant recipients with impaired renal function (30 and 50 mL/min/1.73m2 and receiving cyclosporine A. All patients received eplerenone 25 mg/d for 8 weeks. Serum potassium, renal function and expected adverse events were closely monitored.Eight patients experienced mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L, one moderate hyperkalemia (>5.5 mmol/L and had to receive potassium-exchange resin. No severe hyperkalemia (>6 mmol/L occurred. One acute kidney failure was observed, secondary to diarrhea. Basal serum potassium and bicarbonate were independently associated with a higher risk of developing mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L under treatment (OR 6.5, p = 0.003 and 0.7, p = 0.007, respectively. A cut-off value of 4.35 mmol/L for basal serum potassium was the best factor to predict the risk of developing mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L.Until eGFR falls to 30 mL/min/1.73m2, eplerenone could be safely given to kidney-transplant recipients receiving cyclosporine A, if kalemia is closely monitored. When renal function is impaired and if basal kalemia is >4.35 mmol/L, then clinicians should properly balance risk and benefit of eplerenone use and offer dietary advice. An adequately powered prospective randomized study is now needed to test its efficiency (and safety in this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01834768.

  4. Evaluation of factors causing delayed graft function in live related donor renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence and determinants of delayed graft function due to post-transplant acute tubular necrosis in live related donor renal transplantation. This is a retrospective study of 337 recipients of live related donor renal graft performed between1986 and 2006. Of these recipients, 24 (7.1% subjects developed delayed graft function with no evidence of acute rejection, cyclosporin toxicity, vascular catastrophe or obstructive cause and had evidence of acute tubular necrosis (ATN Group. These subjects were compared with recipients (n= 313, 92.9% who had no clinical or biochemical evidence of ATN. Mean age, and gender distribution of recipients was similar in the two groups (ATN group 35.7 ± 8.3, non-ATN group 34.3 ± 7.5, P= 0.43. Gender distribution of the recipients (men 279, 89.1% vs. 21, 87.5%, P= 0.80 as well as donors (women 221, 70.6% vs. 18, 75.0%, P= 0.75 was also similar. In ATN group as compared with non-ATN group the donor age was significantly greater (56.6 ± 8.3 vs. 46.6 ± 11.2 years, P< 0.0001. There was marginal difference in pre-operative systolic BP (154.5 ± 18.3 vs. 147.4 ± 20.2 mm Hg, P= 0.077 and significant difference in diastolic BP (87.8 ± 9.5 vs. 83.4 ± 11.4 mmHg, P= 0.041. Incidence of multiple renal arteries was similar (16.7% vs. 7.3%, P= 0.22. The warm ischemia time was significantly greater in ATN group (33.3 ± 6.2 min as compared to non-ATN group (30.4 ± 5.7 min, P= 0.042. Duration of hospital stay was more in ATN group (19.9 ± 6.7 vs. 16.8 ± 8.4 days, P= 0.04 but there was no difference in 1 year survival (284 subjects, 90.7% vs. 21 subjects, 87.5%, P= 0.873. This study shows that greater donor age, higher baseline diastolic BP and greater warm ischemia time are major determinants of delayed graft function due to acute tubular necrosis after related donor renal transplantation.

  5. Long-term effects of pediatric extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy on renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Y

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yigit Akin,1 Selcuk Yucel21Department of Urology, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa, Turkey; 2Department of Urology, Acibadem University School of Medicine, Istanbul, TurkeyIntroduction: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is a well-known and successful treatment modality. In addition, it can be used in premature infants. ESWL is used to treat kidney and ureter stones in children. However, although it is a preferred noninvasive treatment in that setting, there is debate about its long-term effects on growing kidneys in children.Objectives: To investigate the long-term effects of pediatric ESWL on renal function in light of updated literature.Methods: PubMed and Medline were searched for studies on ESWL in a pediatric population with keywords including efficacy, child, kidney calculi, ureter calculi, lithotripsy, injury, vascular trauma, and shock waves. The research was limited to the English literature during a period from 1980 to 2014. In total, 3,000 articles were evaluated, but only 151 papers were considered. Only the manuscripts directly related to the reviewed subjects were included in the current study.Results: However, the acute effects of ESWL in kidney are well-described. Although there are limited studies on the long-term effects of ESWL in children, there is a widespread opinion that ESWL is not affecting renal functions in the long-term.Conclusion: ESWL is a safe, effective, and noninvasive treatment option in children. Although ESWL can cause some acute effects in the kidney, there is no long-term effect on the growing kidneys of children.Keywords: child, lithotripsy, nephrolithiasis, renal injury, vascular trauma

  6. THE EFFECTS OF REGULAR AEROBIC EXERCISE ON RENAL FUNCTIONS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Kurdak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is a feared complication of diabetes since it can lead to end-stage renal failure and also it is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The important clinical problems caused by diabetic nephropathy are proteinuria and decreased renal function. Exercise is a cornerstone of diabetes management, along with diet and medication. Since acute exercise causes proteinuria and decreases glomerular filtration rate, the effect of exercise on diabetic nephropathy is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of regular aerobic exercise on microalbuminuria and glomerular filtration rate in diabetic rats. Moderate diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg IV in rats and an aerobic exercise- training program on a treadmill was carried out for 8 weeks. Four groups of rats; control sedentary (CS, control exercise (CE, diabetic sedentary (DS and diabetic exercise (DE were included in the study. Blood glucose levels were determined from the plasma samples taken at the end of 4 weeks of stabilization period and 8 weeks of training program. Creatinine clearance (CCr and microalbuminuria (MA levels were determined to evaluate renal functions. The analyzed data revealed that regular aerobic exercise: 1 significantly decreased the plasma glucose level of the DE group compared to the DS group (p < 0.05, 2 significantly decreased the microalbuminuria level of the DE group compared to those of DS group (p < 0.01, 3 significantly decreased the creatinine clearance levels of the DE and CE groups compared to those of CS group (p < 0.05. The results of this study suggest that despite of decreasing creatinine clearance, regular submaximal aerobic exercise has a preventive effect on development of microalbuminuria and thus may retard nephropathy in diabetic rats

  7. ENDOTOXIN ADSORPTION IN SEPSIS IN PATIENTS AFTER RENAL TRANSPLANTATION AND GRAFT FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vatazin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the influence of endotoxin adsorption on graft function and mortality. Methods: we analy- zed the results of treatment of 90 patients with bacterial complications after renal transplantation and compared them with retrospective group of patients, who didn’t undergo endotoxin adsorption. Results: the use of endo- toxin adsorption led to significant improvement of graft function and intraorganic microcirculation in compa- rison with retrospective group, treated without endotoxin adsorption. Survival was higher in the intervention group. However, endotoxin adsorption did not affect patient survival when multiple organ failure developed. Conclusion: when infectious complications developed, endotoxin adsorption is able to improve the graft function and recipient survival significantly. The earliest application of this procedure is recommended. 

  8. Differential renal function measured by 99Tcm-DTPA and 99Tcm-DMSA in a complete unilateral renal obstruction rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiele, C; Everaert, K; van der Eecken, H; van Haelst, J P; Simons, M; Dierckx, R A

    1997-11-01

    We performed a prospective study to determine whether 99Tcm-DTPA differential renal function (DRF) in the case of acute obstruction in a unipapillary kidney rat model shows a similar pattern of results as 99Tcm-DMSA in a multipapillary kidney model, and to exclude recirculation or a block of tubular transport of DMSA which might explain the discrepancy reported by Kelleher et al. In 15 male and 4 female Wistar rats (weight 300-350 g), 99Tcm-DMSA renal uptake was measured 24 h before complete obstruction of the right ureter, which served as reference values. Twenty-four hours after obstruction, 99Tcm-DTPA (18.5 MBq) renography and 99Tcm-DMSA (111 MBq) non-depth-corrected renal uptake measurements were performed in the 15 male rats; in the 4 female rats, 740 MBq of 99Tcm-DMSA were injected and absolute, non-depth-corrected renal uptake measured at 24, 48 and 72 h. 99Tcm-DMSA DRF of the right kidney ranged from 48 to 55% (mu: 51%; sigma: 2%) before obstruction and from 14 to 35% (mu: 24%; sigma: 6%) after obstruction, whereas 99Tcm-DTPA DRF ranged from 16 to 30% (mu: 25%; sigma: 4%). No significant differences were found between DRF measured by 99Tcm-DMSA and 99Tcm-DTPA (P = 0.18), or between DRF of the obstructed kidney as measured by 99Tcm-DMSA at 24, 48 and 72 h (P > 0.2). Hypothetically, the discrepancy between our findings and those of Kelleher et al. may be due to intratubular pressure. In conclusion, the present findings and those of Kelleher et al. suggest the differences in DRF following complete unilateral renal obstruction, as determined by DTPA and DMSA, are probably species-specific. Furthermore, recirculation and block of tubular transport are unlikely to contribute significantly to differences in DRF as measured by the two radiopharmaceuticals.

  9. Lovastatin protects mithochondrial and renal function in kidney ischemia-reperfusion in rats Lovastatina protege a função renal e mitocondrial na isquemia/reperfusão renal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Junior

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of lovastatin on renal ischemia followed by reperfusion. METHODS: Thirty one Wistar rats submitted to left renal ischemia for 60 minutes followed by contralateral nephrectomy were divided into two groups: A (n =17, control, no treatment, and B (n=14, lovastatin 15 mg/kg/day p.o. ten days before ischemia. The animals were sacrificed at the end of ischemia, after 24 hours and at seven days after reperfusion. Survival, serum urea and creatinine levels and renal mitochondrial function were evaluated. RESULTS: Mortality was 29.4% in group A and 0.7% in group B. Urea and creatinine levels were increased in both groups, but the values were significantly lower in group B. Mitochondrial function showed decoupling in 83.4% of group A, as opposed to 38.4/% of group B. CONCLUSIONS: The result shows a protective action of renal function by lovastatin administered before ischemia/reperfusion. Since most of the mitochondrial fraction presented membranes with the ability to maintain ATP production in group B, stabilization of the mitochondrial membrane should be considered as part of the protective action of lovastatin on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion.OBJETIVO: Investigar a ação da lovastatina na isquemia renal seguida de reperfusão. MÉTODOS: Trinta e um ratos Wistar submetidos à isquemia renal esquerda durante 60 minutos, seguida da nefrectomia contralateral, foram distribuídos em dois grupos: A (n=17, controle, sem tratamento e B (n=14, recebendo 15 mg/Kg/dia de lovastatina via oral, durante os dez dias que antecederam a isquemia. Os animais foram mortos ao final da isquemia, e com 24 horas e sete dias após a reperfusão. Foram avaliadas a sobrevida, os valores séricos de uréia e creatinina e a função mitocondrial renal. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade foi 29,4% no grupo A e 0,7% no grupo B. Os níveis de uréia e creatinina elevaram-se nos dois grupos, mas foram significativamente menores no grupo B. No grupo

  10. Green tea inhibited the elimination of nephro-cardiovascular toxins and deteriorated the renal function in rats with renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Hsuan Peng; Sweet, Douglas H.; Shiuan-Pey Lin; Chung-Ping Yu; Pei-Dawn Lee Chao; Yu-Chi Hou

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are highly protein-bound nephro-cardiovascular toxins, which are not efficiently removed through hemodialysis. The renal excretions of IS and PCS were mediated by organic anion transporters (OATs) such as OAT1 and OAT3. Green tea (GT) is a popular beverage containing plenty of catechins. Previous pharmacokinetic studies of teas have shown that the major molecules present in the bl...

  11. Hypomagnesemia is a risk factor for nonrecovery of renal function and mortality in AIDS patients with acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M S Biagioni; Seguro, A C; Andrade, L

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of electrolyte disturbances in AIDS patients developing acute kidney injury in the hospital setting, as well as to determine whether such disturbances constitute a risk factor for nephrotoxic and ischemic injury. A prospective, observational cohort study was carried out. Hospitalized AIDS patients were evaluated for age; gender; coinfection with hepatitis; diabetes mellitus; hypertension; time since HIV seroconversion; CD4 count; HIV viral load; proteinuria; serum levels of creatinine, urea, sodium, potassium and magnesium; antiretroviral use; nephrotoxic drug use; sepsis; intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and the need for dialysis. Each of these characteristics was correlated with the development of acute kidney injury, with recovery of renal function and with survival. Fifty-four patients developed acute kidney injury: 72% were males, 59% had been HIV-infected for >5 years, 72% had CD4 counts dialysis, sepsis and hypomagnesemia were all significantly associated with nonrecovery of renal function and with mortality. Nonrecovery of renal function was significantly associated with hypomagnesemia, as was mortality in the multivariate analysis. The risks for nonrecovery of renal function and for death were 6.94 and 6.92 times greater, respectively, for patients with hypomagnesemia. In hospitalized AIDS patients, hypomagnesemia is a risk factor for nonrecovery of renal function and for in-hospital mortality. To determine whether hypomagnesemia is a determinant or simply a marker of critical illness, further studies involving magnesium supplementation in AIDS patients are warranted.

  12. Assessment of renal function in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction using 99mTc-MAG3 dynamic scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantawy Mohammed N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal scintigraphy using 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3 is widely used for the assessment of renal function in humans. However, the application of this method to animal models of renal disease is currently limited, especially in rodents. Here, we have applied 99mTc-MAG3 renal scintigraphy to a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO and evaluated its utility in studying obstructive renal disease. Methods UUO mice were generated by complete ligation of the left ureter. Sham-operated mice were used as a control. Renal function was investigated on days 0, 1, 3, and 6 post-surgery using dynamic planar imaging of 99mTc-MAG3 activity following retro-orbital injection. Time-activity curves (TACs were produced for individual kidneys and renal function was assessed by 1 the slope of initial 99mTc-MAG3 uptake (SIU, which is related to renal perfusion; 2 peak activity; and 3 the time-to-peak (TTP. The parameters of tubular excretion were not evaluated in this study as 99mTc-MAG3 is not excreted from UUO kidneys. Results Compared to sham-operated mice, SIU was remarkably (>60% reduced in UUO kidneys at day 1 post surgery and the TACs plateaued, indicating that 99mTc-MAG3 is not excreted in these kidneys. The plateau activity in UUO kidneys was relatively low (~40% of sham kidney’s peak activity as early as day1 post surgery, demonstrating that uptake of 99mTc-MAG3 is rapidly reduced in UUO kidneys. The time to plateau in UUO kidneys exceeded 200 sec, suggesting that 99mTc-MAG3 is slowly up-taken in these kidneys. These changes advanced as the disease progressed. SIU, peak activity and TTPs were minimally changed in contra-lateral kidneys during the study period. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that renal uptake of 99mTc-MAG3 is remarkably and rapidly reduced in UUO kidneys, while the changes are minimal in contra-lateral kidneys. The parametric analysis of TACs suggested that renal perfusion as well as tubular

  13. Quantitation of renal function with 99Tcm-DMSA. A comparison with creatinine clearance in children with single kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillet, G; Gagnadoux, M F; De Vernejoul, P; Broyer, M

    1985-11-01

    To study the accuracy of renal function quantification with 99Tcm-DMSA we compared DMSA renal uptake and creatinine clearance in 16 cases of children with single kidney. The age of the patients ranged from two months to fourteen years. Creatinine clearance was normalized to 1.73 m2. DMSA uptake was measured 7 h after intravenous injection. Background subtraction was used and soft tissue attenuation was taken into account. The uptake was normalized in percentage of the injected activity. A significant correlation was found between creatinine clearance and DMSA uptake (rt = 0.866, p less than 0.01). Normal creatinine clearance range in children (80 to 120 ml min-1/1.73 m2) allowed determination of normal uptake range (36 to 60%). This study indicates that in case of asymmetrical renal impairment renal uptake will reflect split renal creatinine clearance. Since the former is much easier to measure, DMSA should play an important role in the evaluation of differential renal function.

  14. Dietary Energy Density, Renal Function, and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Rouhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is evidence of the association between dietary energy density and chronic diseases. However, no report exists regarding the relation between DED and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Objective. To examine the association between dietary energy density (DED, renal function, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Three nephrology clinics. Subjects. Two hundred twenty-one subjects with diagnosed CKD. Main Outcome Measure. Dietary intake of patients was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. DED (in kcal/g was calculated with the use of energy content and weight of solid foods and energy yielding beverages. Renal function was measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine (Cr, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. Results. Patients in the first tertile of DED consumed more amounts of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, calcium, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin B2. After adjusting for confounders, we could not find any significant trend for BUN and Cr across tertiles of DED. In multivariate model, an increased risk of being in the higher stage of CKD was found among those in the last tertile of DED (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 1.30, 7.63; P=0.01. Conclusion. We observed that lower DED was associated with better nutrient intake and lower risk of CKD progression.

  15. Functional expression of pig renal organic anion transporter 3 (pOAT3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Yohannes; Braun, Isabella M; Krick, Wolfgang; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Bahn, Andrew

    2005-05-01

    With the cloning of pig renal organic anion transporter 1 (pOAT1) (Biochimie 84 (2002) 1219) we set up a model system for comparative studies of cloned and natively isolated membrane located transport proteins. Meanwhile, another transport protein involved in p-aminohippurate (PAH) uptake on the basolateral side of the proximal tubule cells was identified, designated organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3). To explore the contribution of pOAT1 to the PAH clearance in comparison to OAT3, it was the aim of this study to extend our model by cloning of the pig ortholog of OAT3. Sequence comparisons of human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3) with the expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed a clone and partial sequence of the pig renal organic anion transporter 3 (pOAT3) ortholog. Sequencing of the entire open reading frame resulted in a protein of 543 amino acid residues encoded by 1632 base pairs (EMBL Acc. No. AJ587003). It showed high homologies of 81%, 80%, 76%, and 77% to the human, rabbit, rat, and mouse OAT3, respectively. A functional characterization of pOAT3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes yielded an apparent Km (Kt) for [3H]estrone sulfate of 7.8 +/- 1.3 microM. Moreover, pOAT3 mediated [3H]estrone sulfate uptake was almost abolished by 0.5 mM of glutarate, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate, or probenecid consistent with the hallmarks of OAT3 function.

  16. Bowel preparation in CT colonography: electrolyte and renal function disturbances in the frail and elderly patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick; Mc Sweeney, Sean; Mc Williams, Sebastian; O' Regan, Kevin; Kelly, Denis; Maher, Michael M. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Eustace, Joseph; O' Connor, Michael [Cork University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Cork (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    Elderly patients are at increased risk of biochemical disturbances secondary to cathartic medications. This study investigates the renal function, electrolyte and clinical disturbances associated with CT colonography (CTC) with sodium picosulphate-magnesium citrate (SPS-MC) in a subgroup of frail, elderly patients. Patients aged over 70 years considered at risk of complication during SPS-MC administration by a physician specialised in care of the elderly were included in this retrospective study. Biochemical parameters pre- and post-CTC and the presence of co-morbidities were recorded. Imaging findings and quality of bowel preparation at CTC were graded by consensus by two radiologists. Of the 72 patients 56% had co-morbidities that caution the use of SPS-MC. No significant changes in serum urea, sodium, potassium or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) occurred post-CTC (p > 0.10). Serum magnesium increased by 0.11 mmol/L in 14 patients (p = 0.03) without clinical sequelae. Good overall preparation was achieved in 88% of patients, allowing confident identification of signs of colonic neoplasia in 20 patients (27%). A mild increase in serum magnesium but no other significant biochemical disturbance was observed. In our group CTC with SPS-MC was safe and effective; however, we advise an alternate preparation be considered in patients with decreased renal function due to decreased magnesium clearance. (orig.)

  17. Anthropometric measurements and markers of renal function in adults and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Araujo Ganzaroli AMADOR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether anthropometric indicators are associated with markers of renal function in adults and older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 279 adults and older adults attending eight primary healthcare units in eastern Goiânia, Góias. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical data were collected using a standard questionnaire. Body mass index was categorized as overweight (≥25 kg/m² or non-overweight. Waist circumference was classified as normal or high; chronic kidney disease was defined as a glomerular filtration rate below 60 mL/minutes/1.73 m²; micro/macroalbuminuria was defined as an albumin/creatinine ratio above 30 mg/g. The association between anthropometric indicators and renal function markers was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Chronic kidney disease was present in 8.9% and micro/macroalbuminuria in 34.8% of the sample. The prevalence of overweight was 57.0%. Waist circumference and body mass index were positively associated with glomerular filtration rate, characterized as glomerular hyperfiltration. Microalbuminuria was positively associated with body mass index in women. Conclusion: The prevalences of chronic kidney disease and overweight were high in the study population. Overweight was positively associated with glomerular filtration rate.

  18. Effect of nifedipine on renal allograft function and survival beyond one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, G T; Cheigh, J S; Riggio, R R; Suthanthiran, M; Stubenbord, W T; Serur, D; Wang, J C; Rubin, A L; Stenzel, K H

    1997-01-01

    We previously reported that a calcium channel blocker supplemented immunosuppression produced excellent patient and graft survival rates in cadaveric kidney transplantation. We report here the long term outcome of patients treated with nifedipine-supplemented triple immunosuppression as compared with those of historical controls who were treated similarly without nifedipine. Study subjects included 111 patients transplanted in 1990-1994, treated with nifedipine and triple immunosuppression and with functioning grafts for more than one year (Nifedipine group). The results of cyclosporine (CyA) dose, blood pressure (BP), serum creatinine (Cr), and actuarial graft survival rate (GSR) up to 5 years posttransplant in these patients were compared with those of 52 patients transplanted in 1985-1990, treated similarly without calcium channel blockers (Control group). Donor sources, gender ratio, age distribution, causes of end stage renal disease, incidence of hypertension prior to transplantation and incidence of rejection in the first year between the groups were comparable. Throughout the study period the Nifedipine group had significantly lower serum Cr (1.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 1.8 +/- 0.7 mg/dl) and higher GSR (93.8% vs. 88% at 5 years) than the Control group. BP was comparable despite higher CyA doses in the Nifedipine group (4.3 +/- 1.1 vs. 3.3 +/- 1.1 mg/kg/day). We conclude that nifedipine is beneficial in improving long-term graft function and survival in kidney transplant recipients by mitigating CyA associated renal injury.

  19. The Effect of Mannitol Treatment on Renal Functions in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Eşkut

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic agent and reduces intracranial pressure. The most serious side effect of mannitol is kidney dysfunction. In this study, renal functions in acute stroke patients treated with mannitol were evaluated. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-two patients followed in the neurology intensive care unit with the diagnosis of stroke and treated with fractionated mannitol for 5 days were evaluated retrospectively. Ninety-six patients had ischemic and 26 had hemorrhagic stroke. Mean age was 69.9 ± 11.8 (18-91 years. Serum urea, creatinine and electrolyte levels measured before and on the second, third, fourth, fifth and tenth days of treatment were compared statistically with paired sample t test. RESULTS: The average urea and creatinine levels on the second, third, fourth and fifth days of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline (p< 0.05. On the other hand, mannitol treatment did not change average sodium, potassium and chlorine levels. The creatinine levels had returned to the normal range on the tenth day of treatment, but the urea levels, although decreased, did not fall to the normal range. CONCLUSION: Our results support the view that close monitoring of renal function is necessary in patients treated with mannitol.

  20. Optical properties of Mg-doped VO{sub 2}: Absorption measurements and hybrid functional calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Shuanglin [Department of Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 538, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Li, S.-Y.; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Ahuja, R.; Scheicher, R. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Hermansson, K. [Department of Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 538, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Roslagstullsbacken 15, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-11-12

    Mg-doped VO{sub 2} thin films with thermochromic properties were made by reactive DC magnetron co-sputtering onto heated substrates, and spectral absorption was recorded at room temperature in the 0.5 < h{omega} < 3.5 eV energy range. Clear evidence was found for a widening of the main band gap from 1.67 to 2.32 eV as the Mg/(V + Mg) atomic ratio went from zero to 0.19, thereby significantly lowering the luminous absorption. This technologically important effect could be reconciled with spin-polarized density functional theory calculations using the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof [Heyd et al., J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8207 (2003); ibid. 124, 219906 (2006)] hybrid functional. Specifically, the calculated luminous absorptance decreased when the Mg/(V + Mg) ratio was increased from 0.125 to 0.250.

  1. Optical properties of Mg-doped VO2: Absorption measurements and hybrid functional calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mg-doped VO2 thin films with thermochromic properties were made by reactive DC magnetron co-sputtering onto heated substrates, and spectral absorption was recorded at room temperature in the 0.5 < ħω < 3.5 eV energy range. Clear evidence was found for a widening of the main band gap from 1.67 to 2.32 eV as the Mg/(V + Mg) atomic ratio went from zero to 0.19, thereby significantly lowering the luminous absorption. This technologically important effect could be reconciled with spin-polarized density functional theory calculations using the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof [Heyd et al., J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8207 (2003); ibid. 124, 219906 (2006)] hybrid functional. Specifically, the calculated luminous absorptance decreased when the Mg/(V + Mg) ratio was increased from 0.125 to 0.250.

  2. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Albertoni Borghese

    Full Text Available Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA. The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth.

  3. Copeptin Is Associated with Kidney Length, Renal Function, and Prevalence of Simple Cysts in a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Vuistiner, Philippe; Guessous, Idris; Ehret, Georg; Alwan, Heba; Youhanna, Sonia; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Vogt, Bruno; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Devuyst, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has a key role in osmoregulation by facilitating water transport in the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that AVP may have additional effects on renal function and favor cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease. Whether AVP also affects kidney structure in the general population is unknown. We analyzed the association of copeptin, an established surrogate for AVP, with parameters of renal function and morphology in a multicentric population-based cohort. Participants from families of European ancestry were randomly selected in three Swiss cities. We used linear multilevel regression analysis to explore the association of copeptin with renal function parameters as well as kidney length and the presence of simple renal cysts assessed by ultrasound examination. Copeptin levels were log-transformed. The 529 women and 481 men had median copeptin levels of 3.0 and 5.2 pmol/L, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariable analyses, the copeptin level was associated inversely with eGFR (β=−2.1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], −3.3 to −0.8; P=0.002) and kidney length (β=−1.2; 95% CI, −1.9 to −0.4; P=0.003) but positively with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (β=0.11; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.20; P=0.03) and urine osmolality (β=0.08; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.10; P<0.001). A positive association was found between the copeptin level and the presence of renal cysts (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.4; P=0.02). These results suggest that AVP has a pleiotropic role in renal function and may favor the development of simple renal cysts. PMID:25270071

  4. Aquatic models for the study of renal transport function and pollutant toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D S

    1987-04-01

    Studies of renal cell transport mechanisms and their impairment by xenobiotics are often limited by technical difficulties related to renal tubule complexity. Problems include the juxtaposition of multiple tubule segments with different transport functions and severely limited access to the tubular lumen. Some limitations can be overcome by the careful selection of an appropriate aquatic experimental system. Two aquatic models for the vertebrate proximal segment are discussed here. The first is the kidney from certain marine flounder, which offers the following advantages: long-term viability, little tissue of nonproximal origin, and easy tubule isolation. Data are presented to demonstrate how studies with flounder kidney can be used to elucidate cellular mechanisms whereby different classes of toxic pollutants may interact. Results from these experiments indicate that the excretion of certain anionic xenobiotics can be delayed by other anionic xenobiotics that compete for secretory transport sites and by compounds that disrupt cellular ion gradients and energy metabolism needed to drive transport. The second system is the crustacean urinary bladder, a simple, flatsheet epithelium. Bladder morphology and transport physiology closely resemble those of vertebrate proximal segment. Electron micrographs show a brush border membrane at the luminal surface, numerous mitochondria, and an infolded serosal membrane, while in vivo and in vitro transport studies show reabsorption of NaCl, nutrients and water and secretion of organic cations; organic anions are secreted in bladders from some species and reabsorbed in others. Moreover, since bladders can be mounted as flat sheets in flux chambers, studies with this tissue avoid the problems of complex renal tubule geometry and tissue heterogeneity that limit transport studies in proximal tubule. PMID:3297665

  5. Aquatic models for the study of renal transport function and pollutant toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.S.

    1987-04-01

    Studies of renal cell transport mechanisms and their impairment by xenobiotics are often limited by technical difficulties related to renal tubule complexity. Problems include the juxtaposition of multiple tubule segments with different transport functions and severely limited access to the tubular lumen. Some limitations can be overcome by the careful selection of an appropriate aquatic experimental system. Two aquatic models for the vertebrate proximal segment are discussed here. The first is the kidney from certain marine flounder, which offers the following advantages: long-term viability, little tissue of nonproximal origin, and easy tubule isolation. Data are presented to demonstrate how studies with flounder kidney can be used to elucidate cellular mechanisms whereby different classes of toxic pollutants may interact. Results from these experiments indicate that the excretion of certain anionic xenobiotics can be delayed (1) by other anionic xenobiotics that compete for secretory transport sites and (2) by compounds that disrupt cellular ion gradients and energy metabolism needed to drive transport. The second system is the crustacean urinary bladder, a simple, flatsheet epithelium. Bladder morphology and transport physiology closely resemble those of vertebrate proximal segment. Electron micrographs show a brush border membrane at the luminal surface, numerous mitochondria, and an infolded serosal membrane, while in vivo and in vitro transport studies show reabsorption of NaCl, nutrients and water and secretion of organic cations; organic anions are secreted in bladders from some species and reabsorbed in others. Moreover, since bladders can be mounted as flat sheets in flux chambers, studies with this tissue avoid the problems of complex renal tubule geometry and tissue heterogeneity and tissue heterogeneity that limit transport studies in proximal tubule.

  6. Renal infarction resulting from traumatic renal artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Kim, Won; Jin, Gong Yong; Na, Ki Ryang; Yun, Il Yong; Park, Sung Kwang

    2008-06-01

    Renal artery dissection may be caused by iatrogenic injury, trauma, underlying arterial diseases such as fibromuscular disease, atherosclerotic disease, or connective tissue disease. Radiological imaging may be helpful in detecting renal artery pathology, such as renal artery dissection. For patients with acute, isolated renal artery dissection, surgical treatment, endovascular management, or medical treatment have been considered effective measures to preserve renal function. We report a case of renal infarction that came about as a consequence of renal artery dissection.

  7. Calcium-channel blockers and other factors influencing delayed function in renal allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C J; Hillis, A N; Williams, J D; Griffin, P J; Salaman, J R

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken to examine the influence of calcium-channel blocking drugs on early renal allograft function. Delayed function was defined as the need for dialysis or a reduction in serum creatinine of less than 15% within 4 days of transplantation. The drug histories of 172 patients were examined. After exclusions, the data from 138 patients were analysed. No patient was taking any calcium-channel blocking drug other than nifedipine. Thirty-one patients were taking nifedipine at the time of transplantation and these had a delayed function rate of 16% compared with 40% for 107 patients not taking nifedipine (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Delayed function occurred in 61% of cases when the donor age was over 50 years compared with 29% with younger donors (chi 2, P less than 0.05). A total ischaemic time of longer than 24 h and administration of inotropic support to the donor were associated with delayed function (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Administration to the donor of mannitol, steroids, phenoxybenzamine and heparin had no effect on the rate of delayed function. Recipients treated with low-dose dopamine in the perioperative period had no advantage. Elevated trough whole blood concentrations of cyclosporin in the first week after transplant were associated with delayed function (Mann-Whitney U, P less than 0.05).

  8. Heritable influence of DBH on adrenergic and renal function: twin and disease studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal N Pasha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated sympathetic activity is associated with kidney dysfunction. Here we used twin pairs to probe heritability of GFR and its genetic covariance with other traits. METHODS: We evaluated renal and adrenergic phenotypes in twins. GFR was estimated by CKD-EPI algorithm. Heritability and genetic covariance of eGFR and associated risk traits were estimated by variance-components. Meta-analysis probed reproducibility of DBH genetic effects. Effect of DBH genetic variation on renal disease was tested in the NIDDK-AASK cohort. RESULTS: Norepinephrine secretion rose across eGFR tertiles while eGFR fell (p<0.0001. eGFR was heritable, at h(2 = 67.3±4.7% (p = 3.0E-18, as were secretion of norepinephrine (h(2 = 66.5±5.0%, p = 3.2E-16 and dopamine (h(2 = 56.5±5.6%, p = 1.8E-13, and eGFR displayed genetic co-determination (covariance with norepinephrine (ρG = -0.557±0.088, p = 1.11E-08 as well as dopamine (ρG = -0.223±0.101, p = 2.3E-02. Since dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH catalyzes conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, we studied functional variation at DBH; DBH promoter haplotypes predicted transcriptional activity (p<0.001, plasma DBH (p<0.0001 and norepinephrine (p = 0.0297 secretion; transcriptional activity was inversely (p<0.0001 associated with basal eGFR. Meta-analysis validated DBH haplotype effects on eGFR across 3 samples. In NIDDK-AASK, we established a role for DBH promoter variation in long-term renal decline rate (GFR slope, p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: The heritable GFR trait shares genetic determination with catecholamines, suggesting new pathophysiologic, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches towards disorders of GFR as well as CKD. Adrenergic activity may play a role in progressive renal decline, and genetic variation at DBH may assist in profiling subjects for rational preventive treatment.

  9. Hypomagnesemia is a risk factor for nonrecovery of renal function and mortality in AIDS patients with acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Biagioni Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of electrolyte disturbances in AIDS patients developing acute kidney injury in the hospital setting, as well as to determine whether such disturbances constitute a risk factor for nephrotoxic and ischemic injury. A prospective, observational cohort study was carried out. Hospitalized AIDS patients were evaluated for age; gender; coinfection with hepatitis; diabetes mellitus; hypertension; time since HIV seroconversion; CD4 count; HIV viral load; proteinuria; serum levels of creatinine, urea, sodium, potassium and magnesium; antiretroviral use; nephrotoxic drug use; sepsis; intensive care unit (ICU admission, and the need for dialysis. Each of these characteristics was correlated with the development of acute kidney injury, with recovery of renal function and with survival. Fifty-four patients developed acute kidney injury: 72% were males, 59% had been HIV-infected for >5 years, 72% had CD4 counts <200 cells/mm³, 87% developed electrolyte disturbances, 33% recovered renal function, and 56% survived. ICU admission, dialysis, sepsis and hypomagnesemia were all significantly associated with nonrecovery of renal function and with mortality. Nonrecovery of renal function was significantly associated with hypomagnesemia, as was mortality in the multivariate analysis. The risks for nonrecovery of renal function and for death were 6.94 and 6.92 times greater, respectively, for patients with hypomagnesemia. In hospitalized AIDS patients, hypomagnesemia is a risk factor for nonrecovery of renal function and for in-hospital mortality. To determine whether hypomagnesemia is a determinant or simply a marker of critical illness, further studies involving magnesium supplementation in AIDS patients are warranted.

  10. Nonequilibrium Green's function formulation of intersubband absorption for nonparabolic single-band effective mass Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolek, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    The formulas are derived that enable calculations of intersubband absorption coefficient within nonequilibrium Green's function method applied to a single-band effective-mass Hamiltonian with the energy dependent effective mass. The derivation provides also the formulas for the virtual valence band components of the two-band Green's functions which can be used for more exact estimation of the density of states and electrons and more reliable treatment of electronic transport in unipolar n-type heterostructure semiconductor devices.

  11. ApoSense: a novel technology for functional molecular imaging of cell death in models of acute renal tubular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute renal tubular necrosis (ATN), a common cause of acute renal failure, is a dynamic, rapidly evolving clinical condition associated with apoptotic and necrotic tubular cell death. Its early identification is critical, but current detection methods relying upon clinical assessment, such as kidney biopsy and functional assays, are insufficient. We have developed a family of small molecule compounds, ApoSense, that is capable, upon systemic administration, of selectively targeting and accumulating within apoptotic/necrotic cells and is suitable for attachment of different markers for clinical imaging. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of these molecules as a diagnostic imaging agent for the detection of renal tubular cell injury following renal ischemia. Using both fluorescent and radiolabeled derivatives of one of the ApoSense compounds, didansyl cystine, we evaluated cell death in three experimental, clinically relevant animal models of ATN: renal ischemia/reperfusion, radiocontrast-induced distal tubular necrosis, and cecal ligature and perforation-induced sepsis. ApoSense showed high sensitivity and specificity in targeting injured renal tubular epithelial cells in vivo in all three models used. Uptake of ApoSense in the ischemic kidney was higher than in the non-ischemic one, and the specificity of ApoSense targeting was demonstrated by its localization to regions of apoptotic/necrotic cell death, detected morphologically and by TUNEL staining. (orig.)

  12. ApoSense: a novel technology for functional molecular imaging of cell death in models of acute renal tubular necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damianovich, Maya; Ziv, Ilan; Aloya, Tali; Grimberg, Hagit; Levin, Galit; Reshef, Ayelet; Bentolila, Alfonso; Cohen, Avi; Shirvan, Anat [NeuroSurvival Technologies (NST) Ltd., Petah Tikva (Israel); Heyman, Samuel N.; Shina, Ahuva [Mt.Scopus and the Hebrew University Medical School, Department of Medicine, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Rosen, Seymour [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Kidron, Dvora [Meir Hospital, Department of Pathology, Kfar-Saba (Israel)

    2006-03-15

    Acute renal tubular necrosis (ATN), a common cause of acute renal failure, is a dynamic, rapidly evolving clinical condition associated with apoptotic and necrotic tubular cell death. Its early identification is critical, but current detection methods relying upon clinical assessment, such as kidney biopsy and functional assays, are insufficient. We have developed a family of small molecule compounds, ApoSense, that is capable, upon systemic administration, of selectively targeting and accumulating within apoptotic/necrotic cells and is suitable for attachment of different markers for clinical imaging. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of these molecules as a diagnostic imaging agent for the detection of renal tubular cell injury following renal ischemia. Using both fluorescent and radiolabeled derivatives of one of the ApoSense compounds, didansyl cystine, we evaluated cell death in three experimental, clinically relevant animal models of ATN: renal ischemia/reperfusion, radiocontrast-induced distal tubular necrosis, and cecal ligature and perforation-induced sepsis. ApoSense showed high sensitivity and specificity in targeting injured renal tubular epithelial cells in vivo in all three models used. Uptake of ApoSense in the ischemic kidney was higher than in the non-ischemic one, and the specificity of ApoSense targeting was demonstrated by its localization to regions of apoptotic/necrotic cell death, detected morphologically and by TUNEL staining. (orig.)

  13. Impaired renal function and increased urinary isoprostane excretion in Ghanaian women with pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetteh PW

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul Winston Tetteh,1,4 Charles Antwi-Boasiako,1 Ben Gyan,3 Daniel Antwi,1 Festus Adzaku,1 Kwame Adu-Bonsaffoh,1,2 Samuel Obed21Department of Physiology, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana; 3Department of Immunology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; 4Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research, Uppsalalaan 8, Utrecht, The NetherlandsBackground: The cause of pre-eclampsia remains largely unknown, but oxidative stress (an imbalance favoring oxidant over antioxidant forces has been implicated in contributing to the clinical symptoms of hypertension and proteinuria. Assessment of oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia using urinary isoprostane has produced conflicting results, and it is likely that renal function may affect isoprostane excretion. The aim of this study was to determine the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia and to assess the effect of renal function on isoprostane excretion in pre-eclampsia in the Ghanaian population.Methods: This was a case-controlled study, comprising 103 pre-eclamptic women and 107 normal pregnant controls and conducted at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital between December 2006 and May 2007. The study participants were enrolled in the study after meeting the inclusion criteria and signing their written informed consent. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring urinary excretion of isoprostane and total antioxidant capacity using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Renal function was assessed by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula.Results: The pre-eclampsia group had significantly (P = 0.0006 higher urinary isoprostane excretion (2.81 ± 0.14 ng/mg creatinine than the control group (2.01 ± 0.18 ng/mg creatinine and a significantly (P = 0.0008 lower total antioxidant power (1

  14. Relationship of abnormal Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein localization to renal morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, R; Groufsky, A; Hunt, J S; Lynn, K L; McGiven, A R

    1986-07-01

    Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (TH) distribution was studied using a biotin-avidin immunoperoxidase technique in renal biopsies from 166 consecutive patients and 8 normal kidneys. Tubulointerstitial damage was independently assessed and graded. In 109 patients TH antibodies were measured by ELISA and in 30 of these urinary TH and beta 2-microglobulin excretions were measured by radioimmunoassay. In 124 biopsies only distal tubular epithelium and casts were stained. Glomerular space (8) or interstitial (34) deposits were seen in 42 biopsies; 16/68 with glomerulonephritis, 4/14 with systemic vasculitis, 12/33 with chronic interstitial nephritis, 1/8 with acute interstitial nephritis, 9/43 with other nephropathies. There was no correlation between TH distribution and the degree of tubulointerstitial damage (p greater than 0.5), urinary TH excretion (p greater than 0.05), urinary beta 2-microglobulin excretion (p greater than 0.05), glomerular filtration rate, urinary concentrating ability, or the incidence of pyuria. TH antibodies did not correlate with TH distribution (p greater than 0.5) or the degree of tubulointerstitial damage. Abnormal TH distribution showed no statistical relationship to the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, changes in renal function or levels of TH antibodies.

  15. Diuretics, Limited Ultrafiltration, and Residual Renal Function in Incident Hemodialysis Patients: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolund, Jessica; Garcia Anton, Desiree; Bayes, Liz Y; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W; Munoz Mendoza, Jair

    2016-09-01

    The effect of diuretics on residual renal function expressed as residual GFR (rGFR) and urine volume (rUV) using 24-hour urine collections has not been well examined in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We present a small (seven patient) but provocative case series describing a strikingly low rate of decline in rUV and rGFR (average of creatinine and urea clearances, 24-hour urine collections) in patients treated with increasing doses of furosemide (up to 360 mg/day) during the first 2 years after initiation of HD. Between 6 and 12 months, the mean rUV fell by 1 ml/month, whereas rGFR declined by 0.03 ml/min/1.73 m(2) /month. The mean rate of decline from 12 to 24 months for rUV (33 ml/month) and rGFR (0.02 ml/min/1.73 m(2) /month) were also low. While data are clearly limited and the observation retrospective, they are consistent with the better documented benefit of diuretics observed in end-stage renal disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis.

  16. Renal function in 153 manic-depressive patients treated with lithium for more than five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løkkegaard, H; Andersen, N F; Henriksen, E; Bartels, P D; Brahm, M; Baastrup, P C; Jørgensen, H E; Larsen, M; Munck, O; Rasmussen, K

    1985-04-01

    Renal function was examined in 153 manic-depressive patients treated with lithium for more than 5 years, mean 10 years. No significant change was detectable in plasma creatinine. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreased slightly, but significantly, and not until after 17 years of treatment did the regression line reach the lower confidence limit in the reference material. GFR was generally only moderately decreased. Renal concentrating capacity was significantly reduced during the whole investigation period and did not change with time. GFR was independent of the dosage pattern. The diuresis did not differ markedly in patients given one or three daily doses. In a two-dose group predominantly treated with slow-release tablets, the diuresis was somewhat higher in 75% of the patients but much higher for the rest of the group. Since the prophylactic effect of lithium was the same in the one-dose group (mean dosage 21 mmol/day) as in the two-dose and three-dose groups (mean dosage 27-28 mmol/day), our data indicate that generally employed lithium doses may be reduced somewhat without loss of prophylactic efficacy. PMID:4003100

  17. Dynamic noninvasive monitoring of renal function in vivo by fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiffon, Reece J.; Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Lee, Hyeran; Achilefu, Samuel

    2009-03-01

    Kidneys normally filter the blood of excess salts and metabolic products, such as urea, while retaining plasma proteins. In diseases such as multiple myeloma and diabetes mellitus, the renal function is compromised and protein escapes into the urine. In this study, we present the use of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) to image excess serum protein in urine (proteinuria). The near-infrared fluorescent dye LS-288 has distinct lifetimes when bound to protein versus free in solution, providing contrast between the protein-rich viscera and the mostly protein-free bladder. FLI with LS-288 in mice revealed that fluorescence lifetime (FLT) differences in the bladder relative to surrounding tissues was due to the fractional contributions of the bound and unbound dye molecules. The FLT of LS-288 decreased in the case of proteinuria while fluorescence intensity was unchanged. The results show that FLI can be useful for the dynamic imaging of protein-losing nephropathy due to diabetes mellitus and other renal diseases and suggest the potential use of the FLI to distinguish tumors from fluid-filled cysts in the body.

  18. Hemodynamics, functional state of endothelium and renal function, platelets depending on the body mass index in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved systolic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir Yu.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate hemodynamics, endothelium function of kidneys and platelets depending on the body mass index (BMI in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and preserved systolic function. 42 patients (mean age - 76,690,83 years with CHF II-III FC NYHA with preserved systolic function (LVEF>45% were enrolled. Echocardiography was performed, endothelial function, serum creatinine levels and microalbuminuria were determined in patients. BMI and glomerulation filtration rate were calculated by formulas. The morphological and functional status of platelets was estimated by electronic microscopy. It was defined that increased BMI in patients with CHF and preserved systolic function determines the structural and functional changes of the myocardium and leads to the endothelial and renal functional changes. An increased risk of thrombogenesis was established in patients with overweight and obesity.

  19. Fluctuation of the renal function after discharge from hospital and its effects on drug dosing in elderly patients--study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Eppenga, W.L.; Wester, W.N.; Derijks, H J; Hoedemakers, R.M.; Wensing, M J; de Smet, P A G M; van Marum, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased mortality rate, risk of cardiovascular events and morbidity. Impaired renal function is common in elderly patients, and their glomerular filtration rate (GFR) should be taken into account when prescribing renally excreted drugs. In a hospital care setting the GFR may fluctuate substantially, so that the renal function group and therefore the recommended dose, can change within a few days. The magnitude and prevalence of ...

  20. Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces: From perfect absorption to phase modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Che; Hao, Jiaming; Qiu, Meng; Li, Xin; Xiao, Shiyi; Miao, Ziqi; Dai, Ning; He, Qiong; Sun, Shulin; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Metasurfaces in metal/insulator/metal configuration have recently been widely used in photonics research, with applications ranging from perfect absorption to phase modulation, but why and when such structures can realize what kind of functionalities are not yet fully understood. Here, based on a coupled-mode theory analysis, we establish a complete phase diagram in which the optical properties of such systems are fully controlled by two simple parameters (i.e., the intrinsic and radiation losses), which are in turn dictated by the geometrical/material parameters of the underlying structures. Such a phase diagram can greatly facilitate the design of appropriate metasurfaces with tailored functionalities (e.g., perfect absorption, phase modulator, electric/magnetic reflector, etc.), demonstrated by our experiments and simulations in the Terahertz regime. In particular, our experiments show that, through appropriate structural/material tuning, the device can be switched across the functionality phase boundaries...

  1. Renal arteriography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal angiogram; Angiography - kidney; Renal angiography; Renal artery stenosis - arteriography ... Renal arteriography is often needed to help decide on the best treatment after other tests are done ...

  2. Impact of arterial occlusion during partial nephrectomy on residual renal function. An evaluation with {sup 99m}technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Tsunenori; Nakazawa, Hayakazu; Ito, Fumio; Onitsuka, Shiro; Ryoji, Osamu; Yago, Rie; Hashimoto, Yasunobu; Toma, Hiroshi [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Partial nephrectomy (PNx) has been performed with temporary renal arterial occlusion and in situ renal hypothermia (conventional PNx). However, the impact of temporary renal arterial occlusion on residual renal function has not been well assessed. To address this question, we performed renal scintigraphy with {sup 99m}technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) for the quantitative measurement of postoperative residual renal function after conventional PNx and partial nephrectomy without arterial occlusion (non-clamping PNx). Thirty-four patients underwent postoperative DMSA scintigraphy after PNx for renal cell carcinoma. No obvious difference in preoperative renal function between the diseased kidney and the contralateral kidney was found in any of the patients. Of these patients, 24 underwent conventional PNx, and 10 underwent non-clamping PNx. Residual renal function was evaluated using the relative DMSA uptake of the operated kidney. The relative DMSA uptake of the operated kidney was 39.9{+-}7.3% (25.1-58.8) after conventional PNx compared to 34.8{+-}8.9% (13.5-45.5) after non-clamping PNx. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.15). Total ischemic time during conventional PNx had no adverse influence on the residual renal function. In the analysis of the other determinant factors influencing residual renal function, tumor size was the only significant factor that inversely correlated with the relative DMSA uptake. Our results showed that arterial clamping during PNx has no negative impact on the functional residual capacity as long as in situ renal hypothermia is adequately performed. (author)

  3. Functional Assessment in End-Stage Renal Disease: Enhancing Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saby, Adam; Miller, Lawrence S

    2016-01-01

    Why do functional assessments in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) matter? Multiple studies show that new dialysis patients undergo a substantial decline among activities of daily living. Moreover, poor functional status in ESRD patients is associated with early morality. That is why CMS has developed new criteria to assess ESRD patients in regards to their functional, psychologic, and cognitive capabilities. Functional assessments by health providers have been used in field of Rehabilitation Medicine for over 50 years; rehabilitation physicians have found them effective in establishing goals and monitoring improvement. Assessments can provide guidance by identifying the needs and types of intervention most suited for patients. Impairments can be addressed with referrals to physical therapy for gross motor issues, occupational therapy for self-care problems, psychiatry for mental disorders, and neurology for cognitive deficits. The more accurate the assessments over time, the more targeted and effective the therapies become. We believe that the new CMS goals to assess functionality will improve ESRD patient's quality of life, longevity, and long-term healthcare costs. PMID:26756940

  4. Functional Assessment in End-Stage Renal Disease: Enhancing Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saby, Adam; Miller, Lawrence S

    2016-01-01

    Why do functional assessments in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) matter? Multiple studies show that new dialysis patients undergo a substantial decline among activities of daily living. Moreover, poor functional status in ESRD patients is associated with early morality. That is why CMS has developed new criteria to assess ESRD patients in regards to their functional, psychologic, and cognitive capabilities. Functional assessments by health providers have been used in field of Rehabilitation Medicine for over 50 years; rehabilitation physicians have found them effective in establishing goals and monitoring improvement. Assessments can provide guidance by identifying the needs and types of intervention most suited for patients. Impairments can be addressed with referrals to physical therapy for gross motor issues, occupational therapy for self-care problems, psychiatry for mental disorders, and neurology for cognitive deficits. The more accurate the assessments over time, the more targeted and effective the therapies become. We believe that the new CMS goals to assess functionality will improve ESRD patient's quality of life, longevity, and long-term healthcare costs.

  5. The influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on renal tubular function in progressive chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P;

    1996-01-01

    on progression of renal failure. The pattern of proteinuria was followed over the first 9 months. At baseline, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 5 to 68 mL/min. Absolute proximal tubular reabsorption rate of fluid (APR), estimated as the difference between GFR and C(Li), was 1 to 54 mL/min. Calculated...... fractional proximal reabsorption (FPR) was moderately subnormal. During the study, GFR decreased and sodium clearance was unchanged; fractional excretion of sodium therefore increased. In the group of patients randomized to treatment with enalapril (n = 34), GFR at 1 month was 83% (P ... with conventional antihypertensive drugs (n = 35), C(Li) was unchanged until severe reduction in GFR, APR and FPR decreased gradually, and potassium clearance was almost unchanged. These differences in tubular function between the two treatment regimens were significant (P

  6. Physiological antioxidant system and oxidative stress in stomach cancer patients with normal renal and hepatic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Prabhakar Reddy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Role of free radicals has been proposed in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, and leading cause of cancer death in India. Severe oxidative stress produces reactive oxygen species (ROS and induces uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. Albumin, uric acid (UA and Bilirubin are important physiological antioxidants. We aimed to evaluate and assess the role of oxidative stress (OS and physiological antioxidant system in stomach cancer patients. Lipid peroxidation measured as plasma Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive substances (TBARS, was found to be elevated significantly (p=0.001 in stomach cancer compared to controls along with a decrease in plasma physiological antioxidant system. The documented results were due to increased lipid peroxidation and involvement of physiological antioxidants in scavenging free radicals but not because of impaired hepatic and renal functions.

  7. Prematurity and Related Biochemical Outcomes: Study of Bone Mineralization and Renal Function Parameters in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Singh Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    phosphorus levels were found to be significantly decreased, and serum ALP, creatinine, and electrolytes were found to be significantly increased (<0.001 at 28–30 weeks as compared to controls, but serum calcium and phosphorous levels were found to be insignificantly decreased, whereas serum ALP activities were found to be insignificantly increased at 28–30 weeks as compared to 30–32 weeks of gestational age in preterm babies. It can be concluded that high serum ALP activity and low serum calcium and phosphorus levels are associated with preterm babies. A significant difference in the mean values of these renal function parameters was also obtained, except for serum sodium and potassium.

  8. A retrospective characterization of worsening renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure receiving nesiritide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starr JA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nesiritide is approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF due its ability to rapidly reduce cardiac filling pressures and improve dyspnea. Numerous studies have shown that renal dysfunction is associated with unfavorable outcomes in patients with heart failure. In addition, there have been reports suggesting that nesiritide may adversely affect renal function and mortality. Objective: The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to assess the effect of dose and duration of nesiritide use and the dose and duration of diuretic therapy on worsening renal function and increased in-hospital mortality in this patient population.Methods: Seventy-five patients who were hospitalized for ADHF and who were treated with nesiritide for at least 12 hours were reviewed retrospectively. Results: The mean increase in SCr was 0.5 mg/dL (range 0 – 4.4 mg/dL. Thirty-six percent of patients (27/75 met the primary endpoint with an increase in SCr>0.5 mg/dL. Treatment dose and duration of nesiritide did not differ between those patients who had an increase in SCr>0.5 mg/dL and those who did not (p=0.44 and 0.61. Concomitant intravenous diuretics were used in 85% of patients with an increase in SCr >0.5 mg/dL compared to 90% of patients without an increase in SCr>0.5 mg/dL (p=0.57. The in-hospital mortality rate was also higher at 35% in those patients with an increase in creatinine >0.5 mg/dL compared to 11% in those without (p=0.01. Conclusion: Nesiritide was associated with an increase in SCr > 0.5 mg/dL in approximately one-third of patients. The increase occurred independently of dose, duration of nesiritide therapy, blood pressure changes, and concomitant intravenous diuretic use. However, the increase in SCr was associated with an increase in hospital stay and in hospital mortality consistent with previous reports in the literature.

  9. Renal Tubular and Glomerular Function in Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Iron deficiency anemia (IDA resulting from lack of sufficient iron for synthesis of hemoglobin is most common hematologic disease of infancy and childhood. There is little information about the renal function in iron deficiency anemia. The aim of the present study was to examine the renal function in children with iron deficiency anemia. Methods:This case-control study was performed in children with iron deficiency anemia (n=20 and healthy age matched subjects (n=20. Blood and urine samples were obtained for hematological and biochemical investigation. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired sample t-test and Pearsons correlation coefficient. Findings: Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa+ was significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anemia than control subjects (P=0.006. There was no significant difference in the level of urine specific gravity, calcium/creatinine ratio, β2-microglobulin and creatinine clearance between case and control groups (P>0.05. There was no correlation between FENa and Hb (r=0.13, P=0.57, FENa+ and Fe+2 (r=0.079, P=0.72, FENa+ and TIBC (r=-0.083, P=0.71, FENa+ and ferritin (r=0.039, P=0.86 as well as Hb and β2-microglobulin (r=0.02, P=0.37 in IDA patients. Conclusion:The results showed that FENa+ was higher in children with iron deficiency anemia than in normal subjects. The findings revealed evidence of tubular damage in IDA; this needs confirmation by more investigation.

  10. Inhospital and Post-discharge Changes in Renal Function After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, John E A; Brummel, Kent; Friedman, Julie L; Atri, Prashant; Sweis, Ranya N; Russell, Hyde; Ricciardi, Mark J; Malaisrie, S Chris; Davidson, Charles J; Flaherty, James D

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of inhospital and post-discharge worsening renal function (WRF) on prognosis after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Severe chronic kidney disease and inhospital WRF are both associated with poor outcomes after TAVR. There are no data available on post-discharge WRF and outcomes. This was a single-center study evaluating all TAVR from June 1, 2008, to June 31, 2014. WRF was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dl. Inhospital WRF was measured from day 0 until discharge or day 7 if the hospitalization was >7 days. Post-discharge WRF was measured at 30 days after discharge. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis, and multivariate logistic regression were used. In a series of 208 patients who underwent TAVR, 204 with complete renal function data were used in the inhospital analysis and 168 who returned for the 30-day follow-up were used in the post-discharge analysis. Inhospital WRF was seen in 28%, whereas post-discharge WRF in 12%. Inhospital and post-discharge WRF were associated with lower rates of survival; however, after multivariate analysis, only post-discharge WRF remained a predictor of 1-year mortality (hazard ratio 1.18, p = 0.030 for every 1 mg/dl increase in serum creatinine). In conclusion, the rate of inhospital WRF is higher than the rate of post-discharge WRF after TAVR, and post-discharge WRF is more predictive of mortality than inhospital WRF.

  11. Effect of dopamine and metaraminol on the renal function of patients with septic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Li-chao; HU Wen-neng; LI Shu-zhi; XIONG Li-ze; CHEN Shao-yang; CHEN Min; ZHANG Xi-jing; HUO Ting-ting; WANG Qiang; WANG Ya-li

    2007-01-01

    Background Vasoactive drugs are often necessary for reversing hypotension in patients with severe infection. The standard for evaluating effects of vasoactive drugs should not only be based on the increase of arterial blood pressure,but also on the blood flow perfusion of internal organs. The effects of dopamine and metaraminol on the renal function of the patients with septic shock were investigated retrospectively in this study.Methods Ninety-eight patients with septic shock were divided into three groups according to the highest infusing rate of metaraminol, with the lightest infusing rate of (0.1-0.5, 0.6-1.0, >1.0) μg · kg-1 · min-1 in group A, B and C respectively.Urine output, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), urine output, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), urine albumin (U-ALB), urine β2-microglubulin (Uβ2-MG) and Apache Ⅲ scores were recorded.Results Before antishock therapy, hypotension, tachycardia and oliguria occurred to all the 98 patients with septic shock and CRE, BUN, U-ALB, Uβ2-MG and Apache Ⅲ scoring were abnormal in most cases. With the antishock therapy,MAP, HR, urine output, BUN and CRE in all patients returned gradually to normal (P<0.05 or <0.01 compared to those before antishock therapy). U-ALB, Uβ2-MG output and Apache Ⅲ scoring also reverted but remained abnormal (P<0.01 compared to those before antishock therapy). No statistically significant differences in the changes of these indices with the time existed among the three groups (P>0.05).Conclusion Dopamine and metaraminol when applied to the patients with septic shock could effectively maintain the circulatory stability and promote restoration of renal function.

  12. Clinical Usefulness of Serum Cystatin C as a Marker of Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Sook Woo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAccurate renal function measurements are important in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. In contrast to creatinine, the production of serum cystatin C has been extensively reported to be unaffected by body muscle mass, age, gender, and nutritional status.MethodsOur study included 37 samples from diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD patients for whom serum creatinine tests had been requested and 40 samples from a healthy populations in Dong-A University Hospital between May 2010 and June 2010. The assay precision (i.e., the coefficient of variation and the reference range of the serum cystatin C test were evaluated. We compared the estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs based on cystatin C with those based on creatinine. Moreover, we investigated the influences of age, gender, weight, and muscle mass on serum creatinine and serum cystatin C.ResultsThere was a positive correlation between GFR based on creatinine and that based on cystatin C (r=0.79, P<0.0001 among the diabetic CKD patients. Serum creatinine and cystatin C were significantly correlated with body weight and muscle mass, but the strengths of these correlations were greater for serum creatinine. The precision study revealed excellent results for both the high and low controls. The 95% reference interval of cystatin C in the healthy population was 0.371 to 1.236 mg/L.ConclusionBased on these results, we conclude that, despite the strong correlation between serum creatinine and cystatin C, cystatin C is less affected by weight and muscle mass and might represent a better alternative for the assessment of renal function.

  13. Renal impairment after liver transplantation - a pilot trial of calcineurin inhibitor-free vs. calcineurin inhibitor sparing immunosuppression in patients with mildly impaired renal function after liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhardt T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Chronic kidney disease is frequent in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT and has impact on survival. Patients receiving calcineurin inhibitors (CNI are at increased risk to develop impaired renal function. Early CNI reduction and concomitant use of mycophenolat mofetil (MMF has been shown to improve renal function. Methods The aim of this trial was to compare dose-reduced CNI/MMF versus CNI-free MMF/prednisone-based treatment in stable patients after OLT with respect to glomerular filtration rate (GFR. 21 patients [GFR 44.9 ± 9.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 measured by 99m-Tc-DTPA-clearance, serum creatinine (SCr 1.5 ± 0.42 mg/dL] were randomized either to exchange CNI for 10 mg prednisone (group 1; n = 8 or to receive CNI at 25% of the initial dose (group 2; n = 13 each in combination with 1000 mg MMF b.i.d. Results At month 12 mean SCr (-0.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL, p = 0.031 and GFR improved (8.6 ± 13.1 mL/min/1.73 m2, p = 0.015 in group 2 but remained unchanged in group 1. Main side effects were gastroinstestinal symptoms (14.3% and infections (4.8%. Two biopsy proven, steroid-responsive rejections occurred. In group 1 mean diastolic blood pressure (BP increased by 11 ± 22 mmHg (p = 0.03. Conclusions Reduced dose CNI in combination with MMF but not CNI-free-immunosuppression leads to improvement of GFR in patients with moderately elevated SCr levels after OLT. Addition of steroids resulted in increased diastolic blood pressure presumably counterbalancing the benefits of CNI withdrawal on renal function.

  14. Correlation functions of scattering matrix elements in microwave cavities with strong absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, R [Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, Renthof 5, D-35032 Marburg (Germany); Gorin, T [Theoretische Quantendynamik, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Seligman, T H [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelos, CP 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Stoeckmann, H-J [Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, Renthof 5, D-35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2003-03-28

    The scattering matrix was measured for microwave cavities with two antennae. It was analysed in the regime of overlapping resonances. The theoretical description in terms of a statistical scattering matrix and the rescaled Breit-Wigner approximation has been applied to this regime. The experimental results for the auto-correlation function show that the absorption in the cavity walls yields an exponential decay. This behaviour can only be modelled using a large number of weakly coupled channels. In comparison to the auto-correlation functions, the cross-correlation functions of the diagonal S-matrix elements display a more pronounced difference between regular and chaotic systems.

  15. Correlation functions of scattering matrix elements in microwave cavities with strong absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, R.; Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.; Stöckmann, H.-J.

    2003-03-01

    The scattering matrix was measured for microwave cavities with two antennae. It was analysed in the regime of overlapping resonances. The theoretical description in terms of a statistical scattering matrix and the rescaled Breit-Wigner approximation has been applied to this regime. The experimental results for the auto-correlation function show that the absorption in the cavity walls yields an exponential decay. This behaviour can only be modelled using a large number of weakly coupled channels. In comparison to the auto-correlation functions, the cross-correlation functions of the diagonal S-matrix elements display a more pronounced difference between regular and chaotic systems.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and safety of olodaterol administered with the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler in subjects with impaired hepatic or renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunz C

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina Kunz,1 Doreen Luedtke,1 Anna Unseld,2 Alan Hamilton,3 Atef Halabi,4 Martina Wein,5 Stephan Formella6 1Translational Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, 2Global Biometrics and Clinical Applications, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Biberach, Germany; 3Boehringer Ingelheim, Burlington, ON, Canada; 4CRS Clinical Research Services Kiel GmbH, Kiel, 5Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Biberach, 6Medicine Coordination, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany Purpose: In two trials, the influences of hepatic and renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of olodaterol, a novel long-acting inhaled β2-agonist for treatment of COPD, were investigated.Subjects and methods: The first trial included eight subjects with mild hepatic function impairment (Child–Pugh A, eight subjects with moderate impairment (Child–Pugh B, and 16 matched healthy subjects with normal hepatic function. The second trial included eight subjects with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL·min-1 and 14 matched healthy subjects with normal renal function. Subjects received single doses of 20 or 30 µg olodaterol administered with the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler.Results: Olodaterol was well tolerated in all subjects. The geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals of dose-normalized area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to 4 hours (AUC0–4 for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment compared to healthy subjects were 97% (75%–125% and 105% (79%–140%, respectively. Corresponding values for dose-normalized maximum concentration (Cmax were 112% (84%–151% (mild impairment and 99% (73%–135% (moderate impairment. The geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval of AUC0–4 for subjects with severe renal impairment compared to healthy subjects was 135% (94%–195%, and for Cmax was 137% (84%–222%. There was no significant relationship

  17. Accelerated decline and prognostic impact of renal function after myocardial infarction and the benefits of ACE inhibition : the CATS randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillege, HL; van Gilst, WH; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Navis, G; Grobbee, DE; de Graeff, PA; de Zeeuw, D

    2003-01-01

    Aims Information regarding the cardiorenal axis in patients after a myocardial infarction (MI) is limited. We examined the change in renal function after a first MI, the protective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and the prognostic value of baseline renal function. Methods a

  18. Accelerated decline and prognostic impact of renal function after myocardial infarction and the benefits of ACE inhibition: the CATS randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillege, Hans; van Gilst, W.H.; Van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Navis, Ger Jan; Grobbee, D.E.; de Graeff, P.A.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2003-01-01

    Aims Information regarding the cardiorenal axis in patients after a myocardial infarction (MI) is limited. We examined the change in renal function after a first MI, the protective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and the prognostic value of baseline renal function. Methods a

  19. Chronic fluid flow is an environmental modifier of renal epithelial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Resnick

    Full Text Available Although solitary or sensory cilia are present in most cells of the body and their existence has been known since the sixties, very little is been known about their functions. One suspected function is fluid flow sensing- physical bending of cilia produces an influx of Ca(++, which can then result in a variety of activated signaling pathways. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD is a progressive disease, typically appearing in the 5(th decade of life and is one of the most common monogenetic inherited human diseases, affecting approximately 600,000 people in the United States. Because ADPKD is a slowly progressing disease, I asked how fluid flow may act, via the primary cilium, to alter epithelial physiology during the course of cell turnover. I performed an experiment to determine under what conditions fluid flow can result in a change of function of renal epithelial tissue. A wildtype epithelial cell line derived the cortical collecting duct of a heterozygous offspring of the Immortomouse (Charles River Laboratory was selected as our model system. Gentle orbital shaking was used to induce physiologically relevant fluid flow, and periodic measurements of the transepithelial Sodium current were performed. At the conclusion of the experiment, mechanosensitive proteins of interest were visualized by immunostaining. I found that fluid flow, in itself, modifies the transepithelial sodium current, cell proliferation, and the actin cytoskeleton. These results significantly impact the understanding of both the mechanosensation function of primary cilia as well as the understanding of ADPKD disease progression.

  20. Bone marrow-derived macrophages incorporate into the endothelium and influence vascular and renal function after irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cortie, Karin; Russell, Nicola S.; Coppes, Rob P.; Stewart, Fiona A.; Scharpfenecker, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We recently demonstrated that endoglin, an ancillary transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptor, modulates vascular damage and fibrosis formation and influences renal function after kidney irradiation. We also suggested that this was partially accomplished by endoglin-mediated regu

  1. Slow Gait Speed and Rapid Renal Function Decline Are Risk Factors for Postoperative Delirium after Urological Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendo Sato

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with postoperative delirium in patients undergoing urological surgery.We prospectively evaluated pre- and postoperative risk factors for postoperative delirium in consecutive 215 patients who received urological surgery between August 2013 and November 2014. Preoperative factors included patient demographics, comorbidities, and frailty assessment. Frailty was measured by handgrip strength, fatigue scale of depression, fall risk assessment, and gait speed (the timed Get-up and Go test. Postoperative factors included types of anesthesia, surgical procedure, renal function and serum albumin decline, blood loss, surgery time, highest body temperature, and complications. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess pre- and postoperative predictors for the development of postoperative delirium.Median age of this cohort was 67 years. Ten patients (4.7% experienced postoperative delirium. These patients were significantly older, had weak handgrip strength, a higher fall risk assessment score, slow gait speed, and greater renal function decline compared with patients without delirium. Multivariate analysis revealed slow gait speed (>13.0 s and rapid renal function decline (>30% were independent risk factors for postoperative delirium.Slow gait speed and rapid renal function decline after urological surgery are significant factors for postoperative delirium. These data will be helpful for perioperative patient management. This study was registered as a clinical trial: UMIN: R000018809.

  2. Functional and pharmacological consequences of the distribution of voltage-gated calcium channels in the renal blood vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B L

    2013-01-01

    -type is usually associated with vascular contractility. However, the L-, T- and P-/Q-types of calcium channels are present in the renal vasculature and are differentially involved in controlling vascular contractility, thereby contributing to regulation of kidney function and blood pressure. In the preglomerular...

  3. Prediction of renal function (GFR) from cystatin C and creatinine in children: Body cell mass increases accuracy of the estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Bøgsted, Martin;

    AIM: To derive an accurate prediction model for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children based primarily on the endogenous renal function marker cystatin C (CysC) and body cell mass (BCM). THEORY: Cystatin C is produced at a constant rate in all cells of the body and is excreted...

  4. Exploring genetic and non-genetic risk factors for delayed graft function, acute and subclinical rejection in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Dirk Jan A R; Press, Rogier R; Ackaert, Oliver; Ploeger, Bart A; Bemelman, Frederike J; Diack, Cheikh; Wessels, Judith A M; van der Straaten, Tahar; Danhof, Meindert; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J; Guchelaar, Henk Jan; de Fijter, Johan W

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed at identifying pharmacological factors such as pharmacogenetics and drug exposure as new predictive biomarkers for delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejection (AR) and/or subclinical rejection (SCR). METHODS: Adult renal transplant recipients (n = 361) on cyclosporine-based

  5. Urinary Leukotriene E4 Is Associated with Renal Function but Not with Endothelial Function in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnar Rafnsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukotrienes are inflammatory and vasoactive mediators implicated in endothelium-dependent relaxations and atherosclerosis. Urinary leukotriene E4 (U-LTE4 is a validated disease marker of asthma and increases also in diabetes and acute coronary syndromes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of U-LTE4 and CRP with endothelial function. Urine samples were obtained from 30 subjects (80% males; median age 65 with type 2 diabetes of at least two years duration and a median glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of 71 (14–129 mL/min. Reactive hyperemia index (RHI was used as a measure of microvascular endothelial function, whereas macrovascular endothelial function was determined be means of flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery (FMD. Decreased renal function was associated with lower concentrations of U-LTE4. In addition, U-LTE4 was correlated with serum creatinine (R=−0.572; P=0.001 and eGFR (R=0.517; P=0.0036. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis identified eGFR as an independent predictor of U-LTE4 concentrations. In conclusion, the present results did not establish an association of U-LTE4 with endothelial dysfunction. However, eGFR was an independent predictor of U-LTE4, but not CRP, in this cohort, suggesting that GFR should be considered in biomarker studies of U-LTE4.

  6. Trombólise tardia e espontânea de artéria renal sem comprometimento funcional Late and spontaneous thrombolysis of renal artery without functional impairtment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pinho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A aterosclerose em artérias renais é um importante fator desencadeante de tromboses com subsequente comprometimento da função e da viabilidade renal. A oclusão aguda das artérias renais por trombo ou êmbolo é causa incomum e potencialmente reversível de falência renal. Todavia, a duração e o grau de oclusão arterial compatível com a manutenção da viabilidade do parênquima renal ainda não estão bem estabelecidos, razão pela qual o diagnóstico precoce e a intervenção são importantes. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever um caso de trombose de artéria renal de rim funcional único, com lise espontânea e tardia do trombo seguida de recuperação funcional inesperada.Renal artery atherosclerosis is an important triggering factor for thrombosis followed by impairment of renal function and viability. The acute occlusion of the renal artery by a thrombus or an embolus is an unusual and potentially reversible cause of renal failure. However, the duration and degree of arterial occlusion compatible with the viability of the renal parenchyma have not been well established, hence the importance of early diagnosis and intervention. The purpose of this study is to describe a case of renal artery thrombosis of a functionally single kidney, with late and spontaneous thrombolysis followed by unexpected functional recovery.

  7. Effects of thrombin inhibition with melagatran on renal hemodynamics and function and liver integrity during early endotoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nitescu, Nicoletta; Grimberg, Elisabeth; Ricksten, Sven-Erik;

    2007-01-01

    . Kidney function, renal blood flow (RBF), and intrarenal cortical and outer medullary perfusion (OMLDF) measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry were analyzed throughout. Markers of liver injury and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were measured in plasma after 4.5 h of endotoxemia. In addition, liver...... histology and gene expression were examined. Melagatran treatment prevented the decline in OMLDF observed in the LPS-Saline group (P .... Melagatran did not diminish histological abnormalities in the liver or the elevated hepatic gene expression of TNF-alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in endotoxemic rats. In summary, thrombin inhibition with melagatran preserved renal OMLDF, attenuated liver...

  8. Evaluation of patient renal function following endovascular aneurysm repair with suprarenal fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YingBin Jia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the mid-term renal function of abdominal aortic aneurysm patients following suprarenal endovascular repair. From March 2005 to December 2009, 290 abdominal aortic aneurysm patients were included in the study and grouped according to whether they had received infrarenal or suprarenal endovascular aneurysm repair. Suprarenal endovascular aneurysm repair was performed in 173 patients, with a mean age of 72(±8 years (85.0% male. Infrarenal endovascular aneurysm repair was performed in 117 patients, with a mean age of 71(±9 years (90.6% male. Preoperative and one week, 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month postoperative serum creatinine and cystatin C values were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated by cystatin-based formula and Cr-based Cockcroft formula. The t-test was used to determine statistical differences between or within groups. All patients received Talent or Zenith endograft. Patients’ characteristics and operative files in the two groups were well matched. Preoperative serum creatinine and cystatin C were 82 (±8 mmol/L and 0.89 (±0.11 mg/L for suprarenal endovascular aneurysm repair, respectively, and 81 (±11 mmol/L and 0.87 (±0.15 mg/L, respectively, for infrarenal endovascular aneurysm repair; no differences were observed between the two groups. Compared to preoperative renal markers within each group, a deterioration in serum creatinine, cystatin C and estimated glomerular filtration rate values was found at one week and 12 months after surgery(P<0.05. A deterioration in cystatin C [SR:(0.93±0.17 mg/L, IR: (0.92±0.31 mg/L] and estimated glomerular filtration rate by cystatin C was also found at six months after surgery(P<0.05. However, no differences in patient serum creatinine, cystatin C and estimated glomerular filtration rate values were observed between groups at each follow-up time interval. There was no greater significant difference in the association of the use of suprarenal

  9. Pre- and Post-operative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 patients who underwent nephrolithotomy showed an increase or no change in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the patients who underwent pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight percent of the preoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting a postoperative recovery of the kidney function. The contralateral kidney function can affect the postoperative recovery of the function in the operative side. It seems to be hard to expect an increment in the DMSA renal uptake postoperatively when the ratio of DMSA renal uptake in the operative side to the total DMSA renal uptake is less than 20%. At least 6 months of the follow-up period is necessary for the evaluation of the kidney function in the operative side. DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful modality to assess pre- and post-operative kidney function in nephrolithiasis from the point of both morphological and functional changes in the renal cortex. (author)

  10. Pre- and post-operative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Juichi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-08-01

    sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 patients who underwent nephrolithotomy showed an increase or no change in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the patients who underwent pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight percent of the preoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting a postoperative recovery of the kidney function. The contralateral kidney function can affect the postoperative recovery of the function in the operative side. It seems to be hard to expect an increment in the DMSA renal uptake postoperatively when the ratio of DMSA renal uptake in the operative side to the total DMSA renal uptake is less than 20%. At least 6 months of the follow-up period is necessary for the evaluation of the kidney function in the operative side. DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful modality to assess pre- and post-operative kidney function in nephrolithiasis from the point of both morphological and functional changes in the renal cortex.

  11. Polarized Synchrotron Emissivities and Absorptivities for Relativistic Thermal, Power-law, and Kappa Distribution Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Alex; Zhang, Zhaowei; Chandra, Mani; Gammie, Charles F.

    2016-05-01

    Synchrotron emission and absorption determine the observational appearances of many astronomical systems. In this paper, we describe a numerical scheme for calculating synchrotron emissivities and absorptivities in all four Stokes parameters for arbitrary gyrotropic electron distribution functions, building on earlier work by Leung, Gammie, and Noble. We use this technique to evaluate the emissivities and the absorptivities for a thermal (Maxwell–Jüttner), isotropic power-law, and an isotropic kappa distribution function. The latter contains a power-law tail at high particle energies that smoothly merges with a thermal core at low energies, as is characteristic of observed particle spectra in collisionless plasmas. We provide fitting formulae and error bounds on the fitting formulae for use in codes that solve the radiative transfer equation. The numerical method and the fitting formulae are implemented in a compact C library called symphony. We find that the kappa distribution has a source function that is indistinguishable from a thermal spectrum at low frequency and transitions to the characteristic self-absorbed synchrotron spectrum, \\propto {ν }5/2, at high frequency; the linear polarization fraction for a thermal spectrum is near unity at high frequency; and all distributions produce O(10%) circular polarization at low frequency for lines of sight sufficiently close to the magnetic field vector.

  12. Effects of acute hypoxia on renal and endocrine function at rest and during graded exercise in hydrated subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Kanstrup, I L; Richalet, J P;

    1992-01-01

    Renal effects of altitude hypoxia are unclear. Renal and hormonal function was investigated in eight males at rest and during graded exercise at sea level (SL) and 48 h after rapid ascent to 4,350 m (HA). HA did not change resting values of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration...... rate (GFR), sodium clearance (CNa), urine flow, or lithium clearance (CLi), which was used as an index of proximal tubular outflow. At rest, HA increased plasma norepinephrine concentration and decreased plasma concentrations of renin and aldosterone. Exercise decreased ERPF similarly in both...... environments. Normoxic exercise progressively reduced GFR, but at HA GFR only decreased during heavy exercise. This resulted in a higher filtration fraction during light and moderate hypoxic exercise. However, calculated absolute proximal reabsorption rate (GFR-CLi) at HA was higher during low...

  13. Effects of Intensified Vasodilatory Antihypertensive Treatment on Renal Function, Blood supply and Oxygenation in Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatir, Dinah Sherzad; Pedersen, Michael; Ivarsen, Per;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Progression of Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may result from tissue hypoxia induced by small artery structural narrowing, with increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) and impaired blood supply. We investigated whether vasodilating therapy (VT) is superior to non-vasodilating therapy...... (nonVT) for improvement of RVR, tissue oxygenation, and preservation of kidney function. Methods: Eighty-two hypertensive grade 3-4 CKD patients (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 36±15 ml/min/1.73 m2) were randomised to renin-angiotensin inhibition combined with either VT (amlodipine) or nonVT (beta......-blocker metoprolol). At baseline and following 18 months of therapy we determined forearm resistance by venous occlusion plethysmography. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) renal artery blood flow was measured for calculation of RVR, and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI was used as a marker of renal...

  14. Preserved Renal Function in Kidney Transplantation over a Thrombosed Aortobifemoral Bypass Graft: The Role of Retrograde Flow and Early Thrombolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Pampa-Saico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortobifemoral bypass (ABFB thrombosis is not uncommon, and when the artery of a renal graft is implanted on a bypass the risk of graft loss is high. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman with a previous history of ABFB under antiplatelet therapy and a kidney allograft implanted on the vascular prosthesis, who presented with acute limb ischemia and severe renal impairment. Imaging techniques revealed a complete thrombosis of the proximal left arm of the ABFB. However, a faint retrograde flow over the graft was observed thanks to the recanalization of distal left bypass by collateral native arteries. This unusual situation not previously reported in a kidney transplant setting, together with an early diagnosis, allowed graft survival until an early local thrombolysis resolved the problem. Two years later, renal function remains normal.

  15. The Impact of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Renal Function in Children with Overweight/Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Pacifico

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and chronic kidney disease has attracted interest and attention over recent years. However, no data are available in children. We determined whether children with NAFLD show signs of renal functional alterations, as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and urinary albumin excretion. We studied 596 children with overweight/obesity, 268 with NAFLD (hepatic fat fraction ≥5% on magnetic resonance imaging and 328 without NAFLD, and 130 healthy normal-weight controls. Decreased GFR was defined as eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Abnormal albuminuria was defined as urinary excretion of ≥30 mg/24 h of albumin. A greater prevalence of eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was observed in patients with NAFLD compared to those without liver involvement and healthy subjects (17.5% vs. 6.7% vs. 0.77%; p < 0.0001. The proportion of children with abnormal albuminuria was also higher in the NAFLD group compared to those without NAFLD, and controls (9.3% vs. 4.0% vs. 0; p < 0.0001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that NAFLD was associated with decreased eGFR and/or microalbuminuria (odds ratio, 2.54 (confidence interval, 1.16–5.57; p < 0.05 independently of anthropometric and clinical variables. Children with NAFLD are at risk for early renal dysfunction. Recognition of this abnormality in the young may help to prevent the ongoing development of the disease.

  16. Erlotinib preserves renal function and prevents salt retention in doxorubicin treated nephrotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed N Bou Matar

    Full Text Available Nephrotic syndrome is associated with up-regulation of the heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF. Erlotinib blocks the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in response to HB-EGF. This study investigates the effect of Erlotinib on the progression of proteinuria, renal dysfunction, and salt retention in doxorubicin treated nephrotic rats. Male rats were divided into 3 pair-fed groups (n = 13/group as follows: Control rats (Ctrl; rats receiving intravenous doxorubicin (Dox; and rats receiving intravenous doxorubicin followed by daily oral Erlotinib (Dox + Erl. Upon establishment of high grade proteinuria, urine sodium and creatinine clearance were measured. Kidney tissue was dissected and analyzed for γ-epithelial sodium channel (γENaC, sodium-potassium -chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2, sodium chloride co-transporter (NCC, aquaporin 2 (AQP2, and EGFR abundances using western blot. Creatinine clearance was preserved in the Dox + Erl rats as compared to the Dox group (in ml/min: Ctrl: 5.2±.5, Dox: 1.9±0.3, Dox + Erl: 3.6±0.5. Despite a minimal effect on the degree of proteinuria, Erlotinib prevented salt retention (Urinary Na in mEq/d: Ctrl: 2.2±0.2, Dox: 1.8±0.3, Dox + Erl: 2.2±0.2. The cleaved/uncleaved γENaC ratio was increased by 41±16% in the Dox group but unchanged in the Dox + Erl group when compared to Ctrl. The phosphorylated EGFR/total EGFR ratio was reduced by 74±7% in the Dox group and by 77±4% in the Dox + Erl group. In conclusion, Erlotinib preserved renal function and prevented salt retention in nephrotic rats. The observed effects do not appear to be mediated by direct blockade of EGFR.

  17. The effect of nifedipine on graft function in renal allograft recipients treated with cyclosporin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, D J; Whiting, P H; Power, D A; Edward, N; Catto, G R

    1989-08-01

    The effect of the calcium channel antagonist nifedipine on renal allograft function was assessed in two groups of renal transplant recipients at least one year after transplantation. Group 1 comprised 10 patients receiving low-dose prednisolone and cyclosporin A, and Group 2 comprised 9 patients receiving low-dose prednisolone and azathioprine. Before commencing nifedipine, creatinine and sodium clearance rates and the fractional excretion of sodium were similar in both two groups. Lithium clearance rates and the fractional excretion of lithium were, however, significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in Group 1 than in Group 2. The absolute reabsorption of sodium from the distal nephron (p less than 0.01), the absolute reabsorption of water from the distal nephron segment (p less than 0.01) and the fractional reabsorption of sodium from the distal tubule relative to the delivery of sodium from the proximal tubule (p less than 0.05) were also lower in Group 1. After seven days of nifedipine treatment (10 mg/8 h) there was a significant fall in sodium clearance (p less than 0.01) and fractional sodium excretion (p less than 0.05), and an increase in the fractional distal reabsorption of sodium relative to the delivery of sodium from the proximal tubule (p less than 0.01), and the fractional distal reabsorption of water relative to the delivery of water from the proximal tubule (p less than 0.02), in Group 1 but not Group 2. The only alterations observed in Group 2 were an increase in fractional lithium excretion (p less than 0.05), and a significant fall in the absolute proximal tubular reabsorption of iso-osmotic fluids (p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The Impact of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Renal Function in Children with Overweight/Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Lucia; Bonci, Enea; Andreoli, Gian Marco; Di Martino, Michele; Gallozzi, Alessia; De Luca, Ester; Chiesa, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic kidney disease has attracted interest and attention over recent years. However, no data are available in children. We determined whether children with NAFLD show signs of renal functional alterations, as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin excretion. We studied 596 children with overweight/obesity, 268 with NAFLD (hepatic fat fraction ≥5% on magnetic resonance imaging) and 328 without NAFLD, and 130 healthy normal-weight controls. Decreased GFR was defined as eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Abnormal albuminuria was defined as urinary excretion of ≥30 mg/24 h of albumin. A greater prevalence of eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was observed in patients with NAFLD compared to those without liver involvement and healthy subjects (17.5% vs. 6.7% vs. 0.77%; p < 0.0001). The proportion of children with abnormal albuminuria was also higher in the NAFLD group compared to those without NAFLD, and controls (9.3% vs. 4.0% vs. 0; p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that NAFLD was associated with decreased eGFR and/or microalbuminuria (odds ratio, 2.54 (confidence interval, 1.16–5.57); p < 0.05) independently of anthropometric and clinical variables. Children with NAFLD are at risk for early renal dysfunction. Recognition of this abnormality in the young may help to prevent the ongoing development of the disease. PMID:27472326

  19. Extracellular vesicles: structure, function, and potential clinical uses in renal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Borges

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the role of extracellular vesicles in various diseases including cancer has been increasing. Extracellular vesicles include microvesicles, exosomes, apoptotic bodies, and argosomes, and are classified by size, content, synthesis, and function. Currently, the best characterized are exosomes and microvesicles. Exosomes are small vesicles (40-100 nm involved in intercellular communication regardless of the distance between them. They are found in various biological fluids such as plasma, serum, and breast milk, and are formed from multivesicular bodies through the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Microvesicles are 100-1000 nm vesicles released from the cell by the outward budding of the plasma membrane. The therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles is very broad, with applications including a route of drug delivery and as biomarkers for diagnosis. Extracellular vesicles extracted from stem cells may be used for treatment of many diseases including kidney diseases. This review highlights mechanisms of synthesis and function, and the potential uses of well-characterized extracellular vesicles, mainly exosomes, with a special focus on renal functions and diseases.

  20. Sympathetic hyperactivity influences chemosensor function in patients with end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autonomic neuropathy is common in patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD. This may in part explain the high cardiovascular mortality in these patients. Chemosensory function is involved in autonomic cardiovascular control and is mechanistically linked to the sympathetic tone. Objective The aim of the present study was to assess whether sympathetic hyperactivity contributes to an altered chemosensory function in ESRD. Materials and methods In a randomized, double-masked, placebo controlled crossover design we studied the impact of chemosensory deactivation on heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation in 10 ESRD patients and 10 age and gender matched controls. The difference in the R-R intervals divided by the difference in the oxygen pressures before and after deactivation of the chemoreceptors by 5-min inhalation of 7 L oxygen was calculated as the hyperoxic chemoreflex sensitivity (CHRS. Placebo consisted of breathing room air. Baseline sympathetic activity was characterized by plasma catecholamine levels and 24-h time-domain heart rate variability (HRV parameters. Results Plasma norepinephrine levels were increased (1.6 ± 0.4 vs. 5.8 ± 0.6; P Conclusion Sympathetic hyperactivity influences chemosensory function in ESRD resulting in an impaired hyperoxic CHRS.

  1. Research progress of renal function evaluation using computed tomography%CT评价肾功能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娇; 任克

    2015-01-01

    肾脏疾病病人进行临床治疗前必须进行肾功能的评估。除了常规取血液样本通过检验方法测定肾功能外,在医学成像方面,亦出现了多种评估方法,其中单光子发射体层成像检查已成为测定肾功能的金标准,并且随着CT技术的发展,其在评估肾形态的基础上可同时评估肾功能,半定量或定量测定肾小球滤过率,为术前的临床评估提供更多的生理学指标。现就CT对肾功能评估的研究进展予以综述。%Renal function evaluation is essential before clinical therapy in patients with renal diseases. In addition to measuring renal function by analyzing serum creatinine, a variety of imaging methods are available. Among the methods, the SPECT has become the gold standard in renal function evaluation. With the development of software and hardware of computed tomography (CT) devices, CT can evaluate pathological and function of the kidney at single imaging session. It can measure glomerular filtration rate value semi-quantitatively or quantitatively, and provides other physiological indicators for clinical assessment preoperatively. In this review we focused on renal function evaluation using CT devices.

  2. Cuidando do ser humano hipertenso e protegendo sua função renal Cuidando del ser humano hipertenso y protegiendo su función renal Caring for hipertensive patient and protection his renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Orsolin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo sobre a compreensão dos efeitos da função renal e sua relação com a hipertensão realizada com doze integrantes de 18 a 60 anos de um grupo de hipertensos vinculados a uma Unidade Básica de Saúde de um município do norte do Rio Grande do Sul. A coleta de dados realizou-se de março a maio de 2004, através de entrevistas grupais, abordando a técnica focal. A análise foi realizada conforme o método de análise temática e posterior categorização. Os resultados demonstraram que os integrantes, apesar de conhecerem, em parte, a fisiopatologia renal, não a vêem como conseqüência da hipertensão arterial.Tratase de una investigación exploratorio-descriptiva sobre la comprención de los efectos de la función renal y su relación con la hipertensión realizada con doce integrantes de 18 a 60 años de un grupo de hipertensos vinculados a una unidad básica de salud de un município del norte del Rio Grande del Sul. La coleta de datos se realizó entre marzo y mayo del 2004, a través de entrevistas de grupos, abordando la técnica focal. El análisis fue realizado de acuerdo al método de análisis temática y posterior categorización. Los resultados demonstraron que los integrantes, apesar de conoceren, en parte, la fisiopatología renal, no la ven como consecuente de la hipertensión arterial.This is an exploratory-descriptive study about the comprehension of the effects of renal function and its relation to hipertension. The study was carried out with 12 members of a hipertension group (range from 18-60 years-old entailed to a Basic Health Unit from a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul State. Data collection was carried out from March to May, 2004, by means of groupal interviews, approaching the focal technique. Analysis was proceeded according to thematic analysis and later categorization. Results demonstrated that the members, despite partially know renal physiopathology, they don

  3. PRE-AND POST-OPERATIVE CORTICAL FUNCTION OF THE KIDNEY WITH STAGHORN CALCULI ASSESSED BY 99mTc-DMSA RENAL SCINTIGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    川村, 寿一

    1982-01-01

    99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 pati...

  4. Association between antiretroviral exposure and renal impairment among HIV-positive persons with normal baseline renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Mocroft, A.; Kirk, O.;

    2013-01-01

    glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥90 mL/min after 1 January 2004 were followed until they had a confirmed eGFR of ≤70 mL/min (the threshold below which we hypothesized that renal interventions may begin to occur) or ≤60 mL/min (a value indicative of moderately severe chronic kidney disease [CKD......]) or until the last eGFR measurement during follow-up. An eGFR was considered confirmed if it was detected at 2 consecutive measurements ≥3 months apart. Predictors and eGFR-related ARV discontinuations were identified using Poisson regression.Results. Of 22 603 persons, 468 (2.1%) experienced a confirmed eGFR.......7-6.1 years). A current eGFR of 60-70 mL/min caused significantly higher rates of discontinuation of tenofovir (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR], 1.72 [95% CI, 1.38-2.14]) but not other ARVs compared with a current eGFR of ≥90 mL/min. Cumulative tenofovir use (aIRR, 1.18/year [95% CI, 1...

  5. Aortic Arch Calcification Predicts the Renal Function Progression in Patients with Stage 3 to 5 Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chih Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The presence of aortic arch calcification (AoAC and cardiomegaly on chest radiography has been demonstrated as important risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, the interrelationship among AoAC, cardiomegaly, and renal function progression remains unclear. The aim of this study is to assess whether AoAC and cardiomegaly are independently associated with the renal function progression in patients with stages 3–5 CKD. Methods. We retrospectively determined AoAC and cardiomegaly by chest X-ray in 237 patients, followed up for at least three years without entering dialysis and classified into 4 groups according to the presence or absence of AoAC and cardiomegaly. The change in renal function was measured by the slope of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. Results. Of the 237 patients, the rate of eGFR decline was significantly higher in the group with coexistence of AoAC and cardiomegaly than any other groups. Baseline AoAC and proteinuria were independently associated with eGFR decline. AoAC were independently determined by age, eGFR slope, and cardiomegaly. Conclusions. The coexistence of AoAC and cardiomegaly is associated with faster eGFR decline. AoAC is an independent determinant of renal outcomes in patients with CKD stages 3–5.

  6. The Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor AR9281 Decreases Blood Pressure, Ameliorates Renal Injury and Improves Vascular Function in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Shaw

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs are demonstrating promise as potential pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammation, and kidney disease. The present study determined the ability of a first-inclass sEHI, AR9281, to decrease blood pressure, improve vascular function, and decrease renal inflammation and injury in angiotensin hypertension. Rats were infused with angiotensin and AR9281 was given orally during the 14-day infusion period. Systolic blood pressure averaged 180 ± 5 mmHg in vehicle treated and AR9281 treatment significantly lowered blood pressure to 142 ± 7 mmHg in angiotensin hypertension. Histological analysis demonstrated decreased injury to the juxtamedullary glomeruli. Renal expression of inflammatory genes was increased in angiotensin hypertension and two weeks of AR9281 treatment decreased this index of renal inflammation. Vascular function in angiotensin hypertension was also improved by AR9281 treatment. Decreased afferent arteriolar and mesenteric resistance endothelial dependent dilator responses were ameliorated by AR9281 treatment of angiotensin hypertensive rats. These data demonstrate that the first-in-class sEHI, AR9281, lowers blood pressure, improves vascular function and reduces renal damage in angiotensin hypertension.

  7. Association of glomerular filtration rate with slow coronary flow in patients with normal to mildly impaired renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Fatih; Celik, Omer; Ayça, Burak; Yalçin, Ahmet Arif; Altun, Ibrahim; Köse, Nuri

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and slow coronary flow (SCF) in patients with normal to mildly impaired renal function; 211 patients with angiographically proven SCF and 219 controls were studied. Patients were categorized based on the angiographic findings as with or without SCF. We used the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation to calculate eGFR. The frequency of mildly decreased eGFR, serum uric acid levels, and eGFR was higher in the SCF group. Patients with mildly impaired renal function had higher thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame counts in 3 major coronary arteries. In logistic regression analysis, uric acid (odds ratio [OR] = 1.323, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.109-1.572, P = .002) and eGFR (OR = 0.972, 95% CI = 0.957-0.987, P < .001) were independent correlates of SCF. In conclusion, eGFR was significantly correlated with SCF in patients with normal to mildly impaired renal function.

  8. Association between microalbuminuria and subclinical atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid artery intima-media in elderly patients with normal renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong XiangLei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moderate to severe renal insufficiency and albuminuria have been shown to be independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the direct association between subclinical atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT and microalbuminuria in elderly patients with normal renal function. Methods Subjects were 272 elderly patients (age  ≥ 60 years with normoalbuminuria (n = 238 and microalbuminuria (n = 34. Carotid IMT was measured by means of high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 was defined as normal renal function. Those who had macroalbuminuria and atherosclerotic vascular disease were not included. Results Compared to subjects with normoalbuminuria, subjects with microalbuminuria had higher mean carotid IMT (1.02 ± 0.38 vs. 0.85 ± 0.28 mm; P  Conclusions A slight elevation of albuminuria is a significant determinant of carotid IMT independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in our patients. Our study further confirms the importance of intensive examinations for the early detection of atherosclerosis when microalbuminuria is found in elderly patients, although with normal renal function.

  9. Sirolimus-based therapy following early cyclosporine withdrawal provides significantly improved renal histology and function at 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Alfredo; Arias, Manuel; Taskinen, Eero I; Paavonen, Timo; Brault, Yves; Legendre, Christophe; Claesson, Kerstin; Castagneto, Marco; Campistol, Josep M; Hutchison, Brian; Burke, James T; Yilmaz, Sedar; Häyry, Pekka; Neylan, John F

    2004-06-01

    Graft function and histology are predictive of renal transplant survival. The Rapamune Maintenance Regimen study demonstrated that early cyclosporine (CsA) withdrawal from a sirolimus (SRL)-CsA-steroid (ST) regimen improved renal function and blood pressure. We report the protocol-mandated biopsy findings from that study. Renal transplant patients (n = 430) receiving SRL-CsA-ST were randomized at 3 months after transplantation to remain on SRL-CsA-ST, or to have CsA withdrawn (SRL-ST group). Protocol-mandated biopsies were performed at engraftment and at 12 and 36 months. Two pathologists blindly evaluated 484 biopsies to obtain the Chronic Allograft Damage Index (CADI) scores. At 36 months among patients with serial biopsies (n = 63), the mean CADI score was significantly lower with SRL-ST(4.70 vs. 3.20, p = 0.003), as was the mean tubular atrophy score (0.77 vs. 0.32, p renal histology and function.

  10. Beta-Blockers and the Kidney: Implications for Renal Function and Renin Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Murray; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviews and discusses current information on the human renal response as related to beta-blockers (antihypertension agents). Topic areas considered include cardioselectivity, renal hemodynamics, systemic hemodynamics, changes with acute and chronic administration, influence of dose, and others. Implications and an 11-item multiple-choice self-quiz…

  11. Tubular epithelial syndecan-1 maintains renal function in murine ischemia/reperfusion and human transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celie, Johanna W. A. M.; Katta, Kiran K.; Adepu, Saritha; Melenhorst, Wynand B. W. H.; Reijmers, Rogier M.; Slot, Edith M.; Beelen, Robert H. J.; Spaargaren, Marcel; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Navis, Gerjan; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; van Dijk, Marcory C. R. F.; van Goor, Harry; van den Born, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, has an important role in wound healing by binding several growth factors and cytokines. As these processes are also crucial in damage and repair after renal transplantation, we examined syndecan-1 expression in human control kidney tissue, renal allograft

  12. High Protein Intake Associates with Cardiovascular Events but not with Loss of Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbesma, Nynke; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Jansen, Desiree F.; Stolk, Ronald P.; De Zeeuw, Dick; De Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term effects of higher dietary protein intake on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in the general population are not clear. We analyzed data from 8461 individuals who did not have renal disease and participated in two or three subsequent screenings (6.4-yr follow-up) in a prospective, commu

  13. The Function of MicroRNAs in Renal Development and Pathophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming Ma; Lianghu Qu

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that modulate diverse biological processes predominantly by translation inhibition or induction of mRNA degradation.They are important regulatory elements involved in renal physiology and pathology.Dysregulation of miRNAs disrupts early kidney development,renal progenitor cell differentiation and the maintenance of mature nephrons.miRNAs are also reported to participate in various renal diseases,including chronic kidney disease,acute kidney injury,allograft acute rejection and renal cell carcinoma.Differentially regulated miRNAs may represent innovative biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis.Therefore,determining the roles of miRNAs in different types of renal diseases will help to clarify the pathogenesis and facilitate the development of novel therapies.

  14. Absorption and scattering 2-D volcano images from numerically calculated space-weighting functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Ibañez, Jesus; Prudencio, Janire; Bianco, Francesca; De Siena, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Short-period small magnitude seismograms mainly comprise scattered waves in the form of coda waves (the tail part of the seismogram, starting after S waves and ending when the noise prevails), spanning more than 70 per cent of the whole seismogram duration. Corresponding coda envelopes provide important information about the earth inhomogeneity, which can be stochastically modeled in terms of distribution of scatterers in a random medium. In suitable experimental conditions (i.e. high earth heterogeneity), either the two parameters describing heterogeneity (scattering coefficient), intrinsic energy dissipation (coefficient of intrinsic attenuation) or a combination of them (extinction length and seismic albedo) can be used to image Earth structures. Once a set of such parameter couples has been measured in a given area and for a number of sources and receivers, imaging their space distribution with standard methods is straightforward. However, as for finite-frequency and full-waveform tomography, the essential problem for a correct imaging is the determination of the weighting function describing the spatial sensitivity of observable data to scattering and absorption anomalies. Due to the nature of coda waves, the measured parameter couple can be seen as a weighted space average of the real parameters characterizing the rock volumes illuminated by the scattered waves. This paper uses the Monte Carlo numerical solution of the Energy Transport Equation to find approximate but realistic 2-D space-weighting functions for coda waves. Separate images for scattering and absorption based on these sensitivity functions are then compared with those obtained with commonly used sensitivity functions in an application to data from an active seismic experiment carried out at Deception Island (Antarctica). Results show that these novel functions are based on a reliable and physically grounded method to image magnitude and shape of scattering and absorption anomalies. Their

  15. Hemodynamic and glucometabolic factors fail to predict renal function in a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, M.; Nielsen, M.; Olesen, Thomas Bastholm;

    2015-01-01

    indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-2B), insulin sensitivity (HOMA-2S), and insulin resistance (HOMA-2IR)), traditional cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, total serum cholesterol), and later renal function determined as serum cystatin C in 238 men...... and 7 women aged 38 to 49 years at the time of inclusion, using multivariable linear regression analysis (p-entry 0.05, p-removal 0.20). Study subjects came from a random population based sample and were included 1974-1992, whilst the follow-up with cystatin C measurement was performed 2002......-2006. Results: Mean (+/- s.d.) follow-up time, creatinine, and cystatin C were 28 +/- 1 years, 94 +/- 12 micromoles/L, and 1.220 +/- 0.298 mg/L. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rates at baseline and follow-up were 84 +/- 12 mL/min/1.73m2 and 68 +/- 18 mL/min/1.73m2. In univariate analyses, cystatin C...

  16. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, Liver Function Enzymes, Renal Function Parameters and Oxidative Stress Parameters: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usunobun Usunomena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review a procarcinogen, the N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, liver and kidney functional enzymes (in assessing action of toxicants such as NDMA as well as oxidative stress parameters (in assessing the extent of free radical damage and scavenging. Catalase and hydro peroxidase enzymes convert hydrogen peroxide and hydro peroxides to non-radical forms and functions as natural antioxidant in human body. Enzymes like Superoxide Dismutase (SOD and Catalase (CAT and compounds such as tocopherol and ascorbic acid can protect organisms against free radical damage. Lipid peroxidation is a mechanism generally recognized as being the most important in the pathogenesis of liver injury by a number of toxic compounds including NDMA.

  17. The thermotidal exciting function for water vapour absorption of solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BONAFEDE

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermotidal exciting function J is considered, for
    the absorption of solar radiation by water vapour, according to the model
    derived by Siebert. The Mugge-Moller formula for water vapour absorption
    is integrated numerically, using experimental data for the water vapour
    concentration in the troposphere and the stratosphere. It appears that
    Siebort's formula is a reasonable approximation at low tropospheric levels
    but it dramatically overestimates the water vapour thermotidal heating
    in the upper troposphere and in the stratosphere. It seems thus possible
    that, if the correct vertical profile is employed for J , the amplitudes and
    phases of the diurnal temperature oscillations and of the tidal wind speeds
    may suffer significant changes from those previously calculated and possibly explain the three hours delay of the observed phases from the computed values.

  18. Characteristic Functions Describing the Power Absorption Response of Periodic Structures to Partially Coherent Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Craeye, Christophe; Thomas, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Many new types of sensing or imaging surfaces are based on periodic thin films. It is explained how the response of those surfaces to partially coherent fields can be fully characterized by a set of functions in the wavenumber spectrum domain. The theory is developed here for the case of 2D absorbers with TE illumination and arbitrary material properties in the plane of the problem, except for the resistivity which is assumed isotropic. Sum and difference coordinates in both spatial and spectral domains are conveniently used to represent the characteristic functions, which are specialized here to the case of periodic structures. Those functions can be either computed or obtained experimentally. Simulations rely on solvers based on periodic-boundary conditions, while experiments correspond to Energy Absorption Interferometry (EAI), already described in the literature. We derive rules for the convergence of the representation versus the number of characteristic functions used, as well as for the sampling to be ...

  19. Effect of sequential therapy of prostaglandins on renal function indexes in blood and urine specimens in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Zhao Zhang; Zhi-Yuan Lu; Zhen Ren; Wei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of sequential therapy of prostaglandins on renal function indexes in blood and urine specimens in patients with diabetic nephropathy.Methods: A total of 96 cases of patients with diabetic nephropathy (IV) were selected as the subjects of the study and randomly divided into control group (group A), alprostadil group (group B), beraprost sodium group (group C) and sequential therapy group (group D), renal color Doppler ultrasound was carried out, and trace albumin, total protein, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) and thromboxane B2(TXB2) levels in 24 h urine specimens as well as creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 6-keto-PGF1α, TXB2, cystatin C (CysC), retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels in blood specimens were determined.Results:Renal blood flow of group B, C and D were higher than that of group A and renal blood flow of group D was higher than those of group B and C; 24 h urine trace albumin, total protein and TXB2 levels as well as serum BUN, Cr, CysC and RBP levels of group B, C and D were significantly lower than those before treatment, and serum and urine 6-keto-PGF1α levels of group B, C and D were significantly higher than those before treatment; 24 h urine trace albumin, total protein and TXB2 levels as well as serum BUN, Cr, CysC and RBP levels of group D group were significantly lower than those of group B and group C, and serum and urine 6-keto-PGF1α levels of group D after treatment were significantly higher than those of group B and group C.Conclusion:Sequential therapy of alprostadil can protect renal function in patients with diabetic nephropathy, reduce proteinuria, improve glomerular filtration function and microcirculation disturbance, and inhibit platelet activation.

  20. RENAL FUNCTION TEST ON THE BASIS OF SERUM CREATININE AND UREA IN TYPE-2 DIABETICS AND NONDIABETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type-2 diabetes mellitus has quickly become a global health problem due to rapidly increasing population growth, aging, urbanization and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major causes of chronic renal failure. Both serum urea and creatinine are widely used to assess the function of kidney. This study was conducted to observe the impaired renal function in type 2 diabetics and compare with non-diabetics controls. Method: To determine the incidence of renal dysfunction in diabetics in Nepalgunj medical college and Hospital , Nepalgunj , Banke, Nepal , blood samples from 100 diabetic subjects and 100 non-diabetic controls were taken between the period 1st February  , 2012  to  31st January , 2013 for investigation of  plasma glucose fasting(FPG, blood urea and serum creatinine. These biochemical parameters were determined by using a fully automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: Our findings showed that the level of blood urea (P<0.0001, 95%Cl and serum creatinine (P≈0.0004,95%Cl were significantly higher in type 2 diabetics as compared to non-diabetics in both male and female. There was no significant difference between diabetic male and female. 15 out of 100 diabetes samples have high urea level whereas 7 out of 100 had increased creatinine level. In control only 3 samples had high urea value and 1 had high creatinine level. There was statistical significant increased in urea level with increased in blood sugar level. Conclusion: Blood urea and creatinine is widely accepted to assess the renal functions. Good control of blood glucose level is absolute requirement to prevent progressive renal impairment.

  1. A randomized and double-blind comparison of isradipine and spirapril as monotherapy and in combination on the decline in renal function in patients with chronic renal failure and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L J; Petersen, J R; Talleruphuus, U;

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of hypertension in patients with chronic renal failure has been shown to postpone the decline in renal function. Treatment with an ACE inhibitor has been shown to be superior to conventional antihypertensive treatment, but it is not known how an ACE inhibitor compares to treatment...... with a calcium channel blocker or to treatment with a combination of these drugs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the rate of decline in GFR in patients with chronic renal failure and hypertension treated with isradipine and spirapril as monotherapy and in combination....

  2. Fluctuation of the renal function after discharge from hospital and its effects on drug dosing in elderly patients--study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppenga, W.L.; Wester, W.N.; Derijks, H.J.; Hoedemakers, R.M.; Wensing, M.J.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Marum, R.J. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased mortality rate, risk of cardiovascular events and morbidity. Impaired renal function is common in elderly patients, and their glomerular filtration rate (GFR) should be taken into account when prescribing renally excreted drugs

  3. Correlation between coagulation function, tumor stage and metastasis in patients with renal cell carcinoma: a retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Bo; MA Lu-lin; ZHANG Shu-dong; XIAO Chun-lei; LU Jian; HONG Kai; LIAO Hong-yi

    2011-01-01

    Background The coagulation function in carcinoma patients is abnormal, but in renal cell carcinoma the extent and relationships of coagulation function remain unclear. This study retrospectively investigated the relationships between coagulation function, clinical stage and metastasis in patients with renal cell carcinoma.Methods A total of 350 consecutive patients admitted to our Urology Department from 2004 to 2010 were diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma by histolopathologic examination and were included in this study. A total of 231 cases of renal benign tumors were considered as the control group. Fibrinogen, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio were evaluated in all subjects. Tumor size, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis were evaluated using radiologic imaging, intraoperative findings, and histological studies.Results The preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels of patients with renal cell carcinoma ((383.9±146.7) mg/dl) were significantly higher than those of the control group ((316.7±62.0) mg/dl) (P <0.01). We divided the renal cell carcinoma group into stages la, lb, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ. The fibrinogen values were (315.6±64.6) mg/dl, (358.3±91.1) mg/dl, (465.6±164.7)mg/dl, (500.0±202.1) mg/dl, and (585.8±179.7) mg/dl, respectively. There were no significant differences in fibrinogen values between stage la and control groups. However, results of other stages showed significant differences when compared to control group values (P <0.01). Using the cutoff value of 440 mg/dl, which defines hyperfibrinogenemia,plasma fibrinogen levels had a positive predictive value of 39.8% and a negative predictive value of 93.3% for predicting distant metastasis, with a sensitivity of 64.7% and specificity of 83.3%.Concluslons Preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels are elevated in patients with renal cell carcinoma with distant metastasis or lymph node metastasis. Potential metastasis is

  4. Effect of Intravenous Cyclophosphamide Pulse Therapy on Renal Functions and Histopathology in Patients with Severe Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huraib Sameer

    2000-01-01

    chronic renal failure showed initial high serum creatinine to be a powerful predictor of renal failure. In conclusion, IC pulse therapy is effective in improving or stabilizing renal function in patients with class IV or V LN. The only poor prognostic determinant observed was higher initial serum creatinine value.

  5. CT findings in ten patients with failed renal allografts: comparison with findings in functional grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim is to report the computed tomography (CT) features of the long-term failed renal allograft. Ten patients with failed renal transplants in whom the graft was left in situ underwent CT for various unrelated indications. The majority of the failed grafts showed marked shrinkage and coarse punctate diffuse parenchymal calcifications. Small cysts were seen in four grafts. A long-term failed renal transplant appeared on CT as a small rounded soft tissue mass. The graft was almost always heavily calcified. Lack of awareness of the nature of such a mass may mislead the radiologist in interpreting it as a space-occupying lesion

  6. CT findings in ten patients with failed renal allografts: comparison with findings in functional grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayer, Gabriela E-mail: gayer_h@netvsion.net.il; Apter, Sara; Katz, Rama; Ben-David, Aharon; Katzir, Ze' ev; Hertz, Marjorie

    2000-12-01

    Our aim is to report the computed tomography (CT) features of the long-term failed renal allograft. Ten patients with failed renal transplants in whom the graft was left in situ underwent CT for various unrelated indications. The majority of the failed grafts showed marked shrinkage and coarse punctate diffuse parenchymal calcifications. Small cysts were seen in four grafts. A long-term failed renal transplant appeared on CT as a small rounded soft tissue mass. The graft was almost always heavily calcified. Lack of awareness of the nature of such a mass may mislead the radiologist in interpreting it as a space-occupying lesion.

  7. Hemodialysis improves endothelial venous function in end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.V. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the acute effect of hemodialysis on endothelial venous function and oxidative stress. We studied 9 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, 36.8 ± 3.0 years old, arterial pressure 133.8 ± 6.8/80.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, time on dialysis 55.0 ± 16.6 months, immediately before and after a hemodialysis session, and 10 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Endothelial function was assessed by the dorsal hand vein technique using graded local infusion of acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent venodilation, EDV and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent venodilation. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring protein oxidative damage (carbonyls and antioxidant defense (total radical trapping antioxidant potential - TRAP in blood samples. All patients were receiving recombinant human erythropoietin for at least 3 months and were not taking nitrates or a-receptor antagonists. EDV was significantly lower in ESRD patients before hemodialysis (65.6 ± 10.5 vs controls (109.6 ± 10.8; P = 0.010 and after hemodialysis (106.6 ± 15.7; P = 0.045. Endothelium-independent venodilation was similar in all comparisons performed. The hemodialysis session significantly decreased TRAP (402.0 ± 53.5 vs 157.1 ± 28.3 U Trolox/µL plasma; P = 0.001. There was no difference in protein damage comparing ESRD patients before and after hemodialysis. The magnitude of change in the EDV was correlated negatively with the magnitude of change in TRAP (r = -0.70; P = 0.037. These results suggest that a hemodialysis session improves endothelial venous function, in association with an antioxidant effect.

  8. Pulmonary Function in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: Effects of Hemodialysis and Fluid Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Süreyya; Yildirim, Yasar; Yilmaz, Zülfükar; Kara, Ali Veysel; Taylan, Mahsuk; Demir, Melike; Coskunsel, Mehmet; Kadiroglu, Ali Kemal; Yilmaz, Mehmet Emin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Respiratory system disorders are one of the most prevalent complications in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. However, the pathogenesis of impaired pulmonary functions has not been completely elucidated in these patients. We designed a study to investigate acute effects of hemodialysis treatment on spirometry parameters, focusing on the relationship between pulmonary function and fluid status in hemodialysis patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 54 hemodialysis patients in this study. Multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used to assess fluid status before and 30 min after the midweek of hemodialysis (HD). Overhydration (OH)/extracellular water (ECW)% ratio was used as an indicator of fluid status. Fluid overload was defined as OH/ECW ≥7%. Spirometry was performed before and after hemodialysis. RESULTS Forced vital capacity (FVC), FVC%, and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) levels were significantly increased after hemodialysis. FVC, FVC%, FEV1, FEV1%, mean forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC (FEF25-75), FEF25-75%, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and PEFR% were significantly lower in patients with fluid overload than in those without. OH/ECW ratio was negatively correlated with FVC, FVC%, FEV1, FEV1%, FEF25-75, FEF25-75%, PEFR, and PEFR%. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that male sex and increased ultrafiltration volume were independently associated with higher FVC, whereas increased age and OH/ECW ratio were independently associated with lower FVC. CONCLUSIONS Fluid overload is closely associated with restrictive and obstructive respiratory abnormalities in HD patients. In addition, hemodialysis has a beneficial effect on pulmonary function tests, which may be due to reduction of volume overload. PMID:27497672

  9. Reduced Graphene Oxide Functionalized with Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposites for Enhanced Efficient and Lightweight Electromagnetic Wave Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Liao, Qingliang; Liu, Shuo; Guo, Huijing; Sun, Yihui; Zhang, Guangjie; Zhang, Yue

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, reduced graphene oxide functionalized with cobalt ferrite nanocomposites (CoFe@rGO) as a novel type of electromagnetic wave (EW) absorbing materials was successfully prepared by a three-step chemical method including hydrothermal synthesis, annealing process and mixing with paraffin. The effect of the sample thickness and the amount of paraffin on the EW absorption properties of the composites was studied, revealing that the absorption peaks shifted toward the low frequency regions with the increasing thickness while other conditions had little or no effect. It is found that the CoFe@rGO enhanced both dielectric losses and magnetic losses and had the best EW absorption properties and the wide wavelength coverage of the hole Ku-Band when adding only 5wt% composites to paraffin. Therefore, CoFe@rGO could be used as an efficient and lightweight EW absorber. Compared with the research into traditional absorbing materials, this figures of merit are typically of the same order of magnitude, but given the lightweight nature of the material and the high level of compatibility with mass production standards, making use of CoFe@rGO as an electromagnetic absorber material shows great potential for real product applications.

  10. Reduced Graphene Oxide Functionalized with Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposites for Enhanced Efficient and Lightweight Electromagnetic Wave Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Liao, Qingliang; Liu, Shuo; Guo, Huijing; Sun, Yihui; Zhang, Guangjie; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, reduced graphene oxide functionalized with cobalt ferrite nanocomposites (CoFe@rGO) as a novel type of electromagnetic wave (EW) absorbing materials was successfully prepared by a three-step chemical method including hydrothermal synthesis, annealing process and mixing with paraffin. The effect of the sample thickness and the amount of paraffin on the EW absorption properties of the composites was studied, revealing that the absorption peaks shifted toward the low frequency regions with the increasing thickness while other conditions had little or no effect. It is found that the CoFe@rGO enhanced both dielectric losses and magnetic losses and had the best EW absorption properties and the wide wavelength coverage of the hole Ku-Band when adding only 5wt% composites to paraffin. Therefore, CoFe@rGO could be used as an efficient and lightweight EW absorber. Compared with the research into traditional absorbing materials, this figures of merit are typically of the same order of magnitude, but given the lightweight nature of the material and the high level of compatibility with mass production standards, making use of CoFe@rGO as an electromagnetic absorber material shows great potential for real product applications. PMID:27587001

  11. Reduced Graphene Oxide Functionalized with Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposites for Enhanced Efficient and Lightweight Electromagnetic Wave Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Liao, Qingliang; Liu, Shuo; Guo, Huijing; Sun, Yihui; Zhang, Guangjie; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, reduced graphene oxide functionalized with cobalt ferrite nanocomposites (CoFe@rGO) as a novel type of electromagnetic wave (EW) absorbing materials was successfully prepared by a three-step chemical method including hydrothermal synthesis, annealing process and mixing with paraffin. The effect of the sample thickness and the amount of paraffin on the EW absorption properties of the composites was studied, revealing that the absorption peaks shifted toward the low frequency regions with the increasing thickness while other conditions had little or no effect. It is found that the CoFe@rGO enhanced both dielectric losses and magnetic losses and had the best EW absorption properties and the wide wavelength coverage of the hole Ku-Band when adding only 5wt% composites to paraffin. Therefore, CoFe@rGO could be used as an efficient and lightweight EW absorber. Compared with the research into traditional absorbing materials, this figures of merit are typically of the same order of magnitude, but given the lightweight nature of the material and the high level of compatibility with mass production standards, making use of CoFe@rGO as an electromagnetic absorber material shows great potential for real product applications. PMID:27587001

  12. Deteriorating renal function and clinical outcomes in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Ryom, Lene; Begovac, Josip;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between measures of renal function [current estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proportion of follow-up with a low eGFR (%FU ≤60 ml/min)] and fatal/ nonfatal AIDS, non-AIDS events and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: An observational, longitudinal...... cohort study of 12 155 persons from EuroSIDA. METHODS: Persons with at least one eGFR measurement after 1 January 2004, using the CKD-EPI formula, were included. Poisson regression analyses were used to determine whether current eGFR or %FU of 60 ml/min or less were independent prognostic markers...... for clinical events. RESULTS: During 61 425 person-years of follow-up (PYFU), the crude incidence of deaths was 11.1/1000 PYFU [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.0-12.1] at current eGFR more than 90 ml/min and 199.6 (95% CI 1144.3-254.3/1000 PYFU) when current eGFR was 30 ml/min or less. Corresponding figures...

  13. A study of bone uptake according to renal function in the whole body bone scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong In; Jang, Dong Gun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Woo [Dept. of Radiological Technology Dong-Eui Institute of Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Whole body bone scan has been used to confirm bone metastasis and follow-up study with radio isotope. However, if the factors related to 99mTc uptake and waiting time for study are inappropriate, it would be image of low quality. The purpose of present study was to investigate correlation between the evaluation index of renal function and uptake of radiopharmaceuticals. The population for this retrospective study consisted of 387 patients who underwent whole body bone scan between June 2012 and December 2012. As a result of quantitative and qualitative analysis, we were able to confirm that GFR of less than normal range and creatinine levels in blood of more than average are more likely to be under the mean uptake rate. As a result of analysis on the indicator affecting soft-tissue and bone uptake, the correlation of all elements was somewhat low. Also there are no statistically significances due to the other parameters we did not deal with. Therefore, further research on additional factors is needed for exact study and improvement of the image quality.

  14. [Evaluation of the renal function in type 2 diabetes: clearance calculation or cystatin C?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhia, Rym Ben; Hellara, Ilhem; Harzallah, Olfa; Neffati, Fadoua; Khochtali, Ines; Mahjoub, Sylvia; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2012-01-01

    Screening for diabetic nephropathy is usually done by albuminuria/24h and the use of creatinine clearance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the renal function in Type 2 diabetes by using different formulas of creatinine clearance and to assess the contribution of cystatin C; 83 adults with type 2 diabetes (23 men and 60 women) and 83 adult controls (40 men and 43 women) were studied. Biochemical parameters were determinated on Coba 6000™ (Roche diagnostics). Diabetics showed a significant increase in blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDLc, the ApoB, Lp(a), urea, uric acid, creatinine and cystatin C and lower HDLc. Cystatin was increased in patients with degenerative complications and in hypertensive patients. We found strong correlations of cystatin C with creatinine (r = 0.9454), urea (r = 0.8999) and uric acid (r = 0.8325). We found a significant exponentially increase of creatinine and cystatin C from one stage to another. Cystatin C has a strong association with MDRD (r = 0.8086) and CG (r = 0.7915) and a low one with creatinine clearance (r = 0.1044). In conclusion, the use of cystatin C for screening and early treatment of incipient diabetic nephropathy appears to be adequate. CG and MDRD formulas still hold their place, in regards to the classical determination of creatinine clearance, to monitor patients. PMID:22565176

  15. Stability and preclinical tests of 99mTc-EC radiopharmaceuticals for renal function imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopharmaceuticals have shown a real and specific usefulness in medical services, especially for diagnosis of several diseases such as renal function imaging. Preparation of 99mTc-EC and its analysis have been carried out. The preparation consisted of several steps, characterization of EC with FT-IR, formulation of EC kit, labeling of EC with 99mTc followed by radiochemical purity testing using paper chromatography. Stability test of EC kit is to know The expired date has been carried out. Biodistribution test on normal mice was carried out while imaging in wistar rat using gamma camera The FT-IR and melting point analysis results showed that EC can be used for formulation of EC kit. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-EC is analysed with paper chromatography with the result is higher than 95 %. The stability test showed that EC kit was stable until 5 months and the labeled EC at room temperature was stable after 4 hour incubation post labeling, biodistribution test on mice showed higher uptake in bladder, while imaging with gamma camera showed quite clearly in the kidney area. (author)

  16. Cardio Renal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KV Sahasranam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, physicians have recognized that the kidney and the heart are related especially when there is severe dysfunction of either of them. Dysfunction of one of these organs seldom occurs in isolation. Of late the cardio renal syndrome is assuming significance because of its increasing incidence, awareness and complications. There is no definite definition of the cardio renal syndrome. However, an attempted definition states that it is a "decline in renal function in the setting of advanced heart failure". This definition does not cover the whole gamut of the cardio renal syndrome. Cardiac diseases are associated independently with a decrease in renal function and progression of existing renal disease. Chronic Kidney disease (CKD is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and outcome. This bidirectional nature of cardiac and renal interaction is called Cardio Renal Syndrome (CRS.

  17. The changes in renal function after a single dose of intravenous furosemide in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejirisky Yoram

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with compensated Child-A cirrhosis have sub clinical hypovolemia and diuretic treatment could result in renal impairment. Aim To evaluate the changes in renal functional mass as reflected by DMSA uptake after single injection of intravenous furosemide in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis. Methods Eighteen cirrhotic patients were divided in two groups; eight patients (group 1, age 56 ± 9.6 yrs, Gender 5M/3F, 3 alcoholic and 5 non alcoholic were given low intravenous 40 mg furosemide and ten other patients (group 2, age 54 ± 9.9, Gender 6M/4F, 4 alcoholic and 6 non alcoholic were given high 120 mg furosemide respectively. Renoscintigraphy with 100MBq Of Tc 99 DMSA was given intravenously before and 90 minutes after furosemide administration and SPECT imaging was determined 3 hours later. All patients were kept under low sodium diet (80mEq/d and all diuretics were withdrawn for 3 days. 8-hours UNa exertion, Calculated and measured Creatinine clearance (CCT were performed for all patients. Results Intravenous furosemide increased the mean renal DMSA uptake in 55% of patients with compensated cirrhosis and these changes persist up to three hours after injection. This increase was at the same extent in either low or high doses of furosemide. (From 12.8% ± 3.8 to 15.2% ± 2.2, p 40%, as compared to normal calculated creatinine clearance (CCT 101 ± 26, and measured CCT of 87 ± 30 cc/min (P Conclusion A single furosemide injection increases renal functional mass as reflected by DMSA in 55% of patients with compensated cirrhosis and identify 45% of patients with reduced uptake and who could develop renal impairment under diuretics. Whether or not albumin infusion exerts beneficial effect in those patients with reduced DMSA uptake remains to be determined.

  18. Evaluation of characteristics on titanium surface treatment for absorption of functional groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Guang-chun; PARK Rl-song; PARK Hyeoung-ho; SEO Jae-min; LEE Sook-jeong; LEE Min-ho

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to bind or fix bioactive materials directly to the surface of a Ti implant, the prior binding process of functional groups (FGs, -COOH and -OH) to the implant surface is necessary. Conventional binding processes are so high-cost and complex, so it is essential to find a simple and effective procedure for Ti-FG binding.Methods Various electrolyte compositions and electrochemical processing were adopted in this study to develop a relatively simple and effective Ti-FG binding process. The ability of Ti-FG binding and calcium (Ca)/phosphorous (P)absorption and corrosion resistance were evaluated according to various titanium surface treatment in electrolyte involving -COOH and -OH ion by using X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and potentiodynamic scan method respectively.Results In cases of -COOH, the anodic oxidation process (AN) showed an effective binding ability between -COOH and Ti surface. On the other hand, in cases of -OH, there were no significant differences in the result between the conditions used. In regard to the absorption of Ca and P on Ti surface, there was a minimal amount of Ca absorbed but no P was absorbed. The anodic oxidation series showed homogenous corrosion, whereas the electrolyte immersion (EL)series showed unstable corrosion. Although EL-OH showed a novel corrosion potential, the EL-COOH series showed good corrosion resistance over the anodic potential range.Conclusions The ability of binding between FG and the Ti surface and Ca/P absorption were strongly associated with the surface potential (ξ, potential), which was dependent on the pH of the electrolyte. Accordingly, in order to achieve the effective absorption of various FGs on the Ti surface, it is needed to develop the combination process in addition to the electric affinity, relation with the ξ, potential.

  19. Tow efficiency correction functions of source self-absorption of an HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency correction function of source absorption of an HPGe γ detector is determined by experiment in energy range from 59.5 keV to 1408 keV and density range from 0.3 g/cm3 to 2.0 g/cm3. Fit Polynomial and fit Sigmoidal are compared. The results show that fit Sigmoidal is better than fit polynomial, and the detection efficiency at any points of energy and density could be conveniently calculated with it in calibrated range. (authors)

  20. Reduced cyclooxygenase involvement in vascular endothelial function in rat renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit-Van Oosten, Annemieke; Boonstra, Arnold H.; Navis, Gerjan; Van Goor, Harry; Buikema, Hendrik

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death following renal transplantation. Mechanisms leading to vascular dysfunction outside the transplanted organ involve common risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, proteinuria, but immune-mediated factors may also be involve

  1. Vitamin K Dependent Protection of Renal Function in Multi-ethnic Population Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fei Wei

    2016-02-01

    Interpretation: In the general population, eGFR decreases and CKD risk increases with higher dp-ucMGP, a marker of VK deficiency. These findings highlight the possibility that VK supplementation might promote renal health.

  2. Renal function in tyrosinaemia type I after liver transplantation : A long-term follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, LJWM; van Spronsen, FJ; Bijleveld, CMA; van Dael, CML

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinaemia type I is an autosomal recessive inborn error of tyrosine catabolism caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase that results in liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal tubular dysfunction and acute intermittent porphyria. When treated with liver transplan

  3. Effect of oleic acid-induced acute lung injury and conventional mechanical ventilation on renal function in piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ai-jun; LING Feng; LI Zhi-qiang; LI Xiao-feng; LIU Ying-long; DU Jie; HAN Ling

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal models that demonstrate changes of renal function in response to acute lung injury (ALl) and mechanical ventilation (MV) are few.The present study was performed to examine the effect of ALl induced by oleic acid (OA) in combination with conventional MV strategy on renal function in piglets.Methods Twelve Chinese mini-piglets were randomly divided into two groups:the OA group (n=6),animals were ventilated with a conventional MV strategy of 12 ml/kg and suffered an ALl induced by administration of OA,and the control group (n=6),animals were ventilated with a protective MV strategy of 6 ml/kg and received the same amount of sterile saline.Results Six hours after OA injection a severe lung injury and a mild-moderate degree of renal histopathological injury were seen,while no apparent histological abnormalities were observed in the control group.Although we observed an increase in the plasma concentrations of creatinine and urea after ALl,there was no significant difference compared with the control group.Plasma concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C increased (5.6±1.3) and (7.4±1.5) times in the OA group compared to baseline values,and were significantly higher than the values in the control group.OA injection in combination with conventional MV strategy resulted in a dramatic aggravation of hemodynamic and blood gas exchange parameters,while these parameters remained stable during the experiment in the control group.The plasma expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in the OA group were significantly higher than that in the control group.Compared with high expression in the lung and renal tissue in the OA group,TNF-α and IL-6 were too low to be detected in the lung and renal tissue in the control group.Conclusions OA injection in combination with conventional MV strategy not only resulted in a severe lung injury but also an apparent renal injury.The potential mechanisms involved a cytokine response of TNF-α and

  4. Renal ultrasonographic and computed tomographic appearance, volume, and function of cats with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Jean K; DiBartola, Stephen P; Léveillé, Renée

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic (US) and computed tomographic (CT) appearance of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in cats; to compare renal volume in cats with ADPKD (n = 5; mean age 59 +/- 10 months)) and normal cats (n = 5; mean age 66 +/- 10 months) using 2 imaging modalities, US and CT; and to calculate cyst volume using CT. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined by 2 methods: 99mTc-diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DPTA) scintigraphic uptake and 99-Tc-DTPA plasma clearance. Sonographically, ADPKD affected kidneys were characterized by multiple anechoic to hypoechoic, round to irregularly shaped structures with variation in size. Affected kidneys had indistinct corticomedullary junctions and foci of mineralization. Intravenous (IV) contrast medium administration allowed more definitive identification of cysts with CT, and identification of distortion of renal pelves by cysts. A significant difference (Welch ANOVA, P = 0.05) was detected between the US-estimated renal volumes of normal and affected cats. No statistically significant differences were detected in CT volume (between the normal and affected cats, or between US and CT volume measurements) or the 2 GFR methods. In this group of clinically normal, middle-aged ADPKD cats, renal function was within normal limits and not significantly different than normal. PMID:12175002

  5. To Evaluate the Damage of Renal Function in CIAKI Rats at 3T: Using ASL and BOLD MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate noninvasive arterial spin-labeling (ASL and blood oxygen level-dependent imaging (BOLD sequences for measuring renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in contrast induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI rat. Materials and Methods. Thirteen SD rats were randomly grouped into CIAKI group and control group. Both ASL and BOLD sequences were performed at 24 h preinjection and at intervals of 0.5, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postinjection to assess renal blood flow (RBF and relative spin-spin relaxation rate (R2*, respectively. Results. For the CIAKI group, the value of RBF in the cortex (CO and outer medulla (OM of the kidney was significantly decreased (P<0.05 at 12–48 h and regressed to baseline level (P=NS at 72–96 h. In OM, the value of R2* was increased at 0.5–48 h (P<0.05 and not statistically significant (P=NS at 72 and 96 h. Conclusions. RBF in OM and CO and oxygen level in OM were decreased postinjection of CM. ASL combining BOLD can further identify the primary cause of the decrease of renal oxygenation in CIAKI. This approach provides means for noninvasive monitoring renal function during the first 4 days of CIAKI in clinical routine work.

  6. One-year follow-up of renal function in endemic nephropathy families

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenović Aleksandra; Bukvić Danica; Đukanović Ljubica

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Endemic nephropathy is familial, chronic tubulointerstitial disease with an insidious onset and asymptomatic, slow progressive course. Objective. The present study was undertaken with the aim to find out whether new persons with renal disorders can be detected among members of endemic families in the village of Šopić (Kolubara River region, Serbia). Methods. The study involved 44 members of five endemic families without history of renal disorders. Objective survey and laboratory...

  7. Recovery of renal function among ESRD patients in the US medicare program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Mohan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients started on long term hemodialysis have typically had low rates of reported renal recovery with recent estimates ranging from 0.9-2.4% while higher rates of recovery have been reported in cohorts with higher percentages of patients with acute renal failure requiring dialysis. STUDY DESIGN: Our analysis followed approximately 194,000 patients who were initiated on hemodialysis during a 2-year period (2008 & 2009 with CMS-2728 forms submitted to CMS by dialysis facilities, cross-referenced with patient record updates through the end of 2010, and tracked through December 2010 in the CMS SIMS registry. RESULTS: We report a sustained renal recovery (i.e no return to ESRD during the available follow up period rate among Medicare ESRD patients of > 5% - much higher than previously reported. Recovery occurred primarily in the first 2 months post incident dialysis, and was more likely in cases with renal failure secondary to etiologies associated with acute kidney injury. Patients experiencing sustained recovery were markedly less likely than true long-term ESRD patients to have permanent vascular accesses in place at incident hemodialysis, while non-White patients, and patients with any prior nephrology care appeared to have significantly lower rates of renal recovery. We also found widespread geographic variation in the rates of renal recovery across the United States. CONCLUSIONS: Renal recovery rates in the US Medicare ESRD program are higher than previously reported and appear to have significant geographic variation. Patients with diagnoses associated with acute kidney injury who are initiated on long-term hemodialysis have significantly higher rates of renal recovery than the general ESRD population and lower rates of permanent access placement.

  8. Functional evaluation of the urinary tract by duplex Doppler ultrasonography in patients with acute renal colic

    OpenAIRE

    Sayani R; Ali M.; Shazlee K; Hamid RS; Hamid K

    2011-01-01

    Raza Sayani1, Muhammad Ali1, Kashif Shazlee2, Rana Shoaib Hamid1, Kamran Hamid21Radiology Department, Aga Khan University Hospital, 2Radiology Department, Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi, PakistanPurpose: To determine the role of duplex Doppler ultrasonography (DDU) in patients with acute unilateral renal obstruction.Subjects and methods: A total of 161 patients with suspected renal colic due to urolithiasis were evaluated by DDU followed by intravenous urography (IVU). The mean intra-arterial res...

  9. Copious Podocyturia without Proteinuria and with Normal Renal Function in a Young Adult with Fabry Disease

    OpenAIRE

    H. Trimarchi; R. Canzonieri; Muryan, A.; Schiel, A.; Araoz, A.; Forrester, M.; Karl, A.; F. Lombi; Andrews, J; V. Pomeranz; Rengel, T.; Zotta, E.

    2015-01-01

    The time for starting a patient with Fabry disease on enzyme replacement therapy is still a matter of debate, particularly when no overt classical clinical signs or symptoms are present. With respect to Fabry nephropathy, a dual problem coexists: the reluctance of many nephrologists to start enzyme replacement infusion until signs of renal disease appear as the appearance of proteinuria or an elevation in serum creatinine and the lack of validated biomarkers of early renal damage. In this reg...

  10. Evaluation of absorbed dose in studies of renal function due to 123I/131I (hippuran) e 111In (DPTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorbed dose of the kidneys during renal function studies of adult patients is estimated through biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing the 123I/131I (hippuran) e 111In (DPTA). Using the methodology MIRD and representation Cristy-Eckerman for adult kidneys, it is shown that dosimetric contributions of organs of biokinetics 123I/131I (hippuran) e 111In (DPTA) are significant, in estimative of dose for renal function studies. Dosimetric contributions (body and whole bladder, kidneys excluding) are given by 11.90% (for 123I), 4.97% (for 131I) and 28.32% (for 111In). In all cases, the dosimetric contributions are mainly due to photons issued by the whole body

  11. Some effects of ammonium salts on renal histology and function in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvell, B D; Wesson, L G

    1976-01-01

    NH4Cl was infused into the left renal artery of anesthetized dogs at 50-125 mum/kg/min for up to 110 min. Renal blood flow declined early then increased to supra-control levels during infusion. Kidneys perfused at 125 mum/kg/min for 90 min showed patchy to confluent mixtures of cortical necrosis and tubular necrosis. Experimental kidneys invariably showed lower urine osmolality than contralateral controls 48 h after perfusion. Kidneys with necrosis showed depressed creatinine clearance as well. Renal artery infusion of NH4 acetate or intravenous infusion of NaHCO3 during arterial infusion of NH4Cl prevented significant acidosis and caused minimal histological changes, but depression of urine osmolality was not prevented. It is concluded that renal ammonium concentrations up to 40 mum/liter for 90 min does not cause tubular necrosis but does impair urine concentration. Severe tissue damage followed renal exposure to high ammonium concentrations in the presence of metabolic or renal acidosis.

  12. The Resistive Index Is a Marker of Renal Function, Pathology, Prognosis, and Responsiveness to Steroid Therapy in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuno Hanamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the significance of the renal resistive index (RI as a noninvasive marker of renal histological damage and a prognostic indicator, we examined RI by Doppler ultrasonography in 202 chronic kidney disease (CKD patients who underwent renal biopsy. RI increased as the CKD stage progressed and correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, and renal histological changes, including glomerulosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial damage. Prognostic evaluation with a median follow-up period of 38.5 months revealed that patients with RI≥0.7 (high RI group, n=39 had significantly poorer renal survival than those with RI<0.65 (normal RI group, n=120 and 0.65≤RI<0.7 (high-normal RI group, n=43. The patients in the high-normal RI group showed good response to steroids. However, in the high RI group, steroid therapy did not significantly improve renal survival. Of the clinical indices studied, RI≥0.7, hypertension, proteinuria, and low eGFR at diagnosis were independent risk factors for worsening renal dysfunction. In conclusion, RI in CKD patients was considered as a marker of renal function, histological damage, and renal prognosis, and a possible determinant of indication for steroids.

  13. Risk factors for delayed graft function in cardiac death donor renal transplants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Ming-jie; YE Qi-fa; MING Ying-zi; SHE Xing-guo; LIU Hong; YE Shao-jun; NIU Ying

    2012-01-01

    Background Delayed graft function (DGF) is common in kidney transplants from organ donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors.It is associated with various factors.Determination of center-specific risk factors may help to reduce the incidence of DGF and improve the transplantation results.The aim of this study is to define risk factors of DGF after renal transplantation.Methods From March 2010 to June 2012,56 cases of recipients who received DCD kidneys were selected.The subjects were divided into two groups:immediate graft function (IGF) and DGF groups.Transplantation factors of donors and recipients as well as early post-transplant results of recipients were compared between the two groups.Results On univariate analysis,preoperative dialysis time of recipients (P<0.001),type of dialysis (P=0.039),human leucocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch sites (P<0.001),the cause of brain death (P=0.027),body mass index (BMI) of donors (P<0.001),preoperative infection (P=0.002),preoperative serum creatinine of donors (P <0.001),norepinephrine used in donors (P <0.001),cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of donors (P <0.001),warm ischemia time (WIT) (P<0.001) and cold ischemia time (CIT) (P<0.001) showed significant differences.Recipients who experienced DGF had a longer hospital stay,and higher level of postoperative serum creatinine.Conclusion Multiple risk factors are associated with DGF,which had deleterious effects on the early post-transplant period.

  14. Therapeutic effects of curcumin on the functional disturbances and oxidative stress induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Najafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of curcumin on functional disturbances, oxidative stress, and leukocyte infiltration induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. Materials and Methods: Animals were randomly divided into 9 groups. The groups with 24-h reperfusion consisted of sham-24h, I/R-24h, and three I/R groups treated with curcumin at 10, 20, or 30 mg kg-1, i.p. after the ischemic period. The 72-h reperfusion groups also included Sham-72h, I/R-72h, I/R treated with curcumin at single dose of 20 mg kg-1, i.p., and I/R group which received three doses of curcumin at 20 mg kg-1, i.p., consecutively. Renal functional injury was assessed by measuring serum creatinine and urea-nitrogen concentrations. Oxidative stress was evaluated by assessment tissue malondialdehyde (MDA and the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP levels. Moreover, renal tissue leukocyte infiltration was measured by histopathology examination. Results: Ischemia/reperfusion resulted in a significant increase in serum concentration of creatinine, urea-nitrogen, tissue MDA level, and leukocytes infiltration as well as reduced FRAP level. Treatment with curcumin in 24-h reperfusion groups could only lead to a significant change in the levels of MDA and FRAP. However, in 72-h reperfusion groups, curcumin was able to correct all functional disturbances, oxidative stress, and leukocytes infiltration with more effectiveness in groups that received three doses of curcumin. Conclusion: The administration of curcumin during 72-h reperfusion following 30 minutes of ischemia can decrease renal oxidative stress and leukocytes infiltration as well as improve kidney function. However, during first 24-h reperfusion, curcumin only decreased oxidative stress.

  15. Inflammatory Response as a Mechanism of Perinatal Programming: Long-term Impact on Pulmonary and Renal Function?

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandre Alcázar, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE: Temporal changes in the fetal environment, such as malnutrition and placental insufficiency induce intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and lead to a permanent changes of physiological processes later in life. Interestingly, epidemiological studies demonstrated an impairment of lung and renal function in young infants subsequent to IUGR. Complementary, experimental studies showed that IUGR induces a perinatal programming of the developing lung with persisting impairment of pulmon...

  16. Therapeutic effects of curcumin on the functional disturbances and oxidative stress induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Houshang; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Sayedzadeh, Sayed Abolhasan; Mohamadi yarijani, Zeynab; Fakhri, Sajad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of curcumin on functional disturbances, oxidative stress, and leukocyte infiltration induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Materials and Methods: Animals were randomly divided into 9 groups. The groups with 24-h reperfusion consisted of sham-24h, I/R-24h, and three I/R groups treated with curcumin at 10, 20, or 30 mg kg-1, i.p. after the ischemic period. The 72-h reperfusion groups also included Sham-72h, I/R-72h, I/R treated with curcumin at single dose of 20 mg kg-1, i.p., and I/R group which received three doses of curcumin at 20 mg kg-1, i.p., consecutively. Renal functional injury was assessed by measuring serum creatinine and urea-nitrogen concentrations. Oxidative stress was evaluated by assessment tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) levels. Moreover, renal tissue leukocyte infiltration was measured by histopathology examination. Results: Ischemia/reperfusion resulted in a significant increase in serum concentration of creatinine, urea-nitrogen, tissue MDA level, and leukocytes infiltration as well as reduced FRAP level. Treatment with curcumin in 24-h reperfusion groups could only lead to a significant change in the levels of MDA and FRAP. However, in 72-h reperfusion groups, curcumin was able to correct all functional disturbances, oxidative stress, and leukocytes infiltration with more effectiveness in groups that received three doses of curcumin. Conclusion: The administration of curcumin during 72-h reperfusion following 30 minutes of ischemia can decrease renal oxidative stress and leukocytes infiltration as well as improve kidney function. However, during first 24-h reperfusion, curcumin only decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26693415

  17. Comparison of DMSA Scan 99 m and EC Scan 99 m in Diagnosis of Cortical Defect and Differential Renal Function

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi-Fallah, M.; Alizadeh, M.; Lavin, T. Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis of renal cortical lesions by radioisotopes in nuclear medicine is one of the most common techniques and procedures can be performed by different radiotracer. However, all these materials are accurate in determining kidney function, but there are differences between them in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of EC scans compared with DMSA scan in the detection of cortical lesions and DRF. Methods: 65 cases, which have been referred fo...

  18. Evaluation of renal function and immune system cells in elderly individuals from São Paulo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Both renal function and immune system function decline with age. Although controversial, a significant number of studies have shown that the decline in kidney function is associated with the worsening of the immune system. These findings are reinforced by the increased susceptibility to infections and deficient immunization coverage after vaccination both in patients with chronic renal disease and in elderly individuals. Our objective was to evaluate a non-institutionalized elderly population from São Paulo City and correlate the estimated glomerular filtration rate with the percentage of lymphocytes in circulation. METHODS: A random population of 237 individuals (107 men and 130 women, ranging in age from 60 to 101 years, who were enrolled in the Health, Well-Being and Aging Study was evaluated for renal function (Modification on Diet in Renal Disease formula and lymphocyte percentage (flow cytometry. RESULTS: Aging was associated with a decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate in both male and female individuals. We did not identify a significant correlation between the estimated glomerular filtration rate and either the percentage of CD4, CD8, and B cells or CD4/CD8 ratio. The median percentage of CD8+ T cells was significantly lower in individuals with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m². CONCLUSIONS: In this study, no statistical correlation was found between the estimated glomerular filtration rate and either the lymphocyte phenotype (CD4+,CD8+, and CD19+ cells or the CD4/CD8 ratio in blood.

  19. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Diabetes on Blood Pressure and Renal Function in Rat Male Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    YAN, JIE; LI, XIN; Su, Rina; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Huixia

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing rapidly worldwide. Previous animal models were established to study consequences of offspring after exposure to severe intrauterine hyperglycemia. In this study we are aiming to characterize the blood pressure levels and renal function of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. Methods We established a rat model with moderate hyperglycemia after pregnancy by a single intraperitoneal injection ...

  20. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...

  1. The functional state of neutrophils correlates with the severity of renal dysfunction in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Gabriela C; Gomez, Sonia A; Ramos, Maria V; Bentancor, Leticia V; Fernandez-Brando, Romina J; Landoni, Veronica I; Lopez, Laura; Ramirez, Flavia; Diaz, Mario; Alduncin, Marta; Grimoldi, Irene; Exeni, Ramon; Isturiz, Martin A; Palermo, Marina S

    2007-01-01

    Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) is the main cause of acute renal failure in children. The high percentage of patients who develop long-term sequelae constitutes an important medical concern. The identification of parameters that correlate with the degree of renal failure may be useful to plan the best treatment soon after hospitalization. Here, we investigated the functional state of neutrophils (PMN) from HUS patients on admission, before dialysis and/or transfusion, in relation to the severity of renal impairment reached during the acute period (AP). We found that all PMN activation parameters measured in severe cases of HUS (HUS AP3) were statistically lower comparing to children with mild cases of HUS (HUS AP1). As HUS PMN phenotype and dysfunction is compatible with that of cells undergoing cell death, we also studied spontaneous apoptosis. Not only were HUS PMN not apoptotic, but HUS AP3 PMN showed an increased survival. Almost all phenotypic and functional parameters measured on PMN correlated with severity. Our results revealed a marked deactivation of PMN in severe cases of HUS, and suggest that studying the functional state of PMN could be of prognostic value.

  2. Dietary inulin alters the intestinal absorptive and barrier function of piglet intestine after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha A; Ghareeb, Khaled; Paßlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary inulin supplementation on the electrophysiological properties of small intestine of suckling and weaned piglets as indicators for glucose absorption and barrier function. Ten sows were divided into two groups, receiving either a control diet, or a diet with 3% inulin. The diets were fed from 3 weeks ante partum to 6 weeks post partum. In the first 2 weeks of life, piglets received only sow's milk. Irrespective to sex and without castration of males, four piglets (one piglet of each litter) from each group were selected and sacrificed on day 10 of age. The gastrointestinal tract of each piglet was removed and segments were immediately taken from the mid-jejunum and mounted in Ussing chambers. Furthermore, at weaning (6 weeks old) 8 piglets were randomly selected irrespective to sex and males were un-castrated (4 animals from sows received control diet and 4 animals from sows received 3% inulin supplemented diet) and fed for 2 weeks either control weaning diet or inulin supplemented diet. Thereafter segments of the mid-jejunum were used to investigate the effect of inulin on the gut electrophysiology of weaned piglets. The increase in short-circuit current (Isc) after the addition of glucose is an indicator of higher glucose absorption and the higher tissue conductance (Gt) of the epithelium suggested a higher intestinal permeability to paracellular Na(+). In suckling piglets, the addition of d-glucose on the luminal side of the isolated jejunal mucosa increased (Pinulin-supplemented and control groups compared to basal values. Electrogenic glucose transport (ΔIsc) was similar in suckling piglets from sows fed inulin or control diet, suggesting that feeding of inulin to the mother sows had no effect on glucose absorption across the jejunal mucosa of suckling piglets. However, the dietary inulin supplementation after weaning increased the ΔIsc (Pinulin supplementation increased the electrogenic transport of

  3. Comparative scintigraphic study of renal function with 99mTc-Mercaptoacetyl-triglycine and 99mTc-Ethylenedicysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiki D.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 99mTc-MAG3 is a standard radiotracer for renal dynamic functional study. Despite its"nproperties for clinical uses, it has numerous technical limitations. 99mTc-EC is also a tubular"nradiotracer for renal imaging, which has not been used worldwide. In this study, the use of 99mTc-EC"nand 99mTc-MAG3 for renal functional study were compared."nMethods: Thirty five patients (20 male, 15 female; mean age of 34.63 ±10.69 years were entered in"nthe study. About 10 mCi of 99mTc-EC and 99mTc-MAG3 were administered in different days within 7"ndays intervals and serial images were obtained for 30 minutes. Serum creatinine and visual"nscintigraphic findings of all patients were within normal limits."nResults: In this study, the renal uptake of 99mTc-EC was significantly higher than 99mTc-MAG3 (6.20%"nvs 4.39% of the injected dose, while the hepatic activity of 99mTc-EC was significantly lower (307 vs"n439 mean pixel count, p<0.0001. Also the absolute values for some other quantitative parameters"nsuch as right and left kidney transit times and ERPF were different for each radiotracer. In spite of"nthese differences most quantitative parameters (except for right kidney transit time, liver uptake and"nTmax of both kidneys showed good correlations for both agents."nConclusion: The calculated ERPF with 99mTc-EC as compared to 99mTc-MAG3 is in closer proximity"nto the true values. Also the use of 99mTc-EC compared to 99mTc-MAG3 in clinic due to simplicity of"npreparation, higher stability, higher renal uptake, and lower hepatobiliary activity is better. Therefore"nthe use of 99mTc-EC as an appropriate substitute or ever preferred radiopharmaceutical for 99mTc-"nMAG3 radiopharmaceutical for renal function studies is recommended.

  4. RENAL FUNCTION AND ADAPTIVE CHANGES AFTER RADICAL OR PARTIAL NEPHRECTOMY: A SINGLE CENTRE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To study the renal function before partial or total nephrectomy and to study change in renal function and adaptive change in the retained kidney after partial or total nephrectomy. Place and Duration: The prospective study of 40 patients was conducted by the Dept. of Nephrology and Dept. of Urology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur from July 2012 to July 2014 METHODS The data for the study was obtained from all the patients undergoing nephrectomy at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, in the study duration. 20 patients from the donor nephrectomy group and 20 from nephrectomy group were considered. Open Nephrectomy was performed by a lumbar incision in all 40 patients. After tracheal intubation and general anaesthesia, the nephrectomy was performed through an incision under the left or right costal margin. GFR of both kidneys before surgery and of the unilateral retained kidney were determined in each subject using the Tc-99m DTPA Scans. Donors underwent the first follow-up at 1 month after surgery and then at 6 months and 1 year after surgery. The follow-up included measurements of blood pressure, urinary protein, serum creatinine, and GFR of the retained kidney by Tc-99m DTPA scan as well as volume of the retained kidney by ultrasound examination. RESULTS A total number of 80 patients were included in this study. In donor group female to male ratio was 4:1 and in disease group male to female ratio was 3:1. Maximum no. of patients was of age group 50-60 years in both groups, with mean age of 44.8±6.7 years in donor group and 48.7±5.5 years in disease group. In disease group majority patients who underwent nephrectomy were suffering from RCC. Th98ere was no significant effect on blood pressure, haemoglobin, blood sugar level, urine pH., urine specific gravity after nephrectomy in both groups. In both groups 24-hour urine protein increased from preoperative level to 11.3% in donor group and 17.1% in disease

  5. Improving the measurement of longitudinal change in renal function: automated detection of changes in laboratory creatinine assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Poh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRenal function is reported using the estimates of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. However, eGFR values are recorded without reference to the particular serum creatinine (SCr assays used to derive them, and newer assays were introduced at different time points across the laboratories in the United Kingdom. These changes may cause systematic bias in eGFR reported in routinely collected data, even though laboratory-reported eGFR values have a correction factor applied.DesignAn algorithm to detect changes in SCr that in turn affect eGFR calculation method was developed. It compares the mapping of SCr values on to eGFR values across a time series of paired eGFR and SCr measurements.SettingRoutinely collected primary care data from 20,000 people with the richest renal function data from the quality improvement in chronic kidney disease trial.ResultsThe algorithm identified a change in eGFR calculation method in 114 (90% of the 127 included practices. This change was identified in 4736 (23.7% patient time series analysed. This change in calibration method was found to cause a significant step change in the reported eGFR values, producing a systematic bias. The eGFR values could not be recalibrated by applying the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation to the laboratory reported SCr values.ConclusionsThis algorithm can identify laboratory changes in eGFR calculation methods and changes in SCr assay. Failure to account for these changes may misconstrue renal function changes over time. Researchers using routine eGFR data should account for these effects.  

  6. Effect of naringin on hemodynamic changes and left ventricular function in renal artery occluded renovascular hypertension in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asjad Visnagri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal artery occlusion (RAO induced hypertension is a major health problem associated with structural and functional variations of the renal and cardiac vasculature. Naringin a flavanone glycoside derived possesses metal-chelating, antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive activity of naringin in RAO induced hypertension in rats.Material and Methods: Male Wistar rats (180-200 g were divided into five groups Sham, RAO, naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg. Animals were pretreated with naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg p.o for 4 weeks. On the last day of the experiment, left renal artery was occluded with renal bulldog clamp for 4 h. After assessment of hemodynamic and left ventricular function various biochemical (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione [GSH] and malondialdehyde [MDA] and histological parameters were determined in the kidney. Results: RAO group significantly (P < 0.001 increased hemodynamic parameters at 15, 30 and 45 min of clamp removal. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg treated groups showed a significant decrease in hemodynamic parameters at 15 min. after clamp removal that remained sustained for 60 min. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg treated groups showed significant improvement in left ventricular function at 15, 30 and 45 min after clamp removal. Alteration in level of SOD, GSH and MDA was significantly restored by naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg treatment. It also reduced histological aberration induced in kidney by RAO. Conclusion: It is concluded that the antihypertensive activity of naringin may result through inhibition of oxidative stress.

  7. Long-term effects of maternal diabetes on blood pressure and renal function in rat male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yan

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is increasing rapidly worldwide. Previous animal models were established to study consequences of offspring after exposure to severe intrauterine hyperglycemia. In this study we are aiming to characterize the blood pressure levels and renal function of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. METHODS: We established a rat model with moderate hyperglycemia after pregnancy by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ. The male offspring were studied and fed with either normal diet or high salt diet after weaning. Arterial pressure and renal function were measured. RESULTS: Arterial pressure of male offspring increased from 12 weeks by exposure to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia. At 20 weeks, high salt diet accelerated the blood pressure on diabetic offspring compared to diabetic offspring fed with normal diet. We found offspring exposed to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia had a trend to have a higher creatinine clearance rate and significant increase of urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG excretion indicating an early stage of nephropathy progression. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We observed the high blood pressure level and early renal dysfunction of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. Furthermore, we investigated high salt diet after weaning on offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia could exacerbate the blood pressure and renal function. Renin angiotensin system (RAS plays an important role in hypertension pathogenesis and altered gene expression of RAS components in offspring with in utero hyperglycemia exposure may account for the programmed hypertension. Therefore, our study provides evidence "fetal programming" of maternal diabetes is critical for metabolic disease development.

  8. Remote ischaemic conditioning on recipients of deceased renal transplants, effect on immediate and extended kidney graft function : a multicentre, randomised controlled trial protocol (CONTEXT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krogstrup, Nicoline V; Oltean, Mihai; Bibby, Bo M; Nieuwenhuijs-Moeke, Gertrude J; Dor, Frank J M F; Birn, Henrik; Jespersen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Delayed graft function due to ischaemia-reperfusion injury is a frequent complication in deceased donor renal transplantation. Experimental evidence indicates that remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) provides systemic protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in various tissues.

  9. [Influence of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on renal function assessed by 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy: comparative analysis between ESWL and percutaneous nephroureterolithotripsy (PNL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, H; Hioki, T; Sakurai, M; Arima, K; Yanagawa, M; Sugimura, Y; Tochigi, H; Kawamura, J; Kinoshita, N; Katoh, H

    1994-12-01

    99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy was utilized to investigate the influence of ESWL on renal function in comparison with that of PNL. In the beginning, the reproducibility of renal uptake rate by the scintigraphy was examined in eleven healthy volunteers under both non-diuretic and diuretic states. The renal uptake rate was shown to be sufficiently reproducible in the same person in the two different trials. However, the differences and the standard deviations were shown to be a few percentages, which were not statistically significant. Changes in the repeated renal uptake rate seem to indicate not only changes of renal function with the treatment but also some technical errors. Herein, to investigate changes in renal function of the therapeutic side, the uptake ratio rate (rate of uptake rate in the therapeutic side/uptake rate in the contral lateral side) was utilized instead of uptake rate. Renal scintigraphy was carried out in 48 patients with unilateral renal stones before and after ESWL or PNL monotherapy or the combined ESWL and PNL therapies. Within one week of treatment, the uptake ratio rate significantly decreased in patients with PNL or the combined ESWL and PNL, although DMSA uptake rate in the therapeutic side did not significantly changes. Neither renal uptake rate nor uptake ratio rate significantly changed after ESWL treatment. There was no significant difference in changes of uptake ratio rate between Siemens Lithostars Plus and the improved Dornier HM-3 lithotriptors. This study indicated that ESWL monotherapy did not affect the uptake ratio rate, although PNL monotherapy and the combined ESWL and PNL therapies may affect the uptake ratio rate to some extent.

  10. Neck circumference predicts renal function decline in overweight women: A community-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang-Yun; Park, Jung Tak; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Kee, Youn Kyung; Seo, Changhwan; Lee, Misol; Cha, Min-Uk; Jung, Su-Young; Park, Seohyun; Yun, Hae-Ryong; Kwon, Young Eun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Upper-body subcutaneous fat, which is commonly estimated from the neck circumference (NC), was revealed to be the main reservoir of circulating nonesterified fatty acids in overweight patients. Despite a close association between NC and metabolic complications, the relationship of NC with renal function has not been fully investigated. In this study, the impact of NC on the development of incident CKD was elucidated.The data were retrieved from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study cohort. The subjects were followed at 2-year intervals from 2003 to 2011. Overweight was defined as a body mass index of ≥23 kg/m. A total of 4298 cohort subjects were screened. After exclusion, 2268 overweight subjects were included for the final analysis. The primary end point was incident CKD, which was defined as a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) age was 36.3 ± 3.0 years, and 1285 (56.7%) were men. They were divided into 2 groups according to the median NC in male and female subjects, separately. In both sexes, hypertension (men, P associated with incident CKD development in female subjects after adjusting for multiple confounding factors (per 1 cm increase, hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.159 [1.024-1.310], P = 0.019) but not in male subjects.NC is independently associated with the development of CKD in overweight female subjects, suggesting that it could be a practical risk factor for CKD. PMID:27603403

  11. 99mTc-MAG3 scintigraphy for the longitudinal follow-up of kidney function in a mouse model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Herrler, Tanja; Wang, Hao; Tischer, Anne; Bartenstein, Peter; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Guba, Markus; Diemling, Markus; Nimmon, Cyril; Hacker, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental models are essential tools in the development and evaluation of novel treatment options, but the preclinical model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is limited to the retrieval of (very) early functional data, leaving the pivotal long-term outcome unknown. The present study applies technetium-99m-mercapto-acetyl-tri-glycine [99mTc-MAG3] scintigraphy for the longitudinal follow-up examination of long-term kidney function after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Metho...

  12. Proregenerative Microenvironment Triggered by Donor Mesenchymal Stem Cells Preserves Renal Function and Structure in Mice with Severe Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ezquer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to evaluate, in an animal model of severe diabetes mellitus, the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs administration on diabetic nephropathy (DN progression. After diabetes induction, one group of mice received the vehicle (DM and other group received a single dose of MSCs (DM + MSCs. DM + MSCs mice showed a significant improvement in functional parameters of the kidney compared with untreated mice. While DM mice presented marked histopathological changes characteristics of advanced stages of DN (fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular basement membrane thickening, capillary occlusion, decreased podocyte density, and effacement of foot processes, DM + MSCs mice showed only slight tubular dilatation. The renoprotection was not associated with an improvement in diabetic condition and very low number of donor cells was found in the kidney of DM + MSCs mice, suggesting that renoprotection could be mediated by paracrine effects. Indeed, DM + MSC mice presented increased renal proliferation index, decreased renal apoptotic index and the restoration of proregenerative factors, and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels. Moreover, macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress damage were also reduced in DM + MSCs mice. Our data demonstrate that MSC administration triggers a proregenerative microenvironment in DN kidney, which allows the preservation of the renal function even if diabetes was uncorrected.

  13. Functional Importance of L- and P/Q-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Human Renal Vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B; Poulsen, Christian B; Walter, Steen;

    2011-01-01

    revealed signals for Ca(v) 2.1 and Ca(v) 3.1 associated with smooth muscle cells of preglomerular and postglomerular vessels. In human intrarenal arteries, depolarization with potassium induced a contraction inhibited by the L-type antagonist nifedipine, EC(50) 1.2×10(-8) mol/L. The T-type antagonist...... L- and P/Q-type channels are of functional importance for the depolarization-induced vasoconstriction. The contribution of P/Q-type channels to contraction in the human vasculature is a novel mechanism for the regulation of renal blood flow and suggests that clinical treatment with calcium blockers......Calcium channel blockers are widely used for treatment of hypertension, because they decrease peripheral vascular resistance through inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Animal studies of renal vasculature have shown expression of several types of calcium channels that are involved in...

  14. Schistosomiasis haematobia in Brazilian patients: clinical and renal functional evaluation with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAlmeida, J.; Maliska, C.I.; Pellegrini, P.M.; Collares, R.A.I [Army Central Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Medicine Service]. E-mail: joaquimjdalmeida@yahoo.com.br; Penas, M.E.; Cruz, M.G.A. [Clementino Fraga Filho School Hospital, (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Medicine Service

    2007-07-01

    The present study was carried out at the Army Central Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from September 2000 to December 2001, employing diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) to evaluate the renal function of nineteen symptomatic patients infected with S. haematobium during a peace mission in Mozambique. Results evidenced that the most frequent clinical manifestations were hematuria (68.4%) and low back pain (68.4%) and 73.7% patients had altered dynamic renal scintigraphy expressed by an increase in the excretory phase independently of the symptoms duration; furthermore, none of them had mechanical obstructive pattern. Schistosoma haematobium glomerulopathy could be considered a pathological finding without correlation with the disease clinical manifestations. (author)

  15. Complete renal recovery from severe acute renal failure after thrombolysis of bilateral renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Suresh; Jones, Robert G; Foggensteiner, Lukas; Willis, Andrew P; Duddy, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    A previously healthy young man presented with acute renal failure due to extensive spontaneous deep vein thrombosis, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and both renal veins. The patient was treated with selectively delivered thrombolytic therapy over a 7-day-period, which resulted in renal vein patency and complete recovery of renal function. A stent was placed over a segment stenosis of the IVC. No thrombophilic factors were identified. Bilateral renal vein thrombosis in young fit individuals is an unusual cause of acute renal failure. Thrombolytic therapy, even with delay, can completely restore renal function.

  16. Renal function at the time of a myocardial infarction maintains prognostic value for more than 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Finn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal function is an important predictor of mortality in patients with myocardial infarction (MI, but changes in the impact over time have not been well described. We examined the importance of renal function by estimated GFR (eGFR and se-creatinine as an independent long-term prognostic factor. Methods Prospective follow-up of 6653 consecutive MI patients screened for entry in the Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE study. The patients were analysed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, landmark analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. Outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Results An eGFR below 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, consistent with chronic renal disease, was present in 42% of the patients. We divided the patients into 4 groups according to eGFR. Overall, Cox proportional-hazards models showed that eGFR was a significant prognostic factor in the two groups with the lowest eGFR, hazard ratio 1,72 (confidence interval (CI 1,56-1,91 in the group with the lowest eGFR. Using the eGFR group with normal renal function as reference, we observed an incremental rise in hazard ratio. We divided the follow-up period in 2-year intervals. Landmark analysis showed that eGFR at the time of screening continued to show prognostic effect until 16 years of follow-up. By multivariable Cox regression analysis, the prognostic effect of eGFR persisted for 12 years and of se-creatinine for 10 years. When comparing the lowest group of eGFR with the group with normal eGFR, prognostic significance was present in the entire period of follow-up with a hazard ratio between 1,97 (CI 1,65-2,35 and 1,35 (CI 0,99-1,84 in the 2-year periods. Conclusions One estimate of renal function is a strong and independent long-term prognostic factor for 10-12 years following a MI.

  17. A computerized technique for evaluating renal transplant function: validation of background correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the scintillation camera and small computer a technique has been devised to correct the count rate curve over the transplant kidney for background radioactivity following IV injection of I-131 hippurate. The background correction using I-131 hippurate alone has been validated against a more precise background correction using I-131 albumin. Using kidney and bladder curves properly corrected for background radioactivity, reliable estimates of renal uptake and excretion of I-131 hippurate may be obtained using a renal transplant evaluation computer program

  18. Erythropoietin treatment does not compromise cardiovascular function in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Mehlsen, J; Stenver, Doris Irene;

    1994-01-01

    The anemia in patients with chronic renal failure can be corrected through treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin treatment. This correction is associated with changes in the rheologic variables, which could explain the changes in hemodynamics found by many investigators. The authors have...... followed up 11 patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis before and during six months of therapy with erythropoietin. The measurements were made before treatment, after four months of therapy, and after six months of therapy. The measurements included hematocrit, osmotic resistance of the red...

  19. Functionally graded poly(dimethylsiloxane)/silver nanocomposites with tailored broadband optical absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaou, P.; Mina, C.; Constantinou, M.; Koutsokeras, L.E.; Constantinides, G. [Research Unit for Nanostructured Materials Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 50329, 3603 Limassol (Cyprus); Lidorikis, E.; Avgeropoulos, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kelires, P.C. [Research Unit for Nanostructured Materials Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 50329, 3603 Limassol (Cyprus); Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2015-04-30

    In this work, we produce functionally graded nanocomposites consisting of silver (Ag) plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) supported in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) matrix. PDMS was selected due to its high optical transparency, nontoxicity and ease of use. The Ag PNPs were formed by annealing sputtered Ag ultra-thin films and were subsequently capped by a spin-coated PDMS layer. We investigate the factors that affect their plasmonic behavior, such as the PNP size, the annealing conditions and the surrounding environment. In order to achieve broadband absorption, we developed PDMS/Ag(PNPs) multilayers with graded PNP size. Thus, we demonstrate the significance of the stacking sequence of various plasmonic layers sandwiched between PDMS layers and its potential for tailoring the plasmonic response of multilayer structure. As a demonstration of this approach, we deposited a specially designed multilayer structure, whose optical extinction resembles the solar emission spectrum. - Highlights: • Elastomers are combined with plasmonic nanoparticles. • The plasmonic effects in stratified media are identified. • Broadband absorption similar to solar emission is achieved.

  20. 99mTc-DTPA dynamic SPECT and CT volumetry for measuring split renal function in live kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Split renal function (SRF) estimated from the posterior view of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid planar scintigraphy (DTPA/P) is not sufficiently accurate even after correction for kidney depth by computed tomography (CT). To obtain more accurate SRF using 99mTc-DTPA dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) method was carried out for the initial 5 min after bolus injection of 99mTc-DTPA (DTPA/SPECT). Also SRF was evaluated from the renal volume measured by CT. We compared the results with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid SPECT (DMSA/SPECT). In 60 consecutive live kidney donors, 30 DTPA/P, 30 DTPA/SPECT, 60 99mTc-DMSA/SPECT, and 60 CT studies were performed. In the DTPA/P studies, SRF was calculated from the posterior image recorded during 2-3-min postinjection with attenuation correction for kidney depth measured by CT. In the DTPA/SPECT studies, SPECT images were acquired continuously for 5 min with a dual-headed gamma camera. In 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, DMSA/SPECT images were acquired 3-h postinjection. The SRF on both SPECT studies was calculated from the total counts of each kidney. In the DTPA/SPECT study, SRF was evaluated on the three images summed for 1 min: 1-2 min (DTPA/SPECT1-2), 2-3 min (DTPA/SPECT2-3), and 1-3 min (DTPA/SPECT1-3). In the CT examination, to assess the global renal volume, the axial images in the excretory phase were chosen. Renal contours were identified on each image, and the areas (cm2) of these regions were summed and multiplied by the slice thickness (10 mm) to yield global renal volume (ml). Right renal function from DTPA/P, DTPA/SPECT, and CT were compared with that from DMSA/SPECT as a reference. Correlation coefficients of the right renal function between DMSA/SPECT and DTPA/P, DTPA/SPECT2-3, and CT were 0.663, 0.849 and 0.907, respectively (P<0.0001). The differences between DMSA/SPECT and DTPA/P, DTPA/SPECT2-3 and CT were 2.42±3.878, 0.867±1.672, and -0.421±1.077% (mean±standard deviation (SD