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Sample records for absorption distribution excretion

  1. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of procyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Yijun; Li, Daxiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-03-01

    Procyanidins (PAs) are polyphenols in plant food that have many health benefits, including cancer prevention, cardiovascular protection and diabetes prevention. PAs have been known to have low oral bioavailability. In this review, we summarize the published results on the ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) of PAs in vivo and in vitro. After oral administration, in the stomach the decomposition of PAs is highly dependent on the pH value of gastric juice, which is also affected by food intake. In the small intestine, PA polymers and oligomers with DP > 4 are not directly absorbed in vivo, but minor PA monomers and dimers could be detected in the plasma. Methylated and glucuronidated PA dimers and monomers are the main metabolites of PAs in plasma. In the colon, PAs are catabolized by colonic microflora into a series of low molecular weight phenolic acids, such as phenyl valerolactone, phenylacetic acids and phenylpropionic acids. We reviewed the degradation of PAs in gastric digestion, the absorption of PAs in the small intestine and the metabolic pathway of PAs by colonic microflora. To clearly explain the in vivo pharmacokinetics of PAs, a systematic comparative analysis on previously published data on PAs was conducted.

  2. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of isoflavonoids after soy intake.

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    Franke, Adrian A; Lai, Jennifer F; Halm, Brunhild M

    2014-10-01

    Soy is the major source of dietary exposure to isoflavonoids (IFLs). Accumulating evidence supports a role for soy and IFLs in the protection against many chronic diseases including cancer. After soy intake we found a biphasic IFL appearance pattern in plasma as well as in urine that we suggest to be due to IFL absorption in the small intestine (ca. 10%) during the first 2h after intake and IFL absorption in the large intestine (ca. 90%) 4-6 h after intake. While each IFL disappears from the circulation at different times excellent correlations between urinary and circulating IFL values were discovered and algorithms to convert urinary excretion values into circulating levels were established. We suggest the term 'apparent bioavailability' when using urinary data to describe IFL exposure. The IFL bioavailability was found to be influenced by gut bacteria, oral antibiotic treatment (OABX), and an individual's age and health status. While daidzein (DE) and genistein start to be absorbed minutes after intake, equol (EQ) appears in plasma only after a minimum of 8h following soy intake owing to the required transit time of DE to the colon where the conversion of DE to EQ takes place by intestinal microbiota. We have also shown that the apparent IFL bioavailability is higher in children than adults, higher in healthy versus non-healthy individuals, and decreased in children but increased in adults during OABX. Finally, we propose to use a urinary EQ/DE ratio of 0.018 with a DE threshold to identify EQ producers. With this cutoff definition we observed that EQ production is inconsistent over time in 5-30% of both premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  3. Comparative absorption, distribution, and excretion of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles after repeated oral administration

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Wan-Seob; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Seok, Seung H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The in vivo kinetics of nanoparticles is an essential to understand the hazard of nanoparticles. Here, the absorption, distribution, and excretion patterns of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles following oral administration were evaluated.METHODS:Nanoparticles were orally administered to rats for 13 weeks (7 days/week). Samples of blood, tissues (liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain), urine, and feces were obtained at necropsy. The level of Ti or Zn in each sam...

  4. Identification of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Genes Relevant to Steatosis Using a Differential Gene Expression Approach

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    Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) parameters represent important connections between exposure to chemicals and the activation of molecular initiating events of Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) in cellular, tissue, and organ level targets. ADME parameters u...

  5. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of novel phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor ASP3258 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Sonoda, Takuya; Susaki, Yoko; Tohda, Toshifumi; Fukunaga, Yasuhisa; Iwatsubo, Takafumi; Noguchi, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The potent and selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor ASP3258 is a novel therapeutic agent for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). After a single oral administration to rats, ASP3258 is rapidly absorbed with a bioavailability of 106%. In situ absorption data indicated that ASP3258 is mainly absorbed in the small intestine. Tissue distribution data after oral administration of (14)C-ASP3258 showed rapid and extensive distribution to various tissues. Excluding the gastrointestinal tract, the tissues with the highest concentrations were liver, heart and plasma. Liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy data revealed that O-glucuronidation of the carboxylic acid moiety of ASP3258 (formation of an acyl glucuronide) plays a key role in metabolism. No indication was found that the acyl glucuronide reacted with proteins in plasma or tissues. When (14)C-ASP3258 was orally administered to intact rats, urinary and fecal excretion accounted for 1.3% and 100.6% of the administered radioactivity, respectively. After a single oral administration of (14)C-ASP3258 to bile-cannulated rats, urinary and biliary excretion accounted for 0.7% and 93.8% of the administered radioactivity, respectively. These findings suggest that fecal excretion via bile plays an important role in the elimination of ASP3258-derived radioactivity. In vitro metabolic profiles were relatively similar among the species examined, suggesting that our findings in rats may help us to understand pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety profiles in humans and other species.

  6. Absorption, Distribution, Excretion, and Pharmacokinetics of C14-Pyronaridine Tetraphosphate in Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Sang Hyun Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this investigation was to determine the absorption, distribution, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of the antimalarial drug pyronaridine tetraphosphate (PNDP in Sprague-Dawley rats. Following oral administration of a single dose (10 mg/Kg of C14-PNDP, it was observed that the drug was readily absorbed from the small intestine within 1 hour following oral administration and was widely distributed in most of the tissues investigated as determined from the observed radioactivity in the tissues. The peak value of the drug in the blood was reached at around 8 hours postadministration, and radioactivity was detected in most of the tissues from 4 hours onwards. C14-PNDP showed a poor permeability across the blood-brain barrier, and the absorption, distribution, and excretion of C14-PNDP were found to be gender-independent as both male and female rats showed a similar pattern of radioactivity. Excretion of the drug was predominantly through the urine with a peak excretion post 24 hours of administration. A small amount of the drug was also excreted in the feces and also in the breath. It was found that the Cmax, AUC (0-inf, and Tmax values were similar to those observed in the Phase II clinical trials of pyronaridine/artesunate (Pyramax conducted in Uganda.

  7. Human studies on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of tea polyphenols.

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    Clifford, Michael N; van der Hooft, Justin J J; Crozier, Alan

    2013-12-01

    Recent research on the bioavailability of flavan-3-ols after ingestion of green tea by humans is reviewed. Glucuronide, sulfate, and methyl metabolites of (epi)catechin and (epi)gallocatechin glucuronide reach peak nanomolar per liter plasma concentrations 1.6-2.3 h after intake, indicating absorption in the small intestine. The concentrations then decline, and only trace amounts remain 8 h after ingestion. Urinary excretion of metabolites over a 24-h period after green tea consumption corresponded to 28.5% of the ingested (epi)catechin and 11.4% of (epi)gallocatechin, suggesting higher absorption than that of most other flavonoids. The fate of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, the main flavan-3-ol in green tea, is unclear because it appears unmetabolized in low concentrations in plasma but is not excreted in urine. Possible enterohepatic recirculation of flavan-3-ols is discussed along with the impact of dose and other food components on flavan-3-ol bioavailability. Approximately two-thirds of the ingested flavan-3-ols pass from the small to the large intestine where the action of the microbiota results in their conversion to C-6-C-5 phenylvalerolactones and phenylvaleric acids, which undergo side-chain shortening to produce C-6-C-1 phenolic and aromatic acids that enter the bloodstream and are excreted in urine in amounts equivalent to 36% of flavan-3-ol intake. Some of these colon-derived catabolites may have a role in vivo in the potential protective effects of tea consumption. Although black tea, which contains theaflavins and thearubigins, is widely consumed in the Western world, there is surprisingly little research on the absorption and metabolism of these compounds after ingestion and their potential impact on health.

  8. Intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary excretion of the rare sugar D-psicose

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    Tsukamoto I

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ikuko Tsukamoto,1,* Akram Hossain,2,3,* Fuminori Yamaguchi,2 Yuko Hirata,2 Youyi Dong,2 Kazuyo Kamitori,2 Li Sui,2 Machiko Nonaka,2 Masaki Ueno,4 Kazuyuki Nishimoto,5 Hirofumi Suda,5 Kenji Morimoto,6 Tsuyoshi Shimonishi,7,† Madoka Saito,8 Tao Song,9 Ryoji Konishi,1 Masaaki Tokuda2 1Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa, Japan; 2Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan; 3Matsutani Chemical Industry Co, Ltd, Itami, Japan; 4Department of Inflammation Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan; 5Division of Radioisotope Research, Life Science Research Center, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan; 6Rare Sugar Research Center, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan; 7IZUMORING LLC, Miki, Kita, Kagawa, Japan; 8Department of Pharmacy, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan; 9The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work†Tsuyoshi Shimonishi has passed away Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the rare sugar D-psicose, a 3-carbon stereoisomer of D-fructose that is currently being investigated and which has been found to be strongly effective against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Methods: This study was performed using radioactive D-psicose, which was synthesized enzymatically from radioactive D-allose. Concentrations in whole blood, urine, and organs were measured at different time points until 2 hours after both oral and intravenous administrations and 7 days after a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight to Wistar rats. Autoradiography was also performed by injecting 100 mg/kg body weight of 14C-labeled D-psicose or glucose intravenously to C3H mice. Results: Following oral administration, D-psicose easily moved to blood. The maximum blood

  9. Studies on absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of 3H-1α-hydroxycholecalciferol in vitamin D deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of 2-3H-1α-OH-D3 (4.2 Ci/mmol) were studied in vitamin D deficient rats in comparison with the normal rats after oral or intravenous dosing. (1) Maximum blood level of administered radioactivity was observed at 8 hours after oral administration with apparent half life of 3.8 days. This blood level was higher than that in normal rat. (2) As in the normal rat, administered radioactivity was distributed relatively high in the liver, while any other specific distribution or accumulation was not observed in the another tissues, which was consistent to the finding in the normal rat. The tissue levels of the radioactivity were higher than these in the normal rat. (3) Urinary excretion of administered radioactivity was significantly higher, fecal and biliary excretion was significantly lower than that in the normal rat after intravenous dosing. (4) Relative percentage of 3H-1α, 25-(OH)2-D3 content to 3H-1α-OH-D3 content in tissues and blood was higher than that in the normal one. Above results suggest that in the vitamin D deficient state, the tissue accumulation of 1α-OH-D3 was significantly augmented than in the normal rat, thus resulting increased bioavailability of its active metabolite, 1α, 25-(OH)2-D3. (author)

  10. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the novel antibacterial prodrug tedizolid phosphate.

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    Ong, Voon; Flanagan, Shawn; Fang, Edward; Dreskin, Howard J; Locke, Jeffrey B; Bartizal, Kenneth; Prokocimer, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a novel antibacterial prodrug with potent activity against Gram-positive pathogens. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the prodrug is rapidly converted by nonspecific phosphatases to the biologically active moiety tedizolid. Single oral dose radiolabeled (14)C-tedizolid phosphate kinetic studies in human subjects (100 µCi in 204 mg tedizolid phosphate free acid) confirmed a rapid time to maximum tedizolid concentration (Tmax, 1.28 hours), a long terminal half-life (10.6 hours), and a Cmax of 1.99 µg/ml. Metabolite analysis of plasma, fecal, and urine samples from rats, dogs, and humans confirmed that tedizolid is the only measurable metabolite in plasma after intravenous (in animals only) or oral administration and that tedizolid sulfate is the major metabolite excreted from the body. Excellent mass balance recovery was achieved and demonstrated that fecal excretion is the predominant (80-90%) route of elimination across species, primarily as tedizolid sulfate. Urine excretion accounted for the balance of drug elimination but contained a broader range of minor metabolites. Glucuronidation products were not detected. Similar results were observed in rats and dogs after both intravenous and oral administration. The tedizolid metabolites showed less potent antibacterial activity than tedizolid. The observations from these studies support once daily dosing of tedizolid phosphate and highlight important metabolism and excretion features that differentiate tedizolid phosphate from linezolid. PMID:24875463

  11. Absorption, distribution and excretion of inhaled hydrogen fluoride in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were subjected to whole body HF exposure for 6 hrs or to nose-only HF exposure for 1 hr. Total and/or ionic fluoride concentrations in selected tissues were determined at various times following exposure. In rats sacrificed 6 hrs after whole body exposure, dose-dependent increases in lung, plasma, and kidney total and ionic fluoride concentration occurred. Rats excreted more fluoride in the urine after whole body exposure than could be explained by the amount of HF inhaled. Considerable evidence suggests that airborne HF deposits on fur and is then ingested due to preening activity. Urinary fluoride excretion was increased by nose-only exposure. The urinary fluoride excretion accounted for approximately twice the fluoride estimated to be inhaled during exposure. Tissue fluoride concentrations were elevated immediately after nose-only exposure. Fluoride concentrations in lung and kidney returned to control levels within 12 hrs. Plasma fluoride concentration was slightly elevated 24 hrs after the start of the 1 hr exposure but was at control levels at 96 hrs. Immediately following nose-only exposure, lung ionic fluoride concentrations were less than plasma ionic fluoride concentrations suggesting that the fluoride in the lung had reached that site via plasma transport rather than by inhalation. A dose-dependent increase in plasma ionic fluoride concentration occurred after upper respiratory tract HF exposure providing strong evidence that fluoride is absorbed systemically from that site. The plasma ionic fluoride concentration after upper respiratory tract exposure was of sufficient magnitude to account for the plasma fluoride concentrations observed in intact nose-only exposed rats. (ERB)

  12. Determination of drug-like properties of a novel antileishmanial compound: In vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies

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    Mondal Susanta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In drug discovery research, the compounds should not only to be potent and selective but also must possess acceptable pharmacokinetic properties such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME to increase success rate in clinical studies. Objective: Exploration of drug-like properties of 2-(2-methylquinolin-4-ylamino-N-phenyl acetamide, a potent antileishmanial compound by performing some in vitro ADME experiments along with validation of such studies. Materials and Methods: Experimental protocols were established and validated for stability (in PBS pH7.4, simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, solubility, permeability, distribution coefficient (Log D, plasma protein binding and metabolism by rat liver microsomes by using spectrophotometer or HPLC. Methods were considered valid if the results of the standard compounds matched with reported results or within acceptable range or with proper ranking (high-medium-low. Results: The compound was found to be stable (>95% remaining in all stability studies and aqueous solubility was 299.7 ± 6.42 μM. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA indicated its medium permeability (Log Pe = -5.53 ± 0.01. The distribution coefficients (Log D in octanol/PBS and cyclohexane/PBS systems were found to be 0.54 and -1.33, respectively. The plasma protein binding study by the equilibrium dialysis method was observed to be 78.82 ± 0.13% while metabolism by Phase-I enzymes for 1 hour at 37°C revealed that 36.07 ± 4.15% of the compound remained after metabolism. Conclusion: The methods were found to be very useful for day-to-day ADME studies. All the studies with the antileishmanial compound ascertained that the compound bears optimum pharmacokinetic properties to be used orally as a potential drug for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  13. Evaluation of in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and mitraphylline.

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    Manda, Vamshi K; Avula, Bharathi; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2014-05-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a popular herb in Southeast Asia, which is traditionally used to treat withdrawal symptoms associated with opiate addiction. Mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and mitraphylline are reported to be the central nervous system active alkaloids which bind to the opiate receptors. Mitraphylline is also present in the bark of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw). Several therapeutic properties have been reported for these compounds but limited information is available on the absorption and distribution properties. This study focuses on evaluating the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of these compounds and their effect on major efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, using in vitro methods. Quantitative analysis was performed by the Q-TOF LC-MS system. Mitragynine was unstable in simulated gastric fluid with 26 % degradation but stable in simulated intestinal fluid. 7-Hydroxymitragynine degraded up to 27 % in simulated gastric fluid, which could account for its conversion to mitragynine (23 %), while only 6 % degradation was seen in simulated intestinal fluid. Mitraphylline was stable in simulated gastric fluid but unstable in simulated intestinal fluid (13.6 % degradation). Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine showed moderate permeability across Caco-2 and MDR-MDCK monolayers with no significant efflux. However, mitraphylline was subjected to efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein in both Caco-2 and MDR-MDCK monolayers. Mitragynine was found to be metabolically stable in both human liver microsomes and S9 fractions. In contrast, both 7-hydroxymitragynine and mitraphylline were metabolized by human liver microsomes with half-lives of 24 and 50 min, respectively. All three compounds exhibited high plasma protein binding (> 90 %) determined by equilibrium dialysis. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine inhibited P-glycoprotein with EC50 values of 18.2 ± 3.6 µM and 32.4 ± 1.9 µM, respectively

  14. Evaluation of in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and mitraphylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Vamshi K; Avula, Bharathi; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2014-05-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a popular herb in Southeast Asia, which is traditionally used to treat withdrawal symptoms associated with opiate addiction. Mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and mitraphylline are reported to be the central nervous system active alkaloids which bind to the opiate receptors. Mitraphylline is also present in the bark of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw). Several therapeutic properties have been reported for these compounds but limited information is available on the absorption and distribution properties. This study focuses on evaluating the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of these compounds and their effect on major efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, using in vitro methods. Quantitative analysis was performed by the Q-TOF LC-MS system. Mitragynine was unstable in simulated gastric fluid with 26 % degradation but stable in simulated intestinal fluid. 7-Hydroxymitragynine degraded up to 27 % in simulated gastric fluid, which could account for its conversion to mitragynine (23 %), while only 6 % degradation was seen in simulated intestinal fluid. Mitraphylline was stable in simulated gastric fluid but unstable in simulated intestinal fluid (13.6 % degradation). Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine showed moderate permeability across Caco-2 and MDR-MDCK monolayers with no significant efflux. However, mitraphylline was subjected to efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein in both Caco-2 and MDR-MDCK monolayers. Mitragynine was found to be metabolically stable in both human liver microsomes and S9 fractions. In contrast, both 7-hydroxymitragynine and mitraphylline were metabolized by human liver microsomes with half-lives of 24 and 50 min, respectively. All three compounds exhibited high plasma protein binding (> 90 %) determined by equilibrium dialysis. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine inhibited P-glycoprotein with EC50 values of 18.2 ± 3.6 µM and 32.4 ± 1.9 µM, respectively

  15. Absorption, distribution and excretion of GT31-104, a novel bile acid sequestrant, in rats and dogs after acute and subchronic administration.

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    Rosenbaum, D P; Petersen, J S; Ducharme, S; Markham, P; Goldberg, D I

    1997-05-01

    The absorption, distribution, and excretion of GT31-104, a novel bile acid sequestrant, was studied in rats and dogs after both acute and subchronic oral administration. The polyallylamine backbone of GT31-104 was labeled with tritium and one of the alkyl side chains was labeled with 14C. The mean blood and plasma concentration of [3H, 14C]GT31-104 in rats, in both treatment regimens, was negligible at all time points, with the highest amount observed being 0.69 microgram eq/g blood; in dogs the mean blood and plasma concentration of [3H, 14C]GT31-104 was below the limit of quantitation (< 0.001% total dose) at all time points. In both rats and dogs, the mean total urinary excretion of [3H, 14C]GT31-104 was approximately 0.06% of the total dose. The fecal excretion data indicates that both 3H- and 14C-derived radioactivity was excreted entirely in the feces. Mean total radioactivity excreted in the feces ranged from approximately 95 to 105% in the rats and 92 to 102% in the dogs. Across the different treatment regimens, in both species, tissue concentrations were negligible (< 0.01% total dose) and no differences in tissue profile were noted, indicating that there was no effect of pretreatment on [3H, 14C]GT31-104 absorption. GT31-104 was extracted with water, and the water-soluble portion contained radioactivity that would correlate to approximately 0.19% of the 3H dose and 0.41% of the 14C dose; this portion probably accounted for the negligible radioactivity observed systemically. Analysis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues with contents indicated that GT31-104 is rapidly cleared from the GI tract. These data indicate that GT31-104 is not absorbed from the GI tract in rats and dogs.

  16. Influence of dietary calcium on phosphorus absorption and excretion and on phosphorus-33 distribution in laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted using isotope-dilution and comparative balance techniques to estimate urinary and fecal P excretion of laying hens fed different levels of dietary Ca. Two levels of dietary Ca (3.46 and 4.2%) were fed to eight hens for 30 days. After 30 days, 50 microCi of the radioisotope 33P was injected intramuscularly to label endogenous P. On the 2nd day after 33P dosing and at 1 h postoviposition, plasma, liver, kidney, femur bone, whole egg, ileum, ileal digesta, and excreta samples were collected from each hen. Results showed a favorable effect of increasing dietary Ca consumption (2.91 vs 3.57 g/hen per day): femur ash increased (P less than .08), excreta P decreased (P less than .03), and urinary P decreased (P less than .06). The P content of ileal digesta was not affected by dietary Ca intake, but excreta P was greater for hens consuming less Ca, indicating that, during the collection period, excretion of P in urine was increased by the low Ca diet. Endogenous P secretions constituted less than 1% of the P in ileal digesta and excreta samples and this proportion was not changed by dietary Ca consumed

  17. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

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    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  18. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  19. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus absorption and excretion in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nutricao Animal]. E-mails: icsbueno@cena.usp.br; abdalla@cena.usp.br; dovitti@cena.usp.br; Furtado, Carlos Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zootecnia]. E-mail: cefurtado@uem.br

    2007-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most polluting nutrients because of high husbandry concentrations in restricted areas. The present study compiles data from previous studies dealing with true digestibility of different P levels in diets for horses. Database consisted of results from two experiments carried out at the Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), using horses fed different levels of P (n=28). True absorption of phosphorus was determined by isotopic dilution technique, using {sup 32}P as tracer. All parameters (P{sub ING}: ingested P; P{sub ABS}: absorbed P; P{sub FECTOT}: total faecal P excretion; P{sub FECENDO}: endogenous faecal P; P{sub URI}: total urinary excretion; and P{sub RET}: retained P) were normalized according to body weight (BW) and linear and quadratic regressions between P{sub ING} and the other parameters were tested. No quadratic effect was observed. P{sub ING} ranged from 41 to 264 mg/kg BW. Faecal P excretion was affected by intake, analysing by total (P{sub FECTOT} = 0.888 (S.E. 0.058) P{sub ING} - 29.40 (S.E. 8.14) (P<0.0001; RMSE=20.37; R{sup 2}=0.90) or by endogenous fraction (P{sub FECENDO} = 0.095 (S.E. 0.029) P{sub ING} + 12.10 (S.E. 4.16) (P=0.0034; RMSE=10.41; {sup R}2=0.29). Urinary P excretion was not affected by intake (P=0.35), although ranging from 0.06 to 59.20 mg/kg BW. The same occurred for P{sub RET} (P=0.25) ranging from -13.69 to 88.78 mg/kg BW. P absorption also was affect by P intake (P{sub ABS} = 0.195 (S.E. 0.060) P{sub ING} + 42.19 (S.E. 8.45) (P=0.0031; RMSE=21.15; R{sup 2}=0.29). The present study showed that only a small part of ingested P was absorbed, i.e. most of ingested P was excreted via faeces, contributing for environmental pollution. (author)

  20. Tissue distribution and excretion pattern of 51Cr in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study distribution and excretion pattern of chromium, 51CrCl3 was orally administered in doses of 66.6 μCi to each rat. Lungs, liver and testis accumulated relatively higher radioactivity earlier and this accumulation persisted in liver and testis for 192 hr. The lungs, heart muscles and gall bladder showed a gradual decline after initial uptake whereas in kidney and spleen it continued to increase as a function of time. Uptake of 51Cr per unit weight of the small intestine was greater than the stomach and the large intestine. On an average, 70.15 percent of the orally administered 51Cr was excreted in faeces within 192 hr of dosing. In the second experiment, six male kids weighing 23.87 kg, on an average, were given orally 500 μCi of 51Cr. Kids were maintained on concentrate mixture and green berseem which contained 0.43 ppm and 0.195 ppm chromium, respectively. The balance studies revealed that 94.93 percent of the total 51Cr dose was excreted in the faeces and 1.93 percent in the urine during 7 day period. Net absorption of 51Cr was, however, only 9.0 percent. (auth.)

  1. Studies on the percutaneous absorption of /sup 14/C-labelled flurbiprofen, (1). Absorption, distribution around the spread site, metabolism and excretion of /sup 14/C-Flurbiprofen in swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takeo; Nagao, Soshichi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Coll. of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine)

    1982-03-01

    A 1% ointment of C/sup 14/-labelled 2-(2-fluoro-4-biphenylyl) propionic acid (FP) was applied onto the depilated backs of swines. A relatively large amount of C/sup 14/-FP was absorbed percutaneously. The drug concentration in the blood attained a peak of 0.097 ..mu..g/ml 12 hours after drug administration, after which it decreased rapidly to 11.3% of the peak concentration. High concentration of C/sup 14/FP was detected in the skin, its concentration being particularly high in the epidermis and corium, which shows that there were superficial dispersion and residue. The drug concentration in the muscle was low, which shows that there was little three-dimensional dispersion. The cumulative urinary excretion of the drug 120 hours after drug application was 16.7%, and the cumulative fecal excretion was 2.6%, the ratio of excretion into the urine to that into the feces being 6 : 1. The unchanged form of the drug and 3 metabolites were detected in the urine.

  2. Docking mode of delvardine and its analogues into the p66 domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: screening using molecular mechanics-generalized born/surface area and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipankar Sengupta; Deeptak Verma; Pradeep K Naik

    2007-12-01

    Delvardine and its structural derivatives are important non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). In this work, 15 delvardine analogues were studied. A free energy-of-binding (FEB) expression was developed in the form of an optimized linear combination of van der Waal (vdW), electrostatic, solvation and solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) energy terms. The solvation energy terms estimated by generalized born/surface area (GB/SA) play an important role in predicting the binding affinity of delvardine analogues. Out of 15 derivatives, substitution of CH3 with H at the Y and R positions, as well as substitution of SO2CH3 with only CH2 at the Z position in S2, S8 and S12 analogues, were found to be the most potent (glide score = –7.60, –8.06 and –7.44; pIC50 = 7.28, 7.37 and 7.64) in comparison with the template delvardine (which is used currently as the drug candidate). All the three analogues also passed the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) screening and Lipinski’s rule of 5, and have the potential to be used for second-generation drug development. The work demonstrates that dock molecular mechanics-generalized born/surface area (MM–GB/SA–ADME) is a promising approach to predict the binding activity of ligands to the receptor and further screen for a successful candidate drug in a computer-aided rational drug design.

  3. Viscous Food Matrix Influences Absorption and Excretion but Not Metabolism of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walton, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.; Broomfield, A.M.; McGhie, T.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a simultaneous intake of food and anthocyanins (ACNs) on ACN absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Blackcurrant ACNs (BcACNs) were dissolved in water with or without the addition of oatmeal and orally administered to rats, providing appr

  4. Absorption and excretion of black currant anthocyanins in human and Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L.. F.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, L. O.;

    2003-01-01

    Anthocyanins are thought to protect against cardiovascular diseases. Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits are hypercholesterolemic and used as a model of the development of atherosclerosis. To compare the uptake and excretion of anthocyanins in humans and WHHL rabbits, single-dose black...... currant anthocyanin studies were performed. Procedures for workup and analyses of urine and plasma samples containing anthocyanins were developed with high recoveries (99 and 81%, respectively) and low limits of quantification (greater than or equal to 6.6 and greater than or equal to 1.1 nM, respectively......). The excretion and absorption of anthocyanins from black currant juice were found to be within the same order of magnitude in the two species regarding urinary excretion within the first 4 h (rabbits, 0.035%; humans, 0.072%) and t(ma)x (rabbits, similar to30 min; humans, similar to45 min). A food matrix effect...

  5. Tissue distribution and excretion of n-methyl-2-pyrolidone in male and female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) belongs to solvents widely used in the petrochemical industry a well as in the production of pesticides, veterinary drugs and paint removers. NMP is easily absorbed from respiratory tract, digestive system and through the skin. It is a compound of slight acute toxicity that also displays moderate irritating activity. The aim of this study was to assess tissue distribution and excretion following a single intraperitoneal NPM administration. Tissue distribution and excretion of NMP following administration of a single dose of 250 mg/kg body weight (350 kBq/rat) was investigated using 14C. Blood plasma (6 rats per time point) were sampled up to 72 h after administration and determination of radioactivity. Male and female rats (4 animals per time point) were decapitated at appropriate time intervals and examined tissues were removed for determination of radioactivity. Excretion of 14C in urine and feces were also measured. All radioactivity measurements were carried out using a Rakbetta 1209 (LKB, Sweden) liquid scintillation counter. The highest in 14C activity in tissues and internal organs of female and male rats was observed 4 h after administration of the compound. The highest accumulation was in dected in the muscles and fat tissue as well as the liver and testicles. During 72 h following administration, approximately 80% of the dose was excreted in urine. Elimination of the compound in feces was far less significant: only about 5% of the dose was excreted at once. The results of the study indicate that there are no significant differences in 14C-NMP tissue distribution between male and female rats; NPM absorption from the peritoneal cavity to blood is rapid, disappearance from plasma is monophase and kidneys are the main route of excretion of NMP and/ or its metabolites from the rat body after administration of a dose equal to 10% of L50. The ability to accumulate NMP and/or its metabolites in testes and seminal vesicles may be the

  6. Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of fermented orange juice (poly)phenols in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Calani, Luca; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad; Ortega, Angeles; Brighenti, Furio; Crozier, Alan; Del Rio, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Two milliliters of a fermented, pasteurized orange juice containing ~1% alcohol and 2.3 μmol of (poly)phenolic compounds was fed to rats by gavage after which plasma and urine collected over a 36 h period were analyzed by UHPLC-mass spectrometry. The main constituents in the juice were hesperetin and naringenin-O-glycosides, apigenin-6,8-C-diglucoside, and ferulic acid-4'-O-glucoside. Plasma contained seven flavanone glucuronides, with the principal metabolites, naringenin-7-O-glucuronide, naringenin-4'-O-glucuronide, and an isosakuranetin-O-glucuronide, peaking 6 h after intake at concentrations of ~10 nmol/L. Urinary excretion of four hesperetin glucuronides was equivalent to 0.28% of intake while that of the two naringenin glucuronides was 2.8% of intake. The plasma and urine data suggest that while some absorption occurred in the small intestine, the main site of uptake was the colon. Urine also contained dihydroferulic acid-4'-O-glucuronide and dihydroferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate which were excreted in quantities corresponding to 48.2% of the ingested ferulic acid-4'-glucoside. This indicates that the hydroxycinnamate is much more bioavailable than the flavanones in the rat model. Conversion of the ferulic acid glucoside to the dihydroferulic acid metabolites involves the action of colonic microbial glycosidases and reductases/hydrogenases followed by postabsorption phase II metabolism before renal excretion.

  7. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, tissue distribution, excretion, and metabolite identification of methoxyflavones in Kaempferia parviflora extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekjaruskul, Catheleeya; Jay, Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2012-12-01

    Kaempferia parviflora (KP) is an herbal plant in the family of Zingiberaceae. KP mainly contains methoxyflavones, especially 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF), 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (TMF), and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF). The present study was designed to characterize the pharmacokinetics, including bioavailability, distribution, excretion, and identification of metabolites after administration of a KP ethanolic extract. Male rats were orally or intravenously administered a 250 mg/kg concentration of a KP extract, and blood samples were obtained at selected times to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of PMF, TMF, and DMF. For distribution and excretion studies, the organs, urine, and feces samples were collected at various times after oral administration of a larger (750 mg/kg) dose of KP extract. Methoxyflavones in the biological samples were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV, and the metabolites in urine and feces were further identified by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After oral administration, concentrations of the three methoxyflavones quickly approached their maximal concentration, ranging from 0.55 to 0.88 μg/ml within 1 to 2 h after administration, and then were gradually excreted with half-lives of 3 to 6 h. The methoxyflavones showed low oral bioavailability of 1 to 4%. Three methoxyflavones were detected at their highest levels in liver followed by kidney. They were also found in lung, testes, and brain. After absorption, organ distribution, and metabolism, the components of KP were mainly eliminated through urine in the forms of demethylated, sulfated, and glucuronidated products and as demethylated metabolites in the feces. The parent compounds were found to have 0.79, 1.76, and 3.10% dose recovery in urine and 1.06, 1.77, and 0.96% dose recovery in feces for PMF, TMF, and DMF, respectively. These studies are the first to describe the pharmacokinetics of KP extract to provide the information on

  8. Absorption, metabolism and excretion of flavanones from single portions of orange fruit and juice and effects of anthropometric variables and contraceptive pill use on flavanone excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Gary M.; Hollands, Wendy; Needs, Paul W.; Teucher, Birgit; Dainty, Jack R.; Davis, Barry D.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Kroon, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Oranges are rich sources of flavonoids that are bioactive and may protect against age-related diseases. The absorption of orange flavanones may be affected by factors such as processing and subject anthropometric variables, and the bioactivity of the absorbed phytochemicals depends on how they are metabolised during absorption. In a randomised cross-over study, twenty subjects consumed a single portion of orange fruit (150 g) or juice (300 g) that contained the flavanones narirutin and hesperidin, and an additional 109 subjects across a broad age range (18–80 years) consumed the juice. Flavanone metabolites were measured in regularly collected samples of plasma and urine. After consumption of fruit or juice, flavanone conjugates, but not the aglycones, were detected in plasma and urine. The flavanone conjugates were shown to include the 7- and 4′-O-monoglucuronides of naringenin, the 7- and 3′-O-monoglucuronides of hesperetin, two hesperetin diglucuronides and a hesperetin sulfo-glucuronide, but no aglycones or rutinosides. Analysis of the plasma pharmacokinetic and urinary excretion data on a dose-adjusted basis indicated no difference in absorption or excretion of either flavanone between the fruit and juice matrices. In the extended urinary excretion dataset the individual variation was very large (range 0–59 % urinary yield). There was a small but significant (P<0·05) decrease in the excretion of hesperetin (but not naringenin) with increasing age (P<0·05), but the effects of sex, BMI and contraceptive pill use were shown not to be associated with the variation in flavanone excretion. PMID:18710603

  9. Tissue distribution and excretion of 125I-lidamycin in mice and rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Ping Liu; Quan-Sheng Li; Yu-Rong Huang; Chang-Xiao Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the tissue distribution, urinary and fecal excretions of 125I-lidamycin (125I-C-1027) in mice and its biliary excretion in rats.METHODS: The total radioactivity assay (RA method) and the radioactivity assay after precipitation with 200 mL/L trichloroacetic acid (TCA-RA method) were used to dete-rmine the tissue distribution, and the urinary and fecal excretions of 125I-C-1027 in mice and its biliary excretion in rats.RESULTS: Tissue concentrations reached the peak at the fifth minute after administration of 125I-C-1027 to mice. The highest concentration was in kidney, and the lowest in brain at all test-time points. The organs of the concentrations of 125I-C-1027 from high to low were kidney, lung, liver, stomach, spleen, uterus, ovary, intestine, muscle, heart, testis, fat, and brain in mice. The accumulative excretionamounts of 0-24 h, and 0-96 h after administration of125I-C-1027 were 68.36 and 71.64% in urine, and 2.60 and 3.21% in feces of mice, respectively, and the accumulative excretion amount of 0-24 h was 3.57% in bile in rats.CONCLUSION: Our results reflect the characteristics of the tissue distribution, urinary and fecal excretions of 125IC-1027 in mice and the biliary excretion of 125I-C-1027and its metabolites in rats, and indicate that 125I-C-1027and its metabolites are mainly distributed in kidney, and excreted in urine.

  10. Actual problems of the distribution of radioisotopes and the kinetics of their excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the character of the distribution of radioisotopes (Cs, Rb, Sr, Ca, Ba, Ra, Ce, La, Pm, Sb, Te, Pu, Y, Zr, Ru, Nb, Po), depending on the way and rhythm of their administration, the physiological state of the organism and physico-chemical factors. It was shown that 10 to 18% of some radioisotopes (Cs137, Nb95, Zr95, Y91, Ru106, and Ce144) were retained in the lungs when administered by inhalation. Caesium and especially strontium are absorbed from the lungs extremely rapidly, while the absorption of ruthenium, cerium and particularly plutonium is slow. The type of distribution of radioactive isotopes does not depend on the species of the animal, as is sometimes the case with the kinetics of their elimination. The rate of Ce144 removal from canine and feline liver is exceedingly low, unlike that in rats, m ice, guinea pigs and rabbits. The amount of the deposited material and the kinetics of its elimination in case of Sr90 and Pu239 are determined by the rhythm and duration of the isotope intake. From the data presented it can be seen that the results of experiments with a single injection do not always characterize the kinetics of the accumulation of the isotope in cases of its continuous administration. Chelate compounds (EDTA, hexametaphosphate - HMP), isotope and non-isotope carriers, and the pH of the original solution change the distribution of hydrolysed elements (cerium, yttrium) and do not affect the type of distribution of elements that are highly-soluble in water. When the pH of the original solution increases, the amount of cerium and yttrium deposition also increases in the organs containing much reticuloendothelial elements (liver, spleen) and decreases in the skeleton and kidneys. The acceleration of the Ce144 and Y91 excretion caused by the chelate compounds (EDTA, HMP) is delayed with the increase of the pH of the original solution. (author)

  11. Quantitative analysis of absorption, metabolism, and excretion of benzoxazinoids in humans after the consumption of high- and low-benzoxazinoid diets with similar contents of cereal dietary fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Adhikari, Khem B; Schnoor, Heidi J;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Benzoxazinoids (BXs) are a group of wholegrain phytochemicals with potential pharmacological properties; however, limited information exists on their absorption, metabolism, and excretion in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-dependent uptake and excretion of dieta...

  12. Effect of natural zeolite on radiocesium excretion and distribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect was studied of the addition of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) to food on 134Cs excretion and distribution following oral internal contamination of laboratory rats. With the diet containing 2.5, 5 and 10% zeolite, 134Cs excretion in feces increased while retention of the radionuclide dropped in the liver, kidneys, spleen and the femoral muscle. The decontamination effect was observed of preventive administration of zeolite and of the administration of the sorbent 24 hours after a single internal contamination. (author). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs

  13. Influence of food tannins on certain aspects of iron metabolism : Part 1 -- Absorption and excretion in normal and anemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on absorption and excretion of iron by isotopic and non-isotopic methods in normal and hemolytic anemic rats indicate that dietary food tannins at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg body wt/day tend to increase iron excretion in normal rats but more iron is absorbed or retained in tannin-fed anemic rats and absorption of iron is comparable to that in normal control. Both in vivo and in vitro tannin at a high dose (2.0 mg/kg body wt/day) inhibits the iron absorption in experimental animals. The interference of food tannins (0.5 kg/mg body wt/day) with absorption of iron (59Fe) varies with plant species from which tannin has been prepared. Normal iron balance in tannin-fed (0.5 mg/kg body wt/day) anemic rats may result from increased assimilation of tannin-bound iron in intestinal mucosa, and absorbed tannin appears to remove unabsorbed iron. (auth.)

  14. Relationship between concentration and exposed area on absorption and excretion of T-2 mycotoxin through rabbit skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T-2 mycotoxin is a severe skin irritant that can be lethal via the dermal route. A non-occlusive barrier model was developed to study the effects of concentration and size of the exposed area on the absorption rate of toxin in rabbit skin. The skin was shaved and, twenty-four hours later, varying concentrations of both [4H]-labeled and unlabeled T0 toxin in DMSO were painted on the surface. A barrier, consisting of a mesh-jacketed, half-inch foam pad with a hole in the center, was applied to the skin. In order to assess absorption, lethality and excretion were used as endpoints, and dosage, area, and concentration (μ g/cm2) were varied. At doses of 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg of T-2 toxin in DMSO applied to a 200 cm2 area, lethality was 0 of 2, 6 of 11, and 6 of 6 rabbits, respectively. This suggests a direct dose-response relationship. However, at a dose of 10 mg/kg applied in a 100 cm2 area, there were no deaths in 4 rabbits. This indicates a lower rate of absorption at this higher concentration. The percentage of [3H]-toxin excreted was higher at lower doses of T-2 toxin and reduced at higher concentrations. The authors conclude that area, dose, and concentration of applied toxin can influence the amount of T-2 toxin that is absorbed through the skin

  15. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Z. Orta-Flores; C. Nolasco-Hipólito; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses...

  16. Absorption, conjugation and excretion of the flavanones, naringenin and hesperetin from alpha-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Nielsen, I.L.F.; Rasmussen, S.E.;

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the absorption, conjugation and excretion of naringenin-7-O-rutinosicle (narirutin) compared to the corresponding glucoside in an orange juice matrix in human subjects. Healthy volunteers (eight men and eight women), in a double blind, randomised, crossover study, consumed orange......-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice was increased about 4-fold (P...... juice with (1) natural content of naringenin-7-O-rutinoside; (2) alpha-rhamnosidase-treated to yield naringenin-7-O-glucoside. Blood was sampled at twelve time points and three fractions of urine were collected over 24 h. The area under the plasma-time curve of naringenin from (2) alpha...

  17. Excretion, distribution and metabolism of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene (TCB) labeled with C-14 was given perorally to rats at a dosage of 50 mg/kg for excretion and distribution studies. About 66% and 17% of the oral dose was excreted in the urine and feces, respectively, within 7 days. Trapped radioactivity in the expired air amounted to 2.1% of the dose, but production of labeled carbon dioxide was negligible. Tissue residues were evenly distributed throughout the organs and tissues examined, except for the adipose tissue which consistently had a little higher concentration. The urinary, fecal and expiratory metabolites were identified. Free 2,4,5- and 2,3,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) and their conjugates were mainly detected in the urine. 5- or 6-sulfhydryl, methylthio, methylsulfoxide and methylsulfone derivatives of TCB were also detected as minor metabolites. Dichlorobenzenes and unchanged TCB were confirmed in the expired air. Reductive dechlorination seems to be catalysed by intestinal microflora enzymes. (orig.)

  18. Tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of orally administered silica nanoparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeong-A Lee,1 Mi-Kyung Kim,1 Hee-Jeong Paek,1 Yu-Ri Kim,2 Meyoung-Kon Kim,2 Jong-Kwon Lee,3 Jayoung Jeong,3 Soo-Jin Choi1 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungchungbuk–do, Republic of Korea Purpose: The effects of particle size on the tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of silica nanoparticles and their biological fates were investigated following a single oral administration to male and female rats. Methods: Silica nanoparticles of two different sizes (20 nm and 100 nm were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. Tissue distribution kinetics, excretion profiles, and fates in tissues were analyzed using elemental analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Results: The differently sized silica nanoparticles mainly distributed to kidneys and liver for 3 days post-administration and, to some extent, to lungs and spleen for 2 days post-administration, regardless of particle size or sex. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies in tissues demonstrated almost intact particles in liver, but partially decomposed particles with an irregular morphology were found in kidneys, especially in rats that had been administered 20 nm nanoparticles. Size-dependent excretion kinetics were apparent and the smaller 20 nm particles were found to be more rapidly eliminated than the larger 100 nm particles. Elimination profiles showed 7%–8% of silica nanoparticles were excreted via urine, but most nanoparticles were excreted via feces, regardless of particle size or sex. Conclusion: The kidneys, liver, lungs, and spleen were found to be the target organs of orally-administered silica nanoparticles in rats, and this organ

  19. Three-week psyllium-husk supplementation: effect on plasma cholesterol concentrations, fecal steroid excretion, and carbohydrate absorption in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Z D; Mehta, T

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of psyllium husk on plasma total and lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy human subjects and to elucidate possible hypocholesterolemic mechanisms. Seven males were given a nutritionally controlled diet based on their usual intake for x = 3 wk followed by 3 wk in which 21 g/d per person psyllium husk was added to the basal diet. After 10 d and after 3 wk of psyllium supplementation, total, low-density, and high-density cholesterol were reduced (p less than 0.002, p less than 0.01, and p less than 0.03, respectively). Fecal steroid excretion, determined from 5-d collections, was not affected by psyllium supplementation. Although psyllium tended to delay lipid absorption, plasma triglycerides, retinyl esters, glucose, insulin, and glucagon quantitated during meal tolerance tests given on the last day of each diet period were not different (p greater than 0.05). Thus the cholesterol-lowering mechanism of psyllium may not involve increased bile acid excretion or decreases in nutrient absorption. PMID:2827455

  20. Distribution and excretion of N-Ilel Thr2-63-desulfatohirudin in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yun-jiang; GUO Zhu-han

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate distribution and excretion of N-Ile1Thr2-63-desulfatohirudin (rH) a recombinant hirudin newly developed in China, in rats for its development as a novel anticoagulant agent. Methods ELISA was used to determine the rH concentration in related tissues and body fluids. Tissues were collected at 15, 60 and 180min respectively, after iv administration of rH 1.0 mg·kg-1 to 3 groups of 5 rats, and homogenized. Urine, bile and feces were collected at pre-selected intervals of time after iv dosing 1.0 mg·kg-1 to 3 groups of 5 rats and assayed. Results rH following iv dosing was distributed rapidly, the rH levels in all tissues being found to be the highest at 15 min post-injection, afterwards gradually reduced. The highest concentration of rH was found in blood, the next in lung and heart, the lowest in brain. With 15 min post dose as an example, the rH contents in tissues were ranked in order of plasmalungheart adipose skeletal muscles kidney liver spleen brain. The 12 h-cumulative excretion amount of rH in urine and feces accounted for 0.03% and 0.001% of administered dose, respectively; the 6 h-cumulative excretion amount in bile was 0.02 % of the dose. Conclusions The rH is distributed mainly in blood circulation system with very low content in other tissues. The drug is excreted from urine, feces and bile of rats in extremely minute amount(only 0.051% dose), suggesting that rH undergoes extensive metabolic elimination in rat body.

  1. Distribution and excretion of arsenic in cynomolgus monkey following repeated administration of diphenylarsinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yayoi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Negishi, Takayuki [Aoyama Gakuin University, Department of Chemistry and Biological Science, Tokyo (Japan); Mizumura, Ayano; Watanabe, Takayuki [Chiba University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Hirano, Seishiro [Chiba University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Research Center for Environmental Risk, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a possible product of degradation of arsenic-containing chemical weapons, was detected in well water in Kamisu City, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, in 2003. Although some individuals in this area have been affected by drinking DPAA-containing water, toxicological findings on DPAA are limited. To elucidate the mechanism of its toxicity, it is necessary to determine the metabolic behavior of DPAA in the body. In this study, pregnant cynomolgus monkeys at the 50th day of pregnancy were used. The monkeys were treated daily with 1.0 mg DPAA/kg body weight using a nasogastric tube, and the distribution and excretion of arsenic were examined after the repeated administration and 198-237 days after the last administration of DPAA. Fecal excretion was higher than urinary excretion (ca. 3:2 ratio), and arsenic accumulated in the hair and erythrocytes. Distribution of DAPP to plasma and hemolyzed erythrocytes was also examined by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP MS). Two peaks were found in the elution profile of arsenic, due to free and probably protein-bound DPAA. The protein-bound arsenic compounds were presumably trivalent diphenylarsenic compounds, since free DPAA was recovered after treatment of heat-denatured samples with hydrogen peroxide. (orig.)

  2. Pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the dual reuptake inhibitor [(14)C]-nefopam in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian; Solon, Eric; Shen, Helen; Modi, Nishit B; Mittur, Aravind

    2016-11-01

    1. This study examined the pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [(14)C] nefopam in rats after a single oral administration. Blood, plasma, and excreta were analyzed for total radioactivity, nefopam, and metabolites. Metabolites were profiled and identified. Radioactivity distribution was determined by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. 2. The pharmacokinetic profiles of total radioactivity and nefopam were similar in male and female rats. Radioactivity partitioned approximately equally between plasma and red blood cells. A majority of the radioactivity was excreted in urine within 24 hours and mass balance was achieved within 7 days. 3. Intact nefopam was a minor component in plasma and excreta. Numerous metabolites were identified in plasma and urine generated by multiple pathways including: hydroxylation/oxidation metabolites (M11, M22a and M22b, M16, M20), some of which were further glucuronidated (M6a to M6c, M7a to M7c, M8a and M8b, M3a to M3d); N-demethylation of nefopam to metabolite M21, which additionally undergoes single or multiple hydroxylations or sulfation (M9, M14, M23), with some of the hydroxylated metabolites further glucuronidated (M2a to M2d). 4. Total radioactivity rapidly distributed with highest concentrations found in the urinary bladder, stomach, liver, kidney medulla, small intestine, uveal tract, and kidney cortex without significant accumulation or persistence. Radioactivity reversibly associated with melanin-containing tissues.

  3. [Studies on distribution, excretion and subacute toxicity of squalane in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, H; Koga, N; Oguri, K; Yoshimura, H; Inoue, H; Sato, K; Ohkubo, M

    1989-05-01

    In the previous papers, we demonstrated, by using rats, that squalane (2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane) could stimulate the fecal excretion of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, which was regarded as the most important etiologic agent of yusho among PCB and PCDF congeners found in the causal rice oil. We also reported that, in rats, squalane was not essentially absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and did not show any appreciable side effects during the 3-month treatment. In the present paper, we have investigated the distribution, excretion and subacute toxicity of squalane in beagle dogs. The fecal excretion of squalane accounted for about 83% of dose during the initial 2 days after administration at a single oral dose of 1,200 mg/kg to male dogs. On day 3, absorbed squalane was mostly distributed to the hair and the skin, and the concentrations in these tissues were decreased on day 6. These results suggested that most of squalane administered orally was not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, but a part was absorbed and excreted through the hair. In addition, squalane distributed into the liver was found to be eliminated rather slowly. A long-term (13-week) treatments with squalane orally at doses of 400 mg/kg/day or 1,200 mg/kg/day in male and female dogs, resulted also in accumulation of squalane in the liver at a level of about 3% (400 mg/kg) or about 6% (1,200 mg/kg) of the daily dose. This accumulation of squalane in the liver was highest among all the tissues. Nevertheless, no appreciable toxic signs were observed in the serum biochemical tests and the hepatic functional test for squalane groups. Therefore, squalane accumulating in the liver, did not seem to disturb the hepatic physiological functions. It was suggested also in a long-term treatment that the skin and the hair played the most important role in the elimination of squalane. In conclusion, the present studies on subacute toxicity tests suggested that squalane did not give any

  4. Intestinal distribution and excretion of sesaminol and its tetrahydrofuranoid metabolites in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Kuo-Ching; Ku, Kuo-Lung; Chu, Yan-Hwa; Hwang, Lucy Sun; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2011-04-13

    Sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) are unique because of potent and various physiological activities imparted by their bioactive lignans. This investigation studied the intestinal distribution and excretion of sesaminol in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. To investigate the distribution of sesaminol (per oral 220 mg/kg), the changes in concentration of sesaminol and its metabolites were determined in the intestines and plasma within the 24 h period after tube feeding of sesaminol to SD rats. Results show that the epimerization of sesaminol appeared to be catalyzed by acid in the simulated gastric fluids. The major sesaminol epimer was characterized as 2-episesaminol using 2D-NMR. These findings indicate that sesame sesaminol and its epimer are poorly absorbed prior to reaching the rectum and that substantial amounts pass from the small to the large intestine, where they are metabolized by the colonic microflora to tetrahydrofuranoid metabolites. Sesaminol in plasma was largely present as phase II conjugates, and the seven metabolites were detected as the 2-episesaminol, sesaminol-6-catechol, methylated sesaminol-catechol, R,R-hydroxymethylsesaminol-tetrahydrofuran, S,R-hydroxymethylsesaminol-tetrahydrofuran, enterolactone, and enterodiol. Excretions of sesaminol in urine and feces within the 24 h period were equivalent to 0.02 and 9.33% of the amount ingested, respectively.

  5. Biliary cholesterol excretion: A novel mechanism that regulates dietary cholesterol absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Sehayek, Ephraim; Ono, Jennie G.; Shefer, Sarah; Nguyen, Lien B.; Wang, Nan; Batta, Ashok K.; Salen, Gerald; Smith, Jonathan D.; Tall, Alan R.; Breslow, Jan L.

    1998-01-01

    The regulation of dietary cholesterol absorption was examined in C57BL/6 and transgenic mice with liver overexpression of the scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI Tg). In C57BL/6 animals, feeding 0.02 to 1% (wt/wt) dietary cholesterol resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the percentage of dietary cholesterol absorbed. A plot of total daily mass of dietary cholesterol absorbed versus the percentage by weight of cholesterol in the diet yielded a curve suggesting a saturable process with a Km of 0.4...

  6. 54Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets

  7. Pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the dual reuptake inhibitor [(14)C]-nefopam in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian; Solon, Eric; Shen, Helen; Modi, Nishit B; Mittur, Aravind

    2016-11-01

    1. This study examined the pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [(14)C] nefopam in rats after a single oral administration. Blood, plasma, and excreta were analyzed for total radioactivity, nefopam, and metabolites. Metabolites were profiled and identified. Radioactivity distribution was determined by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. 2. The pharmacokinetic profiles of total radioactivity and nefopam were similar in male and female rats. Radioactivity partitioned approximately equally between plasma and red blood cells. A majority of the radioactivity was excreted in urine within 24 hours and mass balance was achieved within 7 days. 3. Intact nefopam was a minor component in plasma and excreta. Numerous metabolites were identified in plasma and urine generated by multiple pathways including: hydroxylation/oxidation metabolites (M11, M22a and M22b, M16, M20), some of which were further glucuronidated (M6a to M6c, M7a to M7c, M8a and M8b, M3a to M3d); N-demethylation of nefopam to metabolite M21, which additionally undergoes single or multiple hydroxylations or sulfation (M9, M14, M23), with some of the hydroxylated metabolites further glucuronidated (M2a to M2d). 4. Total radioactivity rapidly distributed with highest concentrations found in the urinary bladder, stomach, liver, kidney medulla, small intestine, uveal tract, and kidney cortex without significant accumulation or persistence. Radioactivity reversibly associated with melanin-containing tissues. PMID:26927982

  8. Characteristics of pharmacokinetics, distribution and excretion of recombinant human interleukin-3 in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration-time profiles of 125I-labelled recombinant human interleukin-3 (125I-rhIL-3) were determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RHPLC) after subcutaneous administration of the drug 90 μg/kg in mice. The elimination T1/2 in plasma was 1.73 h. Rapid biodegradation was found in plasma. The distribution profiles of total radioactivity were as follows: The highest level was found in urinary system. Levels in bile-enteric system, lymph nodes, bone marrow and spleen approximated that in plasma, and level in brain was the lowest. A total of (84.0 +- 9.2)% of the injected dose was excreted through urine and feces within 48 h, of which (71.9 +- 6.7)% through urine and (12.2 +- 5.3)% through feces. The RHPLC analysis revealed that kidney was one of the major organ for biodegradation

  9. Gamma camera imaging for studying intestinal absorption and whole-body distribution of selenomethionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L.; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing;

    2014-01-01

    Se metabolism in humans is not well characterised. Currently, the estimates of Se absorption, whole-body retention and excretion are being obtained from balance and tracer studies. In the present study, we used gamma camera imaging to evaluate the whole-body retention and distribution of radiolab......Se metabolism in humans is not well characterised. Currently, the estimates of Se absorption, whole-body retention and excretion are being obtained from balance and tracer studies. In the present study, we used gamma camera imaging to evaluate the whole-body retention and distribution...... of radiolabelled selenomethionine (SeMet), the predominant form of Se present in foods. A total of eight healthy young men participated in the study. After consumption of a meal containing 4MBq [75Se]L-SeMet ([75Se]SeMet), whole-body gamma camera scanning was performed for 45 min every hour over a 6 h period......]SeMet was retained within the body after 7 d. In contrast, the measured excretion in urine and faeces for the 7 d period was 8•2 (SD 1•1)% of the activity. Time–activity curves were generated for the whole body, stomach, liver, abdomen (other than the stomach and the liver), brain and femoral muscles. Gamma camera...

  10. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Excretion of Isoalantolactone and Alantolactone in Rats after Oral Administration of Radix Inulae Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjie Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Radix Inulae is endemic to China and has been used in traditional medicine to treat upper body pain, emesis and diarrhoea, and to eliminate parasites. Here, an UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and applied to study the pharmacokinetics, distribution and excretion of isoalantolactone and alantolactone, which are two main active sesquiterpene lactones in Radix Inulae, in Sprague-Dawley rats following oral administration of total Radix Inulae extract. Isoalantolactone, alantolactone and osthole (internal standard were prepared using acetonitrile precipitation, and the separation of isoalantolactone and alantolactone was achieved by isocratic elution using water (containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase using a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column. The total run time was 6.4 min. The present study showed poor absorption of isoalantolactone and alantolactone in vivo. The apparent Cmax, Tmax, T1/2 and total exposure (AUC0–12h in rat plasma were 37.8 ng/mL, 120 min, 351.7 min and 6112.3 ng-min/mL for isoalantolactone and 25.9 ng/mL, 90 min, 321.0 min and 4918.9 ng-min/mL for alantolactone, respectively. It was shown that the highest concentration was achieved in the small intestine and feces clearance was shown to be the dominant elimination pathway of the lactones.

  11. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of isoalantolactone and alantolactone in rats after oral administration of Radix Inulae extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjie; Zhou, Guisheng; Peng, Ying; Wang, Mengyue; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-04-28

    Radix Inulae is endemic to China and has been used in traditional medicine to treat upper body pain, emesis and diarrhoea, and to eliminate parasites. Here, an UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and applied to study the pharmacokinetics, distribution and excretion of isoalantolactone and alantolactone, which are two main active sesquiterpene lactones in Radix Inulae, in Sprague-Dawley rats following oral administration of total Radix Inulae extract. Isoalantolactone, alantolactone and osthole (internal standard) were prepared using acetonitrile precipitation, and the separation of isoalantolactone and alantolactone was achieved by isocratic elution using water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase using a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column. The total run time was 6.4 min. The present study showed poor absorption of isoalantolactone and alantolactone in vivo. The apparent Cmax, Tmax, T1/2 and total exposure (AUC0-12h) in rat plasma were 37.8 ng/mL, 120 min, 351.7 min and 6112.3 ng-min/mL for isoalantolactone and 25.9 ng/mL, 90 min, 321.0 min and 4918.9 ng-min/mL for alantolactone, respectively. It was shown that the highest concentration was achieved in the small intestine and feces clearance was shown to be the dominant elimination pathway of the lactones.

  12. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition...... was maintained by ingestion of nickel in food....

  13. Tissue Distribution, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of the Environmental Pollutant Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan-Wan; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Aliaga, Cesar; Awad, Alaa S; Gowda, Krishne; Amin, Shantu; Chen, Kun-Ming

    2015-07-20

    Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBP), a representative example of the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is known to induce tumors in multiple organ sites including the ovary, lung, mammary glands, and oral cavity in rodents. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the levels of DBP and its metabolites that reach and retain the levels for an extended time in the target organs as well as the capacity of these organs to metabolize this carcinogen to active metabolites that can damage DNA may account for its tissue selective tumorigenicity. Therefore, we used the radiolabeled [(3)H] DBP to accurately assess the tissue distribution, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of this carcinogen. We also compared the levels of DBPDE-DNA adducts in a select target organ (ovary) and nontarget organs (kidney and liver) in mice treated orally with DBP. Our results showed that after 1 week, 91.40 ± 7.23% of the radioactivity was recovered in the feces; the corresponding value excreted in the urine was less than 2% after 1 week. After 24 h, the stomach had the highest radioactivity followed by the intestine and the liver; however, after 1 week, levels of the radioactivity in these organs were the lowest among tissues examined including the ovary and liver; the pharmacokinetic analysis of DBP was conducted using a one compartment open model. The level of (-)-anti-trans-DBPDE-dA in the ovaries (8.91 ± 0.08 adducts/10(7) dA) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the levels of adducts in kidneys (0.69 ± 0.09 adducts/10(7) dA) and livers (0.63 ± 0.11 adducts/10(7) dA). Collectively, the results of the tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic analysis may not fully support our hypothesis, but the capacity of the target organs vs nontarget organs to metabolize DBP to active intermediates that can damage DNA may account for its tissue selective tumorigenicity. PMID:26034881

  14. [Studies on distribution and excretion of squalane in dogs administered for 2 weeks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, H; Fuchigami, K; Inoue, H; Kodama, R; Yoshimura, H

    1991-05-01

    In the previous papers, we demonstrated, by using rats, that squalane (2,6,10,15,19, 23-hexamethyltetracosane) could stimulate the fecal excretion of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, the most important etiologic agent of Yusho, which was accumulated in the body of rat. We also reported that, in rats and dogs, squalane did not show any appreciable toxic signs during 3-month treatment, though a part of squalane was absorbed from gastrointestinal tract of dogs. In the present paper, we have investigated the elimination of absorbed squalane in beagle dogs. During the treatment with squalane orally at a dose of 1200 mg/kg/day for 14 days, the fecal excretion of squalane per day was 65-90% of the daily dose. After the treatment (on the day 14), squalane levels in blood and hair were about 30 ppm and 14640 ppm, respectively. On the day 56 after the first dosing, squalane was not detected in blood. On the day 70, squalane level in hair was reduced to about 1% of that on the day 14. Squalane levels in skin, liver, adipose tissue and small intestine on the day 70 were also reduced compared with that on the day 42. Moreover, small amount of squalane was still excreted into feces from the day 15 to the day 70. These results suggested that absorbed squalane was gradually excreted through feces and skin in dogs.

  15. Absorption and distribution of orally administered jojoba wax in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaron, A; Samoiloff, V; Benzioni, A

    1982-03-01

    The liquid wax obtained from the seeds of the arid-land shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is finding increasing use in skin treatment preparations. The fate of this wax upon reaching the digestive tract was studied. 14C-Labeled wax was administered intragastrically to mice, and the distribution of the label in the body was determined as a function of time. Most of the wax was excreted, but a small amount was absorbed, as was indicated by the distribution of label in the internal organs and the epididymal fat. The label was incorporated into the body lipids and was found to diminish with time.

  16. The effects of co-administration of butter on the absorption, metabolism and excretion of catechins in rats after oral administration of tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Yuhui; Xu, Liwei; Liang, Yuhong; Chen, Xin; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2015-07-01

    In Southwest China, tea polyphenols are usually utilized by way of butter tea. Tea polyphenols inhibit the absorption and biosynthesis of fatty acids in vivo, but the effects of butter on the pharmacokinetics of tea polyphenols have drawn less concern. A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method was used to quantitatively determine the catechins in the plasma, feces and bile of rats after the oral administration of tea polyphenol or its combination with butter. In comparison with the single tea polyphenol treatment, the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG, GC and ECG significantly decreased after the co-administration of butter. The mean residence times (MRT) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GC and ECG were also significantly prolonged. When the plasma samples were treated with β-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the total catechins (free and conjugated forms) were not affected by the co-administration of butter. These results indicated that the total absorption of catechins was not affected by butter, but the metabolism of catechins had been changed. Furthermore, the fecal catechins were significantly increased by butter. The total fecal amount and excretion ratio of all catechins were increased highly. The biliary excretion of EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG and GC was significantly increased by the co-administration of butter. To sum up, the butter changed the metabolism of catechins in vivo by decreasing the plasma concentration of the free catechins but increasing the conjugated catechins.

  17. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling of distribution, bioaccumulation and excretion of POPs in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Letcher, Robert J; Dietz, Rune

    2015-10-01

    We used PBPK (physiologically-based pharmacokinetic) modelling to investigate distribution, bioaccumulation and excretion of the seven POPs (persistent organic pollutants) CB-99, CB-153, HCB, oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE, BDE-47 and BDE-99 in 4 adult captive Greenland sledge dog (Canis familiaris) bitches fed minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber for 500-635 days. The PBPK modelled POP concentrations in adipose tissue, liver, kidney and plasma were mostly within a factor 2 of actual measured tissue levels even for those at the lower concentration end. The excretion route for oxychlordane and CB-153 was modelled to be via faeces while lung alveolar excretion dominated for BDE-47, BDE-99, HCB, p,p'-DDE and CB-99. Furthermore the model suggested the retained mass of POPs after 500 and 635 days of exposure, respectively, to be relatively low despite these POPs being highly recalcitrant. The retention increased in the following order (% of total intake); p,p'-DDE (1%)tool in risk assessment of POPs in arctic mammals. PMID:26210746

  18. Human systemic exposure to [¹⁴C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Skare, Julie A; Meuling, Wim J A; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Vaes, Wouter H J; Dufour, Eric K; Fautz, Rolf; Steiling, Winfried; Bramante, Mario; Toutain, Herve

    2015-07-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [(14)C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [(14)C] was measured in all materials, rinsing water, hair, plasma, urine and skin strips. Plasma and urine were also analysed by HLPC/MS/MS for PPD and its metabolites (B). Total mean recovery of radioactivity was 94.30% (A) or 96.21% (B). Mean plasma Cmax values were 132.6 or 97.4 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL, mean AUC(0-∞) values 1415 or 966 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL*hr in studies A or B, respectively. Urinary excretion of [(14)C] mainly occurred within 24 hrs after hair colouring with a total excretion of 0.72 or 0.88% of applied radioactivity in studies A or B, respectively. Only N,N'-diacetylated-PPD was detected in plasma and the urine. A TK-based human safety assessment estimated margins of safety of 23.3- or 65-fold relative to respective plasma AUC or Cmax values in rats at the NOAEL of a toxicity study. Overall, hair dyes containing PPD are unlikely to pose a health risk since they are used intermittently and systemic exposure is limited to the detoxified metabolite N,N'-diacetyl-PPD. PMID:25846501

  19. Absorption, disposition, metabolism, and excretion of ritobegron (KUC-7483), a novel selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Y; Ota, E; Endo, T; Murakami, M; Kobayashi, M

    2014-12-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of ritobegron, a novel, selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist, was investigated in rats. Ritobegron, an ethyl ester prodrug of the active compound KUC-7322, or KUC-7322 itself was orally administered (10 mg/kg). Ethyl esterification resulted in a 10-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t)), as compared to KUC-7322. Following intravenous administration of KUC-7322 (1 mg/kg), total blood clearance was 1.36 L/h/kg, suggesting that intrinsic hepatic clearance is the rate-limiting step in KUC-7322 excretion. When ritobegron was orally administered (0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg), plasma concentrations of KUC-7322 rapidly increased and reached a maximum concentration (C(max)) at 0.25 to 0.31 h. KUC-7322 levels rapidly decreased, with a half-life (t 1/2) of 0.42 to 1.37 h thereafter. AUC(0-t) did not show a dose-dependent increase. The bioavailability of KUC-7322 was estimated to be 4%. Following oral administration of [14C]ritobegron (3 mg/kg), radioactivity concentrations in tissues rapidly increased and declined in parallel with changes in plasma concentration. In most of tissues, excluding the liver, kidney, urinary bladder, stomach and small intestine, radioactivity concentrations were lower than that in plasma. In plasma, bile, urine, and feces, KUC-7322 and its glucuronide, sulfate, and glutathione conjugates were detected. The glucuronide conjugate of KUC-7322 was the predominant metabolite in bile, plasma, and urine, and KUC-7322 was predominant in feces. Ritobegron was not detected in any of the samples. The cumulative excretion of radioactivity in urine and feces were 28.7% and 68.3% of the dose, respectively, up to 120 h after administration.

  20. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of macitentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, Shirin; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Seiberling, Michael; Wank, Janine; Sidharta, Patricia N; Treiber, Alexander; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2012-09-01

    Macitentan is a tissue-targeting, dual endothelin receptor antagonist, currently under phase 3 investigation in pulmonary arterial hypertension. In this study the disposition and metabolism of macitentan were investigated following administration of a single oral 10 mg dose of (14)C-macitentan to six healthy male subjects. The total radioactivity in matrices was determined using liquid scintillation counting. The proposed structure of metabolites was based on mass spectrometry characteristics and, when available, confirmed by comparison with reference compounds. Mean (± SD) cumulative recovery of radioactivity from faeces and urine was 73.6% (± 6.2%) of the administered radioactive dose, with 49.7% (± 3.9%) cumulative recovery from urine, and 23.9% (± 4.8%) from faeces. In plasma, in addition to parent macitentan, ACT-132577, a pharmacologically active metabolite elicited by oxidative depropylation and the carboxylic acid metabolite ACT-373898 were identified. In urine, four entities were identified, with the hydrolysis product of ACT-373898 as the most abundant one. In faeces, five entities were identified, with the hydrolysis product of macitentan and ACT-132577 as the most abundant one. Concentrations of total radioactivity in whole blood were lower compared to plasma, which indicates that macitentan and its metabolites poorly bind to or penetrate into erythrocytes. PMID:22458347

  1. A Proteomics Approach to the Study of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Nordvarg, Helena; Flensburg, John; Rönn, Ola; Öhman, Johan; Marouga, Rita; Lundgren, Bo; Haid, Daniel; Malmport, Eva; Goscinski, Jan; Hörnsten, Lena; Scigelova, Michaela; Bourin, Stephanie; Garberg, Per; Woffendin, Gary; Fenyö, David

    2004-01-01

    A proteomics approach was used to identify liver proteins that displayed altered levels in mice following treatment with a candidate drug. Samples from livers of mice treated with candidate drug or untreated were prepared, quantified, labeled with CyDye DIGE Fluors, and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Following scanning and imaging of gels from three different isoelectric focusing intervals (3–10, 7–11, 6.2–7.5), automated spot handling was performed on a large number of gel spo...

  2. A proteomics approach to the study of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvarg, Helena; Flensburg, John; Rönn, Ola; Ohman, Johan; Marouga, Rita; Lundgren, Bo; Haid, Daniel; Malmport, Eva; Goscinski, Jan; Hörnsten, Lena; Scigelova, Michaela; Bourin, Stephanie; Garberg, Per; Woffendin, Gary; Fenyö, David; Bergling, Hélène; Forsberg, Erik

    2004-12-01

    A proteomics approach was used to identify liver proteins that displayed altered levels in mice following treatment with a candidate drug. Samples from livers of mice treated with candidate drug or untreated were prepared, quantified, labeled with CyDye DIGE Fluors, and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Following scanning and imaging of gels from three different isoelectric focusing intervals (3-10, 7-11, 6.2-7.5), automated spot handling was performed on a large number of gel spots including those found to differ more than 20% between the treated and untreated condition. Subsequently, differentially regulated proteins were subjected to a three-step approach of mass spectrometry using (a) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting, (b) post-source decay utilizing chemically assisted fragmentation, and (c) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Using this approach we have so far resolved 121 differentially regulated proteins following treatment of mice with the candidate drug and identified 110 of these using mass spectrometry. Such data can potentially give improved molecular insight into the metabolism of drugs as well as the proteins involved in potential toxicity following the treatment. The differentially regulated proteins could be used as targets for metabolic studies or as markers for toxicity. PMID:15585823

  3. Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3 THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave. PMID:26476072

  4. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, excretion, and metabolite profiling of PEGylated rFIX (nonacog beta pegol, N9-GP) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternebring, Ola; Christensen, Jesper Kammersgaard; Bjørnsdottir, Inga

    2016-09-20

    Nonacog beta pegol (N9-GP) is a novel recombinant factor IX conjugated with a 40-kDa branched polyethylene glycol (PEG) to extend plasma half-life (t½) compared with native FIX, developed for the treatment of haemophilia B. This is the first time distribution, metabolism, and excretion data of N9-GP have been presented. ADME studies were performed using single i.v. doses of radiolabelled N9-GP administered to rats, focussing on the biological fate of the 40-kDa PEG. Results indicated that N9-GP-related radioactivity was distributed throughout the body, being most abundant in highly vascularised tissues, and with lowest levels seen in the central nervous system. N9-GP was cleared from plasma within 1week after dosing, while total radioactivity was eliminated more slowly, in a more pronounced biphasic manner. N9-GP seems to be cleared via receptor-mediated uptake (e.g., in the liver) or via the reticuloendothelial system with subsequent proteolysis. PEG is thereafter either cleared alongside the protein or released back into circulation. Furthermore, N9-GP-related radioactivity was excreted in both faeces and urine as 40kDa PEG and degradation products. Some PEG-related radioactivity (not in any particular organ) was present in the carcass 12weeks postdose, consistent with the long terminal elimination t½ of plasma radioactivity. As shown here for N9-GP, and previously for other protein-PEG conjugate products, disposition kinetics of conjugates and individual constituents appears to be compound specific. In addition to the size/structure of the PEG and protein moieties, protein-specific clearance pathways may contribute to the disposition of intact conjugate and PEG moiety. PMID:27378188

  5. Assessement of the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion studies of a novel antiplatelet agent S007-867, following administration to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandasana, Hardik; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Laxman, Tulsankar Sachin; Prasad, Yarra Durga; K S, Anil Kumar; Dikshit, Dinesh K; Bhatta, Rabi S

    2016-07-01

    S007-867 is a promising novel antiplatelet agent with better efficacy and lesser bleeding risk than existing agents. The present study investigated the absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion of S007-867 in rat model for further advancement of the molecule. A simple and robust ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) bioanalytical method was used to determine S007-867 in various matrices. Following oral administration, the compound was quickly dispersed in the various tissues and peak concentration levels were achieved within 0.5-1 h. Overall, exposure of drug, i.e., AUC in different tissues was found in the order of small intestine > liver > heart > spleen > lungs > kidney > brain. The total recoveries of the S007-867 within 96 h were 3.36% in urine and faeces. This might be due to a first-pass effect by the liver and intestine as most of the drug was eliminated in metabolite form. These findings provide a crucial information about further development of S007-867 as antithrombotic agent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Numerical calculations of the ray trace, absorption distribution and absorption efficiency of the laser beam in spherical symmetric plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code ''ABS'', which can calculate the absorption rate and distribution of the laser light in spherical symmetric plasmas has been developed. The dependences of the absorption rate and distribution on the focusing position and their wavelength dependences were obtained. It was found that with a shorter wavelength laser light, the absorption nonuniformity on the fusion pellets will be reduced as well as the absorption rate will increase. (author)

  7. The distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayu; Yang, Jian; Gu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge of local radiant absorption is important to the nanostructure optimization, it is beneficial to the applications in energy harvesting, optical heating, photocatalysis, etc. In this paper, FDTD model is constructed for the distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system. The theoretical model extended from Mie theory is used to examine the FDTD model, the parameters and conditions set for FDTD simulation are confirmed based on the comparison. Then, the influence of Ag nanoparticle on the absorptive properties of nearby TiO2 nanoparticle is investigated by FDTD simulation at the wavelength of 0.25 μm. It is indicated that suitable distance between TiO2 and Ag particles is beneficial to the spectral radiant absorption of TiO2 particle. Considering the agglomeration of nanoparticles and the oxidation at the TiO2-Ag interface, the Ag core coated with Al2O3 shell is suggested, and the simulated results indicated that the shell thickness and the Ag core size need to be optimized for enhancing the radiant absorption of TiO2 particle.

  8. The effects of nutritional factors on absorption, retention and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial use of mercury compounds is declining, but naturally occurring mercury always exists. Earlier experiments have demonstrated effects of dietary fibres, high protein diets and dry milk on whole-body retention and relative organ distribution of orally and intraperitoneally administered methylmercy chloride and mercuric chloride were determined in female NMRI/born mice fed semisynthetic diets in which the energy contribution from protein (soy protein, caseinate or fish protein), or from lipids (coconut oil, cod liver oil, or soy oil), was varied or to which different amounts and types of dietary fibres (cellulose, 60% fibre tablet, pectin K, oat, corn and soy fibre) were added. The whole-body retention of both organic and inorganic mercury depended on the diet composition. Thus, highly significant reductions in whole-body retention of mercury were observed in groups of mice orally administered methylmercury chloride and fed diets with cod liver oil as lipid energy source, or diets with high amounts of soy protein or fish protein as protein energy source, compared to groups fed diets with coconut oil, soy oil, caseinate and lower amounts of fish or soy protein. In most cases, the relative organ distribution was not significantly affected by the diet composition, except that the fractional mercury deposition in the brain was increased in the groups receiving high amounts of cod liver oil compared to the group fed high amounts of coconut oil. (au) 112 p

  9. Direct in vivo injection of ~(131)I-GMS and its distribution and excretion in rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To explore the distribution and metabolism of 131 I-gelatin microspheres ( 131 I-GMSs) in rabbits after direct injection into rabbits’ livers.METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy New Zealand rabbits were divided into seven groups,with four rabbits per group.Each rabbit’s hepatic lobes were directly injected with 41.336 ± 5.106 MBq 131 I-GMSs.Each day after 131 I-GMSs administration,4 rabbits were randomly selected,and 250 μL of serum was collected for γ count.Hepatic and thyroid functions were tested on days ...

  10. 238Pu: accumulation, tissue distribution, and excretion in Mayak workers after exposure to plutonium aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslova, Klara G; Sokolova, Alexandra B; Khokhryakov, Viktor V; Miller, Scott C

    2012-03-01

    The alpha spectrometry measurements of specific activity of 238Pu and 239Pu in urine from bioassay examinations of 1,013 workers employed at the radiochemical and plutonium production facilities of the Mayak Production Association and in autopsy specimens of lung, liver, and skeleton from 85 former nuclear workers who died between 1974-2009, are summarized.The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in the body and excreta has not changed with time in workers involved in production of weapons-grade plutonium production (e.g., the plutonium production facility and the former radiochemical facility). The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in individuals exposed to plutonium isotopes at the newer Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant ranged from 0.13% up to 27.5% based on the autopsy data. No statistically significant differences between 238Pu and 239Pu in distribution by the main organs of plutonium deposition were found in the Mayak workers. Based on the bioassay data,the fraction of 238Pu activity in urine is on average 38-69% of the total activity of 238Pu and 239Pu, which correlates with the isotopic composition in workplace air sampled at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant. In view of the higher specific activity of 238Pu, the contribution of 238Pu to the total internal dose, particularly in the skeleton and liver, might be expected to continue to increase, and continued surveillance is recommended.

  11. Reconstructing absorption and scattering distributions in quantitative photoacoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative photoacoustic tomography is a novel hybrid imaging technique aiming at estimating optical parameters inside tissues. The method combines (functional) optical information and accurate anatomical information obtained using ultrasound techniques. The optical inverse problem of quantitative photoacoustic tomography is to estimate the optical parameters within tissue when absorbed optical energy density is given. In this paper we consider reconstruction of absorption and scattering distributions in quantitative photoacoustic tomography. The radiative transport equation and diffusion approximation are used as light transport models and solutions in different size domains are investigated. The simulations show that scaling of the data, for example by using logarithmic data, can be expected to significantly improve the convergence of the minimization algorithm. Furthermore, both the radiative transport equation and diffusion approximation can give good estimates for absorption. However, depending on the optical properties and the size of the domain, the diffusion approximation may not produce as good estimates for scattering as the radiative transport equation. (paper)

  12. Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion by Freely Moving Rats of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and Related Polyphenols from Olive Fruits (Olea europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Kano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, oleuropein, and hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive fruits were newly evaluated after oral and intravenous administration in freely moving rats cannulated in the portal vein, jugular vein, and bile duct. Orally administered 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, an important bioactive compound in olive pomace, was readily absorbed and metabolized to hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol, as shown by dose-normalized 4 h area under the curve (AUC0→4 h/Dose values of 27.7, 4.5, and 4.2 μM·min·kg/μmol, respectively, in portal plasma after oral administration. The parent compound 3,4-DHPEA-EDA was not observed in the portal plasma, urine, and bile after oral and intravenous administration. Additionally, hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol in the portal plasma after oral administration of hydroxytyrosol showed 51.1, 22.8, and 7.1 μM·min·kg/μmol AUC0→4 h/Dose, respectively. When oleuropein, a polar glucoside, was injected orally, oleuropein in the portal plasma showed 0.9 μM·min·kg/μmol AUC0→4 h/Dose. However, homovanillic acid was detected from oleuropein in only a small amount in the portal plasma. Moreover, the bioavailability of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein for 4 hours was 13.1% and 0.5%, respectively. Because the amount of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA in olive fruits is about 2-3 times greater than that of hydroxytyrosol, the metabolites of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA will influence biological activities.

  13. Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion by Freely Moving Rats of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and Related Polyphenols from Olive Fruits (Olea europaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Shunsuke; Komada, Haruna; Yonekura, Lina; Sato, Akihiko; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2016-01-01

    Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, oleuropein, and hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive fruits were newly evaluated after oral and intravenous administration in freely moving rats cannulated in the portal vein, jugular vein, and bile duct. Orally administered 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, an important bioactive compound in olive pomace, was readily absorbed and metabolized to hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol, as shown by dose-normalized 4 h area under the curve (AUC0→4 h/Dose) values of 27.7, 4.5, and 4.2 μM·min·kg/μmol, respectively, in portal plasma after oral administration. The parent compound 3,4-DHPEA-EDA was not observed in the portal plasma, urine, and bile after oral and intravenous administration. Additionally, hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol in the portal plasma after oral administration of hydroxytyrosol showed 51.1, 22.8, and 7.1 μM·min·kg/μmol AUC0→4 h/Dose, respectively. When oleuropein, a polar glucoside, was injected orally, oleuropein in the portal plasma showed 0.9 μM·min·kg/μmol AUC0→4 h/Dose. However, homovanillic acid was detected from oleuropein in only a small amount in the portal plasma. Moreover, the bioavailability of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein for 4 hours was 13.1% and 0.5%, respectively. Because the amount of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA in olive fruits is about 2-3 times greater than that of hydroxytyrosol, the metabolites of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA will influence biological activities. PMID:26904279

  14. Measurements of parallel electron velocity distributions using whistler wave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuecks, D J; Skiff, F; Kletzing, C A

    2012-08-01

    We describe a diagnostic to measure the parallel electron velocity distribution in a magnetized plasma that is overdense (ω(pe) > ω(ce)). This technique utilizes resonant absorption of whistler waves by electrons with velocities parallel to a background magnetic field. The whistler waves were launched and received by a pair of dipole antennas immersed in a cylindrical discharge plasma at two positions along an axial background magnetic field. The whistler wave frequency was swept from somewhat below and up to the electron cyclotron frequency ω(ce). As the frequency was swept, the wave was resonantly absorbed by the part of the electron phase space density which was Doppler shifted into resonance according to the relation ω - k([parallel])v([parallel]) = ω(ce). The measured absorption is directly related to the reduced parallel electron distribution function integrated along the wave trajectory. The background theory and initial results from this diagnostic are presented here. Though this diagnostic is best suited to detect tail populations of the parallel electron distribution function, these first results show that this diagnostic is also rather successful in measuring the bulk plasma density and temperature both during the plasma discharge and into the afterglow.

  15. Distribution and time course of corticosterone excretion in faeces and urine of female mice with varying systemic concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Jacobsen, Kirsten R;

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of corticosterone metabolites excreted in faeces and urine is increasingly being used for assessment of preceding corticosterone concentrations in the circulation. This is a promising approach to non-invasive stress assessment in laboratory rodents. It is however unknown whether th...... currently untested for other strains of mice and species of animals, these findings add credence to the utility of faecal and urinary corticosterone as non-invasive biomarkers for physiological stress.......Quantification of corticosterone metabolites excreted in faeces and urine is increasingly being used for assessment of preceding corticosterone concentrations in the circulation. This is a promising approach to non-invasive stress assessment in laboratory rodents. It is however unknown whether the...... proportions of corticosterone metabolites excreted in faeces and urine may differ, depending on the concentration of corticosterone in blood. This uncertainty undermines the applicability of urinary and faecal corticosterone metabolite measurements as biomarkers for stress. Therefore, the terminal...

  16. Distribution and excretion of 2,3,6,2',3',6'- and 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl in senescent rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposition of two symmetrical [14C]hexachlorobiphenyls (HCBs), 2,3,6,2',3',6'-HCB (236) and 2,4,5,2',4',5'-HCB (245), was studied in 24-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats after iv treatment. Because body composition changes with age, complete dissections were performed on all rats to determine the size of the skin and adipose tissue depots. More than 50% of 236 was metabolized and excreted via the bile into the feces within 2 days. In contrast, 245 redistributed from the liver, muscle, and skin to adipose tissue where it accumulated without being metabolized. Only 2% of the total dose of 245 was excreted primarily in the feces within 21 days. The data obtained in this study were compared to results previously obtained from 2- to 3-month-old rats in this laboratory (Matthews and Tuey, 1980, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 53, 377-388). Although the general pattern of HCB disposition did not change with age, i.e., metabolism and excretion of 236 versus persistence of 245, there were differences in the rates of elimination and in the tissue levels. There was enhanced metabolite retention in the muscle, skin, and adipose tissue of older animals which suggested an age-related decrease in tissue clearance. The large volume of adipose tissue in these older Sprague-Dawley rats could in part explain this observation. In general, there were few changes in decay rates from tissues or in biliary excretion. Age had a greater effect on the disposition of the persistent 245 than on the metabolizable 236. Thus, changes in body composition seemed to play a major role in age-related changes in the distribution and excretion of polychlorinated biphenyls

  17. Preclinical assessment of the distribution,metabolism, and excretion of S-propargyl-cysteine, a novel H2S donor, in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-ting ZHENG; Yi-zhun ZHU; Wei-min CAI; Jian-hua ZHU; Guo MA; Qing ZHU; Ping YANG; Bo TAN; Jin-lian ZHANG; Hai-xing SHEN; Jia-lin XU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To study the distribution,metabolism and excretion of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC),a novel hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor,after oral administration in rats.Methods:Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used.The tissue distribution of [35S] SPRC-derived radioactivity was measured using a liquid scintillation counter.The plasma protein binding of SPRC was examined using 96-well equilibrium dialysis.The excretion of SPRC in urine,bile and feces was analyzed using the LC-MS/MS method.The major metabolites in rat biomatrices were identified using MRM information-dependent,acquisition-enhanced product ion (MRM-IDA-EPI) scans on API 4000QTrap system.Results:After oral administration of [35S] SPRC at a dose of 75 mg/kg,[35S] SPRC-derived radioactivity displayed broad biological distribution in various tissues of rats,including its target organs (heart and brain) with the highest in kidney.On the other hand,the binding of SPRC to human,rat and dog plasma protein was low.Only 2.18%±0.61% and 0.77%±0.61% of the total SPRC administered was excreted unchanged in the bile and urine.However,neither intact SPRC nor its metabolites were detected in rat feces.The major metabolic pathway in vivo (rat bile,urine,and plasma) was N-acetylation.Conclusion:The preliminary results suggest that SPRC possesses acceptable pharmacokinetic properties in rats.

  18. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of selenium following oral administration of elemental selenium nanoparticles or selenite in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Hadrup, Niels; Hansen, Marianne;

    2014-01-01

    A suspension of nanoparticles of BSA-stabilized red amorphous elemental selenium (Se) or an aqueous solution of sodium selenite was repeatedly administered by oral gavage for 28 days at 0.05 mg/kg bw/day (low dose) or at 0.5 mg/kg bw/day (high dose) as Se to female rats. Prior to administration, ...

  19. Absorption, distribution, and biliary excretion of cafestol, a potent cholesterol-elevating compound in unfiltered coffees, in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruchten, S.T.J. van; Waart, D.R. de; Kunne, C.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Katan, M.B.; Oude Elferink, R.P.J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Cafestol is a diterpene present in unfiltered coffees. It is the most potent cholesterol-elevating compound present in the human diet. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this effect are still unclear. In contrast, cafestol is also known as a hepatoprotective compound, which is likely to be r

  20. Evaluation of in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and mitraphylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is a popular herb in Southeast Asia which is traditionally used to treat withdrawal symptoms associated with opiate addiction. Mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine and mitraphylline are reported to be the central nervous system (CNS) active alkaloids which bind to the opiat...

  1. INTERACTION BETWEEN GAMMA-HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE AND THE GASTROINTESTINAL MICROFLORA AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE ABSORPTION, BIOTRANSFORMATION, AND EXCRETION OF PARATHION BY THE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment of rats with the organochlorine insecticide lindane reduced the estimated absorption rate of parathion from the gastrointestinal tract. Lindane pretreatment also significantly reduced the metabolism of parathion to p-nitrophenol in vivo. Lindane pretreatment altered ...

  2. Intestinal absorption, liver uptake, and excretion of /sup 3/H-folic acid in folic acid-deficient, alcohol-consuming nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocker, D.E.; Thenen, S.W.

    1987-09-01

    Nonhuman primates fed folic acid-deficient diets +/- 30% kcal ethanol were used to determine alcohol effects on megaloblastic anemia development and folate bioavailability. Lower hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) counts and higher mean corpuscular volume (MCV) occurred after 13 wk in alcohol-fed monkeys, later in controls. Plasma, RBC, and liver folate declined and urinary formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) was elevated in both groups with FIGLU increasing more among alcohol-fed monkeys at 38 wk. After 40 wk, the bioavailability of oral /sup 3/H-folic acid was investigated and showed increased fecal and reduced urinary tritium excretion in alcohol-fed monkeys compared with controls while plasma uptake and liver and whole body tritium retention were similar in both groups. These observations demonstrate that chronic alcohol consumption impairs folate coenzymes, accelerates appearance of hematologic indices of megaloblastic anemia, and causes possible malabsorption of enterohepatically circulated folates in folate deficiency even when other essential nutrients are provided.

  3. Heterotopic excretion of ioxitalamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, O.; Figge, M.

    1980-11-01

    The relatively rare case of heterotopic excretion of a recently introduced contrast medium easily excreted by the kidney, is demonstrated by means of 2 examples. In one case, the patient complained of colicky pain in the right flank, whereas tumour nephrectomy had been performed in the other patient. The hypotheses presented in medical literature regarding ectopic excretion of contrast medium, are mentioned, but it does not appear possible to safely explain the observed extrarenal excretions.

  4. New Insights in Tissue Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of [3H]-Labeled Antibody Maytansinoid Conjugates in Female Tumor-Bearing Nude Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walles, Markus; Rudolph, Bettina; Wolf, Thierry; Bourgailh, Julien; Suetterlin, Martina; Moenius, Thomas; Peraus, Gisela; Heudi, Olivier; Elbast, Walid; Lanshoeft, Christian; Bilic, Sanela

    2016-07-01

    For antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), the fate of the cytotoxic payload in vivo needs to be well understood to mitigate toxicity risks and properly design the first in-patient studies. Therefore, a distribution, metabolism, and excretion (DME) study with a radiolabeled rat cross-reactive ADC ([(3)H]DM1-LNL897) targeting the P-cadherin receptor was conducted in female tumor-bearing nude rats. Although multiple components [total radioactivity, conjugated ADC, total ADC, emtansine (DM1) payload, and catabolites] needed to be monitored with different technologies (liquid scintillation counting, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and size exclusion chromatography), the pharmacokinetic data were nearly superimposable with the various techniques. [(3)H]DM1-LNL897 was cleared with half-lives of 51-62 hours and LNL897-related radioactivity showed a minor extent of tissue distribution. The highest tissue concentrations of [(3)H]DM1-LNL897-related radioactivity were measured in tumor. Complimentary liquid extraction surface analysis coupled to micro-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry data proved that the lysine (LYS)-4(maleimidylmethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate-DM1 (LYS-MCC-DM1) catabolite was the only detectable component distributed evenly in the tumor and liver tissue. The mass balance was complete with up to 13.8% ± 0.482% of the administered radioactivity remaining in carcass 168 hours postdose. LNL897-derived radioactivity was mainly excreted via feces (84.5% ± 3.12%) and through urine only to a minor extent (4.15% ± 0.462%). In serum, the major part of radioactivity could be attributed to ADC, while small molecule disposition products were the predominant species in excreta. We show that there is a difference in metabolite profiles depending on which derivatization methods for DM1 were applied. Besides previously published results on LYS-MCC-DM1 and MCC-DM1, maysine and a cysteine conjugate of DM1 could be

  5. The spatial distribution of p-mode absorption in active regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, D.C.; Labonte, B.J.; Duvall, T.L. Jr. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA) NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The interaction of solar p-mode waves and active regions has been the subject of recent observational and theoretical investigations. Observations show that up to one-half of the power of incident high-degree acoustic may be absorbed in and around sunspots. In this paper the horizontal spatial distribution of high-degree p-mode absorption in solar active regions is explored. An appropriate Fourier-Hankel transform can be used to detect the mean absorption of waves passing through any given point on the solar surface. By repeating the analysis at multiple positions a map of the absorption can be constructed. A technique for optimal computation of absorption maps is developed and applied to observations of several active regions and an area of quiet sun near disk center. By comparing the distribution of p-mode absorption with magnetograms and line-wing intensity images, it is directly observed that the absorption is not limited to the location of the visible sunspots but is also associated with magnetic fields in the surrounding plage. It is estimated that the absorption efficiency scales roughly with the magnetic flux density, although the absorption appears to saturate inside the strongest fields. 11 refs.

  6. The spatial distribution of p-mode absorption in active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, D. C.; Labonte, B. J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of solar p-mode waves and active regions has been the subject of recent observational and theoretical investigations. Observations show that up to one-half of the power of incident high-degree acoustic may be absorbed in and around sunspots. In this paper the horizontal spatial distribution of high-degree p-mode absorption in solar active regions is explored. An appropriate Fourier-Hankel transform can be used to detect the mean absorption of waves passing through any given point on the solar surface. By repeating the analysis at multiple positions a map of the absorption can be constructed. A technique for optimal computation of absorption maps is developed and applied to observations of several active regions and an area of quiet sun near disk center. By comparing the distribution of p-mode absorption with magnetograms and line-wing intensity images, it is directly observed that the absorption is not limited to the location of the visible sunspots but is also associated with magnetic fields in the surrounding plage. It is estimated that the absorption efficiency scales roughly with the magnetic flux density, although the absorption appears to saturate inside the strongest fields.

  7. Polarized Synchrotron Emissivities and Absorptivities for Relativistic Thermal, Power-Law, and Kappa Distribution Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Pandya, Alex; Chandra, Mani; Gammie, Charles F

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron emission and absorption determine the observational appearance of many astronomical systems. In this paper, we describe a numerical scheme for calculating synchrotron emissivities and absorptivities in all four Stokes parameters for arbitrary gyrotropic electron distribution functions, building on earlier work by Leung, Gammie, and Noble. We use this technique to evaluate the emissivities and the absorptivities for a thermal (Maxwell-J\\"uttner), isotropic power-law, and isotropic kappa distribution function. The latter contains a power-law tail at high particle energies that smoothly merges with a thermal core at low energies, as is characteristic of observed particle spectra in collisionless plasmas. We provide fitting formulae and error bounds on the fitting formulae for use in codes that solve the radiative transfer equation. The numerical method and the fitting formulae are implemented in a compact C library called ${\\tt symphony}$. We find that: the kappa distribution has a source function th...

  8. Analytical algorithm to determine the spherical particle size distribution from spectral absorption measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Qi; Li, Jiangnan

    2015-11-01

    A modified anomalous diffraction theory (MADT) by including the effects of reflection and refraction is proposed. With respect to MADT, an analytical technique for retrieval of spherical particle size distribution (PSD), based on absorption was developed. Also, an MADT transform pair between the size distribution and the absorption spectrum was constructed. This provides a new tool to study the related particle optical properties. By Gaver-Stehfest inversion method, the derived complex-inversion formula is finally converted into the new real-inversion formula so that the measured absorption data can be applied directly. The inversion experiments show that the use of extended precision instead of double precision arithmetic can produce more reliable results at the expense of CPU time. The effects of complex refractive index on retrieval of PSD were examined. Also it was found that an appropriate reduction of the truncation number with the smoothing technique improved the anti-noise ability for the algorithm.

  9. Bioaccessibility as well as absorption and excretion of mercury in cinnabar%朱砂中汞的生物可接受性及其吸收与排泄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍韬光; 王海宇; 林欣然; 畅蓓; 李维凯; 杨卉蕾; 张颖花; 姜泓

    2012-01-01

    研究了朱砂中汞的生物可接受性及其在体内的吸收与排泄.采用体外消化透析法测定了朱砂中汞的生物可按受性;计算了大鼠灌胃给予临床剂量(50 mg/kg)朱砂后汞的药动学参数;测定了给予临床剂量的朱砂后大鼠粪样中汞的排泄量.结果表明,朱砂中汞的溶出率为0.011%,生物可接受率为0.003 3%.大鼠灌胃给予临床剂量的朱砂后,汞的药动学参数为:最高血药浓度(Pmax)为(6.3±1.3)μg/L,达峰时间(tmax)为(1.3±0.4)h,半衰期(t1/2)为(4.2±0.5)h,血药浓度-时间曲线下面积(AUC)为(54.7±8.7) μg·h·L-1.给予朱砂12 h后汞在粪便中排泄量最大,96 h后在粪样中仍可检测到少量汞.朱砂中汞的生物可接受性较低,在体内吸收少,滞留时间较长,排泄缓慢,长期服用可在体内蓄积,产生毒性.%The bioaccessibility and absorption and excretion of mercury in cinnabar were studied. The bioaccessibility of mercury in cinnabar was evaluated by adopting in vitro digestion and dialysis method to simulate the conditions of gastric compartment and intestinal compartment of mercury. The pharmacokinetic parameters of mercury with respect to intragastric administration of cinnabar at a clinical dosage of 50 mg/kg for rats were calculated) and the excretion fraction of mercury in the fecal sample of the rats after intragastric administration of cinnabar at a clinical dosage was determined. Results indicate that, in the gastric compartment, the solubility of mercury from cinnabar is 0. 011%; and the bioaccessibility of mercury in the intestinal compartment is 0. 003 3%. The time-course pharmacokinetic parameters of mercury when the rats are intragastrically given cinnabar at a clinical dosage of 50 mg/kg are determined as the maximum concentration in blood Cmax(6.3 ± 1.3) μg/L, time to reach the maximum concentration tmax(l. 3 ± 0. 4) h, half-time period t1/2(4. 2 ± 0. 5) h, and area under the concentration-time curve AUC (54. 7

  10. Metabolism of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (2- and 3-BHA) in the rat (I): excretion of BHA in urine, feces and expired air and distribution of BHA in the main organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of the carcinogenic or toxic action of BHA on rat forestomach was examined by studies on the excretion and tissue distribution of radioactivity in F344 male rats given tert-butyl or methoxylabelled 3-BHA orally. Within 2 days after a single oral dose of labelled BHA at 1 g/kg body wt, 87-96% of the 14C was excreted, mainly in urine with smaller amounts in the feces and expired air. More 14C was found in the tissues of rats given the methoxy-labelled compounds. The distributions of 14C in the forestomach and the glandular stomach were similar. At 168 h after treatment, more 14C was found in the forestomach of rats given 2-BHA than in that of rats given 3-BHA. These results indicate that excretion of BHA is rapid, that 4-0-methyl demethylation may take place readily and that demethylated methyl group may become distributed non-specifically in tissues. The carcinogenic or toxic action of BHA on the forestomach does not seem to be due to accumulation of BHA in the forestomach

  11. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of manganese (III) meso-tetra [3-(2-(2-methoxy)-ethoxy) ethoxy] phenyl porphyrin chloride, a novel superoxide dismutase mimic, in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-Qiu; Fang, Shi-Hong; Dong, Xin; Li, Na; Gao, Ji-You; Yang, Gui-Qin; Gong, Xian-Chang; Wang, Shu-Juan; Wang, Feng-Shan

    2013-12-01

    Manganese (III) 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis [3-(2-(2-methoxy)-ethoxy) ethoxy] phenyl porphyrin chloride, designated HSJ-0017, is a novel superoxide dismutase mimic. It exhibits strong free-radical scavenging activities in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of HSJ-0017 in Wistar rats following a single intravenous administration. Wistar rats were given different doses of HSJ-0017 by single intravenous injection. Biological samples of rats were collected and were assayed by the HPLC method. The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of HSJ-0017 were investigated. The pharmacokinetic data of HSJ-0017 in rats following intravenous injection was best-fit by a two-compartment model. T max of HSJ-0017 in plasma following intravenous injection was 0.083 h. AUC and plasma drug concentration were found to increase in a dose-related fashion. The highest concentrations of HSJ-0017 were detected in the liver (82.25 ± 13.99 μg/g) of rats, followed by the kidney, small intestine, lung, plasma, heart, spleen, and stomach within 2 h postdose. No HSJ-0017 was detected in the uterus, parorchis or brain of rats during the 24-h period of examination. The total cumulative excretion of HSJ-0017 in rat bile and urine were found to be 78.85 and 67.58 %, respectively. Our study has led to the view that the HSJ-0017 can be rapidly distributed to tissues after intravenous administration, but cannot diffuse through the blood-brain barrier. The faecal and biliary excretion of unchanged HSJ-0017 are the major routes of HSJ-0017 elimination.

  12. Distribution of radiosodium in the various organs of Sorghum after root absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of Na22 migration corroborate the distribution pattern of the non-radioactive element after root absorption: the sodium content of the leaf laminae is very low whereas a building-up is observed in the conductive tissues, particularly in the roots. After absorption, sodium seems to be rapidly translocated to all the organs, then moves downwards to accumulate in the roots; this phenomenon may be a way, for the plant, to fight sodium intoxication. The absorption of radiosodium is independent of the specific activity of the nutrient solution and appears to be related to its volumic activity. Thus, sodium is not taken up selectively by the roots of Sorghum; its translocation mechanism is therefore of the passive type

  13. Polarized Synchrotron Emissivities and Absorptivities for Relativistic Thermal, Power-law, and Kappa Distribution Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Alex; Zhang, Zhaowei; Chandra, Mani; Gammie, Charles F.

    2016-05-01

    Synchrotron emission and absorption determine the observational appearances of many astronomical systems. In this paper, we describe a numerical scheme for calculating synchrotron emissivities and absorptivities in all four Stokes parameters for arbitrary gyrotropic electron distribution functions, building on earlier work by Leung, Gammie, and Noble. We use this technique to evaluate the emissivities and the absorptivities for a thermal (Maxwell–Jüttner), isotropic power-law, and an isotropic kappa distribution function. The latter contains a power-law tail at high particle energies that smoothly merges with a thermal core at low energies, as is characteristic of observed particle spectra in collisionless plasmas. We provide fitting formulae and error bounds on the fitting formulae for use in codes that solve the radiative transfer equation. The numerical method and the fitting formulae are implemented in a compact C library called symphony. We find that the kappa distribution has a source function that is indistinguishable from a thermal spectrum at low frequency and transitions to the characteristic self-absorbed synchrotron spectrum, \\propto {ν }5/2, at high frequency; the linear polarization fraction for a thermal spectrum is near unity at high frequency; and all distributions produce O(10%) circular polarization at low frequency for lines of sight sufficiently close to the magnetic field vector.

  14. Effect of lead in the laboratory mouse. 1. Influence of pregnancy upon absorption, retention, and tissue distribution of radiolabeled lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body retention and excretion following a single oral dose of radiolabeled lead (203Pb) in chronically lead-exposed pregnant BK:W mice were examined over 10-13 days. This was compared with values in similarly treated nonpregnant females and in ip injected females. Whole-body and bone retention were greater in injected than in orally dosed nonpregnant females; gastrointestinal absorption was estimated from this difference. Whole-body retention in the pups was measured at birth and at the end of the experiment. Whole-body retentions in pregnant females and in their pups at birth were significantly raised after treatment at Gestational Day 17, but not after treatment at Gestational Day 11, 14, 20, 23, or 26. Pup body burdens at birth were significantly and positively correlated with maternal retention. Measurement of radioactivity in bone, kidney, brain, heart, and liver of adults at the end of the experiments showed significantly increased levels in bone and kidney from females treated at Gestational Day 17 and in bone from females treated at Gestational Day 11. Lead excretion did not differ significantly among the groups but the total lead content of the femur was significantly raised in females treated at Gestational Days 17 and 26. Thus, these experiments provide evidence that lead absorption and retention in mice are markedly increased in the latter stages of pregnancy

  15. An analytical solution for the model of drug distribution and absorption in small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyu, Xu

    1990-11-01

    According to the physiological and anatomical characteristics of small intestine, neglecting the effect of its motility on the distribution and absorption of drug and nutrient, Y. Miyamoto et al.[1] proposed a model of two-dimensional laminar flow in a circular porous tube with permeable wall and calculated the concentration profile of drug by numerical analysis. In this paper, we give a steady state analytical solution of the above model including deactivation term. The obtained results are in agreement with the results of their numerical analysis. Moreover the analytical solution presented in this paper reveals the relation among the physiological parameters of the model and describes the basic absorption rule of drug and nutrient through the intestinal wall and hence provides a theoretical basis for determining the permeability and reflection coefficient through in situ experiments.

  16. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased UOER is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation, im...

  17. Disorders of absorption of olive oil and albumin labelled with iodine 125 in rats receiving tetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of tetracycline on absorption and distribution of olive oil and albumin labelled with iodine 125 was studied in the intestines, liver, blood and kidneys. In rats which received tetracycline in therapeutic doses no detectable changes in absorption and distribution of labelled olive oil were noticed. In rats which received the double doses, disorders of absorption and distribution were observed in the small intestine and increased retention in the liver. The higher doses of tetracycline had no significant effect on absorption of labelled albumin, but transport and excretion were disturbed. (author)

  18. Tissue distribution and excretion of myosmine after i.v. administration to Long-Evans rats using quantitative whole-body autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glas, Susanna; Tyroller, Stefan; Zwickenpflug, Wolfgang; Richter, Elmar [Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Walther Straub Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Steiner, Kurt; Kiefer, Gudrun [Institute of Drug Metabolism and Pharmakokinetics, Merck KGaA, Grafing (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Occurrence of the tobacco alkaloid myosmine has been proven in various staple foods, vegetables and fruits. Myosmine can be easily activated by nitrosation yielding 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-butanone (HPB) and the esophageal carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine. Most of the reaction products after myosmine peroxidation were also identified as urinary metabolites after oral administration to rats. Whole-body autoradiography with freeze dried or multiple solvent extracted tissue sections was used to trace [2'-{sup 14}C]myosmine (0.1 mCi/kg bw) 0.1, 0.25, 1, 4 and 24 h after i.v. injection in Long-Evans rats. In addition, in vitro binding of radioactivity to esophageal and eye tissue was determined and excretion of radioactivity via urine and feces was quantified. Radioactivity is rapidly eliminated by renal excretion. Approximately 30% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in urine within the first 4 h and excretion with urine (72%) and feces (15%) was nearly complete after 24 h. A rapid concentration of radioactivity can be seen in the stomach and in the salivary and lachrymal glands. Rats killed 1 and 4 h after treatment showed by far the highest labeling in the accessory genital gland. High levels of nonextractable radioactivity were present in esophageal tissue and melanin. The half lives for the disappearance of radioactivity from various tissues are in the order of about 1 h. Eye and esophagus sections both showed nonextractable labeling after in vitro incubation with {sup 14}C-myosmine. In conclusion, the toxicological significance of myosmine accumulation in esophagus and accessory genital gland requires further investigations. Hair analysis might be applicable for myosmine biomonitoring, because of possible enrichment in melanin containing tissues. (orig.)

  19. Urinary excretion of cadmium and zinc among persons from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G.; Kjellstrom, T.; Linnman, L.; Pershagen, G.

    1978-06-01

    Cadmium and zinc concentrations in the urine of 132 Swedes, including 50 pairs of identical twins, were measured. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry procedures were developed for the analysis. Cadmium concentration increased with age and was higher among smokers than among nonsmokers. Estimated 24-hr excretion of cadmium among nonsmokers increased from about 0.25 to 0.40 ..mu..g in persons from 20 to 70 years old. The 24-hr cadmium excretions among nonsmokers in different age-groups fitted better to total kidney burden than to daily cadmium intake from food. Zinc excretion, on the other hand, decreased after the age of 20.

  20. Conservation of bubble size distribution during gas reactive absorption in bubble column reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L.C. LAGE

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of the bubble size distribution function was applied to the reactive absorption of carbon dioxide in a bubble column reactor. The model developed was solved by the method of characteristics and by a Monte Carlo method. Simulations were carried out using simplified models for the liquid phase and for the gas-liquid mass transfer. Predictions of gas holdup and outlet gas composition showed that the concept of a mean bubble diameter is not applicable when the bubble size distribution is reasonably polydispersed. In these cases, the mass mean velocity and the numerical mean velocity of the bubbles are very different. Therefore, quantification of the polydispersion of bubbles was shown to be essential to gas-phase hydrodynamics modeling.

  1. Non-uniform sound intensity distributions when measuring absorption coefficients in reverberation chambers using a phased beam tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2010-01-01

    that a test specimen was attached to a vertical surface and the floor. The frequency-dependent sound intensity distributions on absorbers were found to be affected by the reverberation chamber geometry and dimensions, the absorption capability of the specimen, and the placement of the specimen. High frequency...... sound intensity distributions on absorber under measurement conditions have been simulated using a phased beam tracing, and used as correction functions for reducing discrepancies between the measured and theoretical absorption coefficients. Two reverberation rooms were investigated by assuming...... intensity distributions above 1 kHz were similar for all studied cases, but some variations in low frequency intensity distributions were observed. If the non-uniform intensity distribution and a finite size effect are taken into account for correcting the theoretical absorption coefficients, a good...

  2. Enhancement of light absorption in polyazomethines due to plasmon excitation on randomly distributed metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, P.; Antosiewicz, T. J.; Stefaniuk, T.; Ciesielski, A.; Iwan, A.; Wronkowska, A. A.; Wronkowski, A.; Szoplik, T.

    2015-05-01

    In photovoltaic devices, metal nanoparticles embedded in a semiconductor layer allow the enhancement of solar-toelectric energy conversion efficiency due to enhanced light absorption via a prolonged optical path, enhanced electric fields near the metallic inclusions, direct injection of hot electrons, or local heating. Here we pursue the first two avenues. In the first, light scattered at an angle beyond the critical angle for reflection is coupled into the semiconductor layer and confined within such planar waveguide up to possible exciton generation. In the second, light is trapped by the excitation of localized surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles leading to enhanced near-field plasmon-exciton coupling at the peak of the plasmon resonance. We report on results of a numerical experiment on light absorption in polymer- (fullerene derivative) blends, using the 3D FDTD method, where exact optical parameters of the materials involved are taken from our recent measurements. In simulations we investigate light absorption in randomly distributed metal nanoparticles dispersed in polyazomethine-(fullerene derivative) blends, which serve as active layers in bulkheterojunction polymer solar cells. In the study Ag and Al nanoparticles of different diameters and fill factors are diffused in two air-stable aromatic polyazomethines with different chemical structures (abbreviated S9POF and S15POF) mixed with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). The mixtures are spin coated on a 100 nm thick Al layer deposited on a fused silica substrate. Optical constants of the active layers are taken from spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectance measurements using a rotating analyzer type ellipsometer with auto-retarder performed in the wavelength range from 225 nm to 2200 nm. The permittivities of Ag and Al particles of diameters from 20 to 60 nm are assumed to be equal to those measured on 100 to 200 nm thick metal films.

  3. Effects of methionine chelate- or yeast proteinate-based supplement of copper, iron, manganese and zinc on broiler growth performance, their distribution in the tibia and excretion into the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhay Kumar; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar; Haldar, Sudipto

    2015-04-01

    A straight-run flock of 1-day-old Cobb 400 chicks (n = 432) was distributed into four treatment groups (9 replicate pens in each group, 12 birds in a pen) for a 38-day feeding trial evaluating the effects of a methionine chelate (Met-TM)- or a yeast proteinate (Yeast-TM)-based supplement of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) on growth performance, bone criteria and some metabolic indices in commercial broiler chickens. The diets were either not supplemented with any trace elements at all (negative control, NC) or supplemented with an inorganic (sulphate) trace element premix (inorganic TM (ITM), 1 g/kg feed), the Met-TM (1 g/kg feed) and the Yeast-TM (0.5 g/kg feed). Body weight, feed conversion ratio and dressed meat yield at 38 days were better in the Yeast-TM-supplemented group as compared with the NC, ITM and Met-TM groups (p chelates or yeast proteinate forms of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn improved body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) and markedly reduced excretion of the said trace elements. The study revealed that it may be possible to improve broiler performance and reduce excretion of critical trace elements into the environment by complete replacement of inorganic trace minerals from their dietary regime and replacing the same with methionine chelate or yeast proteinate forms.

  4. Oral absorption and tissue distribution of a new squalenoyl anticancer nanomedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harivardhan Reddy, L.; Ferreira, Humberto; Dubernet, Catherine [Univ. Paris-Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, IFR 141 (France); Mouelhi, Sinda Lepetre; Desmaele, Didier [Universite Paris XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8076 Biocis (France); Rousseau, Bernard [CEA, Bio Organic Chemistry and Labeled Compounds Division (France); Couvreur, Patrick [Univ. Paris-Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, IFR 141 (France)], E-mail: patrick.couvreur@u-psud.fr

    2008-05-15

    Recently, we had discovered that the linkage of nucleoside analogues to squalene, a precursor in the sterol biosynthesis, led to amphiphilic molecules, which self-organized in water as nanoassemblies of 100-300 nm in diameter, irrespective of the nucleoside analogue used. Thus, it was observed that the 4-(N)-trisnorsqualenoylgemcitabine (SQdFdC), the squalenoyl prodrug of the anticancer nucleoside analogue gemcitabine, was impressively more active than its parent compound gemcitabine, both in vitro and in vivo on experimental leukaemia. Since squalene, which is a natural constituent of shark liver and olive oil, is known to be absorbed orally, we investigated in this short note the absorption and tissue distribution of {sup 3}H-radiolabelled SQdFdC nanoassemblies comparatively to {sup 3}H-gemcitabine after oral administration to mice. Whereas gemcitabine was found to be rapidly absorbed (t{sub max} = 1 h), this compound underwent a rapid clearance from the plasma. Conversely, the SQdFdC nanoassemblies displayed slower absorption followed by the progressive tissue accumulation, and they exhibited a lower clearance rate. The accumulation of the SQdFdC nanoassemblies in tissues such as pancreas, thymus, lung, liver and spleen (except at 1 h post-administration) was similar to that of the gemcitabine, yet exhibited significantly greater penetration and retention into the stomach and intestinal tissues comparatively to gemcitabine. Thus, the SQdFdC nanoassemblies could be of potential interest in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumours by oral route.

  5. Do changes in the azimuthal distribution of maize leaves over time affect canopy light absorption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In maize canopies, when modelling the architecture and light regime one usually assumes leaf azimuths are distributed uniformly. Once we had demonstrated azimuthal re-orientation of maize leaves during the vegetative phase, we tested the weight of this hypothesis on the light absorbed daily by the canopy. We thus modelled the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of maize canopies with various plant densities and at different developmental stages using plant digitizing under field conditions. We simulated radiative transfer using a volume-based approach within actual and hypothetical canopies, obtained by simply rearranging leaf azimuths. Simulations indicated that changes to horizontal heterogeneity have little effect on daily light absorption efficiency. It is concluded that changes in leaf azimuths do not have to be taken into account in crop-functioning models. (author)

  6. 大鼠口服东莨菪素后的组织分布和排泄特征研究%Studies on tissue distribution and excretion of scopoletin after oral administration in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏玉凤; 戴岳; 梁惠贞

    2012-01-01

    研究东莨菪素在大鼠体内的组织分布和排泄特征,SD大鼠灌胃东莨菪素(50 mg/kg),分别于给药后5,15,30,60,120,240分钟取大鼠心、肝、脾、肺、肾、肌肉、脂肪、脑、睾丸、子宫、胃、小肠等组织器官测定其原形药物浓度.结果表明,东莨菪素广泛分布于各组织器官且于给药后15分钟浓度即达峰值,其中肝、肾、胃和小肠含量较高.此外,东莨菪素在胆汁、尿液、粪便的排泄研究显示,胆汁、尿液、粪便的累积排泄量分别为0.032%,3.752%和0.784%.表明东莨菪素在大鼠体内主要以代谢物的形式消除.%The present study aimed at studying the characteristics of tissue distribution and excretion of scopoletin,a coumarin compound,in Sprague-Dawley rats.Scopoletin was orally administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg,and the concentrations in heart,liver,spleen,lung,kidney,muscle,fat,brain,testis,uterus,stomach and small intestine were determined at 5,15,30,60,120,240 min post-dose,respectively.It was shown that scopoletin was widely distributed into various tissues and reached the maximal concentrations in most tissues at 15 min post-dose,and the levels in liver,kidney,stomach and small intestine were relatively higher.Furthermore,the excretions of scopoletin in bile,urine and feces were only 0.032%,3.752% and 0.784%,respectively,suggesting that scopoletin was mainly eliminated by metabolism rather than excretion as parent drug.

  7. Comparing Spatial Distributions of Solar Prominence Mass Derived from Coronal Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Alexander, David; Kucera, Therese

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we extend the use of this mass-inference technique to a sample of prominences observed in at least two coronal lines. This approach, in theory, allows a direct calculation of prominence mass and helium abundance and how these properties vary spatially and temporally. Our motivation is two-fold: to obtain a He(exp 0)/H(exp 0) abundance ratio, and to determine how the relative spatial distribution of the two species varies in prominences. The first of these relies on the theoretical expectation that the amount of absorption at each EUV wavelength is well-characterized. However, in this work we show that due to a saturation of the continuum absorption in the 625 A and 368 A lines (which have much higher opacity compared to 195 A-) the uncertainties in obtaining the relative abundances are too high to give meaningful estimates. This is an important finding because of its impact on future studies in this area. The comparison of the spatial distribution of helium and hydrogen presented here augments previous observational work indicating that cross-field diffusion of neutrals is an important mechanism for mass loss. Significantly different loss timescales for neutral He and H (helium drains much more rapidly than hydrogen) can impact prominence structure, and both the present and past studies suggest this mechanism is playing a role in structure and possibly dynamics. Section 2 of this paper contains a description of the observations and Section 3 summarizes the method used to infer mass along with the criteria imposed in choosing prominences appropriate for this study. Section 3 also contains a discussion of the problems due to limitations of the available data and the implications for determining relative abundances. We present our results in Section 4, including plots of radial-like scans of prominence mass in different lines to show the spatial distribution of the different species. The last section contains a discussion summarizing the importance

  8. A Correction of Random Incidence Absorption Coefficients for the Angular Distribution of Acoustic Energy under Measurement Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    tracing method for various room shapes and source positions. The averaged angular distribution is found to be similar to a Gaussian distribution. As a result, an angle-weighted absorption coefficient was proposed by considering the angular energy distribution to improve the agreement between......Most acoustic measurements are based on an assumption of ideal conditions. One such ideal condition is a diffuse and reverberant field. In practice, a perfectly diffuse sound field cannot be achieved in a reverberation chamber. Uneven incident energy density under measurement conditions can cause...... discrepancies between the measured value and the theoretical random incidence absorption coefficient. Therefore the angular distribution of the incident acoustic energy onto an absorber sample should be taken into account. The angular distribution of the incident energy density was simulated using the beam...

  9. Complete Biological Evaluation of Therapeutical Radiopharmaceuticals in Rodents, Laboratory Beagles and Veterinary Patients - Preclinical Distribution-, Kinetic-, Excretion-, Internal Dosimetry-, Radiotoxicological-, Radiation Safety- and Efficacy Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development of various novel therapeutical radiopharmaceuticals is a huge demand in many laboratories world-wide. Beside of multiple bone metastases pain-palliation and radiosynovectomy agents a number of specific radiopharmaceutical applicants mainly for oncological applications are in the pipeline. Numerous in vitro methods are available in the first line to test the radiolabelling efficiency, the possible radioactive and non-labelled impurities, the stability of the label at different conditions and mediums, and some specific characteristics of radiopharmaceutical applicants eg.: receptor binding assays, antigen-antibody assays. But, still before human clinical trials there are several questions to be solved in regards of toxicology, radiotoxicology, radiation safety and maybe most importantly the efficacy tasks. All these issues cannot be answered without animal tests. Several decades back animal tests in radiopharmacy meant only standard bioassays in a large number of healthy rodents. Later on pathological models eg.: human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient animals came-out and through them radiopharmaceutical tumor-uptake by the targets were available to evaluate in vivo as well. Xenografts are still popular and widely used models in the field but instead of wide-scaled bioassays nowadays repeated scintiscans or hybrid images (SPECT/CT, PET/CT) are more and more often used to answer kinetic-, excretion-, tumor uptake, internal dosimetry (Minimum Effective Dose, Maximum Tolerable Dose, critical organ doses, tumor doses) questions. Greater animals like laboratory Beagles are more closely in size, clinical and metabolic parameters to the human objects so playing a more perfect role of human medical doctor and especially veterinary patients. Easy to understand that many of the spontaneously occurring companion animal diseases are a good model of human pathological diseases. The need of a better diagnosis and treatment of that animals meets with

  10. Determination of the Tissue Distribution and Excretion by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry of the Nonadecapeptide 14C-Moli1901 in Beagle dogs after Intratracheal Instillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickert, D E; Dingley, K H; Ubick, E; Dix, K J; Molina, L

    2004-07-02

    Administration of {sup 14}C-Moli1901 (duramycin, 2622U90), a 19 amino acid polycyclic peptide by intratracheal instillation (approximately 100 {micro}g) into the left cranial lobe of the lung of beagle dogs resulted in retention of 64% of the dose in the left cranial lobe for up to 28 days. In this study, we used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify Moli901 following administration of only 0.045 {micro}Ci of {sup 14}C-Moli901 per dog. Limits of quantitation of AMS were 0.03 (urine) to 0.3 (feces) ng equiv. Moli1901/g. Whole blood and plasma concentrations of {sup 14}C were <5ng/ml at all times after the dose. Concentrations of {sup 14}C in whole blood and plasma declined over the first day after the dose and rose thereafter, with the rise in plasma concentrations lagging behind those in whole blood. During the first 3 days after the dose, plasma accounted for the majority of {sup 14}C in whole blood, but after that time, plasma accounted for only 25-30% of the {sup 14}C in whole blood. Tissue (left and right caudal lung lobe, liver, kidney, spleen, brain) and bile concentrations were low, always less than 0.25% the concentrations found in the left cranial lung lobe. Approximately 13% of the dose was eliminated in urine and feces in 28 days, with fecal elimination accounting for about 10% of the dose. The data presented here are consistent with that obtained in other species. Moli1901 is slowly absorbed and excreted from the lung, and it does not accumulate in other tissues. Moli1901 is currently in the clinic and has proven to be safe in single dose studies in human volunteers and cystic fibrosis patients by the inhalation route. No information on the disposition of the compound in humans is available. This study in dogs demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining that information using {sup 14}C-Moli1901 and AMS.

  11. Total ozone column distribution over peninsular Malaysia from scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric cartography (SCIAMACHY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K. C.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.

    2012-10-01

    Increasing of atmospheric ozone concentrations have received great attention around the whole because of its characteristic, in order to degrade air quality and brings hazard to human health and ecosystems. Ozone, one of the most pollutants source and brings a variety of adverse effects on plant life and human being. Continuous monitoring on ozone concentrations at atmosphere provide information and precautions for the high ozone level, which we need to be established. Satellite observation of ozone has been identified that it can provide the precise and accurate data globally, which sensitive to the small regional biases. We present measurements from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) included on the European environmental satellite ENVISAT, launched on 1st of March 2002. Main objective of this study is to examine the ozone distribution over Peninsular Malaysia using SCIAMACHY level-2 of total ozone column WFMD version 1.0 with spatial resolution 1° x 1.25°. Maps of time averaged (yearly, tri-monthly) ozone was generated and analyzed over Peninsular Malaysia for the year 2003 using PCI Geomatica 10.3 image processing software. It was retrieved using the interpolation technique. The concentration changes within boundary layer at all altitude levels are equally sensitive through the SCIAMACHY nearinfrared nadir observations. Hence, we can make observation of ozone at surface source region. The results successfully identify the area with highest and lowest concentration of ozone at Peninsular Malaysia using SCIAMACHY data. Therefore, the study is suitable to examine the distribution of ozone at tropical region.

  12. Radio Through X-ray Spectral Energy Distributions of 38 Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, S C; Brandt, W N; Egami, E; Hines, D C; Priddey, R S

    2007-01-01

    We have compiled the largest sample of multiwavelength spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasars to date, from the radio to the X-ray. We present new Spitzer MIPS (24, 70, and 160 micron) observations of 38 BAL quasars in addition to data from the literature and public archives. In general, the mid-infrared properties of BAL quasars are consistent with those of non-BAL quasars of comparable luminosity. In particular, the optical-to-mid-infrared luminosity ratios of the two populations are indistinguishable. We also measure or place upper limits on the contribution of star formation to the far-infrared power. Of 22 (57%) upper limits, seven quasars have sufficiently sensitive constraints to conclude that star formation likely contributes little (<20%) to their far-infrared power. The 17 BAL quasars (45%) with detected excess far-infrared emission likely host hyperluminous starbursts with L_fir,SF=10^{13-14} L_sun. Mid-infrared through X-ray composite BAL quasar SEDs are pre...

  13. Effect of phytohormones on absorption and distribution of ions in salt-stressed bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Starck

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bean plant seedlings grown in water culture were treated for 5 days either with NaCl or with 7-times concentrated nutrient solution (diminished water potential by 3-103 hPa in both cases. Control and stressed plants were treated for 24 hrs with zeatin and GA,. NaCl-stress reduced distinctly ion absorption rate (K, Ca and P. Zeatin and GA3 promoted potassium uptake, but only in NaCI-treated plants. These hormones diminished Na accumulation in metabolically active organs but increased P- and Ca-content. In plants grown under both kind of stresses zeatin and GA3 partially reestablished the ratio of the main mono- to divalent cations, which increased in the leaves and apical part of the stressed plants. ABA introduced into the nutrient solution caused inhibition of the ion uptake (K, Ca, Mg and P. similar to that caused by NaCl-stress. The above reported results seem to confirm the supposition, that hormones act as an important factor contributing to regulation of both uptake and distribution of ions. In this way growth substances may also participate in the regulation of transport of various substances (among others - assimilates in the whole plant.

  14. Remote sensing of vertical phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Baltic: new mathematical expressions. Part 3: Nonphotosynthetic pigment absorption factor:

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Woźniak; Roman Majchrowski; Mirosława Ostrowska; Dariusz Ficek; Justyna Kunicka; Jerzy Dera

    2007-01-01

    This paper, part 3 of the description of vertical pigment distributions in the Baltic Sea, discusses the mathematical expression enabling the vertical distributions of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa to be estimated. The factor fa is directly related to concentrations of the several groups of phytoplankton pigments and describes quantitatively the ratio of the light energy absorbed at given depths by photosynthetic pigments to the light energy absorbed by all the phytoplan...

  15. Reconstruction of combustion temperature and gas concentration distributions using line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Pengshuai; Pang, Tao; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhe; Han, Luo; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-07-01

    Spatial temperature and gas concentration distributions are crucial for combustion studies to characterize the combustion position and to evaluate the combustion regime and the released heat quantity. Optical computer tomography (CT) enables the reconstruction of temperature and gas concentration fields in a flame on the basis of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS). A pair of H2O absorption lines at wavelengths 1395.51 and 1395.69 nm is selected. Temperature and H2O concentration distributions for a flat flame furnace are calculated by superimposing two absorption peaks with a discrete algebraic iterative algorithm and a mathematical fitting algorithm. By comparison, direct absorption spectroscopy measurements agree well with the thermocouple measurements and yield a good correlation. The CT reconstruction data of different air-to-fuel ratio combustion conditions (incomplete combustion and full combustion) and three different types of burners (one, two, and three flat flame furnaces) demonstrate that TDLAS has the potential of short response time and enables real-time temperature and gas concentration distribution measurements for combustion diagnosis.

  16. Reconstruction of combustion temperature and gas concentration distributions using line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Pengshuai; Pang, Tao; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhe; Han, Luo; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-07-01

    Spatial temperature and gas concentration distributions are crucial for combustion studies to characterize the combustion position and to evaluate the combustion regime and the released heat quantity. Optical computer tomography (CT) enables the reconstruction of temperature and gas concentration fields in a flame on the basis of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS). A pair of H2O absorption lines at wavelengths 1395.51 and 1395.69 nm is selected. Temperature and H2O concentration distributions for a flat flame furnace are calculated by superimposing two absorption peaks with a discrete algebraic iterative algorithm and a mathematical fitting algorithm. By comparison, direct absorption spectroscopy measurements agree well with the thermocouple measurements and yield a good correlation. The CT reconstruction data of different air-to-fuel ratio combustion conditions (incomplete combustion and full combustion) and three different types of burners (one, two, and three flat flame furnaces) demonstrate that TDLAS has the potential of short response time and enables real-time temperature and gas concentration distribution measurements for combustion diagnosis.

  17. Absorption and distribution of Zn by spring wheat in high zinc soil and effect of rhizosphere soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotope tracer technique was used to study the absorption and distribution of 65Zn by spring wheat in high zinc soil. The results showed that the distribution of 65Zn in the organs of spring wheat was in the order as stem leaf>grain>root>wheat husk; the specific activity of 65Zn and the transfer factor of 65Zn in the organs of spring wheat were in the order as root>grain>wheat husk>stem leaf. With added 65Zn increased, the absorption amount of 65Zn by spring wheat and the distribution of 65Zn in root increased. The 65Zn applied was enriched by rhizosphere soil of spring wheat

  18. Effect of high-dose growth hormone and glutamine on body composition, urine creatinine excretion, fatty acid absorption, and essential fatty acids status in short bowel patients - A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P.B.; Szkudlarek, J.; Høy, Carl-Erik;

    2001-01-01

    Background: Positive effects of high dose growth hormone and glutamine (GH+GLN) on body composition in short bowel patients have been described. Lack of effects on intestinal absorption found in some studies has been ascribed to concomitant essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency. This study...

  19. Anticancer efficacy and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and toxicity studies of Aspergiolide A in early drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Wang, Xin Qi, Dehai Li, Tianjiao Zhu, Xiaomei Mo, Jing LiKey Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Since the first anthracycline was discovered, many other related compounds have been studied in order to overcome its defects and improve efficacy. In the present paper, we investigated the anticancer effects of a new anthracycline, aspergiolide A (ASP-A, from a marine-derived fungus in vitro and in vivo, and we evaluated the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and toxicity drug properties in early drug development. We found that ASP-A had activity against topoisomerase II that was comparable to adriamycin. ASP-A decreased the growth of various human cancer cells in vitro and induced apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells via a caspase-dependent pathway. The anticancer efficacy of ASP-A on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts was further assessed in vivo. Results showed that, compared with the vehicle group, ASP-A exhibited significant anticancer activity with less loss of body weight. A pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study revealed that ASP-A was rapidly cleared in a first order reaction kinetics manner, and was enriched in cancer tissue. The maximal tolerable dose (MTD of ASP-A was more than 400 mg/kg, and ASP-A was not considered to be potentially genotoxic or cardiotoxic, as no significant increase of micronucleus rates or inhibition of the hERG channel was seen. Finally, an uptake and transport assay of ASP-A was performed in monolayers of Caco-2 cells, and ASP-A was shown to be absorbed through the active transport pathway. Altogether, these results indicate that ASP-A has anticancer activity targeting topoisomerase II, with a similar structure and mechanism to adriamycin, but with much lower toxicity. Nonetheless, further molecular structure optimization is necessary.Keywords: aspergiolide A, anticancer

  20. Copiea - excretion rates of salamaders

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USA This dataset is associated with the following...

  1. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone...... and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport...

  2. Optical imaging of absorption and distribution of RITC-SiO2 nanoparticles after oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chang-Moon Lee,1 Tai Kyoung Lee,2–5 Dae-Ik Kim,1,6 Yu-Ri Kim,7 Meyoung-Kon Kim,7 Hwan-Jeong Jeong,2–5 Myung-Hee Sohn,2–5 Seok Tae Lim2–5 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Jeollanam-Do, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 3Cyclotron Research Center, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Biomedical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 5Molecular Imaging and Therapeutic Medicine Research Center, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 6School of Electrical, Electronic Communication, and Computer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Jeollanam-Do, Republic of Korea; 7Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seounbuk-Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: In this study, we investigated the absorption and distribution of rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC-incorporated silica oxide nanoparticles(SiNPs (RITC-SiNPs after oral exposure, by conducting optical imaging, with a focus on tracking the movement of RITC-SiNPs of different particle size and surface charge. Methods: RITC-SiNPs (20 or 100 nm; positively or negatively charged were used to avoid the dissociation of a fluorescent dye from nanoparticles via spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed reactions in vivo. The changes in the nanoparticle sizes and shapes were investigated in an HCl solution for 6 hours. RITC-SiNPs were orally administered to healthy nude mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Optical imaging studies were performed at 2, 4, and 6 hours after oral administration. The mice were sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, and 10 hours post-administration, and ex vivo imaging studies were performed

  3. Fiber-distributed multi-channel open-path H2S sensor based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Chen; Wenqing Liu; Yujun Zhang; Jianguo Liu; Ruifeng Kan; Min Wang; Xi Fang; Yiben Cui

    2007-01-01

    Tunable diode laser based gas detectors are now being used in a wide variety of applications for safety and environmental interest. A fiber-distributed multi-channel open-path H2S sensor based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is developed, the laser used is a telecommunication near infrared distributed feed-back (DFB) tunable diode laser, combining with wavelength modulation specby combining optical fiber technique. An on-board reference cell provides on-line sensor calibration and almost maintenance-free operation. The sensor is suitable for large area field H2S monitoring application.

  4. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+64

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, W; Wang, J X; Brotherton, M S; Oegerle, W R; Blair, W P; Davidsen, A F; Green, R F; Hutchings, J B; Kaiser, M E

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (~20 km/s) spectrum of the mini broad-absorption-line QSO PG1351+64 between 915-1180 A, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the HST and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of CIII 977, Ly-beta, OVI 1032,1038, Ly-alpha, NV 1238,1242, SiIV 1393,1402, and CIV 1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of ~ -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km/s with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The OVI emission feature is very weak, and the OVI/Lyalpha flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The UV continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 A in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observ...

  5. Spatial and temporal variations in NO(2) distributions over Beijing, China measured by imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanlim; Kim, Young J; Jung, Jinsang; Lee, Chulkyu; Heue, Klaus-Peter; Platt, Ulrich; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2009-04-01

    During the CAREBEIJING campaign in 2006, imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (I-DOAS) measurements were made from 08:00 to 16:00 on September 9 and 10 over Beijing, China. Detailed images of the near-surface NO(2) differential slant column density (DSCD) distribution over Beijing were obtained. Images with less than a 30-min temporal resolution showed both horizontal and vertical variations in NO(2) distributions. For DSCD to mixing ratio conversion, path length along the lines of I-DOAS lines of sight was estimated using the light-extinction coefficient and Angstrom exponent data obtained by a transmissometer and a sunphotometer, respectively. Mixing ratios measured by an in-situ NO(2) analyzer were compared with those estimated by the I-DOAS instrument. The obtained temporal and spatial variations in NO(2) distributions measured by I-DOAS for the two days are interpreted with consideration of the locations of the major NO(x) sources and local wind conditions. I-DOAS measurements have been applied in this study for estimating NO(2) distribution over an urban area with multiple and distributed emission sources. Results are obtained for estimated temporal and spatial NO(2) distributions over the urban atmosphere; demonstrating the capability of the I-DOAS technique. We discuss in this paper the use of I-DOAS measurements to estimate the NO(2) distribution over an urban area with multiple distributed emission sources. PMID:19111964

  6. A measurement plan of gas concentration and temperature distribution reconstruction based on the tunable diode laser absorption tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-ran; Jin, Xing; Wang, Guang-yu; Song, Jun-ling

    2014-11-01

    Based on the tunable diode laser absorption tomography, gas concentration and temperature two-dimensional distribution reconstruction is realized using algebraic iterative reconstruction technique (ART). A measurement plan is proposed based on the beam splitting lens, and the corresponding beam arrangement is put forward. The beam splitting lenses are used in the plan to making one laser beam cross the measurement area repeatedly. Thus can raise the utilization ratio of laser beam and simplify the structure of measurement platform. A model for H2O vapor concentration and temperature distribution is assumed, and numerical simulation is utilized using two absorption transitions. The feasibility of the measurement plan is proved by the simulation experiment. The influences of initial beam angle, the number of beams and grids on the reconstructed results are analyzed numerically. A concept of phantom description method using in simulation experiments is proposed in order to getting closer to the real experiments. The phantom description method is used in the numerical simulation to evaluating concentration and temperature field reconstruction. Through this method, expected data is sampled from initial data, and reconstructed result is obtained by interpolation. The influence of random errors in projections on distribution reconstruction is also analyzed. The measurement plan can reconstruct the gas concentration and temperature distribution with a simplified measurement platform using beam splitting lenses. The feasibility of the phantom description method is also proved by the simulation experiment.

  7. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of β-(p-chlorophenyl)-GABA (Baclofen), 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of 14C-baclofen was studied according to the autoradiography of a whole body in SD-JCL male rats after oral administration of 14C-baclofen (100 μCi/kg). Distribution of radioactivity in kidney and liver was already apparent 15 min after administration. Radioactivity in kidney and liver was increased distribution of radioactivity in skeletal muscle was apparent 1 hr after administration. Radio and activity in various tissues decreased 3 hrs after administration. Distribution of radioactivity in brain and spinal cord remained low at any time after administration. Distribution of radioactivity of 14C-baclofen in autoradiography was consistent with that in tracer study (Yamamoto et al 1977). (auth.)

  8. Modeling IR Spectral Energy Distributions: A Pilot Study of Starburst Parameters and Silicate Absorption Curves for Some GOALS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dopita, Michael A; Kewley, Lisa J; Rich, Jeff A; Sanders, Dave; Appleton, Phillip N; Chan, Ben H P; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Evans, Aaron S; Frayer, David T; Howell, Justin H; Inami, Hanae; Mazzarella, Joseph A; Petric, Andreea; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Surace, Jason

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study into the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting and the derivation of physical parameters for 19 galaxies observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) survey as observed with the \\emph{Spitzer Space Telescope}. For this we have used the pan-spectral fitting tools developed in a series of papers by Dopita and his co-workers. We show that the standard Lee and Draine `astronomical silicate' model cannot provide a good fit to the silicate absorption features as observed in the heavily dust-extinguished ($A_{\\rm V} \\sim 50$mag.) starbursts. We have derived an empirical fit to the `starburst silicate' absorption in these objects. This absorption curve is consistent with the silicate grains being systematically larger in starburst environments than in the local Galactic interstellar medium. We demonstrate the sensitivity of the SED fitting to each of the fitted parameters, and derive these parameters for those galaxies which do not have an embedded AG...

  9. Modified adaptive algebraic tomographic reconstruction of gas distribution from incomplete projection by a two-wavelength absorption scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Li; Chunsheng Weng

    2011-01-01

    @@ A modified adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique (MAART) with an auto-adjustment relaxation parameter and smoothness regularization is developed to reveal the tomographic reconstruction of H2O distribution in combustion from incomplete projections.Determinations of relaxation parameter and regularization factor are discussed with regard to the consideration of improvement in reconstruction and reduction of computational burden.A two-wavelength scheme from tunable diode laser absorption measurement, 7444.36 and 7185.59 cm-1, is used to simplify the nonlinear solution problem for obtaining the tomographic distributions of concentration and temperature simultaneously.Results of calculations demonstrate that MAART can perform the reconstruction results more efficiently with little complex modification and much lower iterations as compared with the traditional algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) or simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) methods.The stability of the algorithm is studied by reconstruction from projections with random noise at different levels to demonstrate the dependence of reconstruction results on precise line-of-sight measurements.%A modified adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique (MAART) with an auto-adjustment relaxation parameter and smoothness regularization is developed to reveal the tomographic reconstruction of H2O distribution in combustion from incomplete projections. Determinations of relaxation parameter and regularization factor are discussed with regard to the consideration of improvement in reconstruction and reduction of computational burden. A two-wavelength scheme from tunable diode laser absorption measurement, 7444.36 and 7185.59 cm-1, is used to simplify the nonlinear solution problem for obtaining the tomographic distributions of concentration and temperature simultaneously. Results of calculations demonstrate that MAART can perform the reconstruction results more efficiently with little complex

  10. Large-scale environment of z~5.7 CIV absorption systems I: projected distribution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, C Gonzalo; Ryan-Weber, Emma V; Cooke, Jeff; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakata, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Metal absorption systems are products of star formation. They are believed to be associated with massive star forming galaxies, which have significantly enriched their surroundings. To test this idea with high column density CIV absorption systems at z~5.7, we study the projected distribution of galaxies and characterise the environment of CIV systems in two independent quasar lines-of-sight: J103027.01+052455.0 and J113717.73+354956.9. Using wide field photometry (~80x60h^-1 comoving Mpc), we select bright (Muv(1350A)<-21.0 mag.) Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z~5.7 in a redshift slice \\Delta z~0.2 and we compare their projected distribution with z~5.7 narrow-band selected Lyman alpha emitters (LAEs, \\Delta z~0.08). We find that the CIV systems are located more than 10h^-1 projected comoving Mpc from the main concentrations of LBGs and no candidate is closer than ~5h^-1 projected comoving Mpc. In contrast, an excess of LAEs -lower mass galaxies- is found on scales of ~10h^-1 comoving Mpc, suggesting that ...

  11. Do changes in the azimuthal distribution of maize leaves over time affect canopy light absorption?

    OpenAIRE

    Drouet, J.L.; Moulia, B.; Bonhomme, R

    1999-01-01

    Pour les couverts de maïs, les modèles d’architecture des plantes et de transferts radiatifs utilisent classiquement l’hypothèse d’une répartition aléatoire des feuilles en azimut. Ayant précédemment mis en évidence des ré-orientations azimutales des feuilles de maïs au cours de la phase végétative, nous avons testé le poids de cette hypothèse sur l’absorption journalière de lumière par le couvert. Pour cela, nous avons modélisé la géométrie en trois dimensions (3D) de couverts de maïs de den...

  12. Absorption, tissue distribution, and elimination of residues after 2,4,6-trinitro[14C]toluene administration to sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D J; Craig, A M; Duringer, J M; Chaney, R L

    2008-04-01

    The compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a persistent contaminant of some industrial and military sites. Biological bioremediation techniques typically rely on the immobilization of TNT reduction products rather than on TNT mineralization. We hypothesized that sheep ruminal microbes would be suitable for TNT destruction after phytoremediation of TNT-contaminated soils by cool-season grasses. Therefore we investigated the fate of [14C]TNT in ruminating sheep to determine the utility of ruminant animals as a portion of the bioremediation process. Three wether sheep were dosed with 35.5 mg each of dietary unlabeled TNT for 21 consecutive days. On day 22 sheep (41.9 +/- 3.0 kg) were orally dosed with 35.5 mg of [14C]TNT (129 microCi; 99.1% radiochemical purity). Blood, urine, and feces were collected at regular intervals for 72 h. At slaughter, tissues were quantitatively collected. Tissues and blood were analyzed for total radioactive residues (TRR); excreta were analyzed for TRR, bound residues, and TNT metabolites. Plasma radioactivity peaked within 1 h of dosing and was essentially depleted within 18 h. Approximately 76% of the radiocarbon was excreted in feces, 17% in urine, with 5% being retained in the gastrointestinal tract and 1% retained in tissues. Parent TNT, dinitroamino metabolites, and diaminonitro metabolites were not detected in excreta. Ruminal and fecal radioactivity was essentially nonextractable using ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol; covalent binding of fecal radioactive residues was evenly distributed among extractable organic molecules (i.e., soluble organic matter, soluble carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and nucleic acid fractions) and undigested fibers (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin). This study demonstrated that TNT reduction within the ruminant gastrointestinal tract leads to substantial immobilization of residues to organic matter, a fate similar to TNT in other strongly reducing environments. PMID:18504997

  13. Molecular regulation of copper excretion in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmenga, C; Klomp, LWJ

    2004-01-01

    Cu is an essential nutrient that is required for a broad range of cellular and molecular processes. Mammals have efficient systems to control Cu homeostasis that operate at the level of controlling uptake, distribution, sequestration and excretion of Cu. The study of diseases associated with disturb

  14. Effect of the Inclusion of Organic Copper, Manganese, And Zinc in The Diet of Layers on Mineral Excretion, Egg Production, and Eggshell Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LSS Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed at evaluating the replacement of inorganic copper, manganese, and zinc sources by organic sources in the diet of laying hens during the second laying cycle in trace mineral excretion, egg production, and eggshell quality. Two hundred and fifty 100-week-old Dekalb hens were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments with five replicates of ten birds each. The control treatment consisted of a basal diet with all trace minerals in the inorganic form. The other treatments consisted of a basal diet with a mixture of the minerals copper, manganese, and zinc in the organic form with concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, and 70% of the levels of inclusion of inorganic mineral sources in the control treatment. Trace mineral excretion was determined in five layers per treatment by the method of total excreta collection. Excreta trace mineral contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Egg production and eggshell quality were determined by the mass of the eggs and the egg specific gravity, respectively. For all trace minerals examined, the dietary supplementation with organic sources reduced trace mineral excretion compared with the control group, even at 70% inclusion level, without compromising egg production or eggshell quality. The replacement of the inorganic trace mineral sources by organics source effectively reduced the excretion of copper, manganese, and zinc by laying hens in the second laying cycle.

  15. Predicting nitrogen excretion from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K F; Moraes, L E; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2015-05-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) from cattle production facilities can lead to negative environmental effects, such as contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, leaching and runoff to aqueous ecosystems leading to eutrophication, and acid rain. To mitigate these effects and to improve the efficiency of N use, accurate prediction of N excretion and secretions are required. A genetic algorithm was implemented to select models to predict fecal, urinary, and total manure N excretions, and milk N secretions from 3 classes of animals: lactating dairy cows, heifers and dry cows, and steers. Two tiers of model classes were developed for each category of animals based on model input requirements. A total of 6 models for heifers and dry cows and steers and an additional 2 models for lactating dairy cattle were developed. Evaluation of the models using K-fold cross validation based on all data and using the most recent 6 yr of data showed better prediction for total manure N and fecal N compared with urinary N excretion, which was the most variable response in the database. Compared with extant models from the literature, the models developed in this study resulted in a significant improvement in prediction error for fecal and urinary N excretions from lactating cows. For total manure production by lactating cows, extant and new models were comparable in their prediction ability. Both proposed and extant models performed better than the prediction methods used by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the national inventory of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the proposed models are recommended for use in estimation of manure N from various classes of animals. PMID:25747829

  16. Toxic metals distribution in different components of Pakistani and imported cigarettes by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, T.G. [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com; Jalbani, N. [PCSIR Laboratories Karachi (Pakistan)], E-mail: nusratjalbani_21@yahoo.com; Arain, M.B. [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: bilal_KU2004@yahoo.com; Jamali, M.K. [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mkhanjamali@yahoo.com; Afridi, H.I. [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com; Sarfraz, R.A. [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: rajaadilsarfraz@gmail.com; Shah, A.Q. [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com

    2009-04-15

    It was extensively investigated that a significant flux of toxic metals, along with other toxins, reaches the lungs through smoking. In present study toxic metals (TMs) (Al, Cd, Ni and Pb) were determined in different components of Pakistani local branded and imported cigarettes, including filler tobacco (FT), filter (before and after normal smoking by a single volunteer) and ash by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS). Microwave-assisted digestion method was employed. The validity and accuracy of methodology were checked by using certified sample of Virginia tobacco leaves (ICHTJ-cta-VTL-2). The percentages (%) of TMs in different components of cigarette were calculated with respect to their total contents in FT of all branded cigarettes before smoking, while smoke concentration has been calculated by subtracting the filter and ash contents from the filler tobacco content of each branded cigarette. The highest percentage (%) of Al was observed in ash of all cigarettes, with range 97.3-99.0%, while in the case of Cd, a reverse behaviour was observed, as a range of 15.0-31.3% of total contents were left in the ash of all branded cigarettes understudy.

  17. Absorption, distribution and utilization of radioactive phosphorus in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive KH2P32O4 was fed to coconut leaves and palms under laboratory and field conditions. In healthy palms the absorption of phosphorus by roots and its accumulation in spindle and first fully opened leaves was found to be significantly higher till 9th hr as compared to that of diseased palms, but at later stages the reverse pattern was observed. The time required for 32P to reach the spindle (top-most leaf) situated at 9.5 m height in both diseased and healthy palm was found to be 3 hr only. In contrast to the leaves, the activity of 32P differed insignificantly in stem and roots of healthy and diseased palms and also the native P remained higher in the stem and roots of former palms as compared to latter. The analysis of total different fractions of phosphorus and entry of 32P in the different forms of organic phosphorus indicated that although total P was more in the case of diseased palms but the organic phosphorus especially the nucleic acid P was significantly less as compared to healthy ones. This revealed less utilization of absorbed P in the synthesis of P-constituted organic substances in diseased palms. (auth.)

  18. Uptake, retention and excretion of strontium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption of strontium from the gastrointestinal tract is discussed in relation to the diet and the different components of a bread-milk diet. A brief review is given of the results obtained by using chelators and diets high in calcium in order to decrease the strontium absorption. The ratios of strontium to calcium in the different body compartments for adult man is discussed. The results of recent experimental work on normal man on a constant diet, are reviewed with particular reference to the urinary excretion and the retention of Sr85 contained in the experimental diet. The endogenous faecal excretion is also derived. These results are compared with those obtained from a single intravenous injection of radioactive strontium. For all the subjects the retention was obtained from whole-body counting using a pulse height analyser. The retention of the strontium in the skeleton is analysed and it is postulated that there are at least three degrees of binding of radioactive strontium with bone. In particular the retention several months after the dose and the relationship of this retention to the radiation dose to the skeleton from Sr90 is discussed. A formula is proposed for the evaluation of body retention of a radioactive dose of strontium from the radioactivity excreted in the urine. (author)

  19. [Trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE): a new route for cholesterol excretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Claire; Moreau, François; Cariou, Bertrand; Le May, Cédric

    2014-10-01

    The small intestine plays a crucial role in dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption, as well as its lymphatic secretion as chylomicrons (lipoprotein exogenous way). Recently, a new metabolic pathway called TICE (trans-intestinal excretion of cholesterol) that plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism has emerged. TICE is an inducible way, complementary to the hepatobiliary pathway, allowing the elimination of the plasma cholesterol directly into the intestine lumen through the enterocytes. This pathway is poorly characterized but several molecular actors of TICE have been recently identified. Although it is a matter of debate, two independent studies suggest that TICE is involved in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Thus, TICE is an innovative drug target to reduce -cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Drug elimination function of rat small intestine: metabolism and intraluminal excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, M; Kurosaki, Y; Kimura, T; Sezaki, H

    1984-10-15

    The metabolic and excretory function of the small intestine was investigated after oral and intravenous administration of drugs having an aromatic amino group to rats. After administration of drugs into the intestinal loop at the initial concentration of 0.1 mM, significant excretion of their N-acetylated forms into the lumen was observed. The amount of N-acetyl forms excreted in the lumen were 39.3 +/- 3.5, 63.5 +/- 20.9 and 18.0 +/- 13.8% of disappeared drugs from the lumen for p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), p-aminosalicylic acid and sulfanilic acid, respectively. The excretion of p-acetamidobenzoic acid (Ac-PABA) after the absorption of PABA was reduced by the coadministration with salicylic acid, benzoic acid and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Salicylic acid noncompetitively inhibited the acetylation of PABA by the intestinal N-acetyltransferase. A good correlation was found between the intestinal N-acetyltransferase activities for drugs and the intraluminal excretion of N-acetyl derivatives after intestinal absorption of drugs. These results indicate that a drug having a higher susceptibility to intestinal N-acetyltransferase would undergo a greater excretion into the lumen in its N-acetyl form after intestinal absorption. After intravenous administration of PABA at a dose of 100 mumole/kg, 4.02 +/- 0.51% of dose was excreted in the lumen as Ac-PABA in 30 min. On the other hand, a significantly smaller fraction (2.72 +/- 0.68% of dose) was excreted in the lumen after intravenous injection of 100 mumole/kg of Ac-PABA. The larger excretion of Ac-PABA after administration of PABA indicates the contribution of intestinal metabolism on the transfer of PABA not only after oral, but also after intravenous administration.

  1. [Studies on the remote measurement of the distribution of city gaseous pollutant by mobile passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-cheng; Li, Ang; Xie, Pin-hua; Xu, Jin; Shi, Peng; Qin, Min; Wang, Man-hua; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Yong

    2011-03-01

    An optical remote sensing method based on passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy for the measurement of the distribution of city gaseous pollutant was studied. The passive DOAS system, which was installed in a car, successively measures the interested area (such as city, industrial area) and the column density was obtained by DOAS fitting process using the zenith scattered sunlight. The mobile DOAS was applied to measurement in Shenzhen City during the continuous six days and got the distribution of SO2, NO2 in this paper. It showed that the pollution in the west is higher than in the east. The average concentration in the west is 2.0 times higher than the eastern for SO2 and 3.6 times for NO2. And comparison of the values between mobile DOAS and the point instrument was carried out in Baguang site. There was an agreement between the two instruments, the correlation coefficient was 0.86 for SO2, while 0.57 for NO2. The results indicate that this optical remote sensing method based on passive DOAS is an effective means of rapidly determining the distribution of city gaseous pollutant. PMID:21595196

  2. A study of the absorption and distribution of isotope-labelling tracer 65Zn in Typha latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of the study of the absorption and distribution of 65Zn in Typha latifoliate shows that Typha has a very powerful capacity of absorbing 65Zn. The 65Zn absorbed and accumulated by the root and rhizome of Typha was much greater than that transferred to the leaf. The capacity of absorbing 65Zn of the organs of Typha is as follows: root>rhizome>leaf. The research also shows that the quantity of 65Zn absorbed by Typha increased with the time. Moreover, the quantity of zinc absorbed by Typha increased with the concentration of 65Zn in the culture solution. But the rate of absorbing 65Zn of Typha declined after 24 hor for the concentration of 65Zn in culture solution beyond 200 mg·kg-1

  3. Investigations on temperature distribution of satellite surfaces affected by solar absorptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Pan, X. X.; Li, G. H.; Liu, X.; Jiang, L. X.

    2010-09-01

    Based on the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method, the network coefficients of thermal network model describing the radiation heat transfer among satellite surfaces is solved by considering the surface material optical characters. It is superiority to the conventional Gebhart's method in view of the grey body and the diffuse reflection assumptions. The zone leveling method is used to discrete the governing equations and the solar absorpivity is separated and considered to be an important correction parameter. Effects of the solar incidence round angle, the zenith angle and the ratio of absorpivity to emissivity (RAE) on temperature distribution are numerically simulated and discussed in detail. The higher or the lower the RAE may be lead to the alternative heating and cooling tend with a larger heating or cooling velocity of main body surfaces than the solar array surfaces. Furthermore, maximum temperature of main body is almost larger than solar arrays. Under the same RAE, solar incidence angle make a great effect on the uniform character of temperature distribution.

  4. Remote sensing of vertical phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Baltic: new mathematical expressions. Part 3: Nonphotosynthetic pigment absorption factor:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part 3 of the description of vertical pigment distributions in the Baltic Sea, discusses the mathematical expression enabling the vertical distributions of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa to be estimated. The factor fa is directly related to concentrations of the several groups of phytoplankton pigments and describes quantitatively the ratio of the light energy absorbed at given depths by photosynthetic pigments to the light energy absorbed by all the phytoplankton pigments together (photosynthetic and photoprotecting. Knowledge of this factor is highly desirable in the construction of state-of-the-art "light-photosynthesis" models for remote-sensing purposes.    The expression enables fa to be estimated with considerable precision on the basis of two surface parameters (available from satellite observations: the total chlorophyll a concentration at the surfaceCa(0 and the spectral downward irradiance Ed(λ, 0 just below the sea surface. The expression is applicable to Baltic waters from the surface down to an optical depth of τ ≈ 5.    The verification of the model description of fa was based on 400 quasi-empirical values of this factor which were calculated on the basis of empirical values of the following parameters measured at the same depths: Ed(λ, z (or also PAR(z, apl(λ, z,and the concentrations of all the groups of phytoplankton pigments Ca(z and Cj(z (where j denotes in turn chl b, chl c, PSC, phyc, PPC. The verification shows that the errors in the values of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa estimated using the modeldeveloped in this work are small: in practice they do not exceed 4%.    Besides the mathematical description of the vertical distribution of fa, this paper also discusses the range of variation of its values measured in the Baltic and its dependence on the trophic index of a basin and depth in the sea. In addition, the similarities and differences in the

  5. Enhancement of radiopharmaceutical excretion by chemical interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown previously that desferrioxamine (DFO) enhances urinary excretion of Ga-67. The present study is an extension of these observations to other compounds that may enhance the excretion of Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tc), Ga-67 citrate (Ga) and Tl-201 chloride (Tl). The purpose of these studies was to find methods of decreasing the radiation dose after radionuclide studies, by giving a compound that will increase the rate of excretion of the radionuclide

  6. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E;

    2008-01-01

    were given a whole body topical application of basic cream 2 mg/cm(2) (control week) and then a cream containing 2% (w/w) of DEP, DBP and BP each (treatment week) daily. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected. Urinary total, and unconjugated BP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate...... (MBP) metabolites were analysed by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). All 26 subjects showed increased excretion of MEP, MBP and BP following topical application. Total MEP, MBP and BP (mean +/- SEM) excreted in urine in the treatment week were, respectively, 41 +/- 1.9, 11...... through dermal absorption, but there are no published data on absorption, metabolism, and excretion after dermal application. This study investigates urinary concentrations of BP and metabolites of DEP and DBP after topical application. In a 2-week single-blinded study, 26 healthy Caucasian male subjects...

  7. Biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in idiopathic hemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in iron overload was studied and evaluated. Ten patients with idiopathic hemochromatosis and two groups of controls (14 gallstone patients and 16 healthy subjects) were included. Liver tissue (obtained by percutaneous or operative biopsy) was investigated with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy in combination with x-ray microanalysis. Fasting bile samples were obtained through duodenal aspiration or at cholecystectomy. Iron was determined in liver tissue and bile using atomic absorption spectroscopy, and ferritin was determined in serum and bile with a radioimmunoassay technique. All patients with hemochromatosis had iron-positive staining as seen in light microscopy. Electron microscopy showed iron-containing proteins in the lysosomes and cytosol of liver parenchymal cells, and this observation was supported by x-ray microanalysis. Hepatic iron concentration was increased about eightfold in the patients with hemochromatosis (p less than 0.001). Biliary iron concentration, expressed per millimole of bile acid, was increased about twofold (p less than 0.05) and biliary ferritin concentration about fivefold (p less than 0.001) in hemochromatosis. Four of the patients with hemochromatosis were reexamined after completed treatment with venesection; this resulted in normalized biliary concentrations of iron and ferritin. We conclude that biliary secretion of ferritin occurs in humans and that both iron and ferritin excretion are enhanced in hepatic iron overload. The apparently limited capacity of biliary iron excretion may be of importance for the hepatic iron accumulation in hemochromatosis

  8. Biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in idiopathic hemochromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultcrantz, R.; Angelin, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.E.; Ewerth, S.; Einarsson, K.

    1989-06-01

    The role of biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in iron overload was studied and evaluated. Ten patients with idiopathic hemochromatosis and two groups of controls (14 gallstone patients and 16 healthy subjects) were included. Liver tissue (obtained by percutaneous or operative biopsy) was investigated with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy in combination with x-ray microanalysis. Fasting bile samples were obtained through duodenal aspiration or at cholecystectomy. Iron was determined in liver tissue and bile using atomic absorption spectroscopy, and ferritin was determined in serum and bile with a radioimmunoassay technique. All patients with hemochromatosis had iron-positive staining as seen in light microscopy. Electron microscopy showed iron-containing proteins in the lysosomes and cytosol of liver parenchymal cells, and this observation was supported by x-ray microanalysis. Hepatic iron concentration was increased about eightfold in the patients with hemochromatosis (p less than 0.001). Biliary iron concentration, expressed per millimole of bile acid, was increased about twofold (p less than 0.05) and biliary ferritin concentration about fivefold (p less than 0.001) in hemochromatosis. Four of the patients with hemochromatosis were reexamined after completed treatment with venesection; this resulted in normalized biliary concentrations of iron and ferritin. We conclude that biliary secretion of ferritin occurs in humans and that both iron and ferritin excretion are enhanced in hepatic iron overload. The apparently limited capacity of biliary iron excretion may be of importance for the hepatic iron accumulation in hemochromatosis.

  9. Concentration distribution of Nd{sup 3+} In Nd:Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystals studied by optical absorption method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Dunlu; Zhang, Qingli; Wang, Zhaobing; Su, Jing; Gu, Changjiang; Wang, Aihua; Yin, Shaotang [Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, HeFei 230031 (China)

    2005-07-01

    Nd:Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystals with different concentrations of Nd{sup 3+} were grown by Czochralski method, their absorption spectra were measured at room temperature. By using the optical absorption method, the effective distribution coefficient k{sub eff} for Nd{sup 3+} in GGG was fitted to be 0.40{+-}0.01, which is higher than that of Nd{sup 3+} in YAG. The 808nm absorption cross-section was calculated to be 4.0{+-}0.2 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup -2}. The lengthways and radial concentration distribution of Nd{sup 3+} in the crystals were also analyzed and discussed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Synergism between maggot excretions and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Pawiroredjo, Janity S; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2010-01-01

    Maggots are successfully used to treat severe, infected wounds. This study investigated whether maggot excretions/secretions influence the antibacterial activity of different antibiotics. Minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined of gentamicin and flucloxacillin for Staphylococcus aureus, of penicillin for Streptococcus pyogenes, of amoxicillin and vancomycin for Enterococcus faecalis, of gentamicin for Enterobacter cloacae, and of gentamicin, tobramycin, and ciprofloxacin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa by checkerboard titration. A range of concentrations of antibiotics in combination with excretions/secretions was examined to investigate the potential of maggot excretions/secretions to affect antibacterial activity. The results showed a dose-dependent increase of the antibacterial effect of gentamicin in the presence of excretions/secretions on S. aureus. Minimal concentrations and MBC of gentamicin decreased, respectively, 64- and 32-fold. The MBC of flucloxacillin and excretions/secretions against S. aureus were also decreased. The other antibiotic and excretions/secretions combinations exerted an indifferent effect. Excretions/secretions alone did not have any antibacterial effect. The synergism between gentamicin and maggot excretions/secretions could be of direct importance in clinical practice, because it could allow the use of lower doses of gentamicin and thus minimize the risk of gentamicin-related side effects.

  11. Excretion of Four Catechins in Tea Polyphenols in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate excretion profiles of the four major anti-oxidant active catechins, (-) epigallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (-) epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin (EC) in tea polyphenols (TP) in rats in order to provide experimental data for clinical uses and development of TP as a novel drug. Methods The above four catechins in urine, bile, and feces were simultaneously determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet absorption detector (HPLC-UV) assay with a binary gradient elution. The samples were extracted by ethyl acetate prior to HPLC. The quantification was carried out by peak area internal standard method. Following iv dosing TP 100 mg/kg to rats, the samples were collected at different time intervals up to 8 h (urine and bile) and 24 h (feces). Results The urinary Ae, 0-8 h (cumulative excretion amount over 8 h) of EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC were, on the average, 150.83, 30.75, 116.69, and 254.56 μg, corresponding to fe, 0-8 h (cumulative excretion fraction of dose over 8 h) of 1.45%, 0.84%, 7.88%, and 10.73%, respectively; the biliary Ae, 0-8 h were 12.61, 42.64, 6.61, and 1.24 μg, corresponding to the fe, 0-8 h of 0.12%, 1.16%, 0.45%, and 0.053%,respectively. For fecal excretion, only EGCG and EGC were detected with Ae, 0-24 h of 7.38 μg (fe, 0-24 h of 0.07%) and 157 μg (fe, 0-24 h of 9.99 %), respectively. The fe, total (the total fe of 3 excretory routes) were 18.32%, 10.78%, 2.00%, and 1.64% for EGC, EC, ECG, and EGCG, respectively. Conclusion EGCG and EC are mainly excreted in urine, ECG in bile, and EGC in feces by reference to their Ae and fe. The excretion of the four catechins based on fe, total is ranked in order of EGC > EC > ECG > EGCG. Only small amount of four catechins are recovered in urine, bile, and feces, indicating an extensive metabolic conversion of catechins in the rat body.

  12. Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Uebelhack, MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667.

  13. Radioisotope studies for quantitative measurement of manganese absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of the present study was to quantitatively determine the manganese absorption in growing rats by means of radioisotopes. First of all the following factors had to be investigated, which are significant for this determination: Measurability of stable and radioactive Mn in rat tissues; labelling of stable Mn and distribution of stable and radioactive Mn in the organism; verification of the isotope dilution method and of the comparative balance method with regard to its applicability for the determination of the true Mn absorption. We useed male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The most important results are summarized in the following: in some separate tissues measurement of stable Mn was accompanied by difficulties. The measurement of radioactive Mn however, could be performed without any problems. 10 d after i.m. injection of 54Mn only 17% of the administered Mn was still detectable in the organism. However, there was no uniform tissue labelling found. Therefore it is possible to an only restricted extent to draw quantitative conclusions on the content of stable Mn. A high percentage of stable and radioactive Mn was found above all in the liver. The isotope dilution method permits by feces analysis to differentiate between unabsorbed Mn coming from the food and endogenic Mn coming from the organism itself. The effective Mn absorption was also determined by means of the comparative balance method. By means of the isotope dilution method we determined the quantitative Mn-absorption with staged Mn administration and the contribution of absorption and excretion to the homeostatic regulation mechanisms of Mn. We found that absorption and excretion help the organism to keep an almost constant Mn concentration even with a differing Mn supply. (orig./MG)

  14. Hyperuricemia in acute gastroenteritis is caused by decreased urate excretion via ABCG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Ooyama, Keiko; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Tappei; Nakashima, Akio; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Higashino, Toshihide; Wakai, Kenji; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Hokari, Ryota; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Inui, Ayano; Fujimori, Shin; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the physiological and pathophysiological roles of intestinal urate excretion via ABCG2 in humans, we genotyped ABCG2 dysfunctional common variants, Q126X (rs72552713) and Q141K (rs2231142), in end-stage renal disease (hemodialysis) and acute gastroenteritis patients, respectively. ABCG2 dysfunction markedly increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels in 106 hemodialysis patients (P = 1.1 × 10(-4)), which demonstrated the physiological role of ABCG2 for intestinal urate excretion because their urate excretion almost depends on intestinal excretion via ABCG2. Also, ABCG2 dysfunction significantly elevated SUA in 67 acute gastroenteritis patients (P = 6.3 × 10(-3)) regardless of the degree of dehydration, which demonstrated the pathophysiological role of ABCG2 in acute gastroenteritis. These findings for the first time show ABCG2-mediated intestinal urate excretion in humans, and indicates the physiological and pathophysiological importance of intestinal epithelium as an excretion pathway besides an absorption pathway. Furthermore, increased SUA could be a useful marker not only for dehydration but also epithelial impairment of intestine. PMID:27571712

  15. Skin contamination, airborne concentrations, and urinary metabolite excretion of propoxur during harvesting of flowers in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, R; van Maarleveld, K; Ravensberg, L; Meuling, W; de Kort, W; van Hemmen, J J

    1993-11-01

    In eight greenhouses used for carnation culture, workers engaged in harvesting (n = 16), were monitored for dermal and respiratory exposure and urinary excretion of propoxur. Dermal exposure of hands and forearms was estimated from dislodgable foliar residue, using a transfer factor (a measure of transfer of pesticides from leaves to the skin) and the total number of working hours. Total estimated dermal and respiratory exposure during harvesting ranged from 0.2 to 46 mg and from 3 to 278 micrograms, respectively. To study the relationship between external and internal exposure to propoxur, respiratory and dermal exposure levels were compared with the total amount of 2-isopropoxyphenol (IPP), the major metabolite of propoxur, excreted in urine in 24 hr. The Pearson correlation coefficient between dermal exposure and the total amount of excreted IPP was 0.95. A correlation coefficient of 0.84 was found between respiratory exposure and the amount of IPP excreted. The latter association was probably caused by the covariation of respiratory and dermal exposure levels (r = 0.85). Assuming negligible oral absorption, calculations indicated that dermal exposure could account for > 80% of the amount of excreted IPP. On the basis of the amount of IPP excreted, there was no reason to suspect increased health risks for workers from exposure to propoxur during harvesting.

  16. Enabling the Distributed Generation Market of High Temperature Fuel Cell and Absorption Chiller Systems to Support Critical and Commercial Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMola, Ashley M.

    Buildings account for over 18% of the world's anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. As a result, a technology that can offset GHG emissions associated with buildings has the potential to save over 9 Giga-tons of GHG emissions per year. High temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller (HTFC/AC) technology offers a relatively low-carbon option for meeting cooling and electric loads for buildings while producing almost no criteria pollutants. GHG emissions in the state of California would decrease by 7.48 million metric tons per year if every commercial building in the State used HTFC/AC technology to meet its power and cooling requirements. In order to realize the benefits of HTFC/AC technology on a wide scale, the distributed generation market needs to be exposed to the technology and informed of its economic viability and real-world potential. This work characterizes the economics associated with HTFC/AC technology using select scenarios that are representative of realistic applications. The financial impacts of various input factors are evaluated and the HTFC/AC simulations are compared to the economics of traditional building utilities. It is shown that, in addition to the emissions reductions derived from the systems, HTFC/AC technology is financially preferable in all of the scenarios evaluated. This work also presents the design of a showcase environment, centered on a beta-test application, that presents (1) system operating data gathered using a custom data acquisition module, and (2) HTFC/AC technology in a clear and approachable manner in order to serve the target audience of market stakeholders.

  17. Excretion of drugs in human breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, R.M.; Findlay, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The present report briefly discusses some of the morphological, physiological, and compositional aspects of animal and human breast milk and how these characteristics might be important for the accumulation of drugs and foreign compounds. In addition, a study is described confirming the presence of caffeine, codeine, morphine, phenacetin, acetaminophen, and salicylic acid in the breast milk of a lactating mother following oral administration of a combination analgesic containing aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and codeine. Although the study is limited to one subject, it has provided critically needed data on the rates of appearance in, and elimination of these drugs from, breast milk. A similar amount of information is presented on phenacetin, also a component of the analgesic mixture, which has not been previously reported to enter human milk. The distribution of these drugs between the slightly more acidic breast milk and the relatively neutral plasma is consistent with their weakly basic, acidic, or relatively neutral properties. In general, the study shows that codeine and morphine milk concentrations are higher than, salicylic acid milk levels are much lower than, and phenacetin, caffeine, and acetaminophen milk concentrations are relatively similar to their respective plasma levels. It is projected, from estimated steady-state milk concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites studied, that very low percentages of the therapeutic dosages (less than 0.7%) would be excreted in mother's milk, too low an amount to be clinically significant to the infant.

  18. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...

  19. Measurement of nonuniform temperature and concentration distributions by combining line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with regularization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Xu, Lijun; Cao, Zhang

    2013-07-10

    Regularization methods were combined with line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) to measure nonuniform temperature and concentration distributions along the laser path when a priori information of the temperature distribution tendency is available. Relying on measurements of 12 absorption transitions of water vapor from 1300 to 1350 nm, the nonuniform temperature and concentration distributions were retrieved by making the use of nonlinear and linear regularization methods, respectively. To examine the effectiveness of regularization methods, a simulated annealing algorithm for nonlinear regularization was implemented to reconstruct the temperature distribution, while three linear regularization methods, namely truncated singular value decomposition, Tikhonov regularization, and a revised Tikhonov regularization method, were implemented to retrieve the concentration distribution. The results show that regularization methods not only can be used to retrieve temperature and concentration distributions closer to the original but also are less sensitive to measurement noise. When no sufficient optical access is available for TDLAS tomography, the methods proposed in the paper can be used to obtain more details of the combustion field with higher accuracy and robustness, which are expected to play a more important role in combustion diagnosis.

  20. 朱砂灌胃给药后汞在孕大鼠脏器内的分布和排泄途径研究%Study on Distribution in Organs and Excretion Pathway of Mercury in Pregnant Rats after Administration of Cinnabar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤家铭; 米金霞; 吴文斌; 谷颖敏; 李咏梅; 夏晶; 张甦; 曹帅; 季申

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution and excretion pathway of mercury in pregnant rats after administration of cinnabar. Methods; Compared with the reproductive toxicity test, the female SD rats after mating were randomly divided into high (1 000 mg/kg) , medium (300 mg/kg) , and low-dose (100 mg/kg) cinnabar groups, and negative control group (0.5% CMC-Na) , with ten rats in each group. The rats in different dose cinnabar groups were administered intragastrically with cinnabar from the sixth day to the fifteenth day after pregnancy, and all the rats were sacrificed on the twentieth day of pregnancy. The main organs (including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain and uterus) , blood, placentae, fetuses and urine of the pregnant rats were obtained to detect the mercury concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ( ICP-MS) ; the feces were taken at different time points to determine the mercury concentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) ; the distribution in different organs and the excretion pathway of mercury were analyzed. Results: The mercury concentrations of the heart, liver, kidney and uterus of the rats in different dose cinnabar groups were higher than those of the rats in negative control group, and the concentration increased with the enhanced dose; there was no statistical difference on the mercury concentrations of the brain, placentae and fetuses between different dose cinnabar groups and negative control group. There were large amount of mercury in the feces on the second day after administration, and the mercury excretion accounted for 38. 2% ~ 50.4% of HgS intake; while the mercury excretion accounted for72.2% -86.6% on the tenth day after administration; The a-mount of HgS discharged in the feces decreased rapidly on the fourth day after drug discontinuation. Only extreme trace of mercury excreted from urine with dose-dependent pattern, and the mercury excretion maintained the high

  1. Regional distribution and variation of gamma-globulin absorption from the small intestine of the neonatal calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-labeled immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 in colostral whey was used to determine the region of maximum absorption of Ig from the small intestine of the neonatal calf and the variation in Ig absorption among calves at the intestinal level. In experiment 1, 5 segments (approx 5%, 35%, 60%, 80%, and 95% of the duodenocecal length) were formed in the small intestine of 9 colostrum-deprived calves shortly after birth. These segments were injected with colostral whey containing 125I-IgG1 4 hours after birth, and uptake, transfer, and absorption (defined as uptake plus transfer) were determined for each segment 2 hours later. Raw data were adjusted for the milligrams of IgG1 injected per gram of intestinal tissue to obtain the least squares mean (LSM) value. The LSM values for absorption of IgG1 from distal segments 3, 4, and 5 were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than those values for proximal segments 1 and 2. The region of the maximum IgG1 absorption was the lower small intestine, 60% to 80% of the duodenocecal length. There was also an indication of independence between uptake and transfer in each of the segments. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) were present among calves in the LSM values for uptake and absorption, but not for transfer. In experiment 2, thoracic ducts of 8 newborn calves were cannulated 4 to 5 hours after birth. At 6 hours after birth, colostral whey with 125I-IgG1 was injected into an intestinal segment (approx 60% to 80% of the duodenocecal length)

  2. A novel description of FDG excretion in the renal system: application to metformin-treated models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, S.; Caviglia, G.; Sambuceti, G.; Benvenuto, F.; Piana, M.

    2014-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel compartmental model describing the excretion of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) in the renal system and a numerical method based on the maximum likelihood for its reduction. This approach accounts for variations in FDG concentration due to water re-absorption in renal tubules and the increase of the bladder’s volume during the FDG excretion process. From the computational viewpoint, the reconstruction of the tracer kinetic parameters is obtained by solving the maximum likelihood problem iteratively, using a non-stationary, steepest descent approach that explicitly accounts for the Poisson nature of nuclear medicine data. The reliability of the method is validated against two sets of synthetic data realized according to realistic conditions. Finally we applied this model to describe FDG excretion in the case of animal models treated with metformin. In particular we show that our approach allows the quantitative estimation of the reduction of FDG de-phosphorylation induced by metformin.

  3. Tissue distribution and excretion of baicalein and its main metabolite in rats by LC-MS/MS%LC-MS/MS法研究黄芩素及其主要代谢物在大鼠体内的组织分布与排泄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳文媛; 徐维露; 李萍; 冯锋; 丁黎

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究黄芩素及其主要代谢物黄芩苷在大鼠体内组织分布及排泄.方法:液相色谱分离采用C_(18)柱(150mm ×6.0 mm,5 μm),甲醇-10 mmol/L醋酸铵溶液(含0.5%甲酸)(70:30)为流动相;质谱检测采用ESI离子源,正离子SRM方式检测.生物样品处理采用加入磷酸盐缓冲液,以甲醇-乙腈(1:1)提取,上清液以氮气流吹干,流动相复溶进样分析.结果:大鼠灌服黄芩素,原形药物及其主要代谢物在大鼠体内分布在20~40 min及10 h呈现双峰现象,与血药浓度曲线规律一致.给药20 min后肾组织中代谢物浓度显著高于原形,胃、肝及肠中原形药物浓度高于代谢物,肺中两者接近.排泄研究显示,大鼠胆汁与尿液中代谢物浓度远高于原形药物,而在粪便中以原形药物为主.结论:黄芩素在大鼠体内吸收迅速,20~40 min迅速分布至各主要脏器,并发生生物转化.%Aim: To study the distribution and excretion of baicalein and baicalin in rats. Methods: An LC/MS method was applied. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C_(18) column( 150 mm ×6.0 mm, 5 μm) with methanol-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate (containing 0. 5% formic acid) as the mobile phase. A trip-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer was set in positive selected reaction monitoring mode. The sample was extracted with methanol-acetonitrile( 1:1) after the addition of phosphoric buffer solution and luteolin, which acted as the internal standard. The supernatant was evaporated to dryness, and the residual was reconstituted with mobile phase and analyzed. Results: The distribution profiles of the parent drug and its main metabolite showed two peaks between 20-40 min and 8-10 h after oral administration of baicalein, which fit the plasma concentration-time profile of baicalein in rats. At 20 min after the dosing, the concentration levels of baicalein were significantly higher than those of baicalin in stomach, liver and intestines, the converse result occurred in

  4. A screening model of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in vitro%药物体外吸收、分布、代谢和排泄筛选模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 陈涵

    2008-01-01

    药物在吸收、分布、代谢和消除过程中具有良好的药代动力学性质和较低的毒副作用是候选药物通过临床试验的关键所在.这就需要合理的体外模型来对药物的体内行为进行预测.总结已有的、用于研究药物的吸收、分布、代谢、消除和药物毒性,基于细胞水平的体外模型.目前药物肠吸收的模型主要有动物体内实验和使用人造细胞膜、细胞系及肠组织的体外实验;约物分布模型包括药物与血清蛋白结合模型、药物向各组织分布的模型及透血脑屏障模型:药物代谢包括代谢稳定性、药物相互作用及约物毒性几方面.

  5. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeser, M; Jacob, K; Zachoval, R

    1999-08-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive outpatients with chronic hepatitis C infection without signs of photosensitivity, using an ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography method. Increased total porphyrin excretion was found in 41 patients, with predominant excretion of coproporphyrins (whole study group: mean 146 microg/g creatinine, interquartile range 76-186; normal coproporphyrin, heptacarboxyporphyrin III increased) but the total porphyrin excretion was only slightly elevated in this case. In the whole group, total urinary porphyrin excretion correlated well with serum bilirubin and was inversely correlated with albumin and thrombin time. In conclusion, secondary coproporphyrinuria occurs frequently in heptatitis C infection, whereas in Germany, preclinical porphyria cutanea tarda seems to be rare in these patients. PMID:10536928

  6. Maggot excretions affect the human complement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Schreurs, Marco W J; Renwarin, Lennaert; Dorresteijn, Corry; Hamann, Dörte; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2012-01-01

    The complement system plays an important role in the activation of the inflammatory response to injury, although inappropriate complement activation (CA) can lead to severe tissue damage. Maggot therapy is successfully used to treat infected wounds. In this study, we hypothesized that maggot excretions/secretions influence CA in order to modulate the host's inflammatory response. Therefore, the effect of maggot excretions on CA was investigated in preoperatively and postoperatively obtained sera from patients. Our results show that maggot excretions reduce CA in healthy and postoperatively immune-activated human sera up to 99.9%, via all pathways. Maggot excretions do not specifically initiate or inhibit CA, but break down complement proteins C3 and C4 in a cation-independent manner and this effect proves to be temperature tolerant. This study indicates a CA-reducing substrate that is already successfully used in clinical practice and may explain part of the improved wound healing caused by maggot therapy. Furthermore, the complement activation-reducing substance present in maggot excretions could provide a novel treatment modality for several diseases, resulting from an (over)active complement system.

  7. Intensity-Stabilized Fast-Scanned Direct Absorption Spectroscopy Instrumentation Based on a Distributed Feedback Laser with Detection Sensitivity down to 4 × 10−6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Tan, Wei; Jia, Mengyuan; Hou, Jiajuan; Ma, Weiguang; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wu, Xuechun; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Axner, Ove; Jia, Suotang

    2016-01-01

    A novel, intensity-stabilized, fast-scanned, direct absorption spectroscopy (IS-FS-DAS) instrumentation, based on a distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser, is developed. A fiber-coupled polarization rotator and a fiber-coupled polarizer are used to stabilize the intensity of the laser, which significantly reduces its relative intensity noise (RIN). The influence of white noise is reduced by fast scanning over the spectral feature (at 1 kHz), followed by averaging. By combining these two noise-reducing techniques, it is demonstrated that direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) can be swiftly performed down to a limit of detection (LOD) (1σ) of 4 × 10−6, which opens up a number of new applications. PMID:27657082

  8. Intensity-Stabilized Fast-Scanned Direct Absorption Spectroscopy Instrumentation Based on a Distributed Feedback Laser with Detection Sensitivity down to 4 × 10−6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel, intensity-stabilized, fast-scanned, direct absorption spectroscopy (IS-FS-DAS instrumentation, based on a distributed feedback (DFB diode laser, is developed. A fiber-coupled polarization rotator and a fiber-coupled polarizer are used to stabilize the intensity of the laser, which significantly reduces its relative intensity noise (RIN. The influence of white noise is reduced by fast scanning over the spectral feature (at 1 kHz, followed by averaging. By combining these two noise-reducing techniques, it is demonstrated that direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS can be swiftly performed down to a limit of detection (LOD (1σ of 4 × 10−6, which opens up a number of new applications.

  9. Tissular localization and excretion of intravenously administered silica nanoparticles of different sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guangping; Sun Jiao, E-mail: jiaosun59@yahoo.com [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Biomaterials Research and Testing Center, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital (China); Zhong Gaoren [Fudan University, School of Pharmacy (China)

    2012-01-15

    The nanotoxicology as a new subdiscipline of nanotechnology needs to be studied in vivo. To do so, it is essential to understand certain pharmacological information of the nanoparticles in vivo. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been developed for a number of biomedical uses; however, research on their tissular localization and excretion has been limited. In this study, we analyzed the localization of intravenously administered SiNPs with sizes of 20 and 80 nm in liver and spleen and quantitatively investigated the excretion of SiNPs through urine and feces. The results of the tissular localization study showed that the SiNPs were located in liver evenly; however, they were mainly accumulated in the white pulp of spleen. The quantitative excretory assay found the renal excretion being the main excretion pathway of SiNPs and indicated that the accumulated excretory rate of 80 nm SiNPs through urine was higher than that of 20 nm SiNPs because of the higher hemoconcentration. Further analysis of radioactive substances in the excreta showed the convincing confirmatory evidence that the SiNPs of both the sizes of 20 and 80 nm could be excreted through urine. These results provide important information on in vivo distribution and excretion of SiNPs.

  10. Intestinal excretion of metals by rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excretion of 65Zn, sup(115m)Cd, 203Hg, 207Bi, 210Pb, 60Co, 64Cu, 85Sr and 86Rb in the perfused sections of the intestinal tract in vivo was investigated by the pendular perfusion method. After intravenous administration the excretion of metals was investigated in the jejunum, in the colon and in some experiments also in the ileum. The fluid net movement in the jejunum and colon was measured in dependency on the energy spectrum of the applied metal isotope by means of 14C or 3H-polyethylene glycol 2000. (orig./MG)

  11. Comparison and validation of two analytical methods for measurement of urinary sucrose and fructose excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiaoling; Navarro, Sandi L.; Diep, Pho; Thomas, Wendy K.; Razmpoosh, Elena C.; Schwarz, Yvonne; Wang, Ching-Yun; Kratz, Mario; Neuhouser, Marian L; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2013-01-01

    Urinary sugars excretion has been proposed as a potential biomarker for intake of sugars. In this study we compared two analytical methods [gas chromatography (GC) and enzymatic reactions – UV absorption] for quantifying urinary fructose and sucrose using 24-hour urine samples from a randomized cross-over controlled feeding study. All samples were successfully quantified by the GC method; however 21% and 1.9% of samples were below the detection limit of the enzymatic method for sucrose and fr...

  12. Comparative study of absorption and distribution of dexamethasone 3H after percutaneous or oral administration in mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous absorption of dexamethasone in alcoholic solution in mice and rats was low. Permeability constant measured on mice was included between 1.05 and 1.39.10-5cm/h. Under the site of application, a retention appeared in subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscles which explained local pharmacological action. In other tissues (plasma, liver, kidney, adrenals and muscles), level of corticoid remained very low. On the contrary after oral administration, dexamethasone was present everywhere, concentration was the highest in liver and kidney

  13. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M;

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  14. Urinary excretion of Iopamidol following intrathecal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrè, D; Zingales, M F; Trevisan, C

    1983-01-01

    No iodinated compound other than Iopamidol was found in the urine of subjects who received intrathecal injection of 10 ml of Iopamiro "300". The compound was neither metabolized nor altered in its optical configuration and urinary iodide content was always in the normal range. Between 72 and 85% of injected Iopamidol was excreted within 72 h of injection.

  15. Power Functions Relating Excretion to Body Burden

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, S M J

    2003-01-01

    Formulae necessary to relate the quantity of radionuclides excreted to that assimilated in exposures that are acute and those that are multiple or continuous are derived from power function relationships. Particular attention is given to providing equations having variables for which the bioassayer can easily derive numerical values. This paper presents this data.

  16. The ℓ-distribution method for modeling non-gray absorption in uniform and non-uniform gaseous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    The ℓ-distribution modeling is proposed for radiative heat transfer in uniform and non-uniform non-gray gaseous media. The method is partly based on the application of results from the k-moment method. It combines this technique with several concepts from probability theory: the notion of rank transmutation maps allows extending the k-moment method to an infinite number of k-moments; copula models appear naturally to extend the method from uniform to non-uniform gas paths. The ℓ-distribution approach is shown to provide results: (1) more accurate - up to three orders of magnitude - than usual k-distribution approaches in uniform media, (2) as precise as correlated-k models in non-uniform situations. All these results are obtained at a computational cost lower than k-distribution models. Differences and similarities between k- and ℓ-distribution methods are discussed.

  17. HI 21-cm absorption survey of quasar-galaxy pairs: Distribution of cold gas around z<0.4 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, R; Gupta, N; Momjian, E; Noterdaeme, P; Petitjean, P; Rahmani, H

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from our survey of HI 21-cm absorption, using GMRT, VLA and WSRT, in a sample of 55 z<0.4 galaxies towards radio sources with impact parameters (b) in the range ~0-35 kpc. In our primary sample (defined for statistical analyses) of 40 quasar-galaxy-pairs (QGPs), probed by 45 sightlines, we have found seven HI 21-cm absorption detections, two of which are reported here for the first time. Combining our primary sample with measurements having similar optical depth sensitivity ($\\int\\tau dv$ <= 0.3 km/s) from the literature, we find a weak anti-correlation (rank correlation coefficient = -0.20 at 2.42sigma level) between $\\int\\tau dv$ and b, consistent with previous literature results. The covering factor of HI 21-cm absorbers (C_21) is estimated to be 0.24 (+0.12/-0.08) at b <= 15 kpc and 0.06 (+0.09/-0.04) at b = 15-35 kpc. $\\int\\tau dv$ and C_21 show similar declining trend with radial distance along the galaxy's major axis and distances scaled with the effective HI radius. The...

  18. Urinary Magnesium Excretion and Risk of Hypertension The Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Michel M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Kootstra-Ros, J.E.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Observational studies on dietary or circulating magnesium and risk of hypertension have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations, but have lacked measures of actual dietary uptake. Urinary magnesium excretion, an indicator of intestinal magnesium absorption, may provide a better insight in this

  19. Urinary magnesium excretion and risk of hypertension. The prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Mukamal, K.J.; Kootstra-Ros, J.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Observational studies on dietary or circulating magnesium and risk of hypertension have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations, but have lacked measures of actual dietary uptake. Urinary magnesium excretion, an indicator of intestinal magnesium absorption, may provide a better insight in this

  20. Effect of multi-effect triazole on absorption of phosphorus and nitrogen and distribution of 14CO2-assimilates in rape plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using tracer technique, the effects of Multi-Effect Triazole (MET) on uptake of 32P, 15N and distribution of 14CO2-assimilates in rape plant were studied. The experimental results showed that the foliar spraying of MET with the concentration of 150 ppm in three leaves stage could significantly increase 32P uptake by 75.34%∼101.08%, the utilization rate of base fertilizer 15NH4HCO3 by 9.10%. And the rate of photosynthesis increased by 7.44%∼31.40% in seedling stage, by 47.74% in initial flowering stage and by 47.93% in mature stage. The regulation effects of MET on distribution of 15N absorbed and 14CO2-assimilates were shown by increasing absorption of 15N and assimilates in seeds of rape plant

  1. Modelling phosphorus intake, digestion, retention and excretion in growing and finishing pigs: model description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeou, V; Leinonen, I; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-10-01

    Low phosphorus (P) digestibility combined with intensive pig production can increase P diffuse pollution and environmental load. The aim of this paper was to develop a deterministic, dynamic model able to represent P digestion, retention and ultimately excretion in growing and finishing pigs of different genotypes, offered access to diets of different composition. The model represented the limited ability of pig endogenous phytase activity to dephosphorylate phytate as a linear function of dietary calcium (Ca). Phytate dephosphorylation in the stomach by exogenous microbial phytase enzymes was expressed by a first order kinetics relationship. The absorption of non-phytate P from the lumen of the small intestine into the blood stream was set at 0.8 and the dephosphorylated phytate from the large intestine was assumed to be indigestible. The net efficiency of using digested P was set at 0.94 and assumed to be independent of BW, and constant across genotype and sex. P requirements for both maintenance and growth were made simple functions of body protein mass, and hence functions of animal genotype. Undigested P was assumed to be excreted in the feaces in both soluble and insoluble forms. If digestible P exceeded the requirements for P then the excess digestible P was excreted through the urinary flow; thus the model represented both forms of P excretion (soluble and insoluble) into the environment. Using a UK industry standard diet, model behaviour was investigated for its predictions of P digestibility, retention and excretion under different levels of inclusion of microbial phytase and dietary Ca, and different non-phytate P : phytate ratios in the diet, thus covering a broad space of potential diet compositions. Model predictions were consistent with our understanding of P digestion, metabolism and excretion. Uncertainties associated with the underlying assumptions of the model were identified. Their consequences on model predictions, as well as the model

  2. Clinical investigation on gastric oxalate absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志强; 叶章群; 曾令启; 杨为民

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the stomach role in exogenous oxalate absorption.Methods The kinetic variation of urinary oxalate excretion (mg/min) in 10 healthy adults and 8 patients who underwent total gastrectomy was investigated before and after an oral spinach oxalate load. The bioavailability of the oxalate load in the healthy adults was calculated and compared with that in the patients.Results The oxalate content in the oral spinach load was 2567-2670 mg. The urinary oxalate excretion (mg/min) in the 10 healthy adults increased significantly 20 minutes after loading (this increase was compared against their basic oxalate excretion level of 0.0331±0.0203). Further observations after loading include: a first peak of oxalate excretion 40 minutes after loading; an oxalate excretion level double that of the basic level after 60 minutes (0.0732±0.0294) and a second peak appearing at 3 hours (P<0.01). A "first peak" (0.063%±0.062%) was not in any of the patients who underwent a total gastrectomy. Furthermore, a bioavailability of oxalate, which was 50% lower than that in the healthy subjects, appeared 60 minutes after loading (0.098%±0.071%, P<0.01). Conclusions The stomach is a powerful oxalate absorption organ under normal physiological conditions. Further investigation on the relationship between stomach dysfunction and urinary calcium oxalate formation is needed.

  3. LORRY DRIVERS WORK STRESS EVALUATED BY CATECHOLAMINES EXCRETED IN URINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERBEEK, AJ; MEIJMAN, TF; FRINGSDRESEN, MHW; KUIPER, JI

    1995-01-01

    Objectives-To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. Methods-The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline o

  4. Magnesium, zinc, arsenic, selenium and platinum urinary excretion from cancer patients of Antofagasta region, Chile: multi-metal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, I; Rivera, L; Ávila, J; Cortés, P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the short-term 24 h urinary excretion of platinum, arsenic, selenium, magnesium and zinc in patients with lung cancer and with cancer other than lungs treated with cisplatin or/and carboplatin from Antofagasta, Chile. Design Urine measurements of Pt and Se were made by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, As by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry and Mg and Zn by means of flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Setting All samples were provided by the Oncological Centre of Antofagasta Regional Hospital (Region of Antofagasta, Chile). Participants Ninety 24-h urine samples from cancer patients after the infusion of Pt-base drugs and 10 24-h urine samples from cancer patients not treated with metal-base drugs. Main outcome measures Concentrations of Pt, Se, As, Zn and Mg coming from 24-h urine samples. Results Pt excreted was not significantly different between patients with lung and other cancers treated with cisplatin. The excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was greater than As. Then, Pt favours the excretion of essential elements. For lung and other types of cancers treated with drugs without Pt, excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was also greater than that of As, suggesting antagonism Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationship. Conclusions The amounts of Mg, Zn and Se excreted were greater than for As either with or without Pt-containing drugs, suggesting antagonist Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationships. The excretion of As, Mg, Zn and Se is induced by Pt. Knowledge obtained can contribute to understanding the arsenic cancer mechanism and the As-Mg-Zn-Se-Pt inter-element association for lung cancer and other types of cancer. PMID:27757244

  5. Contribution to biorhythm of mercury-excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, H.; Damrau, J.; Franzen, E.; Henkel, W.

    1988-07-01

    The timed urinary mercury-excretion was investigated in 27 formerly exposed. The interval since their last exposure, their age, state of health and duration of exposure differed considerably. Nevertheless a clear circadian rhythm was found by adjustment of mercury to the timed substance-quantity, less to specific gravity, but really not to creatinin. These relations should be considered in biomonitoring. The differences of biorhythm in healthy and mercury-injured persons are discussed.

  6. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Jacob, Karl; Zachoval, Reinhart

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive ou...

  7. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  8. Distribution and speciation of bromine in mammalian tissue and fluids by X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceko, Melanie J; Hummitzsch, Katja; Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bonner, Wendy; James, Simon A; Kirby, Jason K; Rodgers, Raymond J; Harris, Hugh H

    2015-05-01

    Bromine is one of the most abundant and ubiquitous trace elements in the biosphere and until recently had not been shown to perform any essential biological function in animals. A recent study demonstrated that bromine is required as a cofactor for peroxidasin-catalysed formation of sulfilimine crosslinks in Drosophila. In addition, bromine dietary deficiency is lethal in Drosophila, whereas bromine replenishment restores viability. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution and speciation of bromine in mammalian tissues and fluids to provide further insights into the role and function of this element in biological systems. In this study we used X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to examine the distribution of bromine in bovine ovarian tissue samples, follicular fluid and aortic serum, as well as human whole blood and serum and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the chemical species of bromine in a range of mammalian tissue (bovine, ovine, porcine and murine), whole blood and serum samples (bovine, ovine, porcine, murine and human), and marine samples (salmon (Salmo salar), kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and Scleractinian coral). Bromine was found to be widely distributed across all tissues and fluids examined. In the bovine ovary in particular it was more concentrated in the sub-endothelial regions of arterioles. Statistical comparison of the near-edge region of the X-ray absorption spectra with a library of bromine standards led to the conclusion that the major form of bromine in all samples analysed was bromide. PMID:25675086

  9. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested

  10. Longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    The Campylobacter excretion patterns of 26 domestic pet dogs were described in a longitudinal study. The dogs entered the study between 3 and 8 months of age and were monitored until 2 years of age. They were tested monthly for Campylobacter carriage in stool samples that were cultured...... on the Campylobacter-selective media CAT and modified CCDA agar at 37 and 42 C. This study comprised 366 fecal swab samples, of which 278 (76.2%) were found to be Campylobacter positive, with the following distribution of species: 75.0% Campylobacter upsaliensis, 19.4% Campylobacter jejuni, 2.1% Campylobacter lari, 0.......7% Campylobacter coli, and 2.8% Campylobacter spp. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to elucidate the strain excretion pattern. All study dogs excreted Campylobacter spp. during the study period. At 3 months of age, 60% of the dogs carried Campylobacter, increasing to nearly 100...

  11. Effects of Long-term Use of Polyphenols on the Absorption and Tissue Distribution of Orally Administered Metformin and Atenolol in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Abdulrahman Hussain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of long-term use of silibinin, epigallocatechin (ECGC, quercetin and rutin on the absorption and tissue distribution of metformin and atenolol. Materials and Methods: Thirty male rats were used, allocated into 5 groups and treated as follow: 1st group treated with olive oil and served as control; the other 4 groups were treated with either silibinin, EPGC, quercetin or rutin, administered orally as oily solutions for 30 days. At day 30, a 300mg/kg metformin and 50mg/kg atenolol were administered orally; 3.0 hrs later, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples, tissues of brain, kidney and liver were obtained for evaluation of the drugs level. Results: The polyphenols increased both serum and tissue levels of metformin compared with controls. This effect was relatively varied according to the structural differences among flavonoids. Conclusion: Long-term use of supraphysiological doses of flavonoids increase absorption of Zn, Cu and Fe and their tissue availability in brain, kidney and liver; this effect seems to be different with variations in structural features. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 147-154

  12. Gastrointestinal absorption of uranium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been established for determining the fractional absorption of uranium directly in man. Measurements are made of the urinary excretion rates of uranium for individuals whose drinking water has a high 234U to 238U activity ratio and is the primary source of 234U in their diets. For two individuals, the values obtained for the fractional absorption of 234U were 0.004 and 0.006. The values obtained for the fractional absorption of 238U, using a literature value for the 238U intake from food, were 0.008 and 0.015. The present ICRP value is 0.20. 7 references, 1 table

  13. Fat absorption in cystic fibrosis mice is impeded by defective lipolysis and post-lipolytic events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvelds, MJC; Bronsveld, [No Value; Havinga, R; Sinaasappel, M; de Jonge, HR; Verkade, HJ

    2005-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is frequently associated with progressive loss of exocrine pancreas function, leading to incomplete digestion and absorption of dietary fat. Supplementing patients with pancreatic lipase reduces fat excretion, but it does not completely correct fat malabsorption, indicating that

  14. Absorption and tissue distribution of radioactivity in mussels (Mytilus Galloprovincialis) exposed to low concentrations of 14C-polychlorinated biphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed for 144 h to an isomeric 14C polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture at an initial concentration of 4.6 μg l-1. Animals were sampled after 6, 12, 24, 72 and 144 h of exposure for sex differences in PCB tissue distribution. PCB was readily absorbed within 12 h and then slowly eliminated from the body with a biological half-time of 209 h. No sexual differences were observed except with mussels sampled at 12 h, where 14C activity was significantly higher (P14C activity measured in gills appeared to be related to the PCB water concentration. 14 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  15. Excretion pathways and ruminal disappearance of glyphosate and its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Hüther, L; Dänicke, S; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, M; Schafft, H; Spolders, M; Breves, G

    2016-07-01

    From 6 balance experiments with total collection of feces and urine, samples were obtained to investigate the excretion pathways of glyphosate (GLY) in lactating dairy cows. Each experiment lasted for 26d. The first 21d served for adaptation to the diet, and during the remaining 5d collection of total feces and urine was conducted. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk and feed samples were taken during the sampling periods. In 2 of the 6 experiments, at the sampling period for feces and urine, duodenal contents were collected for 5d. Cows were equipped with cannulas at the dorsal sac of the rumen and the proximal duodenum. Duodenal contents were collected every 2h over 5 consecutive days. The daily duodenal dry matter flow was measured by using chromium oxide as a volume marker. All samples (feed, feces, urine, milk and duodenal contents were analyzed for GLY and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). Overall, across the 6 experiments (n=32) the range of GLY intake was 0.08 to 6.67mg/d. The main proportion (61±11%; ±SD) of consumed GLY was excreted with feces; whereas excretion by urine was 8±3% of GLY intake. Elimination via milk was negligible. The GLY concentrations above the limit of quantification were not detected in any of the milk samples. A potential ruminal degradation of GLY to AMPA was derived from daily duodenal GLY flow. The apparent ruminal disappearance of GLY intake was 36 and 6%. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the gastrointestinal absorption of GLY is of minor importance and fecal excretion represents the major excretion pathway. A degradation of GLY to AMPA by rumen microbes or a possible retention in the body has to be taken into account. PMID:27108173

  16. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm-1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm-1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  17. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...... of 5.6 mg nickel (as the sulfate), increased nickel excretion was found over the following 2-3 days. We conclude that consecutive urinary nickel determinations are able to disclose variations in oral intake of nickel....

  18. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    OpenAIRE

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitore...

  19. Study of Absorption and Distribution of Mercury in Nerium Oleander L. on Banks of the Valdeazogues River (Chillon Station- Ciudad Real)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study is to determine the absorption and distribution of mercury in oleander (Nerium oleander L.) in the Valdeazogues river, located within the mining regions of Almaden (Ciudad Real). The results show that total mercury concentrations in soil range from 116,7 ±24,3 to 350,9 ± 68,6 mg kg-1 of Hg, but the readily available fraction (soluble + exchangeable) is very low (from 0,013 to 0,017 ± 0,257 ± 0,000 mg Hg kg-1: less than 0,16% of the total concentration of mercury measured directly on the soil sample).The distribution of mercury absorbed by N. oleander is not homogeneous throughout the aerial part. In general, the concentration is significantly higher in the leaves followed by stems and fruits. According to the results, although the concentration of mercury in the plant is not very high (Leaves: 0,282 ±0,014-1,022 ± 0,110 mg Kg-1; Stems: 0,087 ± 0,011-0,354 ± 0,046 mg Kg-1; Fruits: 0,030 ± 0,003-0,077 ± 0,009 mg Kg-1), oleander has a number of characteristics (high biomass, toxicity, non-edible) that could turn into a future candidate as phyto extraction of mercury in decontamination processes. (Author) 67 refs.

  20. A rapid method to derive horizontal distributions of trace gases and aerosols near the surface using multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply a novel experimental procedure for the rapid measurement of the average volume mixing ratios (VMRs and horizontal distributions of trace gases such as NO2, SO2, and HCHO in the boundary layer, which was recently suggested by Sinreich et al. (2013. The method is based on two-dimensional scanning multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS. It makes use of two facts (Sinreich et al. 2013: First, the light path for observations at 1° elevation angle traverses mainly air masses located close to the ground (typically 4. Thus, the average value of the trace gas VMR in the atmospheric layer between the surface and the altitude, for which this observation was sensitive, can be calculated. Compared to the originally proposed method, we introduce several important modifications and improvements: We apply the method only to measurements at 1° elevation angles, for which the uncertainties are especially small. Using only 1 elevation angle also allows an increased temporal resolution. We apply correction factors (and their uncertainties as function of the simultaneously modelled O4 absorption. In this way the correction factors can be directly determined according to the measured O4 dAMF. Finally, the method is extended to trace gases analysed at other wavelengths and also to the retrieval of the aerosol extinction. Depending on the atmospheric visibility, the typical uncertainty of the results ranges from about 15 to 30%. We apply the rapid method to observations of a newly developed ground-based multifunctional passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy (GM-DOAS instrument in the north-west outskirt near Hefei City in China. We report NO2, SO2, and HCHO VMRs and aerosol extinction for four azimuth angles and compare these results with those from simultaneous long-path DOAS observations. Good agreement is found (squares of the correlation coefficients for NO2, SO2, and HCHO were 0.92, 0.84, and 0.59, respectively

  1. Potassium excretion during antinatriuresis: perspective from a distal nephron model

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Renal excretion of Na+ and K+ must be regulated independently within the distal nephron, but is complicated by the fact that changing excretion of one solute requires adjustments in the transport of both. It is long known that hypovolemia increases Na+ reabsorption while impairing K+ excretion, even when distal Na+ delivery is little changed. Renewed interest in this micropuncture observation came with identification of the molecular defects underlying familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHH)...

  2. Lorry drivers' work stress evaluated by catecholamines excreted in urine.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Beek, A J; Meijman, T.F; Frings-Dresen, M. H.; Kuiper, J I; Kuiper, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. METHODS--The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline of 32 lorry drivers, who also had loading and unloading activities to perform, was studied for one working day and one rest day. Each driver was asked to provide six urine samples on both days. RE...

  3. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiko, Rainer; Hauss, Helena; Buchholz, Friedrich; Melzner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2, and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply could fuel bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean considerably. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a down-regulation of ammonium excretion. We exposed calanoid copepods from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA; Undinula vulgaris and Pleuromamma abdominalis) and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP; Euphausia mucronata) and the ETNA (Euphausia gibboides) to different temperatures, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels to study their survival, respiration and excretion rates at these conditions. An increase in temperature by 10 °C led to an approximately 2-fold increase of the respiration and excretion rates of U. vulgaris (Q10, respiration = 1.4; Q10, NH4-excretion = 1.6), P. abdominalis (Q10, respiration = 2.0; Q10, NH4-excretion = 2.4) and

  4. Modeling single cell antibody excretion on a biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Ivan; Baumgartner, Wolfgang; van der Velden, Thomas J G; Terstappen, Leon W M M; Schasfoort, Richard B M

    2016-07-01

    We simulated, using Comsol Multiphysics, the excretion of antibodies by single hybridoma cells and their subsequent binding on a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) sensor. The purpose was to confirm that SPRi is suitable to accurately quantify antibody (anti-EpCAM) excretion. The model showed that antibody loss by diffusion away from the sensor was less than 1%. Unexpectedly, more than 99% of the excreted antibodies were captured on the sensor. These data prove the remarkable phenomenon that the SPRi output of cellular antibody excretion and its subsequent binding, performed under the conditions described here, is directly usable for quantification of single cell antibody production rates. PMID:27040182

  5. Absorption and distribution of xenobiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Standaert, F G

    1988-01-01

    Extrapolation of pharmacokinetic data between species has been simplified by the advent of more sensitive methods of analysis of chemicals in body tissues and by the capability of inexpensive computers to perform complex calculations. These new methods enable investigators to observe the rates at which target tissues reach equilibrium in different species and to develop mathematical models of these processes. The evaluation of physiological pharmacokinetics from classical or compartmental kin...

  6. Modelling phosphorus intake, digestion, retention and excretion in growing and finishing pig: model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeou, V; Leinonen, I; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-10-01

    A deterministic, dynamic model was developed, to enable predictions of phosphorus (P) digested, retained and excreted for different pig genotypes and under different dietary conditions. Before confidence can be placed on the predictions of the model, its evaluation was required. A sensitivity analysis of model predictions to ±20% changes in the model parameters was undertaken using a basal UK industry standard diet and a pig genotype characterized by British Society Animal Science as being of 'intermediate growth'. Model outputs were most sensitive to the values of the efficiency of digestible P utilization for growth and the non-phytate P absorption coefficient from the small intestine into the bloodstream; all other model parameters influenced model outputs by excretion. In general, the model predicted satisfactorily the quantitative pig responses, in terms of P digested, retained and excreted, to variation in dietary inorganic P supply, Ca and phytase supplementation. The model performed well with 'conventional', European feed ingredients and poorly with 'less conventional' ones, such as dried distillers grains with solubles and canola meal. Explanations for these inconsistencies in the predictions are offered in the paper and they are expected to lead to further model development and improvement. The latter would include the characterization of the origin of phytate in pig diets.

  7. Can the excretion of metabolites by bacteria be manipulated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, Wil N.; Poolman, Bert; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Bacteria can release metabolites into the environment by various mechanisms. Excretion may occur by passive diffusion or by the reversal of the uptake process when the internal concentration of the metabolite exceeds the thermodynamic equilibrium level. In other cases, solutes are excreted against t

  8. Urinary, biliary and faecal excretion of rocuronium in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, JH; Eriksson, LI; Mirakhur, RK; Wierda, JMKH

    2000-01-01

    The excretion of rocuronium and its potential metabolites was studied in 38 anaesthetized patients, ASA I-III and 21-69 yr old. Rocuronium bromide was administered as an i.v. bolus dose of 0.3 or 0.9 mg kg(-1). in Part A of the study, the excretion into urine and bile, and the liver content were stu

  9. Reduced fecal sterol excretion in subjects with familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Harchaoui, Karim; Franssen, Remco; Hovingh, G. Kees; Bisoendial, Radjesh J.; Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion are the obligate endpoints of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway (RCT). In studies in mice, no evidence was found for a relation between HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels and fecal sterol excretion. In this study, we have evaluated this re

  10. Thermal structure and CO distribution for the Venus mesosphere/lower thermosphere: 2001-2009 inferior conjunction sub-millimeter CO absorption line observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Sandor, Brad J.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald

    2012-02-01

    Sub-millimeter 12CO (346 GHz) and 13CO (330 GHz) line absorptions, formed in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere of Venus (70-120 km), have been mapped across the nightside Venus disk during 2001-2009 inferior conjunctions, employing the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Radiative transfer analysis of these thermal line absorptions supports temperature and CO mixing profile retrievals, as well as Doppler wind fields (described in the companion paper, Clancy et al., 2012). Temporal sampling over the hourly, daily, weekly and interannual timescales was obtained over 2001-2009. On timescales inferred as several weeks, we observe changes between very distinctive CO and temperature nightside distributions. Retrieved nightside CO, temperature distributions for January 2006 and August 2007 observations display strong local time, latitudinal gradients consistent with early morning (2-3 am), low-to-mid latitude (0-40NS) peaks of 100-200% in CO and 20-30 K in temperature. The temperature increases are most pronounced above 100 km altitudes, whereas CO variations extend from 105 km (top altitude of retrieval) down to below 80 km in the mesosphere. In contrast, the 2004 and 2009 periods of observation display modest temperature (5-10 K) and CO (30-60%) increases, that are centered on antisolar (midnight) local times and equatorial latitudes. Doppler wind derived global (zonal and should be SSAS) circulations from the same data do not exhibit variations correlated with these CO, temperature short-term variations. However, large-scale residual wind fields not fit by the zonal, SSAS circulations are observed in concert with the strong temperature, CO gradients observed in 2006 and 2007 (Clancy et al., 2010). These short term variations in nightside CO, temperature distributions may also be related to observed nightside variations in O 2 airglow (Hueso, H., Sánchez-Lavega, A., Piccioni, G., Drossart, P., Gérard, J.C., Khatuntsev, I., Zasova, L., Migliorini, A. [2008]. J

  11. 甘薯矿质元素吸收与分配特性研究%Mineral elements absorption and distribution of sweetpotato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳洪鹃; 张立明; 史春余; 李作梅

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accumulation and distribution of dry matter in different oranges of sweetpotato named Beijing 553 during different periods in field culture experiment, meanwhile the content of mineral elements was analysed, too.The results showed as follow, dry matter accumulation was small in prophas and got larger with growth, the accumulation center transferred from over ground part to storage root gradually.Accumulation of mineral elements in different oranges was increased with plant growing, but distribution was different.Mineral elements were concentrated in over ground part mainly in early periods of growth, and transferred to storage root later.N, K and Ca absorption was remarkable in growth of sweetpotato.The main accumulation periods of N and Ca which were concentrated in over ground part mainly were prometaphase while that of K were intermediate and final growth periods which were concentrated in storage root mainly.Fe was absorbed mostly in microelements, the main periods were the former and metaphase and main distributing part was over ground part.The pattern of fertilizer requirement in unit yield was correspondent to that of mineral elements absorption, which could be used to guide production, make fertilizer rational and reduce waste of fertilizer and environmental pollution.%在大田条件下,研究了甘薯品种北京553不同时期不同器官干物质的积累与分配规律,并分析其中各矿质元素含量的变化情况.结果表明,甘薯干物质前期积累少,中后期快速积累,并逐渐由地上部转移至块根中.各矿质元素在甘薯不同器官的积累量随植株生长而增加,但分配率不同,前期各元素集中于地上部,中后期逐渐转移至块根中.甘薯一生吸收最多的元素是氮、钾和钙,其中氮和钙主要在前中期积累且分布在地上部,钾则主要在中后期积累且分布于块根.微量元素中,甘薯对铁的需求较大,主要时期是生

  12. Effects of xylitol on the absorption of /sup 203/Pb in mice and cockerels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykkaenen, H.M.; Salminen, S.J.

    1986-07-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that xylitol may increase the absorption and urinary excretion of dietary oxalate. It has also been indicated that xylitol increases the absorption of calcium. Intestinal absorption of lead, a divalent contaminant in the diet, is in many respects similar to that of calcium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of xylitol on the intestinal absorption of lead using two different approaches: the in situ ligated intestinal loop technique in cockerels and gastric gavage in mice.

  13. Effects of xylitol on the absorption of 203Pb in mice and cockerels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies have indicated that xylitol may increase the absorption and urinary excretion of dietary oxalate. It has also been indicated that xylitol increases the absorption of calcium. Intestinal absorption of lead, a divalent contaminant in the diet, is in many respects similar to that of calcium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of xylitol on the intestinal absorption of lead using two different approaches: the in situ ligated intestinal loop technique in cockerels and gastric gavage in mice

  14. Absorption and Distribution of Foliar Applied Boron in Upland Cotton%陆地棉对叶面施硼的吸收和分配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君; 危常州; 梁远航; 李美宁; 董鹏

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we studied the absorption and distribution of foliar applied boron in upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) in a hydroponic experiment. The results showed that both boron concentration and uptake in different cotton plant organs were the greatest in the leaves, followed by the stem, and lowest in the roots, boron absorption in the cotton plants increased significantly after foliar boron application except in roots. Compared with the control treatment, boron concentration in roots decreased by 41.9% when boron was partially applied on the leaves and by 11.2% when boron was applied to all leaves. Stalk boron concentration in the partial application treatment decreased by 5.9% compared to the control, but boron concentration in cotton leaves increased by 149.1%, significantly greater than the control treatment. In the partial application treatment, the amount of boron that was transferred to untreated leaves was only 5.2%, showing that boron absorbed by leaves can be partially transferred to conductivity organs but hardly enters other leaves. In the whole plant boron application treatment, the absorption of boron increased by 22.5% in the stalk and 203.7% in leaves.%通过水培试验结合室内分析,研究陆地棉对叶面施硼的吸收和分配.结果表明:施硼显著提高植株体内的硼含量和硼吸收量;棉花各器官硼含量及硼吸收量顺序均为叶片>茎秆>根系;与根系营养吸硼处理相比,叶面施硼后棉花的根系含硼量显著降低,其中部分叶片施硼处理的棉花根系硼含量降低了41.9%,全株叶片施硼的根系硼含量降低11.2%;部分叶片施硼后棉花茎秆硼含量比根系营养吸硼处理降低了5.9%,叶片硼含量比根系营养吸硼处理增加149.1%,硼主要停留在施硼叶片中,被转移到不施硼叶片的硼含量只占5.2%,难以通过输导组织进入其他叶片;全株叶片施硼,进入茎秆的硼素比根系营养吸硼处理增加22.5%,但

  15. Effects of Substrate Complexing Light Rare Earth on Growth, Cd Absorption and Organ Distribution of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum)%Effects of Substrate Complexing Light Rare Earth on Growth, Cd Absorption and Organ Distribution of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research effects of substrate complexing light rare earth on growth, Cd absorption and organ distribution of sweet pepper to pro- vide references for development of rhizosphere regulation products in farmland seri- ously polluted. [Method] In the test, effects of substrate cakes (at the same size) and light rare earth (in different doses) on growth, Cd absorption and distribution of green peppers under stress from Cd were explored with a pot experiment. [Result] When 40 mg/kg of rare earth was added into a substrate cake, plant height of pep- per seedlings and the dry weight increased by 21.52% and 11.11%, compared with control group; when Cd was at 5.19 mg/kg (a highly graded pollution), the shoot biomass, olant biomass and dry weight of fruits all enhanced significantly, but root system changed little in the groups where substrate cakes were saved, compared with the group where the substrate cake was washed away. No matter RE was added into substrate cakes or not, root system was significantly inhibited by Cd stress (5.19 mg/kg), but RE at proper dose improved growth of green pepper and had little effect on fruit yielding. In addition, RE had little inhibition on Cd content in roots. RE at 10 mg/kg promoted Cd contents in stems and leaves, but reduced the content in fruits substantially. The regressive equation of Cd content and rare dose in leaves was as follows: y=4E-05x%0.009 6x+0.655 6, FF=0.542 6; the regression equations of Cd content in root, stem and fruit did not make sense. [Conclusion] The experiment lays foundation for further research on heavy metals rhizosphere complexing controlling.

  16. Ultra-performance liquid-chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and excretion of schisandrin after oral administration of Shengmaisan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sheng-Wen; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guang-Li; Han, Ying; Wu, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Xi-Jun

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo behaviors of the main components in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) fomulae. The plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of the main component-schisandrin in rats after oral administration of a classical TCM prescription, shengmaisan (SMS), were studied by a developed and validated UPLC-MS/MS method. The separation of schisandrin was achieved on a UPLC HSS T3 column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min by linear gradient elution. The MS/MS detection was carried out by monitoring the fragmentation of m/z 415.22 → 384.26 for schisandrin on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The result showed that the method was suitable for the quantification of schisandrin in plasma, tissue and excreta samples with satisfactory selectivity, precision, accuracy, sensitivity, linearity and recovery. Pharmacokinetic results showed a rapid absorption phase with the mean Tmax of 0.17 h and a relatively slow elimination proceeding with a half-life (T1/2 ) of 5.24 ± 1.28 h. The tissue distribution showed the maximum concentration distributions of schisandrin after oral administration of SMS were in the order of small intestine > large intestine > lung > liver > kidney > spleen > heart > brain. Only 0.005-0.006% of schisandrin was recovered in feces and was not detected in urine.

  17. Absorption and metabolic fate of bioactive dietary benzoxazinoids in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Khem B; Laursen, Bente B; Gregersen, Per L;

    2013-01-01

    of bioactive benzoxazinoids in humans. Methods and results The absorption, metabolism, and excretion of ten different dietary benzoxazinoids were examined by LC-MS/MS by analyzing plasma and urine from 20 healthy human volunteers after daily intake of 143 μmol of total benzoxazinoids from rye bread and rye...

  18. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Rocio IR; Marin, Jose JG; Serrano, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with the kidney, constitute the main routes for the elimination of several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds into bile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterine life the biliary route of excretion for cholephilic compounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, is very poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem. PMID:19230042

  19. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rocio IR Macias; Jose JG Marin; Maria A Serrano

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with thekidney, constitute the main routes for the eliminationof several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds intobile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterinelife the biliary route of excretion for cholephiliccompounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, isvery poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem.

  20. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M;

    1991-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0.......0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio...... of u-GH excretion (pg/h) was significantly higher in females than in males (p less than 0.01). In Tanner stages 1-4, u-GH excretion during the day was lower than that at night, whereas the opposite was true in late puberty and in adult women. The interindividual variation of u-GH excretion within the...

  1. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100....../d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  2. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4......Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100...... Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug...

  3. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J C; Hillege, H L; Burgerhof, J G M; Janssen, W M T; Gansevoort, R T; Navis, G J; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, P E; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis. Setting: University hospital outpatient clinic. Subje

  4. Urinary Kallikrein Excretion in Essential and Mineralocorticoid Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, O. Bryan; Chud, James M.; Braunstein, Helen

    1980-01-01

    Urinary kallikrein excretion has been reported to be decreased in patients with essential hypertension and elevated in patients with primary aldosteronism as a reflection of mineralocorticoid activity. Low renin essential hypertension (LREH) has been postulated to result from excess production of an unknown mineralocorticoid(s). Urinary kallikrein excretion was compared in outpatients with essential hypertension, mineralocorticoid hypertension (primary aldosteronism and 17α-hydroxylase defici...

  5. Ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels is facilitated by ciliary beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, J; Himmerkus, N; Holland, N; Sartoris, F J; Bleich, M; Tresguerres, M

    2016-08-01

    The excretion of nitrogenous waste products in the form of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) is a fundamental process in aquatic organisms. For mytilid bivalves, little is known about the mechanisms and sites of excretion. This study investigated the localization and the mechanisms of ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels. An Rh protein was found to be abundantly expressed in the apical cell membrane of the plicate organ, which was previously described as a solely respiratory organ. The Rh protein was also expressed in the gill, although at significantly lower concentrations, but was not detectable in mussel kidney. Furthermore, NH3/NH4 (+) was not enriched in the urine, suggesting that kidneys are not involved in active NH3/NH4 (+) excretion. Exposure to elevated seawater pH of 8.5 transiently reduced NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates, but they returned to control values following 24 h acclimation. These mussels had increased abundance of V-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical membranes of plicate organ cells; however, NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates were not affected by the V-type H(+)-ATPase specific inhibitor concanamycin A (100 nmol l(-1)). In contrast, inhibition of ciliary beating with dopamine and increased seawater viscosity significantly reduced NH3 excretion rates under control pH (8.0). These results suggest that NH3/NH4 (+) excretion in mytilid mussels takes place by passive NH3 diffusion across respiratory epithelia via the Rh protein, facilitated by the water current produced for filter feeding, which prevents accumulation of NH3 in the boundary layer. This mechanism would be energy efficient for sessile organisms, as they already generate water currents for filter feeding. PMID:27489216

  6. Excretion is Faster Than Diagenesis for Nutrient Recycling in Lake Michigan Benthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, C.; Cuhel, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    nucleic acids and lipid) being excreted. Oddly, the highest quality food resources (low C:N and C:P ratios) lead to the greatest excretion of N and P nutrients in healthy organisms with high metabolic rates. This suggestion is borne out by the spatial distribution of QM excretion rates in transects across seamount-like bathymetric features in south-central Lake Michigan. On the upstream side and plateaus of Northeast and Sheboygan Reefs, where freshly advected bottom water flows across mussel communities, excretion rates in summer 2013 varied around 0.8 and 30 nmol/animal/hr (HPO4= and NH4+ respectively) for robust young adult mussels 15-20mm in length. On the downstream slope, where particles are likely reprocessed several times, nutritional quality and excretion rates were lower, especially for NH4+. Inshore shallow stations have similar rates to upstream nutrient-sufficient populations. Excretion size spectrum regressions combined with population size frequency analyses enable estimation of areal flux. N:P excretion ratios (30-40) are greater than Redfield, and consistent with growing animals nearing their late summer spawning effort. Several years of trophic gradient transects for mussel excretion, and pre- vs. post-QM porewater profiles will support these conclusions.

  7. Quantitative urinary protein excretion in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, R G; Galla, J H; Luke, R G

    1982-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the measurement of quantitative proteinuria in patients with a creatinine clearance of less than 10 ml/min was determined in patients seen in a single center over a 5-year period. All 126 patients in whom a definitive renal diagnosis was possible were included. Patients with glomerular disease excreted 6.1 +/- 0.6 g/day and patients with interstitial disease 1.5 +/- 0.3 g/day (p less than 0.001). In individual patients with end-stage renal disease, however, measurement of urinary protein excretion excluded (with 95% confidence levels) patients with interstitial diseases only when greater than 2.9 g/day. To examine the natural history of proteinuria in progressive renal disease, urinary protein, absolute and factored for glomerular filtration rate (GFR; creatinine clearance), was determined at 10 ml/min decrements in GFR for patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, idiopathic membranous glomerulonephritis and focal glomerulosclerosis. Quantitative urinary protein excretion was relatively constant as GFR fell but did fall significantly at less than 10 ml/min but only to 4.8-7.0 g/day at even that level. Urinary protein excretion/GFR increased as GFR fell, particularly at end stage where a highly significant four-fold rise was seen; an increase also occurred in patients with primary interstitial disease. Similar data were obtained for 34 randomly selected patients after at least 1 year of chronic hemodialysis. Although a significant decline in absolute urinary protein excretion occurred during the year of dialysis to levels not different between glomerular and interstitial disease, urinary protein excretion/unit GFR remained elevated. Increased urinary protein excretion/unit GFR may result from a functional adaptation of remaining nephrons in response to declining renal mass.

  8. Stimulation of the faecal excretion of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl in rats by squalane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, E; Schäfer, S G; Fichtl, B

    1983-06-01

    Faecal excretion of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB) was followed for 19 weeks in rats fed a control diet, or a squalane-supplemented diet, for up to 17 weeks. In 3 d after a single oral dose of 8 mg/kg of 6-CB, 20% dose was excreted in faeces as unchanged 6-CB, which probably represents that not-absorbed. From day 4 to 133 only an additional 2-4% dose was excreted in faeces by control animals. Addition of 8% squalane to the diet 2, 6 and 15 weeks after dosing resulted in a five-fold increase of daily 6-CB excretion in faeces independent of the time of beginning the treatment. Total excretion of 6-CB in faeces from day 4 to 133 was 3.6, 6-7 and 9.3% dose after 4, 13 and 17 weeks of squalane treatment, respectively. No adverse effects of long-term squalane treatment on body-weight gain, feed efficiency and organ weights were observed. Plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly lowered. Independent of the duration of treatment, the livers of rats fed the squalane-supplemented diet contained 40-50 micrograms/g squalane. Within the limits of detection no squalane could be found in lungs, kidneys, abdominal fat, spleen and blood. It is concluded that 6-CB elimination can be enhanced by oral treatment with squalane even a long time after uptake of the poison. As there was no alteration in the tissue distribution of 6-CB, the 6-CB excreted after squalane treatment probably originates from all tissues.

  9. Excretion of (3H)prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of (3H)prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of (3H)prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and (3H)prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of (3H)prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of (3H)prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  10. Excretion of [3H]prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excretion rate of [3H]prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of [3H]prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and [3H]prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of [3H]prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of [3H]prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows

  11. Studies on the percutaneous absorption of /sup 14/C-labelled Flurbiprofen, 3. Whole body autoradiography of rats and guinea-pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Soshichi; Sakai, Takeo; Hayakawa, Toru (Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Coll. of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine)

    1983-03-01

    Whole body autoradiography was carried out to clarify and compare the distribution of /sup 14/C-labelled Flurbiprofen which was applied to the skin as an ointment in rats and guinea-pigs. Both in rats and guinea-pigs almost the same autoradiogram was gained. The radioactivity was strongest at the skin area inspite of the time elapse, showing that the drug was fixed in the site of skin applied. In other parts of the body, however, it was small except the kidney and intestine. It seemed that the absorption of the drug was a little although the migration of the drug into the blood circulation is fast at the beginning as was shown in pigs previously. A stronger radioactivity in the kidney and intestine might indicate that a main pathway of excretion of this drug was through those two organs. Absorption, distribution and excretion of the drug were not different between rats and guinea-pigs, similar to those observed in pigs.

  12. Enantioselective absorption and transformation of a novel chiral neonicotinoid [(14)C]-cycloxaprid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengchen; Huang, Lei; Tang, Shenghua; Li, Zhong; Ye, Qingfu

    2016-06-01

    Neonicotinoid pesticides caused hazardous effects on pollinators and aquatic ecosystem. The new developed chiral cis-neonicotinoid cycloxaprid(CYC) is a highly potent substitute for low toxicity to bees and high efficiency on target-insects, but little is known about the metabolic dynamics of racemic CYC and its 2 enantiomers(SR and RS) in animal models. In this study, chiral separation of (14)C-labeled racemic CYC was performed in high-performance liquid chromatography under optimal conditions. For the first time that the stereoselectivity of the chiral neonicotinoid insecticide CYC was exhibited in rats after single dose oral administration using (14)C-labeled isotope trace technique. Enantioselective behaviors of racemic CYC, SR and RS were observed in blood metabolism, tissue distribution and excretion. The major deposition of (14)C were found in liver, lung, kidney and heart. After 24 h, skin and fat showed a strong bioaccumulation effect, and total excreted urine and feces of CYC, SR and RS were 50.4%, 59.7% and 74.5%, respectively. Enantiomer RS had the fastest absorption and elimination rates, and it was least bioaccumulated in rats. The results provide scientific basis and practical techniques for environmental risk assessment of chiral pesticides, especially neonicotinoids. PMID:27038208

  13. Changes in parasite transmission stage excretion after pheasant release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanúa, D; Acevedo, P; Höfle, U; Rodríguez, O; Gortázar, C

    2006-09-01

    The production of parasite transmission stages was investigated in the faeces of 77 farm-bred ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Coccidian oocysts (Eimeria sp.), and nematode eggs (Heterakis sp., and Capillaria-like eggs) were recovered before and after release but all birds were treated prior to release. Treatment with fenbendazole significantly reduced the abundance of transmission-stage excretion for all parasites, and reduced the prevalence in the case of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. Nonetheless, a significant increase in the excretion abundance for all parasites and in the prevalence of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. was found after release. Eggs of Ascaridia sp. were found only after releasing, suggesting infection ocurred in the wild. A negative relationship was found between the pheasant body condition and Heterakis excretion abundance and a higher abundance of Capillaria sp. eggs in female birds. No significant relationship was found between parasite excretion abundance and pheasant survival. Despite this, results suggest that an increase in the excretion of parasite transmission stages follows the release of captive pheasants into the wild. This can in part explain restocking failures, but also means that autochtonous free-living birds may become exposed to new and potentially harmful pathogens. To avoid these risks it is proposed that improved prophylactic measures should be taken. PMID:16923277

  14. Short communication: Evaluation of nitrogen excretion equations from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A C B; Reed, K F; Kebreab, E

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen excretion in dairy manure is a precursor for N2O and NH3 formation in livestock housing, manure storage facilities, and after manure is applied to land. Nitrous oxide is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, and reducing N output from dairy production facilities can reduce the amount of anthropogenic N2O entering the atmosphere. The objective of the study was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of extant prediction models for N excretion in feces and urine using extensive literature data. A total of 45 N excretion equations were evaluated for lactating cows, heifers, and nonlactating cows and steers. These equations were evaluated with 215 treatment means from 69 published studies collected over 20 yr from 1995 to 2015. Two evaluation methods were used: the root mean square prediction error and the concordance correlation coefficient. Equations constructed using a more rigorous development process fared better than older extant equations. Equations for heifers and nonlactating cows had greater error of prediction compared with equations used for lactating cows. This could be due to limited amount of data available for construction and evaluation of the equations. Urinary N equations had greater prediction errors than other forms of excretion, possibly due to high variability in urinary N excretion and challenges in urine collection. Fecal N equations had low error bias and reached an acceptable level of precision and accuracy. PMID:27320670

  15. Short communication: Individual cow variation in urinary excretion of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Sehested, Jakob

    2016-06-01

    Some dairy cows excrete large amounts of P through their urine; thus, it was speculated that a genetic defect related to their efficiency in uptake of P or recirculation of P could cause such an effect. This speculation was pursued in a cross sectional study on 139 cows (103 Holstein and 36 Jersey) from an experimental herd using repeated sampling of urine (301 samples) to investigate sources of variation in urinary P concentration (Pu). Urine samples were taken on 6 testing sessions spread over 2 mo. Each sample was obtained by mild manual stimulation of the rear udder escutcheon area. The samples were immediately assayed for pH, stored frozen, and assayed for inorganic P and creatinine. Concentrations of P and creatinine in urine, the ratio of Pu to creatinine, and pH were analyzed using a linear mixed model. The model included fixed effects of breed, parity number, and sampling session. Stage of lactation was fitted as Wilmink-type lactation curves. Random effects included additive polygenic ancestry, permanent animal effects, and residual. The distribution of Pu approximated normality except for a single sample with very high Pu and very low pH. This sample came from a cow diagnosed independently with ketosis. For the remaining samples, it was shown that Pu has low to moderate heritability (0.12) and is only moderately repeatable (0.21). Based on a small data set, it is tentatively concluded that individual differences between cows exist in their Pu, and individual differences presumably result from genetic differences. However, it remains unclear if cows with genetically lower or higher Pu will perform better on a low-P diet. PMID:26995137

  16. The Kinetics of Urinary Fumonisin B1 Excretion in Humans Consuming Maize-Based Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ronald T.; Torres, Olga; Showker, Jency L.; Zitomer, Nicholas C.; Matute, Jorge; Voss, Kenneth A.; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee; Maddox, Joyce R.; Gregory, Simon G.; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins found in maize. The purpose of this study was to 1) determine the relationship between FB1, FB2 and FB3 intake and urinary excretion in humans, 2) validate a method to isolate urinary FB on C18-SPE cartridges for international shipment, and 3) test the method using samples from Guatemala. Volunteers (n=10) consumed 206 grams/day of tortillas and biscuits prepared from masa flour and a product containing maize flour. Volunteers estimated their daily urine output and samples were analyzed for FB1, FB2 and FB3 and hydrolyzed FB1. Only FB1 was detected in urine suggesting lower absorption of FB2 and FB3. Excretion was highly variable peaking soon after consumption began and decreasing rapidly after consumption stopped. Within five days after consumption ended FB1 was not detected in urine. In a study with eight volunteers, the average total urinary FB1 was 0.5% of the intake. FB1 was detected in 61% (107/177) of the samples collected in Guatemala. The results support the use of urinary FB1 to assess ongoing exposure in population based studies. However, relating the FB1 concentration in urine to dietary intake of FB by individual subjects will be complicated due to inter-individual variability and the rapidity of clearance. PMID:22815244

  17. Arsenic species excretion after dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) treatment of an acute arsenic trioxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich-Ramm, R. [Ordinariat fuer Arbeitsmedizin der Universitaet Hamburg und Zentralinstitut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Hamburg (Germany); Schaller, K.H.; Angerer, J. [Institut und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Schillerstr. 25, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Horn, J. [Medizinische Klinik II, Toxikologische-internistische Intensivstation, Klinikum Nuernberg, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    We studied the urinary excretion of the different arsenic species in urine samples from a young man who tried to commit suicide by ingesting about 0.6 g arsenic trioxide. He received immediate therapy with dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) after his delivery into the hospital. We assessed urinary arsenite (inorganic trivalent arsenic), arsenate (inorganic pentavalent arsenic), pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and pentavalent monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine with ion-exchange chromatography and on-line hydride-technique atomic absorption spectrometry. The predominant amount of the excreted arsenic was unchanged trivalent inorganic arsenic (37.4%), followed by pentavalent inorganic arsenic (2.6%), MMA (2.1%), DMA (0.2%) and one unidentified arsenic species (0.7%, if calculated as DMA). In the first urine voiding in the clinic, the total arsenic concentration was 215 mg/l, which fell 1000-fold after 8 days of DMPS therapy. A most striking finding was the almost complete inhibition of the second methylation step in arsenic metabolism. As mechanisms for the reduced methylation efficiency, the saturation of the enzymatic process of arsenic methylation, the high dosage of antidote DMPS, which might inhibit the activity of the methyl transferases, and analytical reasons are discussed. The high dosage of DMPS is the most likely explanation. The patient left the hospital after a 12-day treatment with antidote. (orig.)

  18. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

  19. Effect of the diet traditional and non-traditional on the respiration and excretion in larvae of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Medina-Jasso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. It was studied the respiration and ammoniacal excretion of zoeas and mysis of Litopenaeus vannamei fed with the diet used traditionally (of microalgae and nauplios of artemia and another alternative (not traditional of microalgae with rotifers. Materials and methods. After four hours the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in BOD bottles with 60 larvae (closed respirometers was estimated. The concentrations of O2 and NH4 + were measured with an electrode polarográfico in the first case and with the indophenol blue technique for the second. Results. In zoea, oxygen consumption increased with development and showed statistical differences (p=0.023. In mysis, the oxygen consumption were significance in the traditional diet, whereas no differences were alternative (p=0.003. In both stages for the ammoniacal excretion increased development stage and there were detected statistical difference (p<0.001, although to the diets were not noticed significant differences. Conclusions. A higher energy absorption for zoea (I, II y III what mysis (I, II y III larvae was obtained, this is likely an interaction between rates of respiration and excretion caused by variations in the efficiency of absorption by the larvae. The weights obtained in both larvae were not supplied with differences between diets.

  20. Internal dosimetry of plutonium using the late urinary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R C; Abani, M C

    2000-10-01

    An attempt has been made to standardize the methodology of internal dose computation from the late urinary excretion data. The methodology was selected keeping in mind the most recent ICRP publications and the results of internal dosimetry intercomparison studies reported in literature. The key element of this methodology is the PC-based computational software LUDEP 2.05, which implements the new model of the human respiratory tract. Late urinary excretion data of three male subjects involved in accidental intakes of plutonium aerosols more than 25 years ago were interpreted in terms of intakes and internal doses with the aid of the standardized methodology. An important implication of this work is that late urinary excretion data of the occupational workers of any plutonium handling facility could be used to show the compliance with the life-time dose limit.

  1. Water metabolism and modification of tritium excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. The intake and excretion of tritium were studied in rats exposed to tritiated water vapor. The metabolism of tritium was also investigated in rats given single administrations of tritiated water and in rats given daily administrations (per os or i.p.). The results were essentially in accord with those reported previously. 2. Amounts of drinking water consumed and urine excreted by rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin were 1.5 to 2 times higher than in rats drinking tap water. The tritium activity in various tissues of rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin decreased to about half of that of rats drinking tap water. A similar tendency was observed also in rats drinking beer. The diuretic agent sodium acetazolamide also enhanced the urinary excretion of tritium. (author)

  2. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, metabolism and excretion of δ-viniferin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Mao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly rapid and sensitive liquid chromatographic–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC–ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of trans-δ-viniferin (Rs-1 in rat plasma, urine and feces. All biological samples were prepared by liquid–liquid extraction and hesperetin was included as an internal standard (IS. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a shim-pack XR-ODS column using a gradient mobile phase. MS/MS detection was performed by negative ion electrospray ionization. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 1.42 ng/mL and linear over the range of 1.42–2172 ng/mL in all matrices. The method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, metabolism, and excretion of Rs-1 in rats following a single oral or intravenous dose. Two metabolites, Rs-1 glucuronide and Rs-1 sulfate, were detected in plasma and in urine after administration of Rs-1. The absolute oral bioavailability of Rs-1 was 2.3%, and the total absorption rose to 31.5% with addition of its glucuronide and sulfate metabolites. Only 0.09% of the gavaged dose, including Rs-1 and metabolites, was excreted in the urine, while 60.3% was found in the feces in unchanged form. The results indicate that both poor absorption and extensive metabolism were the important factors that led to the poor bioavailability of Rs-1, which can provide a basis for further studies on structural modification and dosage form design.

  3. Inhibition of starch absorption by dietary fibre. A comparative study of wheat bran, sugar-beet fibre, and pea fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    The effect of dietary fibre on starch absorption was investigated in 8 healthy subjects. Amounts of starch escaping small-bowel absorption was assessed by comparison of breath H2 excretion after test meals and after lactulose (10g). After ingestion of bread made from 100g of wheat flour increases...

  4. Absorption Of Dietary Lipid Components

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadir Hurşit

    2015-01-01

    Although the digestion and absorption of lipids that are necessary for the survival of living organisms are well known in general terms, nevertheless how different lipids to be digested, how it is distributed into the bloodstream, and how to be used by the cells, are unknown issues by most non specialist people. In recent years, knowledge of lipid digestion and absorption has expanded considerably. More insight has been gained in the mechanism of action of H + pump as a transport system in fa...

  5. Measuring microbial protein supply from purine excretion in Yerli Kara cattle in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) was measured in four Yerli Kara (Bos indicus) bulls in two experiments, a fasting experiment lasting for 7 days and the other, where animals were given a diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed at four levels of intake (40, 60, 80 and 95% of voluntary feed intake). In the second experiment, which was carried out according to a 4 x 4 Latin Square design, four animals receiving 60 and 95% levels of intake were also given a single injection of 8-14C-uric acid via a jugular catheter. In addition to the above two experiments, the activity of xanthine oxidase and uricase in plasma, liver and intestinal mucosa obtained from Yerli Kara cattle was also determined. In the first experiment, fasting PD excretion averaged 0.691 (± 0.053) mmol/kg W0.75/d. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), tubular load and net re-absorption of allantoin between pre-fasting and fasting were statistically significant (P 14C-uric acid as total PD was 72.5 and 89.9% for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. The average recovery was 81%. Plasma kinetics measured by 8-14C-uric acid indicated that the total compartment pool size was 214.0 (± 43.8) and 250.3 L (± 29.5) for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. GFR, tubular load and net re-absorption of uric acid and allantoin were not affected by feed intake. The allantoin:PD molar ratios changed between 0.78 to 0.93 for the four levels feed intake. There were significant correlations between PD excretion (mmol/d), and DDMI (kg/d) and DOMI (kg/d) (r = 0.99, P 0.75 DDMI, 19.8 mmol/kg DDMI and 22.7 mmol/kg DOMI. Xanthine oxidase and uricase activities were: 1.34 (± 0.72) and 0.44 (± 0.05), and 0.13 (± 0.03) and 0.08 (± 0.03) unit/g fresh tissue in liver and intestinal mucosa, respectively. In plasma xanthine oxidase activity was 5.0 (± 1.2) unit/L while uricase activity was absent. (author)

  6. Distribution of Cold ($\\lesssim 300$K) Atomic Gas in Galaxies: Results from the GBT HI Absorption Survey Probing the Inner Halos ($\\rho<20$kpc) of Low-z Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta

    2016-01-01

    We present the Green Bank Telescope absorption survey of cold atomic hydrogen ($\\lesssim 300$K) in the inner halo of low-redshift galaxies. The survey aims to characterize the cold gas distribution and to address where condensation - the process where ionized gas accreted by galaxies condenses into cold gas within the disks of galaxies - occurs. Our sample consists of 16 galaxy-quasar pairs with impact parameters of $\\le$ 20kpc. We detected an HI absorber associated with J0958+3222 (NGC 3067) and HI emission from six galaxies. We also found two \\ion{Ca}{2} absorption system in the archival SDSS data associated with galaxies J0958+3222 and J1228+3706, although the sample was not selected based on the presence of metals in absorption. Our detection rate of HI absorbers with optical depths of $\\ge 0.06$ is $\\sim$7\\%. We also find that cold HI phase ($\\lesssim$300K) is 44($\\pm$18)\\% of the total atomic gas in the sightline probing J0958+3222. We find no correlation between the peak optical depth and impact parame...

  7. Effect of colchicine on rat small intestinal absorptive cells. II. Distribution of label after incorporation of [3H]fucose into plasma membrane glycoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of radioautography the influence was tested of various periods (5, 15, 30, 40 min, 2 hr) of pretreatment with colchicine, administered intraperitoneally to rats at a dosage of 0.5 mg/100 g of body weight, on the intracellular pathway of [3H]fucose in absorptive cells of the small intestine. Administration of colchicine for 30 min and longer time intervals causes delay in the insertion of [3H]fucose into the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates in the Golgi apparatus, and results in redistribution of the label apparent over the different portions of the plasma membrane. In controls, at 2 and 4 hr after administration of [3H]fucose the apical plasma membrane is strongly labeled. Colchicine causes equalization of the reaction of apical and basolateral regions of the plasma membrane: the number of silver grains attributable to the apical plasma membrane is reduced; following treatment with colchicine, apical portions of the plasma membrane comprise 31.6 +/- 1.8% of the silver grains, 38.6 +/- 3.8% are attributable to basolateral membrane regions. The colchicine-induced equalization of the density of label of apical and basolateral regions of the plasma membrane, in addition to the occurrence of basolateral microvillus borders, suggests microtubules to be important in the maintenance of the polar organization of small intestinal absorptive cells

  8. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  9. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  10. Modelling of nitrogen flow and excretion in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, van W.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the dairy husbandry is held responsible for a major part of the N-pollution of the environment. The objective of this thesis was to develop a model that predicts N flow in the animal and N excretion in faeces, urine and milk in order to reduce unnecessary N losses. The model was

  11. Urinary excretion of polyethylene glycol 3350 during colonoscopy preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothfuss, K. S.; Bode, J.C.; Stange, E.F.;

    2006-01-01

    collected for 8 hours in 24 patients undergoing bowel cleansing with PEG 3350 for colonoscopy. The urinary excretion of PEG 3350, measured by size exclusion chromatography, ranged between 0.01 and 0.51 % of the ingested amount, corresponding to 5.8 and 896 mg in absolute amounts, respectively. Mean PEG...

  12. Zooplankton as a compound mineralising and synthesizing system: Phosphorus excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, R.D.; Martinez, C.P.; Siewertsen, K.

    1995-01-01

    Data on phosphate excretion rates of zooplankton are based on measurements using the pelagic crustacean zoo-plankton of Lake Vechten and laboratory-cultured Daphnia galeata. In case of Daphnia sp we measured the effects of feeding on P-rich algae and P-poor algae (Scenedesmus) as food on the P-excre

  13. Excretion of depleted uranium by Gulf war veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Persian Gulf War, in 1991, approximately 100 US military personnel had potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU), including shrapnel wounds. In 1993, the US government initiated a follow-up study of 33 Gulf War veterans who had been exposed to DU, many of whom contained embedded fragments of DU shrapnel in their bodies. The veterans underwent medical evaluation, whole-body counting, and urinalysis for uranium by kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA). Data are available from seven individuals who exceeded the detection limit for whole-body counting and also had elevated urinary uranium. Urinary excretion rates, in μg U g-1 creatinine, were determined in 1997 and 1999. The body contents, in mg DU, were determined in 1997; it is assumed there were no significant decreases in total body content in the interim. For the 1997 data, the mean fractional excretion was (2.4 ± 2.8) x 10-5 g-1 creatinine, and for the 1999 data, the mean was (1.1 ± 0.6) x 10-5 g-1 creatinine. However, these means are not significantly different, nor is there any correlation of excretion rate with body content. Thus, human data available to date do not provide any basis for determining the effects of particle surface area, composition and solubility, and biological processes such as encapsulation, on the excretion rate. (author)

  14. Norovirus Excretion in an Aged-Care Setting▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Elise T.-V.; Rowena A. Bull; Kim, Mi-Jurng; McIver, Christopher J.; Heron, Leon; Rawlinson, William D.; White, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus genogroup II excretion during an outbreak of gastroenteritis was investigated in an aged-care facility. Viral shedding peaked in the acute stage of illness and continued for an average of 28.7 days. The viral decay rate was 0.76 per day, which corresponds to a viral half-life of 2.5 days.

  15. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S;

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict ische...

  16. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  17. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Hendriks, Wouter; Bosch, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  18. Effect of diethyl ether on the biliary excretion of acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Siegers, C P; Klaassen, C D

    1984-10-01

    The biliary and renal excretion of acetaminophen and its metabolites over 8 hr was determined in rats exposed to diethyl ether by inhalation for 1 hr. Additional rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg ip) while control animals were conscious throughout the experiment (surgery was performed under hexobarbital narcosis: 150 mg/kg ip; 30-min duration). The concentration of UDP-glucuronic acid was decreased 80% in livers from ether-anesthetized rats but was not reduced in urethane-treated animals when compared to that in control rats. The concentration of reduced glutathione was not affected by either urethane or diethyl ether. Basal bile flow was not altered by the anesthetic agents. Bile flow rate after acetaminophen injection (100 mg/kg iv) was increased slightly over basal levels for 2 hr in hexobarbital-treated control rats, was unaltered in urethane-anesthetized animals, and was decreased throughout the 8-hr experiment in rats exposed to diethyl ether for 1 hr. In control and urethane-anesthetized animals, approximately 30-35% of the total acetaminophen dose (100 mg/kg iv) was excreted into bile in 8 hr, while only 16% was excreted in rats anesthetized with diethyl ether. Urinary elimination (60-70% of the dose) was not altered by exposure to ether. Separation of metabolites by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography showed that ether decreased the biliary elimination of unchanged acetaminophen and its glucuronide, sulfate, and glutathione conjugates by 47, 40, 49, and 73%, respectively, as compared to control rats. Excretion of unchanged acetaminophen and the glutathione conjugate into bile was depressed in urethane-anesthetized animals by 45 and 66%, respectively, whereas elimination of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates was increased by 27 and 50%, respectively. These results indicate that biliary excretion is influenced by the anesthetic agent and that diethyl ether depresses conjugation with sulfate and glutathione as well as glucuronic

  19. Fecal bile acid excretion and messenger RNA expression levels of ileal transporters in high risk gallstone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Juan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol gallstone disease (GS is highly prevalent among Hispanics and American Indians. In GS, the pool of bile acids (BA is decreased, suggesting that BA absorption is impaired. In Caucasian GS patients, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporters are decreased. We aimed to determine fecal BA excretion rates, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporter genes and of regulatory genes of BA synthesis in Hispanic GS patients. Results Excretion of fecal BA was measured in seven GS females and in ten GS-free individuals, all with a body mass index 2O3 (300 mg/day for 10 days, and fecal specimens were collected on the last 3 days. Chromium was measured by a colorimetric method, and BA was quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Intake of calories, nutrients, fiber and cholesterol were similar in the GS and GS-free subjects. Mean BA excretion levels were 520 ± 80 mg/day for the GS-free group, and 461 ± 105 mg/day for the GS group. Messenger RNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR on biopsy samples obtained from ileum during diagnostic colonoscopy (14 GS-free controls and 16 GS patients and from liver during surgery performed at 8 and 10 AM (12 GS and 10 GS-free patients operated on for gastrointestinal malignancies, all with a body mass index Conclusion Hispanics with GS have fecal BA excretion rates and mRNA levels of genes for ileal BA transporters that are similar to GS-free subjects. However, mRNA expression levels of Cyp7A1 are increased in GS, indicating that regulation of BA synthesis is abnormal in Hispanics with GS.

  20. Recommendation to Exclude Bile-Duct-Cannulated Rats with Hyperbilirubinemia for Proper Conduct of Biliary Drug Excretion Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Koji; Hasegawa, Yoshitaka; Iwata, Katsuya; Ichikawa, Takuya; Yahara, Tohru; Tsuji, Satoshi; Sugiura, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia (HB) is sometimes encountered following bile-duct cannulation in rats. It possibly originates from the reduced functioning of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) and subsequent adaptive alterations in the expression of Mrp3 and the organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps). Our aim was to clarify the importance of excluding bile-duct-cannulated (BDC) rats with HB for proper conduct of drug excretion studies. We detected HB [serum total bilirubin concentration (TBIL) ≥0.20 mg/dl] in 16% of all BDC rats prepared. The serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, leucine aminopeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase were within the respective normal ranges in the BDC rats with mild HB (TBIL, 0.20-0.79 mg/dl), indicating the absence of hepatic failure. In the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin, an Oatps/Mrp2 probe drug in the BDC rats, the apparent volume of distribution and the clearance were smaller in the mild HB group as compared with the normal group, suggesting the reduction of apparent hepatic uptake and hepatobiliary elimination. The biliary excretion (percentage of dose) was significantly reduced by 54%, suggesting that the biliary efflux activity via Mrp2 was reduced to a greater extent relative to metabolic activity in hepatocytes. The serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity correlated with TBIL and inversely correlated with biliary excretion of pravastatin, a finding which could serve as a clue to uncover the regulatory system involving cooperation between GGT and Mrp2. In conclusion, BDC rats with HB, however mild, should be excluded from drug excretion studies to avoid the risk of underestimation of the biliary excretion of drugs. PMID:27208382

  1. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kiko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2 and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2 compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2 and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply considerably fuels bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation – a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2 does not result in a downregulation of ammonium excretion. Here we show that exposure to OMZ conditions can result in strong depression of respiration and ammonium excretion in calanoid copepods and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic and the Eastern Tropical South Pacific. These physiological responses need to be taken into account when estimating DVM-mediated fluxes of carbon and nitrogen into OMZs.

  2. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiko, R.; Hauss, H.; Buchholz, F.; Melzner, F.

    2015-10-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2 and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply considerably fuels bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a downregulation of ammonium excretion. Here we show that exposure to OMZ conditions can result in strong depression of respiration and ammonium excretion in calanoid copepods and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic and the Eastern Tropical South Pacific. These physiological responses need to be taken into account when estimating DVM-mediated fluxes of carbon and nitrogen into OMZs.

  3. The effect of surgery on the renal excretion of beta 2-microglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walenkamp, G H; Vree, T B; Guelen, P J; Jongman-Nix, B

    1983-03-28

    Surgical trauma causes an increase in the renal excretion rate of beta 2-microglobulin whilst creatinine excretion is not influenced. The increase in the renal excretion rate of beta 2-microglobulin is probably the result of an increased release of beta 2-microglobulin by the cells which exceeds a maximum in the active tubular reabsorption of the compound by the proximal tubule cell. The renal excretion of beta 2-microglobulin is proportional to the relative clinical trauma score. PMID:6189646

  4. Urinary albumin excretion in a population based sample of 1011 middle aged non-diabetic subjects. The Copenhagen City Heart Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    1993-01-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) especially in the range of 20-200 micrograms min-1, termed microalbuminuria, has been proposed as a risk marker and predictor for cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic subjects. Thus it would be of importance to describe the distribution of UAER in...

  5. Population specific absorption studies for some diet incorporated trace elements : comparison with ICRP data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily intake and excretion can provide an important information regarding the absorption through the gastro-intestinal tract (f1 factor) of trace elements incorporated in diet. The absorption may depend upon the kind of diet consumed, the content of the fibre, protein etc and it could be quite different for two populations groups with entirely different food habits. ICRP has provided data on the intake and excretion of 63 trace elements by Caucasian population representing North American and European adults. This paper reports intake and excretion of twelve elements Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Rb, Fe, Zn, Sr, Li and Cr for an urban adult Indian population group and compares with corresponding data on ICRP reference man. (author)

  6. Uric acid excretion predicts increased aggression in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of uric acid have been linked with impulsive and disinhibited behavior in clinical and community populations of adults, but no studies have examined uric acid in relation to adolescent aggression. This study examined the prospective role of uric acid in aggressive behavior among urban, low income adolescents, and whether this relationship varies by gender. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36years; 50% male; 95% African American) self-reported on their physical aggression at baseline and 1.5years later. At baseline, the youth also completed a 12-h (overnight) urine collection at home which was used to measure uric acid excretion. After adjusting for baseline aggression and age, greater uric acid excretion predicted more frequent aggressive behavior at follow up, with no significant gender differences. The results suggest that lowering uric acid levels may help reduce youth aggression. PMID:27180134

  7. Proteomic analysis of Taenia solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Bjorn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Gabriël, Sarah; Polman, Katja; Deckers, Nynke; Dorny, Pierre; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus

    2012-06-01

    The metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium is the causal agent of a zoonotic disease called cysticercosis. The disease has an important impact on pork trade (due to porcine cysticercosis) and public health (due to human neurocysticercosis). In order to improve the current diagnostic tools and to get a better understanding of the interaction between T. solium metacestodes and their host, there is a need for more information about the proteins that are released by the parasite. In this study, we used protein sequences from different helminths, 1DE, reversed-phase LC, and MS/MS to analyze the excretion-secretion proteins produced by T. solium metacestodes from infected pigs. This is the first report of the T. solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteome. We report 76 proteins including 27 already described T. solium proteins, 17 host proteins and 32 proteins likely to be of T. solium origin, but identified using sequences from other helminths.

  8. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J;

    2011-01-01

    of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study...... on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses......) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest...

  9. Amorphous Silica Based Nanomedicine with Safe Carrier Excretion and Enhanced Drug Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Silu

    With recent development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, a great amount of efforts have been devoted to nanomedicine development. Among various nanomaterials, silica nanoparticle (NP) is generally accepted as non-toxic, and can provide a versatile platform for drug loading. In addition, the surface of the silica NP is hydrophilic, being favorable for cellular uptake. Therefore, it is considered as one of the most promising candidates to serve as carriers for drugs. The present thesis mainly focuses on the design of silica based nanocarrier-drug systems, aiming at achieving safe nanocarrier excretion from the biological system and enhanced drug efficacy, which two are considered as most important issues in nanomedicine development. To address the safe carrier excretion issue, we have developed a special type of selfdecomposable SiO2-drug composite NPs. By creating a radial concentration gradient of drug in the NP, the drug release occurred simultaneously with the silica carrier decomposition. Such unique characteristic was different from the conventional dense SiO2-drug NP, in which drug was uniformly distributed and can hardly escape the carrier. We found that the controllable release of the drug was primarily determined by diffusion, which was caused by the radial drug concentration gradient in the NP. Escape of the drug molecules then triggered the silica carrier decomposition, which started from the center of the NP and eventually led to its complete fragmentation. The small size of the final carrier fragments enabled their easy excretion via renal systems. Apart from the feature of safe carrier excretion, we also found the controlled release of drugs contribute significantly to the drug efficacy enhancement. By loading an anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) to the decomposable SiO 2-methylene blue (MB) NPs, we achieved a self-decomposable SiO 2(MB)-Dox nanomedicine. The gradual escape of drug molecules from NPs and their enabled cytosolic release by optical

  10. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laubach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3 emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 subsequent days. Daily-integrated emission rates peaked on Day 3 of the experiment (last day of cattle presence and declined steadily for five days thereafter. Urine patches were the dominant sources for these emissions. On Day 9, a secondary emissions peak occurred, with dung pats likely to be the main sources. This interpretation is based on simultaneous observations of the pH evolution in urine patches and dung pats created next to the circular plot. Feed and dung samples were analysed to estimate the amounts of nitrogen (N ingested and excreted. Total N volatilised as NH3 was 19.8 (± 0.9% of N intake and 22.4 (± 1.3% of N excreted. The bimodal shape of the emissions time series allowed to infer separate estimates for volatilisation from urine and dung, respectively, with the result that urine accounted for 88.6 (± 2.6% of the total NH3 emissions. The emissions from urine represented 25.5 (± 2.0% of the excreted urine-N, while the emissions from dung amounted to 11.6 (± 2.7% of the deposited dung-N. Emissions from dung may have continued after Day 13 but were not resolved by the measurement technique. A simple resistance model shows that the magnitude of the emissions from dung is controlled by the resistance of the dung crust.

  11. Study about excretion of 210 Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urine of mines's workers are analysed to detect the presence of 210 Po. The results was compared with the workers and with a control population. Cigarettes samples was analysed two and confirmed the 210 presence. The control population individuals were divided in smokers and non smokers and them urine was investigated the influence of the smoke in the 210 Po excretion. (L.M.J.)

  12. Ammonia Production, Excretion, Toxicity, and Defense in Fish: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen K Ip; Chew, Shit F.

    2010-01-01

    Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH 4 + transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia thr...

  13. Excretion of radium in relation to dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive measurements of the Ra226 contents of more than 200 common foods and 100 of the principal supplies of drinking water in Great Britain have been used to compare the mean intakes of radium per person from these sources, in a number of occupational groups as well as among the populations of various region; of the country. In spite of the wide range of activities present in foods, the mean intakes show little variation among the groups, the values lying between 2 and 3 pc per person per day. The drinking waters in Britain have radium contents differing by factors of up to 250 to 1, but in the majority of cases the absolute levels are so low relative to those present in the staple foods that the mean intakes from water represent only 5 to 6% of the mean total amounts of radium ingested by each individual. Only in one exceptional area of the country, representing less than 1% of the total population, is it possible for the daily intakes from water to exceed those from food. Measurements of faecal excretion resulting from the normal dietary intake have shown that in the case of young adults, the average level of Ra226 excreted in this way is 2 to 2.5 pc/d. This figure agrees with the estimates of the mean daily intakes. Human metabolic studies have shown that the large majority of each day's dietary intake of radium is excreted within 24 to 48 h, but attempts to assess the fractional retention in adults have given variable results. Measurements of the daily intakes and faecal excretions of a young child, over a period of 33 d, indicate that the retention of radium during periods of active bone growth may be as high as 10% or even more. (author)

  14. Blood pressure, sodium intake, insulin resistance, and urinary nitrate excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F S; DoNascimento, C; Reaven, G M; Yip, J W; Ni, X P; Humphreys, M H

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among various humoral factors thought to be involved in the regulation of blood pressure during high NaCl intake. Nineteen healthy subjects underwent sequential 5-day periods ingesting a low-sodium (25 mmol/d) or high-sodium (200 mmol/d) diet. Insulin resistance was assessed by the steady-state plasma glucose concentration at the end of a 3-hour insulin suppression test. Insulin resistance correlated inversely with natriuresis (P=0.04) and directly with increase in weight (P=0.03). The increase in mean arterial pressure associated with the high-sodium diet correlated directly with the gain in weight (P<0.05) and inversely with the increase in urinary nitrate excretion (P<0.0001). In a multiple regression model, more than 2/3 of the variance in mean arterial pressure was accounted for by the gain in weight and change in urinary nitrate excretion. The steady-state plasma glucose concentrations obtained with the 2 diets were similar, indicating that insulin resistance was unaffected by sodium intake. During high sodium intake, plasma renin activity and aldosterone decreased and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide increased; these changes did not correlate with the change in mean arterial pressure, insulin resistance, or change in urinary nitrate excretion. To the extent that urinary nitrate excretion reflects activity of the endogenous nitric oxide system, these results suggest that the salt sensitivity of mean arterial pressure may be related to blunted generation of endogenous nitric oxide. The results also demonstrate that insulin-resistant individuals have an impaired natriuretic response to high sodium intake. PMID:10205239

  15. A study of the distribution of aluminium in human placental tissues based on alkaline solubilization with determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Pamela C; Schell, Lawrence M; Stark, Alice D; Parsons, Patrick J

    2010-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) is a nonessential element known to induce neurotoxic effects, such as dialysis dementia, in patients on hemodialysis, with compromised kidney function. The role of Al in the progression of some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is controversial, and remains unclear. The effects of Al on other vulnerable populations, such as fetuses and infants, have been infrequently studied. In the present study, Al has been measured in human placenta samples, comprising ∼160 each of placenta bodies, placenta membranes, and umbilical cords, using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) after atmospheric pressure digestion with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and ethylenediaminetetraacidic acid (EDTA). The sensitivity, or characteristic mass (m(0)), for Al at the 309.3-nm line was found to be 30 ± 4 pg. The instrumental detection limit (IDL) (3s) for Al in solution was calculated as 0.72 μg L(-1) while the method detection limit (MDL) (3s) was 0.25 μg g(-1). Accuracy was assessed through analysis of quality control (QC) materials, including certified reference materials (CRMs), in-house reference materials (RMs), and spike recovery experiments, of varying matrices. Placental tissue analyses revealed geometric mean concentrations of approximately 0.5 μg g(-1) Al in placenta bodies (n = 165) and membranes (n = 155), while Al concentrations in umbilical cords (n = 154) were about 0.3 μg g(-1). Al was detected in 95% of placenta bodies, and 81% of placenta membranes, but only in 46% of umbilical cords.

  16. Evaluation of aldosterone excretion in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Mohsen, Abdel Hakeem; Taha, Gamal; Kamel, Bothina A; Maksood, Mohamed Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Data about aldosterone production and excretion in the neonatal period are still few and controversial. Our objectives are to assess urinary aldosterone excretion (UAE) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and to identify clinical and biochemical variables that may influence this excretion. Thirty VLBW infants (14 males and 16 females), their gestational age value was 0.176 ± 0.05 μg/24 h and the mean absolute UAE was 1906 ± 271 pg/mL. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between UAE and gestational age and birth weight; also, infants with respiratory distress syndrome had higher urinary aldosterone levels than infants without respiratory distress. Only plasma sodium was a significant independent factor that negatively influenced UAE on linear regression analysis. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of VLBW infants seems to be able, even immediately after birth, to respond to variations of plasma sodium concentrations; measurement of UAE constitutes an interesting method to determine aldosterone production in VLBW infants. PMID:27424689

  17. Excretion-retention diagram to evaluate gas exchange properties of vertebrate respiratory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, A; Luijendijk, S C

    1982-09-01

    Excretion [E = (PE - PI)/(PV - PI)] and retention [R = (Pa - PI)/(PV -PI)]are completely model-free defined variables which describe the dual input-output black-box representation of vertebrate respiratory systems under steady-state conditions. In the excretion-retention diagram (E-R diagram), E is plotted as a function of R. The application of the principle of mass conservation confines the possible combinations of E and R for a gas with a blood-gas partition coefficient, lambda, in a respiratory system with an overall ventilation, VT, and an overall perfusion, QT, to E = (lambda QT/VT) (1 - R). In general, E can be described as a continuous function of R. The mathematical formulation of this function depends on the configuration of the respiratory system. Easily recognizable curvatures are obtained for counter-cross, and cocurrent systems with and without parallel inhomogeneities. Visual inspection of actual E and R data displayed in an E-R diagram therefore allows the correct choice of the configuration of the respiratory system to be eventually used for further parameter estimation schemes. The E-R diagram is also a powerful tutorial tool for visualizing the complex relationships between the gas exchange of agents with different physical properties and the consequences of changes in ventilation and perfusion distribution within the respiratory system on gas transport.

  18. Element distribution and iron speciation in mature wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy mapping and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brier, Niels; Gomand, Sara V; Donner, Erica; Paterson, David; Smolders, Erik; Delcour, Jan A; Lombi, Enzo

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that the majority of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in wheat grains are associated with phytate, but a nuanced approach to unravel important tissue-level variation in element speciation within the grain is lacking. Here, we present spatially resolved Fe-speciation data obtained directly from different grain tissues using the newly developed synchrotron-based technique of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy imaging, coupling this with high-definition μ-X-ray fluorescence microscopy to map the co-localization of essential elements. In the aleurone, phosphorus (P) is co-localized with Fe and Zn, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure imaging confirmed that Fe is chelated by phytate in this tissue layer. In the crease tissues, Zn is also positively related to P distribution, albeit less so than in the aleurone. Speciation analysis suggests that Fe is bound to nicotianamine rather than phytate in the nucellar projection, and that more complex Fe structures may also be present. In the embryo, high Zn concentrations are present in the root and shoot primordium, co-occurring with sulfur and presumably bound to thiol groups. Overall, Fe is mainly concentrated in the scutellum and co-localized with P. This high resolution imaging and speciation analysis reveals the complexity of the physiological processes responsible for element accumulation and bioaccessibility.

  19. Protein intake and calcium absorption – Potential role of the calcium sensor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary protein induces calcium excretion but the source of this calcium is unclear. Evidence from short-term studies indicates that protein promotes bone resorption, but many epidemiologic studies do not corroborate this. Evidence is also mixed on weather protein promotes calcium absorption. Stud...

  20. Intestinal Npt2b Plays a Major Role in Phosphate Absorption and Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh, Yves; O'Brien, Stephen P.; Song, Wenping; Boulanger, Joseph H; Stockmann, Adam; Arbeeny, Cynthia; Schiavi, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal phosphate absorption occurs through both a paracellular mechanism involving tight junctions and an active transcellular mechanism involving the type II sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter NPT2b (SLC34a2). To define the contribution of NPT2b to total intestinal phosphate absorption, we generated an inducible conditional knockout mouse, Npt2b−/− (Npt2bfl/fl:Cre+/−). Npt2b−/− animals had increased fecal phosphate excretion and hypophosphaturia, but serum phosphate remained unchan...

  1. Absorption boundary conditions for geomertical acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Defining accurate acoustical boundary conditions is of crucial importance for room acoustic simulations. In predicting sound fields using phased geometrical acoustics methods, the absorption coefficients or surface impedances of the boundary surfaces can be used, but no guideline has been developed...... solutions. Two rectangular rooms with uniform and non-uniform absorption distributions are tested. It is concluded that the impedance and random incidence absorption boundary conditions produce reasonable results with some exceptions at low frequencies for acoustically soft materials....

  2. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lijun, E-mail: lijunxu@buaa.edu.cn; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronic Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory of Precision Opto-Mechatronics Technology, Beijing 100191 (China); Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-01-15

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm{sup −1} (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm{sup −1} (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  3. Pion absorption processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton and deuteron production from low-energy pion absorption in light nuclei leading to discrete and continuum states were measured. The LEP beam line at LAMPF was used with a stack of 8 intrinsic germanium crystals. The proton energy spectra are in general characterized by a broad bump at an energy approximately corresponding to π+d → pp reaction kinematics, suggestive of pion absorption on 2 nucleons. The energy-integrated cross-section for production of deuterons has an angular distribution similar to that for production of protons. The dependence of the total pion absorption cross-section on A is explained using a semi-classical model for pion transport in nuclei. The (π+,p) as well as (π+,d) reactions generally favor transitions involving larger angular momentum transfer to the residual nucleus when states of similar nuclear structure are considered. The low-energy excitation spectra from the (π+,p) reaction are similar to the spectra from (p,d) reaction on 12C and 13C. However, a calculation of the (π+,p) cross-section using the measured (p,d) reaction with the formulation of Wilkin to relate the two reactions is in moderate disagreement with the measured (π+,p) cross-sections. The excitation spectra from the (π+,p) reaction indicte the importance of two-step processes for the reaction. The (π+,d) reaction leading to the ground state of -- residual nucleus has been seen for 7Li, 12C, and 13C targets. The measured cross section for the 12C(π+,d)10C reaction to the 2+ state is much higher than that for the ground state. For the case of 18O, no counts were seen for excitation energy of +,d) reaction

  4. Inhibition of intestinal absorption of phenylalanine by phenylalaninol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, K; Fukushima, T; Danno, T; Matsumoto, K; Miyoshi, M

    1975-08-01

    Plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine levels in rats which had been orally administered L-phenylalaninol and L-phenylalanine were determined. Since these amino acid levels in rats administered L-phenylalanine solution containing L-phenylalaninol were significantly lower than those in rats administered L-phenylalanine alone. L-phenylalaninol appears to inhibit the intestinal absorption of L-phenylalanine. This effect was more potent than that of cycloleucine. L-phenylalaninol inhibited the phenylalanine transport of everted sacs. The Km value of L-phenylalanine was 3.44 X 10(-3) M and the Ki value of L-phenylalaninol was 7.69 M 10(-3) M from Lineweaver-Burk plots. From these two curves, it appeared that L-phenylalaninol may competitively inhibit the intestinal transport of L-phenylalanine. The effects of L-phenylalanine, L-phenylalaninol and cycloleucine on the urinary excretions of Na+ and K+ in rats were also examined. Potassium excretion which increased on oral administration of L-phenylalanine, was suppressed by the administration of L-phenylalaninol but not administration of cycloleucine. L-phenylalaninol alone enhanced Na+ excretion in urine. These results confirmed that L-phenylalaninol shows inhibitory effects as potent as those of cycloleucine on the intestinal absorption of L-phenylalanine. PMID:1228171

  5. [Immunohistochemical study on the mechanism of excretion of methamphetamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajitani, A; Kaiho, M; Mori, A; Okada, Y; Mukaida, M; Ishiyama, I

    1989-06-01

    Many methods of analysis are available to the forensic toxicologist for determining the amount of methamphetamine within human tissues, but few have the potential of histochemistry for enabling the precise site of excretion of methamphetamine to be defined. We have established a method for the demonstration of methamphetamine by immunohistochemistry, and applied this method for showing morphologically the disposition of methamphetamine. The following cells in the tissues of methamphetamine-intoxicated mice gave a strong positive reaction of the localization, which was thought to be the histological evidence of excretion of this drug: epithelial cells of the distal part of the renal tubule and of the collecting tubule, transitional epithelial cells of the bladder, liver parenchymal cells, epithelial cells of the striated duct of the salivary gland, parietal cells of the gastric gland, part of epithelial cells of the distal portion of the large intestine, secretory cells and part of epithelial cells of the ductal portion of the sweat gland, alveolar cells of the mammary gland, secretory cells of the sebaceous gland and hair medulla and cortex. These results indicated passive diffusion of methamphetamine across membranes of the cells of the distal tubule and collecting tubule of the kidney, of the bladder and of the striated duct of the salivary gland. In the parietal cells of the gastric gland, part of epithelial cells of the distal portion of the large intestine and secretory cells of the sweat gland, methamphetamine was thought to be stored and subsequently released. In the mammary gland, methamphetamine was found to be combined with casein and excreted by exocytosis. Accumulation of methamphetamine in the hair was supposed to be chiefly due to the penetration of this drug derived from tissue fluid and sebum.

  6. Iron excretion in iron dextran-overloaded mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Stati, Tonino; Sestili, Paola; Corritore, Elisa; Pastorelli, Augusto; Stacchini, Paolo; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron homeostasis in humans is tightly regulated by mechanisms aimed to conserve iron for reutilisation, with a negligible role played by excretory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that mice have an astonishing ability to tolerate very high doses of parenterally administered iron dextran. Whether this ability is linked to the existence of an excretory pathway remains to be ascertained. Materials and methods Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1 g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in two different mouse strains (C57bl/6 and B6D2F1). Urinary and faecal iron excretion was assessed by inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry, whereas cardiac and liver architecture was evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. For both strains, 24-hour faeces and urine samples were collected and iron concentration was determined on days 0, 1 and 2 after iron administration. Results In iron-overloaded C57bl/6 mice, the faecal iron concentration increased by 218% and 157% on days 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.01). The iron excreted represented a loss of 14% of total iron administered. Similar but smaller changes was also found in B6D2F1 mice. Conversely, we found no significant changes in the concentration of iron in the urine in either of the strains of mice. In both strains, histological examination showed accumulation of iron in the liver and heart which tended to decrease over time. Conclusions This study indicates that mice have a mechanism for removal of excess body iron and provides insights into the possible mechanisms of excretion. PMID:24960657

  7. Natural intake and excretion of thorium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural content of the isotopes 238Th, 230Th and 232Th in faeces as well as 234U, 235U and 238U in drinking-water has been investigated by means of α-spectroscopy. The averaged total activity of thorium in faeces has been found to be 56,6 mBq per daily excretion, the activity of uranium in drinking water is reported to be 11.3 mBq/l. The results are in comparison with the existing data from Germany, but different to international suppositions as in UNSCEAR or ICRP 23. (orig.)

  8. Human urinary excretion of non-persistent environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    ), triclosan (TCS), and parabens because of their anti-androgenic and/or estrogenic effects. Phthalates are plasticizers used in numerous industrial products. Bisphenol A is the main component of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Parabens and TCS are antimicrobial preservatives and other phenols...... limited. In Denmark, we have no survey programs for non-persistent environmental chemicals, unlike some countries such as the USA (NHANES) and Germany (GerES). However, we have analyzed the excretion of seven parabens, nine phenols, and the metabolites of eight different phthalates in urine samples...

  9. Pharmacokinetics: metabolism and renal excretion of quinolones in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vree, T B; Wijnands, W J; Guelen, P J; Baars, A M; Hekster, Y A

    1986-02-21

    The quinolones are relatively poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The elimination proceeds mainly by renal excretion. The half-life of elimination depends on the molecular structure and varies between 2 and 10 h. Impaired kidney function is expected to increase the half-life of elimination, though this effect is not always observed. Since the 4-oxo-metabolites show a higher renal clearance than the parent drug, renal impairment will result in a cumulation of the metabolites in the body. PMID:3960691

  10. Sup(123)I excretion in breast milk - additional data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawes, S.C. (Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    A woman with a suspected sublingual thyroid was referred for thyroid imaging with {sup 123}I-sodium iodide. On attending it was ascertained that she was currently breastfeeding her 3-month-old baby. Reference to the available literature showed little information regarding the excretion of {sup 123}I-sodium iodide in human breast milk apart from one single case. It was felt therefore that this would be an ideal opportunity to collect some useful data. Originally the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical administered had been discounted as being of little significance. However, after consideration, a review of the contribution of any impurity was undertaken. (author).

  11. Distribution of Cold (≲300 K) Atomic Gas in Galaxies: Results from the GBT H i Absorption Survey Probing the Inner Halos (ρ < 20 kpc) of Low-z Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta

    2016-10-01

    We present the Green Bank Telescope absorption survey of cold atomic hydrogen (≲300 K) in the inner halo of low-redshift galaxies. The survey aims to characterize the cold gas distribution and to address where the condensation—the process where ionized gas accreted by galaxies condenses into cold gas within the disks of galaxies—occurs. Our sample consists of 16 galaxy–quasar pairs with impact parameters of ≤20 kpc. We detected an H i absorber associated with J0958+3222 (NGC 3067) and H i emission from six galaxies. We also found two Ca ii absorption systems in the archival SDSS data associated with galaxies J0958+3222 and J1228+3706. Our detection rate of H i absorbers with optical depths of ≥0.06 is ∼7%. We also find that the cold H i phase (≲300 K) is 44(±18)% of the total atomic gas in the sightline probing J0958+3222. We find no correlation between the peak optical depth and impact parameter or stellar and H i radii normalized impact parameters, ρ/R 90 and ρ/R H i . We conclude that the process of condensation of inflowing gas into cold (≲300 K) H i occurs at the ρ ≪ 20 kpc. However, the warmer phase of neutral gas (T ∼ 1000 K) can exist out to much larger distances, as seen in emission maps. Therefore, the process of condensation of warm to cold H i is likely occurring in stages from ionized to warm H i in the inner halo and then to cold H i very close to the galaxy disk. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  12. [Effect of polychlorinated biphenyls in the rat. III - PCB distribution, storage and elimination relation time (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbonne, J F; Gillet, G; Daubeze, M

    1978-07-01

    The study of accumulation and elimination of Phenoclor DP6 (a commercial PCB mixture) was carried out in three experiments : 1) Rats were fed diet containing 100 ppm of DP6 and were sacrificed after 1, 3, 8, 15 and 30 days. 2) Rats fed DP6 diet during 15 days were subsequently fed with a control diet and sacrificed 8, 15, 52 and 78 days after removal DP6 diet. 3) Bile was collected from surgically treated rats fed DP6 diet during 15 days. Polychlorobiphenyls were spotted in fat carcasses, liver, brain, kidney, muscle, feces and urine to determine absorption, distribution in the animal organism and the clearence rates in urine and feces. We found a very hight DP6 absorption and retention. The low excretion and metabolisation of DP6 result in low decrease after removal DP6 diet. PMID:105428

  13. Measurement of the rate of fat absorption by the 14C-triolein breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize the extent to which continuous measurement of the rate of 14CO2 excretion following the oral administration of 14C-labeled triolein (14C-T) would estimate the rate of absorption of triolein by the gut, ten adult male rats were fed 0.5 ml of 14C-T and the rate of production of expired labeled CO2 was measured continuously. Pairs of animals were sacrificed at 30 min intervals between 90 and 210 min and absorption rates were calculated by quantitating substrate remaining in the gut. Comparison of these rates with the cumulative excretion rates of labeled CO2 revealed a linear relationship with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. In a second experiment, adult rats received an intravenous injection of Triton WR-1339, a potent inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, prior to receiving 14C-T. The rate of intestinal 14C-triglyceride output was determined from the increase in 14C in the blood over a 6 hr period. Comparison of the rates of intestinal secretion using Triton WR-1339 with that determined from the cumulative rates of excretion of 14CO2 revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.98. The authors conclude that rates of triglyceride absorption can be estimated in vivo by the continuous measurement of labeled CO2 excreted in breath

  14. 粉蕉矿质元素吸收积累与分配特征%Absorption, accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in plantain banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨苞梅; 姚丽贤; 李国良; 周昌敏; 何兆桓; 涂仕华

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in plantain banana(Musa ABB Pisang Awak) and establish a reasonable fertilization protocol .Plantain banana was cultured in field and harvested at the fruit maturation stage for analyzing its composition of dry biomass , mineral element contents in different parts .The results show that the total dry biomass of plantain banana is 17.6 kg/plant , and the percentage of leaves is 16.4%, pseudostems, 32.8%; corms, 9.6%; fruits, 37.3%; bunch axles, 1.1% and roots, 2.8%, respectively.The total N, P and K amounts in plantain banana are 167.0, 19.3 and 521.7 g/plant, respectively.The total Ca, Mg and S amounts in plantain banana are 118.3, 54.7 and 16.6 g/plant, respectively, and the total Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B and Mo amounts in plantain banana are 6650.5, 16142.9, 152.3, 607.7, 212.2 and 4.2 mg/plant, respectively .N, P, Ca and S are mainly assigned to leaves , pseudostems and fruits , K and Mg to pseudostems, Fe to leaves, roots and corms, Cu mainly to pseudostems and fruits, Zn and Mo to leaves, pseudostems and corms , B and Mn to leaves and pseudostems .To form a yield of 60 t/hm2 , N 385.6 kg, P 44.6 kg, K 1205.1 kg, Ca 273.3 kg, Mg 126.6 kg, S 38.3 kg, Fe 15.4 kg, Mn 37.3 kg, Cu 352.0 g, Zn 1403.8 g, B 490.1 g and Mo 9.6 g are needed .%为探明粉蕉矿质营养元素的累积分配特征,以主栽品种“广粉1号”为试材,采用彻底刨根、分解取样的方法,研究了干物质的构成特点、各器官矿质元素含量和累积分配特性。结果表明,粉蕉植株总干质量为17.6 kg/plant,其中叶片占16.4%,假茎占32.8%,球茎占9.6%,果实占37.3%,果轴占1.1%,根占2.8%。平均每株累积吸收N 167.0 g、 P 19.3 g、 K 521.7 g、 Ca 118.3 g、 Mg 54.7 g、 S 16.6 g、 Fe 6650.5 mg、 Mn 16142.9 mg、 Cu 152.3 mg、Zn 607.7 mg、B 212.2 mg、Mo 4.2 mg。其中N、P、Ca和S主要向叶片、假茎和果实分配

  15. Red Yeast Rice Increases Excretion of Bile Acids in Hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KA-YING MA; ZE-SHENG ZHANG; SHU-XIN ZHAO; QI CHANG; YIN-MEI WONG; SAI YING VENUS YEUNG; YU HUANG; ZHEN-YU CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of red yeast rice (RYR) and its underlying mechanism. Methods Three groups of hamsters were fed either the control diet or one of the two experimental diets containing by weight 0.1% RYR (0.1RYR) or 0.3% RYR (0.3RYR). Blood (0.5 mL) was collected from the retro-orbital sinus into a heparinized capillary tube at the end of week 0,3, and 6.Plasma lipoproteins were measured using enzymatic kits, while fecal neutral and acidic sterols were quantified using a gas-liquid chromatography. Results Plasma total cholesterol was reduced by 12% in 0.1RYR group and by 18% in 0.3RYR group compared with the control value. Similarly, plasma triacylglycerol was decreased by ll% in 0.1RYR group and by 24% in 0.3RYR group. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that RYR had no effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein 2, liver X receptor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-CoA reductase, LDL receptor, and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase. HPLC analysis confirmed that RYR contained 0.88% monacolin K.It was recently found that RYR supplementation increased excretion of fecal acidic sterols by 3-4 folds compared with the control value. Conclusion Hypocholesterolemic activity of RYR is mediated at least partially by enhancement of acidic sterol excretion.

  16. Retention and excretion of 95Zr-95Nb in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thind, K S

    1995-12-01

    This note describes the retention and excretion of 95Zr-95Nb in humans based on a recent CANDU experience and a literature survey of reported cases. Two data bases, QUEST and INIS were used for the survey. Three reported cases were discovered: two for occupational exposures and one for public exposure from nuclear weapons fallout. Human lung retention from these three cases, plus whole body retention and some limited fecal excretion data from a recently occurred exposure at a CANDU station, were reviewed and tested against predictions based on ICRP Publication 30 model. Based on the fits of this model to the reported data it seems that the three occupational exposures exhibit class Y behavior while the public exposure exhibits class W behavior. For only one case is the chemical compound known with certainty: ZrO2. Zirconium oxides are currently classified as class W in ICRP Publications 30 and 54. This work confirms a suggestion that oxides of zirconium be classified as class Y and should be taken into account by the ICRP in its future publications. PMID:7493813

  17. Retention and excretion of 95Zr-95Nb in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thind, K S

    1995-12-01

    This note describes the retention and excretion of 95Zr-95Nb in humans based on a recent CANDU experience and a literature survey of reported cases. Two data bases, QUEST and INIS were used for the survey. Three reported cases were discovered: two for occupational exposures and one for public exposure from nuclear weapons fallout. Human lung retention from these three cases, plus whole body retention and some limited fecal excretion data from a recently occurred exposure at a CANDU station, were reviewed and tested against predictions based on ICRP Publication 30 model. Based on the fits of this model to the reported data it seems that the three occupational exposures exhibit class Y behavior while the public exposure exhibits class W behavior. For only one case is the chemical compound known with certainty: ZrO2. Zirconium oxides are currently classified as class W in ICRP Publications 30 and 54. This work confirms a suggestion that oxides of zirconium be classified as class Y and should be taken into account by the ICRP in its future publications.

  18. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  19. Absorption, accumulation and distribution of phosphorus in winter wheat under super-highly yielding conditions%超高产栽培条件下冬小麦对磷的吸收、积累和分配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党红凯; 李瑞奇; 李雁呜; 张馨文; 孙亚辉

    2012-01-01

    In order to clarify the characteristics of phosphorus absorption, accumulation and distribution in winter wheat cultivated under super-highly yielding (≥ 9000 kg/ha) conditions, a field experiment was conducted in Gaocheng County, Hebei Province from 2004-2006. Four winter wheat cuhivars, Shimai 14, Shimai 12, Jifeng 703, and Shixin 828 in 2004-2005 crop year, and four cultivars, Temai 1, Shimai 12, Shixin 531 and Shixin 828 in 2005-2006 crop year, were selected as experimental materials. The growing area for each cuhivar is 1 hectare, and is divided into three subplots of 3333 m2 as three replications. Plant materials were collected from the plots at each growing stage for phosphorus concentration determination in laboratory. The main results show that the concentrations of phosphorus in various above-ground organs, and the total accumulation amounts of phosphorus during the growing period for different wheat cultivars are different, but usually insignificant, showing similar characteristics of phosphorus nutrition for different eultivars with the yield 9000 kg/ha or higher. The concentrationsof phosphorus ( P2Os, the same as follows) in various above-ground organs of wheat are in the range of 0.25% to 2. 32% ( dry weight). The organs with the highest phosphorus concentration are different during the growing and development process, leaf sheaths at early period, stems and spikes at the middle period, and grains at the late period. For almost all cuhivars, the highest accumulation amounts of phosphorus are in leaf blades at the early growing period, but in grains at the late period among all above-ground organs. At the pre-booting period, the phosphorus absorbed by wheat plants is mainly distributed in leaf blades, where the distribution percentage is more than 50% for most cultivars. At maturity, however, the distribution percentage of phosphorus in grains is more than 60% for all cultivars, higher than those in other organs. Under the conditions of

  20. Nitrogen excretion during embryonic development of the green iguana, Iguana iguana (Reptilia; Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, M R; Taylor, E W; Abe, A S

    2012-10-01

    Development within the cleidoic egg of birds and reptiles presents the embryo with the problem of accumulation of wastes from nitrogen metabolism. Ammonia derived from protein catabolism is converted into the less toxic product urea or relatively insoluble uric acid. The pattern of nitrogen excretion of the green iguana, Iguana iguana, was determined during embryonic development using samples from allantoic fluid and from the whole homogenized egg, and in hatchlings and adults using samples of blood plasma. Urea was the major excretory product over the course of embryonic development. It was found in higher concentrations in the allantoic sac, suggesting that there is a mechanism present on the allantoic membrane enabling the concentration of urea. The newly hatched iguana still produced urea while adults produced uric acid. The time course of this shift in the type of nitrogen waste was not determined but the change is likely to be related to the water relations associated with the terrestrial habit of the adult. The green iguana produces parchment-shelled eggs that double in mass during incubation due to water absorption; the eggs also accumulate 0.02 mM of urea, representing 82% of the total measured nitrogenous residues that accumulate inside the allantois. The increase in egg mass and urea concentration became significant after 55 days of incubation then were unchanged until hatching. PMID:22710252

  1. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    OpenAIRE

    A Rathod; Bonny, O; Guessous, I; Suter, P M; Conen, D; Erne, P; Binet, I; Gabutti, L; Gallino, A; Muggli, F; Hayoz, D; Pechere-Bertschi, A; Paccaud, F.; Burnier, M.; Bochud, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. DESIGN, SETTINGS, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root-transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dep...

  2. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND AMMONIA EXCRETION BY SOLENAIA OLEIVORA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The respiration metabolismand excretion of marinebivalves were studied by different researchers[1—6].Themetabolic rate of bivalves is influenced by a number ofvariables,includingtemperature,body size,oxygen ten-sion,food concentration,reproductive state,activityleveland physiological condition.The excreted metabolites ofbivalves include ammonia,urea,uric acid and others,with ammonia comprising70%of the total excretion.Solenaia oleivorais a proper freshwater bivalve in China.For the consumer it has the follo...

  3. Influence of curcumin on cyclosporin-induced reduction of biliary bilirubin and cholesterol excretion and on biliary excretion of cyclosporin and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, M; Siegers, C; Hänsel, W; Schneider, K P; Hennighausen, G

    2000-06-01

    We investigated the ability of curcumin, which can be extracted from different Curcuma species, to prevent cyclosporin-induced reduction of biliary bilirubin and cholesterol excretion, and its influence on biliary excretion of cyclosporin (CS) and its metabolites in the bile fistula model in rats. I.v. injection of curcumin (25 and 50 mg/kg) after 30 min increased dose-dependently basal bile flow (30 microliters/kg/min) up to 200%, biliary bilirubin excretion (3000 pmol/kg/min) up to 150%, and biliary cholesterol excretion (22 nmol/kg/min) up to 113%. CS (30 mg/kg) reduced bile flow to 66% and biliary excretion of bilirubin and of cholesterol to 33% of the basal value 30 min after i.v. injection. I.v. administration of curcumin (25 and 50 mg/kg) 30 min after CS increased bile flow dose dependently again to 130% for 1 hour and biliary excretion of cholesterol and of bilirubin to 100% of the basal value for 30 and 150 min, respectively. Injection of curcumin 15 min before CS prevented the CS-induced drop of bile flow at 50 mg/kg and reduction of biliary bilirubin excretion already at 25 mg/kg until the end of the experiment (180 min). The CS-induced reduction of biliary cholesterol excretion, however, was not prevented by curcumin. Finally, the biliary excretions of CS (1200 ng/kg/min) and its metabolites (1200 ng/kg/min) were slightly reduced by curcumin at a dose of 50 mg/kg (to 83% of the initial values). The clinical importance of these controversial effects remains to be shown.

  4. Urinary Excretion of Cyanidin Glucosides and Glucuronides in Healthy Humans After Elderberry Juice Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Bitsch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pilot study with 6 females and 1 male, the metabolism of various cyanidin glucosides after oral administration of elderberry juice was investigated. The anthocyanin metabolites were detected in urinary excretion. After ingestion of a bolus quantity of 3.57 g total anthocyanins in a 150 mL elderberry juice concentrate, 0.053% of the administered dose was excreted in urine as glucosidically bound cyanidins within the first 5 hours. Only 0.003% of the ingested anthocyanin glucosides was excreted as cyanidin glucuronide, suggesting that this conversion step might be of minor importance in urinary excretion.

  5. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iA VP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E (PGE). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased....... Increased water consumption and increased urinary iAVP excretion seem to be early symptoms (after 4 weeks) of EFA deficiency, whereas decreased urine output and decreased urinary PGE excretion occur much later (after 10 weeks). Two energy% linolenate supplementation to a fat-free diet did not change...

  6. D-xylose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003606.htm D-xylose absorption To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine ...

  7. Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and excretion studies of neotuberostemonine, a major bioactive alkaloid of Stemona tuberosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Ou, Liting; Han, Dong; Tong, Yongbin; Zhang, Mian; Xu, Xianghong; Zhang, Chaofeng

    2016-07-01

    Neotuberostemonine is a potent antitussive alkaloid extracted from Stemona tuberosa. However, the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of pure neotuberostemonine have not been reported. The present study was aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters of neotuberostemonine by developing an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Neotuberostemonine and tetrahydropalmatine (internal standard, IS) in bio-samples were extracted by protein precipitation with methanol and successfully separated on a Zorbax Extend C18 column by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and a mixture of 0.1% formic acid and 5mM ammonium acetate. The detection was performed by using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The MS/MS ion transitions were monitored at m/z 376.1→302.0 for neotuberostemonine and 355.8→192.0 for IS. After oral administration of neotuberostemonine in rats, the Cmax and AUC0-∞ were 11.37ng/mL and 17.68ng·h/mL at 20mg/kg and 137.6ng/mL and 167.4ng·h/mL at 40mg/kg, and the t1/2 were 2.28 and 3.04h at 20 and 40mg/kg, respectively. The high neotuberostemonine concentrations were found in intestine, stomach and liver, and there was no long-term accumulation of neotuberostemonine in tissues. Total recoveries of neotuberostemonine were only 0.90% (0.19% in bile, 0.05% in urine and 0.66% in feces), which might be resulted from the intestine and liver first-pass effects, indicating that neotuberostemonine may be mainly excreted as its metabolites. All above results would provide helpful information for the further pharmacological and clinical studies of neotuberostemonine and the crude drug. PMID:27179627

  8. Glutamine transaminase K intranephron localization in rats determined by urinary excretion after treatment with segment-specific nephrotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, A.; Fanelli, G.; Bicciato, F.; Stocco, E. [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Univ. of Padova (Italy); Cristofori, P. [Medicine Safety Evaluation, Pathology Department, GlaxoWellcome S.p.A., Verona (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Glutamine transaminase K(GTK) excretion assessed in urine and by kidney histology was evaluated in rats after single treatment with 1.0 mg/kg i.p. of mercuric chloride, 100 mg/kg i.p. of hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (both S{sub 3}, pars recta, segment-specific nephrotoxicants) and 25 mg/kg s.c. of potassium dichromate (S{sub 1}-S{sub 2}, pars convoluta, segment-specific nephrotoxicant). The aim was to correlate segment-specific injury and enzyme excretion in order to assess, using non-vasive methods, localization of GTK along the proximal tubule. Mercuric chloride and hexachloro-1:3-butadiene produced early focal damage in the pars recta (focal necrosis was shown 10 h after treatment, and diffuse necrosis appeared later at 34 and 24 h after treatment). Changes of the pars convoluta were occasional and delayed (72 h after treatment for both substances). On the contrary, potassium dichromate induced damage of the pars convoluta (vacuolar degeneration and focal necrosis were evident 24 h and 48 h after treatment, respectively), whereas the pars recta was affected later (focal vacuolar degeneration was observed 72 h after treatment). Increase urinary GTK excretion was early after treatment with mercuric chloride and hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (significant increase was observed within 10 h), with a peak for both substances 24 h after treatment, in agreement with the necrosis of the pars recta. Potassium dichromate induced a significant increase of enzyme excretion in urine also 24 h after injection, according to histological features showing vacuolar degeneration of the pars convoluta; the peak of excretion was reached 48 h after treatment (delay was due, probably, to s.c. administration). The results show that GTK increased in urine after treatment with S{sub 3}and S {sub 1}-S {sub 2} specific nephrotoxicants; the combination of histological examination and urinary enzyme supports the evidence that the enzyme is distributed along the whole of the proximal tubule. (orig

  9. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Göran; Zhang, Jie- Xian; Tidehag, Per; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Moazzami, Ali A; Åman, Per

    2013-01-01

    Background:Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets.Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time.Design: Ten particip...

  10. Excretion of artifactual endogenous digitalis-like factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.A.

    1986-07-01

    Radioimmunoassays have been used to detect digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLF) in the plasma and urine of hypertensive patients and rats with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. DLF, partially purified from DOCA-HS urine by antidigoxin antibody immunoaffinity chromatography, was found to have a molecular weight <2000. When DOCA-HS rats were switched to the low-sodium chow, DLF excretion dropped precipitously. No measurable DLF was detected in the plasma of rats eating either chow. However, >95% of the urinary DLF could be attributed to a contaminant in the standard laboratory chow. These data document the importance of excluding nonspecific compounds and exogenous sources of DLF when sensitive radioligand and biologic assays are used to detect endogenous inhibitors of the sodium pump.

  11. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2.......5 h after the first tablet to 2.5 micrograms/mL after the fifth tablet, and 5.5 micrograms/mL after the 13th tablet. All persons harboured susceptible S epidermidis (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] 0.25 microgram/mL) in axilla and nostrils before treatment. Four resistant strains were detected...

  12. Fecal calprotectin excretion in preterm infants during the neonatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Rougé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fecal calprotectin has been proposed as a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease in adults and children. Fecal calprotectin levels have been reported to be much higher in both healthy full-term and preterm infants than in children and adults. OBJECTIVE: To determine the time course of fecal calprotectin (f-calprotectin excretion in preterm infants from birth until hospital discharge and to identify factors influencing f-calprotectin levels in the first weeks of life, including bacterial establishment in the gut. METHODOLOGY: F-calprotectin was determined using an ELISA assay in 147 samples obtained prospectively from 47 preterm infants (gestational age, and birth-weight interquartiles 27-29 weeks, and 880-1320 g, respectively at birth, and at 2-week intervals until hospital discharge. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although median f-calprotectin excretion was 138 microg/g, a wide range of inter- and intra-individual variation in f-calprotectin values (from day 3 to day 78 was observed (86% and 67%, respectively. In multivariate regression analysis, f-calprotectin correlated negatively with ante and per natal antibiotic treatment (p = 0.001, and correlated positively with the volume of enteral feeding (mL/kg/d (p = 0.009, the need to interrupt enteral feeding (p = 0.001, and prominent gastrointestinal colonization by Clostridium sp (p = 0.019 and Staphylococcus sp (p = 0.047. CONCLUSION: During the first weeks of life, the high f-calprotectin values observed in preterm infants could be linked to the gut bacterial establishment.

  13. Fecal Calprotectin Excretion in Preterm Infants during the Neonatal Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé, Carole; Butel, Marie-José; Piloquet, Hugues; Ferraris, Laurent; Legrand, Arnaud; Vodovar, Michel; Voyer, Marcel; de la Cochetière, Marie-France; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Background Fecal calprotectin has been proposed as a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease in adults and children. Fecal calprotectin levels have been reported to be much higher in both healthy full-term and preterm infants than in children and adults. Objective To determine the time course of fecal calprotectin (f-calprotectin) excretion in preterm infants from birth until hospital discharge and to identify factors influencing f-calprotectin levels in the first weeks of life, including bacterial establishment in the gut. Methodology F-calprotectin was determined using an ELISA assay in 147 samples obtained prospectively from 47 preterm infants (gestational age, and birth-weight interquartiles 27–29 weeks, and 880–1320 g, respectively) at birth, and at 2-week intervals until hospital discharge. Principal Findings Although median f-calprotectin excretion was 138 µg/g, a wide range of inter- and intra-individual variation in f-calprotectin values (from day 3 to day 78) was observed (86% and 67%, respectively). In multivariate regression analysis, f-calprotectin correlated negatively with ante and per natal antibiotic treatment (p = 0.001), and correlated positively with the volume of enteral feeding (mL/kg/d) (p = 0.009), the need to interrupt enteral feeding (p = 0.001), and prominent gastrointestinal colonization by Clostridium sp (p = 0.019) and Staphylococcus sp (p = 0.047). Conclusion During the first weeks of life, the high f-calprotectin values observed in preterm infants could be linked to the gut bacterial establishment. PMID:20552029

  14. Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Y K Ip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+ transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood-brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood-brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood-brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia-tolerance, respectively.

  15. LOW FRACTIONAL EXCRETION OF UREA IN HYPOTHYROIDISM INDUCED HYPONATREMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algranati L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:El hipotiroidismo puede causar alteraciones del metabolismo del agua, los electrolitos, la hemodinamia e histología renales, siendo la hiponatremia y la reducción del filtrado glomerular sus consecuencias más significativas, pero poco prevalentes. Todos estos cambios son corregibles con el suministro de hormona tiroidea exógena.La excreción fraccional de urea (EFU es un índice útil en la evaluación de la hiponatremia, pero no se ha descripto aun el valor que este índice alcanza en la hiponatremia inducida por hipotiroidismo. En el presente reporte mostramos que la EFU y excreción fraccional de sodio (EFNa fueron baja (EFU: 29% y alta (EFNa: 2.2% respectivamente en un paciente que padecía hipotiroideo severo. El tratamiento con hormona tiroidea normalizó el valor de ambos índices.ABSTRACTHypothyroidism can cause disturbance of renal hemodinamics, kidney histology, water and electrolyte metabolism, being hyponatremia and glomerular filtration reduction their low prevalent but most significant consequences. All these changes are largely corrected by substitution of exogenous thyroid hormone.Fractional excretion of urea (FEU is a useful index in the evaluation of hyponatremia. However, it was not still reported in the literature the FEU value in hyponatremia induced by hypothyroidism. Because of that we presented a case report showing that the value of FEU and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa were low (FEU: 29% and high (FENa: 2.2 % respectively in a severe hypothyroid patient. Treatment based on thyroid hormone normalized both indeces.

  16. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  17. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  18. Tissue contents and urinary excretion of taurine after administration of L-cysteine and L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate to rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubuka,Toshihiko

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue contents and urinary excretion of taurine were studied in rats after the administration of L-cysteine and its derivatives. Average taurine content in the liver of rats fed a 25% casein diet for 7 days increased 2-fold 2h after the intraperitoneal administration of 5 mmol of L-cysteine per kg of body weight, whereas that in rats fed a 5% casein diet for 2 days increased only slightly. The difference in the liver taurine contents between these two groups was discussed in relation to cysteine dioxygenase. Taurine contents in the heart, brain and blood did not differ significantly between these two groups or between the control and the group of rats which received L-cysteine. The increase in liver taurine concentrations after L-cysteine administration was much higher than that after L-cystine administration, suggesting a difference in their absorption. The intraperitoneal administration of 5 mmol/kg of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTCA resulted in a 3-fold increase in liver taurine content. The average increase in taurine excretion in the 24-h urine after OTCA administration corresponded to about 6.0% and that in the next 24-h urine to about 2.6% of OTCA administered, suggesting that nearly 10% of OTCA was metabolized to taurine and excreted in the urine.

  19. Intake and fecal excretion of PCDDs, PCDFs, HCB and PCBs (138, 153, 180) in a breast-fed and a formula-fed infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K; Hille, A; Ende, M; Helge, H

    1994-01-01

    Intake and fecal excretion of PCDDs, PCDFs, HCB and PCBs (IUPAC Nos. 138, 153, 180) were measured in a breast-fed and a formula-fed infant at the age of 1 and 5 months. As expected, the intake of these compounds was clearly higher in the breast-fed infant. In this baby an almost complete absorption was observed for lower chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs and also for HCB and PCBs, whereas for hepta- and octachlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs fecal excretion was considerably higher (from 20% up to nearly 100% of the intake). Due to low concentrations in diet and feces of the formula-fed infant an evaluation was possible only for a few compounds at the age of 5 months. These values were in the same range when compared with those of the breast-fed infant. For collection of feces new cotton diapers were used which were pre-extracted in order to reduce the levels of polychlorinated compounds. Unexpectedly, after washing the tissue a much higher contamination was observed which made a calculation of fecal excretion rates in the formula-fed infant at the age of 1 month impossible. PMID:7850375

  20. Direct intestinal cholesterol secretion contributes significantly to total fecal neutral sterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; Van den Oever, Karin; Kunne, Cindy; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Kljipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: Hepatobiliary secretion is generally believed to be an integral step in the pathway of cholesterol excretion from the body. Here we have investigated the validity of this paradigm in mice. Methods: Cholesterol balance was assessed by measuring intake, excretion, and biliary output

  1. Urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine as biomarker of oxidative damage to DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Steffen; Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Løhr, Mille;

    2012-01-01

    Gua excretion, whereas radiotherapy only showed such effects in experimental animals. Case-control studies found high excretion of 8-oxoGua in relation to cancer, dementia and celiac disease but not hemochromatosis, although associations could be a consequence rather than reflecting causality of disease. One...

  2. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion predicts preeclampsia in pregnant women with pregestational type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.......We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  3. Separation of pair housed roosters is associated with transient increased corticosteroid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Jann; Carlsson, H E; Royo, F;

    2009-01-01

    days after separation. There was no statistically significant difference in ICCM excretion in the droppings between the permanently single or pair housed roosters. After separation, however, the previously pair housed roosters showed a significantly transient elevated excretion of ICCM in droppings...

  4. Urinary excretion of arsenicals following daily intake of various seafoods during a two weeks intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, M.; Ulven, S.M.; Dahl, L.;

    2014-01-01

    the intervention. Confirming the single dose study AB and DMA excreted were apparently endogenously formed from other arsenicals ingested. Total tAs excretion was 1386, 763 and 303μg in the cod, blue mussel and salmon groups, respectively; about twice the amounts after the single dose study indicating...

  5. Production and excretion of secondary metabolites by plant cell cultures of Tagetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    In this thesis, the results are presented of several approaches to improve the production and excretion of thiophenes by cell cultures or hairy roots of Tagetes spp.In chapter one, most of the techniques to improve the production and/or excretion of secondary metabolites with plant cell cultures are

  6. African swine fever virus excretion patterns in persistently infected animals: A quantitative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Weesendorp, E.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Bouma, A.; Quak, S.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    The continuing circulation of African swine fever (ASF) in Russia and in the Trans-Caucasian countries has led to increased efforts in characterizing the epidemiology of ASF. For a better insight in epidemiology, quantitative data on virus excretion is required. Until now, excretion data has mainly

  7. The impact of gender and puberty on reference values for urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jarden, M; Angelo, L;

    1994-01-01

    conclude that the assay was suitable for measurement of U-GH excretion in virtually all healthy volunteers. Sex and pubertal stage as well as urinary volume and clock times for collection periods should be registered when establishing a reference range for U-GH excretion and applying it for clinical...

  8. Dietary strategies to reducing N excretion from cattle: implications for methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Oenema, O.; Bannink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminants turn human inedible into human edible products, but at a cost of excretion of various pollutants. Implications of dietary measures for cattle to reduce faecal and urinary nitrogen losses on methane emissions are reviewed. Reducing the dietary protein content decreases nitrogen excretion in

  9. Effects of glucose and ascorbic acid on absorption and first pass metabolism of isoniazid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Y; Katakuse, Y; Matsuura, H; Kiwada, H; Goromaru, T

    1991-02-01

    We examined the effect of glucose (Glu) and ascorbic acid (AA) on absorption and metabolism of isoniazid (INAH). After p.o. administration of INAH with or without Glu or AA, plasma concentration and urinary excretion of INAH and its metabolites, acetyl INAH (AcINAH), acetyl hydrazine (AcHy) and hydrazine (Hy), were determined by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeled compounds as internal standard. The combined administration of INAH with Glu or AA led to a significant decrease in the excretion of INAH and Hy, and a significant increase in the excretion of AcINAH and AcHy. The absorption amount of INAH was reduced to about one-half by the addition of Glu and the absorption rate of INAH markedly decreased in the case of co-administration of AA. Comparing the oral case with the results of i.v. administration, Glu and AA only affect the absorption process containing the first pass metabolism of INAH.

  10. QSO Absorption Lines from QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, D V; Ménard, B; Chelouche, D; Inada, N; Oguri, M; Richards, G T; Strauss, M A; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; York, D G; Bowen, David V.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Menard, Brice; Chelouche, Doron; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; York, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of a search for metal absorption lines in the spectra of background QSOs whose sightlines pass close to foreground QSOs. We detect MgII(2796,2803) absorption in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra of four z>1.5 QSOs whose lines of sight pass within 26-98 kpc of lower redshift (z~0.5-1.5) QSOs. The 100% [4/4 pairs] detection of MgII in the background QSOs is clearly at odds with the incidence of associated (z_abs ~ z_em) systems -- absorbers which exist towards only a few percent of QSOs. Although the quality of our foreground QSO spectra is not as high as the SDSS data, absorption seen towards one of the background QSOs clearly does not show up at the same strength in the spectrum of the corresponding foreground QSO. This implies that the absorbing gas is distributed inhomogeneously around the QSO, presumably as a direct consequence of the anisotropic emission from the central AGN. We discuss possible origins for the MgII lines, including: absorption by gas from the foreground QSO h...

  11. Effects of water deprivation on renal hydroelectrolytic excretion in chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Rosa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an 8 hour-period of water deprivation on fluid and electrolyte renal excretion was investigated in male Wistar rats infected with the strain São Felipe (12SF of Trypanosoma cruzi, in comparison with age and sex matched non-infected controls. The median percent reductions in the urinary flow (-40% v -63% and excretion ofsodium (-57% v-79% were smaller in chagasic than in control rats, respectively. So, chagasic rats excreted more than controls. On the other hand, the median percent decrement in the clearance of creatinine was higher in chagasic (-51% than in controls (-39%. Thus, chagasic rats showed some disturbed renal hydroelectrolytic responses to water deprivation, expressed by smaller conservation, or higher excretion of water and sodium in association with smaller glomerularfiltration rate. This fact denoted an elevation in the fractional excretion of sodium and water.

  12. Variability of calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variability in calcium absorption was estimated in three groups of normal subjects in whom Ca absorption was measured by standard isotopic-tracer methods at interstudy intervals ranging from 1 to 4 mo. Fifty absorption tests were performed in 22 subjects. Each was done in the morning after an overnight fast with an identical standard breakfast containing a Ca load of approximately 250 mg. Individual fractional absorption values were normalized to permit pooling of the data. The coefficient of variation (CVs) for absorption for the three groups ranged from 10.57 to 12.79% with the size of the CV increasing with interstudy duration. One other published study presenting replicate absorption values was analyzed in a similar fashion and was found to have a CV of absorption of 9.78%. From these data we estimate that when the standard double-isotope method is used to measure Ca absorption there is approximately 10% variability around any given absorption value within an individual human subject and that roughly two-thirds of this represents real biological variability in absorption

  13. The HI absorption "Zoo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geréb, K.; Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the H I 21 cm absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S1.4 GHz> 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We detect H I absorption in 32 objects (30% of the sample). In a previous paper, we performed a spectral stacking analysis on the radio sources, while here we characterize the absorption spectra of the individual detections using the recently presented busy function. The H I absorption spectra show a broad variety of widths, shapes, and kinematical properties. The full width half maximum (FWHM) of the busy function fits of the detected H I lines lies in the range 32 km s-1 200 km s-1). We study the kinematical and radio source properties of each group, with the goal of identifying different morphological structures of H I. Narrow lines mostly lie at the systemic velocity and are likely produced by regularly rotating H I disks or gas clouds. More H I disks can be present among galaxies with lines of intermediate widths; however, the H I in these sources is more unsettled. We study the asymmetry parameter and blueshift/redshift distribution of the lines as a function of their width. We find a trend for which narrow profiles are also symmetric, while broad lines are the most asymmetric. Among the broadest lines, more lines appear blueshifted than redshifted, similarly to what was found by previous studies. Interestingly, symmetric broad lines are absent from the sample. We argue that if a profile is broad, it is also asymmetric and shifted relative to the systemic velocity because it is tracing unsettled H I gas. In particular, besides three of the broadest (up to FW20 = 825 km s-1) detections, which are associated with gas-rich mergers, we find three new cases of profiles with blueshifted broad wings (with FW20 ≳ 500 km s-1) in high radio power AGN. These detections are good candidates for being HI outflows. Together with the known cases of outflows already included in the sample (3C 293 and

  14. The Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE on Urinary Sodium Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: While various hormones and mediators reduce the urinary excretion of Na, other mediators such as nitric oxide (NO increase Na excretion. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE is a molecule that has an antioxidant effect by increasing NO levels. Our study was intended to evaluate the effect of GSPE on Na excretion. Material and Method: Fourteen rats were divided into control and GSPE groups. The control group was given 1 cm3 milk by gavage for one week, while the GSPE group was given 100 mg/kg GSPE. Seventh-day urines were collected from rats monitored over 24 h in a metabolic cage. Urinary Na excretion at the end of 24 h was investigated and the experiment concluded. Results: There was no difference between the control and GSPE groups in terms of weight, solid and liquid food intake and urine volumes. 24-hour urinary Na excretion was higher in the GSPE group (1.43±0.30 g/day compared to the control group (1.37±0.29 g/day, although the difference was not statistically significant. Na excretion was positively correlated with solid food intake (p=0.029, r=0.583  and urine volume (p<0.001, r=0.806. Discussion: Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that GSPE increases  urinary Na excretion in healthy rats,  though not to a statistically significant extent, and that solid food intake and urine volume affect Na excretion. We think that it will be useful for the effect of GSPE on urinary Na excretion in hypertensive rats with impaired Na excretion and balance to be evaluated in future studies.

  15. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3-15N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  16. 不同盐度胁迫对芦荟生长和离子吸收分配的影响%Effects of Salt Concentration on Growth, Ion Absorption and Distribution of Aloe vera L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳萍

    2012-01-01

    为探索芦荟对微咸水灌溉栽培的适应性,研究不同盐浓度对其生长和离子吸收分配的影响.结果表明,长期(120天)以含盐溶液灌溉栽培,盐浓度达200 mmol/L NaCl显著抑制芦荟生长,100 mmol/LNaCl对芦荟生长的抑制作用显著减轻,50 mmol/L NaCl不抑制芦荟生长.同时,以50 mmol/L NaCl溶液灌溉对芦荟盐分离子吸收分配影响轻微,但盐浓度达100 mmol/LNaCl对芦荟影响显著:根、茎、叶中K+含量显著下降,Na+、Cl-含量显著增大,K+/Na+大幅减小.X-射线能谱分析结果进一步表明,叶片贮水组织是芦荟积累盐分离子的重要部位,但100 mmol/L NaCl胁迫下芦荟根尖和叶片细胞中的离子平衡受到显著干扰.结果说明,芦荟适于用微咸水灌溉栽培,叶片贮水组织在缓解其盐胁迫中可起重要作用.%To explore the adaptability of irrigating aloe with weakly brine water, the effects of different concentration salinity stresses on growth, ion absorption and distribution of aloe plants were investigated.Experimental results showed that irrigation with 200 mmol/L NaCl for 120 d significantly retarded aloe growth, but the negative effects of irrigating aloe with 100 mmol/L NaCl on aloe growth were significantly relieved, even irrigating with 50 mmol/L NaCl did not retard aloe growth.The effects of irrigating with 50 mmol/L NaCl on ion absorption, transportation and distribution of aloe plants were not significant, but irrigating with 100 mmol/L NaCl were significant: K + contents of root, stem and leaf significantly decreased, Na + and Cl- content significantly increased, K+Na+ ratio significantly decreased.X-ray microanalysis results further showed that leaf aqueous was a main part of accumulating salt ion but ion homeostasis in root and leaf cells of aloe plants were significantly interrupted under 100 mmol/L NaCl stress.The experiment results suggested that Aloe vera L.was suitable to be irrigated with weakly brine water, and leaf

  17. Ten element contents and their distribution in fruits determinated by atomic absorption spectrometry%原子吸收光谱法测定水果中10种元素含量及分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡艳荣; 刘媛; 李玲玲; 王伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the contents and distributions of the Zn, Cu, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr and Se elements in the fruits. Methods The fruit samples were digested with wet method. Contents of zinc, copper,calcium,magnesium,potassium and manganese were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS).Contents of lead, cadmium, chromium and selenium were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry( GFAAS). Results There existed differences for the element distribution in each part of the fruits. The contents of lead in the grapes, dried jujubes and papaya were close to the pollutant concentration limits, but their contents were lower than standard limits. The contents of chromium in the Guoguang apples, pears, dry jujubes and cherry tomatoes were higher than standard limits. Selenium was detected in the Guoguang apples, bananas, pears, dry jujubes, papaya and pomelo. The contents of copper in the grapes and dry jujubes exceeded standard limits. The contents of zinc were lower than standard limits. The calcium contents were the highest in the papaya. The contents of magnesium and manganese were the highest in the dry jujubes. The contents of potassium were higher in the dry jujubes,pomelo and cherry tomato. Conclusion The highest levels of the elements were in the seeds, and the second levels were in the skin ,the lowest levels were in the pulp. The element contents of the peel were higher than those the pulp.%目的 调查水果中锌、铜、钾、钙、镁、锰、铅、镉、铬和硒10种元素含量分布情况.方法 采用湿法消解水果样品,火焰原子吸收光谱法检测水果中的锌、铜、钾、钙、镁和锰的含量,石墨炉原子吸收光谱法检测铅、镉、铬和硒的含量.结果 10种元素在水果中各部位的分布有比较大的差异.葡萄、干枣和木瓜中铅含量接近于污染物浓度限量,但没有超过标准.国光苹果、梨、干枣和圣女果中铬的含量都超标.国光苹

  18. Effects of perindopril on expression of kidney aquaporin-2 and urine aquaporin-2 excretion in chronic heart failure rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳邵

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the expression of kidneyaquaporin-2(AQP2) and urine AQP2 excretion in chronic heart failure(CHF) rats and investigate effects of perindopril on the expression and excretion of AQP2.Methods

  19. Formulation of Relationships between the Radiation Exposure of Tissues and the Excretion Rate of Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of protection against undue occupational exposure to internal radiation involves several processes: 1 1. Decisions as to the highest dose-rates, for the body or for particular organs-, that can be regarded as permissible; 2. Estimation, for all relevant nuclides, of the intakes, and of the body burdens, which would cause any such dose-rates to be reached or sustained; 3. Monitoring of exposed individuals to determine what fraction of a permissible body burden of any nuclide is retained in the body. Techniques of monitoring by whole-body counting, or by data on excretion or exhalation rates, are relevant to the Symposium. Several major problems are involved: (a) For most radionuclides, insufficient metabolic data are available to link tissue dose-rates either with body burdens or with excretion rates, at least as based on adequately large numbers of normal human subjects; (b) The large variability between different subjects in physiological functions, such as excretion or clearance rates, limits severely the inferences that can be made from isolated human observations, and restricts also the deductions as to body burden that can be drawn from the excretion rates observed in any individual; (c) The complex variation of excretion rate with time after a single intake cf many, nuclides prevents any direct deduction of body burden from excretion rate when the time course of intake is unknown, except in the special case of a nuclide which is excreted at a rate which decreases (mono-) exponentially with time since intake; (d) In particular, many radionuclides which are of particular importance because they are highly concentrated and long retained in certain organs, may show initial rapid excretion of the fraction of intake which is not so concentrated, and much slower and more prolonged excretion of the retained part. A small recent intake will thus contribute preponderating to the excretion as compared with that from a much larger and more important

  20. Assessment of urinary iodine excretion among normal Kuwaiti adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yatama, Fatma I; Al-Bader, Maie D; Al-Mazidi, Zaidan M; Ali, Ameena; Al-Omair, Ali S; Al-Jehma, Nasser A; Mohammed, Fawziah

    2009-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the status of iodine intake among the Kuwaiti population and its effect on thyroid function. The study group was comprised of 139 females and 86 males with a mean age of 33 and 35 years, respectively. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and serum free T4 (FT4), thyrotropin hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibodies (anti- TPOAb), and antithyroglobulin antibodies (anti-TGAb) were determined. Median UIE was 148 μg/L (within the recommended level by the World Health Organization [WHO]). However, UIE levels of iodine intake, which was reflected in an increased UIE of 590 μg/L. Elevated anti-TPOAb >75 IU/mL and anti-TGAb >150 IU/mL were detected in 15% and 34% of subjects; only 10% of them had elevated levels of both anti-TPOAb and anti-TGAb. Thus, based on the WHO recommendations, the iodine intake for the Kuwaiti population is adequate. However, it is recommended that a national study be conducted by the appropriate authority in order to eliminate any artifacts which may have appeared in this study.

  1. Net acid excretion during first week of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L L; Balfe, J W; Exeni, R; Cifuentes, R F; Bryan, M H; Atkinson, S A

    1981-03-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs frequently in newborns. Net acid excretion (NAE) in 34 preterm and 12 term infants was measured during the first week of life. Twenty preterm infants received breast milk or formula; the remaining infants received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) -- synthetic amino acids or casein hydrolysate solution. NAE for breast milk vs formula fed infants was 5.4 +/- 0.4 and 7.8 +/- 0.6 muEq/min/m2 (mean +/- SEM). The corresponding values for the two TPN solutions in preterm infants were significantly higher at 12.5 +/- 1.4 and 19.4 +/- 3.5 muEq/min/m2. Term infants produced even greater amount of net acid, 20.6 +/- 2.9 and 35 +/- 3.7 muEq/min/m2 respectively for the two TPN solutions. Milk fed infants are less prone to acidosis because of base generated from milk consumption. Due to its inherent acidogenic effect, TPN solutions induce acidosis more readily. Infants receiving TPN are therefore required to generate a higher NAE rate to maintain acid-base homeostasis compared to milk fed infants.

  2. Excretion of laccase by sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. Effects of a copper deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligny, R; Gaillard, J; Douce, R

    1986-07-15

    Copper-deprived sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells do not excrete molecules of active laccase in their culture medium. In the range of 2-100 micrograms of copper initially present per litre of nutrient solution, the total laccase activity measured in the cell suspensions at the end of the exponential phase of growth was closely proportional to the amount of added copper. However, copper-deprived cells excreted the laccase apoprotein (laccase without copper) at the same rate as copper-supplied cells excreted the active, copper-containing, laccase. When the culture medium was initially supplied with limiting amounts of copper, the active laccase was excreted until all copper molecules were metabolized. Thereafter, the laccase apoprotein was excreted. Consequently, at the end of the exponential phase of growth, the cell supernatants contained a mixture of apoprotein and copper-containing laccase. After purification and concentration, this mixture of copper-containing laccase (blue) and laccase apoprotein (slightly yellow) showed a yellow-green colour. Under copper-limiting culture conditions an equivalent decrease of Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 Cu2+ was observed. Addition of copper to copper-deficient enzyme solutions does not result in a recovery of the enzyme activity. However, when added to copper-deficient sycamore-cell suspensions, copper induced a recovery of the excretion of active enzyme, at a normal rate, within about 10 h. The first molecules of active laccase were excreted after 3-4 h.

  3. Testosterone influences renal electrolyte excretion in SHR/y and WKY males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehme Shannon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Y-chromosome (Yc and testosterone (T increase blood pressure and may also influence renal electrolyte excretion. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if the Yc combined with T manipulation could influence renal Na and K excretion. Methods To investigate the role of the Yc and T, consomic borderline hypertensive (SHR/y and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat strains were used (15 weeks in three T treatment groups: castrate, castrate with T implant and gonadally intact males. Urine was collected (24 hrs at 15 weeks of age for Na and K measurements by flame photometry. RT-PCR was used to demonstrate the presence of renal androgen receptor (AR transcripts. Plasma T and aldosterone were measured by RIA. In another experiment the androgen receptor was blocked using flutamide in the diet. Results Na and K excretion were decreased by T in SHR/y and WKY. AR transcripts were identified in SHR/y and WKY kidneys. Plasma aldosterone was decreased in the presence of T. Blockade of the AR resulted in a significant increase in Na excretion but not in K excretion in both SHR/y and WKY males. Conclusion T influences electrolyte excretion through an androgen receptor dependent mechanism. There was not a differential Yc involvement in electrolyte excretion between WKY and SHR/y males.

  4. Evaluation of the impact of alveolar nitrogen excretion on indices derived from multiple breath nitrogen washout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Nielsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF. Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored. METHODS: A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC and lung clearance index (LCI measurements. RESULTS: Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8% in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%, and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6-13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24-49%. CONCLUSIONS: Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen.

  5. Organic acid excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron increases with ambient pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVrabl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH.We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi.In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2-7, and ammonium or phosphate limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7. Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids.Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e. overflow metabolism, charge balance and aggressive acidification hypothesis.

  6. Urinary dopamine in man and rat: effects of inorganic salts on dopamine excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, S G; Oats, N S; Lee, M R

    1978-08-01

    1. Plasma and urine free dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) were measured in six normal male volunteer subjects and the urinary clearance of dopamine was calculated for each subject. 2. The excretion rates for free dopamine in man were greater than could be explained by simple renal clearance. It was concluded that free dopamine must, therefore, be formed in the kidney. 3. Changes in urinary dopamine excretion were studied in four groups of rats initially maintained on low sodium diet and then given equimolar dietary supplements of NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl or NH4Cl, to study the specificity of the previously observed increase in dopamine excretion after increased dietary NaCl. 4. The mean dopamine excretion increased significantly in rats given NaCl, KCl and NH4Cl, whereas dopamine excretion decreased in those given NaHCO3. 5. The failure of dopamine excretion to rise in response to loading with NaHCO3 was unexpected, and argues against a simple effect of volume expansion by the sodium ion. The increase in dopamine excretion with KCl and NH4Cl showed that this response was not specific to the sodium ion. PMID:28196

  7. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Isaksson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day and a nibbling (seven meals per day meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. Results: The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  8. Aerosol absorption and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stier

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006 significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the short-wave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative forcing clear-sky from –0.79 to –0.53 W m−2 (33% and all-sky from –0.47 to –0.13 W m−2 (72%. Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19 W m−2 (36% clear-sky and of 0.12 W m−2 (92% all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05 W

  9. EFFECT OF CASEIN-BASED SEMISYNTHETIC FOOD ON RENAL ACID EXCRETION AND ACID-BASE STATE OF BLOOD IN DOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; LANGBROEK, AJM; KRAAN, J; RISPENS, P; NIJMEIJER, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base stare were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF feed

  10. Association between 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine excretion and risk of lung cancer in a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Steffen; Svoboda, Peter; Kawai, Kazuaki;

    2012-01-01

    detection. There was no significant effect of smoking or OGG1 genotype on the excretion of 8-oxoGua. Overall the incidence rate ratio (IRR) (95% confidence interval) of lung cancer was 1.06 (0.97-1.15) per doubling of 8-oxoGua excretion. The association between lung cancer risk and 8-oxoGua excretion...

  11. Depletion of hepatic uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid decreases the biliary excretion of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregus, Z; Watkins, J B; Thompson, T N; Klaassen, C D

    1983-05-01

    Hepatic levels of uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) in rats decreased substantially (greater than 80%) 40 min after galactosamine (GAL) (600 mg/kg i.p.) or after 1 hr of diethyl ether (DE) narcosis. Biliary excretion of several cholephils requiring glucuronidation before excretion was reduced by GAL 76, 62, 92, 90 and 97% for bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid, phenolphthalein and valproic acid, respectively. GAL treatment caused delayed plasma clearances of the parent compounds and reductions in plasma concentrations and biliary excretions of glucuronide conjugates. The degree of this reduction was related to the maximal excretion rate of the individual compounds. For phenolphthalein glucuronide and phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate, which do not undergo conjugation, GAL had no effect on their biliary excretion. DE-induced UDPGA depletion had no effect on phenolphthalein glucuronide excretion but reduced that of phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate 25%. DE did not affect the plasma elimination or biliary secretion of phenolphthalein. Of the other cholephils requiring conjugation, DE reduced the excretion of bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid and valproic acid by 41, 29, 76 and 28%, respectively. DE decreased the plasma elimination of the parent compounds and the appearance of the conjugates in both plasma and bile. Reduction of glucuronide excretion into bile was less pronounced at higher doses of the cholephilic anions. Neither treatment reduced in vitro hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward these substrates or substantially altered extrahepatic UDPGA concentrations. Thus, both GAL and DE decreased UDPGA to similar concentrations, but the biliary excretion of compounds requiring glucuronidation before secretion was depressed to a greater extent by GAL.

  12. Nutrition and magnesium absorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true magnesium abs

  13. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B; Hansen, P M; Jensen, T;

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU...... unfractionated heparin, or 2000 anti-Xa IU low-molecular-weight heparin. Unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin induced a significant reduction in urinary albumin excretion (p = 0.04 and p = 0.004). The mechanism and clinical relevance is unknown but deserve further attention....

  14. Systematic review focusing on the excretion and protection roles of sweat in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Cui, Xiao; Liu, Yanhua; Li, Yaoyin; Liu, Jian; Cheng, Biao

    2014-01-01

    The skin excretes substances primarily through sweat glands. Several conditions have been demonstrated to be associated with diminished sweating. However, few studies have concentrated on the metabolism and excretion of sweat. This review focuses on the relationship between temperature and the thermoregulatory efficacy of sweat, and then discusses the excretion of sweat, which includes the metabolism of water, minerals, proteins, vitamins as well as toxic substances. The potential role of sweat secretion in hormone homeostasis and the effects on the defense system of the skin are also clarified. PMID:24577280

  15. Intestinal perfusion in the study of intestinal absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several techniques for studying absorption by means of intestinal perfusion have been developed. While the principle is simple, the practice is complicated by absorption of the solvent and by excretion of fluid into the lumen. To improve reliability a ''marker'' is incorporated into the system; it should behave as nearly as possible like the nutrient of interest, except that it should be unabsorbable. A great many markers, including several labelled with radionuclides, have been developed for use with numerous nutrients, and perfusion methods using double or triple tubes or occlusive balloons have been tested. The perfusion technique is too complicated for routine diagnostic use, but it offers at present the only possibility of studying the function of defined sections of the small intestine in the intact human. (author)

  16. Microwave Absorption in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming-Hai; HU Xi-Wei; WU Qin-Chong; YU Guo-Yang

    2000-01-01

    The microwave power absorption in electron cyclotron resonance plasma reactor was investigated with a twodimensional hybrid-code. Simulation results indicated that there are two typical power deposition profiles over the entire parameter region: (1) microwave power deposition peaks on the axis and decreases in radial direction,(2) microwave power deposition has its maximum at some radial position, i.e., a hollow distribution. The spatial distribution of electron temperature resembles always to the microwave power absorption profile. The dependence of plasma parameter on the gas pressure is discussed also.

  17. Absorption, excretion, and retention of selenium from a high selenium yeast in men with a high intake of selenium

    OpenAIRE

    Bügel, Susanne; Larsen, Erik H.; Sloth, Jens J; Flytlie, Knut; Overvad, Kim; Steenberg, Lars C.; Moesgaard, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of Se from yeast given to humans with a habitual long-term daily intake at a supra-nutritional level. Research Methods & Procedures: Twelve healthy males with a daily supplemental intake of 300 mg Se as selenised yeast over 10 weeks were supplemented with a single dose of 327 mg as stable 77Se incorporated into selenised yeast manufactured by the same standardised process (SelenoPrecise©, Pharma Nord, D...

  18. Human systemic exposure to [14C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Skare, J.A.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Wehmeyer, K.R.; Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Vaes, W.H.J.; Dufour, E.K.; Fautz, R.; Steiling, W.; Bramante, M.; Toutain, H.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [14C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [14C] was measured in all mater

  19. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2009-01-01

    , and . Only did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to . The opposite occurred in group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The responses were similar to , with the exception of food consumption. In both and groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents.

  20. 13C-labeled oligosaccharides in breastfed infants' urine: individual-, structure- and time-dependent differences in the excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotz, Viktoria; Rudloff, Silvia; Blank, Dennis; Lochnit, Günter; Geyer, Rudolf; Kunz, Clemens

    2014-02-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have been paid much attention due to their beneficial effects observed in vitro, e.g., prebiotic, anti-infective and anti-inflammatory properties. However, in vivo investigations with regard to HMO metabolism and functions are rare. The few data available indicate that HMOs are absorbed to a low extent and excreted via urine without noteworthy modifications, whereas the major proportion reaches infant's colon undigested. Via intrinsic (13)C-labeling of HMOs during their biosynthesis in the mammary gland of 10 lactating women, we were able to follow the fate of (13)C-labeled oligosaccharides (OSs) from their secretion in milk to the excretion in the urine of their breastfed infants. To a certain extent, we could therefore discriminate between original HMOs and non-labeled OSs derived from degradation of HMOs or endogenous glycoconjugates. By means of our novel, rapid, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based approach, we found a homogeneous time pattern of isotopomer enrichment in milk among all subjects and between single OS species. In contrast, the time curves from infants' urine varied strongly between individuals and OS species, though the overall MALDI-TOF MS profile resembled those of the mothers' milk. Our data suggest that neutral HMOs might be processed and/or utilized differentially after or upon absorption from the gut, as deduced from their structure-dependent variation in the extent of tracer enrichment and in the retention times in infant's organism. This sheds new light on the role of HMOs within infant's body, beyond the intestine and its microbiota alone.

  1. Development of a physiologically-based computational kidney model to describe the renal excretion of hydrophilic agents in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eNiederalt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A physiologically-based kidney model was developed to analyze the renal excretion and kidney exposure of hydrophilic agents, in particular contrast media, in rats. In order to study the influence of osmolality and viscosity changes, the model mechanistically represents urine concentration by water re-absorption in different segments of kidney tubules and viscosity dependent tubular fluid flow.The model was established using experimental data on the physiological steady state without administration of any contrast media or drugs. These data included the sodium and urea concentration gradient along the cortico-medullary axis, water reabsorption, urine flow and sodium as well as urea urine concentrations for a normal hydration state. The model was evaluated by predicting the effects of mannitol and contrast media administration and comparing to experimental data on cortico-medullary concentration gradients, urine flow, urine viscosity, hydrostatic tubular pressures and single nephron glomerular filtration rate. Finally the model was used to analyze and compare typical examples of ionic and non-ionic monomeric as well as non-ionic dimeric contrast media with respect to their osmolality and viscosity. With the computational kidney model, urine flow depended mainly on osmolality, while osmolality and viscosity were important determinants for tubular hydrostatic pressure and kidney exposure. The low diuretic effect of dimeric contrast media in combination with their high intrinsic viscosity resulted in a high viscosity within the tubular fluid. In comparison to monomeric contrast media, this led to a higher increase in tubular pressure, to a reduction in glomerular filtration rate and tubular flow and to an increase in kidney exposure.The presented kidney model can be implemented into whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models and extended in order to simulate the renal excretion of lipophilic drugs which may also undergo active secretion

  2. Efficacy of a novel chitosan formulation on fecal fat excretion: a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco; Bagchi, Debasis; Preuss, Harry G

    2002-01-01

    The ability of a novel chitosan formulation to influence gastrointestinal fat absorption in vivo was examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study by determining the content of total fat in feces in two groups of subjects. Twenty-nine normal healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Twenty-four participants completed the test period with the chitosan formulation, and 21 completed the placebo phase of study. During the placebo and the test periods, the subjects were administered six capsules three times daily 10 minutes before meals for three days and for the two days of the stool collection. A daily serving of six tablets of the test compound contained 2100 mg chitosan and 300 mg psyllium husk seeds. In respect to the baseline period, the test compound increased fat excretion significantly whether the test period preceded or proceeded the placebo period (ppsyllium husk seeds [+3.63 gm/day +/- 0.83 (SEM) vs. -0.15 gm/day +/- 0.94 (SEM) (p=0.004)]. The average daily increase in fecal fat of 3-4 grams over control could account for a decrease in calorie consumption of 30-40 kcal per day. A total of 19 subjects completed both parts of the study. Examining the data from these 19 subjects by ANOVA, it was found that the period when the test compounds were given was statistically significantly different from the placebo baseline, placebo experimental, and test baseline periods. Using multiple comparisons, it was ascertained that the novel formulation containing chitosan plus psyllium husk seeds increases fecal fat excretion. PMID:12939120

  3. Mineral absorption in relation to nutritional ecology of reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Staaland

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the way which absorption of minerals relate to nutritional ecology and mineral conservation processes. A latin square designed experiment was used to assess the effects of diet on mineral (Ca, Mg, K, Na absorption processes in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.. Three male calves were fed 3 different diets: concentrate with 25% grass meal (RF-71, lichens, and a mixed diet of lichens and RF-71. Two other male calves were fed the lichen or mixed diet, supplemented with 4 g Ca/day. Ca supplementation significantly increased fecal Ca excretion, reduced the excretion of K and Mg, but had no significant effect on Na excretion. Rates of intake and fecal exretion of Ca, Mg and K were highly correlated (P<0.001, while no correlations were found for Na. Negative digestibilities of Ca, Mg and K, and a positive Na digestibility were noted for the lichen diet. For the other diets, all minerals were in positive digestibility, and Ca supplements increased the digestibility of all minerals. Digesta from different sections of the alimentary tract were collected after termination of the experiment. Alimentary pools of Ca and K were equal for animals fed lichen or RF-71, whereas the Na pool was largest on the lichen diet and the Mg pool largest on the RF-71 diet. Rumen turnover time (rumen mineral pool size/daily mineral intake was consistently less than 3 days for Ca and Mg, but was 22 and 82 days for Na on the RF-71 and lichen diets respectively. Estimates of mineral exchange in various parts of the tract showed that the intestines play and important role in scavanging endogenously secreted minerals. Results are discussed with respect to mineral binding by lichens and the possible role of natural mineral supplements in the nutritional ecology of reindeer.

  4. Development of an algorithm to evaluate plutonium metabolic model for systemic retention and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver biliary secretion influences the plutonium (pu) content of feces. A mammillary model that incorporates the enterohepatic circulation is developed for the purpose of improving internal dose assessment amd bioassay models. This model uses a whole body uptake retention function to obtain the distribution of Pu in the body and the rates of elimination of Pu in urine and feces simultaneously. The development of the model relies on the fact that a retention function expressed by a sum of exponential terms can be depicted by a mammillary model involving the translocation of a contaminant between a central and various peripheral compartments. In this study, an algorithm is developed to compute the translocation rate constants that are consistent with the systemic retention function. The thesis provides a method that can be used to confirm and improve Pu metabolic models. This method can be extended to other elements and used to make estimates of intakes and internal radiation doses from excretion bioassay data. 70 refs., 18 figs., 12 tabs

  5. Influence of radioiodine therapy on urinary iodine excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, B.; Lauer, I.; Baehre, M.; Richter, E. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Nuklearmedizin

    1998-05-01

    In 214 patients with benign thyroid diseases the time-course of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was investigated in order to identify changes after radioiodine therapy (RITh). Method: UIE was measured photometrically (cerium-arsenite method) and related to urinary creatinine on the first and last day of the radioiodine test and the three days, seven days, four weeks, and six months after {sup 131}I administration. Results: As compared with the level found immediately before radioiodine therapy, median UIE had almost doubled four weeks after therapy and was still significantly elevated six months after therapy. This increase correlated significantly with the target volume as measured by scintigraphy and sonography. Conclusions: The persistent elevation of UIE for months after RITh is a measure of treatment-induced damage to thyrocytes. Therefore, in view of the unfavourable kinetics of iodine that follow it, RITh should if possible be given via a single-dose regime. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei 214 Patienten mit benignen Schilddruesenerkrankungen wurde der Verlauf der Uriniodausscheidung (UIA) nach Radioiodtherapie untersucht, um posttherapeutische Aenderungen der Iodausscheidung nachzuweisen. Methode: Die UIA wurde am ersten und letzten Tag des Radioiodtestes sowie drei und sieben Tage, vier Wochen und sechs Monate nach {sup 131}I-Applikation photometrisch (Cer-Arsenit-Methode) bestimmt und auf den Kreatiningehalt bezogen. Ergebnisse: Die Uriniodausscheidung stieg nach der Radioiodtherapie signifikant an. Vier Wochen nach Therapie wurden im Median fast dopplet so hohe Werte der UIA gefunden wie unmittelbar davor. Auch sechs Monate nach Therapie war die Uriniodausscheidung noch signifikant erhoeht. Diese Zunahme war signifikant mit dem szinti- und sonographisch bestimmten Zielvolumen verknuepft. Schlussfolgerungen: die noch ueber Monate erhoehte Uriniodausscheidung nach Radioiodtherapie ist ein Mass fuer die therapiebedingte Schaedigung der Thyreozyten. Daher muessen

  6. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E A; Bosch, G; Hendriks, W H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November 2011. In the collected samples, free felinine and creatinine concentrations were measured. Free felinine concentrations were expressed relative to the urinary creatinine concentration to compensate for possible variations in renal output. The mean (±SD) felinine:creatinine (Fel:Cr) ratio as measured over all cats was 0.702 (±0.265). Both the Abyssinian and Sphynx breeds showed the highest Fel:Cr ratio (0.878 ± 0.162 and 0.878 ± 0.341 respectively) which significantly differed from the ratios of the British Shorthairs (0.584 ± 0.220), Birmans (0.614 ± 0.266), Norwegian Forest cats (0.566 ± 0.296) and Siberian cats (0.627 ± 0.124). The Fel:Cr ratios of the Persians (0.792 ± 0.284) and Ragdolls (0.673 ± 0.256) showed no statistical difference with either of the other breeds. A significant proportion of the observed variation between the different feline breeds could be explained by hair growth, as both hair growth and felinine production compete for available cysteine. Shorthaired and hairless cat breeds generally showed a higher Fel:Cr ratio compared to longhaired cat breeds, with the exception of Persian cats. Further research is warranted to more closely study the effect of hair growth on felinine production. PMID:23819478

  7. Molecular absorption in Cen A on VLBI scales

    CERN Document Server

    Van Langevelde, H J; Beasley, A

    2004-01-01

    Centaurus A, the nearest AGN shows molecular absorption in the millimeter and radio regime. By observing the absorption with VLBI, we try to constrain the distribution of the gas, in particular whether it resides in the circumnuclear region. Analysis of VLBA observations in four OH and two H2CO transitions is presented here, as well as molecular excitation models parameterized with distance from the AGN. We conclude that the gas is most likely associated with the tilted molecular ring structure observed before in molecular emission and IR continuum. The formaldehyde absorption shows small scale absorption which requires a different distribution than the hydroxyl.

  8. Relationship Between Serum Adiponectin and Urinary Albumin Excretion Rate in Patients with Diabetes Nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the relationship between the levels of serum adiponectin and urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with type 2 diabetes nephropathy, the serum levels of adiponectin and the levels of urinary albumin excretion rate in diabetes patients before and after treatment with pioglitazone were tested by ELISA and automatic biochemical analyzer respectively. The results showed that the serum levels of adiponectin in DM and DN group were lower than that of normal controls(P<0.01), but they gradually increased with progression (P<0.01). The serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with urinary albumin excretion rate (r= 0.284, P<0.05). The urinary albumin level decreased (P<0.01) and the serum levels of adiponectin increased after treatment with pioglitazone in DN group. The serum levels of adiponectin and urinary albumin excretion rate may play important role in the indication of treatment of diabetes. (authors)

  9. Metabolic excretion and retention patterns of incorporated radionuclides in reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives formulae for calculating the total expected 50-year dose (TED50) and excretion rate for four patterns of uptake as well as numerical descriptions of the ICRP ''gut model'' and ''lung model''. (author)

  10. Effect of iron poly (sorbitolgluconic acid) complex on urinary cellular excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, H L; Lawrence, J R; Campbell, B C; Goldberg, A; Smart, L E

    1981-01-01

    The intramuscular injection of 250 mg iron poly (sorbitol-gluconic acid) complex caused no increase in urinary cellular or bacterial excretion in 8 patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 4 patients with non-infective renal disease, and 4 controls. However, in 4 patients with chronic infective disease of the renal tract given 500 g there was a significant increase in cellular excretion. This response was not seen in 2 control patients, nor in 2 patients with non-infective renal disease. Using a differential staining technique, this increase in urinary cellular excretion was found to be due, not to leucocytes, but to renal tubular cells. The precise significance of this is unclear, but there would be concern that the high concentration of excreted iron was providing a 'toxic' insult to susceptible, infection-damaged cells. PMID:7226874

  11. Splanchnic and peripheral release of 3-methylhistidine in relation to its urinary excretion in human infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölin, J; Stjernström, H; Henneberg, S;

    1989-01-01

    ) and from the splanchnic region 0.012 +/- 0.013 mumol/min. These releases of 3MH constitute 27% +/- 2% and 8% +/- 6% of the individual urinary excretions, respectively. With increasing degree of catabolism, measured as individual 3MH increase above baseline excretion or as the 3MH to creatinine ratio (3MH......:Cr), the relative contribution to urinary excretion from the leg was increased (individual increase, P = 0.08; 3MH:Cr, P less than 0.01). Since this contribution was not decreased in the more catabolic patients, as would have been expected if the increase in urinary 3MH originated elsewhere, it is concluded...... that skeletal muscle is the source, and these results thus validate the use of urinary 3MH excretion as a marker of myofibrillar protein catabolism in infected patients....

  12. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients : The role of insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Lansink, Annemieke Oude; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wietasch, Gotz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were

  13. Evidence that auxin-induced growth of soybean hypocotyls involves proton excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayle, D.L. (San Diego State Univ., CA); Cleland, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    The role of H/sup +/ excretion in auxin-induced growth of soybean hypocotyl tissues has been investigated, using tissues whose cuticle was rendered permeable to protons or buffers by scarification (scrubbing). Indoleacetic acid induces both elongation and H/sup +/ excretion after a lag of 10 to 12 minutes. Cycloheximide inhibits growth and causes the tissues to remove protons from the medium. Neutral buffers (pH 7.0) inhibit auxin-induced growth of scrubbed but not intact sections; the inhibition increases as the buffers strength is increased. Both live and frozen-thawed sections, in the absence of auxin, extend in response to exogenously supplied protons. Fusicoccin induces both elongation and H/sup +/ excretion at rates greater than does auxin. These results indicate that H/sup +/ excretion is involved in the initiation of auxin-induced elongation in soybean hypocotyl tissue.

  14. Renal kallikrein excretion and epigenetics in human acute kidney injury: Expression, mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolwani Ashita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal kallikrein (KLK1 synthesis and urinary excretion are reportedly diminished during AKI (acute kidney injury in animal models, and provision of kallikrein abrogates renal injury in this setting, but data in human AKI is limited. Therefore we first examined KLK1 renal excretion in human AKI, and then probed potential endocrine and epigenetic mechanisms for its alterations. Methods KLK1 enzymatic activity excretion was evaluated in urine from patients with established or incipient AKI, versus healthy/non-hospital as well as ICU controls. Endocrine control of KLK1 excretion was then probed by catecholamine and aldosterone measurements in established AKI versus healthy controls. To examine epigenetic control of KLK1 synthesis, we tested blood and urine DNA for changes in promoter CpG methylation of the KLK1 gene, as well as LINE-1 elements, by bisulfite sequencing. Results Patients with early/incipient AKI displayed a modest reduction of KLK1 excretion, but unexpectedly, established AKI displayed substantially elevated urine KLK1 excretion, ~11-fold higher than healthy controls, and ~3-fold greater than ICU controls. We then probed potential mechanisms of the change. Established AKI patients had lower SBP, higher heart rate, and higher epinephrine excretion than healthy controls, though aldosterone excretion was not different. Promoter KLK1 CpG methylation was higher in blood than urine DNA, while KLK1 methylation in blood DNA was significantly higher in established AKI than healthy controls, though KLK1 methylation in urine tended to be higher in AKI, directionally consistent with earlier/incipient but not later/established changes in KLK1 excretion in AKI. On multivariate ANOVA, AKI displayed coordinate changes in KLK1 excretion and promoter methylation, though directionally opposite to expectation. Control (LINE-1 repetitive element methylation in blood and urine DNA was similar between AKI and controls. Conclusions

  15. Identification of factors associated with increased excretion of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Dekker, A.; Eble, P. L.; Jong, de, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated which variables possibly influence the amount of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) shed in secretions and excretions by FMDV infected animals, as it is likely that the amount of FMDV shed is related to transmission risk. First, in a separate analysis of laboratory data, we showed that the total amount of FMDV in secretions and excretions from infected animals is highly correlated with maximum titres of FMDV. Next, we collected data from 32 published scientific articles in wh...

  16. The effect of phototherapy on urinary calcium excretion in term neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin Safaei Asl; Marjaneh Zarkeshl; Abtin Heidarzadeh; Shohreh Maleknejad; Kaveh Hagikhani

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy is the most common, most effective, and least dangerous treatment method for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and is the treatment of the first choice for neonatal icterus. Hypocalcemia is one of the lesser-known complications of phototherapy. Some studies have shown a relationship between increased urinary calcium excretion and phototherapy-induced hypocalcemia. We aimed to assess the effect of phototherapy on urinary calcium excretion in term neonates. This before-after study was pe...

  17. Selective renal vasoconstriction, exaggerated natriuresis and excretion rates of exosomic proteins in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M.; Jensen, Pia Hønnerup; Schwämmle, Veit;

    2014-01-01

    AimIn essential hypertension (EH), the regulation of renal sodium excretion is aberrant. We hypothesized that in mild EH, (i) abnormal dynamics of plasma renin concentration (PRC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are responsible for the exaggerated natriuresis, and (ii) exosomic protein......). Excretion rates of exosome-related urinary proteins including apical membrane transporters were determined by proteomics-based methods. ResultsIn patients, baseline renal vascular conductance was reduced (-44%, P...

  18. Urinary Sex Steroid Excretion Levels During a Soy Intervention Among Young Girls: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Franke, Adrian A.; Novotny, Rachel; Nordt, Frank J.; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2005-01-01

    Soy intake early in life may protect against breast cancer later in life, possibly by altering sex hormone metabolism. We evaluated the feasibility of assessing urinary sex steroid excretion among 20 young girls aged 8–14 yr in an 8-wk trial. The girls consumed one daily soy serving, collected weekly overnight urine samples, and reported Tanner stages for breast and pubic hair development. Sex steroid excretion was measured in duplicate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and adjusted for...

  19. Effect of disturbance of the gastrointestinal microflora on the faecal excretion of Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar A.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G. R.; Thornton, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Oral pretreatment of mice with either a mixture of kanamycin and erythromycin or metronidazole to modify the gut microflora greatly enhanced the faecal excretion of Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar A given by mouth. This lends support to the suggestion that disturbance of the gastrointestinal microflora in animals such as cattle, which often carry the organism in the rumen, may lead to intestinal multiplication and faecal excretion, thereby providing a source of infection that may lead to nec...

  20. Determination of the excretion rate of uranium taken in from natural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the substantial amount of data collected by the incorporation measuring and monitoring office of Siemens AG, the natural excretion of U-238 was determined by human faeces analysis. The average excretion rate was 21 - 26 mBq per sample and day. Another value determined was the ratio between U-234 and U-238, which was found to be 2.0 on average in the population examined. (orig./CB)

  1. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure. PMID:25489060

  2. Excretion masses and environmental occurrence of antibiotics in typical swine and dairy cattle farms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Pan, Chang-Gui

    2013-02-01

    This paper evaluated the excretion masses and environmental occurrence of 11 classes of 50 antibiotics in six typical swine and dairy cattle farms in southern China. Animal feeds, wastewater and solid manure samples as well as environmental samples (soil, stream and well water) were collected in December 2010 from these farms. Twenty eight antibiotics, including tetracyclines, bacitracin, lincomycin, sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, ceftiofur, trimethoprim, macrolides, and florfenicol, were detected in the feeds, animal wastes and receiving environments. The normalized daily excretion masses per swine and cattle were estimated to be 18.2mg/day/swine and 4.24 mg/day/cattle. Chlortetracycline (11.6 mg/day/swine), bacitracin (3.81 mg/day/swine), lincomycin (1.19 mg/day/swine) and tetracycline (1.04 mg/day/swine) were the main contributors to the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per swine, while chlortetracycline (3.66 mg/day/cattle) contributed 86% of the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per cattle. Based on the survey of feeds and animal wastes from the swine farms and interview with the farmers, antibiotics excreted by swine were mainly originated from the feeds, while antibiotics excreted by dairy cattle were mainly from the injection route. If we assume that the swine and cattle in China excrete the same masses of antibiotics as the selected livestock farms, the total excretion mass by swine and cattle per annum in China could reach 3,080,000 kg/year and 164,000 kg/year. Various antibiotics such as sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluroquinolones, macrolides, trimethoprim, lincomycin and florfenicol were detected in well water, stream and field soil, suggesting that livestock farms could be an important pollution source of various antibiotics to the receiving environments. PMID:23268145

  3. Q Fever in Pregnant Goats: Pathogenesis and Excretion of Coxiella burnetii

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik-Jan Roest; Betty van Gelderen; Annemieke Dinkla; Dimitrios Frangoulidis; Fred van Zijderveld; Johanna Rebel; Lucien van Keulen

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via the intranasal route with a recent Dutch outbreak C. burnetii isolate. Tissue dissemination and excretion of the pathogen were followed for up to 95 days after ...

  4. Clinical usefulness of urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion in indicating muscle protein breakdown.

    OpenAIRE

    Elia, M.; Carter, A; Bacon, S; Winearls, C G; Smith, R.

    1981-01-01

    Urinary excretion of the post-translationally modified amino-acid 3-methylhistidine, derived from the contractile proteins actin and myosin, was measured in patients with conditions associated with nitrogen loss. The ratio of 3-methylhistidine:creatinine excretion, a measure of the fractional catabolic rate of myofibrillar protein was increased in severe injury, thyrotoxicosis, neoplastic disease, prednisolone administration, and sometimes Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In myxoedema, osteomalac...

  5. Total Fluoride Intake and Urinary Excretion in German Children Aged 3–6 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Haftenberger, Marjolein; Viergutz, Gabriele; Neumeister, Volker; Hetzer, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    There have only been few investigations comparing total fluoride intake and the fluoride proportion excreted in urine in pre–school children. In addition, the results of available studies are conflicting. Total fluoride intake was assessed in 11 healthy children aged 3–6 years on 2 consecutive days and urinary fluoride excretion was determined. The duplicate–diet approach was used for the assessment of fluoride intake from solid and liquid foods. Fluoride intake from toothbrushing was calcula...

  6. Corticosterone excretion patterns and affiliative behavior over development in ravens (Corvus corax)

    OpenAIRE

    Stöwe, Mareike; Bugnyar, Thomas; Schloegl, Christian; Heinrich, Bernd; Kotrschal, Kurt; Möstl, Erich

    2007-01-01

    Averse effects of social stress may be buffered by the presence of social allies, which mainly has been demonstrated in mammals and recently also in birds. However, effects of socio-positive behavior prior to fledging in relation to corticosterone excretion in altricial birds have not been investigated yet. We here monitored corticosterone excretion patterns in three groups of hand raised juvenile ravens (n=5, 6 and 11) in the nest, post-fledging (May–July) and when ravens would be independen...

  7. Absorção e distribuição de chumbo em plantas devetiver, jureminha e algaroba Absorption and distribution of lead in vetiver, mimosa and mesquite plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do Carmo Alves

    2008-06-01

    , and studies concerning heavy metal tolerance, absorption and distribution in plants are essential for the success of such programs. This study was carried out to evaluate the tolerance, absorption and distribution of lead (Pb in vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash], mimosa [Desmanthus virgatus (L. Willd] and mesquite trees [Prosopis juliflora (SW DC] subjected to increasing lead doses in solution. The experiment was conducted under a screenhouse, at the DSER/CCA/UFPB, Areia-PB, Brazil. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing Pb levels (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg L-1 during a 45-day exposure period. An entirely randomized split-plot design was used with three replicates. The main plot was represented by the plant species and the subplot by Pb levels. The increased Pb levels caused significant reductions of dry mass of the root, shoot and whole plant (root + shoot in the three species under study. Based on critical toxicity levels, the tolerance of vetiver to Pb contamination was higher than in the other species. In vetiver and mesquite plants, the roots were the component most sensitive to Pb contamination, whereas a similar response to Pb by all plant components was observed for mimosa. Total Pb concentrations and content in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increasing Pb levels in solution, and a higher accumulation of this element was observed in the roots of the three species under study. The highest Pb concentration and content were found in all compartments of vetiver, which suggests a high potential of this grass for phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated areas.

  8. Estimation of molar absorptivities and pigment sizes for eumelanin and pheomelanin using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletic, Ivan R.; Matthews, Thomas E.; Warren, Warren S.

    2009-11-01

    Fundamental optical and structural properties of melanins are not well understood due to their poor solubility characteristics and the chemical disorder present during biomolecular synthesis. We apply nonlinear transient absorption spectroscopy to quantify molar absorptivities for eumelanin and pheomelanin and thereby get an estimate for their average pigment sizes. We determine that pheomelanin exhibits a larger molar absorptivity at near IR wavelengths (750nm), which may be extended to shorter wavelengths. Using the molar absorptivities, we estimate that melanin pigments contain ˜46 and 28 monomer units for eumelanin and pheomelanin, respectively. This is considerably larger than the oligomeric species that have been recently proposed to account for the absorption spectrum of eumelanin and illustrates that larger pigments comprise a significant fraction of the pigment distribution.

  9. Human urinary excretion profile after smoking and oral administration of [14C]delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinary excretion profiles of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) metabolites have been evaluated in two chronic and two naive marijuana users after smoking and oral administration of [14C]delta 1-THC. Urine was collected for five days after each administration route and analyzed for total delta 1-THC metabolites by radioactivity determination, for delta 1-THC-7-oic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography, and for cross-reacting cannabinoids by the EMIT d.a.u. cannabinoid assay. The average urinary excretion half-life of 14C-labeled delta 1-THC metabolites was calculated to be 18.2 +/- 4.9 h (+/- SD). The excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings were similar to the excretion profile of 14C-labeled metabolites in the naive users. However, in the chronic users the excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings did not resemble the radioactive excretion due to the heavy influence from previous Cannabis use. Between 8-14% of the radioactive dose was recovered in the urine in both user groups after oral administration. Lower urinary recovery was obtained both in the chronic and naive users after smoking--5 and 2%, respectively

  10. RELEASE OF INTROGENOUS SUBSTANCES BY BREWER'S YEAST. 3. SHOCK EXCRETION OF AMINO ACIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEWIS, M J; PHAFF, H J

    1964-06-01

    Lewis, M. J. (University of California, Davis), and H. J. Phaff. Release of nitrogenous substances by brewers' yeast. III. Shock excretion of amino acids. J. Bacteriol. 87:1389-1396. 1964.-When Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (two strains) and S. cerevisiae (one strain) were grown in static culture and the harvested, washed cells were suspended in a solution of glucose, amino acids were suddenly released and then rapidly reabsorbed in a space of about 2 hr. The phenomenon of amino acid release, which was termed shock excretion, varied in intensity with the strain of yeast and was shown to be dependent on the size of the pool of free amino acids within the cells. Shock excretion was independent of osmotic pressure of the suspending medium, but required the presence of a fermentable sugar. d-Galactose and maltose caused shock excretion only when yeast was previously adapted to these sugars. Limiting glucose concentrations prevented reabsorption of amino acids, and a further decrease in glucose concentration also limited excretion. Shock excretion was strikingly reduced when the temperature of the suspending medium was lowered.

  11. Urea and Ammonia Metabolism and the Control of Renal Nitrogen Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I David; Mitch, William E; Sands, Jeff M

    2015-08-01

    Renal nitrogen metabolism primarily involves urea and ammonia metabolism, and is essential to normal health. Urea is the largest circulating pool of nitrogen, excluding nitrogen in circulating proteins, and its production changes in parallel to the degradation of dietary and endogenous proteins. In addition to serving as a way to excrete nitrogen, urea transport, mediated through specific urea transport proteins, mediates a central role in the urine concentrating mechanism. Renal ammonia excretion, although often considered only in the context of acid-base homeostasis, accounts for approximately 10% of total renal nitrogen excretion under basal conditions, but can increase substantially in a variety of clinical conditions. Because renal ammonia metabolism requires intrarenal ammoniagenesis from glutamine, changes in factors regulating renal ammonia metabolism can have important effects on glutamine in addition to nitrogen balance. This review covers aspects of protein metabolism and the control of the two major molecules involved in renal nitrogen excretion: urea and ammonia. Both urea and ammonia transport can be altered by glucocorticoids and hypokalemia, two conditions that also affect protein metabolism. Clinical conditions associated with altered urine concentrating ability or water homeostasis can result in changes in urea excretion and urea transporters. Clinical conditions associated with altered ammonia excretion can have important effects on nitrogen balance.

  12. Urinary excretion of bile acid glucosides and glucuronides in extrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietholtz, H; Marschall, H U; Reuschenbach, R; Matern, H; Matern, S

    1991-04-01

    Recently the formation of bile acid glucosides has been described as a novel conjugation mechanism in vitro and in vivo. In 10 patients with extrahepatic cholestasis caused by carcinoma of the head of the pancreas we investigated excretion rates and profiles of urinary bile acid glucosides. Urinary bile acid glucosides and, for comparison, bile acid glucuronides were extracted and characterized according to established methods. In controls total urinary bile acid glucoside excretion was 0.22 +/- 0.03 mumol/24 hr (mean +/- S.E.M.)-in the range of bile acid glucuronide excretion (0.41 +/- 0.06 mumol/24 hr; mean +/- S.E.M.). A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-characterized trihydroxy bile acid glucoside of still-unknown hydroxyl positions accounted for 65% of total urinary bile acid glucosides. In extrahepatic cholestasis total urinary bile acid glucoside excretion was 0.52 +/- 0.13 mumol/24 hr (mean +/- SEM), yet significantly lower than bile acid glucuronide excretion (1.53 +/- 0.13 mumol/24 hr; mean +/- SEM; p less than 0.001). In cholestasis the primary bile acid derivatives cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid glucosides amounted to 90%, whereas the trihydroxy bile acid glucoside had decreased to 5% of total bile acid glucoside excretion, indicating its alteration during enterohepatic circulation. The data establish the composition and quantity of urinary bile acid glucosides in healthy controls and cholestasis and constitute a quantitative comparison with another glycosidic conjugation reaction, bile acid glucuronidation.

  13. Short-term starvation effects on nitrogen and phosphorus excretion by the chaetognath Sagitta enflata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyper, James P.

    1981-12-01

    Freshly captured Sagitta enflata exhibited specific excretion rates of ammonium and phosphate (expressed as percentage body content of N or P per hour) that were not significantly related to the size of individual animals. The degree of crowding in experimental vessels was positively correlated with specific excretion rates of ammonium. Excretion rates, under conditions that precluded feeding, decreased sharply during the first several hours' incubation time, approaching the rates exhibited by animals starved overnight. The practice of holding freshly captured zooplankton for a time before determining excretion rates may seriously affect those rates, if the animals are unable to feed. Animals captured during the day in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, having no food items in their guts, had mean specific excretion rates (± S.D.) of 0·81±0·51% body content of N h -1 for ammonium, and 1·29±1·24% body content of P h -1 for phosphate. Minimal estimates of natural excretion rates, made from the first hour of incubation in further experiments, were 1·19±0·47% h -1 for nitrogen and 3·8±3·95% h -1 for phosphorus. Sagitta is not a large contributor to nutrient regeneration in Kaneohe Bay.

  14. Excretion of 14C-labeled cyanide in rats exposed to chronic intake of potassium cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excretion of an acute dose of 14C-labeled cyanide in urine, feces, and expired air was studied in rats exposed to daily intake of unlabeled KCN in the diet for 6 weeks. Urinary excretion was the main route of elimination of cyanide carbon in these rats, accounting for 83% of the total excreted radioactivity in 12 hr and 89% of the total excreted radioactivity in 24 hr. The major excretion metabolite of cyanide in urine was thiocyanate, and this metabolite accounted for 71 and 79% of the total urinary activity in 12 hr and 24 hr, respectively. The mean total activity excreted in expired air after 12 hr was only 4%, and this value did not change after 24 hr. Of the total activity in expired air in 24 hr, 90% was present as carbon dioxide and 9% as cyanide. When these results were compared with those observed for control rats, it was clear that the mode of elimination of cyanide carbon in both urine and breath was not altered by the chronic intake of cyanide

  15. Zinc absorption in adult men from a chicken sandwich made with white or wholemeal bread, measured by a double-label stable-isotope technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, S J; Fox, T E; Wharf, S G; Eagles, J; Kennedy, H

    1992-05-01

    Eleven fasted adult men consumed a chicken meat sandwich made with white or wholemeal bread, extrinsically labelled with 2 mg 67Zn, on two different occasions. Immediately after eating the sandwich they were given an intravenous injection of 1.5 mg 70Zn. True Zn absorption (which was approximately 7% higher than apparent absorption) was determined by the faecal balance technique by making an allowance for endogenous excretion from measurements of faecal excretion of 70Zn. There was no significant difference in mean true Zn absorption from the white or wholemeal bread sandwich, 33.6 and 25.4% respectively. It was concluded that the substitution of wholemeal for white bread does not reduce Zn absorption from meat-based sandwiches.

  16. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  17. Viscosity of iodinated contrast agents during renal excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Modern iodinated non-ionic contrast agents (CAs) can be classified based on their molecular structure into monomeric and dimeric CAs and have at comparable iodine concentrations a different viscosity and osmolality. During their renal excretion, CAs are concentrated in the renal tubuli which might enhance the viscosity difference between monomeric and dimeric CAs. The viscosity of a CA might have an underestimated importance for renal safety, as suggested by recent publications. In this study, we investigated the viscosities of CAs at the concentrations expected to be present in renal tubules. This concentration process was simulated in vitro using dialysis. Furthermore, we investigated urine viscosity and urine flow in rodents after administration of several non-ionic monomeric and dimeric CAs. Materials and methods: To estimate the viscosity of the CAs in vivo, we performed an in vitro dialysis of monomeric and dimeric CAs at various physiological osmolalities of the renal tubulus (290, 400, 500, 700 and 1000 mOsm/kg H2O). Following the dialysis, the iodine concentrations and the viscosities of the CAs were determined. Furthermore, to investigate the concentration process in vivo, we measured the urine viscosity and the urine flow in Han Wister rats after the administration of Iopromide, Iohexol, Ioversol, Iomeprol, Iodixanol, and Iosimenol at comparable iodine concentrations. As a control, saline was injected at the same volume. Results: In vitro dialysis of the dimeric CA increased the iodine concentration and strongly increased the viscosity at all tested osmolalities. In contrast, for the monomeric agents an increase in concentration and viscosity was observed only at 700 as well 1000 mOsm/kg H2O but to a lesser extent. In summary, dialysis strongly enhanced the viscosity differences between the non-ionic monomeric and dimeric CAs. The administration of dimeric CAs leads to a strong increase in urine viscosity; this was not observed for the

  18. The effects of the calcium-restricted diet of urolithiasis patients with absorptive hypercalciuria type II on risk factors for kidney stones and osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, A. van; Ploeg, E.M.C. van der; Habets, H.M.L.; Meer, R. van der; Hermus, R.J.J.; Janknegt, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The calcium (Ca)-restricted diet of urolithiasis patients with absorptive hypercalciuria type II may decrease Ca excretion but increase biochemical markers of risk for osteopenia. We randomly allocated 25 patients from six hospitals into an experimental group (Ca restriction to 500 mg/day, oxalate-r

  19. Radiation Absorption Mechanism in Nonvolatile MNOS Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The γ-ray radiation will speed up the discharge of the stored charge in nonvolatile MNOS structure. The radiation absorption mechanism to enhance the discharge is discussed. A direct radiation emission model from the interface traps distributing both in energy level and in space is given. The theoretical results based on this model are in good agreement with experimental measurement.

  20. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  1. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  2. Urinary iodine excretion in relation to goiter prevalence in households of goiter endemic and non endemic regions of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab

  3. Absorption spectra of quasars and the structure of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the distribution of the distances between the systems of absorption lines in the quasars' spectra and the comparison of this distribution with the distribution of the distances between superclusters in the deep optical surveys are carried out. It is shown that the systems of absorption lines are connected with superclusters of galaxies. The comparison of the absorbing gas parameters with the data for coronae of the Galaxy and of the Magellanic Clouds confirms this connection and permits to revise conclusions of the theory on the properties of superclusters. The problem of unidentified absorption lines in the quasars spectra is discussed

  4. Nitrogen excretion in dairy cow, beef and veal cattle, pig, and rabbit farms in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference values for N excretion of different livestock production systems are required for the application of the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EC. A survey aimed to estimate N excretion from on-farm measurements of feed consumption and performance of dairy cows (104 herds, 9,984 cows, growing cattle (40 farms, 40,157 young bulls, veal calves (34 farms, 49,206 calves, growing pigs (39 farms, 161,278 pigs and rabbits (54 farms, 65,664 reproducing does was conducted in Veneto from 2002 to 2003. N excretion was computed as the difference between N consumption and N retained in animal products. Dairy cow yielded 8,366 ± 1,646 kg/year of milk, consumed 6,600 ± 928 kg/year of DM, containing 2.45 ± 0.2 % DM of N, and excreted 116 ± 25 kg of N/year. No significant correlation was found between milk yield and N excretion, but the correlation between dietary N concentration and N excretion was significant (r=0.66. For growing cattle, the following mean values were achieved: daily gain 1.25 ± 0.19 kg/d; feed conversion ratio 6.9 ± 0.9 kg of DM/kg, rounds/year 1.66 ± 0.38. Nitrogen consumed, retained and excreted were, respectively, 68.7 ± 5.4, 11.4 ± 1.9 and 57.3 ± 4.9 kg/place/year. For veal calves, N consumed was 24.1 ± 1.9 kg/place/year, 12.1 ± 0.8 kg of which were retained in the body and 12.0 ± 1.5 kg were excreted. For heavy pig production, N consumed, per place and per year, averaged 19.0 ± 1.9 kg, N retained was 5.2 ± 0.5 kg and N excreted was 13.8 ± 0.4 kg. In the close-cycle rabbit farms, the doe and the relative growing rabbits (43 sold per year consumed 11.2 ± 2.2 kg, retained 3.8 ± 0.7 kg and excreted 7.4 ± 1.5 kg N/doe/year. Nitrogen excretion estimated in this work can be considered as representative of some of the main animal production systems of the North-East of Italy. These values should not be considered as fixed, otherwise the implementation of the various strategies to reduce N excretion would not be possible. They

  5. Factors Altering Pyruvate Excretion in a Glycogen Storage Mutant of the Cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Phoebe J; Purcell-Meyerink, Diane; Hocart, Charles H; Truong, Thy T; James, Gabriel O; Rourke, Loraine; Djordjevic, Michael A; Blackburn, Susan I; Price, G D

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the production of carbon commodities from photosynthetically fixed CO2 has focused attention on cyanobacteria as a target for metabolic engineering and pathway investigation. We investigated the redirection of carbon flux in the model cyanobacterial species, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, under nitrogen deprivation, for optimized production of the industrially desirable compound, pyruvate. Under nitrogen limited conditions, excess carbon is naturally stored as the multi-branched polysaccharide, glycogen, but a block in glycogen synthesis, via knockout mutation in the gene encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC), results in the accumulation of the organic acids, pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate, as overflow excretions into the extracellular media. The ΔglgC strain, under 48 h of N-deprivation was shown to excrete pyruvate for the first time in this strain. Additionally, by increasing culture pH, to pH 10, it was possible to substantially elevate excretion of pyruvate, suggesting the involvement of an unknown substrate/proton symporter for export. The ΔglgC mutant was also engineered to express foreign transporters for glucose and sucrose, and then grown photomixotrophically with exogenous organic carbon supply, as added 5 mM glucose or sucrose during N- deprivation. Under these conditions we observed a fourfold increase in extracellular pyruvate excretion when glucose was added, and a smaller increase with added sucrose. Although the magnitude of pyruvate excretion did not correlate with the capacity of the ΔglgC strain for bicarbonate-dependent photosynthetic O2 evolution, or with light intensity, there was, however, a positive correlation observed between the density of the starter culture prior to N-deprivation and the final extracellular pyruvate concentration. The factors that contribute to enhancement of pyruvate excretion are discussed, as well as consideration of whether the source of carbon for pyruvate excretion might be derived from

  6. Percutaneous absorption of triclocarban in rat and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, D; Black, J G

    1976-06-01

    The route and rate of excretion by rats of the germicide (1 4 C) Triclocarban formerly called trichlorocarbanilide, given by parenteral injection has been investigated. Blood levels based on radioactivity and by chemical determination after parenteral injection have been compared with those obtained after topical application of (1 4 C) Triclocarban in soaps and in dimethylformamide (DMF) through occluded rat skin has been studied. Other soaps and a hand cleanser containing (1 4 C) Triclocarban have been applied to rat skin without occlusion and the effects of duration of contact, concentration and the use of a solubilizer have been investigated. In humans, absorption of Triclocarban through skin after bathing daily for 28 days has been investigated by chemical analysis of blood and urine. The data show that elimination by the rat is rapid and complete principally via the faeces. Blood levels after parenteral injection are low and comparison of the radioactivity and chemical determinations suggest rapid metabolism of the Triclocarban. After application to the skin, blood levels based on 1 4 C are very low. Absorption of (1 4 C) Triclocarban through occluded rat skin was greater from DMF than from soaps. With non-occluded rat skin, absorption from soaps was less and was dependent on concentration but independent of duration of contact. The use of a solubilizer did not increase absorption through skin. No measurable Triclocarban (less than 25 ppb) was present in blood and urine samples of volunteers during or shortly after a 28-day intensive bathing regimen. PMID:941165

  7. 棕榈酸在三酰甘油中的位置分布对大鼠营养吸收的影响%Effect of positional distribution of palmitic acid in triglycerides on the absorption of the nutrition in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秋; 刘亚东; 李晓敏; 杨丽杰

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of the position of palmitic acid in triglyceride on the absorption of fatty acids and mineral were studied. Feeding experiment was performed by using four groups of young male Wistar rats. Fat raw materials with different proportions of sn-2 position palmitic acid were added into fat-free diets which were the OPO ( 1,3- dioleoyl- 2- palmitoyl triglyceride ) structural fat, the vegetable oil mixture with imitating the composition of OPO,the infant formula containing OPO and the common infant formula. The proportions of the experimental fat in each groups were all 10% ,as for the sn-2 position palmitic acid in four groups were respectively 45.40% ,13.29% ,48.04% ,and 28.66%. After 2 weeks feeding,the contents of lipid,calcium and magnesium in the fecal were analyzed. The results showed that the fat absorption after intake of OPO and the infant formula containing OPO were higher than the other two groups significantly with much less calcium excreting. In conclusion,high content of sn-2 position palmitic acid could promote the absorption of fat in rats, reduce the formation of fatty acid soap and improve the calcium absorption.%研究了棕榈酸在三酰甘油中的不同位置分布对脂肪酸及矿质元素吸收的影响。以幼龄雄性Wistar大鼠为动物模型,将含不同比例sn-2位棕榈酸的脂肪原料添加到无脂饲料中,分别为:OPO(1,3-二油酸-2-棕榈酸甘油酯)结构脂肪,组成模拟OPO的混合植物油,含OPO的婴儿配方奶粉以及常规婴儿配方奶粉。饲料实验脂肪含量均为10%,各组sn-2位棕榈酸相对含量分别为45.40%、13.29%、48.04%、28.66%。喂养两周后,分析大鼠粪便中的脂质及钙、镁元素。结果显示,OPO组和OPO婴儿配方奶粉组的大鼠对脂肪的吸收显著高于另外两组,并且钙排泄较少。由此可得出结论:高含量的sn-2位棕榈酸可以促进大鼠对脂肪的吸收,减少脂肪酸皂的形成,并能改善对钙的吸收。

  8. Central cooling: absorptive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-08-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available single-effect, lithium-bromide absorption chillers ranging in nominal cooling capacities of 3 to 1,660 tons and double-effect lithium-bromide chillers from 385 to 1,060 tons. The nominal COP measured at operating conditions of 12 psig input steam for the single-effect machine, 85/sup 0/ entering condenser water, and 44/sup 0/F exiting chilled-water, ranges from 0.6 to 0.65. The nominal COP for the double-effect machine varies from 1.0 to 1.15 with 144 psig entering steam. Data are provided to estimate absorption-chiller performance at off-nominal operating conditions. The part-load performance curves along with cost estimating functions help the system design engineer select absorption equipment for a particular application based on life-cycle costs. Several suggestions are offered which may be useful for interfacing an absorption chiller with the remaining Integrated Community Energy System. The ammonia-water absorption chillers are not considered to be readily available technology for ICES application; therefore, performance and cost data on them are not included in this evaluation.

  9. Regularity of nutrient absorption and distribution in different organs of Camellia oleifera at seedling stage%油茶苗期不同器官对各营养元素的吸收及养分间分配规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹继钊; 唐健; 何应会; 覃其云; 宋贤冲

    2012-01-01

    In order to study nutrient absorption and distribution regularity in different organs of Camellia oleifera at seedling stage, the nutrient contents in 150 seedlings were determined and the correlation of distribution between different elements was analyzed. The results show that the N content is the highest, followed by K and Ca contents, Cu and B contents are the lowest. Absorption and distribution of N, P and K in leaves exists the relationship of mutual influence and promotion at seedling stage, but that in roots and stems has no significant correlation. Absorption and distribution of the nutrients exists an obvious regularity at seedling stage, so the new special fertilizer for C. oleifera at seedling stage can be developed based the regularity.%为了弄清油茶苗期不同器官对营养元素的吸收分配规律,对150株油茶苗期不同器官的营养元素含量进行了测定,分析了各营养元素之间分配的相关性.结果表明:N含量最高,K和Ca含量次之,Cu和B含量最低;油茶苗期叶片中主要营养元素N、P和K的吸收分配存在相互影响与相互促进的关系,而其根与茎中N、P和K的吸附分配没有显著的相关性.苗期的油茶对各营养元素的吸收分配存在明显的规律性,可以针对营养吸收分配规律开发新型油茶苗期专用肥.

  10. Percutaneous absorption from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas R; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Some natural sites, as a result of contaminants emitted into the air and subsequently deposited in soil or accidental industrial release, have high levels of organic and non-organic chemicals in soil. In occupational and recreation settings, these could be potential sources of percutaneous exposure to humans. When investigating percutaneous absorption from soil - in vitro or vivo - soil load, particle size, layering, soil "age" time, along with the methods of performing the experiment and analyzing the results must be taken into consideration. Skin absorption from soil is generally reduced compared with uptake from water/acetone. However, the absorption of some compounds, e.g., pentachlorophenol, chlorodane and PCB 1254, are similar. Lipophilic compounds like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, benzo[A]pyrene, and metals have the tendency to form reservoirs in skin. Thus, one should take caution in interpreting results directly from in vitro studies for risk assessment; in vivo validations are often required for the most relevant risk assessment. PMID:25205703

  11. Percutaneous absorption of tritium-gas-contaminated pump oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A. [Radiation Biology and Health Physics Branch, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-08-01

    One of the radiological problems encountered in tritium handling facilities is the hazards associated with tritium`s ability to label and degrade organic materials. Experiments in which male hairless rats have been contaminated with tritium-gas-contaminated pump oil have demonstrated that tritium deposited on the skin provides an input of organically bound tritium and tritiated water in the body. The accumulation of organically bound tritium at the point of contact in the skin and in various tissues influenced tritium excretion in urine and feces. The retention of tritium in the body showed that tritium was mainly metabolized and assimilated as organically bound tritium. The distribution of tritiated water was rapid and uniform in the whole-body. Analyses of tritium excreted in animal urine and feces showed that a significant level of organically bound tritium was excreted shortly after exposure. The highest concentration of tritium activity was measured in the exposed area of the skin. An increased level of tritium accumulation in the liver and kidneys was seen. Dose calculations showed that the exposed skin had the highest dose, and the skin dose was primarily due to the retention of organically bound tritium at the point of contact. The interpretation of these data has indicated that the retention of short-term organically bound tritium in the skin may be a dominant factor for dosimetry purposes. 19 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Percutaneous absorption of tritium-gas-contaminated pump oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1995-07-01

    One of the radiological problems encountered in tritium handling facilities is the hazards associated with tritium's ability to label and degrade organic materials. Experiments in which male hairless rats have been contaminated with tritium-gas-contaminated pump oil have demonstrated that tritium deposited on the skin provides an input of organically bound tritium and tritiated water in the body. The accumulation of organically bound tritium at the point of contact in the skin and in various tissues influenced tritium excretion in urine and feces. The retention of tritium in the body showed that tritium was mainly metabolized and assimilated as organically bound tritium. The distribution of tritiated water was rapid and uniform in the whole-body. Analyses of tritium excreted in animal urine and feces showed that a significant level of organically bound tritium was excreted shortly after exposure. The highest concentration of tritium activity was measured in the exposed area of the skin. An increased level of tritium accumulation in the liver and kidneys was seen. Dose calculations showed that the exposed skin had the highest dose, and the skin dose was primarily due to the retention of organically bound tritium at the point of contact. The interpretation of these data has indicated that the retention of short-term organically bound tritium in the skin may be a dominant factor for dosimetry purposes. (author)

  13. Changes in nephrogenous cyclic AMP excretion and plasma cyclic AMP following treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naafs, M A; van der Velden, P C; Fischer, H R; Koorevaar, G; van Duin, S; Hackeng, W H; Schopman, W; Silberbusch, J

    1984-08-01

    Plasma cyclic AMP (PcAMP) concentration and the excretion of cyclic AMP/dl GF were estimated in 11 thyrotoxic patients before and after medical treatment. PcAMP concentrations were significantly higher during hyperthyroidism (2.30 +/- 0.69 vs 1.88 +/- 0.71 nmol/dl; P less than 0.05), and total urinary cyclic AMP (TcAMP) excretion showed no significant changes (3.24 +/- 0.64 vs 3.44 +/- 1.77 nmol/dl GF). Nephrogenous (NcAMP) excretion rose significantly (1.00 +/- 0.82 vs 1.68 +/- 1.31 mmol/dl GF; P less than 0.025). The increase in NcAMP excretion correlated significantly with the decrease in serum T3 levels (r = -0.46; P less than 0.05). Serum iPTH levels showed no significant change. Both the serum Ca, corrected for serum total protein and TmPO4/GFR declined after treatment (respectively 2.44 +/- 0.13 vs 2.33 +/- 0.08 mmol/l; P less than 0.05 and 1.18 +/- 0.29 vs 1.05 +/- 0.22 mmol/l; P less than 0.05). It is concluded that the rise in NcAMP excretion corroborates the concept of increasing parathyroid activity following the treatment of hyperthyroidism. PMID:6206676

  14. Characterization of Al-responsive citrate excretion and citrate-transporting MATEs in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kihara-Doi, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Kawazu, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeru

    2013-04-01

    Many plant species excrete organic acids into the rhizosphere in response to aluminum stress to protect sensitive cells from aluminum rhizotoxicity. When the roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a major source of pulp production, were incubated in aluminum-toxic medium, citrate released into the solution increased as a function of time. Citrate excretion was inducible by aluminum, but not by copper or sodium chloride stresses. This indicated that citrate is the major responsive organic acid released from the roots of this plant species to protect the root tips from aluminum damage. Four genes highly homologs to known citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins, named EcMATE1-4, were isolated using polymerase chain reaction-based cloning techniques. Their predicted proteins included 12 membrane spanning domains, a common structural feature of citrate-transporting MATE proteins, and consisted of 502-579 amino acids with >60 % homology to orthologous genes in other plant species. One of the homologs, designated EcMATE1, was expressed in the roots more abundantly than in the shoots and in response to both Al and low pH stresses. Ectopic expression of EcMATE1 and 3 in tobacco hairy roots enhanced Al-responsive citrate excretion. Pharmacological characterization indicated that Al-responsive citrate excretion involved a protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process. These results indicate that citrate excretion through citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins is one of the important aluminum-tolerance mechanisms in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

  15. The variability and dietary dependence of urinary oxalate excretion in recurrent calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J M; Stratmann, G; Cowley, D M; Mottram, B M; Chalmers, A H

    1987-07-01

    Twenty-two recurrent calcium stone formers had 24-h urinary oxalate excretions on their home diets which were significantly greater than those of 30 normal subjects (0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d; mean +/- SD compared with 0.31 +/- 0.11; P less than 0.01). The stone formers also demonstrated marked day to day variability in oxalate excretion indicating that a single normal urinary oxalate measurement did not exclude significant hyperoxaluria at other times. On a hospital diet containing 1000 mg calcium per day, urinary oxalate excretion fell significantly from 0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d to 0.32 +/- 0.12; P less than 0.01. As the urinary calcium excretion in and out of hospital was similar, it seems unlikely that low calcium intake at home was responsible for the hyperoxaluria. All patients had recurrent symptomatic stone disease and had been advised to avoid foods rich in oxalate. Whilst poor compliance is a possible explanation for the variability in oxalate excretion, we believe it is more likely that there is an inadvertent intake of oxalogenic precursors in their diet. As normal subjects do not demonstrate hyperoxaluria on similar home diets, stone formers may have a metabolic defect in the handling of these precursors. PMID:3662388

  16. Evaluation of nutrient excretion and retention in broilers submitted to different nutritional strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL Graña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of different nutritional strategies on nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and calcium (Ca balance and on copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn excretion in broilers during the periods of 1 to 21 days and 1 to 46 days of age. Four hundred male Cobb-500 broilers were used. A randomized block experimental design was applied, including five treatments with eight replicates of 10 birds each. A five-phase feeding program was adopted (1-8, 9-21, 22-33, 34-40 and 41-46 days of age. Treatments consisted of a control diet (C with typical protein level and low amino acid supplementation; a reduced-protein diet supplemented with synthetic amino acids formulated on ideal protein concept (IP; C with phytase (C+PHY supplementation; C with inorganic-organic mineral supplementation (C+MIN; and a diet formulated on ideal protein (IP basis, and supplemented with phytase and organic and inorganic minerals (IP+PHY+MIN. IP and IP+PHY+MIN diets reduced nitrogen excretion in 13.6 and 13.1% respectively, and promoted the same nitrogen retention (g/bird and retention efficiency as compared to the diet with typical crude protein level. C+PHY and IP+PHY+MIN reduced phosphorus, calcium and manganese excretion, and improved phosphorus retention. C+MIN and IP+PHY+MIN reduced manganese excretion, but did not influence copper or zinc excretion.

  17. Urinary Excretion of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Said Arellano-Buendía

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that tubular damage precedes glomerular damage in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated oxidative stress and urinary excretion of tubular proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin administration (50 mg/kg. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD; additionally, expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, and oxidized protein (OP were quantified. Whole glomerular filtration rate (GFR was measured. Urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL, osteopontin (uOPN, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG was also determined. Results. Diabetic rats showed an increase in uNGAL excretion 7 days following induction of diabetes. Diuresis, proteinuria, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, and GFR were significantly increased by 30 days after induction. Furthermore, there was an increase in both CAT and SOD activity, in addition to 3-NT, 4-HNE, and OP expression levels. However, GPx activity was lower. Serum levels of NGAL and OPN, as well as excretion levels of uNGAL, uOPN, and uNAG, were increased in diabetics. Tubular damage was observed by 7 days after diabetes induction and was further aggravated by 30 days after induction. Conclusion. The tubular dysfunction evidenced by urinary excretion of NGAL precedes oxidative stress during diabetes.

  18. Urinary Excretion of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Buendía, Abraham Said; García-Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; Loredo-Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia-Rodríguez, Edilia; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio-Alonso, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tubular damage precedes glomerular damage in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated oxidative stress and urinary excretion of tubular proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin administration (50 mg/kg). Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD); additionally, expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and oxidized protein (OP) were quantified. Whole glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured. Urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), osteopontin (uOPN), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) was also determined. Results. Diabetic rats showed an increase in uNGAL excretion 7 days following induction of diabetes. Diuresis, proteinuria, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, and GFR were significantly increased by 30 days after induction. Furthermore, there was an increase in both CAT and SOD activity, in addition to 3-NT, 4-HNE, and OP expression levels. However, GPx activity was lower. Serum levels of NGAL and OPN, as well as excretion levels of uNGAL, uOPN, and uNAG, were increased in diabetics. Tubular damage was observed by 7 days after diabetes induction and was further aggravated by 30 days after induction. Conclusion. The tubular dysfunction evidenced by urinary excretion of NGAL precedes oxidative stress during diabetes. PMID:25243053

  19. Patterns of 1-hydroxypyrene excretion in volunteers exposed to pyrene by the dermal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viau, C.; Vyskocil, A. [University of Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1995-02-24

    The urinary excretion profiles following exposure to pyrene were established in one psoriasic patient under treatment with a coal tar-based shampoo and in two other volunteers exposed to a single dose of 100{mu}1 creosote and, in a separate experiment, to five consecutive daily dermal applications of 500{mu}g pyrene on 200 cm{sup 2} of the inner face of the forearms. Timed micturitions were collected for up to 48 h following exposure. Both in the psoriasic patient and in the volunteers exposed to creosote, the excretion peaks between 10 and 15 h after application and first-order apparent half lives of 11.5-15 h can be calculated for the elimination phase. Compatible with these observations, repeated exposure to pyrene in the volunteers causes an increase in peak and trough urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) values for the first few days following the first exposure. These results suggest that the difference between beginning-of-shift/beginning of work week and beginning-of-shift/end of work week 1-OHP excretion should reflect the average exposure of the week in workers having a constant exposure to pyrene. The difference between the beginning and end-of-shift excretion values of a given day should reflect the exposure of that day but the maximum excretion would be attained a few hours after termination of exposure.

  20. Essential trace metal excretion from rats with lead exposure and during chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victery, W; Miller, C R; Goyer, R A

    1986-02-01

    Urinary excretion of lead, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium, and potassium was measured in rats daily for 1 week after a 6-week exposure to 10,000 micrograms/ml lead in drinking water. Beginning on the third day, half of the lead-exposed and control rats were injected intraperitoneally with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) daily for 3 days. Whole blood, plasma, and kidney metal concentrations were determined from samples obtained at the end of the experiment. Exposure to lead increased urinary excretion, not only of lead, but also of calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, and iron. Excretion of sodium and potassium was not altered. Chelation therapy further increased excretion of lead, zinc, copper, and iron, but not magnesium. The increase in calcium excretion during chelation treatment (beyond that resulting from lead exposure per se) was accounted for by the Ca content of CaNa2-EDTA. EDTA treatment increased renal concentration of zinc but lowered renal concentration of lead, copper, and iron. These multimetal alterations may have implications for essential metal supplementation, particularly zinc, in persons being given chelation agents for excess lead exposure and in infants and children with low-level lead exposure not necessarily requiring chelation therapy.

  1. Renal thorium and uranium excretion in non-exposed subjects: influence of age and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excretion of 238U and 232Th was investigated by ICP-MS in a group of 30 males (mean age 41 ± 18 years, range 7 to 73 years) and 33 females (43 ± 21 years, 11 to 84 years). For the thorium excretion, the geometric mean is 34 μBq/day (SD 1.90) for the whole group, 40 μBq/day (SD 2.01) for the males and 30 μBq/day (SD 1.78) for the females. The difference between the males and females is statistically insignificant. A certain increase in the excretion was observed with increasing age but the correlation coefficient of the linear relationship is statistically insignificant. For uranium, the geometric means (SD) for the whole group, the male subgroup, and the female subgroup, in μBq/day, are 237 (2.50), 287 (2.09), and 200 (2.81). The difference between the two subgroups is statistically insignificant. The excretion increases slightly with age; the correlation coefficient of the linear relationship is statistically significant. The day-to-day fluctuations in the excretion of both Th and U are considerable. (P.A.)

  2. Assessment of fetal exposure risk following seminal excretion of a therapeutic IgG4 (T-IgG4) monoclonal antibody using a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, William J; Hilbish, Kim G; Page, Todd J; Coutant, David E

    2014-09-01

    Studies were conducted in New Zealand White rabbits to assess the seminal transfer, vaginal absorption, and placental transfer of a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (T-IgG4). T-IgG4 was administered by intravenous injection (IV) in males and by IV and intravaginal routes in females. Low levels of T-IgG4 were excreted into seminal plasma (100- to 370-fold lower than serum concentrations) and absorbed following vaginal dosing (three orders of magnitude lower than IV administration). On gestation day 29 (GD29), fetal serum T-IgG4 levels were 1.5-fold greater than maternal levels following IV dosing. The fetal T-IgG4 exposure ratio for seminal transfer vs. direct maternal IV dosing was estimated to be 1.3×10(-8). Applying human serum T-IgG4 exposure data to the model, the estimated human T-IgG4 serum concentration from seminal transfer was 3.07×10(-7)μg/mL, an exposure level at least 1000-fold lower than the T-IgG4-ligand dissociation constant (Kd) and at least seven orders of magnitude lower than the in vivo concentration producing 20% inhibition of the target (EC20). These data indicate that excretion of a T-IgG4 into semen would not result in a biologically meaningful exposure risk to the conceptus of an untreated partner. PMID:24863471

  3. The excretion of isotope in urea and ammonia for estimating protein turnover in man with [15N]glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four normal adults were given [15N]-glycine in a single dose either orally or intravenously. Rates of whole-body protein turnover were estimated from the excretion of 15N in ammonia and in urea during the following 9 h. The rate derived from urea took account of the [15N]urea retained in body water. In postabsorptive subjects the rates of protein synthesis given by ammonia were equal to those from urea, when the isotope was given orally, but lower when an intravenous dose was given. In subjects receiving equal portions of food every 2 h rates of synthesis calculated from ammonia were much lower than those from urea whether an oral or intravenous isotope was given. Comparison of rates obtained during the postabsorptive and absorptive periods indicated regulation by food intake primarily of synthesis when measurements were made on urea, but regulation primarily of breakdown when measurements were made on ammonia. These inconsistencies suggest that changes in protein metabolism might be assessed better by correlating results given by different end-products, and it is suggested that the mean value given by urea and ammonia will be useful for this purpose. (author)

  4. Wilson protein expression, copper excretion and sweat production in sweat glands of Wilson disease patients and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss Karl; Merle Uta; Schellenberg Mavi; Schaefer Mark; Stremmel Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In Wilson disease, copper is not sufficiently excreted into bile due to the absence or malfunction of the Wilson protein copper ATPase in the excretory pathway of hepatocytes. Copper is found in sweat. It is unknown if the Wilson protein plays a role in copper excretion into sweat. It is the aim of this study to investigate Wilson protein expression in sweat glands and analysing its effects on copper excretion into sweat in controls and patients with Wilson disease. Method...

  5. Renal ammonia excretion in response to hypokalemia: effect of collecting duct-specific Rh C glycoprotein deletion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Verlander, Jill W.; Bishop, Jesse M.; Handlogten, Mary E.; Han, Ki-Hwan; Weiner, I. David

    2012-01-01

    The Rhesus factor protein, Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg), is an ammonia transporter whose expression in the collecting duct is necessary for normal ammonia excretion both in basal conditions and in response to metabolic acidosis. Hypokalemia is a common clinical condition associated with increased renal ammonia excretion. In contrast to basal conditions and metabolic acidosis, increased ammonia excretion during hypokalemia can lead to an acid-base disorder, metabolic alkalosis, rather than mainten...

  6. Late excretion rates of 226Ra and 210Pb following occupational or iatrogenic exposure. I. 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinary and fecal excretion rates of 226Ra have been determined for 53 subjects who had been exposed to 226Ra; 25 had been radium dial painters, 16 were iatrogenic (medical) cases and 12 were former radium chemists. The mean coefficient of elimination, CE (fraction of body content excreted annually), was significantly lower for the medical cases than for dial painters. The mean ratio of urinary-to-fecal excretion rates was 3.0 +- 0.7%

  7. Gastrointestinal absorption of neptunium in primates: effect of ingested mass, diet, and fasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption and retention of neptunium were determined in baboons after intragastric administration of neptunium nitrate solutions at pH 1. The effects of mass, diet, and fasting on absorption were studied. At higher mass levels (400-800 micrograms Np/kg), absorption was about 1%; at lower mass intakes (0.0009-0.005 micrograms Np/kg), absorption was reduced by 10- to 20-fold. The addition of an oxidizing agent (Fe3+) increased gastrointestinal absorption and supported the hypothesis of a reduction of Np (V) when loss masses were ingested. Diets depleted of or enriched with hydroxy acids did not modify retention of neptunium but increased urinary excretion with increasing hydroxy acid content. The diet enriched with milk components reduced absorption by a factor of 5. Potatoes increased absorption and retention by a factor 5, not necessarily due to the effect of phytate. Fasting for 12 or 24 h increased retention and absorption by factors of about 3 and 10, respectively. Data obtained in baboons when low masses of neptunium were administered suggest that the f1 factor used by ICRP should be decreased. However, fasting as encountered in certain nutritional habits is a factor to be taken into consideration

  8. Effects of the restriction of food and water intake on the distribution and retention of radioiodine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the restriction of food and water intakes on gastrointestinal absorption, distribution to organs and excretion of 131I were investigated in C3H/He mice. The animals were divided into four groups and administered orally 37 kBq carrier-free Na 131I in 0.25 ml normal saline. One group of animals was given food and water ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Food and water to the remaining groups were restricted before and/or after the administration of 131I. The animals in each group were sacrificed 4 h and 24 h after administration, and the activity of 131I in thyroid, blood, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, urine, feces, and carcass was measured. There was a significant increase in the retention of 131I in the thyroid and the concentration of 131I in the blood due to the restriction of food and water after the administration of 131I. In contrast, a significant decrease in the urinary excretion was observed in these animals. In those animals, which fasted before administration only, the retention of 131I in the thyroid and other organs were decreased. Therefore, for an accurate diagnosis and effective therapy with radioiodine as well as effective radiation protection, the intake of food and water should be taken into account. (author)

  9. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  10. Absorption driven focus shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  11. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  12. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm;

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...... fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measured. Meta-analyses used random-effects models with changes in faecal fat excreted expressed...

  13. Urinary epidermal growth factor is excreted from the rat isolated perfused kidney in the absence of plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Hilchey, S D; Nexø, Ebba;

    1993-01-01

    Large amounts of epidermal growth factor (EGF) are excreted in urine and the majority of this urinary EGF appears to be of renal origin. EGF is synthesized in the kidneys as a membrane-bound 160 kDa precursor, in the thick ascending limb of Henle and in the early part of the distal convoluted....... Administration of the proteinase inhibitor aprotinin reduced urinary EGF excretion from the rat isolated perfused kidney by approximately 50%. In conclusion, the rat isolated perfused kidney excreted significant amounts of urinary EGF without having access to plasma, and EGF excretion was reduced by aprotinin...

  14. Excretion of 131I by freshwater catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish in waters to which wastes from nuclear power stations are discharged accumulate radionuclides for a short time during batch discharges and then eliminate them during the longer intervals between discharges. Hence, the elimination rates of radionuclides are of importance in computing radiation doses to humans who eat fish caught in these waters. The excretion rates of 131I in two freshwater fish species were studied. Findings show that 131I is excreted quite rapidly by both species. 131I loss from fish muscle during deep frying was also measured and found to be 20 +- 4%. It is concluded that the practice of simply applying a concentration factor to convert the concentration in water to that in fish, without considering excretion, grossly overestimates the dose to the consumer, and that further studies should be made to identify other nuclides that behave similarly. (author)

  15. Excretion of purine base derivatives after intake of bacterial protein meal in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, A.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial protein meal has a high content ofprotein but also of RNA and DNA. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four diets containing increasing levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM), from weaning to 80 kg live weight, to evaluate whether the RNA and DNA contents of BPM influenced the retention...... of nitrogen. It was hypothesised that an increased intake of RNA and DNA would lead to an increased urinary excretion of purine base derivatives and increased plasma concentrations. Retention of nitrogen was unaffected by dietary content of BPM (P=0.08) and the urinary excretion of purine base derivatives...... increased with increasing dietary content of BPM. No differences in fasting plasma concentration of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine were observed. It can therefore be concluded that increasing levels of dietary BPM maintained protein accretion and led to changes in excretion of purine detrivatices...

  16. Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Nielsen, S. E.; Haraldsdottir, J.;

    1999-01-01

    not change. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased significantly with juice dose. Conclusions: Urinary excretion of quercetin seemed to be a small but constant function of quercetin intake. Short-term, high intake of black currant and apple juices had a prooxidant effect on plasma proteins and increased......Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of intake of flavonoid-containing black currant and apple juice on urinary excretion of quercetin and on markers...... of oxidative status. Design: This was a crossover study with 3 doses of juice (750, 1000, and 1500 mL) consumed for 1 wk by 4 women and 1 man corresponding to an intake of 4.8, 6.4, and 9.6 mg quercetin/d. Results: Urinary excretion of quercetin increased significantly with dose and with time. The fraction...

  17. Nitrogen excretion in rats on a protein-free diet and during starvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz;

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen balances (six days) were determined in male Wistar rats during feeding a diet with sufficient protein or a nearly protein-free diet (n = 2 x 24), and then during three days of starvation (n = 2 x 12). The objective was to evaluate the effect of protein withdrawal on minimum nitrogen...... excretion in urine (UN), corresponding to endogenous UN, during feeding and subsequent starvation periods. The rats fed the protein free-diet had almost the same excretion of urinary N during feeding and starvation (165 and 157 mg/kg W(0.75)), while it was 444 mg/kg W(0.75) in rats previously fed with...... protein, demonstrating a major influence of protein content in a diet on N excretion during starvation. Consequently, the impact of former protein supply on N losses during starvation ought to be considered when evaluating minimum N requirement necessary to sustain life....

  18. Interaction between the renal excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and tobramycin in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vree, T B; Zweens, K; Huige, P J; Guelen, P J; Jongman-Nix, B

    1984-03-27

    The renal excretion rate of beta 2-microglobulin in man is 127 +/- 98 ng/min at alkaline urine pH (pH 7). Tobramycin, up to intravenous doses of 160 mg (2 mg/kg) does not increase the renal excretion rate of beta 2-microglobulin. Tobramycin must have less affinity than gentamicin for the tubular system for active reabsorption of amino groups containing organic compounds. Due to this reduced affinity tobramycin will be absorbed less by the proximal tubular cells, which may be one of the reasons for tobramycin being less toxic than gentamicin. beta 2-Microglobulin excretion can be used as a parameter for the relative binding affinity of aminoglycosides. PMID:6370509

  19. Energy and nutrient deposition and excretion in the reproducing sow: model development and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Strathe, A B; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2014-01-01

    Air and nutrient emissions from swine operations raise environmental concerns. During the reproduction phase, sows consume and excrete large quantities of nutrients. The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to describe energy and nutrient partitioning and predict manure...... production, and maternal growth with body tissue losses constrained within biological limits. Global sensitivity analysis showed that nonlinearity in the parameters was small. The model outputs considered were the total protein and fat deposition, average urinary and fecal N excretion, average methane...... excretion and composition and methane emissions on a daily basis. The model was structured to contain gestation and lactation modules, which can be run separately or sequentially, with outputs from the gestation module used as inputs to the lactation module. In the gestating module, energy and protein...

  20. Lead Excretion in Spanish Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Fuentes-Albero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Among epigenetic factors leading to increased prevalence of juvenile neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, exposure to metals, such as lead (Pb have led to conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of Pb in the urine of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD compared with typically developing children (TD age- and sex-matched, and to analyze any association between core symptoms of ASD, special diets, supplements intake or prescription drugs and the concentration of Pb. The study was performed in a group of children with ASD (n = 35, average age 7.4 ± 0.5 years and TD (n = 34, average age 7.7 ± 0.9 years. Measurement of lead in urine was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry; symptoms of ASD were analyzed by diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DMS-IV using the questionnary ADI-R. Careful clinical evaluation was also undertaken and statistical analysis was done taking into account any possible confounding factor.

  1. The role of sphinter of Boyden in bile excretion and its regulating factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Guo Wei; Yao Cheng Wang; Qing Jiang Meng

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of sphincter of Boyden in bile excretion and its regulating factors.METHODS Perfusion manometry, choledocho-cineradiography, reaction of the sphincter of Boyden toendogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) and immunohistochemical quantitative analysis were performed in 16dogs to study the motility and morphology of the sphincter of Boyden in experimental (postcholecystectomy)group ( n = 8) and the control group (n = 8).RESULTS The bile duct surrounded by SB was a low-pressure lumen (10.0 ± 2.0 mmHg), in which thepressure was significantly different (P<0.01, t = 6. 195) from the basal pressure of the high-pressure area ofsphincter of Oddi (SO), its basal pressure (SOBP) was 16.9±0.5 mmHg. The SB was an enlarged ampulladuring bile excretion interval, and showed active contraction during bile excretion. Intrinsic CCK could causediastole of SO, but does not affect the systole and diastole of SB. After cholecystectomy, spastic contractionpersisted in SB, which could not be relieved by intrinsic CCK. The sensitivity to CCK of SO was decreased,and the evacuation time of media prolonged (27.0±3.4 min vs precholecystectomy 17.l±0.9min P<0.01,t =7.961). In immunohistochemistry analysis, the contents of a-actin, myosin in the SB of experimentalgroup showed no increase. Under electronic microscope, the main changes were 3D structuraldisarrangement of the cell framework, distortion of the microfilaments, swelling and aggregation ofmitochondria at the nuclear side.CONCLUSION The excretion of bile can be divided into two types, physiological bile excretion with a drivemainly caused by the contraction of SB, and the other, functional bile excretion with a drive mainly causedby the contraction of gallbladder. It seems that the function of SB was controlled by vagus, whereas SO wasmore sensitive to the intrinsic CCK, The intact gallbladder is an elemental factor of functional coordinationof SB and SO.

  2. Comparison of urinary iodine excretion in pregnant women with and without goiter and their newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setoodeh A

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Iodine availability for the maternal thyroid is reduced during pregnancy as a result of the loss of the nutrient by increased renal clearance, and competition by the fetoplacental unit. So with a marginal iodine intake, pregnancy constitutes a stimulus for both the maternal and fetal thyroids. On the other hand, iodine deficiency in the first trimester of pregnancy results in impaired development of the central nervous system, lack of T4 then results in smaller brain size associated with fewer neurons which are also shorter in length. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to evaluate pregnant women and their newborns, these two susceptible groups to IDD in an endemic area such as Shiraz. Urinary excretion of iodine as iodine (µg/dl/creatinine (gr ratios in two groups of pregnant women, one group without goiter (52.88% and the other with goiter (grade Ib and II 47.2% and their newborns were compared. There was no significant difference in urinary excretion of iodine in mothers and newborns of the 2 groups. In all newborns even in those of mothers excreting <50 mg iodine/gr creatinine, there was a significantly greater excretion of iodine probably due to increased renal clearance of iodine by the immature kidney, and their excretion of iodine was not parallel to those of mothers. There was no significant difference between weight, height and head circumference of the two groups of newborns. It is concluded that iodine excretion in neonates can not be used as an indicator of iodine deficiency disorder. In iodine deficient areas pregnancy justifies monitoring thyroid function and volume and therapeutic intervention to avoid hypothyroxinemia and goiterogenesis in both mother and newborn. Likewise neonatal thyroid screening constitutes a valuable and sensitive index for detecting the presence of iodine deficiency.

  3. Nitrogen excretion factors of livestock in the European Union: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velthof, Gerard L; Hou, Yong; Oenema, Oene

    2015-12-01

    Livestock manures are major sources of nutrients, used for the fertilisation of cropland and grassland. Accurate estimates of the amounts of nutrients in livestock manures are required for nutrient management planning, but also for estimating nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to the environment. Here we report on N excretion factors for a range of animal categories in policy reports by member states of the European Union (EU). Nitrogen excretion is defined in this paper as the total amount of N excreted by livestock per year as urine and faeces. We discuss the guidelines and methodologies for the estimation of N excretion factors by the EU Nitrates Directive, the OECD/Eurostat gross N balance guidebook, the EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the IPCC Guidelines. Our results show that N excretion factors for dairy cattle, other cattle, pigs, laying hens, broilers, sheep, and goats differ significantly between policy reports and between countries. Part of these differences may be related to differences in animal production (e.g. production of meat, milk and eggs), size/weight of the animals, and feed composition, but partly also to differences in the aggregation of livestock categories and estimation procedures. The methodologies and data used by member states are often not well described. There is a need for a common, harmonised methodology and procedure for the estimation of N excretion factors, to arrive at a common basis for the estimation of the production of manure N and N balances, and emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) across the EU. PMID:25959675

  4. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-08-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. PMID:9347899

  5. Modification of light transmission channels by inhomogeneous absorption in random media

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Seng Fatt

    2015-01-01

    Optical absorption is omnipresent and very often distributed non-uniformly in space. We present a numerical study on the effects of inhomogeneous absorption on transmission eigenchannels of light in highly scattering media. In the weak absorption regime, the spatial profile of a transmission channel remains very similar to that without absorption, and the effect of inhomogeneous absorption can be stronger or weaker than homogeneous absorption depending on the spatial overlap of the localized absorbing region with the field intensity maximum of the channel. In the strong absorption regime, the high transmission channels redirect the energy flows to circumvent the absorbing regions to minimize loss. The attenuation of high transmission channels by inhomogeneous absorption is lower than that by homogeneous absorption, regardless of the location of the absorbing region. The statistical distribution of transmission eigenvalues in the former becomes broader than that in the latter, due to a longer tail at high tran...

  6. Ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    1998-01-01

    A slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) is a predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The mechanism is unknown, but moderate office blood pressure elevation has been demonstrated as part of a clustering of known atherosclerotic risk factors in subjects with elevated...... increased urinary loss of albumin could not be solely related to the higher blood pressure. In conclusion, apparently healthy subjects with elevated UAER had slightly but significantly higher 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in addition to increased blood pressure loads but normal...... circadian variation. The demonstrated differences in blood pressure may offer a partial explanation for the association between elevated urinary albumin excretion and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk....

  7. Excretion pattern of aflatoxins in buffalo milk and carry-over in mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gualla

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Some raw materials, used in animal feeding, can be contaminated by aflatoxins (AF. All the mammals that ingest AFB1, excrete small amounts of the hydroxylated metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in their milk (Wood 1991. In the case of cow’s milk, the percentage excreted is 1-3% of that ingested (Veldman et al. 1992. AFM1 has been categorised as a class 2B, possible human carcinogen. AFM1 is associated with the protein fraction of milk and hence it is carried-over to cheese and to other milk products (Brackett and Marth, 1982....

  8. Urinary estrogen excretion and concentration of serum human placental lactogen in pregnancies following legally induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, E B; Madsen, Mette

    1980-01-01

    Feto-placental function was assessed by 24-hour excretion of estrogen in urine and by the concentration of human Placental Lactogen (hPL) in serum in pregnant women whose previous pregnancy was terminated by legally induced abortion. The mean 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine and the mean...... an increased frequency of dysfunction of the feto-placental unit during the last part of pregnancy in women with previous legally induced abortion. These findings indicate that legal abortion does not seem to increase the frequency of retarded intrauterine growth in a subsequent pregnancy....

  9. Effect of candesartan on microalbuminuria and albumin excretion rate in diabetes: three randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilous, Rudy; Chaturvedi, Nish; Sjølie, Anne Katrin;

    2009-01-01

    , caregivers, and researchers were blinded to treatment assignment. During a median follow-up of 4.7 years, 793 patients discontinued therapy and 63 were lost to follow-up. MEASUREMENTS: Urinary albumin excretion rate, assessed annually by 2 overnight collections; if it was 20 microg/min or greater, then 2...... further collections were done. The primary end point was new microalbuminuria (3 or 4 collections of urinary albumin excretion rate >or=20 microg/min). The secondary end point was rate of change in albuminuria. RESULTS: Individual and pooled results of the 3 trials showed that candesartan had little...

  10. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...

  11. Effect of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) on the excretion and deposition of radiostrontium in laboratory rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of addition of the natural zeolite clinoptilolite to the diet on the excretion and deposition of 85Sr was examined in laboratory rats after a single peroral contamination. A significant increase in the total excreted activity and a decrease in the deposition of radiostrontium in the femur and tail vertebrae were observed on the administration of 5% or 10% zeolite. In time dependence measurements, the decontamination effect of the sorbent was only observed after its preventive administration. (author). 6 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Serum Level and 24hr. Excretion Pattern of Potassium Following the Intake of Combined Oral Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kamyab

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum level and 24hr urinary excretion pattern of potassium have been studied in 104 healthy women, aged 18-44 years, using combined • oral contraceptives for a period of 3-48 months, and results h av e been compared with those obtained from 21 healthy controls of the same clinic. aged 19-40 years, using IUD. There was no sign ificant change observed in s erum potassium level, but 24hr urinary excretion pattern of potassium decreased significantly in 90% of the individuals equivalent to 2. &- 78 . 3% of the mean control, possibly due to a retention of potas sium in the cells.

  13. Amylase: creatinine clearance ratio and urinary excretion of lysozyme in acute pancreatitis and acute duodenal perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, G M; Cowlin, J; Turner, T J

    1976-09-18

    The amylase:creatinine clearance ratio in patients suffering from acute pancreatitis or acute duodenal perforation was higher than normal in both groups of patients. These findings cast doubt on the value of this parameter as a specific index of acute pancreatitis. The mechanism or mechanisms underlying the increased amylase excretion have not been determined. However, the markedly elevated urinary excretion of lysozyme observed in some patients suggests, by analogy, that diminished tubular reabsorption of amylase may contribute towards the elevated amylase:creatinine ratio.

  14. Abnormal urinary excretion of polyamines in HHH syndrome (hyperornithinemia associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H; Maekawa, K; Eto, Y

    1990-01-01

    The HHH syndrome (hyperornithinemia associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria) is characterized by a very rare genetic defect of ornithine transport in mitochondrial membrane. We first demonstrated that a patient with HHH syndrome excreted about 6 times higher amount of polyamines in urine than the control when supplemented with high protein diets and ornithine loading. Each urinary polyamine fraction measured by HPLC method in HHH syndrome appears to be increased, as compared with those of the control. These data suggest that increased urinary excretion of polyamines in this syndrome is closely related to overflowing of plasma polyamine due to an ornithine transport defect in the mitochondrial membrane.

  15. Intestinal SR-BI does not impact cholesterol absorption or transintestinal cholesterol efflux in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, Kanwardeep S; Lord, Caleb; Marshall, Stephanie; McDaniel, Allison; Thomas, Gwyn; Warrier, Manya; Zhang, Jun; Davis, Matthew A; Sawyer, Janet K; Shah, Ramesh; Wilson, Martha D; Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J F; Collet, Xavier; Rudel, Lawrence L; Temel, Ryan E; Brown, J Mark

    2013-06-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) can proceed through the classic hepatobiliary route or through the nonbiliary transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) pathway. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays a critical role in the classic hepatobiliary route of RCT. However, the role of SR-BI in TICE has not been studied. To examine the role of intestinal SR-BI in TICE, sterol balance was measured in control mice and mice transgenically overexpressing SR-BI in the proximal small intestine (SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg)). SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice had significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels compared with wild-type controls, yet SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice had normal fractional cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. Both in the absence or presence of ezetimibe, intestinal SR-BI overexpression had no impact on the amount of cholesterol excreted in the feces. To specifically study effects of intestinal SR-BI on TICE we crossed SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice into a mouse model that preferentially utilized the TICE pathway for RCT (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 liver transgenic), and likewise found no alterations in cholesterol absorption or fecal sterol excretion. Finally, mice lacking SR-BI in all tissues also exhibited normal cholesterol absorption and fecal cholesterol disposal. Collectively, these results suggest that SR-BI is not rate limiting for intestinal cholesterol absorption or for fecal neutral sterol loss through the TICE pathway.

  16. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    that contribute to the neo-Schumpeterian economics literature and hopefully inspires further research into this area. The main findings of the dissertation can be divided into four distinct parts. First, diversity of individuals within firms is associated with firm innovative performance. This is in line......One of the most influential contributions to neo-Schumpeterian economics is Cohen and Levinthal‘s papers on absorptive capacity. Since their publication in the late 1980s and early 1990s the concept absorptive capacity has had substantial impact on research in economics and management, including...... international business, organizational economics, strategic management, technology management and last but not least neo-Schumpeterian economics. The goal of this dissertation is to examine what many consider as neglected arguments from the work by Cohen and Levinthal and thereby illuminate an otherwise...

  17. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, D. C.; Labonte, B. J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity.

  18. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, D.C.; Labonte, B.J.; Duvall, T.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity. 10 references.

  19. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xie

    Full Text Available Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58, a lipid droplet (LD-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  20. Effects of administration of potassium- and sodiumchlorides on faecal excretions and salivary and alimentary concentrations of, Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg and P in reindeer fed a lichen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the effects of administration of 350 mmol d-1 of KC1 or NaCl on faecal excretions, salivary concentrations and concentrations and pools of Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg, P, and water in the alimentary tract of reindeer was carried out using three groups of three 10 months old reindeer fed a lichen diet. One group was used as a control group with no mineral supplementation. The level of K supplementation mimicked K intakes from summer pastures. NaCl was given at a rate which would mimic intake from salt licks by domestic ruminants of similar body size. Treatment with KC1 increased the salivary and alimentary concentrations and the alimentary pool sizes of K and faecal excretion of K increased. A decrease in l34Cs concentrations in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract indicated greater absorption of 134Cs during the KC1 treatment than in NaCl treated and control animals. Increased intake of Na or K had no significant effect on the digestibility of the lichen diet, but urine production increased. Little effects on pools or concentrations of Ca, Mg and P were observed. NaCl treatment increased urinary and faecal excretion of Na, but did not affect the metabolism of any of the other studied minerals.

  1. New human milk fat substitutes from butterfat to improve fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Mu, Huiling; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov;

    2010-01-01

    A new human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was produced from butterfat. A 2-week's feeding experiment was performed using three groups of rats with 10 wt.% fat in their feed; the fat was either (1) butterfat-based HMFS + long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), (2) the reference oil + LCPUFA......, or (3) the reference oil without LCPUFA. The apparent fat absorption after intake of butterfat-based HMFS (95.9% +/- 1.8%) was significantly higher than the other two groups, indicating that much less calcium soap was formed after feeding butterfat-based HMFS. Calcium contents in urines and faeces from...... the two groups fed LCPUFA in their diet were lower than those without supplementation of LCPUFA, suggesting that LCPUFA could improve calcium absorption by reducing the calcium excretion. It can thus be concluded that the butterfat-based HMFS improves fat absorption, and supplementation of LCPUFA...

  2. Inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometric determination of platinum in excretion products of client-owned pet dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, T.; Brouwers, E. E M; de Vos, J.P.; de Vries, N.; Schellens, J. H M; Beijnen, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Residues of antineoplastic drugs in canine excretion products may represent exposure risks to veterinary personnel, owners of pet dogs and other animal care-takers. The aim of this study was to measure the extent and duration of platinum (Pt) excretion in pet dogs treated with carboplatin. Samples w

  3. Refining the excretion factors of methadone and codeine for wastewater analysis - Combining data from pharmacokinetic and wastewater studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Phong K; Lai, Foon Yin; Bruno, Raimondo; van Dyken, Emma; Hall, Wayne; O'Brien, Jake; Prichard, Jeremy; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-09-01

    Analysing drug residues in wastewater (wastewater analysis) to monitor the consumption of those drugs in the population has become a complementary method to epidemiological surveys. In this method, the excretion factor of a drug (or the percentage of drug metabolites excreted through urine) is a critical parameter for the back-estimation of the consumption of a drug. However, this parameter is usually derived from a small database of human pharmacokinetic studies. This is true for methadone and codeine, the two most commonly used opioids and also common substances of abuse. Therefore, we aimed to refine the current excretion factors used for estimating methadone and codeine by analysing published data from the literature on the excretion of methadone, its main metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and codeine. Our review included both human drug pharmacokinetic studies and wastewater analysis studies. We found that while the commonly used excretion factor of methadone (~27.5%) was relatively accurate, the excretion factor of EDDP, a better biomarker for methadone consumption in sewer epidemiology, should be twice that of methadone (i.e. 55%) instead of the current equal or half values. For codeine, the excretion factor should be ~30% instead of 63.5% or 10% as previously used in wastewater analysis studies. Data from wastewater analysis studies could be used in this way to refine the excretion factors of the drugs of interest. PMID:27295047

  4. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Yokoyama, H; Mathiesen, E;

    1996-01-01

    atherosclerotic vascular disease during follow up of 2457 person year. Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P = 0.002). Predictive effect...

  5. Ammonia excretion at different life stages of silver catfish - 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i1.11898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Baldisserotto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined ammonia excretion at different life stages (eggs, larvae and juveniles in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen and determined the influence of fasting time on ammonia excretion. Eggs and larvae were collected from incubators at different times after fecundation and placed in chambers. Juveniles were separated into two weight classes (2–50 g and 150-320 g and placed in individual chambers after feeding. Water was collected from each chamber to determine ammonia excretion. Ammonia excretion by the eggs was low, but when hatching began approximately 28h after fecundation, excretion increased until 48h after fecundation. In fasting silver catfish juveniles, there was a significant negative correlation between ammonia excretion and weight. Moreover, ammonia excretion decreased significantly after 12 and 48h of fasting (compared to 6h fasting in the smallest and largest specimens, respectively. Consequently, during incubation of silver catfish eggs, water renovation must be increased at hatching time to avoid a build-up in the concentration of ammonia. In addition, as ammonia excretion in this species increases after feeding, feed must be discontinued when ammonia levels in the tanks are high to avoid a further increase of this metabolite and consequent mortality of silver catfish.

  6. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Astrup, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition.......Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition....

  7. Concentration compared with total urinary excretion of 11,17-DOA in cynomolgus monkey urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Jann; Royo, F

    2008-01-01

    Strees sensitive molecules exhibit great variation in concentration in the circulation and it may often be advantageous to quantify these in urine or feces rather than in serum or plasma. We advocate that all urine-or feces-should be collected, and that excretion of stress sensitive molecules...

  8. Normal urinary albumin excretion in recently diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, B; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B;

    1989-01-01

    The urinary excretion of albumin and retinol binding protein were measured in 51 recently diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and 48 control subjects, matched for age and sex. The diabetic patients, admitted consecutively to the Steno Memorial Hospital, were all studied 3 to 6 months after the ons...

  9. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B;

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p

  10. Automatic measurement of water uptake and weeping sap excretion by root system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus is described which allows continuous recording of water uptake by a plant. The elements of this apparatus serve at the same time for measurement of root pressure. The size of the recorded portion of uptaken water and of weeping sap excreted by the plant root can be regulated.

  11. Urinary felinine excretion in intact male cats is increased by dietary cystine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J.; Weidgraaf, K.; Morton, R.H.; Rogers, Q.R.

    2008-01-01

    Felinine is a branched-chain sulfur amino acid present in the urine of certain Felidae, including domestic cats. The objective of the present study was to determine if additional cystine and/or dietary N would increase felinine and N-acetylfelinine excretion by intact male cats fed a low-protein (LP

  12. Endothelial haemostatic factors are associated with progression of urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G;

    1999-01-01

    A slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), above 5-10 microgram/min, is a predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction is an important early feature of atherosclerosis. The plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a potential marker of e...

  13. Daily uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans compared to ICRP model prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeh, U; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Roth, P; Paretzke, H G

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. In order to evaluate a possible DU intake, the urinary uranium excretions of volunteers were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In total, more than 1300 urine samples from soldiers, civil servants and unexposed controls of different genders and ages were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. All participating volunteers, aged 3-92 y, were grouped according to their gender and age for evaluation. The results of the investigation revealed no significant difference between the unexposed controls and the peacekeeping personnel. In addition, the geometric means of the daily urinary excretion in peacekeeping personnel, ranging from 3 to 23 ng d(-1) for different age groups, fall toward the lower end of renal uranium excretion values published for unexposed populations in literature. The measured data were compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection prediction for the intake of natural uranium by unexposed members of the public. The two data sets are in good agreement, indicating that no relevant intake of additional uranium, either natural or DU, has appeared for German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. PMID:17567762

  14. Increased urinary excretion of platelet activating factor in mice with lupus nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macconi, D.; Noris, M.; Benfenati, E.; Quaglia, R.; Pagliarino, G. (Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Bergamo (Italy)); Remuzzi, G. (Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Bergamo (Italy) Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is present in urine from humans and experimental animals in normal conditions. Very little is known about changes in PAF urinary excretion under pathologic conditions and no data are available about the origin of PAF in the urine. In the present study we explored the possibility that immunologic renal disease is associated with an increase in PAF urinary excretion using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. To clarify the renal or extrarenal origin of urinary PAF we evaluated whether exogenously administered PAF (1-(1{prime},2{prime}-{sup 3}H)alkyl) is filtered through the glomerulus and excreted in the urine. The results show that: (1) urine from mice with lupus nephritis in the early phase of the disease contained amounts of PAF comparable to those excreted in normal mouse urine, (2) PAF levels increased when animals started to develop high grade proteinuria, (3) after intravenous injection of ({sup 3}H) PAF In nephritic mice, a negligible amount of ({sup 3}H) ether lipid, corresponding to ({sup 3}H)1-alkyl -2-acyl-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-2-acyl-GPC), was recovered from the 24 h urine extract.

  15. The characteristics of urine protein excretion in diabetic foot disease and the association with infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the characteristics of urine protein excretion in patients with diabetic foot and to analyze the changes associated with severity of infection. Methods We analyzed the profiles of 174 consecutive patients with diabetic foot,including physiological and biochemical indices and

  16. Identification of factors associated with increased excretion of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Dekker, A.; Eble, P.L.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated which variables possibly influence the amount of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) shed in secretions and excretions by FMDV infected animals, as it is likely that the amount of FMDV shed is related to transmission risk. First, in a separate analysis of laboratory data, we showed t

  17. Salmonella fecal excretion control in broiler chickens by organic acids and essential oils blend feed added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Borsoi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is an important disease with economic impact as it may affect animal performance and may result in foodborne disease in humans through the eggs and carcass contamination. Regarding the Salmonella control, it is possible to decrease its fecal excretion and the contamination of chicken carcasses by adding organic acids to the feed or drinking water at appropriate times. The aim of this study was to test a blend of organic acids and essential oils in broilers challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE, and to verify the fecal excretion of Salmonella. Sixty broilers were placed in four groups. One group was the negative control. Another group was orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE as a positive SE control. Two groups (T3 and T4 were orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE and their feed was separately treated with 0.5 and 1% of organic acids and essential oils, respectively. To assess the fecal excretion of SE, cloacal swabs were collected from all birds at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days after inoculation. The T3 and T4 groups showed a reduction in fecal excretion of SE at 6 and 20 days after inoculation.

  18. Day-to-day and within-day variation in urinary iodine excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Christiansen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine the day-to-day and within-day variation in urinary iodine excretion and the day-to-day variation in iodine intake. Design: Collection of consecutive 24-h urine samples and casual urine samples over 24 h. Setting: The study population consisted of highly motivated subjects from...... our Institute. Subjects: Study 1: Ten healthy subjects (seven females and three males) aged 30-46 y. Study 2. Twenty-two healthy subjects (9 males and 13 females) aged 30-55 y. Methods: Study 1: 24-h urine samples were collected for four consecutive days. Study 2. Each urine voided over 24 h was...... iodine intake varied from day-to-day. Iodine excretion correlated with iodine intake (r = 0.46, P = 0.01). Iodine intake (mean 89 +/- 6.5 mu g/d) was not significantly different from iodine excretion (mean 95 +/- 5.3 mu g/d). Study 2. Twenty-four hour iodine excretion estimated as I/Cr*24 h Cr from the...

  19. Excretion rate and retention of plutonium 10,000 days after acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three persons who had been injected with known amounts of plutonium in 1945 to 1947, were hospitalized on a metabolic ward in 1973. All excreta were collected for at least eight days and the samples were analyzed for plutonium. For the two subjects who had been injected intravenously with tetravalent 239Pu as the citrate, the urinary excretion rates were 7.6 and 4.7 pCi/day at approximately 104 days after injection; these rates corresponded to 2.52 x 10-3 percent of the injected doses per day respectively. The fecal excretion rates were about 40 percent of the urinary rates. The third subject received an intramuscular injection of hexavalent 238Pu as the nitrate, in the left leg, which was amputated four days later. Almost 50 percent of the amount injected was found at the injection site and the urinary excretion rate about 9500 days later was 0.06 pCi/day, corresponding to not less than 1.2 x 10-4 percent of the initial systemic burden. The excretion rate and retention of 239Pu up to 10,000 days post-injection were calculated

  20. Phyto-oestrogen excretion and rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Morton, M.S.; Brüggemann-Rotgans, I.E.M.; Beresteijn, E.C.H. van

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The hypothesis was tested that the rate of postmenopausal bone loss is inversely associated with long-term urinary excretion of phyto-oestrogens, as a marker of habitual dietary intake. Design: Secondary analysis of a 10-year follow-up study (1979-1989) among postmenopausal women in the N

  1. Urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary soy intake during two randomized soy trials

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Franke, Adrian A.; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary isoflavone intake during two randomized soy trials (13–24 months) among 256 premenopausal women with a total of 1,385 repeated urine samples. Participants consumed a high-soy diet (2 servings/day) and a low-soy diet (

  2. High and persistent excretion of hepatitis A virus in immunocompetent patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjon, Grace M S; Coutinho, Roel A; Hoek, Anneke van den; Esman, Sylvia; Wijkmans, Clementine J; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Wolters, Bert; Swaan, Corien; Geskus, Ronald B; Dukers, Nicole H T M; Bruisten, Sylvia M

    2006-01-01

    The duration and level of virus excretion in blood and faeces of patients with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were studied in relation to levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), disease severity and HAV genotype. Clinical data, blood and faeces were collected from 27 patients with acute hepatit

  3. What predicts progression and regression of urinary albumin excretion in the nondiabetic population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsma, Auke H.; Atthobari, Jarir; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Zeeuw, Dick; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.

    2007-01-01

    An increase or decrease in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with, respectively, a higher or lower risk for renal and cardiovascular disease, independent of widely known cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to identify factors that are associated with changes in UAE in the nondi

  4. Urinary albumin excretion and the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Wal, R. M. A.; Voors, A. A.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    Microalbuminuria has been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic and hypertensive patients, but also in the general population. Moreover, several reports suggest that reduction of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with improvement of cardiova

  5. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  6. Restoration of cell polarity and bile excretion function of hepatocytes in sandwich-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-jie; WANG Ying; SUN Jia-bang; SONG Mao-min; QIAO Xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the nature of the restoration of cell polarity and bile excretion function in Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes.Methods:Freshly isolated hepatocytes from male Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in a double layer collagen gel Sandwich configuration.Morphological changes were observed under a inverted microscope.The domain specific membrane associated protein DPP Ⅳ was tested by immunofluorescenee,and the bile excretion function was determined by using fluorescein diacetate.Hepatocytes cultured on a single layer of collagen gel were taken as control.Results:Adult rat hepatocytes cultured in a double layer collagen gel sandwich configuration regained its morphological and functional polarity and maintained polygonal morphology for at least 4 weeks.Immunofluorescence studies USing antibodies against DPP Ⅳ showed polarity restoration as early as 48 h.After cultured in the double layer collagen gel Sandwich configuration for 96 h the hepatocytes began to excrete bile;while hepatocytes cultured on a single layer collagen gel had no bile excretion.Conclusion:Hepatocytes cultured in a double layer collagen gel Sandwich configuration are able to regain their morphological and functional polarity givan certain conditions.Hepaotcyte culture is a useful tool for the study of polarity restoration.

  7. Accelerating of Pink Pigment Excretion from Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria by Co-Cultivation with Anabaena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI SUSILANINGSIH

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater cyanobacterium Oscillatoria BTCC/A 0004 excretes pink pigment containing lipoproteins with molecular weights of about 10 kDa. This pigment has surfactant properties with strong emulsification activity toward several hydrocarbons. This extracellular metabolite was suspected as toxin or allelochemical in their habitat. In this study, I investigated the effect of co-cultivation of Oscillatoria with Anabaena variabilis on the pigment excretion to explore the physiological roles of this pigment in its natural environment. The dead or viable cells and medium of A. variabilis were added into Oscillatoria cultures. Results showed that co-cultivation of free viable cells of A. variabilis enhanced the excretion of pigment without effect on the cell growth. Co-cultivation with viable cells in separated method and dead cells did not influenced the pigment production. The addition of A. variabilis medium was slightly increased the excretion of the pigment. Those results indicated that direct contact with A. variabilis caused Oscillatoria released a certain signaling compound.

  8. Effects and mechanism of Megsin gene transfection on mesangial cell proliferation and type Ⅳ collagen excretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏运风

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects and mechanism of Megsin gene transfection on mesangial cell proliferation and typeⅣcollagen excretion. Methods Rat Megsin cDNA eukaryotic expressing vector was constructed and transfected to cultured rat mesangial cells. Cell proliferation was measured by determining [3H] -thymidine (3H-TdR) incorporation. The mRNA expression of

  9. NHANES Data Support Link between Handling of Thermal Paper Receipts and Increased Urinary Bisphenol A Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehn, Rebecca Simonne

    2016-01-01

    Some thermal paper receipts, commonly referred to as cash register receipts, contain high levels of bisphenol A (BPA). The goal of this study is to investigate whether increased contact with thermal paper receipts is associated with an increase in urinary BPA excretion. Individuals from the NHANES 2003-2004 survey were stratified based on occupation to compare urinary BPA excretion levels. The first major finding demonstrates that individuals with potential occupational exposure to thermal paper receipts are more likely to have detectable levels of urinary BPA compared to individuals with unlikely occupational exposure (p-value paper receipts have significantly higher levels of urinary BPA excretion (geometric mean (GM): 5.45 μg/L, 95% CI: (4.02, 7.39)) compared to females with unlikely occupational exposure (GM: 2.16 μg/L, 95% CI: (1.73, 2.70)). This association continues to remain statistically significant when controlling for creatinine, race, body mass index (BMI), and age. Notably, there was no statistically significant association between occupation and urinary BPA excretion among males. These results suggest that exposure to BPA from thermal paper should be considered when determining aggregate BPA exposure.

  10. Urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Sørensen, S F; Mogensen, C E;

    1980-01-01

    The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were measured with sensitive radioimmunoassays in 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The duration of SLE ranged from 0.5 to 18 years, mean 10 years. The mean age was 37 years. All patients except 5 received...

  11. SEQUESTRATION OF ORGANIC CATIONS BY ACIDIFIED HEPATIC ENDOCYTIC VESICLES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR BILIARY-EXCRETION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDYKE, RW; FABER, ED; MEIJER, DKF

    1992-01-01

    A number of cationic amine drugs that are taken up by liver and excreted into bile may accumulate in acidified intracellular organelles such as lysosomes and endosomes. These studies were undertaken to assess directly the uptake and accumulation of three types of model organic cationic amines by end

  12. Urinary sulphate excretion and progression of diabetic nephropathy in Type1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andresdottir, G.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Hansen, H. P.; Parving, H-H; Rossing, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Hydrogen sulphide levels are reduced in many disease states, including diabetes and end-stage renal disease. We aimed to determine whether urinary sulphate excretion, as a proxy for hydrogen sulphide, was associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Methods We conducted a post-hoc study

  13. Excretion of amino acids by humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    We measured the urine amino acid distribution patterns before, during and after space flight on the Space Shuttle. The urine samples were collected on two separate flights of the space shuttle. The first flight lasted 9.5 days and the second flight 15 days. Urine was collected continuously on 8 subjects for the period beginning 10 d before launch to 6 d after landing. Results: In contrast to the earlier Skylab missions where a pronounced amino aciduria was found, on shuttle the urinary amino acids showed little change with spaceflight except for a marked decrease in all of the amino acids on FD (flight day) 1 (pvaline on FD3 and FD4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: (i) Amino aciduria is not an inevitable consequence of space flight. (ii) The occurrence of amino aciduria, like muscle protein breakdown is a mission specific effect rather than part of the general human response to microgravity.

  14. Comparison of ground-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and satellite DOAS measurements of NO2 distribution over Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia) during summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhnke, Sebastian; Behrendt, Thomas; Bruse, Michael; Meixner, Franz X.; Mamtimin, Buhalqem

    2014-05-01

    Cities are immense sources of air pollutants; however, emission inventories in many of them still are highly uncertain, particularly in developing countries. Ulaanbaatar is the most populous and polluted area in Mongolia. Tropospheric NO2 is proved to be harmful to both, the atmospheric environment and human health. It might be meaningful and important to observe pollutant concentrations in an area-integrated form (satellite observations) to create a sound data basis for air quality control measures. In our study, we preliminary present the results of both satellite and ground-based Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO2 in Ulaanbaatar (urban area). As a ground validation tool, the MAX-DOAS measurements carried out in Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia) summer 2013 and are applied at 3 different sites in the west of Ulaanbaatar (106.73° E / 47.83° N), the city center (106.92° E / 47.92° N) and in the east (107.12° E / 47.87° N). Additionally, Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) have been set up and ozone was measured by UV absorption technique also at the 3 sites. Preliminary results show that the NO2 column densities increase during sunset and decrease after sunrise, which is most likely caused by a longer light path resulting from high solar zenith angles (SZA). The maximum DSCDs (Differential Slant Column Densities) are observed around sunset and sunrise (up to 10^17 molec cm-², mainly a measurement effect as stated above). The daily minima of the vertical column densities (VCD) appear in the morning and in the afternoon (DSCD ~2×10^15 molec cm-²) while, around noon, a second maximum can be observed (DSCD ~4×10^16 molec cm-²). Satellite data show mean VCDs of about 3×10^15 molec cm-² in July and a varying agreement with MAX-DOAS measurements.

  15. New formulation of chemical peeling agent: 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol. Absorption and distribution of 14C-salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol applied topically to skin of hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Setsuko; Mitsugi, Koichi; Ichige, Kazumi; Yoshida, Kenji; Sakuma, Tomoko; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi; Sudou, Tetsuji

    2002-04-01

    Salicylic acid is used in chemical peeling procedures. However, they have caused many side effects, even salicylism. To achieve a salicylic acid peeling that would be safer for topical use, we recently developed a new formulation consisting of 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol (PEG) vehicle. In an extension of our previous research, we studied the absorption of 30% salicylic acid labeled with 14C in PEG vehicle applied topically to the intact and damaged skin of male hairless mice. An ointment containing 3 mg salicylic acid in 10 mg vehicle was applied to both groups. In animals with intact skin, 1 h after application the plasma concentration of radioactivity was 1665.1 ng eq/ml, significantly lower than the 21437.6 ng eq/ml observed in mice with damaged skin. Microautoradiograms of intact skin showed that the level of radioactivity in the cornified cell layer was similar at 6 h after application. However, in damaged skin, the overall level of radioactivity showed a decrease by 3 h after application. In the carcasses remaining after the treated intact and damaged skin had been removed, 0.09 and 11.38% of the applied radioactivity remained, respectively. These findings confirm that 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is little absorbed through the intact skin of hairless mice, and suggest that salicylism related to absorption through the skin of quantities of topically applied salicylic acid is not likely to occur in humans with intact skin during chemical peeling with this preparation. This new preparation of 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is believed to be safe for application as a chemical peeling agent.

  16. Increase of lipoprotein-lipase activity in skeletal muscle during heavy exercise. Relation to epinephrine excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithell, H; Cedermark, M; Fröberg, J; Tesch, P; Karlsson, J

    1981-11-01

    As part of the training programme for Swedish elite soldiers, a 10 day march is carried out with a heavy pack under active-service conditions. Six soldiers volunteered to take part in an investigation on the energy consumption with special regard to the lipid metabolism at different levels of physical effort. The degree of physical work was evaluated by continuous heart-rate recording and analysis of the excretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine in the urine. Fasting values of triglycerides and free fatty acids in blood plasma were determined and muscle biopsies (taken in the morning and in the afternoon) were analysed for lipoprotein-lipase (LPL) activity. After an overnight fast the free fatty acids were increased only in the mornings following days of heavy physical work. The plasma triglyceride concentrations were lowest in a morning proceeded by 3 days of heavy work. The muscle LPL activity in the morning was highest after a day of heavy work and lowest after days of rest. During days of heavy work this activity increased and was higher in the afternoon than in the morning. Muscle LPL activity in the afternoon was closely related to urinary excretion of epinephrine. The data indicate that LPL activity is elevated in the working skeletal muscle increasing the access of fatty acids. The degree of elevation is related to the degree of effort as described by the urinary excretion of morning. Muscle LPL activity in the afternoon was closely related to urinary excretion of epinephrine. The data indicate that LPL activity is elevated in the working skeletal muscle increasing the access of fatty acids. The degree of elevation is related to the degree of effort as described by the urinary excretion of morning. Muscle LPL activity in the afternoon was closely related to urinary excretion of epinephrine. The data indicate that LPL activity is elevated in the working skeletal muscle increasing the access of fatty acids. The degree of elevation is related to the degree

  17. Sodium Excretion and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katherine T.; Chen, Jing; Yang, Wei; Appel, Lawrence J.; Kusek, John W.; Alper, Arnold; Delafontaine, Patrice; Keane, Martin G.; Mohler, Emile; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Ricardo, Ana C.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Steigerwalt, Susan; Townsend, Raymond; He, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. Prior studies have produced contradictory results on the association of dietary sodium intake with risk of CVD, and this relationship has not been investigated in patients with CKD. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between urinary sodium excretion and clinical CVD events among patients with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study of patients with CKD from 7 locations in the United States enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study and followed up from May 2003 to March 2013. EXPOSURES The cumulative mean of urinary sodium excretion from three 24-hour urinary measurements and calibrated to sex-specific mean 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES A composite of CVD events defined as congestive heart failure, stroke, ormyocardial infarction. Events were reported every 6 months and confirmed by medical record adjudication. RESULTS Among 3757 participants (mean age, 58 years; 45% women), 804 composite CVD events (575 heart failure, 305 myocardial infarction, and 148 stroke) occurred during a median 6.8 years of follow-up. From lowest (infarction, and 6.4% vs 2.7% for stroke at median follow-up. Hazard ratios of the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.09–1.70; P = .007) for composite CVD events, 1.34 (95% CI, 1.03–1.74; P = .03) for heart failure, and 1.81 (95% CI, 1.08–3.02; P = .02) for stroke after multivariable adjustment. Restricted cubic spline analyses of the association between sodium excretion and composite CVD provided no evidence of a nonlinear association (P = .11) and indicated a significant linear association (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with CKD, higher urinary sodium excretion was associated with increased risk of CVD. PMID:27218629

  18. Influence of irbesartan on the urinary excretion of cytokines in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Jie; HUANG Hai-quan; L(O) Lin-li; ZHENG Min; LIU Bi-cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The non-hemodynamic effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in the delay of progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain unclear.In this study,we investigated the influence of irbesartan on the urinary excretion of cytokines in patients with CKD.Methods In this randomized perspective clinical trial,different doses of irbesartan (150 mg/d and 300 mg/d) were given to two groups of patients in a cross-over design.Blood pressure (BP),creatinine clearance (Ccr) and 24-hour proteinuria were examined.Urinary excretion of cytokines was determined by human inflammatory cytokine antibody array.A two-fold change in spot intensity was considered significant.Results Urinary excretion of cytokines (granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF),intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1),interferon γ (IFN-γ),intedeukin 1β (IL-1β),IL-2,IL-6,IL-8,IL-11,IL-15 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1δ (MIP-1δ)) in group B (irbesartan 300 mg/d) was significantly decreased in comparison to group A (irbesartan 150 mg/d) after 8-week treatment.In group A,8 weeks of treatment induced a two- to nine-fold reduction in urinary cytokine levels (GCSF,GM-CSF,IFN-γ,IL-1α,IL-11,IL-12p40,MCP-2,MIP-1α),while increasing the dosage to 300 mg/d further decreased the excretion of GCSF,GM-CSF,IL-12p40,MCP-2 and MIP-1α by week 18.There was no significant difference in BP or Ccr between the two groups.However,24-hour proteinuria was significantly reduced in both groups,and in group A the reduction was dose dependent.Conclusion Irbesartan offers additional renoprotection in a dose-dependent manner by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines excretion in the urine of CKD patients.

  19. Biliary excretion of pravastatin and taurocholate in rats with bile salt export pump (Bsep) impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yaofeng; Freeden, Chris; Zhang, Yueping; Abraham, Pamela; Shen, Hong; Wescott, Debra; Humphreys, W Griffith; Gan, Jinping; Lai, Yurong

    2016-07-01

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is expressed on the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes regulating liver bile salt excretion, and impairment of BSEP function may lead to cholestasis in humans. This study explored drug biliary excretion, as well as serum chemistry, individual bile acid concentrations and liver transporter expressions, in the SAGE Bsep knockout (KO) rat model. It was observed that the Bsep protein in KO rats was decreased to 15% of that in the wild type (WT), as quantified using LC-MS/MS. While the levels of Ntcp and Mrp2 were not significantly altered, Mrp3 expression increased and Oatp1a1 decreased in KO animals. Compared with the WT rats, the KO rats had similar serum chemistry and showed normal liver transaminases. Although the total plasma bile salts and bile flow were not significantly changed in Bsep KO rats, individual bile acids in plasma and liver demonstrated variable changes, indicating the impact of Bsep KO. Following an intravenous dose of deuterium labeled taurocholic acid (D4-TCA, 2 mg/kg), the D4-TCA plasma exposure was higher and bile excretion was delayed by approximately 0.5 h in the KO rats. No differences were observed for the pravastatin plasma concentration-time profile or the biliary excretion after intravenous administration (1 mg/kg). Collectively, the results revealed that these rats have significantly lower Bsep expression, therefore affecting the biliary excretion of endogenous bile acids and Bsep substrates. However, these rats are able to maintain a relatively normal liver function through the remaining Bsep protein and via the regulation of other transporters. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27059119

  20. Absorption heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.