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Sample records for absorption clearance clabs

  1. Study of the productivity evolution in the operation of CLAB[CLAB=Central Storage Facility for Spent Fuel]; Undersoekning av produktivitetsutveckling vid driften av CLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H. [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    SKB shall every year, on behalf of the power companies, send SKI a cost calculation for spent fuel handling and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. SKI has tried to investigate the future impact which the growth of money in the Nuclear Waste Fund might give in relation to the change of consumer price index, CPI. The long term yield of the Fund has been related to the change of CPI, as the bigger part of the fund money has been invested in real interest rate bonds. The cost development has been studied by SKI with an index named 'KBS-3-index', which is a basket of weighted factor price indexes made out of the SKB programme. Since 1986 and up to 1998, the KBS-3-index has increased about 14% more than CPI. If this discrepancy should continue during the whole period when Fund money should be available, the Fund would be insufficient. But the difference between KBS-3-index and CPI might be eliminated due to a future productivity development. At the moment, SKI has no knowledge about future productivity development in the SKB programme. A closer analysis of the facilities operated by SKB is therefore important. Nearest to study is the productivity at the operation of CLAB, Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The work in CLAB is receiving and storing of spent nuclear fuel and core components and reloading from normal to compact cassettes. The consumption of all production factors can be measured in money. Here the total production factors are defined as the sum of the annual operation costs and the sum of annuities for reinvestments during the year. The development for total productivity is slightly increasing. Normal for a new business is that the productivity rises sharply in the beginning. Here the productivity is slightly decreasing in the beginning, and then rising, sinking and at last a sharp rising. Project compact storing was finished in 1992, and relocation to compact cassettes started in 1993. This is said to be the

  2. Study of the productivity evolution in the operation of CLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, H.

    2000-07-01

    SKB shall every year, on behalf of the power companies, send SKI a cost calculation for spent fuel handling and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. SKI has tried to investigate the future impact which the growth of money in the Nuclear Waste Fund might give in relation to the change of consumer price index, CPI. The long term yield of the Fund has been related to the change of CPI, as the bigger part of the fund money has been invested in real interest rate bonds. The cost development has been studied by SKI with an index named 'KBS-3-index', which is a basket of weighted factor price indexes made out of the SKB programme. Since 1986 and up to 1998, the KBS-3-index has increased about 14% more than CPI. If this discrepancy should continue during the whole period when Fund money should be available, the Fund would be insufficient. But the difference between KBS-3-index and CPI might be eliminated due to a future productivity development. At the moment, SKI has no knowledge about future productivity development in the SKB programme. A closer analysis of the facilities operated by SKB is therefore important. Nearest to study is the productivity at the operation of CLAB, Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The work in CLAB is receiving and storing of spent nuclear fuel and core components and reloading from normal to compact cassettes. The consumption of all production factors can be measured in money. Here the total production factors are defined as the sum of the annual operation costs and the sum of annuities for reinvestments during the year. The development for total productivity is slightly increasing. Normal for a new business is that the productivity rises sharply in the beginning. Here the productivity is slightly decreasing in the beginning, and then rising, sinking and at last a sharp rising. Project compact storing was finished in 1992, and relocation to compact cassettes started in 1993. This is said to be the reason for

  3. Absorption and Clearance of Pharmaceutical Aerosols in the Human Nose: Effects of Nasal Spray Suspension Particle Size and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Alex; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to use a recently developed nasal dissolution, absorption, and clearance (DAC) model to evaluate the extent to which suspended drug particle size influences nasal epithelial drug absorption for a spray product. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mucociliary clearance and drug dissolution were used to calculate total and microscale epithelial absorption of drug delivered with a nasal spray pump. Ranges of suspended particle sizes, drug solubilities, and partition coefficients were evaluated. Considering mometasone furoate as an example, suspended drug particle sizes in the range of 1-5 μm did not affect the total nasal epithelial uptake. However, the microscale absorption of suspended drug particles with low solubilities was affected by particle size and this controlled the extent to which the drug penetrated into the distal nasal regions. The nasal-DAC model was demonstrated to be a useful tool in determining the nasal exposure of spray formulations with different drug particle sizes and solubilities. Furthermore, the model illustrated a new strategy for topical nasal drug delivery in which drug particle size is selected to increase the region of epithelial surface exposure using mucociliary clearance while minimizing the drug dose exiting the nasopharynx.

  4. Effect of bile on growth, peritoneal absorption, and blood clearance of Escherichia coli in E coli peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, R.; Schalen, C.; Tranberg, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of intraperitoneal bile on growth, peritoneal absorption, and clearance of Escherichia coli was determined in E coli peritonitis in the rat. In E coli peritonitis, intraperitoneal bacterial counts gradually decreased, whereas they increased (after 2 hours) with subsequent development of bacteremia in E coli plus bile peritonitis. After an intraperitoneal injection of labeled bacteria, blood radioactivity was only initially lower in E coli plus bile peritonitis compared with E coli peritonitis. Clearance from blood was lower in E coli plus bile peritonitis than in E coli peritonitis. Organ localization was similar in E coli peritonitis and E coli plus bile peritonitis with decreased splenic, increased pulmonary, and unchanged hepatic uptakes compared with controls. Impaired peritoneal absorption of bacteria, together with impaired local host defense, is likely to enhance the noxious effect of bile in E coli peritonitis

  5. Addition of 20-kDa PEG to Insulin Lispro Alters Absorption and Decreases Clearance in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knadler, Mary Pat; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Campanale, Kristina; De Veer, Michael J; Beals, John M; Li, Shun; Hansen, Ryan; Siesky, Angela; Michael, M Dodson; Porter, Christopher J H

    2016-12-01

    Determine the pharmacokinetics of insulin peglispro (BIL) in 5/6-nephrectomized rats and study the absorption in lymph duct cannulated (LDC) sheep. BIL is insulin lispro modified with 20-kDa linear PEG at lysine B28 increasing the hydrodynamic size to 4-fold larger than insulin lispro. Pharmacokinetics of BIL and insulin lispro after IV administration were compared in 5/6-nephrectomized and sham rats. BIL was administered IV or SC into the interdigital space of the hind leg, and peripheral lymph and/or serum samples were collected from both LDC and non-LDC sheep to determine pharmacokinetics and absorption route of BIL. The clearance of BIL was similar in 5/6-nephrectomized and sham rats, while the clearance of insulin lispro was 3.3-fold slower in 5/6-nephrectomized rats than in the sham rats. In non-LDC sheep, the terminal half-life after SC was about twice as long vs IV suggesting flip-flop pharmacokinetics. In LDC sheep, bioavailability decreased to <2%; most of the dose was absorbed via the lymphatic system, with 88% ± 19% of the dose collected in the lymph after SC administration. This work demonstrates that increasing the hydrodynamic size of insulin lispro through PEGylation can impact both absorption and clearance to prolong drug action.

  6. Follow-up for the years 2000-2002 of productivity studies for the operation of CLAB; Uppfoeljning foer aaren 2000-2002 av undersoekning av produktivitetsutvecklingen vid driften av CLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Haakan [AaF-Energi and Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    SKB hands every year over, on behalf of the power companies, to SKI a cost calculation for spent fuel handling and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. SKI has tried to investigate the future impact which the growth of money in the Nuclear Waste Fund might give in relation to the change of consumer price index, CPI. The long term yield of the Fund has been related to the change of CPI, as the bigger part of the fund money has been invested in real interest rate bonds, issued by the Swedish state. The cost development has been studied with an index named 'KBS-3-index', which is a basket of weighted factor price indexes based on the SKB programme. Since 1986 and up to 2002, the KBS-3-index has increased about 102%, but CPI only about 70%. If this discrepancy should continue during the whole period when Fund money should be available, the Fund would be insufficient. But the difference between KBS-3-index and CPI might be eliminated due to a future productivity development. At the moment, SKI has no knowledge about future productivity development in the SKB programme. A closer analysis of the productivity and efficiency development in the facilities operated by SKB is therefore applicable. Nearest to study is the productivity at the operation of CLAB, Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The work in CLAB is receiving and storing of spent nuclear fuel and core components. The consumption of all production factors can be measured in economical means. Here the total production factors are defined as the sum of the annual operation costs and the sum of annuities for reinvestments during the year. The development of total productivity is increasing slightly, but decreasing in the end. Normal for a new business is that the productivity is rising sharply in the beginning. Here the productivity is slightly decreasing in the beginning, and then rising, decreasing, rising and finally decreasing. The project 'compact storing

  7. Follow-up for the years 2000-2002 of productivity studies for the operation of CLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Haakan

    2003-04-01

    SKB hands every year over, on behalf of the power companies, to SKI a cost calculation for spent fuel handling and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. SKI has tried to investigate the future impact which the growth of money in the Nuclear Waste Fund might give in relation to the change of consumer price index, CPI. The long term yield of the Fund has been related to the change of CPI, as the bigger part of the fund money has been invested in real interest rate bonds, issued by the Swedish state. The cost development has been studied with an index named 'KBS-3-index', which is a basket of weighted factor price indexes based on the SKB programme. Since 1986 and up to 2002, the KBS-3-index has increased about 102%, but CPI only about 70%. If this discrepancy should continue during the whole period when Fund money should be available, the Fund would be insufficient. But the difference between KBS-3-index and CPI might be eliminated due to a future productivity development. At the moment, SKI has no knowledge about future productivity development in the SKB programme. A closer analysis of the productivity and efficiency development in the facilities operated by SKB is therefore applicable. Nearest to study is the productivity at the operation of CLAB, Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The work in CLAB is receiving and storing of spent nuclear fuel and core components. The consumption of all production factors can be measured in economical means. Here the total production factors are defined as the sum of the annual operation costs and the sum of annuities for reinvestments during the year. The development of total productivity is increasing slightly, but decreasing in the end. Normal for a new business is that the productivity is rising sharply in the beginning. Here the productivity is slightly decreasing in the beginning, and then rising, decreasing, rising and finally decreasing. The project 'compact storing' was finished in 1992

  8. Mucociliary clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Mortensen, Jann

    2014-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance has long been known to be a significant innate defence mechanism against inhaled microbes and irritants. Important knowledge has been gathered regarding the anatomy and physiology of this system, and in recent years, extensive studies of the pathophysiology related to lung...... pharmacological interventions on clearance rate, to study the importance of defective mucus clearance in different lung diseases or as a diagnostic tool in the work-up of patients with recurrent airway diseases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology...

  9. Creatinine clearance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum creatinine clearance; Kidney function - creatinine clearance; Renal function - creatinine clearance ... Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply ...

  10. Characterization and Clearance of m/s Sigyn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiselmark, Jonatan; Vreede, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    M/s Sigyn was a 2044 ton ship that transported contaminated material between 1982 and 2013. Most of the transports were with spent nuclear fuel between Swedish nuclear power plants and the Swedish fuel repository, Clab. In addition to spent fuel, m/s Sigyn also transported big contaminated components, from nuclear power plants in Europe, to Studsvik for analysis or decontamination and melting. She also transported components from Swedish nuclear power plants to final disposal of short lived waste, SFR. Even though all transported items have been cleaned, checked and wrapped with plastics, some activity ended up as contamination onboard. In December 2013 it was decided that m/s Sigyn was subject for decommissioning due to her age. This Paper describes the method in which the activity onboard m/s Sigyn was characterized and clearance levels were calculated. This method for radiological characterization and clearance has recently been developed in Sweden, the method is efficient in that it does not need a big pre characterization survey. Only the nuclide distribution and history of the object, is needed to start the final survey. In the future there will be further development of the method, making it possible to reduce the number of measurements even more. This will further optimize the method and reduce the cost for final surveys and clearance. (authors)

  11. Water Activities in Laxemar Simpevarp. Clab/encapsulation facility (Clink) - removal of groundwater, collection of cooling water from the sea and the construction of day water pond; Vattenverksamhet i Laxemar-Simpevarp. Clab/inkapslingsanlaeggning (Clink) - bortledande av grundvatten, uttag av kylvatten fraan havet samt anlaeggande av dagvattendamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    This report is an appendix to an Environmental Impact Assessment that accompanies a permit application according to the Swedish Environmental Code. The report concerns water operations (Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code) associated with construction of an encapsulation plant in direct connection to SKB's existing Clab facility on the Simpevarp peninsula in the Municipality of Oskarshamn (the report is also included in the permit application according to the Nuclear Activities Act). Moreover, the report deals with water operations associated with the operation of the integrated facility, which is named Clink. Specifically, the water operations that are treated in the report include diversion of groundwater, withdrawal of cooling water from the sea, and construction of a storm-water treatment pond. There are valid permits regarding diversion of groundwater and withdrawal of cooling water for the current facility and activities at Clab. It is presupposed that the cooling-water withdrawal from the sea to Clink can be handled within the limits of the valid Clab permit. The diversion of groundwater from Clink may be somewhat larger compared to the present diversion from Clab. The increase is due to a relatively small, additional rock shaft for the encapsulation plant, adjacent to the current surface facility and above one of the two existing rock caverns (Clab 1). Based on the location of the planned rock shaft (above one of the existing rock caverns) and its small volume, it is judged that the inflow of groundwater during operation of Clink will be only 5-10 percent larger compared to the inflow to the current Clab facility. It is possible that the inflow will be larger during the construction phase, prior to grouting of the shaft. Based on the limited increase of the groundwater inflow and results from the ongoing Clab monitoring programme, it is judged that the construction of the encapsulation plant and the operation of Clink will only lead to very small

  12. A Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG) to Assess the BRDF of Materials. Presentation, Calibration and Implementation on Fagus sylvatica L. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biliouris, Dimitrios; Verstraeten, Willem W; Dutré, Phillip; Van Aardt, Jan A N; Muys, Bart; Coppin, Pol

    2007-09-07

    The design and calibration of a new hyperspectral Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG) is presented. CLabSpeG effectively measures the bidirectionalreflectance Factor (BRF) of a sample, using a halogen light source and an AnalyticalSpectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer. The apparatus collects 4356 reflectance datareadings covering the spectrum from 350 nm to 2500 nm by independent positioning of thesensor, sample holder, and light source. It has an azimuth and zenith resolution of 30 and15 degrees, respectively. CLabSpeG is used to collect BRF data and extract BidirectionalReflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) data of non-isotropic vegetation elements suchas bark, soil, and leaves. Accurate calibration has ensured robust geometric accuracy of theapparatus, correction for the conicality of the light source, while sufficient radiometricstability and repeatability between measurements are obtained. The bidirectionalreflectance data collection is automated and remotely controlled and takes approximatelytwo and half hours for a BRF measurement cycle over a full hemisphere with 125 cmradius and 2.4 minutes for a single BRF acquisition. A specific protocol for vegetative leafcollection and measurement was established in order to investigate the possibility to extractBRDF values from Fagus sylvatica L. leaves under laboratory conditions. Drying leafeffects induce a reflectance change during the BRF measurements due to the laboratorySensors 2007, 7 1847 illumination source. Therefore, the full hemisphere could not be covered with one leaf. Instead 12 BRF measurements per leaf were acquired covering all azimuth positions for a single light source zenith position. Data are collected in radiance format and reflectance is calculated by dividing the leaf cycle measurement with a radiance cycle of a Spectralon reference panel, multiplied by a Spectralon reflectance correction factor and a factor to correct for the conical effect of the light source. BRF results

  13. A Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG to Assess the BRDF of Materials. Presentation, Calibration and Implementation on Fagus sylvatica L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Coppin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and calibration of a new hyperspectral Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG is presented. CLabSpeG effectively measures the bidirectionalreflectance Factor (BRF of a sample, using a halogen light source and an AnalyticalSpectral Devices (ASD spectroradiometer. The apparatus collects 4356 reflectance datareadings covering the spectrum from 350 nm to 2500 nm by independent positioning of thesensor, sample holder, and light source. It has an azimuth and zenith resolution of 30 and15 degrees, respectively. CLabSpeG is used to collect BRF data and extract BidirectionalReflectance Distribution Function (BRDF data of non-isotropic vegetation elements suchas bark, soil, and leaves. Accurate calibration has ensured robust geometric accuracy of theapparatus, correction for the conicality of the light source, while sufficient radiometricstability and repeatability between measurements are obtained. The bidirectionalreflectance data collection is automated and remotely controlled and takes approximatelytwo and half hours for a BRF measurement cycle over a full hemisphere with 125 cmradius and 2.4 minutes for a single BRF acquisition. A specific protocol for vegetative leafcollection and measurement was established in order to investigate the possibility to extractBRDF values from Fagus sylvatica L. leaves under laboratory conditions. Drying leafeffects induce a reflectance change during the BRF measurements due to the laboratorySensors 2007, 7 1847 illumination source. Therefore, the full hemisphere could not be covered with one leaf. Instead 12 BRF measurements per leaf were acquired covering all azimuth positions for a single light source zenith position. Data are collected in radiance format and reflectance is calculated by dividing the leaf cycle measurement with a radiance cycle of a Spectralon reference panel, multiplied by a Spectralon reflectance correction factor and a factor to correct for the conical effect of the light

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ... clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to ...

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  20. Lung mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, J.; Lange, P.; Nyboe, J.; Groth, S.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mucociliary clearance and mucociliary clearance reserve capacity as determined by β 2 -adrenergic agonist-induced increase in mucociliary clearance. We studied 62 healthy females (n=33) and males (n=29). Their ages ranged evenly between 18 and 84 years. Fifty-three of the subjects were life-long non-smokers, while nine were ex-smokers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that mucociliary clearance was significantly faster when the radioaerosol was deposited in the central airways than when it was deposited in the peripheral airways, and faster in life-long non-smokers than in ex-smokers. There was no influence of age, and no convincing association with sex. The variation was less within than between subjects. Mean mucociliary clearance reserve capacity was 21.3% (SD: 10.0%, P 2 agonist-induced increase in lung mucociliary clearance was significantly larger (P<0.05) than the stimulation which has previously been reported in patients with asthma, bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis. The signal-to-noise ratio of the mucociliary clearance reserve capacity in relation to measurement of baseline mucociliary clearance indicates that measurement of mucociliary clearance reserve capacity may be a more efficient means of distinguishing between ''normal'' and ''abnormal'' mucociliary clearance than single measurement of baseline mucociliary clearance. (orig.)

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  4. Security Clearance Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — SCTS supports the adjudication process of private background investigations and clearances for potential employees, contractors, interns and student workers.

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  7. Partial Defect Verification of Spent Fuel Assemblies by PDET: Principle and Field Testing in Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Y.S.; Kerr, P.; Sitaraman, S.; Swan, R. [Global Security Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Rossa, R. [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Liljenfeldt, H. [SKB in Oskarshamn (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    The need for the development of a credible method and instrument for partial defect verification of spent fuel has been emphasized over a few decades in the safeguards communities as the diverted spent fuel pins can be the source of nuclear terrorism or devices. The need is increasingly more important and even urgent as many countries have started to transfer spent fuel to so called 'difficult-to-access' areas such as dry storage casks, reprocessing or geological repositories. Partial defect verification is required by IAEA before spent fuel is placed into 'difficult-to-access' areas. Earlier, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has reported the successful development of a new, credible partial defect verification method for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies without use of operator data, and further reported the validation experiments using commercial spent fuel assemblies with some missing fuel pins. The method was found to be robust as the method is relatively invariant to the characteristic variations of spent fuel assemblies such as initial fuel enrichment, cooling time, and burn-up. Since then, the PDET system has been designed and prototyped for 17x17 PWR spent fuel assemblies, complete with data acquisition software and acquisition electronics. In this paper, a summary description of the PDET development followed by results of the first successful field testing using the integrated PDET system and actual spent fuel assemblies performed in a commercial spent fuel storage site, known as Central Interim Spent fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden will be presented. In addition to partial defect detection initial studies have determined that the tool can be used to verify the operator declared average burnup of the assembly as well as intra-assembly burnup levels. (authors)

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  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing ... Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation ( ...

  8. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  9. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es

  10. Study on clearance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yuko; Miura, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports NISA on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In reactor facilities, the bulk measurement technique or the statistical sampling measurement technique may be applied to large scale objects or concrete walls. In this study, the criteria of those techniques were examined. In uranium processing facilities, it is important to confirm surface state of the object in case of detecting alpha rays. The result of the examination about the influence of the surface rust in the uranium clearance measurement by the alpha ray measurement showed that the pollution was distributed in rust layer uniformly. This result will be reflected to the revision of the Ministerial Ordinance on Clearance in 2011FY. To develop a manual for unexpected incidents, the response procedure for an unexpected incident was prepared, including a response system. (author)

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NACFC Carolyn and C Richard Mattingly Leadership in Mental Health Care Award Mary M. Kontos Award NACFC Reflections ... help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway clearance. ... Instagram Email Find a Clinical Trial Help us blaze ...

  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how you can help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage ...

  13. Study on clearance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports Nuclear Regulatory Agency on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In uranium processing facilities, simulation sources emitting alpha-rays is used in a validity confirmation examination of the measuring equipment. In this study, these sources were examined by measuring alpha and beta spectra to evaluate the applicability and problem of these sources. In addition, the measuring method detecting gamma-rays was examined. This method can be applied to complicated objects. As a part to develop a manual for unexpected incidents in clearance system, a quick method for measurement of Strontium 90 was examined. In addition, the measuring methods for the judgment of the influence of fallout and for NR (Non-Radioactive) confirmation were examined. (author)

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cystic fibrosis. CF CARE CENTER finder We provide funding for and accredit more than 120 care centers ... Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The ... Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist ...

  16. Isotope determinations of renal clearance equivalent with physiological clearance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junges, R.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of renal clearance in nuclear medicine describes the tubular secretion and glomerular filtration of a substance being removed from the blood plasma. The concept of clearance as used physiologically is rather wider and includes consideration of the outflow of the substances remained back in the kidneys. The present paper discusses clearance measurements as seen from a thermodynamic point of view, in which isotope clearances become equivalent with the physiological concept of clearance. In addition, it is possible to quantify each single step of the excretory function of each kidney separately. (orig.) [de

  17. Clearance of labelled creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberstadt, P.; Liverant, J.

    1982-01-01

    Creatinine, extensively used in clinical work to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (G.F.R.) has caused controversy. Using simultaneously on dogs a gamma emitting agent measuring G.F.R., creatinine clearance proved to be higher. Aided by quantitative determinations and compartmental analysis fortunately the respective dilution spaces can be calculated. In the majority of these animals creatinine spaces are larger but in some equal to the ones of inulin

  18. Rational customs clearance technology choice

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  19. Evaluation of serum iohexol clearance for use in predicting carboplatin clearance in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Dennis B; Rassnick, Kenneth M; Prey, Joshua D; Dykes, Nathan L

    2009-09-01

    To determine whether a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) assay based on serum iohexol clearance can be used to predict carboplatin clearance in cats. 10 cats with tumors. GFR was measured concurrently by use of plasma clearance of technetium Tc 99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) to yield GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and serum clearance of iohexol to yield GFR(Iohexol). A single dose of carboplatin was administered IV as a bolus. Dose was calculated by use of a target value for the area under the plasma platinum concentration-versus-time curve (AUC(Target)) and estimation of platinum clearance (CL(PT)) derived from GFR(99mTc-DTPA) as follows: dose = AUC(Target) x 2.6 x GFR(99mTc-DTPA) x body weight, where AUC(Target) is 2.75 min.mg.mL(-1). Plasma platinum concentrations were measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Values for GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and GFR(Iohexol) were compared by use of least-squares regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Least-squares regression was used to determine whether CL(PT) could be predicted from GFR(99mTc-DTPA) or GFR(Iohexol) (or both). GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and GFR(Iohexol) were strongly correlated (r = 0.90), but GFR(Iohexol) values were significantly larger by a factor of approximately 1.4. Platinum clearance had a significant linear relationship to GFR(99mTc-DTPA) (CL(PT) = 2.5 x GFR(99mTc-DTPA)) and to GFR(Iohexol) (CL(PT) = [1.3 x GFR(Iohexol)] + 1.4). In cats, serum iohexol clearance was an accurate predictor of CL(PT) and can be used to calculate the carboplatin dose as follows: dose = AUC(Target) x ([1.3 x GFR(Iohexol)] + 1.4) x body weight.

  20. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  1. [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance and endogenous creatinine clearance in advanced renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, U.G.; Munck, O.; Czartoryski, A.; Stafanger, G.

    1978-01-01

    Comparison of [ 51 Cr]EDTA plasma clearance corrected for extrarenal elimination with 24 h endogenous creatinine clearance in patients with advanced renal failure showed that the corrected [ 51 Cr]EDTA clearance was lower than creatinine clearance, and thus might be a better approximation to the glomerular filtration rate in uraemic patients. The corrections cannot be used on [ 51 Cr]EDTA clearance values below the mean extrarenal clearance, averaging 3.7 ml/min. (Auth.)

  2. Refrigeration system with clearance seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    In a refrigeration system such as a split Stirling system, fluid seals associated with the reciprocating displacer are virtually dragless clearance seals. Movement of the displacer relative to the pressure variations in the working volume of gas is retarded by a discrete braking element. Because it is not necessary that the brake providing any sealing action, the brake can be designed for greater durability and less dependence on ambient and operating temperatures. Similarly, the clearance seal can be formed of elements having low thermal expansion such that the seal is not temperature dependent. In the primary embodiments the braking element is a split friction brake

  3. Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2016-01-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective 1) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, 2) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g. Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), 3) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or 4) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrome). In this review, the molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of these conditions are described, as well as current approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26595536

  4. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, A., E-mail: afavalli@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vo, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grogan, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jansson, P. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Liljenfeldt, H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mozin, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Schwalbach, P. [European Commission, DG Energy, Euratom Safeguards Luxemburg, Luxemburg (Luxembourg); Sjöland, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm (Sweden); Tobin, S.J.; Trellue, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vaccaro, S. [European Commission, DG Energy, Euratom Safeguards Luxemburg, Luxemburg (Luxembourg)

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)–Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute {sup 137}Cs count rate and the {sup 154}Eu/{sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs, {sup 106}Ru/{sup 137}Cs, and {sup 144}Ce/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity’s behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  5. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, A.; Vo, D.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S. J.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)-Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity's behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  6. Relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Nakai, K.; Itoh, C.; Horikiri, J.; Sera, K.; Sato, M.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon levels in dialysis patients are markedly increasing. Using PIXE we determined the relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance in 30 samples. Urine silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.001). And also serum silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.0001). (author)

  7. Comparison of the endogenous creatinine clearance, the creatinin clearance calculated without urine collection and the isotope clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohacsi, Gabor; Lang, Jenoe; Csernay, Laszlo; Sonkodi, Sandor; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged

    1987-01-01

    Observations are reported relating to the endogenous creatinine clearance, the Tc-99m-EDTA-complex clearance and the creatinine clearance estimated via a selected mathematical formula, with special regard to the problems of renal insufficiency and the nephrotic syndrome. The activity applied was in the range of 3.7-7.4 MBq. It was observed that measurement of the isotope clearance can also be applied to determine the endogeneous creatinine clearance in otherwise less suitable patients. A reliable result is obtained even if the renal function is restricted, but the accuracy of the method may be reduced in nephrotic syndrome cases. (author) 24 refs

  8. Effect of increased surface hydrophobicity via drug conjugation on the clearance of inhaled PEGylated polylysine dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shadabul; McLeod, Victoria M; Jones, Seth; Fung, Sandy; Whittaker, Michael; McIntosh, Michelle; Pouton, Colin; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher J H; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2017-10-01

    PEGylated polylysine dendrimers are attractive and well tolerated inhalable drug delivery platforms that have the potential to control the release, absorption kinetics and lung retention time of conjugated drugs. The clinical application of these systems though, would likely require partial substitution of surface PEG groups with drug molecules that are anticipated to alter their lung clearance kinetics and clearance pathways. In the current study, we therefore evaluated the impact of increased surface hydrophobicity via substitution of 50% surface PEG groups with a model hydrophobic drug (α-carboxyl OtButylated methotrexate) on the lung clearance of a Generation 5 PEGylated polylysine dendrimer in rats. PEG substitution with OtBu-methotrexate accelerated lung clearance of the dendrimer by increasing polylysine scaffold catabolism, improving systemic absorption of the intact dendrimer and low molecular weight products of scaffold catabolism, and enhancing mucociliary clearance. These results suggest that the conjugation of hydrophobic drug on the surface of a PEGylated dendrimer is likely to accelerate lung clearance when compared to a fully PEGylated dendrimer. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlmark, B.; Reizenstein, P.; Dudley, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The methods most commonly used to measure the absorption and retention of orally administered calcium are reviewed. Nearly all make use of calcium radioisotopes. The magnitude of calcium absorption and retention depends upon the chemical form and amount of calcium administered, and the clinical and nutritional status of the subject; these influences are briefly surveyed. (author)

  10. Absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption studies were once quite popular but hardly anyone does them these days. It is easier to estimate the blood level of the nutrient directly by radioimmunoassay (RIA). However, the information obtained by estimating the blood levels of the nutrients is not the same that can be obtained from the absorption studies. Absorption studies are primarily done to find out whether some of the essential nutrients are absorbed from the gut or not and if they are absorbed, to determine how much is being absorbed. In the advanced countries, these tests were mostly done to detect pernicious anaemia where vitamin B 12 is not absorbed because of the lack of the intrinsic factor in the stomach. In the tropical countries, ''malabsorption syndrome'' is quire common. In this condition, several nutrients like fat, folic acid and vitamin B 12 are not absorbed. It is possible to study absorption of these nutrients by radioisotopic absorption studies

  11. Folate absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Folate is the generic term given to numerous compounds of pteroic acid with glutamic acid. Knowledge of absorption is limited because of the complexities introduced by the variety of compounds and because of the inadequacy of investigational methods. Two assay methods are in use, namely microbiological and radioactive. Techniques used to study absorption include measurement of urinary excretion, serum concentration, faecal excretion, intestinal perfusion, and haematological response. It is probably necessary to test absorption of both pteroylmonoglutamic acid and one or more polyglutamates, and such tests would be facilitated by availability of synthesized compounds labelled with radioactive tracers at specifically selected sites. (author)

  12. Development of the clearance level verification evaluation system. 2. Construction of the clearance data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shintaro; Usui, Hideo; Kawagoshi, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Clearance is defined as the removal of radioactive materials or radioactive objects within authorized practices from any further regulatory control by the regulatory body. In Japan, clearance level and a procedure for its verification has been introduced under the Laws and Regulations, and solid clearance wastes inspected by the national authority can be handled and recycled as normal wastes. The most prevalent type of wastes have generated from the dismantling of nuclear facilities, so the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the Clearance Level Verification Evaluation System (CLEVES) as a convenient tool. The Clearance Data Management System (CDMS), which is a part of CLEVES, has been developed to support measurement, evaluation, making and recording documents with clearance level verification. In addition, validation of the evaluation result of the CDMS was carried out by inputting the data of actual clearance activities in the JAEA. Clearance level verification is easily applied by using the CDMS for the clearance activities. (author)

  13. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part. The Director, Washington Headquarters Services (WHS) will initiate the required investigation... clearance, as appropriate. The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Legislative Affairs) will be notified by WHS...

  14. Projecting ADME Behavior and Drug-Drug Interactions in Early Discovery and Development: Application of the Extended Clearance Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kattan, Ayman F; Varma, Manthena V; Steyn, Stefan J; Scott, Dennis O; Maurer, Tristan S; Bergman, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    To assess the utility of Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS) in understanding absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) attributes and enabling victim drug-drug interaction (DDI) predictions. A database of 368 drugs with relevant ADME parameters, main metabolizing enzymes, uptake transporters, efflux transporters, and highest change in exposure (%AUC) in presence of inhibitors was developed using published literature. Drugs were characterized according to ECCS using ionization, molecular weight and estimated permeability. Analyses suggested that ECCS class 1A drugs are well absorbed and systemic clearance is determined by metabolism mediated by CYP2C, esterases, and UGTs. For class 1B drugs, oral absorption is high and the predominant clearance mechanism is hepatic uptake mediated by OATP transporters. High permeability neutral/basic drugs (class 2) showed high oral absorption, with metabolism mediated generally by CYP3A, CYP2D6 and UGTs as the predominant clearance mechanism. Class 3A/4 drugs showed moderate absorption with dominant renal clearance involving OAT/OCT2 transporters. Class 3B drugs showed low to moderate absorption with hepatic uptake (OATPs) and/or renal clearance as primary clearance mechanisms. The highest DDI risk is typically seen with class 2/1B/3B compounds manifested by inhibition of either CYP metabolism or active hepatic uptake. Class 2 showed a wider range in AUC change likely due to a variety of enzymes involved. DDI risk for class 3A/4 is small and associated with inhibition of renal transporters. ECCS provides a framework to project ADME profiles and further enables prediction of victim DDI liabilities in drug discovery and development.

  15. A model of metabolism and clearance of organic compounds from the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerde, P.; Dahl, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    In cases where inhalants induce toxicity in the airway epithelium, the mechanism of absorption is an important determinant of target dose. Absorption of organic solutes in the lungs occurs mainly by two consecutive mechanisms; molecular diffusion drives the chemicals into the tissues, and blood perfusion of the tissues removes the chemicals into the systemic circulation. Solutes having lipophilicities ranging from equally soluble in lipids and water to moderately more lipid-soluble are limited by the perfusion during clearance from the lungs. The perfusion-limited solute enters the blood circulation from all regions of the lungs within minutes and is distributed to other organs via the systemic circulation. In contrast, clearance of highly lipophilic toxicants, such as benzo(a)pyrene, from the lungs is diffusion-limited. The limiting process refers to the slowest transport mechanism of either perfusion or diffusion. Because of the short distance from the surface of the alveolar region to the capillary network, diffusion-limited clearance of highly lipophilic solutes occurs within minutes. In the thicker epithelium of the conducting airways, however, clearance may take hours. The purpose of the current modeling effort was to encompass both mechanisms of clearance in a single model in order to explore the influence of toxicant lipophilicity and local metabolism on the dosimetry at the airway portal-of-entry

  16. Narrative absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. No...

  17. 2015 Annual Report on Security Clearance Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    only have delegated investigative authority over their civilian employee population and therefore, can only report the overall timeliness for that...completed or pending security clearance determinations for government employees and contractors during the preceding fiscal year that have taken longer...Clearance Determinations to Congress. The IAA directs this report to include the number of United States Government (USG) employees who held a

  18. Green technology; only Forest Clearance is needed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. How was Forest Clearance granted before the procedures for constitution of ESZ was completed? How was Forest Clearance granted before the procedures for constitution of ESZ was completed? How was land in Murmurwadi still under litigation made available? How was ...

  19. Clearance of materials from accelerator facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokni Sayed H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Technical Standard that supports the clearance of materials and equipment (personal property from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE accelerator facilities has been developed. The Standard focuses on personal property that has the potential to be radiologically impacted by accelerator operations. It addresses material clearance programs and protocols for off-site releases without restriction on use. Common metals with potential volumetric activation are of main interest with technical bases provided in Appendices of the Standard. The clearance protocols in the Standard include three elements: 1 clearance criteria, 2 process knowledge, and 3 measurement methods. This paper presents the technical aspects of the new Standard, discusses operational experience gained in clearance of materials and equipment from several accelerator facilities at SLAC and examples as to how this Standard can be applied to benefit the entirety of the DOE Accelerator Complex.

  20. Absorptive products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assarsson, P.G.; King, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Applications for hydrophile gels produced by the radiation induced cross-linking in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide and starch, as described in Norwegian patent 133501 (INIS RN 281494), such as sanitary napkins (diapers) and sanitary towels, are discussed. The process itself is also discussed and results, expressed as the percentage of insoluble gel and its absorptive capacity for saline solution as functions of the ratio of polyethylene oxide to starch and the radiation dose, are presented. (JIW)

  1. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  2. Low ground clearance vehicle detection and warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A Low Ground Clearance Vehicle Detection : System (LGCVDS) determines if a commercial : motor vehicle can successfully clear a highwayrail : grade crossing and notifies the driver when : his or her vehicle cannot safely traverse the : crossing. That ...

  3. Exclusion, exemption, clearance European Union approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation overviews the following issues: Euratom Basic Safety Standards; administrative requirements; radiation protection of the population. Scope of the Standards: natural radiation sources; exclusion. Exemption; Clearance; Import of radioactive scrap metal

  4. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  5. Noninvasive determination of individual renal clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanard, J.; Brunois, J.P.; Ruiz, J.C.; Assailly, J.

    1980-01-01

    A noninvasive method for measurement of individual renal clearance is presented, based on analysis of the early rise of the kidneys' time-activity curves after injection of an appropriate tracer ( 131 I-ortho-iodohippurate for tubular function or 111 In DTPA for glomerular clearance). The analysis is based on the assumption that an insignificant amount of tracer leaves the kidney during the first few moments following injection. Therefore, the kidney activity during this period is directly proportional to the integral of the blood (heart) activity. After blood background subtraction, the linear correlation between the early part of the renogram and the corresponding blood integral activity curve allows calculation of an angular coefficient. The ratio of these coefficients calculated for each kidney is proportional to the ratio of the individual clearances. The latter are calculated from the total clearance simultaneously measured using a simplified method without urine collection. In control subjects with normal renal function individual renal clearances were not significantly different. In uninephrectomized patients a precision of 5% in calculating individual clearance was estimated from data recorded at the level of the remaining kidney. In patients with functional asymmetry, results were compared with 197 HgCl 2 quantitative renal fixation. A linear correlation was found (r = 0.95). The method we propose seems valuable for clinical investigation and allows sequential measurements. (orig.)

  6. Direct measurement of first-pass ileal clearance of a bile acid in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatola, G.; Jazrawi, R.P.; Bridges, C.; Joseph, A.E.; Northfield, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method of directly measuring ileal bile acid absorption efficiency during a single enterohepatic cycle (first-pass ileal clearance). This has become feasible for the first time because of the availability of the synthetic gamma-labeled bile acid 75Selena-homocholic acid-taurine (75SeHCAT). Together with the corresponding natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine (labeled with 14C), SeHCAT was infused distal to an occluding balloon situated beyond the ampulla of Vater in six healthy subjects. Completion of a single enterohepatic cycle was assessed by obtaining a plateau for 75SeHCAT activity proximal to the occluding balloon, which prevented further cycles. Unabsorbed 75SeHCAT was collected after total gut washout, which was administered distal to the occluding balloon. 75SeHCAT activity in the rectal effluent measured by gamma counter was compared with that of absorbed 75SeHCAT level measured by gamma camera and was used to calculate first-pass ileal clearance. This was very efficient (mean value, 96%) and showed very little variation in the six subjects studied (range, 95%-97%). A parallel time-activity course in hepatic bile for 14C and 75Se during a single enterohepatic cycle, together with a ratio of unity for 14C/75Se in samples obtained at different time intervals, suggests that 75SeHCAT is handled by the ileum like the natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine. Extrapolation of 75SeHCAT first-pass ileal clearance to that of the natural bile acid therefore seems justifiable. In a subsidiary experiment, ileal absorption efficiency per day for 75SeHCAT was also measured by scanning the gallbladder area on 5 successive days after the measurement of first-pass ileal clearance. In contrast with absorption efficiency per cycle, absorption efficiency per day varied widely (49%-86%)

  7. Recent activities on clearance in IAEA and clearance automatic laser inspection system (CLALIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Takatoshi; Sasaki, Michiya

    2005-01-01

    Exemption levels for bulk amounts of materials have been described in RS-G-1.7 published as a safety guide in IAEA on August 2004. In Japan, the Nuclear Safety Commission adopted the RS-G-1.7 values as Japanese clearance levels after the careful review of dose assessment results. After completing revises of regulatory laws in relation to clearance level, solid wastes from decommissioning and operating nuclear power plants will be targets of clearance inspection. In CRIEPI, Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed, which can give high reliability and objectivity to the measurement data. The CLALIS is a new monitoring system coupling with 3D laser shape measurement, Monte-Carlo calculation and gamma measurement techniques, which can keep a high accuracy in the measurement data using an automatic correction technique for self-shielding effects of metal waste itself and is expected to apply as a practical use in actual clearance inspections. (author)

  8. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari [Laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, LUT School of Energy Systems, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Engeda, Abraham [Turbomachinery Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease.

  9. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari; Engeda, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease

  10. Clearance Laboratory - Capability and measurement sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Silva, J.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L.

    2005-09-01

    A new low-level Clearance Laboratory has been built at the Risoe-site. Building materials with a low content of naturally occurring radionuclides have been used. To minimize transport of radon gas from soil into the laboratory the foundation has been supplied with a membrane. The laboratory has been equipped with two high-efficiency germanium detectors. These detectors will be used for clearance measurements on the predicted amount of 15,000 - 18,000 tonnes of non-active or nearly non-active materials, which will originate from the decommissioning of all the nuclear facilities at the Risoe-site. They will be used also for clearance measurements on buildings and land. Objects and materials to be measured for clearance are placed on a rotation table that can carry up to one tonne and can rotate once a minute to simulate some averaging of inhomogeneously distributed activity. Sensitivity and background measurements reveal that measuring times of 20 - 50 minutes would normally be sufficient to detect radionuclide concentrations of only a small fraction of the nuclide-specific clearance levels with a sufficiently low uncertainty. Probability calculations of the measurement capacity of the Clearance Laboratory indicate that the mean value of the total measuring time for all materials that potentially can be cleared would be 13 years with a 95% probability of being less than 25 years. The mean value of the annual amount of materials that can be measured in the laboratory is 600 tonnes with a 95% probability of being less than 1,200 tonnes. If needed, there is room for additional measuring systems to increase the capacity of the laboratory. (au)

  11. Clearance Laboratory - Capability and measurement sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Silva, J.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L.

    2005-08-01

    A new low-level Clearance Laboratory has been built at the Risoe-site. Building materials with a low content of naturally occurring radionuclides have been used. To minimize transport of radon gas from soil into the laboratory the foundation has been supplied with a membrane. The laboratory has been equipped with two high-efficiency germanium detectors. These detectors will be used for clearance measurements on the predicted amount of 15,000 - 18,000 tonnes of non-active or nearly non-active materials, which will originate from the decommissioning of all the nuclear facilities at the Risoe-site. They will be used also for clearance measurements on buildings and land. Objects and materials to be measured for clearance are placed on a rotation table that can carry up to one tonne and can rotate once a minute to simulate some averaging of inhomogeneously distributed activity. Sensitivity and background measurements reveal that measuring times of 20 - 50 minutes would normally be sufficient to detect radionuclide concentrations of only a small fraction of the nuclide-specific clearance levels with a sufficiently low uncertainty. Probability calculations of the measurement capacity of the Clearance Laboratory indicate that the mean value of the total measuring time for all materials that potentially can be cleared would be 13 years with a 95% probability of being less than 25 years. The mean value of the annual amount of materials that can be measured in the laboratory is 600 tonnes with a 95% probability of being less than 1,200 tonnes. If needed, there is room for additional measuring systems to increase the capacity of the laboratory. (au)

  12. Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia Sade; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-03-01

    Tear clearance/turnover provides a global assessment of the function of the lacrimal functional unit and of tear exchange on the ocular surface. It is an indirect measure of dry eye induced inflammation on the ocular surface. It shows better correlation with the severity of ocular irritation symptoms and corneal epithelial disease in dry eye than the Schirmer 1 test. Delayed tear clearance may prove to be the best measure for identifying patients with tear film disorders who may respond to anti-inflammatory therapy.

  13. Frequency of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the rate of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stones in adult patients with renal insufficiency. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 117 adult patients who underwent ESWL. The indications for ESWL were determined by the ...

  14. Bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, C.F.; Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.

    1968-01-01

    Liver function in ageing rats was studied, using the bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance test. The test was done on ultramicro scale. This made it possible to repeat the test several times in the same animal and to start a longitudinal study. In 3-month-old rats the BSP retentions, measured 15, 30 and 45

  15. Nasal Absorption of Macromolecules from Powder Formulations and Effects of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose on Their Absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Tanaka

    Full Text Available The nasal absorption of macromolecules from powder formulations and the effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na as a pharmaceutical excipient on their absorption were studied. Model macromolecules were fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (average molecular weight of 4.4kDa, FD4 and insulin. The plasma concentration of FD4 after application of the powder containing 50% starch (control was higher than that after application of the solution, and the absorption from 50% starch powder was enhanced by the substitution of starch with CMC-Na. The fractional absorption of FD4 after administration of the CMC-Na powder formulation was 30% and 40% higher than that after administration from the solution and the starch powder, respectively. The nasal absorption of insulin from the powder and the effect of CMC-Na were similar with those of FD4. The effective absorption of FD4 and insulin after application of powder with CMC-Na could be due to the increase in the nasal residence of FD4 and insulin. No damage in the nasal mucosa or dysfunction of the mucociliary clearance was observed after application of the drug powder and CMC-Na. The present findings indicate that nasal delivery of powder formulations with the addition of CMC-Na as an excipient is a promising approach for improving the nasal absorption of macromolecules.

  16. Hepatic drug clearance following traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, R L; Hassett, J M

    1985-11-01

    Trauma is a complex disease state associated with physiologic changes that have the potential to alter hepatic drug clearance mechanisms. These responses include alterations in hepatic blood flow, reduction in hepatic microsomal activity, reduction in hepatic excretion processes, and changes in protein binding. Hepatic blood flow is influenced by sympathomimetic activity. Both animal and human studies demonstrate an initial reduction and subsequent increase in hepatic blood flow, which coincides with an observed increase and subsequent return to normal in serum catecholamine concentrations. Unfortunately, there are no human studies that address the importance these findings may have to the clearance processes of high intrinsic clearance compounds. Animal studies of trauma indicate that hepatic microsomal activity is depressed during the post-traumatic period. Reduction in the hepatic clearance of antipyrine, a model low intrinsic compound, has also been demonstrated in animal models of trauma. In addition to these effects, hepatic excretion of substances such as indocyanine green and bilirubin have been demonstrated to be impaired in both traumatized animals and humans. Finally, substantial increases in the serum concentration of the binding protein alpha 1-acid glycoprotein occur in trauma patients. This has been reported to be associated with subsequent decreases in the free fraction of lidocaine and quinidine. In addition to changing serum drug concentration/response relationships, the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein should also change. Preliminary observations in our laboratory in a dog model of surgically-induced trauma have shown a reduction in the total clearance of lidocaine and reduction in free lidocaine concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. DOD PERSONNEL CLEARANCES: Additional OMB Actions Are Needed to Improve the Security Clearance Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    Our independent analysis of timeliness data showed that industry personnel contracted to work for the federal government waited more than one year on average to receive top secret clearances, longer...

  18. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone...

  19. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.

    OpenAIRE

    Boag, F; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J; Havard, C W; Dandona, P

    1985-01-01

    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  20. 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid absorption test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabakken, L.

    1989-01-01

    The 51 Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) absorption test was evaluated in 83 healthy, male volunteers. Base-line 24 h excretion after peroral administration ranged from 0.88% to 7.96%, with a higher median absorption than reported by most authors (2.45%). However, the reproducibility and stability of the method and the reproducibility of the results were satisfactory. Urinary excretion after intraduodenal installation (n=18) was comparable to that seen after peroral test dose administration, indicating a limited significance of gastric 51 Cr-EDTA absorption under normal conditions. In 16 subjects a single intake of alcohol immediately before the test gave a modest and short-lasting increase in 51 Cr-EDTA absorption. No correlation was seen to body mass index, creatinine clearance, urinary volume, or small-bowel transit time, possibly reducing the number of confounding factors in the evaluation of absorption data. A small but significant negative correlation was, however, found to body surface area and age

  1. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business clearance review... GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a...

  2. 7 CFR 1927.55 - Title clearance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND LOAN CLOSING Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing § 1927.55 Title clearance services. (a) Responsibilities of closing agents. Services to be provided to the agency and the borrower by a closing agent in connection with the transaction vary depending on whether a title insurance...

  3. 48 CFR 2452.237-75 - Clearance of contractor personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Clearance of contractor... Clauses 2452.237-75 Clearance of contractor personnel. As prescribed in 2437.110(e), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts. Clearance of Contractor Personnel (OCT 1999) (a) General. This...

  4. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas (For...

  5. Short bowel patients treated for two years with glucagon-like Peptide 2: effects on intestinal morphology and absorption, renal function, bone and body composition, and muscle function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P B; Lund, P; Gottschalck, I B

    2009-01-01

    offered, to eleven SBS patients keeping parenteral support constant. 72-hour nutritional balance studies were performed at baseline, weeks 13, 26, 52 during two years intermitted by an 8-week washout period. In addition, mucosal morphometrics, renal function (by creatinine clearance), body composition...... and electrolyte absorption at lower oral intakes. This was accompanied by a 28% improvement in creatinine clearance....

  6. CO2 clearance by membrane lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Kaesler, Andreas; Fernando, Piyumindri; Thompson, Alex J; Toomasian, John M; Bartlett, Robert H

    2018-05-01

    Commercial membrane lungs are designed to transfer a specific amount of oxygen per unit of venous blood flow. Membrane lungs are much more efficient at removing CO 2 than adding oxygen, but the range of CO 2 transfer is rarely reported. Commercial membrane lungs were studied with the goal of evaluating CO 2 removal capacity. CO 2 removal was measured in 4 commercial membrane lungs under standardized conditions. CO 2 clearance can be greater than 4 times that of oxygen at a given blood flow when the gas to blood flow ratio is elevated to 4:1 or 8:1. The CO 2 clearance was less dependent on surface area and configuration than oxygen transfer. Any ECMO system can be used for selective CO 2 removal.

  7. Clearance Kinetics and Clearance Routes of Molecules From the Suprachoroidal Space After Microneedle Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Bryce; Wang, Ke; Ethier, C Ross; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    To determine clearance kinetics and routes of clearance of molecules from the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of live New Zealand White rabbits. Suprachoroidal space collapse rate and pressure changes after microneedle injection into SCS were determined. Fluorescent fundus images were acquired to determine clearance rates of molecules ranging in size from 332 Da to 2 MDa. Microneedle injections of fluorescein were performed, and samples were taken from various sites over time to determine amount of fluorescein exiting the eye. Clearance transport was modeled theoretically and compared with experimental data. After injection, pressures in SCS and vitreous humor spiked and returned to baseline within 20 minutes; there was no difference between these two pressures. Suprachoroidal space collapse occurred within 40 minutes. One hour after fluorescein injection, 46% of fluorescein was still present in the eye, 15% had transported across sclera, 6% had been cleared by choroidal vasculature, and 4% had exited via leakage pathways. Characteristic clearance time increased in proportion with molecular radius, but total clearance of 2 MDa FITC-dextran was significantly slower (21 days) than smaller molecules. These data generally agreed with predictions from a theoretical model of molecular transport. Guided by experimental data in the context of model predictions, molecular clearance from SCS occurred in three regimes: (1) on a time scale of approximately 10 minutes, fluid and molecules exited SCS by diffusion into sclera and choroid, and by pressure-driven reflux via transscleral leakage sites; (2) in approximately 1 hour, molecules cleared from choroid by blood flow; and (3) in 1 to 10 hours, molecules cleared from sclera by diffusion and convection.

  8. Population pharmacokinetics of telapristone (CDB-4124) and its active monodemethylated metabolite CDB-4453, with a mixture model for total clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Denise; Podolski, Joseph; Kirsch, Alan; Wiehle, Ronald; Fleckenstein, Lawrence

    2011-12-01

    Telapristone is a selective progesterone antagonist that is being developed for the long-term treatment of symptoms associated with endometriosis and uterine fibroids. The population pharmacokinetics of telapristone (CDB-4124) and CDB-4453 was investigated using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Data from two clinical studies (n = 32) were included in the analysis. A two-compartment (parent) one compartment (metabolite) mixture model (with two populations for apparent clearance) with first-order absorption and elimination adequately described the pharmacokinetics of telapristone and CDB-4453. Telapristone was rapidly absorbed with an absorption rate constant (Ka) of 1.26 h(-1). Moderate renal impairment resulted in a 74% decrease in Ka. The population estimates for oral clearance (CL/F) for the two populations were 11.6 and 3.34 L/h, respectively, with 25% of the subjects being allocated to the high-clearance group. Apparent volume of distribution for the central compartment (V2/F) was 37.4 L, apparent inter-compartmental clearance (Q/F) was 21.9 L/h, and apparent peripheral volume of distribution for the parent (V4/F) was 120 L. The ratio of the fraction of telapristone converted to CDB-4453 to the distribution volume of CDB-4453 (Fmet(est)) was 0.20/L. Apparent volume of distribution of the metabolite compartment (V3/F) was fixed to 1 L and apparent clearance of the metabolite (CLM/F) was 2.43 L/h. A two-compartment parent-metabolite model adequately described the pharmacokinetics of telapristone and CDB-4453. The clearance of telapristone was separated into two populations and could be the result of metabolism via polymorphic CYP3A5.

  9. Pipeline dynamics subject to restraints with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1980-12-01

    The principle of virtual works at its incremental form, is utilized for the formulation of flat pipeline vibration problems, of elastic-plastic behavior, submitted to restraints with clearance (also with elastic-plastic behavior) and with viscous damping. The possibility of uniform movement of the support, that simulates the seismic action is also considered. The finite element method and an integration time algorithm, are utilized for the problem resolution. Some examples ilustrate the application of the development program. (Author) [pt

  10. Tip Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators 4 posed by Denton (1993). A number of investigators have used partial shrouds, or " winglet " designs to...SDBD actuator Plasma enhanced aerodynamics has been demonstrated in a range of applications involving sepa- ration control, lift enhancement, drag... aerodynamic benefits of a squealer tip geometry. Specifically, the squealer tip is known to reduce the discharge coefficient of the tip gap, thereby

  11. Clearance level and industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Toichi

    1999-01-01

    Defining the clearance level enables the radioactive waste with lower radioactivity than a certain level to be the general industrial waste and therefore consideration for public acceptance is essential. For this, it is necessary to understand laws concerning not only atomic power and radioactivity but also disposal and cleaning of general waste. It is also necessary that the waste below the clearance level should be as much as possible handled in the modern common concept of recycling of resources. In 1996, the weight of industrial waste was about 400 million tons, of which 40% was disposed by burning and dehydration, 39% was re-used and 21% was subjected to the final disposal like reclamation. Reduction, re-use and recycling of the generated waste are required for making the society with recycling of resources. Scrap concrete materials below the clearance level of 0.6 million tons are estimated to be generated by dismantling the light water reactor of 1 million kW output and profitable technology for recycling the scrap is under investigation. (K.H.)

  12. Establishing exemption and clearance criteria by the regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, A.E.A.

    2012-04-01

    This Project work discusses the relationship between the concepts of exemption and clearance, and their practical use in the overall scheme of regulatory control of practices. It also discusses how exemptions and clearance is established and the scope of its applications for regulatory control. The concept of general clearance levels for any type of material and any possible pathway of disposal is also introduced in this work. Guidance of the Group of Experts establishing scenarios for general clearance, parameter values, and a nuclide-specific list of calculated clearance levels is also presented. Regulatory authorities are required to develop guidance on exemption and clearance levels to assist licensees and registrants to know which practices and sources within practices are exempted from regulatory control and those to be cleared from further controls. Exemption and clearance levels are tools for assisting the Regulatory Authority to optimize the use of resources. (author)

  13. D-xylose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003606.htm D-xylose absorption To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine ...

  14. Clearance and release from control - An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper tries to give an overview of the clearance, or release from regulatory control, on an international scale, including some of those countries where clearance has become or is about to become vital for D and D. The emphasis lies on the impact of clearance, and in particular of differences between clearance levels of various countries, on D and D. Relevance of clearance for D and D of nuclear installations Clearance is an essential part of waste management (or more general, material management) in nuclear installations, and in particular during the decommissioning phase where waste streams continues to arise. Of course, the relevance of clearance in a particular country depends on a number of factors, like: availability of a final repository and its price; prevailing decommissioning strategy; number of nuclear installations reaching decommissioning phase. This small selection of reasons why clearance may be of varying importance for different countries may already suffice to illustrate why up to now clearance has been developed and implemented in quite different ways. If one thinks of additional reasons that may influence clearance, like politics, the public opinion, availability of funds etc., the situation becomes even more complex. It is, however safe to draw the conclusion that countries with a certain number of nuclear installations which have been or will soon be shut down or which are already in the decommissioning phase will need to implement provisions for clearance. This has indeed been the case with countries like the UK, Germany, the USA, Sweden, and a number of others. It is not essential for clearance levels to be exactly equal between various countries. They may differ as long as the difference is not too large, e.g. the values fall into the same order of magnitude. This is the reason why for example Germany has no problems with clearance levels which differ from the EU recommendation RP 122 partially adopted in a number of EU countries

  15. Absorption and excretion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  16. Investigations of renal clearance in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1981-01-01

    Comparative investigations of PAH- and inulin-clearance and results of investigations with J-131-hippurate and Cr-51-EDTA, which were performed by a partly screened whole body counter including measurements of activity retention of blood samples, are showing good correlation. If the radio-isotope nephrography is worked out together with the decreased retention curve, separate results of the function of both kidneys can be given. Modifications which were tried to analyze a small part of the retention curve instead of the whole body are inaccurate, if they are below 300 ml/min. (orig.) [de

  17. Glial K(+) Clearance and Cell Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of neuronal signalling is the increased concentration of K(+) in the extracellular space. The K(+) concentration is restored to its original basal level primarily by uptake into nearby glial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which K(+) is transferred from the extracellular...... space into the glial cell are debated. Although spatial buffer currents may occur, their quantitative contribution to K(+) clearance is uncertain. The concept of spatial buffering of K(+) precludes intracellular K(+) accumulation and is therefore (i) difficult to reconcile with the K(+) accumulation...

  18. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Feng, J. J.; Wu, G. K.; Luo, X. Q.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  19. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H; Feng, J J; Wu, G K; Luo, X Q

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  20. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  1. Surfactant secretion and clearance in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.A.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pregnant rabbits (30 days) were injected intravenously with [3H]choline 8 h before delivery. The fetuses were delivered, and lung lavage and lamellar body phospholipids (PL) were analyzed. Some newborns also received radioactively labeled surfactant intratracheally on delivery and were permitted to breathe. With time, intratracheal label decreased in lavage and appeared in the lamellar body fraction, and intravenous label accumulated in both pools. Using a tracer analysis for non-steady state, we calculated surfactant secretion and clearance rates for the newborn period. Before birth, both rates rose slightly from 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 at 6 h before birth to 7.3 at birth. Immediately after birth, secretion rate rose to 37.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1. Between 1.5 and 2 h after birth it fell to a minimum of 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 and then rose slowly to 6.0 at 12 h. After birth, clearance rate increased less than secretion rate (maximum 24.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 shortly after birth) then followed the same pattern but did not balance secretion rate in the 1st day

  2. Improved drainage with active chest tube clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiose, Akira; Takaseya, Tohru; Fumoto, Hideyuki; Arakawa, Yoko; Horai, Tetsuya; Boyle, Edward M; Gillinov, A Marc; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2010-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel chest drainage system. This system employs guide wire-based active chest tube clearance to improve drainage and maintain patency. A 32 Fr chest tube was inserted into pleural cavities of five pigs. On the left, a tube was connected to the chest canister, and on the right, the new system was inserted between the chest tube and chest canister. Acute bleeding was mimicked by periodic infusion of blood. The amount of blood drained from each chest cavity was recorded every 15 min for 2 h. After completion of the procedure, all residual blood and clots in each chest cavity were assessed. The new system remained widely patent, and the amount of drainage achieved with this system (670+/-105 ml) was significantly (P=0.01) higher than that with the standard tube (239+/-131 ml). The amount of retained pleural blood and clots with this system (150+/-107 ml) was significantly (P=0.04) lower than that with the standard tube (571+/-248 ml). In conclusion, a novel chest drainage system with active tube clearance significantly improved drainage without tube manipulations. 2010 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  4. Clearance of lead-212 ions from rabbit bronchial epithelium to blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Greenhalgh, J.R.; Smith, H.

    1977-01-01

    The absorption of 212 Pb ions from bronchial epithelium to blood has been investigated in anaesthetized rabbits. The 212 Pb ions were introduced by intubation either into the trachea or into smaller, more distal bronchi. Removal from lung was followed by external γ-counting. Mucociliary clearance to the GI tract was blocked by tracheostomy. Two distinct phases of clearance from bronchial epithelium to blood were observed. Approximately 20% of deposited 212 Pb was rapidly absorbed with a half-time of about 4 min, the remainder with a biological half-time of about 9 h, irrespective of the site of instillation in the bronchial tree. Two hours after deposition, the 212 Pb remaining in lung was found to be partitioned between mucus and the bronchial epithelium, with a substantial but minor fraction in the epithelium. Uptake of 212 Pb in the skeleton was estimated to be about 20% of the 212 Pb entering the blood circulation. Removal by the kidneys, at 25%, was comparable with skeletal uptake. These results are compared with previously published work using rodents, dogs and man which demonstrated either rapid or slow absorption but not both phases occurring together. (author)

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid Clearance in Alzheimer Disease Measured with Dynamic PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Mony J; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Tsui, Wai H; Saint-Louis, Les A; Glodzik, Lidia; Osorio, Ricardo S; Fortea, Juan; Butler, Tracy; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Fossati, Silvia; Kim, Hee-Jin; Carare, Roxana O; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Rusinek, Henry

    2017-09-01

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribriform plate, human CSF clearance pathways are not well characterized. Dynamic PET with 18 F-THK5117, a tracer for tau pathology, was used to estimate the ventricular CSF time-activity as a biomarker for CSF clearance. We tested 3 hypotheses: extracranial CSF is detected at the superior turbinates; CSF clearance is reduced in AD; and CSF clearance is inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Methods: Fifteen subjects, 8 with AD and 7 normal control volunteers, were examined with 18 F-THK5117. Ten subjects additionally underwent 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B ( 11 C-PiB) PET scanning, and 8 were 11 C-PiB-positive. Ventricular time-activity curves of 18 F-THK5117 were used to identify highly correlated time-activity curves from extracranial voxels. Results: For all subjects, the greatest density of CSF-positive extracranial voxels was in the nasal turbinates. Tracer concentration analyses validated the superior nasal turbinate CSF signal intensity. AD patients showed ventricular tracer clearance reduced by 23% and 66% fewer superior turbinate CSF egress sites. Ventricular CSF clearance was inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Conclusion: The human nasal turbinate is part of the CSF clearance system. Lateral ventricle and superior nasal turbinate CSF clearance abnormalities are found in AD. Ventricular CSF clearance reductions are associated with increased brain amyloid depositions. These data suggest that PET-measured CSF clearance is a biomarker of potential interest in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  6. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  7. Validation of Dose Calculation Codes for Clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, S.; Wirendal, B.; Bjerler, J.; Studsvik; Teunckens, L.

    2003-01-01

    Various international and national bodies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the European Commission, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have put forward proposals or guidance documents to regulate the ''clearance'' from regulatory control of very low level radioactive material, in order to allow its recycling as a material management practice. All these proposals are based on predicted scenarios for subsequent utilization of the released materials. The calculation models used in these scenarios tend to utilize conservative data regarding exposure times and dose uptake as well as other assumptions as a safeguard against uncertainties. None of these models has ever been validated by comparison with the actual real life practice of recycling. An international project was organized in order to validate some of the assumptions made in these calculation models, and, thereby, better assess the radiological consequences of recycling on a practical large scale

  8. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Séverine H., E-mail: s.collet@envt.fr; Picard-Hagen, Nicole, E-mail: n.hagen-picard@envt.fr; Lacroix, Marlène Z., E-mail: m.lacroix@envt.fr; Puel, Sylvie, E-mail: s.puel@envt.fr; Viguié, Catherine, E-mail: c.viguie@envt.fr; Bousquet-Melou, Alain, E-mail: a.bousquet-Melou@envt.fr; Toutain, Pierre-Louis, E-mail: pltoutain@wanadoo.fr; Gayrard, Véronique, E-mail: v.gayrard@envt.fr

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  9. Clearance of building structures for conventional non-nuclear reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, K.; Boehringer, S.

    1998-01-01

    At the example of a fuel assembly plant the strategy of control measurements on building surfaces, which shall be conventionally reused after their clearance, is regarded. Based on the given clearance levels the used measuring methods, especially with regard of possibly covered or intruded uranium contamination, are shown. The possibility of using the in-situ-γ-spectroscopy is discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. Discrepancy between circadian rhythms of inulin and creatinine clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, B. A.; Koomen, G. C.; Koopman, M. G.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate the disparity between circadian rhythmicity of inulin and creatinine clearance, we simultaneously measured inulin and creatinine clearances every 3 hours during 1 day in 14 normal subjects and in 8 patients with nephrotic syndrome. All patients and normal subjects had a circadian rhythm

  11. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  12. 78 FR 77027 - Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... No. USCG-2013-0466] Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... clearance (air-draft) accidents. In its petition, which calls for vessel masters to be provided with... accidents that it says were avoidable and that resulted in damage to or destruction of waterway...

  13. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to taking...

  14. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance office...

  15. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking the...

  16. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, Séverine H.; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Lacroix, Marlène Z.; Puel, Sylvie; Viguié, Catherine; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Gayrard, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min

  17. Clearance systems in the brain—implications for Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M.; Carare, Roxana O.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V.; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates—amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles—is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood–brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ. PMID:26195256

  18. Clearance systems in the brain-implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M; Carare, Roxana O; Osorio, Ricardo S; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates-amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles-is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood-brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ.

  19. Intercalibration of mussel Mytilus edulis clearance rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjerulf Petersen, J.; Bougrier, S.; Smaal, A.C.; Garen, P.; Robert, S.; Larsen, J.E.N.; Brummelhuis, E.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Clearance rate (CR) was measured in blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Aiguillon Bay and the Oosterschelde using 3 different methods: the flow-through method, the bio-deposition method and the indirect or clearance method. CR differed significantly as a function of the method used and of the origin

  20. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation or...

  1. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    have been identified [1,3]. These include stone characteristics, the type of lithotripter used, LPC anatomy and body habitus. For iso- lated LPC stones, the pelvicalyceal angle, infundibulum length and width are considered important determinants for stone clearance. The impact of body habitus on stone clearance has so far ...

  2. Estimation of 131I hippuran clearance during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, R.; Stoll, W.; Zenner, I.; Arndt, J.; Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena

    1979-01-01

    Changes in 131 I hippuran clearance were estimated by a non-catheter method, as well as total clearance and clearance of each kidney, in 43 women at various stages of pregnancy and in 13 non-pregnant women who were not using hormonal contraceptives. The results are demonstrated in graph form. The methods used are described in detail. The procedure for determining clearance in separate kidneys is indicated. It was found that clearance values increased up to the 35th and 26th weeks of pregnancy. The difference between the sides that were found corresponds with the previously known difference in the function of the right and left kidneys and ureters. (orig.) [de

  3. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...

  4. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  5. Analysis of conservativity analysis for clearance levels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckert, A.; Thierfeldt, S.

    1997-07-01

    When deriving clearance levels for material from nuclear installations it is necessary to proceed with a certain degree of conservativity. This can, however, differ between various sets of clearance levels leading to inconsistencies between clearance pathways. The aim of the work therefore is to compare levels of conservativity for the following two sets of clearance levels: clearance levels for disposal as conventional waste and for metallic materials for recycling/reuse. A method was developed to quantify the degree of conservativity and make it comparable. The actual and future situation for disposal of (conventional) wastes in Germany was analysed. In addition, the masses, nuclide vectors, geographical distribution etc. for slightly radioactive material being cleared for conventional disposal was analysed and modelled and the resulting dose distributions were calculated. The values for the clearance levels were taken from the 1995 recommendation by the German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK). By using realistic scenarios, the exposure was calculated for the personnel on the landfills and for persons of the general public being exposed via groundwater pathways. It could be shown that the trivial dose range will not be exceeded even if the masses of cleared material per landfill site exceed 100 Mg/a. Because of the types and distribution of nuclear installations in Germany and because of the nuclide vectors it is therefore not necessary to limit the masses per landfill sites. Clearance levels that are determined by the exposure pathways external exposure to and the inhalation of dust by the landfill personnel show a similar level of conservativity as those for metal scrap. This means that the clearance levels for gamma emitting nuclides are not overly restrictive. Although radiologically justified, raising the clearance levels would not lead to an increase of the material quantities because other nuclides of the respective nuclide vectors are limiting. In

  6. A model of clearance rate regulation in mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Clearance rate regulation has been modelled as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance rate. Internal-state regulation of clearance rate is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a model of internal-state based regulation of clearance rate. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the model. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I modelled blue mussel clearance rate and growth using a DEB model. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance rate are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance rate and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance rate and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance rate is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance rate patterns.

  7. Solar absorption surface panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  8. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true

  9. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  10. Creatinine clearance during cimetidine administration for measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, B. A.; Koomen, G. C.; Koopman, M. G.; de Waart, D. R.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    Creatinine clearance inaccurately estimates true glomerular filtration rate (GFR) because of tubular secretion of creatinine. We studied the ability of oral cimetidine, a blocker of tubular creatinine secretion, to improve the accuracy of measuring creatinine clearance. Clearances of inulin and

  11. 76 FR 59379 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...-XXXX. Type of Review: Generic Clearance Request. Title: Generic Clearance for Research in Development... information collected through qualitative evaluation methods will inform the disclosure form's design and... Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development of...

  12. Nuclear regulation. NRC's security clearance program can be strengthened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Kruslicky, Mary Ann; Bagnulo, John E.

    1988-12-01

    Because of the national security implications of its programs, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) investigates the background of its employees and consultants as well as others to ensure that they are reliable and trustworthy. If the investigation indicates that an employee will not endanger national security, NRC grants a security clearance that allows access to classified information, material, and facilities. NRC also requires periodic checks for some clearance holders to ensure their continued clearance eligibility. The Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources, House Committee on Government Operations, asked GAO to review NRC's personnel security clearance program and assess the procedures that NRC uses to ensure that those who operate nuclear power plants do not pose a threat to the public. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 requires NRC to conduct background investigations of its employees and consultants as well as others who have access to classified information, material, or facilities. To do this, NRC established a personnel security clearance program. Under NRC policies, a security clearance is granted after the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) or the Federal Bureau of Investigation checks the background of those applying for an NRC clearance. NRC also periodically reassesses the integrity of those holding the highest level clearance. NRC employees, consultants, contractors, and licensees as well as other federal employees hold approximately 10,600 NRC clearances. NRC does not grant clearances to commercial nuclear utility employees unless they require access to classified information or special nuclear material. However, the utilities have voluntarily established screening programs to ensure that their employees do not pose a threat to nuclear plants. NRC faces a dilemma when it hires new employees. Although its policy calls for new hires to be cleared before they start work, the security clearance process takes so long

  13. Secretin enhances [14C]erythritol clearance in unanesthetized dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.H.; Baker, A.L.; Dhorajiwala, J.; Moossa, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the effect of secretin infusion on clearance of inert markers into bile, unanesthetized dogs fitted with Thomas cannulas received continuous infusions of [ 14 C]erythritol and [ 3 H]inulin throughout study. Taurocholic acid administered sequentially at 9.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mumol/min enhanced [ 14 C]erythritol clearance, and GIH secretin (3 units/min) administered along with TCA (40.0 mumol/min) increased [ 14 C]erythritol clearance from 4.9 +/- 1.2 ml/10 min to 6.8 +/- 1.3 ml/10 min (P less than 0.001), but simultaneously measured [ 3 H]inulin clearance was unaltered. Secretin alone also increased [ 14 C]erythritol clearance but did not alter [ 3 H]inulin clearance. The increase in [ 14 C]erythritol clearance per unit increase in bile flow was less during secretin infusion than TCA. Thus, secretin increases [ 14 C]erythritol transport through restricted channels, probably distal to the canaliculi. [ 14 C]Erythritol may not be an accurate marker for canalicular bile flow in dogs during secretin infusion

  14. Dynamic modelling and experimental study of cantilever beam with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B; Jin, W; Han, L; He, Z

    2012-01-01

    Clearances occur in almost all mechanical systems, typically such as the clearance between slide plate of gun barrel and guide. Therefore, to study the clearances of mechanisms can be very important to increase the working performance and lifetime of mechanisms. In this paper, rigid dynamic modelling of cantilever with clearance was done according to the subject investigated. In the rigid dynamic modelling, clearance is equivalent to the spring-dashpot model, the impact of beam and boundary face was also taken into consideration. In ADAMS software, the dynamic simulation was carried out according to the model above. The software simulated the movement of cantilever with clearance under external excitation. Research found: When the clearance is larger, the force of impact will become larger. In order to study how the stiffness of the cantilever's supporting part influences natural frequency of the system, A Euler beam which is restricted by a draught spring and a torsion spring at its end was raised. Through numerical calculation, the relationship between natural frequency and stiffness was found. When the value of the stiffness is close to the limit value, the corresponding boundary condition is illustrated. An ADAMS experiment was carried out to check the theory and the simulation.

  15. Dynamic modelling and experimental study of cantilever beam with clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Jin, W.; Han, L.; He, Z.

    2012-05-01

    Clearances occur in almost all mechanical systems, typically such as the clearance between slide plate of gun barrel and guide. Therefore, to study the clearances of mechanisms can be very important to increase the working performance and lifetime of mechanisms. In this paper, rigid dynamic modelling of cantilever with clearance was done according to the subject investigated. In the rigid dynamic modelling, clearance is equivalent to the spring-dashpot model, the impact of beam and boundary face was also taken into consideration. In ADAMS software, the dynamic simulation was carried out according to the model above. The software simulated the movement of cantilever with clearance under external excitation. Research found: When the clearance is larger, the force of impact will become larger. In order to study how the stiffness of the cantilever's supporting part influences natural frequency of the system, A Euler beam which is restricted by a draught spring and a torsion spring at its end was raised. Through numerical calculation, the relationship between natural frequency and stiffness was found. When the value of the stiffness is close to the limit value, the corresponding boundary condition is illustrated. An ADAMS experiment was carried out to check the theory and the simulation.

  16. Comparative evaluation of iohexol and inulin clearance for glomerular filtration rate determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, H.G.; Berg, U.B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have evaluated iohexol as a filtration marker in 150 children. The clearance of iohexol was compared with that of inulin or with a formula clearance. The single-sample clearance of iohexol showed a good correlation with the clearance of inulin. The clearance of iohexol correlated well with the formula clearance. The optimal blood sampling time for iohexol clearance determinations appears to be between 120 and 180 min after injection, at least in patient with relatively normal filtration rates. It is concluded that iohexol clearance is an accurate method of determining the glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. 25 refs., 5 figs

  17. Quasar Absorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  18. Wind Power and Fault Clearance. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikesjoe, Johnny; Messing, Lars (Gothia Power (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    The increased penetration of wind power will increase the impact of wind power on the grid and thereby increase the importance of a clear guidance concerning the requirements on the protection system of the wind power units and the grid protection in connection to wind power units. The protection system should be able to satisfy the grid connection requirements, set by the TSO (Transmission System Operator) and the grid owners, as well as the general safety and security requirements, such as; personal safety, operational security and economic insurance, i.e. an insurance against economic losses. Vindforsk has appointed Gothia Power AB to perform a study concerning the fault clearance function in connection to wind power installations. The study is divided into two parts; Part 1: The first stage of the project handled the present praxis for the protection, including investigation of legal requirements, operational requirement and personal safety requirement applicable to wind power applications. Proposals for protection requirement for wind power units and the connecting grid are given. Basically 'normal' fault clearance requirements regarding speed, selectivity and redundancy can be used also in applications in connection to wind power. Part 2: The second part of the project results in a guideline for design of protection systems in connection to wind power. In this report mainly part 2 is covered. The main focus is given to clearance of faults in the grid connecting the wind power plants. Regarding internal faults and critical operation states within the wind power plant, a short discussion of feasible protection functions is given. Some critical fault cases in the grid have been identified and discussed: - Undetected islanding and failure of reclosing. There can be a risk of undetected island operation. In such cases it is recommended to use controlled autoreclosing in the vicinity of wind power generation. - Unwanted disconnection of a healthy feeder

  19. UGT polymorphisms and lamotrigine clearance during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenaite, Vaiva; Öhman, Inger; Ekström, Lena

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of maternal UGT1A4 and UGT2B7 genetic polymorphisms and sex of foetus on gestation-induced changes in lamotrigine (LTG) clearance during pregnancy and post-partum (PP). METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms UGT1A4 142T > G, L48V (*3), UGT1A4 70C > A, P24T (*2......), and post-partum (PP) as well as the sex of the foetus. RESULTS: Reductions in the LTG concentration-to-dose ratio (C/D ratio) during pregnancy were seen in all genotype panels and varied between -53% and -74% in T3. Genetic polymorphism of UGT1A4 T142G (*3) and UGT2B7 C802T (*2) had the most pronounced.......015) as well as in T3 compared to the heterozygous carriers (802CT) (p = 0.04). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that women who carried a female foetus had a significantly higher reductions in the LTG C/D ratio from T0 to the end of pregnancy than those with a male foetus (p = 0...

  20. Clearance from the anterior chamber of RBCs from human diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.A.; Hatchell, D.L.; Collier, B.D.; Knobel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Erythrocytes from diabetic patients manifest decreased deformability and increased adherence. These abnormal membrane properties may diminish the ability of erythrocytes (RBCs) from diabetics to undergo deformation in passage through the trabecular meshwork. Using sodium chromate Cr 51-labeled RBCs from type I diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy and normal control subjects, we studied RBC clearance from the rabbit anterior chamber. The mean time for 50% clearance (T50) of RBCs from diabetics (76 hours) was significantly longer than that for RBCs from normal subjects (19.5 hours). In this model, RBCs from diabetics have a slower clearance from the anterior chamber than do RBCs from normal subjects

  1. Uranium absorption study pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.; Sautiez, B.

    1959-01-01

    The report describes a pile designed to measure the absorption of fuel slugs. The pile is of graphite and comprises a central section composed of uranium rods in a regular lattice. RaBe sources and BF 3 counters are situated on either side of the center. A given uranium charge is compared with a specimen charge of about 560 kg, and the difference in absorption between the two noted. The sensitivity of the equipment will detect absorption variations of about a few ppm boron (10 -6 boron per gr. of uranium) or better. (author) [fr

  2. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  3. Applicability of Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System to Clearance Measurement of Concrete Segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.; Ogino, H.; Hattori, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, large amounts of metal scrap and concrete segments require disposal when dismantling the nuclear reactor and surrounding facilities. When their activity level is negligible or sufficiently small, they can be regarded as general industrial waste. To distinguish between radioactive and nonradioactive materials, the clearance level for each radionuclide has been determined in units of activity concentration. These clearance levels are indicated in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.7. The Japanese regulatory authority decided in 2005 to adopt the values given in RS-G-1.7 as clearance levels in legislation. Recently, a Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed utilizing gamma-ray measurement, automatic laser shape measurement and Monte Carlo calculation. CLALIS comprises four laser scanners and eight large plastic scintillation detectors surrounded by a 5-cm-thick lead shield. Using three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning, a measurement target, which is placed on the measuring tray, is represented as a dot image. The dot image is converted into voxels after noise removal, and is written in MCNP (A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System) input files. When the gamma-ray measurement is carried out, the MCNP calculations are also carried out to obtain the calibration factor and background (BG) correction factors. For the clearance measurement of concrete segments, the effect of gamma-rays from natural radionuclides in the measurement target, such as K-40 and the radioactive decay products of Th-232 and U-238, should be taken into account to ensure adequate waste management. Since NE102A plastic scintillation detectors are used for gamma-ray measurement in CLALIS, it is impossible to distinguish between the count rates of natural radionuclides and contaminants on the basis of gamma-ray energy information. To overcome this problem, the

  4. Metabolic clearance rate and urinary clearance of purified beta-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehmann, R.E.; Blithe, D.L.; Flack, M.R.; Nisula, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    We injected a highly purified preparation of the beta-core molecule, a fragment of hCG beta excreted in pregnancy urine, into five men and three women to determine its kinetic parameters, MCR, and urinary clearance. The beta-core molecule was distributed in an initial volume [1950 +/- 156 (mean +/- SEM) mL/m2 body surface area] approximately equal to the estimated plasma volume. Its disappearance was multiexponential on a semilogarithmic plot, with a rapid phase t1/2 of 3.5 +/- 0.7 min and a slow phase t1/2 of 22.4 +/- 4.2 min. The transit time (the mean time spent by a molecule of beta-core in transit) was 20.6 +/- 2.1 min. The MCR was 192.0 +/- 8.0 mL/min.m2 body surface area. About 5% of the injected dose of beta-core was excreted into the urine in the first 30 min after injection, and low levels of excretion persisted for up to 7 days. The urinary clearance rate of beta-core was 13.7 +/- 1.4 mL/min.m2, accounting for about 8% of the elimination of beta-core from the plasma. The beta-core immunoreactivity in serum and urine was characterized by gel filtration and three independent RIA systems to show that its properties were indistinguishable from those of the injected beta-core. Serum levels of beta-core in pregnant women were less than 0.2 ng/mL, while the amounts excreted in their urine were as much as 5 mg/day. Based on these clearance parameters of beta-core in normal subjects, less than 0.2% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived by urinary clearance of plasma beta-core. Therefore, more than 99% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived from beta-core in a compartment separate from plasma. In particular, these data indicate that there is relatively little placental secretion of beta-core into plasma and that placental secretion does not account for the vast majority of beta-core in pregnancy urine

  5. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  6. Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.

    1978-08-01

    The design and development of a Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer for trace element analysis are described. An instruction manual is included which details the operation, adjustment, and maintenance. Specifications and circuit diagrams are given

  7. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  8. Comment on resonant absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerling, P.

    1977-01-01

    An average over angles of incidence of the usual resonant absorption function is presented. This form is appropriate under experimental conditions where the angles of incidence vary greatly and in an unknown manner. For comparison a lens-ellipsoidal mirror illumination system with a known longitudinal aberration is considered. In the latter example the angles of incidence are readily obtained and the resulting resonance absorption function evaluated. The associated fields are calculated in a similar fashion. (author)

  9. Optical absorption measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature

  10. Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA) addresses the future safety need for Real-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance (RSSA) in aviation and progressively...

  11. Determination of renal clearance of 131I-hippuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzon, S.

    1982-01-01

    The author presents his own method for the determination of total renal clearance of 131 I-hippuran under conditions of its diminishing plasma concentration following single intravenous administration. Total renal clearance is determined as the ratio of the amount of activity excreted into the urine over a certain time interval and of the area limited by the curve of activity decrease in plasma and by the time axis in the corresponding interval. The results are demonstrated in five investigated healthy subjects, and very good agreement of the calculated values of total renal clearance for different time intervals in the same subject is pointed out. When isotope nephrography is simultaneously performed, the method allows to determine also the values of isolated renal clearance for each kidney separately. (author)

  12. IFNL4 affects clearance of hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have discovered a new human interferon gene, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4), that affects clearance of the hepatitis C virus. They also identified an inherited genetic variant within IFNL4 that predicts how people respond to treatment for hepatit

  13. Non-destructive clearance measuring in closed joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucelance, C.; Manaranche, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Two methods for clearance measuring in closed joints are described. The first one is based on the mechanical impedance concept, while the other one requires a shock test on shaker. Both are illustrated with an example of application [fr

  14. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    .... DHS Sector Specialists or Protective Security Advisors email the form to the individual who then... clearance request form is signed by both the Federal official who nominated the applicant and the Assistant...

  15. Intraarticular volume and clearance in human synovial effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, W.J.; Simkin, P.A.; Nelp, W.B.; Foster, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Intraarticular volumes were measured by radiolabeled albumin (RISA) distribution in chronic knee effusions from 11 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 9 osteoarthritis patients. Volumes of synovial fluid obtained at joint aspiration were substantially less than those found by RISA dilution. Up to 24 hours was needed for full distribution of RISA throughout the intraarticular compartment. Measured 123I and RISA radioactivity over the knee described monoexponential rate constants, lambda (minute-1). The clearance of 123I and RISA from synovial effusions was derived by the formulation volume (ml) X lambda (minute-1) = clearance (ml/minute). RISA clearance in rheumatoid effusions was significantly greater than that found in osteoarthritis effusions. Intraarticular volume and isotope clearance were easily quantified and provide measures for further evaluating the microvascular physiology of synovial effusions

  16. Airway Clearance Devices for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of airway clearance devices (ACDs) for cystic fibrosis and attempt to differentiate between devices, where possible, on grounds of clinical efficacy, quality of life, safety and/or patient preference. Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common, inherited, life-limiting disease that affects multiple systems of the human body. Respiratory dysfunction is the primary complication and leading cause of death due to CF. CF causes abnormal mucus secretion in the airways, leading to airway obstruction and mucus plugging, which in turn can lead to bacterial infection and further mucous production. Over time, this almost cyclical process contributes to severe airway damage and loss of respiratory function. Removal of airway secretions, termed airway clearance, is thus an integral component of the management of CF. A variety of methods are available for airway clearance, some requiring mechanical devices, others physical manipulation of the body (e.g. physiotherapy). Conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT), through the assistance of a caregiver, is the current standard of care for achieving airway clearance, particularly in young patients up to the ages of six or seven. CF patients are, however, living much longer now than in decades past. The median age of survival in Canada has risen to 37.0 years for the period of 1998-2002 (5-year window), up from 22.8 years for the 5-year window ending in 1977. The prevalence has also risen accordingly, last recorded as 3,453 in Canada in 2002, up from 1,630 in 1977. With individuals living longer, there is a greater need for independent methods of airway clearance. Airway Clearance Devices There are at least three classes of airway clearance devices: positive expiratory pressure devices (PEP), airway oscillating devices (AOD; either handheld or stationary) and high frequency chest compression (HFCC)/mechanical percussion (MP

  17. Experience and lessons learnt from clearance in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Clearance is an important corner-stone of waste management in nuclear installations in Germany. It has been practised successfully for around two decades. The importance of clearance can also be judged from the fact that it has been included detailedly in the new German Radiation Protection Ordinance. Currently, there are 19 NPPs and a number of fuel cycle installations in operation in Germany. The main waste quantities, however, arise from the dismantling of NPPs and fuel cycle installations which are currently in decommissioning. As most of the decommissioning projects are targeted for early dismantling instead of safe enclosure, there is already considerable experience with the application of clearance procedures and verification of clearance levels. The German waste management strategy is governed by two options: Clearance of the material (after decontamination and release measurement). After clearance, the material is no longer regarded as radioactive in a legal sense. Final disposal of the material as radioactive waste in a deep geological repository (no near-surface disposal facilities exist or are planned in Germany). A deep geological repository is planned to be operable around 2030. Stefan Thierfeldt described German clearance requirements and lessons learned from their application to decommissioning of power reactors. The great majority of the waste was in fact recycled, although the costs were dominated by the small fraction that had to be disposed of as radioactive waste. Among the lessons learned from the German experience were some revealing insights into the public perception of both clearance and of recycling of material from decommissioning of a nuclear installation

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid clearance in Alzheimer disease measured with dynamic PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Leon, Mony J.; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribrif......Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing...

  19. Clearance of insoluble dust from the lower respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, P E; Gibb, F R; Johnson, L

    1964-01-01

    Clearance of tagged heavy metal aerosols (Fe, Hg, Mn, Ba, and U) in female beagles by in vivo counting was assessed. Fecal excretion paralleled lower respiratory tract clearance of Fe. No Fe was found in blood, indicating its biological insolubility. Ultrafiltration tests (an indication of biological solubility) ranked the heavy metals as: Hg, Mn, Fe, and U in order of decreasing solubility. The solubility ratios were remarkably similar to the ratios of inverse biological half-times.

  20. A review and comparison of international exemption and clearance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.; Mobbs, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    The publication of new European Basic Safety Standards by the European Commission and of new International Basic Safety Standards by the IAEA together with other international agencies, has led to increased interest in the application of the concepts of exemption and clearance. This paper discusses the derivation of radionuclide-specific exemption and clearance values for application in various areas of the regulation of radioactive materials. (author)

  1. Bronchoscintigraphy and pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-albumin colloid in study of mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Jann

    1998-01-01

    A radioaerosol based method for measuring MC was introduced. It included an inhalation protocol that resulted in a predominant deposition of radioaerosol in the central bronchi and two simple procedures of evaluation: 1) a visual semi-quantitative bronchoscintigraphic analysis, and 2) a quantitative analysis of the retention of the radioactivity at different points after the inhalation. The results showed that bronchoscintigraphy was a simple technique that may be used to visualize a stimulation of mucociliary transport in the central airways of individuals that do not suffer from too much mucus hypersecretion. Comparison of the MC between individuals, however, should preferably be performed by the method of quantitative analysis of the radioactivity disappearance. A change of MC was found to be one of the first detectable effects on lung function of tobacco smoking. It could be effectively detected by measurement of radioaerosol clearance both by bronchoscintigraphy and simple quantification of the MC. The MC may be either acutely enhanced, reduced or not changed by smoking. Long-term smoking impairs MC. The enhancement of MC by β 2 -agonists was very limited in most patients with CF. In the hope of increasing mucus transport in patients with CF, these are treated with various chest physiotherapy techniques. The radioaerosol based method of measurement of MC could assess mucus clearance by chest physiotherapy and cough. (au)

  2. R-warfarin clearances from plasma associated with polymorphic cytochrome P450 2C19 and simulated by individual physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for 11 cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utoh, Masahiro; Kusama, Takashi; Miura, Tomonori; Mitsui, Marina; Kawano, Mirai; Hirano, Takahiro; Shimizu, Makiko; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    1. Cynomolgus monkey cytochrome P450 2C19 (formerly known as P450 2C75), homologous to human P450 2C19, has been identified as R-warfarin 7-hydroxylase. In this study, simulations of R-warfarin clearance in individual cynomolgus monkeys genotyped for P450 2C19 p.[(Phe100Asn; Ala103Val; Ile112Leu)] were performed using individual simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. 2. Pharmacokinetic parameters and absorption rate constants, volumes of the systemic circulation, and hepatic intrinsic clearances for individual PBPK models were estimated for eleven cynomolgus monkeys. 3. One-way ANOVA revealed significant effects of the genotype (p warfarin among the homozygous mutant, heterozygous mutant, and wild-type groups. R-Warfarin clearances in individual cynomolgus monkeys genotyped for P450 2C19 were simulated by simplified PBPK modeling. The modeled hepatic intrinsic clearances were significantly associated with the P450 2C19 genotypes. The liver microsomal elimination rates of R-warfarin for individual animals after in vivo administration showed significant reductions associated with the genotype (p warfarin and related medicines associated with polymorphic P450 2C19 in individual cynomolgus monkeys, thereby facilitating calculation of the fraction of hepatic clearance.

  3. Dynamic characteristics analysis of deployable space structures considering joint clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuanjie; Guo, Jian; Cao, Yuyan

    2011-04-01

    The clearance in joints influences the dynamic stability and the performance of deployable space structures (DSS). A virtual experimental modal analysis (VEMA) method is proposed to deal with the effects of joint clearance and link flexibility on the dynamic characteristics of the DSS in this paper. The focus is on the finite element modeling of the clearance joint, VEMA and the modal parameters identification of the DSS. The finite element models (FEM) of the clearance joint and the deployable structure are established in ANSYS. The transient dynamic analysis is conducted to provide the time history data of excitation and response for the VEMA. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique is used to transform the data from time domain to frequency domain. The frequency response function is calculated to identify the modal parameters of the deployable structure. Experimental verification is provided to indicate the VEMA method is both a cost and time efficient approach to obtain the dynamic characteristics of the DSS. Finally, we analyze the effects of clearance size and gravity on the dynamic characteristics of the DSS. The analysis results indicate that the joint clearance and gravity strongly influence the dynamic characteristics of the DSS.

  4. The tear turnover and tear clearance tests - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Montes Mico, Robert; Iskander, D Robert; Expósito, Alejandro Cerviño

    2018-03-01

    The aim is to provide a summary of methods available for the assessment of tear turnover and tear clearance rates. The review defines tear clearance and tear turnover and describes their implication for ocular surface health. Additionally, it describes main types of techniques for measuring tear turnover, including fluorescein tear clearance tests, techniques utilizing electromagnetic spectrum and tracer molecule and novel experimental techniques utilizing optical coherence tomography and fluorescein profilometry. Areas covered: Internet databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar) and most frequently cited references were used as a principal resource of information on tear turnover rate and tear clearance rate, presenting methodologies and equipment, as well as their definition and implications for the anterior eye surface health and function. Keywords used for data-search were as follows: tear turnover, tear clearance, fluorescein clearance, scintigraphy, fluorophotometry, tear flow, drainage, tear meniscus dynamics, Krehbiel flow and lacrimal functional unit. Expert commentary: After decades, the topic of tear turnover assessment has been reintroduced. Recently, new techniques have been developed to propose less invasive, less time consuming and simpler methodologies for the assessment of tear dynamics that have the potential to be utilized in clinical practice.

  5. Depressed reticuloendothelial clearance of platelets in rats after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J E; Moon, D G; Minnear, F L; Saba, T M

    1984-02-01

    Platelet microembolization may contribute to microcirculatory and organ damage following trauma and shock. It is hypothesized that posttraumatic reticuloendothelial depression predisposes to such microembolization by failure to clear altered platelets from the circulation. The present study evaluated the short-term (1 h) clearance and organ localization of radiolabeled homologous damaged platelets in normal rats and in rats following sublethal Noble-Collip drum trauma. Platelets were collected in citrated platelet-rich plasma from normal rats and labeled with 51Cr in citrated saline. Platelets were altered by repeated centrifugation in protein-free medium. These platelets differed functionally and morphologically from normal platelets. Disappearance of iv injected damaged platelets conformed to a two-compartment exponential clearance. Velocity of clearance in the rapid compartment correlated with hepatic platelet localization, whereas velocity of clearance in the second compartment correlated with splenic platelet localization. Clearance rate of the rapid compartment was depressed at 1 h after trauma and elevated at 24 h. These changes were associated with a decrease in hepatic platelet localization at 1 h and an increase above normal at 24 h. Splenic platelet localization was decreased by 3 h following trauma. Pulmonary platelet localization was increased at all times following trauma. It is concluded that the posttrauma state is associated with a defect in the reticuloendothelial system clearance of altered platelets, which may augment embolization of platelets in the lung.

  6. Domiciliary humidification improves lung mucociliary clearance in patients with bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, A; Chapman, T H; McCool, D; Smith, R E; Dilworth, J P; Agnew, J E

    2008-01-01

    Inspired air humidification has been reported to show some benefit in bronchiectatic patients. We have investigated the possibility that one effect might be to enhance mucociliary clearance. Such enhancement might, if it occurs, help to lessen the risks of recurrent infective episodes. Using a radioaerosol technique, we measured lung mucociliary clearance before and after 7 days of domiciliary humidification. Patients inhaled high flow saturated air at 37 degrees C via a patient-operated humidification nasal inhalation system for 3 h per day. We assessed tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance from the retention of (99m)Tc-labelled polystyrene tracer particles monitored for 6 h, with a follow-up 24-h reading. Ten out of 14 initially recruited patients (age 37-75 years; seven females) completed the study (two withdrew after their initial screening and two prior to the initial clearance test). Seven patients studied were non-smokers; three were ex-smokers (1-9 pack-years). Initial tracer radioaerosol distribution was closely similar between pre- and post-treatment. Following humidification, lung mucociliary clearance significantly improved, the area under the tracheobronchial retention curve decreased from 319 +/- 50 to 271 +/- 46%h (p humidification treatment improved lung mucociliary clearance in our bronchiectatic patients. Given this finding plus increasing laboratory and clinical interest in humidification mechanisms and effects, we believe further clinical trials of humidification therapy are desirable, coupled with analysis of humidification effects on mucus properties and transport.

  7. Biodistribution and Clearance of Stable Superparamagnetic Maghemite Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Mice Following Intraperitoneal Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binh T. T. Pham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is an emerging field with great potential in disease theranostics. We generated sterically stabilized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (s-SPIONs with average core diameters of 10 and 25 nm and determined the in vivo biodistribution and clearance profiles. Healthy nude mice underwent an intraperitoneal injection of these s-SPIONs at a dose of 90 mg Fe/kg body weight. Tissue iron biodistribution was monitored by atomic absorption spectroscopy and Prussian blue staining. Histopathological examination was performed to assess tissue toxicity. The 10 nm s-SPIONs resulted in higher tissue-iron levels, whereas the 25 nm s-SPIONs peaked earlier and cleared faster. Increased iron levels were detected in all organs and body fluids tested except for the brain, with notable increases in the liver, spleen, and the omentum. The tissue-iron returned to control or near control levels within 7 days post-injection, except in the omentum, which had the largest and most variable accumulation of s-SPIONs. No obvious tissue changes were noted although an influx of macrophages was observed in several tissues suggesting their involvement in s-SPION sequestration and clearance. These results demonstrate that the s-SPIONs do not degrade or aggregate in vivo and intraperitoneal administration is well tolerated, with a broad and transient biodistribution. In an ovarian tumor model, s-SPIONs were shown to accumulate in the tumors, highlighting their potential use as a chemotherapy delivery agent.

  8. Clearance from cerebrospinal fluid of intrathecally administered beta-endorphin in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, V.C.; Burns, R.S.; Dubois, M.; Cohen, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Five adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta) weighing 7.1-9.9 kg were given synthetic human beta-endorphin (800 micrograms) and [ 14 C]methoxy-inulin (50 microCi) in 400 microliters of normal saline intrathecally. Serial samples of cerebrospinal fluid were drawn through a previously positioned indwelling spinal catheter and were assayed for concentrations of beta-endorphin (determined by radioimmunoassay) and inulin (determined by liquid scintillation counter). Spinal fluid concentrations of beta-endorphin and inulin peaked and declined in a parallel manner. The clearance ratio (calculated from the reciprocal of the ratio of the areas under the respective curves of elimination of the two species) remained remarkably similar from animal to animal, giving a mean value of 1.060 +/- 0.090 (SEM). This ratio, being near unity, suggests that beta-endorphin is eliminated from spinal fluid in a fashion similar to that of inulin, which is removed exclusively by bulk absorption

  9. Clearance from cerebrospinal fluid of intrathecally administered beta-endorphin in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.C.; Burns, R.S.; Dubois, M.; Cohen, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    Five adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta) weighing 7.1-9.9 kg were given synthetic human beta-endorphin (800 micrograms) and (/sup 14/C)methoxy-inulin (50 microCi) in 400 microliters of normal saline intrathecally. Serial samples of cerebrospinal fluid were drawn through a previously positioned indwelling spinal catheter and were assayed for concentrations of beta-endorphin (determined by radioimmunoassay) and inulin (determined by liquid scintillation counter). Spinal fluid concentrations of beta-endorphin and inulin peaked and declined in a parallel manner. The clearance ratio (calculated from the reciprocal of the ratio of the areas under the respective curves of elimination of the two species) remained remarkably similar from animal to animal, giving a mean value of 1.060 +/- 0.090 (SEM). This ratio, being near unity, suggests that beta-endorphin is eliminated from spinal fluid in a fashion similar to that of inulin, which is removed exclusively by bulk absorption.

  10. Modified Augmented Renal Clearance Score Predicts Rapid Piperacillin and Tazobactam Clearance in Critically Ill Surgery and Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    collision; VAP , ventilator-associated pneumonia. TABLE 2. PK Parameter Estimates for Free Piperacillin and Tazobactam in Patients Stratified by ARC Score...SOFA score are typically generated during routine care of the most severely ill patients . Positive screening test results (high ARC scores) can be...Modified Augmented Renal Clearance score predicts rapid piperacillin and tazobactam clearance in critically ill surgery and trauma patients Kevin S

  11. Vitamin A absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigation of the absorption of vitamin A and related substances is complicated by the multiplicity of forms in which they occur in the diet and by the possibility that they may be subject to different mechanisms of absorption. Present knowledge of these mechanisms is inadequate, especially in the case of carotenoids. Numerous tests of absorption have been developed. The most common has been the biochemical measurement of the rise in plasma vitamin A after an oral dose of retinol or retinyl ester, but standardization is inadequate. Radioisotope tests based upon assay of serum or faecal activity following oral administration of tritiated vitamin A derivaties hold considerable promise, but again standardization is inadequate. From investigations hitherto performed it is known that absorption of vitamin A is influenced by several diseases, although as yet the consistency of results and the correlation with other tests of intestinal function have often been poor. However, the test of vitamin A absorption is nevertheless of clinical importance as a specialized measure of intestinal function. (author)

  12. Respiratory clearance of aerosolized radioactive solutes of varying molecular weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huchon, G.J.; Montgomery, A.B.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the influence of varying molecular weight (mol wt) on respiratory clearance of aerosolized solutes, we studied eight radiopharmaceuticals, each administered to four dogs: sodium /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate (TcO4), /sup 99m/Tc glucoheptonate ([/sup 99m/Tc]GH), 51Cr-ethylenedinitrotetraacetate ([51Cr]EDTA), /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ([99mTc] DTPA), 111 In diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ([ 111 In]DTPA), 67 Ga desferoxaminemesylate ([ 67 Ga]DFOM), /sup 99m/Tc dextran ([/sup 99m/Tc]DX) and 111 In transferrin ([ 111 In]TF). After aerosolization (0.8 m MMD, 2.4 GSD), clearance was determined for 30 min and then corrected by intravenous injection for nonairspace radioactivity. In-TF clearance (0.11 +/- 0.10%/min) was lower than TcO4 (6.32 +/- 0.62%/min), [/sup 99m/Tc]GH (1.50 +/- 0.37%/min), [ 51 Cr]EDTA (2.38 +/- 1.02%/min), [/sup 99m/Tc]DTPA (3.51 +/- 0.40%/min), [ 111 In]DTPA (2.35 +/- 0.42%/min), [ 67 Ga] DFOM (1.99 +/- 0.49%/min) and [/sup 99m/Tc]DX (1.81 +/- 0.75%/min) clearances (p less than 0.001). TcO4 clearance was higher than others (p less than 0.001). Technetium binding to DX was unsatisfactory; aerosolization caused unbinding from DTPA. We conclude that respiratory clearance of large mol wt solutes within 30 min is negligible and, that clearance of molecules between 347-5099 daltons differs greatly, suggesting that binding and/or intrapulmonary retention affect transfer

  13. Approaches towards establishing of clearance levels in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitani, N.; Watanabe, I.; Okoshi, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is important to establish necessary regulatory systems for decommissioning waste management, especially to establish clearance levels from regulatory control. To establish the regulatory systems, the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) has been discussing the unconditional clearance levels for materials from nuclear reactors since May 1997. The NSC tries to derive unconditional clearance levels for the materials such as concrete and ferrous metal, arising from nuclear reactor decommissioning. In the derivation, both disposal and recycle/reuse of the materials are considered. Typical scenarios and parameter values for dose estimation are selected considering the Japanese natural and social conditions. Preliminary clearance levels were derived from 10 μSv/yr of individual dose criterion and deterministic analysis. For most radionuclides, the preliminary results are the same order of magnitude recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. Some radionuclides such as β emitters, however, are different order of magnitude from those recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. It is necessary that international organizations lead the discussions on the clearance levels to conclude final consensus. (author)

  14. Predicting Human Clearance of OATP substrates using Cynomolgus monkey: In vitro-in vivo scaling of hepatic uptake clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Tom; Ufuk, Ayse; Cantrill, Carina; Kosa, Rachel E; Bi, Yi-An; Niosi, Mark; Modi, Sweta; Rodrigues, A David; Tremaine, Larry M; Varma, Manthena Vs; Galetin, Aleksandra; Houston, J Brian

    2018-05-02

    This work explores the utility of the cynomolgus monkey as a preclinical model to predict hepatic uptake clearance mediated by organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporters. Nine OATP substrates (rosuvastatin, pravastatin, repaglinide, fexofenadine, cerivastatin, telmisartan, pitavastatin, bosentan and valsartan) were investigated in plated cynomolgus monkey and human hepatocytes. Total uptake clearance and passive diffusion were measured in vitro from initial rates in the absence and presence of the OATP inhibitor rifamycin SV, respectively. Total uptake clearance values in plated hepatocytes ranged over three orders of magnitude in both species with a similar rank order and good agreement in the relative contribution of active transport to total uptake between cynomolgus monkey and human. In vivo hepatic clearance for these nine drugs was determined in cynomolgus monkey after intravenous dosing. Hepatic clearances showed a similar range to human parameters and good predictions from respective hepatocyte parameters (with 2.7 and 3.8-fold bias on average, respectively). The use of cross species empirical scaling factors (based on either dataset average or individual drug scaling factor from cynomolgus monkey data) improved prediction (less bias, better concordance) of human hepatic clearance from human hepatocyte data alone. In vitro intracellular binding in hepatocytes also correlated well between species. It is concluded that the minimal species differences observed for the current dataset between cynomolgus monkey and human hepatocyte uptake, both in vitro and in vivo, support future use of this preclinical model to delineate drug hepatic uptake and enable prediction of human in vivo intrinsic hepatic clearance. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Neutron resonance absorption theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.

    1991-11-01

    After some recalls on the physics of neutron resonance absorption during their slowing down, this paper presents the main features of the theoretical developments performed by the french school of reactor physics: the effective reaction rate method so called Livolant-Jeanpierre theory, the generalizations carried out by the author, and the probability table method [fr

  16. Noble gas absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A method of removing a noble gas from air comprising the use of activated carbon filters in stages in which absorption and desorption steps in succession are conducted in order to increase the capacity of the filters is described. (U.S.)

  17. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  18. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  19. Scan Manifestations and Blood Clearance Rates in Typhoid Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kim, Soon Hi

    1970-01-01

    Fourteen patients with typhoid fever studied by scanning and clearance-rate measurements of subcritical dose colloidal radiogold ( 198 Au). Mild to moderate enlargement of the liver and spleen was noted in 78.6 and 64.3 percent of patients, respectively; and splenic and spinal bone-marrow uptake was seen in 78.6 and 57.1 percent of cases, respectively. Typically, these scan changes occurred concomitantly (57.1%) and are considered to represent increased phagocytic activity of the RE cells which is characteristic of typhoid fever. The half clearance-time was significantly shortened during the first 10-day period of the illness indicating an increase in the hepatic blood in the early phase of typhoid infection. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and extrahepatic uptakes along with an accelerated (or less a normal) clearance time are characteristic of typhoid fever.

  20. Scan Manifestations and Blood Clearance Rates in Typhoid Liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kim, Soon Hi [St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-09-15

    Fourteen patients with typhoid fever studied by scanning and clearance-rate measurements of subcritical dose colloidal radiogold ({sup 198}Au). Mild to moderate enlargement of the liver and spleen was noted in 78.6 and 64.3 percent of patients, respectively; and splenic and spinal bone-marrow uptake was seen in 78.6 and 57.1 percent of cases, respectively. Typically, these scan changes occurred concomitantly (57.1%) and are considered to represent increased phagocytic activity of the RE cells which is characteristic of typhoid fever. The half clearance-time was significantly shortened during the first 10-day period of the illness indicating an increase in the hepatic blood in the early phase of typhoid infection. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and extrahepatic uptakes along with an accelerated (or less a normal) clearance time are characteristic of typhoid fever.

  1. HPT Clearance Control: Intelligent Engine Systems-Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The following work has been completed to satisfy the Phase I Deliverables for the "HPT Clearance Control" project under NASA GRC's "Intelligent Engine Systems" program: (1) Need for the development of an advanced HPT ACC system has been very clearly laid out, (2) Several existing and potential clearance control systems have been reviewed, (3) A scorecard has been developed to document the system, performance (fuel burn, range, payload, etc.), thermal, and mechanical characteristics of the existing clearance control systems, (4) Engine size and flight cycle selection for the advanced HPT ACC system has been reviewed with "large engine"/"long range mission" combination showing the most benefit, (5) A scoring criteria has been developed to tie together performance parameters for an objective, data driven comparison of competing systems, and (6) The existing HPT ACC systems have been scored based on this scoring system.

  2. Clearance potential of ITER vacuum vessel activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepraga, D.G.; Cambi, G.; Frisoni, M.

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate fusion's environmental attractiveness over the entire life cycle, a waste analysis is mandatory. The clearance is recommended by IAEA for releasing activated solid materials from regulatory control and for waste management policy. The paper focuses on the approach used to support waste analyses for ITER Generic Site Safety Report. The Material Unconditional Clearance Index of all the materials/zones on the equatorial mid-plane of ITER machine have been evaluated, based on IAEA-TECDOC-855. The Bonami-Nitawl-XSDNRPM sequence of the Scale-4.4a code system (using Vitenea-J library) has been firstly used for radiation transport analyses. Then the Anita-2000 code package is used for the activation calculation. The paper presents also, as an example, an application of the clearance indexes estimation for the ITER vacuum vessel materials. The results of the Anita-2000 have been compared with those obtained using the Fispact-99 activation code. (author)

  3. APPLICATION OF DSM IN OBSTACLE CLEARANCE SURVEYING OF AERODROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the wide use of digital elevation model (DEM, digital surface model (DSM receives less attention because that it is composed by not only terrain surface, but also vegetations and man-made objects which are usually regarded as useless information. Nevertheless, these objects are useful for the identification of obstacles around an aerodrome. The primary objective of the study was to determine the applicability of DSM in obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome. According to the requirements of obstacle clearance surveying at QT airport, aerial and satellite imagery were used to generate DSM, by means of photogrammetry, which was spatially analyzed with the hypothetical 3D obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS to identify the potential obstacles. Field surveying was then carried out to retrieve the accurate horizontal position and height of the obstacles. The results proved that the application of DSM could make considerable improvement in the efficiency of obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome.

  4. Regulation Concepts for Clearance Level of Radionuclide in Solid Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanang Triagung Edi Hermawan

    2008-01-01

    Practices of nuclear energy have expanded in some fields such as researches and development, educations, agricultures, medicines and industries. Every practice beside give much benefit, could generate residue or waste. Radioactive waste needs management to ensure the safety of workers, member of the public, and for the eternal of environment. The product of radioactive waste management, in generally, is some containment of radionuclide concentration in solid matrix material after immobilization or conditioning process. Some kind of processed radioactive wastes with short half live then decay faster to stabile condition. The decay will reach clearance level in sometimes, so from the radiation protection views is harmless. This materials above didn’t need control and must be cleared from all determinate and regulation aspects of radioactive material practices. There is clearance for harmless material off course will be simplify management task and efficiency of money. So the regulation about clearance levels will be important as law basic for technical practices in field. (author)

  5. Exaggerated natriuresis and lithium clearance in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Kanters, J K; Leyssac, P P

    1988-01-01

    Since hypertension is associated with changes in the handling of various cations (including sodium and lithium) across the cell membrane, the present study investigated the validity of the lithium clearance method in hypertension by comparing two measures of proximal reabsorption. Thus, fractional...... lithium excretion and transit time (TT)-occlusion time (OT; e-TT/T) were determined successively in the same spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, Okamoto strain). The rats were examined both before and after an acute saline load. The results show that the lithium clearance method can be used...... for the determination of proximal reabsorption in SHR. Utilizing the lithium clearance method, the changes in renal sodium handling underlying the exaggerated natriuresis were investigated in unanaesthetized catheterized rats. It was found that the exaggerated natriuresis was associated with an increased output from...

  6. Kinematics Simulation Analysis of Packaging Robot with Joint Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. W.; Meng, W. J.; Wang, L. Q.; Cui, G. H.

    2018-03-01

    Considering the influence of joint clearance on the motion error, repeated positioning accuracy and overall position of the machine, this paper presents simulation analysis of a packaging robot — 2 degrees of freedom(DOF) planar parallel robot based on the characteristics of high precision and fast speed of packaging equipment. The motion constraint equation of the mechanism is established, and the analysis and simulation of the motion error are carried out in the case of turning the revolute clearance. The simulation results show that the size of the joint clearance will affect the movement accuracy and packaging efficiency of the packaging robot. The analysis provides a reference point of view for the packaging equipment design and selection criteria and has a great significance on the packaging industry automation.

  7. Nuclear security. DOE actions to improve the personnel clearance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Bannerman, Carl J.; Daniel, Beverly A.

    1988-11-01

    The status of the Department of Energy's (DOE) implementation of recommendations in our two reports on DOE's personnel security clearance program was determined. The recommendations were aimed at improving the timeliness, accuracy, and efficiency of personnel security clearance decisions. Specifically, the objective was to determine and report on steps DOE is taking to implement these recommendations. In summary, it was found that DOE has either initiated action or is studying ways to address all the recommendations, but none of the recommendations have been completely implemented. The effectiveness of the DOE actions will depend, in part, on the adequacy of its internal control system for overseeing and evaluating program operations. DOE's personnel security clearance program is intended to provide reasonable assurance that personnel with access to classified information and materials are trustworthy. The Department requests that the Office of Personnel Management or the Federal Bureau of Investigation collect personal data on each person who requires such access to do his or her job. Based on these background investigations, DOE officials authorize individuals whose personal histories indicate that they are trustworthy to have access to classified information, secured facilities, and controlled materials as needed to perform their jobs. DOE has five types of these authorizations or personnel security clearances and must update information on personnel holding each type at 5-year intervals to confirm their continuing reliability. The five types are based on the types of security interests to which the person needs access, e.g., persons needing nuclear weapons-related data must have a Q clearance, and persons with a top secret clearance can have access to national security data classified as top secret

  8. Clearance of the cervical spine in clinically unevaluable trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Casey H; Milby, Andrew H; Guo, Wensheng; Schuster, James M; Gracias, Vicente H; Stein, Sherman C

    2010-08-15

    Meta-analytic costeffectiveness analysis. Our goal was to compare the results of different management strategies for trauma patients in whom the cervical spine was not clinically evaluable due to impaired consciousness, endotracheal intubation, or painful distracting injuries. We performed a structured literature review related to cervical spine trauma, radiographic clearance techniques (plain radiography, flexion/extension, CT, and MRI), and complications associated with semirigid collar use. Meta-analytic techniques were used to pool data from multiple sources to calculate pooled mean estimates of sensitivities and specificities of imaging techniques for cervical spinal clearance, rates of complications from various clearance strategies and from empirical use of semirigid collars. A decision analysis model was used to compare outcomes and costs among these strategies. Slightly more than 7.5% of patients who are clinically unevaluable have cervical spine injuries, and 42% of these injuries are associated with spinal instability. Sensitivity of plain radiography or fluoroscopy for spinal clearance was 57% (95% CI: 57%-60%). Sensitivities for CT and MRI alone were 83% (82%-84%) and 87% (84%-89%), respectively. Complications associated with collar use ranged from 1.3% (2 days) to 7.1% (10 days) but were usually minor and short-lived. Quadriplegia resulting from spinal instability missed by a clearance test had enormous impacts on longevity, quality of life, and costs. These impacts overshadowed the effects of prolonged collar application, even when the incidence of quadriplegia was extremely low. As currently used, neuroimaging studies for cervical spinal clearance in clinically unevaluable patients are not cost-effective compared with empirical immobilization in a semirigid collar.

  9. Clearance of slightly radioactive material from radiological control in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    1995-01-01

    Clearance from radiological control of slightly radioactive material arising from operation or decommissioning of nuclear installations has been practiced in Germany for nearly two decades. Meanwhile, for the clearance of metal generally approved and applicable recommendations for clearance levels have been issued. For other materials like building waste, case-by-case decisions are made by the state licensing authorities. Efforts to implement consistent sets of clearance levels for all kinds of material are under way. As several decommissioning projects will soon generate large amounts of materials from dismantling, a solution needs to be reached soon. The legal framework in Germany governing the use of atomic energy consists of the Atomic Energy Act and several ordinances. Rules and guidelines including the recommendations of the German Commission for Radiation Protection (SSK) exist on a lower level and are not legally binding. Several generic studies for the derivation of clearance levels for metals and building debris with alpha, beta, and gamma contamination have been performed on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, which oriented themselves on an individual dose of 10 microSv/a in agreement with IAEA recommendations. Stochastic models have been used for establishing the connection between specific activity of the material to be released and the resulting individual doses, with significant advantages over deterministic scenarios. In the future, for new SSK recommendations or an ordinance on clearance, the increase of masses from demolition of installations, higher recycling rates in the conventional sector and harmonization with international regulations and standards have to be taken into account

  10. Determining vancomycin clearance in an overweight and obese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Julie V B; Boro, Maureen S; Winter, Michaele

    2011-04-01

    Two methods of calculating vancomycin clearance were compared to determine the best body weight measure to use when dosing vancomycin for overweight and obese patients. Hospitalized veterans weighing more than 120% of their ideal body weight (IBW) with serum vancomycin concentrations (SVCs) drawn between January 1, 2003, and June 30, 2005, were eligible for study inclusion. Exclusion criteria included weight of more than 300% the IBW, unstable renal function, dialysis, uncertain vancomycin dosing or sampling times, and distribution-phase sampling. Data from January 1 through December 31, 2003 (phase 1) determined the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance for the Leonard and Boro method. The bias and precision of the modified Leonard and Boro method using the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance were then compared with those of the Rushing and Ambrose method for predicting SVCs from January 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005 (phase 2). Forty-eight patients were included in phase 1, with 67 SVCs for analysis. During phase 1, adjusted body weight (ABW), using the Leonard and Boro method, was superior in predicting vancomycin clearance and the resultant SVCs. A total of 96 patients were included in phase 2 of the study, with 160 SVCs for analysis. The modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting vancomycin clearance. Use of ABW proved to be superior compared with total body weight when estimating vancomycin clearance in overweight and obese patients. While there was no difference in bias between methods, the modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting SVCs when dosing vancomycin for obese patients.

  11. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R.

    1993-01-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min)

  12. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C.S. Brant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urban streets. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharine transit test; airway acidification was measured by assessing the pH of exhaled breath condensate; and airway symptoms were measured by the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-20 questionnaire. To assess personal air pollution exposure, the subjects used a passive-diffusion nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration-monitoring system during the 14 days before each assessment. The associations between NO2 and the airway outcomes were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-Square test. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01976039. RESULTS: Compared with clearance in healthy adult males, mucociliary clearance was decreased in 32% of the motorcyclists. Additionally, 64% of the motorcyclists had airway acidification and 92% experienced airway symptoms. The median personal NO2 exposure level was 75 mg/m3 for these subjects and a significant association was observed between NO2 and impaired mucociliary clearance (p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking commercial motorcyclists exhibit increased airway symptoms and airway acidification as well as decreased nasal mucociliary clearance, all of which are significantly associated with the amount of exposure to air pollution.

  13. Further training in the fields of radiological characterisation and clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothe, M.; Feinhals, J.; Neukaeter, E.

    2016-01-01

    Radiological characterisation and clearance require specific knowledge and skills. Targeted further training of the staff is one possibility to get this knowledge and skills. A modular concept was established, which allows adaption to specific requests of the institution and state of knowledge and skills of participants. The modules have following focuses: ''radiological characterisation and clearance'', ''sampling'' and ''measurement and sampling plans'' and consist half-and-half of lectures and group works. In group works participants apply new knowledge to examples of the installation or simulated scenarios and afterwards they present and discuss the results. This concept was carried out for different institutions and is planned for some more.

  14. Derivation methods for clearance levels applied to reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru; Seki, Takeo

    2001-01-01

    In order to support the discussion by the Nuclear Safety Commission, JAERI derived the unconditional clearance levels for concrete and metal arising from the operation and dismantling of nuclear reactors. The clearance levels of 20 radionuclides were derived from 10 μSv/y of individual doses by deterministic approach. In this approach, calculation models were established to assess individual doses resulting from 73 exposure pathways related to disposal and recycle/reuse, and realistic parameter values were selected considering Japanese natural and social conditions. The appropriateness of selected parameter values was confirmed by stochastic analyses. (author)

  15. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  16. TAM receptors in apoptotic cell clearance, autoimmunity, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh-Quynh; Tsou, Wen-I; Kotenko, Sergei; Birge, Raymond B

    2013-08-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases, Tyro-3, Axl and Mer, collectively designated as TAM, are involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells. TAM ligands, Gas6 and Protein S, bind to the surfaces of apoptotic cells, and at the same time, interact directly with TAM expressed on phagocytes, impacting the engulfment and clearance of apoptotic cells and debris. The well-tuned and balanced actions of TAM may affect a variety of human pathologies including autoimmunity, retinal degeneration, and cancer. This article emphasizes some of the emerging findings and mechanistic insights into TAM functions that are clinically relevant and possibly therapeutically targeted.

  17. Radioactive clearance discharge of effluent from nuclear and radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Xu Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the basic concepts of radiation safety management system exemption, exclusion and clearance, we expound that the general industrial gaseous and liquid effluent discharges are exempted or excluded, gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are clearance, and non-radioactive. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify the concepts, reach a consensus that the gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are non-radioactive and have no hazard to human health and natural environment. (authors)

  18. Dependence of 'CT clearance' on dosage and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenborn, H.A.; Klose, K.J.; Dexheimer, C.; Steinijans, V.

    1989-01-01

    The contrast medium dose used in CT renal function analysis corresponds to about 1 ml/kg body weight at a measurement interval of 5 or 10 minutes. In the present study the dependence of 'CT clearance' on dosage and time was examined in 12 healthy subjects. The amount of clearance was directly proportional to the employed contrast medium dose and to the length of the measurement interval. On account of the superior signal-to-noise ratio, the higher dose (1 ml/kg body weight) will continue to be prefered in future. The measurement interval can be limited to 10 minutes. (orig.) [de

  19. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tip, A.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  20. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  1. Gamma absorption meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincklage, R.D. von.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption meter consists of a radiation source, a trough for the absorbing liquid and a detector. It is characterized by the fact that there is a foil between the detector and the trough, made of a material whose binding energy of the K electrons is a little greater than the energy of the photons emitted by the radiation source. The source of radiation and foil are replaceable. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  3. Decision Assessment of Clearance Level on Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin; Gunandjar

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive waste on the safe level activity containing very small radioactive material gives small radiology influence to the human, it is not necessary to control by regulatory body. The radioactive waste on the safe level activity is safe to release as the common waste. For exemption of the control, it is required the safe activity level limits in which the value of clearance level is fulfilled by regulatory body, however until now it is not decided yet. The exemption decision is obtained if its activity is lower than or same with clearance level based on the annual effective dose receiving by public on the value is lower than or same with 0,01 mSv. The exposure pathways of radioactive waste to the human have important role for determination of clearance level. The decision assessment of clearance level on the radioactive waste management has been done by analysis of radioactive exposure pathways to the human for activities of the disposal and the recycle of solid wastes, also the release of liquid and gas effluent. For solid waste disposal, the exposure pathway was evaluated since the transportation of packed waste from the treatment facility to the disposal facility and during its operation. Exposure pathways for solid waste recycle consist of the pathways for handling and transportation of cleared material to the recycling facility, the fabrication and the utilization of its product. Exposure pathways for liquid and gas releases occur since its releases to the environment up to the human (public) by specific traffic lane. (author)

  4. Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C after Liver and Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Dale

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV is rare in immunocompromised patients, such as those who have undergone organ transplantation. It has been recognized that patients receiving liver transplantation for HCV-related disease have decreased graft and patient survival compared with those transplanted for other etiologies. There is a growing trend toward treating HCV recurrence aggressively after liver transplantation. For other organ transplant recipients with concurrent HCV, treatment is not often an option, given the high rates of graft rejection and loss secondary to interferon and its immunomodulatory effects. Although spontaneous clearance of HCV has been reported in recipients of solitary liver and renal transplants, a common factor arising in these cases has been previous exposure to interferon. To date, no reports of spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA have been reported in a multiorgan transplant recipient. A case of spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA in an immunocompromised patient, within five months of simultaneous liver and kidney retransplantation is described. Importantly, this patient had no previous exposure to interferon.

  5. Hyperinsulinism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): role of insulin clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, M C; Vesco, R; Vigneri, E; Ciresi, A; Giordano, C

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinism are the predominant metabolic defects in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, hyperinsulinism, as well as being compensatory, can also express a condition of reduced insulin clearance. Our aim was to evaluate the differences in insulin action and metabolism between women with PCOS (with normal glucose tolerance) and age- and BMI-matched women with prediabetes (without hyperandrogenism and ovulatory disorders). 22 women with PCOS and 21 age/BMI-matched women with prediabetes were subjected to a Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and an Oral Glucose tolerance Test (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the glucose infusion rate during clamp (M value); insulin secretion by Insulinogenic index, Oral Disposition Index (DIo) and AUC(2h-insulin) during OGTT; and insulin clearance by the metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI) during clamp. Women with PCOS showed significantly higher levels of AUC(2h-insulin) (p PCOS [420 (IQR 227-588) vs. 743 (IQR 597-888) ml m(-2) min(-1): p PCOS group, a strong independent inverse correlation was only observed between MCRI and AUC(2h-insulin) (PCOS: β:-0.878; p PCOS there is peripheral insulin sensitivity similar to that of women with prediabetes. What sets PCOS apart is the hyperinsulinism, today still simplistically defined "compensatory"; actually this is mainly related to decreased insulin clearance whose specific causes and dynamics have yet to be clarified.

  6. Royalty Fees Part I: The Copyright Clearance Center and Publishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiblum, Paula; Ardito, Stephanie C.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of copyrights, royalty fees, and intellectual property focuses on the Copyright Clearance Center and publishers. Topics include results of a survey of library and information science journal publishers; how users verify royalty fees; how publishers determine fees; royalty fee reporting; and terms and conditions imposed on electronic…

  7. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND...

  8. Online feedback-controlled renal constant infusion clearances in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Shulhevich, Yury; Xie, Qing; Hesser, Juergen; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Neudecker, Sabine; Friedemann, Jochen; Koenig, Stefan; Heinrich, Ralf; Hoecklin, Friederike; Pill, Johannes; Gretz, Norbert

    2012-08-01

    Constant infusion clearance techniques using exogenous renal markers are considered the gold standard for assessing the glomerular filtration rate. Here we describe a constant infusion clearance method in rats allowing the real-time monitoring of steady-state conditions using an automated closed-loop approach based on the transcutaneous measurement of the renal marker FITC-sinistrin. In order to optimize parameters to reach steady-state conditions as fast as possible, a Matlab-based simulation tool was established. Based on this, a real-time feedback-regulated approach for constant infusion clearance monitoring was developed. This was validated by determining hourly FITC-sinistrin plasma concentrations and the glomerular filtration rate in healthy and unilaterally nephrectomized rats. The transcutaneously assessed FITC-sinistrin fluorescence signal was found to reflect the plasma concentration. Our method allows the precise determination of the onset of steady-state marker concentration. Moreover, the steady state can be monitored and controlled in real time for several hours. This procedure is simple to perform since no urine samples and only one blood sample are required. Thus, we developed a real-time feedback-based system for optimal regulation and monitoring of a constant infusion clearance technique.

  9. Measuring Clearance Mechanics Based on Dynamic Leg Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Sam; Danino, Barry; Hayek, Shlomo; Carmeli, Eli

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify clearance mechanics during gait. Seventeen children diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy underwent a three-dimensional gait analysis evaluation. Dynamic leg lengths were measured from the hip joint center to the heel, to the ankle joint center and to the forefoot throughout the gait cycle. Significant…

  10. Dynamic analysis of cross shaft type universal joint with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jian Wei; Wang, Gong Cheng; Chen, Hao; Vakakis, Alexander F.; Bergman, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    Cross shaft type universal joint is widely used in ground vehicles to transfer torque between two intersecting axes, and its transmission feature can make a great contribution to NVH performance of the vehicle. We looked at the assembling clearance at cross shaft neck, and presented a dynamic model of cross shaft type universal joint with clearance at cross shaft neck. Two-state model is applied to describe the contact force between the cross shaft and driving joint fork based on Hertz theorem, and lumped mass method is applied to build up the dynamic model of the universal joint. Based on this model, numerical analysis is carried out to discuss the transmission feature of the universal joint with clearance at cross shaft neck, and the influence of clearance on the dynamic behavior of the system is evaluated with numerical results based on time history, power spectrum, and phase portrait. The method and conclusions presented are helpful to improvement of the transmission feature of cross shaft type universal joint.

  11. 75 FR 52798 - State-07, Cryptographic Clearance Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Information Programs and Services, A/GIS/ IPS, Department of State, SA-2, 515 22nd Street, NW., Washington, DC... Department of State and Agency for International Development who have applied for cryptographic clearances as... that apply to all of its Privacy Act systems of records. These notices appear in the form of a...

  12. [Airway clearance techniques in chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome : 2011 update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdekamp, C

    2011-09-01

    For many years the airway clearance techniques used in chest physical therapy were assimilated with the singular technique of postural drainage, percussions and vibrations. However the side effects and counter indications and the lack of scientific proof regarding this technique have forced reflection and development of other techniques more comfortable and without deleterious effects. If all these techniques show a high efficiency in terms of improved mucociliary clearance, the literature is unanimous on how little effect these techniques have in the short and the long-term with regards to lung function and arterial blood gases. In view of the scientific literature, it is clear that the airway clearance techniques don't have the same recognition concerning their efficiency in all obstructive pulmonary diseases. As the cornerstone in the management of cystic fibrosis, the efficiency of the bronchial hygiene techniques are in general poorly documented in the management of the non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, bronchitis or emphysema. The use of the chest physical therapy seems more to do with the interpretation of the imagery and symptomatology. The airway clearance techniques should be individualised according to symptoms, the amount of expectorated mucus and the objectives signs of secretions retention or subjective signs of difficulty expectorating secretions with progression of the disease.

  13. 24 CFR 58.22 - Limitations on activities pending clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on activities pending clearance. 58.22 Section 58.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... RESPONSIBILITIES General Policy: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.22 Limitations on activities pending...

  14. Antipyrine clearance during experimental and occupational exposure to toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, M; Bælum, Jesper; Lundqvist, G R

    1983-01-01

    into four groups. Eighteen printers and 21 controls were exposed to 100 ppm of toluene during 6.5 hours in an exposure chamber. The remaining 18 printers and 18 controls were exposed to 0 ppm of toluene under similar conditions. The salivary clearance of antipyrine was measured immediately after the stay...

  15. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is one of the most commonly used procedures to remove renal calculi from the lower calyces. The aim of this work is to study the impact of radiological, anatomical and demographic factors on stone clearance after ESWL of lower calyceal calculi. Patients and ...

  16. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown. 61.20-23 Section...; bearing weardown. (a) Water lubricated bearings, other than rubber, must be rebushed as follows: (1) Where the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it is...

  17. Mechanisms of the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin in experimental peritonitis. VII. Hemoglobin does not inhibit clearance of Escherichia coli from the peritoneal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.; Barke, R.A.; Lee, J.T. Jr.; Condie, R.M.; Humphrey, E.W.; Simmons, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Hemoglobin has been shown to be a potent adjuvant in experimental Escherichia coli peritonitis, although a satisfactory mechanistic rationale is still obscure. Hemoglobin has been thought to impair intraperitoneal neutrophil function, delay clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by the normal absorptive mechanisms, or directly enhance bacterial growth. Using highly purified stroma-free hemoglobin (SFHgb), we have largely discounted any direct effect of hemoglobin on peritoneal white blood cell function. In the present study, we confirmed that uncontrolled proliferation of bacteria takes place in the presence of hemoglobin in the peritoneal cavity. Nonviable 5-iododeoxyuridine 125 I-labelled bacteria were then used to directly study peritoneal clearance kinetics, eliminating the problem of bacterial growth. SFHgb had no influence on the removal of intraperitoneal bacteria. The rate of bloodstream appearance of radiolabel was similar with or without intraperitoneal SFHgb. Thus, SFHgb does not prevent clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by interfering with normal host clearance mechanisms. SFHgb may act as a bacterial growth adjuvant, either by serving as a bacterial nutrient or by suitably modifying the environment so that extensive bacterial proliferation can occur. The latter hypothesis appears to be an area in which investigation concerning the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin may prove most fruitful

  18. Influence of circulating epinephrine on absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernqvist, E.; Gunnarsson, R.; Linde, B.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of epinephrine (Epi) infusion on the absorption of subcutaneously injected 125I-labeled soluble human insulin (10 U) from the thigh or the abdomen were studied in 16 healthy subjects and from the thigh in 10 insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients. Epi was infused at 0.3 (high dose) or 0.1 (low dose; healthy subjects) nmol.kg-1.min-1 i.v., resulting in arterial plasma Epi levels of approximately 6 and 2 nM, respectively. Saline was infused on a control day. Insulin absorption was measured as disappearance of radioactivity from the injection site and as appearance of plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe clearance technique. First-order disappearance rate constants of 125I from the thigh depot decreased approximately 40-50% during the high dose of Epi compared with control (P less than .001). The corresponding decrease from the abdominal depot was approximately 40% (P less than .001), whereas no significant change was found during the low Epi dose. IRI fell compared with control in all groups at the high Epi dose. The Epi-induced depression of insulin absorption occurred despite unaltered or even slightly increased subcutaneous blood flow. The results indicate that circulating Epi at levels seen during moderate physical stress depresses the absorption of soluble insulin from subcutaneous injection sites to an extent that might be important for glycemic control in IDDM patients. Furthermore, dissociation is found between changes in insulin absorption and subcutaneous blood flow during Epi infusion, suggesting that factors other than blood flow may also influence the absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin

  19. Oxygen Tension Beneath Scleral Lenses of Different Clearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giasson, Claude J; Morency, Jeanne; Melillo, Marc; Michaud, Langis

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the relative partial pressure in oxygen (pO2) at the corneal surface under Boston XO2 scleral lenses (SL) fitted with targeted clearances of 200 and 400 μm (SL200 and SL400). During this prospective study, the right eyes of eight normal subjects were fitted with SL200 and SL400. Clearance, validated after 5 minutes of wear with an optical coherence tomograph, was used with lens thicknesses to calculate transmissibility and estimate pO2. Corneal pO2s were measured with an oxygen electrode after 5 minutes of (1) corneal exposure to calibrating gases with various pO2 or of (2) SL wear. Decays in pO2 were modeled to an exponential. Linear regression between exponent k of these decays and calibrating gas pO2s allowed for the calculation of corneal pO2 under SL. Differences between pO2s beneath SL200 and SL400 were tested with a mixed ANOVA. The estimated transmissibility based on thicknesses and clearances (239.7 ± 34.7; 434.5 ± 33.2 μm) predicted a corneal pO2 of 8.52 ± 0.51 and 6.37 ± 0.28% for SL200 and SL400. These values were close to measured pO2: 9.07 ± 0.86 and 6.19 ± 0.87% (mean ± SEM) (P time, an 18-mm scleral lens fitted with a 400-μm clearance reduces the oxygen tension available to the cornea by 30% compared to a similar lens fitted with a 200-μm clearance after 5 minutes of wear.

  20. Production of plastic scintillation survey meter for clearance verification measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Mitsuo; Shiraishi, Kunio; Ishigami, Tsutomu; Tomii, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    In the Nuclear Science Research Institute, the decommissioning of various nuclear facilities is carried out according to the plan for meeting the midterm goal of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). An increase in the clearance verification measurement of concrete on buildings and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas will be expected along with the dismantlement of nuclear facilities in the future. The radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas has been carried out in small-scale nuclear facilities including the JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor). However, the radiation measurement with an existing measuring device was difficult in effects of radiation from radioactive materials that remains in buried piping. On the other hand, there is no experience that the clearance verification measurement is executed in the JAEA. The generation of a large amount of clearance object will be expected along with the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in the future. The plastic scintillation survey meter (hereafter, 'PL measuring device') was produced to apply to the clearance verification measurement and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas. The basic characteristic test and the actual test were confirmed using the PL measuring device. As a result of these tests, it was found that the evaluation value of radioactivity with the PL measuring device was accuracy equal with the existing measuring device. The PL measuring device has feature of the existing measuring device with a light weight and easy operability. The PL measuring device can correct the gamma ray too. The PL measuring device is effective to the clearance verification measurement of concrete on buildings and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas. (author)

  1. Impairment of paravascular clearance pathways in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Benjamin T; Iliff, Jeffrey J; Xia, Maosheng; Wang, Minghuan; Wei, Helen S; Zeppenfeld, Douglas; Xie, Lulu; Kang, Hongyi; Xu, Qiwu; Liew, Jason A; Plog, Benjamin A; Ding, Fengfei; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-12-01

    In the brain, protein waste removal is partly performed by paravascular pathways that facilitate convective exchange of water and soluble contents between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF). Several lines of evidence suggest that bulk flow drainage via the glymphatic system is driven by cerebrovascular pulsation, and is dependent on astroglial water channels that line paravascular CSF pathways. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the efficiency of CSF-ISF exchange and interstitial solute clearance is impaired in the aging brain. CSF-ISF exchange was evaluated by in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy and interstitial solute clearance was evaluated by radiotracer clearance assays in young (2-3 months), middle-aged (10-12 months), and old (18-20 months) wild-type mice. The relationship between age-related changes in the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and changes in glymphatic pathway function was evaluated by immunofluorescence. Advancing age was associated with a dramatic decline in the efficiency of exchange between the subarachnoid CSF and the brain parenchyma. Relative to the young, clearance of intraparenchymally injected amyloid-β was impaired by 40% in the old mice. A 27% reduction in the vessel wall pulsatility of intracortical arterioles and widespread loss of perivascular AQP4 polarization along the penetrating arteries accompanied the decline in CSF-ISF exchange. We propose that impaired glymphatic clearance contributes to cognitive decline among the elderly and may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  2. Comparison of renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and inulin 131I-hippurate and PAH as well as creatinine clearance in Wistar-rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, J.; Li Min Su; Strangfeld, D.; Schuerer, M.; Siewert, H.; Pietsch, R.; Kruse, I.; Priem, F.

    1988-01-01

    Averages and standard deviations of 99m Tc-DTPA and 131 I-hippurate slope clearance were consecutively determined for 56 male Wistar rats, with a body-weight of 271 ± 69 g in a single investigation. Clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA was 17.4 ± 3.4, that of 131 I-hippurate was 34.3 ± 7.2 μl · s -1 per 100 g body weight. For 17 rats inulin and PAH clearances were determined after 3 days with the steady-state method with continuous infusion and 3-4 periods of urine collection. During the same periods endogeneous creatinine clearance was determined. 99m Tc-DTPA slope clearance correlated well with inulin clearance, also the hippurate with the PAH clearance. The high values of the filtration fraction, calculated from radioisotope and chemical methods, and the low PAH extraction of 42% lead to the conclusion, that PAH and hippurate are incompletely eliminated by the rat kidney from plasma and therefore are inadequate for determining renal blood flow in rats. Creatinine clearance was 4.7 ± 1.38 μl · s -1 per 100 g body weight, much lower than that of inulin and 99m Tc-DTPA. Therefore is assumed, that tubular reabsorption of creatinine occurs and creatinine clearance cannot serve for the evaluation of GFR in rats. For this, however, the clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA seems well applicable in Wistar rats. (author)

  3. Comparison of renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and inulin, 131I-hippurate and PAH as well as of the creatinine clearance in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, J.; Li Min Su; Strangfeld, D.; Schuerer, M.; Siewert, H.; Pietsch, R.; Kruse, I.; Priem, F.

    1988-01-01

    Order of magnitude and standard deviation of 99m Tc-DTPA and 131 I-hippurate slope clearance were analyzed successively in 56 male Wistar rats. The clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA was 17.4 ± 3.43 μl · s -1 (100 g b-w) -1 , of 131 I-hippurate 34.3 ± 7.21 μl · s -1 (100 g b-w) -1 . In 17 rats inulin and PAH clearances were analyzed by steady state method with permanent infusion and 3 to 4 urine collection periods 3 days later. The endogeneous creatinine clearance was determined within the same periods. The 99m Tc-DTPA slope clearance corresponded to the inulin clearance, as well as the hippurate clearance to the PAH clearance. The high filtration fraction calculated from nuclear medicine and chemical clearance methods and the low PAH extraction (42%) let suggest that PAH and hippurate are eliminated only incompletely from plasma in rat kidney and are unsuitable for determination of renal blood supply in rats. The creatinine clearance with 4.7 ± 1.38 μl · s -1 (100 g b-w) -1 was far beneath the clearance of inulin and 99m Tc-DTPA, supposing that creatinine is reabsorbed tubularly in part and the creatinine clearance can not be used for valuation of the GFR in rats. However, for this the 99m Tc-DTPA clearance in Wistar rats seems to be well suited. (author)

  4. Optical absorption in dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supritz, C.; Engelmann, A.; Reineker, P.

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched molecules, which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers, where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. We investigate the linear absorption spectra of these dendrimer types using the Frenkel exciton concept. The electron-phonon interaction is taken into account by introducing a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner

  5. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  6. The effect of monascin on hematoma clearance and edema after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Gaiqing; Yi, Jinying; Xu, Yi; Duan, Shuna; Li, Tong; Sun, Xin-Gang; Dong, Liang

    2017-09-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a particularly devastating form of stroke with high mortality and morbidity. Hematomas are the primary cause of neurologic deficits associated with ICH. The products of hematoma are recognized as neurotoxins and the main contributors to edema formation and tissue damage after ICH. Finding a means to efficiently promote absorption of hematoma is a novel clinical challenge for ICH. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), had been shown that, can take potential roles in the endogenous hematoma clearance. However, monascin, a novel natural Nrf2 activator with PPARγ agonist, has not been reported to play a role in ICH. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of monascin on neurological deficits, hematoma clearance and edema extinction in a model of ICH in rats. 164 adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham; vehicle; monascin groups with low dosages (1mg/kg/day), middle dosages (5mg/kg/day) and high dosages (10mg/kg/day) respectively. Animals were euthanized at 1, 3 and 7days following neurological evaluation after surgery. We examined the effect of monascin on the brain water contents, blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability and hemoglobin levels, meanwhile reassessed the volume of hematoma and edema around the hematoma by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in each group. The high dosage of monascin significantly improved neurological deficits, reduced the volume of hematoma in 1-7days after ICH, decreased BBB permeability and edema formation in 1-3days following ICH. Our study demonstrated that the high dosage of monascin played a neuroprotective role in ICH through reducing BBB permeability, edema and hematoma volume. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 78 FR 74175 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  8. A comparison of analytic procedures for measurement of fractional dextran clearances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmelder, MH; de Jong, PE; de Zeeuw, D

    Fractional dextran clearances have been extensively used to study glomerular size selectivity. We report on an analysis of different laboratory procedures involved in measuring fractional dextran clearances. The deproteinization of plasma samples by 20% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) revealed a protein

  9. 76 FR 45645 - 10-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technology Security/Clearance Plans, Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...: Technology Security/Clearance Plans, Screening Records, and Non-Disclosure Agreements ACTION: Notice of... Information Collection: Technology Security/ Clearance Plans, Screening Records, and Non-Disclosure Agreements...: None. Respondents: Business and Nonprofit Organizations, Foreign Governments. Estimated Number of...

  10. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN MAC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  11. 7 CFR 1927.53 - Costs of title clearance and closing of transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs of title clearance and closing of transactions... and Loan Closing § 1927.53 Costs of title clearance and closing of transactions. The borrower or the... payment of all costs of title clearance and closing of the transaction and will arrange for payment before...

  12. Online monitoring of dynamic tip clearance of turbine blades in high temperature environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu; Zhong, Chong; Zhu, Xiaoliang; Zhe, Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Minimized tip clearance reduces the gas leakage over turbine blade tips and improves the thrust and efficiency of turbomachinery. An accurate tip clearance sensor, measuring the dynamic clearances between blade tips and the turbine case, is a critical component for tip clearance control. This paper presents a robust inductive tip clearance sensor capable of monitoring dynamic tip clearances of turbine machines in high-temperature environments and at high rotational speeds. The sensor can also self-sense the temperature at a blade tip in situ such that temperature effect on tip clearance measurement can be estimated and compensated. To evaluate the sensor’s performance, the sensor was tested for measuring the tip clearances of turbine blades under various working temperatures ranging from 700 K to 1300 K and at turbine rotational speeds ranging from 3000 to 10 000 rpm. The blade tip clearance was varied from 50 to 2000 µm. The experiment results proved that the sensor can accurately measure the blade tip clearances with a temporal resolution of 10 µm. The capability of accurately measuring the tip clearances at high temperatures (~1300 K) and high turbine rotation speeds (~30 000 rpm), along with its compact size, makes it promising for online monitoring and active control of blade tip clearances of high-temperature turbomachinery.

  13. 49 CFR 236.22 - Semaphore signal arm; clearance to other objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semaphore signal arm; clearance to other objects... Rules and Instructions: All Systems Roadway Signals and Cab Signals § 236.22 Semaphore signal arm; clearance to other objects. At least one-half inch clearance shall be provided between semaphore signal arm...

  14. 48 CFR 245.7101-4 - DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. 245.7101-4 Section 245.7101-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Forms 245.7101-4 DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. Use to request plant clearance assistance or...

  15. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev

    1984-01-01

    we found no correlation between clearance values based on venous and arterial sampling. In other experiments we measured the influence of physical exercise in young healthy subjects on the clearance rate of plasma adrenaline (A). The clearance of A, which at rest averaged 1.9 l/min tended to increase...

  16. Determination of Lung-to-Blood Absorption Rates for Lead and Bismuth which are Appropriate for Radon Progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.W.; Birchall, A.

    1999-01-01

    The ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) treats clearance as a competitive process between absorption into blood and particle transport to the gastrointestinal tract and lymphatics. The ICRP recommends default absorption rates for lead and bismuth in ICRP Publication 71 but states that the values are not appropriate for short-lived radon progeny. This paper describes an evaluation of published data from volunteer experiments to estimate the absorption half-times of lead and bismuth that are appropriate for short-lived radon progeny. The absorption half-time for lead was determined to be 10±2 h, based on 212 Pb lung and blood retention data from several studies. The absorption half-time for bismuth was estimated to be about 13 h, based on 212 Bi urinary excretion data from one experiment and the ICRP biokinetic model for bismuth as a decay product of lead. (author)

  17. Atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haswell, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy is now well established and widely used technique for the determination of trace and major elements in a wide range analyte types. There have been many advances in the atomic spectroscopy over the last decade and for this reason and to meet the demand, it was felt that there was a need for an updated book. Whilst interest in instrumental design has tended to dominate the minds of the spectrocopist, the analyst concerned with obtaining reliable and representative data, in diverse areas of application, has been diligently modifying and developing sample treatment and instrumental introduction techniques. Such methodology is de fundamental part of analysis and form the basis of the fourteen application chapters of this book. The text focuses in the main on AAS; however, the sample handling techniques described are in many cases equally applicable to ICP-OES and ICP-MS analysis. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  18. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    In atomic absorption spectrophotometer, a reference path may be provided for radiation which excludes the flame. This radiation provides a signal from a detector which varies only with the instrumental drift produced by variations in the radiation source brightness and by variations in detector gain. The signal can be used to compensate for drift in other signals received through a sample path including the flame. In the present invention, radiation passes through the sample path continuously during measurement, and only through the reference path between sample measurements. Movable mirrors shift the radiation between the paths upon externally applied commands. Conveniently, the reference path measurement is made while the flame is stabilized during the change between samples. The reference path measurements are stored and used to correct for drift

  19. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  20. Semen amyloids participate in spermatozoa selection and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roan, Nadia R; Sandi-Monroy, Nathallie; Kohgadai, Nargis; Usmani, Shariq M; Hamil, Katherine G; Neidleman, Jason; Montano, Mauricio; Ständker, Ludger; Röcker, Annika; Cavrois, Marielle; Rosen, Jared; Marson, Kara; Smith, James F; Pilcher, Christopher D; Gagsteiger, Friedrich; Sakk, Olena; O'Rand, Michael; Lishko, Polina V; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan; Greene, Warner C

    2017-06-27

    Unlike other human biological fluids, semen contains multiple types of amyloid fibrils in the absence of disease. These fibrils enhance HIV infection by promoting viral fusion to cellular targets, but their natural function remained unknown. The similarities shared between HIV fusion to host cell and sperm fusion to oocyte led us to examine whether these fibrils promote fertilization. Surprisingly, the fibrils inhibited fertilization by immobilizing sperm. Interestingly, however, this immobilization facilitated uptake and clearance of sperm by macrophages, which are known to infiltrate the female reproductive tract (FRT) following semen exposure. In the presence of semen fibrils, damaged and apoptotic sperm were more rapidly phagocytosed than healthy ones, suggesting that deposition of semen fibrils in the lower FRT facilitates clearance of poor-quality sperm. Our findings suggest that amyloid fibrils in semen may play a role in reproduction by participating in sperm selection and facilitating the rapid removal of sperm antigens.

  1. Preparation of iodine-125-labeled iothalamate for renal clearance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.A.; Herold, T.J.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Iothalamate, a derivative of benzoic acid, is used as a contrast medium for renal function studies, particularly for measurement of glomerular filtration rate. Its chemical composition and clearance properties are similar to those of diatrizoate. The structural differences between these groups of iodinated benzoic acid derivatives are dependent on the groups attached at the 3- and 5-positions of 2,4,6-tri-iodobenzoic acid. The renal clearance of sodium iothalamate in humans closely approximates that of inulin, and it is used as a replacement for inulin in determining glomerular filtration rate. /sup 125/I-labeled iothalamate sodium can be prepared by the exchange-labeling method at pH 4.0. Iothalamate must first be isolated from the contrast medium preparation and purified before radioiodination. After radioiodination, the product is purified by means of precipitation and is then converted to the sodium salt

  2. Diesel Engine Valve Clearance Detection Using Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Elamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated, using experimental method, the suitability of acoustic emission (AE technique for the condition monitoring of diesel engine valve faults. The clearance fault was adjusted experimentally in an exhaust valve and successfully detected and diagnosed in a Ford FSD 425 four-cylinder, four-stroke, in-line OHV, direct injection diesel engine. The effect of faulty exhaust valve clearance on engine performance was monitored and the difference between the healthy and faulty engine was observed from the recorded AE signals. The measured results from this technique show that using only time domain and frequency domain analysis of acoustic emission signals can give a superior measure of engine condition. This concludes that acoustic emission is a powerful and reliable method of detection and diagnosis of the faults in diesel engines and this is considered to be a unique approach to condition monitoring of valve performance.

  3. Quantitative static scintigraphy for the evaluation of mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maini, C.L.; Marchetti, L.; Giordano, A.; Antonelli Incalzi, R.; Fuso, L.

    1988-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance can be evaluated by radionuclide techniques, but such approaches have been usually implemented only in research-oriented laboratories because of technical difficulties. A very practical radionuclide method is here presented which requires only three static acquisitions after the inhalation of a polydisperse radioaerosol produced by a commercial generator. Data processing is also very simple. The diagnostic performance of the method was tested on a study population of 10 healthy subjects and 10 patients with athrophic bronchitis; a higly significance difference between normal and pathological patients was found. Its simple implementation and diagnostic yield recommend this radionuclide method for the routine assessment of mucociliary clearance also in busy clinical-oriented laboratories

  4. Prognostic value of lactate clearance in severe community acquired pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Kamel Abd Elaziz; Ahmed, Dief Abd Elgalil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Severe community acquired pneumonia (SCAP) occurs in approximately 18–36% of all CAP and the mortality rate could be as high as 67% in patients with SCAP. Several studies have described a correlation between baseline lactate concentration and mortality of ICU patients. Aim of the work: To follow lactate clearance after admission for 24 h which could be an indicator of outcome in severe community acquired pneumonia. Patients and methods: Forty-six consecutively admitted adu...

  5. Numerical investigation of tip clearance cavitation in Kaplan runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, K.; Semenov, G.; Kuznetsov, I.; Spiridonov, E.

    2016-11-01

    There is a gap between the Kaplan runner blade and the shroud that makes for a special kind of cavitation: cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Two types of cavitation caused by the presence of clearance gap are known: tip vortex cavitation that appears at the core of the rolled up vortex on the blade suction side and tip clearance cavitation that appears precisely in the gap between the blade tip edge and the shroud. In the context of this work numerical investigation of the model Kaplan runner has been performed taking into account variable tip clearance for several cavitation regimes. The focus is put on investigation of structure and origination of mechanism of cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Calculations have been performed with the help of 3-D unsteady numerical model for two-phase medium. Modeling of turbulent flow in this work has been carried out using full equations of Navier-Stokes averaged by Reynolds with correction for streamline curvature and system rotation. For description of this medium (liquid-vapor) simplification of Euler approach is used; it is based on the model of interpenetrating continuums, within the bounds of this two- phase medium considered as a quasi-homogeneous mixture with the common velocity field and continuous distribution of density for both phases. As a result, engineering techniques for calculation of cavitation conditioned by existence of tip clearance in model turbine runner have been developed. The detailed visualization of the flow was carried out and vortex structure on the suction side of the blade was reproduced. The range of frequency with maximum value of pulsation was assigned and maximum energy frequency was defined; it is based on spectral analysis of the obtained data. Comparison between numerical computation results and experimental data has been also performed. The location of cavitation zone has a good agreement with experiment for all analyzed regimes.

  6. Dextran fractional clearance studies in acute dengue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nguyen-Pouplin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although increased capillary permeability is the major clinical feature associated with severe dengue infections the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Dextran clearance methodology has been used to investigate the molecular sieving properties of the microvasculature in clinical situations associated with altered permeability, including during pregnancy and in various renal disorders. In order to better understand the characteristics of the vascular leak associated with dengue we undertook formal dextran clearance studies in Vietnamese dengue patients and healthy volunteers.We carried out serial clearance studies in 15 young adult males with acute dengue and evidence of vascular leakage a during the phase of maximal leakage and b one and three months later, as well as in 16 healthy control subjects. Interestingly we found no difference in the clearance profiles of neutral dextran solutions among the dengue patients at any time-point or in comparison to the healthy volunteers.The surface glycocalyx layer, a fibre-matrix of proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and plasma proteins, forms a complex with the underlying endothelial cells to regulate plasma volume within circumscribed limits. It is likely that during dengue infections loss of plasma proteins from this layer alters the permeability characteristics of the complex; physical and/or electrostatic interactions between the dextran molecules and the glycocalyx structure may temporarily restore normal function, rendering the technique unsuitable for assessing permeability in these patients. The implications for resuscitation of patients with dengue shock syndrome (DSS are potentially important. It is possible that continuous low-dose infusions of dextran may help to stabilize the permeability barrier in patients with profound or refractory shock, reducing the need for repeated boluses, limiting the total colloid volume required. Formal clinical studies should help to assess

  7. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M; Chaurio, Ricardo; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E; Janko, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes. (paper)

  8. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  9. Losses and blade tip clearance for a centrifugal compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRESCU

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the numerical analysis for a transonic centrifugal compressor using steady state CFD. The blade tip clearance effect over the position of shock waves, tip losses and the performances of the impeller are studied. Numerical simulations have been performed using RANS modelling, with the k-omega SST turbulence model (Shear Stress Transport. Eight cases were taken into consideration for the impeller with the following blade tip clearances values: 0 mm, 0.1 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5mm, 0.7 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, at the same operating conditions. For the entire stage only seven cases were studied, without the value for 0.1 mm because of its abnormal behaviour, as can be seen in the case of the impeller simulations. Results showed that the position of the shock wave does not change with the increase of the tip clearance. Aerodynamic losses due to shock wave, secondary flow and turbulence can be seen in the polytropic efficiency of the centrifugal impeller and the difference between the two extreme cases is about 3.2 %.

  10. Railway clearance intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingfang; Guo, Baoqing; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In the stage of railway construction and operation, objects intruding railway clearance greatly threaten the safety of railway operation. Real-time intrusion detection is of great importance. For the shortcomings of depth insensitive and shadow interference of single image method, an intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision is proposed to reconstruct the 3D scene for locating the objects and judging clearance intrusion. The binocular cameras are calibrated with Zhang Zhengyou's method. In order to improve the 3D reconstruction speed, a suspicious region is firstly determined by background difference method of a single camera's image sequences. The image rectification, stereo matching and 3D reconstruction process are only executed when there is a suspicious region. A transformation matrix from Camera Coordinate System(CCS) to Track Coordinate System(TCS) is computed with gauge constant and used to transfer the 3D point clouds into the TCS, then the 3D point clouds are used to calculate the object position and intrusion in TCS. The experiments in railway scene show that the position precision is better than 10mm. It is an effective way for clearance intrusion detection and can satisfy the requirement of railway application.

  11. Rate-Based Model Predictive Control of Turbofan Engine Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    An innovative model predictive control strategy is developed for control of nonlinear aircraft propulsion systems and sub-systems. At the heart of the controller is a rate-based linear parameter-varying model that propagates the state derivatives across the prediction horizon, extending prediction fidelity to transient regimes where conventional models begin to lose validity. The new control law is applied to a demanding active clearance control application, where the objectives are to tightly regulate blade tip clearances and also anticipate and avoid detrimental blade-shroud rub occurrences by optimally maintaining a predefined minimum clearance. Simulation results verify that the rate-based controller is capable of satisfying the objectives during realistic flight scenarios where both a conventional Jacobian-based model predictive control law and an unconstrained linear-quadratic optimal controller are incapable of doing so. The controller is evaluated using a variety of different actuators, illustrating the efficacy and versatility of the control approach. It is concluded that the new strategy has promise for this and other nonlinear aerospace applications that place high importance on the attainment of control objectives during transient regimes.

  12. Dysregulation of Nutrient Sensing and CLEARance in Presenilin Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavya Reddy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated auto-lysosomal system has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD, yet all underlying molecular mechanisms leading to this impairment are unknown. We show that the amino acid sensing of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 is dysregulated in cells deficient in presenilin, a protein associated with AD. In these cells, mTORC1 is constitutively tethered to lysosomal membranes, unresponsive to starvation, and inhibitory to TFEB-mediated clearance due to a reduction in Sestrin2 expression. Normalization of Sestrin2 levels through overexpression or elevation of nuclear calcium rescued mTORC1 tethering and initiated clearance. While CLEAR network attenuation in vivo results in buildup of amyloid, phospho-Tau, and neurodegeneration, presenilin-knockout fibroblasts and iPSC-derived AD human neurons fail to effectively initiate autophagy. These results propose an altered mechanism for nutrient sensing in presenilin deficiency and underline an importance of clearance pathways in the onset of AD.

  13. Kupffer cell complement receptor clearance function and host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loegering, D J

    1986-01-01

    Kupffer cells are well known to be important for normal host defense function. The development of methods to evaluate the in vivo function of specific receptors on Kupffer cells has made it possible to assess the role of these receptors in host defense. The rationale for studying complement receptors is based on the proposed important role of these receptors in host defense and on the observation that the hereditary deficiency of a complement receptor is associated with recurrent severe bacterial infections. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that forms of injury that are associated with depressed host defense including thermal injury, hemorrhagic shock, trauma, and surgery also cause a decrease in complement receptor clearance function. This decrease in Kupffer cell receptor clearance function was shown not to be the result of depressed hepatic blood flow or depletion of complement components. Complement receptor function was also depressed following the phagocytosis of particulates that are known to depress Kupffer cell host defense function. Endotoxemia and bacteremia also were associated with a depression of complement receptor function. Complement receptor function was experimentally depressed in uninjured animals by the phagocytosis of IgG-coated erythrocytes. There was a close association between the depression of complement receptor clearance function and increased susceptibility to the lethal effects of endotoxin and bacterial infection. These studies support the hypotheses that complement receptors on Kupffer cells are important for normal host defense and that depression of the function of these receptors impairs host defense.

  14. Hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, B G; Loegering, D J; Blumenstock, F A; Shah, D M

    1986-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that in vivo hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function is depressed following thermal injury. The present study was carried out to determine if complement receptor function depression is associated with other states of depressed host defense. Hepatic complement receptor clearance function was determined from the hepatic uptake of rat erythrocytes coated with antierythrocyte IgM (EIgM) in rats. Receptor function was determined following cannulation of a carotid artery, laparotomy plus enterotomy, hemorrhagic shock, trauma, thermal injury, acute bacteremia, acute endotoxemia, and injection of erythrocyte stroma, gelatinized lipid emulsion, or colloidal carbon. Hepatic uptake of EIgM was depressed following each of these experimental interventions except arterial cannulation. This effect was shown not to be due to a decrease in hepatic blood flow or depletion of complement and was therefore due to a depression in hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function. Thus, impairment of hepatic macrophage complement receptor function is associated with several states of depressed host defense.

  15. Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2002-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor (HPC) and high pressure turbine (HPT) can provide dramatic reductions in specific fuel consumption (SFC), time-on-wing, compressor stall margin, and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities. Maintenance costs to overhaul large commercial gas turbine engines can easily exceed $1M. Engine removal from service is primarily due to spent exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margin caused mainly by the deterioration of HPT components. Increased blade tip clearance is a major factor in hot section component degradation. As engine designs continue to push the performance envelope with fewer parts and the market drives manufacturers to increase service life, the need for advanced sealing continues to grow. A review of aero gas turbine engine HPT performance degradation and the mechanisms that promote these losses are discussed. Benefits to the HPT due to improved clearance management are identified. Past and present sealing technologies are presented along with specifications for next generation engine clearance control systems.

  16. The provision of clearances accuracy in piston - cylinder mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhov, V. I.; Shalay, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The paper is aimed at increasing the quality of the pumping equipment in oil and gas industry. The main purpose of the study is to stabilize maximum values of productivity and durability of the pumping equipment based on the selective assembly of the cylinder-piston kinematic mating by optimization criterion. It is shown that the minimum clearance in the piston-cylinder mating is formed by maximum material dimensions. It is proved that maximum material dimensions are characterized by their own laws of distribution within the tolerance limits for the diameters of the cylinder internal mirror and the outer cylindrical surface of the piston. At that, their dispersion zones should be divided into size groups with a group tolerance equal to half the tolerance for the minimum clearance. The techniques for measuring the material dimensions - the smallest cylinder diameter and the largest piston diameter according to the envelope condition - are developed for sorting them into size groups. Reliable control of the dimensions precision ensures optimal minimum clearances of the piston-cylinder mating in all the size groups of the pumping equipment, necessary for increasing the equipment productivity and durability during the production, operation and repair processes.

  17. Smoking produced mucus and clearance of particulates in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, T.D.; Poland, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Some studies of miners have shown a lesser relative lung-cancer risk for smokers than for nonsmokers. For example, experiments by Cross and associates with dogs have shown an apparent protective effect of cigarette smoke against radon-daughter and dust exposure. One reason for these changes may be the thickened mucus layer in the tracheobronchial region of smokers. Physiological changes in the lung due to smoking may decrease the effects of radioactive particles in cancers in the bronchial region by apparently promoting faster clearance, in that region, of radioactive particles and by decreasing the radiation dose through reduced penetration to the sensitive basal epithelial cells. Because of the short half-life of radon daughters, even if there is possible tobacco-related delay of particle clearance from the alveolar region it cannot affect radon clearance. Therefore, the possible mitigating effect of tobacco on radon-produced cancer appears to be limited to the tracheobronchial region. It would be of value to a number of occupations if the same changes in the lungs due to smoking could be produced in exposed workers in the absence of cigarette-smoking. Beta-carotene and vitamin A, which affect maintenance and secretion of the mucosal lining, appear to thicken mucus, thereby providing protection against radon-induced lung cancers that is similar to smoking-related changes in the lung

  18. Effect of Guide Vane Clearance Gap on Francis Turbine Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Koirala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Francis turbine guide vanes have pivoted support with external control mechanism, for conversion of pressure to kinetic energy and to direct them to runner vanes. This movement along the support is dependent on variation of load and flow (operating conditions. Small clearance gaps between facing plates and the upper and lower guide vane tips are available to aid this movement, through which leakage flow occurs. This secondary flow disturbs the main flow stream, resulting performance loss. Additionally, these increased horseshoe vortex, in presence of sand, when crosses through the gaps, both the surfaces are eroded. This causes further serious effect on performance and structural property by increasing gaps. This paper discusses the observation of the severity in hydropower plants and effect of clearance gaps on general performance of the Francis turbine through computational methods. It also relates the primary result with the empirical relation for leakage flow prediction. Additionally, a possible method to computationally estimate thickness depletion has also been presented. With increasing clearance gap, leakage increases, which lowers energy conversion and turbine efficiency along with larger secondary vortex.

  19. Quantitative assessment of caffeine partial clearances in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelo, A; Miners, J O; Robson, R A; Birkett, D J

    1986-01-01

    Five subjects who participated in an earlier study (Lelo et al., 1986b) of the comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine (CA) and its primary monodemethylated metabolites paraxanthine (PX), theobromine (TB) and theophylline (TP) were administered CA to steady-state. Using areas under the plasma concentration-time curves for each of the dimethylxanthines derived from CA in the steady-state study and individual plasma clearances of PX, TB and TP determined in the previous study, the fractional conversion of CA to PX, TB and TP and the individual partial clearances of CA have been defined. The mean (+/- s.d.) fractional conversion of CA to PX, TB and TP was 79.6 +/- 21.0%, 10.8 +/- 2.4% and 3.7 +/- 1.3%, respectively. When only demethylation pathways are considered PX, TB and TP accounted for 83.9 +/- 5.4%, 12.1 +/- 4.1% and 4.0 +/- 1.4%, respectively of the CA demethylations. The mean partial clearance of CA to PX was approximately 8-fold and 23-fold greater than those to TB and TP respectively. These data confirm earlier reports that PX is the major metabolite of CA in humans but suggest that PX formation is quantitatively more important than previously believed. PMID:3756066

  20. Dynamic Studies of Lung Fluid Clearance with Phase Contrast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Williams, Ivan; Irvine, Sarah C.; Morgan, Michael J.; Paganin, David M.; Lewis, Rob A.; Pavlov, Konstantin; Hooper, Stuart B.; Wallace, Megan J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2007-01-01

    Clearance of liquid from the airways at birth is a poorly understood process, partly due to the difficulties of observing and measuring the distribution of air within the lung. Imaging dynamic processes within the lung in vivo with high contrast and spatial resolution is therefore a major challenge. However, phase contrast X-ray imaging is able to exploit inhaled air as a contrast agent, rendering the lungs of small animals visible due to the large changes in the refractive index at air/tissue interfaces. In concert with the high spatial resolution afforded by X-ray imaging systems (<100 μm), propagation-based phase contrast imaging is ideal for studying lung development. To this end we have utilized intense, monochromatic synchrotron radiation, together with a fast readout CCD camera, to study fluid clearance from the lungs of rabbit pups at birth. Local rates of fluid clearance have been measured from the dynamic sequences using a single image phase retrieval algorithm

  1. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffiantini, V.

    1981-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrophotometry is essentially an analytical technique used for quantitative trace metal analysis in a variety of materials. The speed and specificity of the technique is its greatest advantage over other analytical techniques. What atomic absorption spectrophotometry can and cannot do and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed, a summary of operating instructions are given, as well as a summary of analytical interferences. The applications of atomic absorption spectrophotometry are also shortly discussed

  2. Nonlinear effects in collective absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenoyama, Takeshi; Mima, Kunioki; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro.

    1981-01-01

    The collective absorption of high intensity laser radiation is analyzed numerically. Density profile modification due to the ponderomotive force associating laser radiation and the excited electron plasma waves is self-consistently taken into account, and the intensity dependences of the absorption efficiency are obtained. In the high intensity regime, the absorption efficiency is found to be strongly enhanced in the plasma without flow, but reduced with supersonic flow. (author)

  3. Test Rig for Evaluating Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Robbie, Malcolm G.

    2003-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor and high pressure turbine can provide dramatic improvements in specific fuel consumption, time-on-wing, compressor stall margin and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities of both military and commercial gas turbine engines. The preliminary design of a mechanically actuated active clearance control (ACC) system for turbine blade tip clearance management is presented along with the design of a bench top test rig in which the system is to be evaluated. The ACC system utilizes mechanically actuated seal carrier segments and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. The purpose of this active clearance control system is to improve upon current case cooling methods. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, re-burst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). The active turbine blade tip clearance control system design presented herein will be evaluated to ensure that proper response and positional accuracy is achievable under simulated high-pressure turbine conditions. The test rig will simulate proper seal carrier pressure and temperature loading as well as the magnitudes and rates of blade tip clearance changes of an actual gas turbine engine. The results of these evaluations will be presented in future works.

  4. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  5. Galactic absorption line coronae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregman, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated whether gaseous coronae around galaxies rise to the absorption systems seen in quasar spectra. In our model, gas originally located in the disk is heated to the million degree range and rises to surround the galaxy; the gas remains bound to the galaxy. Optically thin radiative cooling drives a thermal instability in the hot gas which causes cool clouds (T 4 K) to condense out of the corona. These clouds, which follow ballistic trajectories back to the disk, are the absorption sites. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic code with radiative cooling was used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of the corona as well as the position rate at which clouds form. Coupled to the code is a galaxy with two mass components, a disk (approx.10 11 M/sub sun/) and a dark halo (approx.10 12 M/sub sun/). In a model where the temperature at the base of the corona (in the disk) is 3 x 10 6 K, absorbing gas of column density NL> or approx. =10 18 cm 2 extends radially to 100 kpc (face-on orientation) and vertically to 60 Kpc (edge-on orientation). The total mass of gas required here (coronal plus cloud gas) is 1.4 x 10 10 M/sub sun/, while the minimum supernova heating rate is one supernova per 27 years. In two other models (base coronal temperatures of 0.50 x 10 6 K and 1 x 10 6 K), coronal gas rises from an extended gaseous disk (in the previous model, the gas comes from a typical gaseous disk approximately 15 kpc in extent). Here, column densities of 10 19 cm -2 out to a radius of 70 kpc (face-on orientation) are achieved with a total gas mass of 1.7 x 10 9 M/sub direct-product/ and 2.0 x 10 9 M/sub sun/ and minimum heating rates of approximately one supernova per 170 years and one supernova per 60 years

  6. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2017-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle.

  7. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2018-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle....

  8. Atomic absorption instrument functional description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroff, R.I.; Boyle, W.G. Jr.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes a proposed system for automating atomic absorption analysis. The system consists of two atomic absorption instruments and an automatic sampler that can be attached to either instrument. A computer program controls the sampling and gathers data. The program then uses the data to perform bookkeeping, data processing, and report writing

  9. Sublinear absorption in OCS gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogani, F.; Querzoli, R.; Ernst, K.

    1988-01-01

    Sublinear absorption in OCS gas has been experimentally studied in detail by means of an optoacustic technique and transmission measurements. The best fit of the results is obtained by a phenomenological model, that considers the process as the sum of one-and two-photon absorptions

  10. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  11. Water absorption in brick masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Smolders, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    The water absorption in brick, mortar that was cured separately, and masonry samples was studied using NMR. Models of the moisture transport are usually formulated on the basis of a diffusion equation. In the case of water absorption in separate brick and mortar samples, the moisture diffusivity in

  12. Subgap absorption in conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); McBranch, D.; Heeger, A.J. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA)); Baker, G.L. (Bell Communications Research, Inc., Red Bank, NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynen, I.; Quievy, N.; Bailly, C.; Bollen, P.; Detrembleur, C.; Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I.; Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  14. Clearance rates of jellyfish and their potential predation impact on zooplankton and fish larvae in a neritic ecosystem (Limfjorden, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L. J.; Moeslund, O.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    clearance potential were given assumed clearance rate values, but the collective predation potential by these species was evaluated to be small. Hydromedusae dominated numerically and had their highest potential clearance impact in spring, but overall jellyfish clearance potential on copepods was low during...

  15. SOIL QUALITY CHANGES FOLLOWING FOREST CLEARANCE IN BENGKULU, SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. HANDAYANI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense destruction and degradation of tropical forests is recognized as one of the environmental threats and tragedies. These have increased the need to assess the effects of subsequent land-use following forest extraction on soil quality. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of land-use type on soil quality properties in Bengkulu Province, Sumatra. Soil samples were collected from adjacent sites including natural secondary forest, bare land, cultivated land and grassland. The results show that land-use following forest clearance lowered saturated hydraulic conductivity (85%, porosity (10.50%, soil water content at field capacity (34%,C organic (27%, N total (26%, inorganic N (37%, soil microbial biomass C (32%, mineralizable C (22%, and particulate organic matter (50%, but slightly increased water soluble organic C. Specific respiration activi ty rates increased about 14% in cultivated soils compared to natural forest soils, indicating greater C turnover per labile C pool in the form of soil microbial biomass, thus decreased biologically active soil organic matter. Forest conversion tends to reduce the C,ffg/Crer for all deforested sites. All of deforested areas relatively have infertile soil, with the worst case found in cultivated field. The C^g/Crd of cultivated field s was about 24% less than that of remnant fo rest (1.07. Grassland apparently mainta ins only slightly higher soil C levels than the bare land. On average, degradation index of so il following forest clearance was 35% with the highest deterioration occurred in the bare land (38%. Fallowing the fields by naturally growth of Imperata cylindrica for about 15 yr in abandoned land after 3-5 years of cultivation did not improve the soil quality. Moreover, forest clearance has an impact on soil quality as resulted in the loss of a physically protected organic matter and reduction in some labile C pools, thus declined biological activity at disturbed

  16. 99mTc-DTPA Pulmonary Clearance in Normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soo Kyo; Yang, Woo Jin; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1994-01-01

    Pulmonary clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA(PCD) has been used for the measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability. It has been reported to be increased not only in variety of pulmonary diseases including ARDS, interstitial fibrosis, and smokers, but also in normal subjects on positive end expiratory pressure respirator, or after exercise. It was also noted that decrease of pulmonary blood flow due to pulmonary arterial obstruction results in delayed PCD. Normal range of PCD varies with institutes. We prospectively measured PCD in 17 normals (5 males and 12 females) consisted of staffs and trainees in the department of radiology of Kangnam St, Marys hospital using original Bark Nebulizer (India). Age ranged from 32 to 43 years. 370 MBq of 99m Tc-DTPA was inhaled in supine position and supine posterior images were subsequently obtained with 1 min/frame, 64 X 64 matrix and word mode for 30 min. Regions of interest. Were set on each lung, whole lungs, and upper, middle and lower thirds of right lung, respectively. Best fit regression curve was obtained by least square method from initial 7 min after peak activity on each curve and time for half clearance of maximum activity (tl/2) was calculated. Mean tl/2 was 51 ± 11.2 min for whole lung. There was no significant difference between tl/ 2 of right and left lungs. Initial uptake was higher in the lower third and tl/2 was shorter in the lower third than in the upper third(P<0.05). We reviewed several reports on PCD and compared our data with the others. In this study, faster clearance in the lower third may be due to the position imaged with or the environment the subjects belong to, and further investigation is under way.

  17. Autophagic clearance of bacterial pathogens: molecular recognition of intracellular microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Maria Eugenia Mansilla; Colombo, Maria I

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is involved in several physiological and pathological processes. One of the key roles of the autophagic pathway is to participate in the first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens, as part of the innate immune response. Targeting of intracellular bacteria by the autophagic machinery, either in the cytoplasm or within vacuolar compartments, helps to control bacterial proliferation in the host cell, controlling also the spreading of the infection. In this review we will describe the means used by diverse bacterial pathogens to survive intracellularly and how they are recognized by the autophagic molecular machinery, as well as the mechanisms used to avoid autophagic clearance.

  18. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir

    2010-01-01

    or therapeutic evaluation presented details of their methodologies. Attendees participating in the workshop discussions included those interested in the physiology of MCC/CC, some of who use in vitro or animal methods for its study, pharmaceutical companies developing muco-active therapies, and many who were......A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed...

  19. Lung clearance of polydispersed colloidal 198Au particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Addabbo, A.; Fanfani, G.

    1975-01-01

    Lung clearance was studied on a group of subjects over 65 years old and on subjects aged between 30 and 40. A slowing down of material deposited in the bronchial tubes (polydispersed colloidal 198 Au particles) was observed in the senile subjects. This phenomenon is apparently related not only to a reduced activity of the vibratile ciliae, in connection with the frequent metaplasia of the bronchial cylindrical epithelium, but also to a quantitative and qualitative change in the mucopolysaccharides forming the mucus secretion [fr

  20. Robotic Range Clearance Competition (R2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    MON TUE MAP MAP VEG automated vegetation clearance, automated Aug 10 Aug 11 WED THU Med VEG ia and Visitor D MAP ay Aug 12 FRI SURF...competitors will not be penalized if they enter this area. For the competition we will add an additional Pan , Tilt, Zoom (PTZ) Camera that will be...Johnston’s Corner –Gas Station Restaurant: Pizza, Fired Chicken , Subs 550 W Whalen St., Guernsey, WY 82214 (307) 836-3155 R2C2 Competitor Information

  1. Bacterial clearance after total splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, R.G. E-mail: rmarques@uerj.br; Petroianu, Andy; Oliveira, M.B.N. de; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Portela, M.C

    2002-12-01

    Wistar rats submitted to isolated total splenectomy or total splenectomy combined with splenic autotransplantation were inoculated with {sup 99m}technetium-labeled Escherichia coli. Measurement of isotope uptake in the organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system showed a greater bacterial bloodstream clearance in rats with splenic autotransplantation. Although uptake of bacteria in the spleen was higher in the control group, the number of bacteria remaining in the bloodstream did not differ between groups. These results indicate that splenic autotransplantation preserves the phagocytic function of the spleen.

  2. Bacterial clearance after total splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, R.G.; Petroianu, Andy; Oliveira, M.B.N. de; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Portela, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Wistar rats submitted to isolated total splenectomy or total splenectomy combined with splenic autotransplantation were inoculated with 99m technetium-labeled Escherichia coli. Measurement of isotope uptake in the organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system showed a greater bacterial bloodstream clearance in rats with splenic autotransplantation. Although uptake of bacteria in the spleen was higher in the control group, the number of bacteria remaining in the bloodstream did not differ between groups. These results indicate that splenic autotransplantation preserves the phagocytic function of the spleen

  3. Decreased 133Xe clearance in the proximal femur in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.; Marek, J.; Jahoda, I.; Vilimovska, D.

    1986-01-01

    Using the 133 Xe tissue clearance method, the blood flow in the greater trochanter of the femur was studied in 30 patients with acromegaly. Both the washout rate constant (k 2 ) and blood flow (P 2 ) values are significantly decreased in acromegaly (p < 0.01). There is a significant negative correlation (r = -0.42, p < 0.05) between the flow values and mean daily concentrations of growth hormone in serum of acromegalic patients. The observation is presented as a preliminary evidence of a possible influence of growth hormone on the blood flow in bone. (author)

  4. Clearance of psoriasis: the impact of private versus public insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzney, Catherine D; Peterman, Caitlin; Saraiya, Ami; Au, Shiu-chung; Dumont, Nicole; Mansfield, Ryan; Gottlieb, Alice B

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis treatments and therapeutic response as they relate to private versus public patient insurance in the United States have not yet been reviewed. Improved understanding could clarify factors challenging optimal psoriasis management and offer insight for dermatologists treating psoriasis within our healthcare system. 258 subjects were included from a database of psoriasis patients seen at Tufts Medical Center (Boston, MA) during 2008-2014. Insurance was classified as primarily private or public (Medicare or MassHealth/Medicaid). Patients required a minimum of two consecutive visits per treatment and at least 8 weeks within one of four treatment categories: biologics, oral systemics/ phototherapy, combined biologics and oral systemics/phototherapy, or topicals only. Primary endpoint was the Simple-Measure for Assessing Psoriasis Activity (S-MAPA) calculated by multiplying Physician Global Assessment by Body Surface Area. S-MAPAMAPA improvement from baseline, and total drugs used per treatment course (“drug-switching”). 80.2% (n=207) and 19.8% (n=51) had primarily private and public insurance, respectively. 69.6% with private insurance were prescribed biologics versus 66.7% (public insurance) (P=0.689). 54% (private) versus 49% (public) achieved clearance (P=0.514). However, S-MAPA decreased 78.35% from baseline in those with private insurance compared to 61.48% (public) (P=0.036). On average, privately insured patients used at least twice as many same-category treatments, most commonly biologics, than publicly insured individuals (P=0.003). Drug-switching was significantly associated with clearance (P=0.024). Multivariate analysis demonstrated no significant differences in prescribed treatment categories, drug efficacy, clearance, S-MAPA, or drugswitching with respect to patient age. Treatment categories were comparably prescribed between insurance subgroups. However, privately insured patients achieved significantly greater degrees of clearance and

  5. Clearance, recycling and disposal of fusion activated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Forrest, R.; Forty, C.; Gulden, W.; Rocco, P.; Rosanvallon, S.

    2001-01-01

    The SEAFP-99 waste management studies include further explorations in the direction of activated materials management, adopting a more realistic approach in order to consolidate and refine the previous encouraging findings of SEAFP waste management studies performed till 1998. The main results were obtained in the following topics, impact of materials/components optimisation on waste management issues; integrated approach to recycling and clearance; analysis of the potential for fusion specific repositories and hazard-relevant nuclides/processes; materials detritiation. The overall conclusion is that the adoption of a more realistic approach for the analysis has been beneficial. The results further confirmed the potential for waste minimisation and hazard reduction

  6. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  7. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  8. Absorption factor for cylindrical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption factor for the scattering of X-rays or neutrons in cylindrical samples is calculated by numerical integration for the case in which the absorption coefficients of the incident and scattered beams are not equal. An extensive table of values having an absolute accuracy of 10 -4 is given in a companion report [Sears (1983). Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Report No. AECL-8176]. In the present paper an asymptotic expression is derived for the absorption factor which can be used with an error of less than 10 -3 for most cases of interest in both neutron inelastic scattering and neutron diffraction in crystals. (Auth.)

  9. Assessment of renal function with the Tc-99m-MAG3 clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keske, U.; Corcles, M.; Andreessen, R.; Wilfling, M.; Roll, D.; Gahl, G.; Felix, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the applicability of the 99m-Tc-mercaptoacetyle-triglycine (MAG3) clearance for the documentation of renal function. Renal clearance was measured with the method of Tauxe in 699 patients during routine renal scintigraphy with 80 MBq of 99mTc-MAG3. Serum creatinine level and MAG3 clearance show an inverse correlation. Patients with an elevated serum creatinine level constantly have a lowered MAG3 clearance and vice versa. For creatinine values lower than 1.8 mg/dL, minor changes in creatinine level are accompanied by large changes in MAG3 clearance. Age (in years) dependence of MAG3 clearance was evaluated in 487 patients who showed no evidence of impaired renal function

  10. Effect of isolated hepatic ischemia on organic anion clearance and oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minard, G; Bynoe, R; Wood, G C; Fabian, T C; Croce, M; Kudsk, K A

    1992-04-01

    Hepatic failure is frequently seen following severe hemorrhagic shock, sepsis, and trauma. Clearance of various drugs has been used to evaluate hepatocellular dysfunction, including indocyanine green (ICG), an organic anionic dye that is transported similarly to bilirubin, and antipyrine (AP), a marker of oxidative phosphorylation. Previous investigators have noted a decrease in ICG excretion following systemic hemorrhage. The effect of isolated hepatic ischemia on the clearances of ICG and AP was studied in 16 pigs after 90 minutes of vascular occlusion to the liver. Antipyrine clearance decreased almost 50% from baseline values at 24 and 72 hours after the ischemia procedure, indicating a significant depression in the cytochrome P-450 system. On the other hand, ICG clearance did not change significantly. In conclusion, ICG clearance is not depressed after isolated hepatic ischemia in pigs. Changes in organic anion clearance after systemic hemorrhage may be because of release of toxic products from ischemic peripheral tissue.

  11. Clearance of material with negligible levels of radioactivity based on the amended German radiation protection ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, G.; Bayer, A.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the modalities for the clearance of relevant materials have been laid down in the amended Radiation Protection Ordinance in a comprehensive form. A distinction is made between unconditional clearance and cases of clearance in which disposal, recycling, and re-use is prescribed. The focus of attention in the case of unconditional clearance consists in special consideration of large volumes of building rubble and excavated soil. Material can only be released from supervision under the Atomic Energy Act, when the radiation-related risk, and correspondingly, also the dose from material issued with clearance, are at negligible levels. In order to facilitate the practical application of clearance, values have been derived on the basis of scenarios which cover all radiation exposures which can reasonably be considered. (orig.) [de

  12. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainer, E.; Boner, G.; Lubin, E.; Rosenfeld, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was studied in 14 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance during HD was 37.8% +/- 10.1 of creatinine clearance. Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance in PD was 65.1% +/- 10.3 of creatinine clearance. Tc-99m DTPA, with a larger molecular weight than that of creatinine, is cleared relatively better during PD than during HD. Thus Tc-99m DTPA may be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of different dialytic treatments for substances of similar molecular weight. In addition, our study shows that clearance of DTPA both in HD and PD is sufficiently high to allow the removal of this chelating agent in patients with renal failure

  13. Understanding of the Interaction between Clearance Leakage Flow and Main Passage Flow in a VGT Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The clearance flow between the nozzle and endwall in a variable geometry turbine (VGT has been numerically investigated to understand the clearance effect on the VGT performance and internal flow. It was found that the flow rate through turbine increases but the turbine efficiency decreases with height of clearance. Detailed flow field analyses indicated that most of the efficiency loss resulting from the leakage flow occurs at the upstream of the rotor area, that is, in the nozzle endwall clearance and between the nozzle vanes. There are two main mechanisms associated with this efficiency loss. One is due to the formation of the local vortex flow structure between the clearance flow and the main flow. The other is due to the impact of the clearance flow on the main flow after the nozzle throat. This impact reduces the span of shockwave with increased shockwave magnitude by changing the trajectory of the main flow.

  14. Clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, J.A.H.; Wollmer, P.; Bakker, W.; Hannappel, E.; Lachmann, B.

    1992-01-01

    The authors measured clearance of 99m Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA) in rabbits with experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content. In one group of animals, surfactant production was increased by treatment with ambroxol, and another group of animals was treated with tracheal instillation of natural surfactant. A group of untreated control animals and animals treated with instillation of saline were also studied. Clearance was measured during standard conditions of mechanical ventilation and during ventilation with large tidal volumes. In ambroxol- and surfactant-treated groups, clearance rate was reduced compared with untreated control animals. In contrast, clearance rate increased after saline instillation. The differences were observed at both modes of ventilation. The findings indicate that the pulmonary surfactant system is a rate-limiting factor for the clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA and that the volume dependence of clearance is not explained by stretching of the alveolar wall only. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Measurement of single kidney contrast media clearance by multiphasic spiral computed tomography: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackstein, N.; Puille, M.F.; Bak, Benjamin H.; Scharwat, Oliver; Rau, W.S.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. We present preliminary results of a new method (hereinafter called 'CT-clearance') to measure single kidney contrast media clearance by performing multiphasic helical CT of the kidneys. CT-clearance was calculated according to an extension of the Patlak-Plot. In contrast to prior investigators, who repeatedly measured a single slice, this method makes it possible to calculate single kidney clearance from at least three spiral CTs, utilizing the whole kidney volume. Methods. Spiral CT of the kidneys was performed unenhanced and about 30 and 100 s after administration of about 120 ml iopromide. Sum-density of the whole kidneys and aortic density was calculated from this data. Using this data, renal clearance of contrast media was calculated by CT-clearance in 29 patients. As reference, Serum-clearance was calculated in 24 patients by application of a modified one-exponential slope model. Information on the relative kidney function was gained by renal scintigraphy with Tc99m-MAG-3 or Tc99m-DMSA in 29 patients. Results. Linear regression analysis revealed a correlation coefficient of CT-clearance with Serum-clearance of r=0.78 with Cl (CT) [ml/min]=22.2+1.03 * Cl (serum), n=24. Linear regression of the relative kidney function (rkf) of the right kidney calculated by CT-clearance compared to scintigraphy results provided a correlation coefficient r=0.89 with rkf(CT)[%]=18.6+0.58 * rkf(scintigraphy), n=29. Conclusion. The obtained results of contrast media clearance measured by CT-clearance are in the physiological range of the parameter. Future studies should be performed to improve the methodology with the aim of higher accuracy. More specifically, better determination of the aortic density curve might improve the accuracy

  16. USING TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNERS TO CALCULATE AND MAP VERTICAL BRIDGE CLEARANCE

    OpenAIRE

    C. Zhang; D. Arditi; Z. Chen

    2013-01-01

    The vertical clearance of a bridge over a highway is important in preventing oversized vehicles from hitting the bridge. The vertical clearance of a bridge is traditionally measured by using surveying equipment such as leveling rods and total stations. Typically, measurements are taken at multiple locations in order to determine the minimum vertical clearance under the bridge. This process is time and labor consuming. Also, these measurements may not be accurate because of the traffi...

  17. A simple method for the verification of clearance levels for non-radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.

    1997-01-01

    ANSTO's radiopharmaceutical production laboratories generate 25 m 3 of solid waste per month. Most of this waste is not radioactive. Up until recently the non-radioactive waste was cleared from the controlled area and stored for 10 halflives prior to disposal as normal solid refuse. To eliminate the storage and ''double handling'' of the large quantities of non-radioactive waste a simple clearance method was devised to allow direct disposal. This paper describes how clearance levels were determined. Here the term ''clearance level'' is used as a general term for the release of material regardless of whether it was previously subject to regulatory control. This contrasts with the IAEA definition of a clearance level and highlights a potential problem with the implementation of exemption levels to keep material out of regulatory control and the use of clearance levels to allow removal of materials from regulatory control. Several common hand held contamination monitors were tested to determine their limits of detection and ability to meet these clearance levels. The clearance method includes waste segregation and size limitation features to ensure the waste is monitored in a consistent manner, compatible with the limits of detection. The clearance levels achieved were subsequently found to be compatible with some of the unconditional clearance levels in IAEA-TECDOC-855 and the measurement method also meets the required features of that document. The ANSTO non-radioactive waste clearance system has been in operation for more than 12 months and has proved simple and effective to operate. Approximately 12m 3 of the solid waste is now been treated directly as normal solid refuse. This paper describes the ANSTO clearance system, the contamination monitor tests and details practical problems associated with the direct monitoring of solid waste, including averaging of the activity in the package. The paper also briefly highlights the potential problem with the use of

  18. LRP1 in Brain Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Mediates Local Clearance of Alzheimer's Amyloid-β

    OpenAIRE

    Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Liu, Chia-Chen; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Li, Jie; Bu, Guojun

    2012-01-01

    Impaired clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major pathogenic event for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ depositions in brain parenchyma as senile plaques and along cerebrovasculature as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are hallmarks of AD. A major pathway that mediates brain Aβ clearance is the cerebrovascular system where Aβ is eliminated through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and/or degraded by cerebrovascular cells along the interstitial fluid drainage pathway. An Aβ clearance receptor, the low-...

  19. The kidneys play a central role in the clearance of rhGH in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Thygesen, Peter; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2016-01-01

    at treatment of patients with growth hormone disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative importance of the kidneys in the clearance of rhGH. The study employed a newly validated nephrectomy rat model and a population based pharmacokinetic approach to assess renal clearance of rh...... that renal clearance plays a pivotal role in the elimination of rhGH in rats....

  20. Renal clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-diphosphonate in human beings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vattimo, A.

    1987-12-01

    The renal clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP was measured in 13 patients who had bone scans and compared with the renal clearance of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA. No difference was found between the renal clearance of the two tracers, showing a close correlation (r = 0.98). These data suggest that the /sup 99m/Tc-MDP is excreted by the kidneys by glomerular filtration without tubular secretion.

  1. Renal clearance of 99mTc-methylene-diphosphonate in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattimo, A.

    1987-01-01

    The renal clearance of 99m Tc-MDP was measured in 13 patients who had bone scans and compared with the renal clearance of 51 Cr-EDTA. No difference was found between the renal clearance of the two tracers, showing a close correlation (r = 0.98). These data suggest that the 99m Tc-MDP is excreted by the kidneys by glomerular filtration without tubular secretion. (orig.) [de

  2. Brain-wide pathway for waste clearance captured by contrast-enhanced MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Lee, Hedok; Yu, Mei; Feng, Tian; Logan, Jean; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene

    2013-01-01

    The glymphatic system is a recently defined brain-wide paravascular pathway for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange that facilitates efficient clearance of solutes and waste from the brain. CSF enters the brain along para-arterial channels to exchange with ISF, which is in turn cleared from the brain along para-venous pathways. Because soluble amyloid β clearance depends on glymphatic pathway function, we proposed that failure of this clearance system contributes t...

  3. A review of lung-to-blood absorption rates for radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J. W.; Bailey, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) treats clearance of materials from the respiratory tract as a competitive process between absorption into blood and particle transport to the alimentary tract and lymphatics. The ICRP recommended default absorption rates for lead and polonium (Type M) in ICRP Publication 71 but stated that the values were not appropriate for short-lived radon progeny. This paper reviews and evaluates published data from volunteer and laboratory animal experiments to estimate the HRTM absorption parameter values for short-lived radon progeny. Animal studies showed that lead ions have two phases of absorption: ∼10 % absorbed with a half-time of ∼15 min, the rest with a half-time of ∼10 h. The studies also indicated that some of the lead ions were bound to respiratory tract components. Bound fractions, f b , for lead were estimated from volunteer and animal studies and ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Based on the evaluations of published data, the following HRTM absorption parameter values were derived for lead as a decay product of radon: f r = 0.1, s r = 100 d -1 , s s = 1.7 d -1 , f b = 0.5 and s b = 1.7 d -1 . Effective doses calculated assuming these absorption parameter values instead of a single absorption half-time of 10 h with no binding (as has generally been assumed) are only a few per cent higher. However, as there is some conflicting evidence on the absorption kinetics for radon progeny, dose calculations have been carried out for different sets of absorption parameter values derived from different studies. The results of these calculations are discussed. (authors)

  4. Reduction in slow intercompartmental clearance of urea during dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, D.J.; Krejcie, T.C.; Avram, M.J.; Chow, M.J.; Del Greco, F.; Atkinson, A.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of urea and inulin were analyzed in five anesthetized dogs during sequential 2-hour periods before, during, and after hemodialysis. The distribution of both compounds after simultaneous intravenous injection was characterized by three-compartment models, and the total volumes of urea (0.66 +/- 0.05 L/kg) and inulin (0.19 +/- 0.01 L/kg) distribution were similar to expected values for total body water and extravascular space, respectively. Intercompartmental clearances calculated before dialysis were used to estimate blood flows to the fast and slow equilibrating compartments. In agreement with previous results, the sum of these flows was similar to cardiac output, averaging 101% of cardiac output measured before dialysis (range 72% to 135%). Dialysis was accompanied by reductions in the slow intercompartmental clearances of urea (81%) and inulin (47%), which reflected a 90% attenuation in blood flow supplying the slow equilibrating compartments. This was estimated to result in a 10% average reduction in the efficiency with which urea was removed by dialysis (range 2.0% to 16.4%). Mean arterial pressure fell by less than 5% during dialysis, but total peripheral resistance increased by 47% and cardiac output fell by 35%. In the postdialysis period, total peripheral resistance and cardiac output returned toward predialysis values, but blood flow to the slow equilibrating peripheral compartment was still reduced by 80%. These changes parallel activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but further studies are required to establish causality

  5. Two-phase deep-lung clearance in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohning, D.E.; Cohn, S.H.; Lee, H.D.; Atkins, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    For toxicological as well as physiological considerations, it is important to determine whether the long-term clearance of particles from the lungs of man takes place in more than one temporal subphase. Although long-term retention can be characterized with a single exponential, the existence of two distinct components would significantly alter estimates of overall residence times and hence potential effects of inhaled particulates. Physiological interpretations of the mechanisms of long-term particle clearance depend on the identification and quantification of such temporal subphases. A highly sensitive whole-body counter was used to measure the long-term retention of inhaled particles in man. After inhalation of 85 Sr, lung retention was monitored in eight volunteers for periods ranging from 197 to 399 days. Their pulmonary-function values fell within normal limits, and they reported no symptoms of lung disease. Four of the individuals had never smoked, and four had not smoked for a minimum of 5 years. Single exponential representation half-times for the long-term retention were comparable between the two groups and were combined to give a mean half-time of 197 +- 32 days

  6. Biliary clearance of bromosulfophthalein in healthy and ketotic Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Kirovski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a metabolic disorder closely associated with liver lipidosis. Numerous tests have been developed to detect hepatic dysfunction in dairy cows. Bromosulfophthalein (BSP clearance is established as a sensitive index of hepatic function. The objective of this study was to examine the difference of biliary excretion of BSP between ketotic and healthy Holstein cows and to correlate this excretion with other indicators of liver dysfunction. Twenty puerperal Holstein cows divided in two groups (10 cows each were involved in the study. The first group included healthy and the second group ketotic cows. Blood samples were taken 10 days after parturition. Concentrations of total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, Ca, P, total lipids, urea and glucose were determined. Immediately after blood sampling, BSP test was performed. Blood samples were taken 5 and 45 minutes after injection, and the percentage of retained pigment in the sample obtained at minute 45 was calculated. Blood albumin and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in healthy then ketotic cows. Total bilirubin concentration was significantly higher in ketotic than healthy cows. BSP excretion was significantly higher in ketotic compared to healthy cows. There was a significant positive correlation between BSP values and total bilirubin concentrartions in both healthy and ketotic cows and a significant negative correlation between BSP values and glucose concentrartions in both healthy and ketotic cows. In conclusion, biliary clearance of BSP may be used as a reliable method for the detection of hepatic dysfunction associated with clinical symptoms of ketosis in dairy cows.

  7. A study for promoting measures of social acceptance on clearance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru; Torii, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Clearance is one of the useful concepts to manage large amounts of slightly contaminated solid radioactive materials generated from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Cleared materials are expected to be disposed of as conventional wastes or recycled to produce consumer goods. In Japan, the legal frame-work for clearance was established in 2005 by amending the Law to regulate nuclear materials, reactors and so on. However, it is not so clear whether the general public understands clearance well. In this paper, major concerns about clearance from the general public are analyzed based on the public comments for reports on clearance prepared by the Nuclear Safety Commission and the Nuclear Institute Safety Agency. The major anxieties for clearance expressed by the general public are the safety of clearance, unknown factors of radiation effects, possibilities of excess radiation exposure due to inadequate measurements of radioactivities and fairness in decision making. In order to deal with those anxieties, some countermeasures including the confidence in nuclear operators and regulatory authorities and controllability of clearance by the general public are discussed to promote the social acceptance of clearance by the general public. (author)

  8. The role of clearance in Germany - release of materials, buildings and sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    2005-01-01

    Clearance in Germany is far advanced. A complex regulatory framework exists in the Radiation Protection Ordinance (RPO/Strahlenschutzverordnung, StrlSchV) since 2001 which has replaced previous recommendations on clearance issued by the German Radiation Protection Commission (Strahlenschutzkommission, SSK). A number of options exist both for unconditional clearance (e.g. of all kinds of materials with no restrictions on the destination or future use) and for clearance for a specific purpose (e.g. recycling of metal scrap). For each clearance option there is a set of nuclide specific clearance levels which have been derived on the basis of the 10 Sv/a individual dose criterion using complex radiological models which are tailored to the respective material cycles (metal scrap, buildings, building rubble, waste for disposal, sites). The clearance levels have been thoroughly reviewed by the SSK. An extensive comparison to sets of clearance levels used in other countries or issued as guidance by international bodies revealed that the correspondence between values is between good and acceptable taking into account country-specific approaches and special assumptions which would not necessarily pertain to German situations. Clearance is a major factor in the material management, especially of nuclear installations undergoing decommissioning. The variety of clearance options leaves the operator of a nuclear installation sufficient flexibility for optimisation of the material management. Clearance is of particular importance in a country like Germany where the estimated costs for a future repository are very high and the interim storage facilities for radioactive material are limited and costly. While the licensee is responsible for his material management, the issuance of a clearance permit is done by the regulatory body upon application. The regulators may choose to use the clearance levels and regulations as stipulated by the RPO, or to impose site-specific regulations on

  9. Not All Children with Cystic Fibrosis Have Abnormal Esophageal Neutralization during Chemical Clearance of Acid Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Frederick W; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; Machado, Rodrigo Strehl; Nemastil, Christopher J; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Hayes, Don; Kopp, Benjamin T; Kaul, Ajay; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Mousa, Hayat

    2017-09-01

    Acid neutralization during chemical clearance is significantly prolonged in children with cystic fibrosis, compared to symptomatic children without cystic fibrosis. The absence of available reference values impeded identification of abnormal findings within individual patients with and without cystic fibrosis. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that significantly more children with cystic fibrosis have acid neutralization durations during chemical clearance that fall outside the physiological range. Published reference value for acid neutralization duration during chemical clearance (determined using combined impedance/pH monitoring) was used to assess esophageal acid neutralization efficiency during chemical clearance in 16 children with cystic fibrosis (3 to chemical clearance exceeded the upper end of the physiological range in 9 of 16 (56.3%) children with and in 3 of 16 (18.8%) children without cystic fibrosis ( p =0.0412). The likelihood ratio for duration indicated that children with cystic fibrosis are 2.1-times more likely to have abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance, and children with abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance are 1.5-times more likely to have cystic fibrosis. Significantly more (but not all) children with cystic fibrosis have abnormally prolonged esophageal clearance of acid. Children with cystic fibrosis are more likely to have abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance. Additional studies involving larger sample sizes are needed to address the importance of genotype, esophageal motility, composition and volume of saliva, and gastric acidity on acid neutralization efficiency in cystic fibrosis children.

  10. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  11. Microwaves absorption in superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasi, R.S. de; Fernandes, A.A.R.; Pereira, R.F.R.

    1989-01-01

    Microwaves absorption measures in two superconductors ceramics systems, Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O are compared with similars datas obtained in the same band of temperature by a conventional method, mutual inductance. The results suggest that the microwaves absorption can be used as single and non-destructive method for investigating the properties of ceramics superconductors. (C.G.C.) [pt

  12. Ultrasonic absorption in solid specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwabessy, P.J. W.; Stewart, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a project to measure the absorption of high frequency (50 - 500 kHz) sonar signals in warm sea-water, a laboratory apparatus has been constructed and tested against room temperature distilled water and various solutions of MgSO 4 (chemical relaxation of MgSO 4 is the major contribution to absorption below 200 kHz). The technique involves monitoring the decay of an acoustic signal for different sizes of vessels of water suspended in an evacuated chamber. So far, all containing vessels used have been spherical in shape. Extrapolation of the results to infinite volume yields the absorption due to the water alone. In order to accommodate variations in temperature and pressure, and to make the system more robust (e.g. for ship deck usage), it is desirable to employ stainless steel vessels. However, it was found that the quality of the data was greatly improved when pyrex glass spheres were used. The stainless steel spheres were manufactured by welding together mechanically spun hemispheres. The linear frequency dependence characteristic of acoustic absorption in solids was observed (in contrast to the quadratic frequency dependence of acoustic absorption in water), and the acoustic absorption was found to depend strongly on the thermal history of the steel

  13. Decreased absorption as a possible cause for the lower bioavailability of a sustained-release propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Ogata, H; Warabioka, R; Kashiwada, K; Ohira, M; Someya, K

    1990-03-01

    The influence of sustained absorption on the oral availability of propranolol (P) and the metabolic disposition of P were investigated by obtaining the partial metabolic clearances (CLm) following long-acting P (LA) dosing in comparison with the conventional propranolol tablet (CP). Ten healthy volunteers were given a single oral dose of an LA capsule (60 mg) and CP (20 mg x 3) using a crossover design. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24- and 48-h postdose periods, respectively. Concentrations of P, propranolol glucuronide (PG), 4-hydroxypropranolol (4P), 4-hydroxypropranolol glucuronide (4PG), 4-hydroxypropranolol sulfate (4PS), and naphthoxylactic acid (NLA) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence and UV detection. Significant differences were observed between LA and CP in the area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs) for P, PG, and NLA and in the amounts excreted into urine (Ae) for all measured metabolites (i.e., PG, 4P, 4PG, 4PS, and NLA). The parallel decrease of the AUC for P and the excreted amounts of all measured metabolites following LA dosing resulted in partial metabolic clearances (CLm) and renal clearances (CL) for P and its metabolites that were similar to those observed for CP. Therefore, the hepatic metabolism of P would not be affected by the slower absorption at a single oral dose of 60 mg. These results indicate that the poor absorption of P from the gastrointestinal tract might be one of the factors causing the low bioavailability of P observed after administration of the sustained-release formulation.

  14. Absorption characteristics of epidural levobupivacaine with adrenaline and clonidine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkiadis, George A; Abdullah, Farah; Bjorksten, Andrew R; Clarke, Alexander; Cortinez, Luis I; Udayasiri, Sonal; Anderson, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    To determine if the addition of adrenaline, clonidine, or their combination altered the pharmacokinetic profile of levobupivacaine administered via the caudal epidural route in children. Children aged adrenaline 5 mcg · ml(-1) or clonidine 2 mcg · ml(-1) or their combination. Covariate analysis included weight and postnatal age (PNA). Time-concentration profile analysis was undertaken using nonlinear mixed effects models. A one-compartment linear disposition model with first-order input and first-order elimination was used to describe the data. The effect of either clonidine or adrenaline on absorption was investigated using a scaling parameter (Fabs(CLON), Fabs(ADR)) applied to the absorption half-life (Tabs). There were 240 children (median weight 11.0, range 1.9-56.1 kg; median postnatal age 16.7, range 0.6-167.6 months). Absorption of levobupivacaine was faster when mixed with clonidine (Fabs(CLON) 0.60; 95%CI 0.44, 0.83) but slower when mixed with adrenaline (Fabs(ADR) 2.12; 95%CI 1.45, 3.08). The addition of adrenaline to levobupivacaine resulted in a bifid absorption pattern. While initial absorption was unchanged (Tabs 0.15 h 95%CI 0.12, 0.18 h), there was a late absorption peak characterized by a Tabs(LATE) 2.34 h (95%CI 1.44, 4.97 h). The additional use of clonidine with adrenaline had minimal effect on the bifid absorption profile observed with adrenaline alone. Neither clonidine nor adrenaline had any effect on clearance. The population parameter estimate for volume of distribution was 157 l 70 kg(-1). Clearance was 6.5 l · h(-1) 70 kg(-1) at 1-month PNA and increased with a maturation half-time of 1.6 months to reach 90% of the mature value (18.5 l · h(-1) 70 kg(-1)) by 5 months PNA. The addition of adrenaline decreases the rate of levobupivacaine systemic absorption, reducing peak concentration by half. Levobupivacaine concentrations with adrenaline adjuvant were reduced compared to plain levobupivacaine for up to 3.5 hours. Clonidine as an

  15. Bronchoscintigraphy and pulmonary clearance of {sup 99{sup m}}Tc-albumin colloid in study of mucociliary clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann

    1998-12-31

    A radioaerosol based method for measuring MC was introduced. It included an inhalation protocol that resulted in a predominant deposition of radioaerosol in the central bronchi and two simple procedures of evaluation: 1) a visual semi-quantitative bronchoscintigraphic analysis, and 2) a quantitative analysis of the retention of the radioactivity at different points after the inhalation. The results showed that bronchoscintigraphy was a simple technique that may be used to visualize a stimulation of mucociliary transport in the central airways of individuals that do not suffer from too much mucus hypersecretion. Comparison of the MC between individuals, however, should preferably be performed by the method of quantitative analysis of the radioactivity disappearance. A change of MC was found to be one of the first detectable effects on lung function of tobacco smoking. It could be effectively detected by measurement of radioaerosol clearance both by bronchoscintigraphy and simple quantification of the MC. The MC may be either acutely enhanced, reduced or not changed by smoking. Long-term smoking impairs MC. The enhancement of MC by {beta}{sub 2}-agonists was very limited in most patients with CF. In the hope of increasing mucus transport in patients with CF, these are treated with various chest physiotherapy techniques. The radioaerosol based method of measurement of MC could assess mucus clearance by chest physiotherapy and cough. (au) 141 refs.

  16. Gastrointestinal absorption of neptunium and curium in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.S.; Harrison, J.D.; Ham, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption of Np and Cm has been determined in five male adult volunteers. The Np and Cm, which were in citrate solution, were taken with food. An initial experiment with each individual determined the fraction of each element excreted in the urine following intravenous administration. Subsequently, the results for urinary excretion for the two routes of administration were used to calculate the fractional absorption (f1) of ingested Np and Cm. The mean f1 values were: Np (2.0 +/- 0.2) X 10 - 4 , range (1.2-2.9) X 10 - 4 , and Cm (1.7 +/- 0.3) X 10 - 4 , range (0.95-3.0) X 10 - 4 , the quoted uncertainties being the standard error of the means. Currently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends a value of 10 - 3 for both elements. Cumulative urinary excretion over 1 wk after intravenous injection accounted for about 20%-40% of administered Np and 7%-10% of Cm. At the conclusion of the experiment, the total committed effective dose equivalent for each volunteer was calculated to be in the range 130-250 microSv, based on the individual f1 values, and, in some cases, a knowledge of the rate of clearance of 239 Np through the gut as measured by whole-body counting

  17. An analytical solution for percutaneous drug absorption: application and removal of the vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, L; Loney, N W

    2005-10-01

    The methods of Laplace transform were used to solve a mathematical model developed for percutaneous drug absorption. This model includes application and removal of the vehicle from the skin. A system of two linear partial differential equations was solved for the application period. The concentration of the medicinal agent in the skin at the end of the application period was used as the initial condition to determine the distribution of the drug in the skin following instantaneous removal of the vehicle. The influences of the diffusion and partition coefficients, clearance factor and vehicle layer thickness on the amount of drug in the vehicle and the skin were discussed.

  18. The outline of clearance plan for Rokkasho uranium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuo; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Shouno, Shuuzou; Nozawa, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) started operation of uranium enrichment by metal cylinder centrifuge at Rokkasho Uranium Enrichment Plant in 1992. Since operation start, JNFL has extended the plant capacity sequentially, but metal cylinder centrifuges ceased operation gradually with time. Replacement to advanced centrifuge is under construction now. Generally, Uranium Enrichment Plant continues operation by replacing centrifuges after a certain period of operation. So, many used centrifuges (metal waste) are generated through the operation period. JNFL is now considering the disposal plan. We can reduce the radioactivity level that is not necessary to treat as the radioactive waste by decontaminating the radioactive material sticking to the surface of metal materials of used centrifuge. And JNFL plants to recycle (reuse) metal material by making much of the clearance system. (author)

  19. Techniques for blade tip clearance measurements with capacitive probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Alexander

    2000-07-01

    This article presents a proven but advantageous concept for blade tip clearance evaluation in turbomachinery. The system is based on heavy duty probes and a high frequency (HF) and amplifying electronic unit followed by a signal processing unit. Measurements are taken under high temperature and other severe conditions such as ionization. Every single blade can be observed. The signals are digitally filtered and linearized in real time. The electronic set-up is highly integrated. Miniaturized versions of the electronic units exist. The small and robust units can be used in turbo engines in flight. With several probes at different angles in one radial plane further information is available. Shaft eccentricity or blade oscillations can be calculated.

  20. NRPB volunteer study: deposition and clearance of inhaled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etherington, G.; Smith, J.

    1996-01-01

    At the Board Meeting of the National Radiological Protection Board held on 15 February 1996, approval was given for an experimental study of the deposition and clearance of inhaled particles in the human nasal passage. This is the latest in a series of volunteer biokinetic studies that have been conducted at NRPB since its formation. This article explains the purpose of the study, how ethical approval was obtained, how the study will be performed, what volunteers will be asked to do, and what doses they will receive. Doses will of course be carefully controlled, and will be well below the annual limits set for such experiments. The success of the study is of course crucially dependent on recruitment of a sufficient number of volunteers. The aim of this article is to provide information to anyone who might be interested in volunteering. (UK)

  1. Clearance of chlamydial elementary bodies from the conjunctival sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.R.; Velez, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of disappearance of inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body (EB) preparations from the conjunctival sac was studied in monkeys. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) cytology showed that the majority of EB had been cleared from the eye within 24 hr of the inoculation of 1 X 10(6) inactivated EB, although small numbers of EB could be detected for up to 144 hr. The rate of clearance in normal and ocular immune animals did not differ, and formalin-killed and UV-inactivated EBs disappeared at a comparable rate. These studies suggest that chlamydial EB are cleared relatively quickly from the eye and support the notion that EBs detected by DFA cytology indicate the presence of current infection

  2. Macrophage Clearance of Apoptotic Cells: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamon Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the body continues to grow and age, it becomes essential to maintain a balance between living and dying cells. Macrophages and dendritic cells play a central role in discriminating among viable, apoptotic, and necrotic cells, as selective and efficient phagocytes, without inducing inappropriate inflammation or immune responses. A great deal has been learnt concerning clearance receptors for modified and non-self-ligands on potential targets, mediating their eventual uptake, disposal, and replacement. In this essay, we assess current understanding of the phagocytic recognition of apoptotic cells within their tissue environment; we conclude that efferocytosis constitutes a more complex process than simply removal of corpses, with regulatory interactions between the target and effector cells, which determine the outcome of this homeostatic process.

  3. Clearance of buildings for demolition: ways to clearance on the standing structure for covered surfaces and inaccessible areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thraenert, S.; Riemann, T.

    2014-01-01

    In general terms, the TUV NORD Nuclear services encompass safety assessments, design reviews, documentation re-views and inspections. They reflect the full scope of a technical service provider in the nuclear field. In the domestic market, these services are provided for the regulator, whereas in the international market any party involved in a nuclear project is a potential customer of TUV NORD Nuclear. This implies that TUV NORD Nuclear is offering consultancy, engineering and inspection services. Regarding the clearance of buildings for demolition, there are two different possible ways for the radiological characterization. The first option is a characterization on the standing structure before demolition and the second option is the characterization of the building rubble after demolition. According to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, buildings of decommissioned nuclear sites have to be preferentially cleared on the standing structure. If compliance with the surface specific clearance levels is achieved on the standing structure, usually the cleared buildings can be demolished and the resulting rubble may be used without any further radiological considerations. In the case of the former nuclear power plant Wuergassen the majority of the building rubble is scheduled to stay on site to serve as backfill for the building pit. As such a scenario was not considered in the radiological considerations of, e.g., the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, an additional dose calculation was carried out for Wuergassen NPP basing on its radiological characteristics to directly prove compliance with the de-minimis-concept. The radiation controlled area (RCA) of Wuergassen NPP comprises an area of about 140.000 m 2 . This area is more or less easily accessible to characterization and decontamination using, if necessary, scaffoldings or lifting platforms. Up to the beginning of 2013, compliance with the surface specific clearance levels was verified on the standing

  4. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  5. Absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  6. Clearance measurements as a tool for waste minimization during decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konneus, Patrick; Andersson, Veronica; Lindberg, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Clearance, exemption or free release of material from regulatory control are three ways of expressing the same thing, minimizing the amount of waste that needs disposal as radioactive waste and therefor preserving a repository as a national asset. Studsvik Nuclear has utilized the former full body measurement cell as a shielded compartment used for gamma spectroscopy measurements of materials that may be subject to clearance. The cell was moved from its original position by heavy lifting and transport, as it was transported in one piece weighing 53 tonnes. The facility has basically 4 parts, the cell in which the item is place, the rotating table that rotates the item to get the best possible measurement, the ISOCS that measure the gamma rays and the operator room from which the facility runs. The detector is a BEGe with a relative efficiency of 50 % and is provided by Canberra. Apex is used as software for acquisition, calibration and data storage. The cell can take Bergloefs boxes up to a volume of 1.2m 3 and a weight of 3 tonnes can be rotated on the table. Other standard geometries are drums of 100 or 200 liters. The shielding improves the background radiation to a level where a measurement time of only 1200 s for a standard object (100 L/200 L drum, Bergloefs box) is needed. This means a high daily capacity of measurements. During 2011 measurements have been done on several different materials and together with sampling for alpha emitting nuclides the material has been released from regulatory control and either recycled or disposed of in a standard landfill or a land fill for hazardous waste. The materials released are copper from cable shredding that was measured, samples and recycled about 14 tonnes, titanium tubes about 35 tonnes also recycled and fiberglass/epoxy that has been released for waste treatment in a non-radioactive treatment facility. Measurements have also been done of waste with complex geometries. (authors)

  7. Absorption of manganese and iron in a mouse model of hemochromatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghan Kim

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disease associated with excessive intestinal iron absorption, is commonly caused by loss of HFE gene function. Both iron and manganese absorption are regulated by iron status, but the relationships between the transport pathways of these metals and how they are affected by HFE-associated hemochromatosis remain poorly understood. Loss of HFE function is known to alter the intestinal expression of DMT1 (divalent metal transporter-1 and Fpn (ferroportin, transporters that have been implicated in absorption of both iron and manganese. Although the influence of HFE deficiency on dietary iron absorption has been characterized, potential effects on manganese metabolism have yet to be explored. To investigate the role of HFE in manganese absorption, we characterized the uptake and distribution of the metal in Hfe (-/- knockout mice after intravenous, intragastric, and intranasal administration of (54Mn. These values were compared to intravenous and intragastric administration of (59Fe. Intestinal absorption of (59Fe was increased and clearance of injected (59Fe was also increased in Hfe(-/- mice compared to controls. Hfe (-/- mice displayed greater intestinal absorption of (54Mn compared to wild-type Hfe(+/+ control mice. After intravenous injection, the distribution of (59Fe to heart and liver was greater in Hfe (-/- mice but no remarkable differences were observed for (54Mn. Although olfactory absorption of (54Mn into blood was unchanged in Hfe (-/- mice, higher levels of intranasally-instilled (54Mn were associated with Hfe(-/- brain compared to controls. These results show that manganese transport and metabolism can be modified by HFE deficiency.

  8. Absorption of Manganese and Iron in a Mouse Model of Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghan; Buckett, Peter D.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disease associated with excessive intestinal iron absorption, is commonly caused by loss of HFE gene function. Both iron and manganese absorption are regulated by iron status, but the relationships between the transport pathways of these metals and how they are affected by HFE-associated hemochromatosis remain poorly understood. Loss of HFE function is known to alter the intestinal expression of DMT1 (divalent metal transporter-1) and Fpn (ferroportin), transporters that have been implicated in absorption of both iron and manganese. Although the influence of HFE deficiency on dietary iron absorption has been characterized, potential effects on manganese metabolism have yet to be explored. To investigate the role of HFE in manganese absorption, we characterized the uptake and distribution of the metal in Hfe −/− knockout mice after intravenous, intragastric, and intranasal administration of 54Mn. These values were compared to intravenous and intragastric administration of 59Fe. Intestinal absorption of 59Fe was increased and clearance of injected 59Fe was also increased in Hfe−/− mice compared to controls. Hfe −/− mice displayed greater intestinal absorption of 54Mn compared to wild-type Hfe+/+ control mice. After intravenous injection, the distribution of 59Fe to heart and liver was greater in Hfe −/− mice but no remarkable differences were observed for 54Mn. Although olfactory absorption of 54Mn into blood was unchanged in Hfe −/− mice, higher levels of intranasally-instilled 54Mn were associated with Hfe−/− brain compared to controls. These results show that manganese transport and metabolism can be modified by HFE deficiency. PMID:23705020

  9. Autogenic drainage for airway clearance in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Pamela; Burnham, Paul; Southern, Kevin W

    2017-10-06

    Autogenic drainage is an airway clearance technique that was developed by Jean Chevaillier in 1967. The technique is characterised by breathing control using expiratory airflow to mobilise secretions from smaller to larger airways. Secretions are cleared independently by adjusting the depth and speed of respiration in a sequence of controlled breathing techniques during exhalation. The technique requires training, concentration and effort from the individual. It is important to systematically review the evidence demonstrating that autogenic drainage is an effective intervention for people with cystic fibrosis. To compare the clinical effectiveness of autogenic drainage in people with cystic fibrosis with other physiotherapy airway clearance techniques. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, as well as two trials registers (31 August 2017).Dtae of most recent search of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 25 September 2017. We identified randomised and quasi-randomised controlled studies comparing autogenic drainage to another airway clearance technique or no therapy in people with cystic fibrosis for at least two treatment sessions. Data extraction and assessments of risk of bias were independently performed by two authors. The authors assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE system. The authors contacted two investigators for further information pertinent to their published studies. Searches retrieved 35 references to 21 individual studies, of which seven (n = 208) were eligible for inclusion. One study was of parallel design with the remaining six being cross-over in design; participant numbers ranged from 17 to 75. The total study duration varied between four days and two years. The age of participants ranged between seven and 63 years with a wide

  10. Relationship of end-expiratory pressure, lung volume, and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.A.; van der Zee, H.; Line, B.R.; Malik, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the dose-response effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and increased lung volume on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA). Clearance of lung radioactivity was expressed as percent decrease per minute. Base-line clearance was measured while anesthetized sheep (n = 20) were ventilated with 0 cmH 2 O end-expiratory pressure. Clearance was remeasured during ventilation at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, or 20 cmH 2 O PEEP. Further studies showed stepwise increases in functional residual capacity (FRC) (P less than 0.05) measured at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cmH 2 O PEEP. At 2.5 cmH 2 O PEEP, the clearance rate was not different from that at base line (P less than 0.05), although FRC was increased from base line. Clearance rate increased progressively with increasing PEEP at 5, 10, and 15 cmH 2 O (P less than 0.05). Between 15 and 20 cmH 2 O PEEP, clearance rate was again unchanged, despite an increase in FRC. The pulmonary clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA shows a sigmoidal response to increasing FRC and PEEP, having both threshold and maximal effects. This relationship is most consistent with the hypothesis that alveolar epithelial permeability is increased by lung inflation

  11. 20 CFR 653.501 - Requirements for accepting and processing clearance orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the job order. (i) No agricultural or food processing order shall be included in job bank listings... clearance any job order seeking workers to perform agricultural or food processing work before reviewing it... order seeking workers to perform agricultural or food processing work into intrastate clearance unless...

  12. Effect of prior immobilization on muscular glucose clearance in resting and running rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissing, J.; Ohkuwa, Tetsuo; Ploug, T.; Galbo, H.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that prior disuse impairs the glucose clearance of red skeletal muscle because of a developed insensitivity to insulin. We studied whether an impaired glucose clearance is present in vivo in 42-h immobilized muscles of resting rats and, furthermore, whether the exercise-induced increase in glucose clearance of red muscles is affected by prior immobilization. The 2-[ 3 H]deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) bolus injection method was used to determine glucose clearance of individual muscles. At rest, glucose clearance was markedly impaired in rats with previously immobilized red muscles compared with nonimmobilized control rats. During running, glucose clearance did not differ between muscles in previously immobilized and control rats. Insulin levels were always similar in the two groups and decreased during exercise. Intracellular nonphosphorylated 2DG was present in tissues with high glucose clearances. In conclusion, 42 h of immobilization markedly impairs glucose clearance of resting red muscle fibers in vivo. Apparently, physical inactivity in particular affects steps involved in insulin-mediated action that are not part of contraction-induced glucose uptake and metabolism. Presence of intracellular 2DG shows that separate determination of phosphorylated 2DG is necessary for accurate estimates of glucose metabolism and that accumulation of phosphorylated 2DG does not accurately reflect glucose transport

  13. 76 FR 24920 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  14. 76 FR 35069 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response...; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on... (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery...

  15. 76 FR 63301 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery'' to OMB for approval under...

  16. 76 FR 15027 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... clustering), the precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the...; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery'' to OMB for approval under...

  17. 76 FR 13019 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Department of...): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery '' to OMB for...

  18. 75 FR 80542 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods for assessing potential...; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery... Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency...

  19. 76 FR 37825 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... Activities; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: U...): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery '' to OMB for...

  20. 77 FR 52708 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods for assessing potential...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on... Information Collection request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  1. 76 FR 12140 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods for assessing potential...; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  2. 76 FR 19826 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods for assessing potential... Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY... (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery...

  3. 76 FR 20967 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: U... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery'' to OMB for approval under...

  4. 76 FR 17861 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods...; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  5. 76 FR 13020 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Department of... Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency...

  6. 76 FR 41280 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods for assessing potential non-response bias, the... Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative...): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery '' to OMB for...

  7. 76 FR 25693 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service... Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency...

  8. Intra-operative colloid administration increases the clearance of a post-operative fluid load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Tine; Hahn, Robert; Holte, K

    2009-01-01

    using volume kinetics based on the plasma dilution alone. The pre-operative plasma clearance was compared with the post-operative plasma clearance and patients served as their own control. RESULTS: The urinary excretion averaged 350 ml for the pre-operative infusion and 612 ml post-operatively, which...

  9. 76 FR 49838 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Internal... of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery. DATES: Written comments should be received on or... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service...

  10. 78 FR 72153 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Internal... of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery. DATES: Written comments should be received on or...: Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery. OMB Number: 1545...

  11. Error modelling and experimental validation of a planar 3-PPR parallel manipulator with joint clearances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Bai, Shaoping; Kepler, Jørgen Asbøl

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the error modelling and analysis of a 3-PPR planar parallel manipulator with joint clearances. The kinematics and the Cartesian workspace of the manipulator are analyzed. An error model is established with considerations of both configuration errors and joint clearances. Using...

  12. Estimation of normal chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid clearance in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepsz, A.; Pintelon, H.; Ham, H.R.

    1994-01-01

    In order to estimate the normal range of chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) clearance in children, we selected a series of 256 patients with past or present urinary tract infection who showed, at the time of the clearance determination, normal technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and normal left to right DMSA relative uptake. The clearance was calculated by means of either the simplified second exponential method or the 120-min single blood sample; Chantler's correction was used in order to correct for having neglected the first exponential. There was a progressive increase in clearance from the first weeks of life (mean value around 1 month: 55 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ), with a plateau at around 18 months. Between 2 and 17 years of age, the clearance values remained constant, with a mean value of 114 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (SD: 24 ml/min); this is similar to the level described for inulin clearance. No significant differences were observed between boys and girls, or between clearance values calculated with one or with two blood samples. Taking into account the hour of intravenous injection of the tracer, we did not observe any influence of the lunchtime meal on the distribution of the 51 Cr-EDTA clearance values. (orig.)

  13. A stochastic approach to the derivation of exemption and clearance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckert, A.

    1997-01-01

    Deciding what clearance levels are appropriate for a particular waste stream inherently involves a number of uncertainties. Some of these uncertainties can be quantified using stochastic modeling techniques, which can aid the process of decision making. In this presentation the German approach to dealing with the uncertainties involved in setting clearance levels is addressed. (author)

  14. Assessments of risk following the inhalation of plutonium oxide using observed lung clearance patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.

    1977-10-01

    Dose commitments and risk estimates for the inhalation of plutonium oxide are calculated using the lung clearance patterns observed at AEE Winfrith. These risks are compared with published data on risks arising from a lung clearance based on the ICRP Lung Model. (author)

  15. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Azab

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: There is no statistically significant effect of stone size, anatomy of the lower calyx and BMI on stone clearance after ESWL of lower calyceal stones. However, small stone size (≤2 cm, a shorter and wider infundibulum and a larger lower-pole infundibulopelvic angle seem to promote a more rapid and more complete stone clearance.

  16. Using Terrestrial Laser Scanners to Calculate and Map Vertical Bridge Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Arditi, D.; Chen, Z.

    2013-08-01

    The vertical clearance of a bridge over a highway is important in preventing oversized vehicles from hitting the bridge. The vertical clearance of a bridge is traditionally measured by using surveying equipment such as leveling rods and total stations. Typically, measurements are taken at multiple locations in order to determine the minimum vertical clearance under the bridge. This process is time and labor consuming. Also, these measurements may not be accurate because of the traffic, the uneven surface, and the reading error caused by the surveyor. Additionally, when one is faced with a multitude of reports especially in large projects with multiple ramps and bridges, it is not easy and it often takes a long time to find the bridge under study. This research provides a highly accurate measurement of the vertical bridge clearance by using terrestrial laser scanners. The clearance can be measured in the office by processing the collected point cloud data. The minimum vertical clearance is easily identified and the measurement is visualized and geo-referenced. An approach to reduce data noise caused by traffic is also introduced in this study. In addition, to help reduce the confusion of finding the bridge under study and to facilitate access to the clearance data, the clearance measurements are geo-referenced to an online mapping system. This system allows access to the final deliverable very easily through a single web portal. Finally, Illinois Department of Transportation's Circle Interchange is used to demonstrate this new method.

  17. 14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions. 99.17 Section 99.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions. (a) No pilot may...

  18. 78 FR 72139 - Forms Submitted to the Office of Management and Budget for Extension of Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM Forms Submitted to the Office of Management and Budget for Extension of Clearance AGENCY: Selective Service System. ACTION: Notice. The following forms have been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for extension of clearance in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35): SSS FOR...

  19. Higher Midazolam Clearance in Obese Adolescents Compared with Morbidly Obese Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, van A.; Brill, M.J.E.; Vaughns, J.D.; Välitalo, P.A.J.; Dongen, van E.P.A.; Ramshorst, van B.; Barrett, J.S.; Anker, van den J.N.; Knibbe, C.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The clearance of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A substrates is reported to be reduced with lower age, inflammation and obesity. As it is unknown what the overall influence is of these factors in the case of obese adolescents vs. morbidly obese adults, we studied covariates influencing the clearance of the

  20. Delayed clearance of triglyceride‐rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, R.; Lekahl, S.; Moen, O. S.; Florholmen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age‐ and sex‐matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA‐IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA‐IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. PMID:26469529

  1. 10 CFR 95.21 - Withdrawal of requests for facility security clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of requests for facility security clearance. 95.21 Section 95.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.21 Withdrawal of...

  2. Comparison of measurements of plasma clearance of Mebrofenine and of indocyanine green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, G.; Coutris, G.; Vaubourdolle, M.; Attal, P.; Patureau, R.; Tabsoba, Th.; Mensch, B.; Askienazy, Pr.S.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of clearance measurements in evaluating renal or hepatic function needs not further demonstration. The isotopic methods were proved in renal exploration but their utilization in exploration of hepato-biliary function needs to be evaluated. In this work we have compared the measurement of plasma clearance by Mebrofenine, a radiopharmaceutical of specifically hepatic elimination, with the reference method, the clearance of indocyanine green. On the basis of scintigraphic data from 23 patients who benefited by a hepato-biliary exploration by Mebrofenine- 99m Tc for pre-surgery account and surveillance, we have determined the plasma clearance of this radiopharmaceutical. The method makes use of the curve of normalized cardiac activity by a blood sampling, taken 60 minutes after injection. The measurement of the clearance of indocyanine green was effected within a delay inferior to 1 month from the moment of biliary scintigraphy. The average clearance of Mebrofenine- 99m Tc is of 553 ml/min for 1.73 m 2 of corporal surface (typical interval is 374 ml/min), the value of indocyanine green is of 450 ml/min (typical interval is 229 ml/min). The two measurements of clearance are correlated (p = 0.05). In conclusion, the measurement of clearance by Mebrofenine- 99m appears to be adapted to the evaluation of hepato-biliary function

  3. 75 FR 38775 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...; Generic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction Research AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Bureau is requesting an extension of the generic clearance to conduct customer satisfaction research... on feedback from its various customer satisfaction research efforts. Each research design is reviewed...

  4. 78 FR 69643 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Clearance for Customer Satisfaction Research AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... requesting an extension of the generic clearance to conduct customer satisfaction research which may be in... feedback from its various customer satisfaction research efforts. Each research design is reviewed for...

  5. Low serum hyaluronic acid levels associated with spontaneous HBsAg clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkisoen, S.; Arends, J. E.; van den Hoek, A.; van Erpecum, K. J.; Boland, G. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The pathophysiological underlying mechanism of spontaneous HBsAg clearance in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients is largely unknown. However, serum hyaluronic acid (sHA) plays a role in liver fibrosis progression and reversely could serve as a potential biomarker for HBsAg clearance.

  6. 78 FR 22020 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of New Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Control Number: 2120-XXXX. Title: Safety Awareness, Feedback, and Evaluation (SAFE) Program. Form Numbers: No FAA forms are associated with this collection. Type of Review: Clearance of a new information... Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of New Approval of Information Collection: Safety Awareness...

  7. 76 FR 9819 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Generic Clearance for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery; Correction AGENCY...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on... Regulatory Commission, Office of Personnel Management, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for...

  8. Factors Associated with Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus in Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infections spontaneously clear in approximately 15–45% of infected individuals. Factors which influence spontaneous HCV clearance remain to be identified. The purpose of the present study was to identify variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in a referred population of Chinese patients. The prevalence of host, viral, and environmental factors known to influence the outcome of HCV infections was compared in 92 HCV spontaneous clearance subjects and 318 HCV persistent infection subjects. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify those factors associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. In univariate analysis, female gender, a history of icteric hepatitis, serologic evidence of concurrent HBV infection, and rs12979860 CC genotype were positively associated with spontaneous HCV clearance, while alcohol consumption was negatively associated with clearance. In multivariate analysis, female gender, a history of icteric hepatitis, concurrent HBV infection, and rs12979860 CC genotype remained independent variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. Spontaneous HCV clearance is more likely to occur in females, subjects with a history of icteric hepatitis, HBV coinfections, and those with the rs12979860 CC genotype.

  9. Chaos vibration of pinion and rack steering trapezoidal mechanism containing two clearances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Daogao; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Tong; Zheng, Sifa; Zhao, Wenjing; Pan, Zhijie

    2017-08-01

    The multi-clearances of breaking type steering trapezoidal mechanism joints influences vehicle steering stability. Hence, to ascertain the influence of clearance value on steering stability, this paper takes the steering mechanism of a certain vehicle type as a prototype that can be simplified into a planar six-bar linkage, then establishes the system dynamic differential equations after considering the two clearances of tie rods and the steering knuckle arms. The influence of the clearance parameters on the movement stability of the steering mechanism is studied using a numerical computation method. Results show that when the two clearances are equal, the planar movement of the tie rods changes from period-doubling to chaos as the clearances increase. When the two clearances are 0.25 mm and 1.5 mm respectively, the planar movements of the two side tie rods come into chaos, causing the steering stability to deteriorate. Moreover, with the increase of clearances, turning moment fluctuates more intensively and the peak value increases.

  10. Lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in adult sepsis and septic shock patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinto, R.; Widodo, D.; Pohan, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Previous lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in sepsis and septic shock patient was determined by consensus from small sample size-study. We investigated the best lactate clearance cut off and its ability to predict early mortality in sepsis and septic shock patients. This cohort study was conducted in Intensive Care Unit of CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital in 2013. Patients’ lactate clearance and eight other resuscitationendpoints were recorded, and theoutcome was observed during the first 120 hours. The clearance cut off was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and its ability was investigated with Cox’s proportional hazard regression analysis using other resuscitation endpoints as confounders. Total of 268 subjects was included, of whom 70 (26.11%) subjects died within the first 120 hours. The area under ROC of lactate clearance to predict early mortality was 0.78 (95% % confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.84) with best cut off was <7.5% (sensitivity and specificity 88.99% and 81.4% respectively). Compared with group achieving lactate clearance target, group not achieving lactate clearance target had to increase early mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio 13.42; 95%CI 7.19-25.07). In conclusion, the best lactate clearance cut off as anearly mortality predictor in sepsis and septic shock patients is 7.5%.

  11. Delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Sanchez-Tapias, J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors and clinical significance of delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors and clinical significance of delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B....

  12. Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M A; Goll, R; Lekahl, S; Moen, O S; Florholmen, J

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age- and sex-matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. © 2015 World Obesity.

  13. Absorption properties of identical atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Emission rates and other optical properties of multi-particle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas. -- Highlights: •The absorption rates of a pair of identical atoms in product and (anti)symmetrized states are different. •The modifications of the optical properties are essentially determined by the overlapping between the atoms. •The absorption properties differ, in some cases, for bosons and fermions

  14. Transdermic absorption of Melagenina II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, I.; Martinez Lopez, B.; Ruiz Pena, M.; Caso Pena, R.

    1997-01-01

    The transdermic absorption of Melagenina II (MII) was evaluated. MII was a labelled with 125I by the yodogen method and purified by column chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 in ethanol: water (7:3). In vitro absorption of ( 125I ) - MII thought human skin was carried out in Keshary-Chien modified diffusion cells. Tape stripping method was applied after 24 hours to evaluate the accumulated activity in dermis and epidermis. In vivo assays were performed in Sprague Dawley rats to analyze absorption of MII until 24 hours after a single application and for five days a low penetrability of the drug while in vivo there were not found blood levels significantly greater than zero , nevertheless and important amount of radioactivity was found in feces and urine. The activity was concentrated mainly in the application site in both models

  15. Architecture for Absorption Based Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Saeed; Chugh, Devesh

    2018-04-24

    An absorption based heater is constructed on a fluid barrier heat exchanging plate such that it requires little space in a structure. The absorption based heater has a desorber, heat exchanger, and absorber sequentially placed on the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate. The vapor exchange faces of the desorber and the absorber are covered by a vapor permeable membrane that is permeable to a refrigerant vapor but impermeable to an absorbent. A process fluid flows on the side of the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate opposite the vapor exchange face through the absorber and subsequently through the heat exchanger. The absorption based heater can include a second plate with a condenser situated parallel to the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate and opposing the desorber for condensation of the refrigerant for additional heating of the process fluid.

  16. Mercury absorption in aqueous hypochlorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.L.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of elemental Hg vapor into aqueous hypochlorite was measured in a stirred tank reactor at 25 and 55C. NaOCl strongly absorbs Hg even at high pH. Low pH, high Cl - and high-temperature favor mercury absorption. Aqueous free Cl 2 was the active species that reacted with mercury. However, chlorine desorption was evident at high Cl - and pH 15 M -1 s -1 at 25C and 1.4x10 17 M -1 s -1 at 55C. Gas-phase reaction was observed between Hg and Cl 2 on apparatus surfaces. Strong mercury absorption in water was also detected with Cl 2 present. Results indicate that the chlorine concentration, moisture, and surface area contribute positively to mercury removal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Phytases for improved iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Phytase enzymes present an alternative to iron supplements, because they have been shown to improve iron absorption by means of catalysing the degradation of a potent iron absorption inhibitor: phytic acid. Phytic acid is a hexaphosphate of inositol and is particularly prevalent in cereal grains......, where it serves as a storage molecule for phosphorous. Phytic acid is also associated with minerals. The minerals are bound by chelation to the negatively charged phosphate groups in phytic acid. Phytases catalyse the dephosphorylation of phytic acid, thus releasing bound minerals to make them available...... for absorption. This article presents research on phytase catalysis in gastric conditions and considers potential benefits and drawbacks for using phytases as a food supplement....

  18. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, A

    1984-01-01

    the clearance values based on arterial and venous sampling averaged 1.4 and 2.5 l/min, respectively (p less than 0.02). The difference in clearance values was due to peripheral uptake of NA averaging 45%. The plasma appearance rate on NA averaged 2.4 nmol/min before surgery and it increased to 9.5 nmol...... we found no correlation between clearance values based on venous and arterial sampling. In other experiments we measured the influence of physical exercise in young healthy subjects on the clearance rate of plasma adrenaline (A). The clearance of A, which at rest averaged 1.9 l/min tended to increase...

  19. Clearance measurements on activated parts of accelerators by combined methods; Verfahrenskombinierte Freigabemessung aktivierter Beschleunigerteile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, S.; Friedemann, S. [VKTA, Dresden (Germany); Enghardt, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay

    2016-07-01

    The process of clearance of radioactive materials according to paragraph 29 StrlSchV contents the comparison of activity to mass and surface of the material. To avoid a borderless assessment of activity of activation it is often necessary to use combined measurement methods: For clearance of collimators of a medical proton accelerator (energy range up to 200 MeV) it needs to know the nuclide composition. The energetical and geometrical calibration was fixed by experiments. The clearance based on measurements of activity distribution, gammaspectroscopy verification of nuclide composition and gamma-counting detectors. Parts of medical electron-accelerators achieved its clearance by combination of abovementioned methods and in-situ-gammaspectroscopy. Activated und contaminated lead stones achieved its clearance by measurements of fluence, laboratory evaluation of samples, in-situ-gammaspectroscopy and wipe tests.

  20. Glomerular filtration in kidney recipients measured by plasma clearance of 169Yb-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stribrna, J.; Oppelt, A.; Jirickova, E.; Janata, V.; Kocandrle, V.; Sup, I.; Woller, P.; Franke, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    Values of 169 Yb-DTPA clearance (C DTPA ) calculated after a single injection were compared in 26 recipients of kidneys with renal clearance of inulin (C in ), polyfructosan S (C pf ) and creatinine (C cr ). In 21 patients the examinations were made simultaneously, in 5 patients C DTPA was measured within a short interval after the examination of renal clearance. The mean C DTPA values did not significantly differ from C cr but were significantly higher (p in and C pf (by 33% on average). Investigation of changes in C DTPA as compared with C in and C pf showed no significant difference in glomerular filtration (GF). This was measured using inulin and polyfructosan. The results showed that the differing molecular weight of inulin and polyfructosan S had no detectable effect on the GF of kidney recipients. The plasma clearance of 169 Yb-DTPA similarly to C cr overestimates the GF measured by inulin and polyfructosan clearance. (author)

  1. Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Clearance on Stress State and Contact Pressure in Plain Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of plain bearings by finite element method it is important to model as closely to real state the aspects that influence the stress and contact pressure: the loading mode, the properties of the materials, the lubrication system, the clearance between the shaft and the bearing body, the evolution in time of clearance correlated with the wear, etc. In order to study the effect of the clearance on the stress state, a plain bearing with nominal diameter d=40 mm was modeled. The contact pressure and the equivalent stress were computed for six discrete values of clearance, range from c=0 to c=0.3 mm. It has been shown that the increase of clearance generates an increase of the equivalent stress and contact pressure. The growth rate is higher for contact pressure, due to the decrease of the contact surface between the shaft and the bearing body

  2. Novel sensors to enable closed-loop active clearance control in gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisheimer, Jonathan; Holst, Tom

    2014-06-01

    Active clearance control within the turbine section of gas turbine engines presents and opportunity within aerospace and industrial applications to improve operating efficiencies and the life of downstream components. Open loop clearance control is currently employed during the development of all new large core aerospace engines; however, the ability to measure the gap between the blades and the case and close down the clearance further presents as opportunity to gain even greater efficiencies. The turbine area is one of the harshest environments for long term placement of a sensor in addition to the extreme accuracy requirements required to enable closed loop clearance control. This paper gives an overview of the challenges of clearance measurements within the turbine as well as discusses the latest developments of a microwave sensor designed for this application.

  3. Impairment of nasal mucociliary clearance in woodworkers in the furniture industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, A.; Evans, J. C.; Hadfield, Esme H.; Macbeth, R. G.; Morgan, A.; Walsh, M.

    1974-01-01

    Black, A., Evans, J. C., Hadfield, Esme H., Macbeth, R. G., Morgan, A., and Walsh, M. (1974).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,31, 10-17. Impairment of nasal mucociliary clearance in woodworkers in the furniture industry. Measurements of mucociliary clearance from the anterior end of the middle turbinate were made using technetium-99m-labelled particles in nine woodworkers from the furniture industry and in 12 controls, none of whom had been occupationally exposed to wood dust. Clearance rates in the controls ranged from 1·9 to 18·5 mm min-1 with a mean of 6·8. These values are in good agreement with measurements reported elsewhere for normal subjects. Only one of the woodworkers had a clearance rate which fell within the normal range and he had been occupationally exposed for the shortest period (6 years). In four woodworkers clearance was very slow (furniture industry for more than 10 years. PMID:4821406

  4. Numerical study on tip clearance effect on performance of a centrifugal compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Hark Jin; Kang, Shin Kyoung

    2003-01-01

    Effect of tip leakage flow on through flow and performance of a centrifugal compressor impeller was numerically studied using CFX-TASCflow. Seven different tip clearances were used to consider the influence of tip clearance on performance. Secondary flow and loss factor were evaluated to understand the loss mechanism inside the impeller due to tip leakage flow. The calculated results were circumferentially averaged along the passage and at the impeller exit for quantitative discussion. Tip clearance effect on performance could be decomposed into inviscid and viscous components using one dimensional equation. The inviscid component is related with the specific work reduction and the viscous component is related with the additional entropy generation. Two components affected performance equally, while efficiency drop was mainly influenced by viscous loss. Performance and efficiency drop due to tip clearance were proportional to the ratio of tip clearance to exit blade height. A simple model suggested in the present study predict performance and efficiency drop quite successfully

  5. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  6. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...... patterns. It can approach 100% as closely as desired, although in practice this may not be an attractive solution. An example with a small endfire array of dipoles shows an efficiency of 93%. Several examples of small conical horn antennas are also given, and they all have absorption efficiencies less than...

  7. Factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijuade Abayomi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is common in many endemic and other settings but there is no clear recommendation on when to change therapy when there is delay in parasite clearance after initiation of therapy in African children. Methods The factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance, defined as a clearance time > 2 d, in falciparum malaria were characterized in 2,752 prospectively studied children treated with anti-malarial drugs between 1996 and 2008. Results 1,237 of 2,752 children (45% had delay in parasite clearance. Overall 211 children (17% with delay in clearance subsequently failed therapy and they constituted 72% of those who had drug failure, i.e., 211 of 291 children. The following were independent risk factors for delay in parasite clearance at enrolment: age less than or equal to 2 years (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.44-3.15, P 50,000/ul (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.77-2.75, P 20000/μl a day after treatment began, were independent risk factors for delay in clearance. Non-artemisinin monotherapies were associated with delay in clearance and treatment failures, and in those treated with chloroquine or amodiaquine, with pfmdr 1/pfcrt mutants. Delay in clearance significantly increased gametocyte carriage (P Conclusion Delay in parasite clearance is multifactorial, is related to drug resistance and treatment failure in uncomplicated malaria and has implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Influence of peak exercise heart rate on normal thallium-201 myocardial clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, S.; Chesler, D.A.; Pohost, G.M.; Strauss, H.W.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of myocardial clearance rates between initial and delayed images is a major justification for adding computer quantification to the interpretation of exercise 201 TI images. To clarify the range of normal thallium clearance and its relationship to the level of exercise achieved, exercise thallium images in 89 normal subjects were analyzed: 45 asymptomatic subjects with less than 1% probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) (Group I), and 44 patients with chest pain found to have no significant CAD on angiography (Group II). Mean initial regional thallium uptake was similar in the two groups, but myocardial thallium clearance (mean +/- 1 s.d.) was slower in Group II, expressed as a longer half-life in the myocardium (8.2 +/- 7.6 hr compared with 3.4 +/- 0.7 hr p less than 0.001). Analysis of variance using ten clinical and exercise variables as covariates showed that the slower clearance in Group II was related to a lower peak exercise heart rate (HR) (154 +/- 27 compared with 183 +/- 11, respectively, p less than 0.001). By linear regression analysis, a decrease in peak HR of 1 beat/min was associated with a slower thallium clearance (longer half-life) of 0.05 hr. Using this formula, the clearance value in each patient was then corrected for peak exercise heart rate by decreasing measured clearance by 0.05 hr multiplied by the amount peak exercise heart rate which was below 183 (the mean value in Group I). There were no differences in the corrected clearance between the two groups. We conclude that thallium myocardial clearance after exercise is related in part to factors other than the presence of CAD, being slower when peak exercise HR is lower. Therefore, thallium clearance rates alone uncorrected for peak exercise heart rate should be used with caution when diagnosing CAD

  9. Measurement with nasal scintigraphy of nasal mucociliary clearance in normal man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Sumiko

    1989-01-01

    Nasal mucociliary function was evaluated by nasal scintigraphy in normal subjects. A microdrop of HSA or saline labelled with 99m Tc was dripped into the middle part of each middle meatus in the nasal cavity and its clearance was observed by scinticamera. The accumulated concentration of RI was determined every 30 seconds for 10 minutes. The changes of accumulated concentration were studied, and a curve of decreasing RI-counts was obtained, with the 'clearance rate' defined as 100% for the count at the initial 30 seconds and 'half time' as the time when radioactivity was reduced to one half the initial count. Nasal resistance was measured by rhinomanometry with the oscillation method. In nonsmokers, 10μl of saline was cleared (78.0±10.4%) significantly faster than 10μl of HSA (59.9±24.6%), and there was no significant difference in the clearance between 10μl and 5μl of HSA (55.9±27.7%). In smakers, the mucociliary clearance of 10μl of HSA and saline was significantly lower than in nonsmokers. The clearance of 10μl of HSA reflects a pathological state much better than that of 5μl. In nonsmokers, there is a significant negative correlation between nasal resistance and clearance rate, suggesting that the more patent the nose, the faster the mucociliary clearance. When both nostrils were closed, the clearance rate was significantly depressed. When one nostril was closed, there was no significant effect on clearance. Nasal resistance was decreased by exercise with a bicycle ergometer. Nasal mucociliary clearance was slightly decreased after exercise but not significantly so. (J.P.N.)

  10. Comparison of German and international clearance regulations - chances and limits for harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.; Schartmann, F.

    2005-01-01

    The regulations on clearance in the German nuclear regulatory framework (especially sect. 29 and Annexes III and IV of the Radiation Protection Ordinance) are comprehensive and well founded. Germany has developed some of its clearance levels in advance of recommendations issued by the EC. Therefore, there are differences between the German and international clearance regulations. That has been investigated by a working group on clearance of the German Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK) which has performed an analysis of differences and their reasons for clearance levels in Germany and other countries (UK, The Netherlands, Sweden, USA and others). Differences can mainly be explained by country specific approaches in scenarios. Differences especially for the most relevant nuclides are not significant from a radiological point of view. The level of radiological protection (trivial dose range, a few 10 μSv/a) is guaranteed in all countries. The international discussion on the international harmonisation of clearance levels (mainly within the scope of the OECD/NEA and IAEA) can be enlightened on the basis of these results. This discussion concentrates on the question how far a harmonisation of clearance level values is actually necessary and possible. The IAEA Safety Guide RS-G-1.7 'Application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance' is of particular importance, because it proposes a set of values which might in the long-term take the role of international unconditional clearance levels. International harmonisation is only relevant for unconditional clearance of those materials, which are traded in large quantities among countries, in particular metal scrap. Harmonisation of the values to the same order of magnitude is sufficient. (orig.)

  11. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  12. Konference Distillation and Absorption 2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 10 (2009), s. 862 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : conference * announcement * distillation and absorption Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  13. Gamm-ray absorption techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the principles of gamma-ray absorption are described and important applications in plant and process techniques such as measurement of thickness of deposits on pipes, checking for voids in concrete, metal corrosion, measurement of the density of materials inside vessels in industrial radiography are discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Emission and absorption of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, S.

    1992-01-01

    A full understanding of fissile-material detection requires a solid knowledge of nuclear physics, especially the emission and absorption of radiation. The purpose of this paper is therefore to give a brief explanation of these processes so that the reader can better understand the assumptions leading to the results in the main text

  15. Effect of low blood lead levels on anaemia indicators and creatinine clearance rate of workers occupationally exposed to lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, F.; Vasandani, A.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although recognized and written about centuries, lead toxicity remains an occupational and public health problem of global dimensions. Several studies have demonstrated that clinical and sub clinical effects of lead toxicity at the blood lead levels considered as safe, i.e., below 30 mug/dl in adults and 10 mu g/dl in children. Such studies have received scant attention in the case of lead occupational workers due to the presumption of high blood lead levels in accordance with occupation. In the present study, therefore an attempt was made to investigate the effect of low blood lead levels on indicators of anaemia and renal impairment. A cohort of 690 subjects who had been occupationally exposed to lead was studied using stratified random sampling design. The markers of anaemia included changes in Haematocrit value, Haemoglobin and Erythrocyte count where as renal health was judged from changes in creatinine clearance rate. The controls were derived from similar socioeconomic background and matched in age and sex with subjects. Blood lead levels were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption and biochemical determinations carried out using standard procedures. Blood lead levels in the range 10-40 mu g/dl had significant effect on anaemia indicators and resulted in inverse co relationship. (Pearson's correlation coefficient r-0.65, -0.71 and -0.58 respectively for haematocrit, erythrocyte count and haemoglobin). The creatinine clearance rate estimated after adjustment for body mass index and age factors was found to depend on blood lead level and duration of exposure of subjects. These effects were statistically significant in the subjects having age in the range 15-30 years. Low lead levels in blood have high potential of inducing lead related anaemia by disturbing the pathway of heme synthesis at either ferrochetalase stage or inhibiting the amino levulinate dehydratase activity. Though creatinine clearance rate did not prove as reliable marker of renal

  16. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  17. Blanking Clearance and Punch Velocity Effects on The Sheared Edge Characteristic in Micro-Blanking of Commercially Pure Copper Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Didin Zakaria Lubis; Ichsan Ristiawan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the influences between clearance and punch velocity on the part edge quality of blanked parts. Experiments have been conducted using material copper, punch-die clearance and punch velocity variations. In order to determine the reachable punch-die clearance and punch velocity required for blanking. The quality of the part-edge characteristics shows that higher punch velocity and decreases clearance value can improve the part-edge quality, resulting in smaller burr h...

  18. Metabolic clearance and production rates of human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew L.; Finster, Joseph L.; Mintz, Daniel H.

    1969-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of human growth hormone (HGH) was determined by the constant infusion to equilibrium technique utilizing HGH-125I. 22 control subjects had a MCR of 229 ±52 ml/min (mean ±SD). No difference was evident between sexes, or between various age groups. Patients with acromegaly demonstrated normal MCR's. Moreover, acute elevations of plasma growth hormone concentrations in normal subjects did not alter the MCR of HGH. The MCR was relatively constant from day to day and within the day when subjects were evaluated in the supine position. In contrast, the assumption of the upright position was associated with a mean 24% decrease in the MCR. These results were contrasted with the MCR of HGH observed in a small number of patients with altered thyroid function or diabetes mellitus. In six patients with hypothyroidism the MCR (131 ±36 ml/min) was significantly decreased (P < 0.001); whereas the MCR in eight patients with hyperthyroidism (240 ±57 ml/min) did not differ from control subjects. The MCR in eight patients with insulin-independent diabetes mellitus (IID) (185 ±41 ml/min) and in eight patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDD) (136 ±31 ml/min) were significantly different from control subjects (P = < 0.05 and P = < 0.001, respectively). These data were interpreted to indicate that the plasma HGH-removing mechanism(s) is not saturated at physiologic plasma HGH levels, that plasma HGH levels alone may not permit distinction between variations in pituitary release of the hormone and its rate of clearance from the plasma, and that the estimation of the MCR of HGH may help clarify the mechanism of abnormal plasma HGH responses to various stimuli. Production rates of HGH (PR) in control subjects (347 ±173 mμg/min) were contrasted with hyperthyroid patients (529 ±242 mμg/min, P < 0.05), hypothyroid patients (160 ±69 mμg/min, P < 0.02), IID (245 ±100 mμg/min, NS), and IDD (363 ±153 mμg/min, NS). Considerable

  19. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...... impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model...

  20. Analysis of foot clearance in firefighters during ascent and descent of stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Richard M; Horn, Gavin P; Rosengren, Karl S; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2016-01-01

    Slips, trips, and falls are a leading cause of injury to firefighters with many injuries occurring while traversing stairs, possibly exaggerated by acute fatigue from firefighting activities and/or asymmetric load carriage. This study examined the effects that fatigue, induced by simulated firefighting activities, and hose load carriage have on foot clearance while traversing stairs. Landing and passing foot clearances for each stair during ascent and descent of a short staircase were investigated. Clearances decreased significantly (p < 0.05) post-exercise for nine of 12 ascent parameters and increased for two of eight descent parameters. Load carriage resulted in significantly decreased (p < 0.05) clearance over three ascent parameters, and one increase during descent. Decreased clearances during ascent caused by fatigue or load carriage may result in an increased trip risk. Increased clearances during descent may suggest use of a compensation strategy to ensure stair clearance or an increased risk of over-stepping during descent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of clearance on cartilage tribology in hip hemi-arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizhang, Jia; Taylor, Simon D; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Hemi-arthroplasty of the hip (an artificial femoral head articulating against the natural acetabulum) is used to treat fractured necks of femur; however, there is evidence that articulation causes erosion of the cartilage, resulting in pain for the patient. Parameters that may influence this cartilage erosion include head material and roughness, clearance between the head and acetabulum and activity levels of the patient. This study has assessed the effect of clearance of hemi-arthroplasty articulations on the contact stress, friction and cartilage deformation in an in vitro tribological simulation of the hemi-arthroplasty joint that applied dynamic loads and motion. It has been demonstrated that peak contact stress increased from 5.6 to 10.6 MPa as radial clearance increased from small (1.8 mm). In all samples, friction factor increased with time and was significantly less with extra-large clearances compared to small (<0.6 mm), medium (0.6-1.2 mm) and large (1.2-1.8 mm) clearances. The cartilage deformation observed was significantly greater in acetabulum samples paired to give small or extra-large clearances compared to those with medium or large clearances.

  2. Numerical Investigation of Pressure Fluctuation Characteristics in a Centrifugal Pump with Variable Axial Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clearance flows in the sidewall gaps of centrifugal pumps are unsteady as well as main flows in the volute casing and impeller, which may cause vibration and noise, and the corresponding pressure fluctuations are related to the axial clearance size. In this paper, unsteady numerical simulations were conducted to predict the unsteady flows within the entire flow passage of a centrifugal pump operating in the design condition. Pressure fluctuation characteristics in the volute casing, impeller, and sidewall gaps were investigated with three axial clearance sizes. Results show that an axial clearance variation affects the pressure fluctuation characteristics in each flow domain by different degree. The greatest pressure fluctuation occurs at the blade pressure surface and is almost not influenced by the axial clearance variation which has a certainly effect on the pressure fluctuation characteristics around the tongue. The maximum pressure fluctuation amplitude in the sidewall gaps is larger than that in the volute casing, and different spectrum characteristics show up in the three models due to the interaction between the clearance flow and the main flow as well as the rotor-stator interaction. Therefore, clearance flow should be taken into consideration in the hydraulic design of centrifugal pumps.

  3. Modelling of Outer and Inner Film Oil Pressure for Floating Ring Bearing Clearance in Turbochargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Shi Zhanqun; Gu Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Floating ring bearing is widely used in turbochargers to undertake the extreme condition of high rotating speed and high operating temperature. It is also the most concerned by the designers and users alike due to its high failure rate and high maintenance cost. Any little clearance change may result in oil leakage, which in turn cause blue smoke or black smoke according to leakage types. However, there is no condition monitoring of this bearing because it is almost impossible to measure the clearance especially the inner clearance, in which the inner oil film directly bears the high speed rotation. In stead of measuring clearance directly, this paper has proposed a method that uses film pressure as a measure to monitor the bearing clearance and its variation. A non-linear mathematical model is developed by using Reynolds equations with non-linear oil film pressure. A full description of the outer and inner film is provided along both axial and radial directions. A numerical simulation is immediately carried out. Variable clearance changes are investigated using the mathematical model. Results show the relationship between clearance and film pressure.

  4. Tip clearance effect on through-flow and performance of a centrifugal compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Hark Jin; Kang, Young Seok; Kang, Shin Hyoung

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed to investigate tip clearance effect on through-flow and performance of a centrifugal compressor which has the same configuration of impeller with six different tip clearances. Secondary flow and loss distribution have been surveyed to understand the flow mechanism due to the tip clearance. Tip leakage flow strongly interacts with mainstream flow and considerably changes the secondary flow and the loss distribution inside the impeller passage. A method has been described to quantitatively estimate the tip clearance effect on the performance drop and the efficiency drop. The tip clearance has caused specific work reduction and additional entropy generation. The former, which is called inviscid loss, is independent of any internal loss and the latter, which is called viscous loss, is dependent on every loss in the flow passage. Two components equally affected the performance drop as the tip clearances were small, while the efficiency drop was influenced by the viscous component alone. The additional entropy generation was modeled with all the kinetic energy of the tip leakage flow. Therefore, the present paper can provide how to quantitatively estimate the tip clearance effect on the performance and efficiency

  5. Secretion clearance strategies in Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumenopoulos, George; Hammond, Naomi; Watts, Nicola R; Thompson, Kelly; Hanlon, Gabrielle; Paratz, Jennifer D; Thomas, Peter

    2017-06-26

    To describe the processes of care for secretion clearance in adult, intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Units (ICUs). A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted through the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG) Point Prevalence Program. Forty-seven ICUs collected data from 230 patients intubated and ventilated on the study day. Secretion clearance techniques beyond standard suctioning were used in 84/230 (37%) of patients during the study period. Chest wall vibration 34/84 (40%), manual lung hyperinflation 24/84 (29%), chest wall percussion 20/84 (24%), postural drainage/patient positioning 17/84 (20%) and other techniques including mobilisation 15/84 (18%), were the most common secretion clearance techniques employed. On average (SD), patients received airway suctioning 8.8 (5.0) times during the 24-h study period. Mucus plugging events were infrequent (2.7%). The additional secretion clearance techniques were provided by physiotherapy staff in 24/47 (51%) ICUs and by both nursing and physiotherapy staff in the remaining 23/47 (49%) ICUs. One-third of intubated and ventilated patients received additional secretion clearance techniques. Mucus plugging events were infrequent with these additional secretion clearance approaches. Prospective studies must examine additional secretion clearance practices, prevalence of mucus plugging episodes and impact on patient outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contrast media and glomerular filtration: dose dependence of clearance for three agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeck, S.E.K.; Krutzen, E.; Nilsson-Ehle, P.

    1988-01-01

    Determination of plasma clearance of contrast agents has been advocated as a means to assess glomerular filtration rate. To evaluate the feasibility of different agents for this purpose, we have compared, in healthy volunteers, the dose dependence of plasma clearance for three contrast media (iohexol, a nonionic agent, and iothalamate and metrizoate, which are ionic substances), with special emphasis on the lower dose range (2-20 mL corresponding to 0.9-12.9 g, depending on dose and agent). Iohexol and iothalamate were cleared at constant rates, irrespective of given dose, whereas metrizoate clearance increased significantly at lower doses. In general, the clearances or iothalamate and metrizoate were, respectively, moderately and markedly higher than that of iohexol. The clearance of different doses of metrizoate (2 mL versus a radiographic dose of 40 mL or more) was also compared with the clearance of [ 51 Cr]EDTA in two groups of patients with reduced renal function. When compared with [ 51 Cr]EDTA in patients with renal dysfunction, metrizoate was cleared significantly faster after a 2-mL dose, whereas clearances were identical when the metrizoate dose was 40 mL or more. These findings indicate that tubular secretion plays an active role in the elimination of metrizoate. The pharmacokinetic properties of iohexol, in combination with its low toxicity, make it a suitable agent for determination of glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice

  7. Turbulent Heat Transfer of a Finned Plate in a Duct as Tip Clearance Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae-Kyun; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Fins are employed to enhance the cooling performance of a system. There are a number of studies relevant to geometry of fins. Meanwhile, the studies relevant to tip clearance, have not performed enough, which is the distance between the tips of the fins and the wall. We investigated the optimal tip clearance, which maximizes the heat transfers by experimental and numerical analyses with wider range of Re{sub Dh} than the previous studies. Turbulent heat transfers of a finned plate were measured. For an extended range of tip clearance and Re{sub Dh} than other studies. A joint experimental and numerical analyses was performed to measure heat transfers. Mass transfer experiments using electroplating system was used and FLUENT 6.3.26 was used for the calculation. For the narrow tip clearances below 5 mm, were investigated by numerical method only. The bypass flow to the tip clearance region contributes to heat transfer area at the tip clearance region and does not contributes that of the fin region. Thus, the optimal tip clearance was founded and it exists vicinity of 0.2 mm.

  8. Foot clearance and variability in mono- and multifocal intraocular lens users during stair navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Erik; Hackney, Madeleine; Hall, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular lenses (IOLs) provide distance and near refraction and are becoming the standard for cataract surgery. Multifocal glasses increase variability of toe clearance in older adults navigating stairs and increase fall risk; however, little is known about the biomechanics of stair navigation in individuals with multifocal IOLs. This study compared clearance while ascending and descending stairs in individuals with monofocal versus multifocal IOLs. Eight participants with multifocal IOLs (4 men, 4 women; mean age = 66.5 yr, standard deviation [SD] = 6.26) and fifteen male participants with monofocal IOLs (mean age = 69.9 yr, SD = 6.9) underwent vision and mobility testing. Motion analysis recorded kinematic and custom software-calculated clearances in three-dimensional space. No significant differences were found between groups on minimum clearance or variability. Clearance differed for ascending versus descending stairs: the first step onto the stair had the greatest toe clearance during ascent, whereas the final step to the floor had the greatest heel clearance during descent. This preliminary study indicates that multifocal IOLs have similar biomechanic characteristics to monofocal IOLs. Given that step characteristics are related to fall risk, we can tentatively speculate that multifocal IOLs may carry no additional fall risk.

  9. Oral absorption and tissue distribution of a new squalenoyl anticancer nanomedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harivardhan Reddy, L.; Ferreira, Humberto; Dubernet, Catherine [Univ. Paris-Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, IFR 141 (France); Mouelhi, Sinda Lepetre; Desmaele, Didier [Universite Paris XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8076 Biocis (France); Rousseau, Bernard [CEA, Bio Organic Chemistry and Labeled Compounds Division (France); Couvreur, Patrick [Univ. Paris-Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, IFR 141 (France)], E-mail: patrick.couvreur@u-psud.fr

    2008-05-15

    Recently, we had discovered that the linkage of nucleoside analogues to squalene, a precursor in the sterol biosynthesis, led to amphiphilic molecules, which self-organized in water as nanoassemblies of 100-300 nm in diameter, irrespective of the nucleoside analogue used. Thus, it was observed that the 4-(N)-trisnorsqualenoylgemcitabine (SQdFdC), the squalenoyl prodrug of the anticancer nucleoside analogue gemcitabine, was impressively more active than its parent compound gemcitabine, both in vitro and in vivo on experimental leukaemia. Since squalene, which is a natural constituent of shark liver and olive oil, is known to be absorbed orally, we investigated in this short note the absorption and tissue distribution of {sup 3}H-radiolabelled SQdFdC nanoassemblies comparatively to {sup 3}H-gemcitabine after oral administration to mice. Whereas gemcitabine was found to be rapidly absorbed (t{sub max} = 1 h), this compound underwent a rapid clearance from the plasma. Conversely, the SQdFdC nanoassemblies displayed slower absorption followed by the progressive tissue accumulation, and they exhibited a lower clearance rate. The accumulation of the SQdFdC nanoassemblies in tissues such as pancreas, thymus, lung, liver and spleen (except at 1 h post-administration) was similar to that of the gemcitabine, yet exhibited significantly greater penetration and retention into the stomach and intestinal tissues comparatively to gemcitabine. Thus, the SQdFdC nanoassemblies could be of potential interest in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumours by oral route.

  10. Activation and clearance of vanadium alloys and beryllium multipliers in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartenev, S.; Romanovskij, V.; Ciampichetti, A.; Zucchetti, M.; Forrest, R.; Kolbasov, B.; Romanov, P.

    2006-01-01

    Design of fusion reactors includes the development of low-activation materials. V-Cr-Ti alloys are among the candidate structural materials for the first wall and blanket, with the scarce and costly V as the main component. It is worth considering its regeneration and refabrication as well as to avoid its disposal as radioactive waste. However, to do so, it is necessary to bring its radioactivity down to sufficiently low levels. We have two possible goals: · Recycling (within the nuclear industry) for first wall and front blanket components. In that case, contact dose rate must be sufficiently low. · Clearance (release from nuclear regulatory control) for back blanket and backplate components. In that case, the clearance index must be below unity. In fact, for components less exposed to neutron activation, clearance may be reachable, after a conceivable period of decay. Maximum radionuclide concentrations in the alloys allowing their clearance were determined, using new IAEA Clearance Limits. For this purpose, also for less neutron-exposed structures, such as the back part of the blanket and the backplate, clearance is possible only if certain activation products are separated. As for recycling within the nuclear industry of first wall components, also for clearance it turns out that the development of isotope chemical separation techniques is interesting and necessary for our purposes. A suitable method for achieving the required substantial radioactivity reduction of activated V-Cr-Ti alloys is radiochemical extraction reprocessing, Such a technology, permitting to remove metallic activation products from spent materials, was developed and tested experimentally in Russia. Concerning clearance of less activated components, based on the estimated element distribution factors in the extraction and re-extraction processes, and computations, it was shown that the alloy components may be purified from the activation products, using this technology, down to an

  11. Effects of heart rate on myocardial thallium-201 uptake and clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordrehaug, J.E.; Danielsen, R.; Vik-Mo, H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of heart rate on the myocardial uptake and clearance of 201 Tl were studied prospectively in seven healthy men, mean age 43 +/- 7 (s.d.) yr. Initial and delayed (3 hr) thallium images were obtained in three views after three bicycle exercise tests: to maximal, 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate. The mean of three views initial myocardial 201 Tl uptake was higher at maximal than at both 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate, being 81% (p less than 0.01) and 60% (p less than 0.01) of maximal activity, respectively. The myocardial activity in the delayed images was identical. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and the initial myocardial activity, r = 0.86 (p less than 0.001). The mean (range) 201 Tl clearance was 58% (51-65), 47% (34-56), and 34% (22-49) (all differences p less than 0.01), respectively. Concordance among the three individual views in estimating clearance was best for the highest exercise level. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance, r = 0.80 (p less than 0.001). Clearance was altered by only 1.67 x 10%/heart bpm (0.024 hr/heart beat). Clearance in the liver, spleen and lungs increased at submaximal exercise levels. Thus, a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance is the result of changes in the initial exercise myocardial 201 Tl activity. Submaximal exercise may reduce reproducibility of clearance estimation, and the change of myocardial clearance with heart rate seems less than previously suggested

  12. Effect of Cilia Beat Frequency on Mucociliary Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedaghat M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The airway surface liquid (ASL, which is a fluid layer coating the interior epithelial surface of the bronchi and bronchiolesis, plays an important defensive role against foreign particles and chemicals entering lungs. Objective: Numerical investigation has been employed to solve two-layer model consisting of mucus layer as a viscoelastic fluid and periciliary liquid layer as a Newtonian fluid to study the effects of cilia beat frequency (CBF at various amounts of mucus properties on muco-ciliary transport problem. Methods: Hybrid finite difference-lattice Boltzmann-method (FB-LBM has been used to solve the momentum equations and to simulate cilia forces, and also the PCLmucus interface more accurately, immersed boundary method (IBM has been employed. The main contribution of the current study is to use an Oldroyd-B model as the constitutive equation of mucus. Results: Our results show that increasing CBF and decreasing mucus viscosity ratio have great effects on mucus flow, but the effect of viscosity ratio is more significant. The results also illustrate that the relation between cilia beat frequency and mean mucus velocity is almost linear and it has similar behavior at different values of viscosity ratio. Conclusion: Numerical investigation based on hybrid IB-FD-LBM has been used to study the effect of CBF at various mounts of mucus viscosity ratio on the muco-ciliary clearance. The results showed that the effect of viscosity ratio on the muco-ciliary transport process is more significant compared with CBF.

  13. Environmental studies and clearance compliance of Kudankulam Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.K.; Singh, Jitendra

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear industry has played a leading role in evolving proper and effective environmental management impact from development practices right form inception thus minimizing the environmental impact from developmental activities of man. In the engineering design of nuclear power plant, safety is further enhanced considerably by providing double back-upped engineered safety systems. Besides the engineered safety, the other factors considered for ensuring environmental impact minimization are siting criteria, conservative rad-waste management, effluent treatment, application of stringent environmental protection standards for limiting waste discharges, an elaborate environmental surveillance program and an on site and off site emergency preparedness plan. Recently, nuclear power industry has taken a drive to develop and implement Environmental Management System (EMS) to all its operating stations in line with ISO-14001 standards. For Kudankulam atomic power project, a number of studies specifically for environmental protection are carried out to meet the requirements of Russian Federation, new guidelines of Ministry of environment and Forests (MOEF) and Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). In the present paper an attempt has been made to present the environmental management plan and clearance compliance status of the project

  14. Evaluating tear clearance rate with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Mousavi, Maryam; Cervino Exposito, Alejandro; Bartuzel, Maciej M; Montes-Micó, Robert; Iskander, D Robert

    2018-02-01

    To assess the early-phase of tear clearance rate (TCR) with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to determine the association between TCR and other clinical measures of the tear film in a group of young subjects with different levels of tear film quality. TCR was classified as the percentage decrease of subject's inferior tear meniscus height 30s after instillation of 5μl 0.9% saline solution. Fifty subjects (32F and 18M) aged (mean±standard deviation) 25.5±4.3 years volunteered for the study. It consisted of a review of medical history, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, tear film osmolarity measurements, slit lamp examination and TCR estimation based on dynamic measurements of the lower tear meniscus with OCT. Estimates of TCR were contrasted against subject age and tear film measures commonly used for dry eye diagnosis, which includes OSDI score, fluorescein tear film break-up time (FBUT), tear meniscus height (TMH), blinking frequency, tear film osmolarity and corneal staining. The group mean TCR was 29±13% and 36±19% respectively after 30 and 60s margin after saline solution instillation. Statistically significant correlations were found between TCR and FBUT (r 2 =0.319, placrimal functional unit. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Harnessing Apoptotic Cell Clearance to Treat Autoimmune Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Saas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early-stage apoptotic cells possess immunomodulatory properties. Proper apoptotic cell clearance during homeostasis has been shown to limit subsequent immune responses. Based on these observations, early-stage apoptotic cell infusion has been used to prevent unwanted inflammatory responses in different experimental models of autoimmune diseases or transplantation. Moreover, this approach has been shown to be feasible without any toxicity in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation to prevent graft-versus-host disease. However, whether early-stage apoptotic cell infusion can be used to treat ongoing inflammatory disorders has not been reported extensively. Recently, we have provided evidence that early-stage apoptotic cell infusion is able to control, at least transiently, ongoing collagen-induced arthritis. This beneficial therapeutic effect is associated with the modulation of antigen-presenting cell functions mainly of macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, as well as the induction of collagen-specific regulatory CD4+ T cells (Treg. Furthermore, the efficacy of this approach is not altered by the association with two standard treatments of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor (TNF inhibition. Here, in the light of these observations and recent data of the literature, we discuss the mechanisms of early-stage apoptotic cell infusion and how this therapeutic approach can be transposed to patients with RA.

  16. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide binds to the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, Douglas G.; Ao, Zhaohui; Heidrich, Bradley J.; Hunsberger, Gerald E.; Graham, Taylor; Payne, Lisa; Elshourbagy, Nabil; Lu, Quinn; Aiyar, Nambi; Douglas, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) is a newly-described natriuretic peptide which lowers blood pressure via vasodilation. The natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C) removes natriuretic peptides from the circulation, but whether DNP interacts with human NPR-C directly is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that DNP binds to NPR-C. ANP, BNP, CNP, and the NPR-C ligands AP-811 and cANP(4-23) displaced [ 125 I]-ANP from NPR-C with pM-to-nM K i values. DNP displaced [ 125 I]-ANP from NPR-C with nM potency, which represents the first direct demonstration of binding of DNP to human NPR-C. DNP showed high pM affinity for the GC-A receptor and no affinity for GC-B (K i > 1000 nM). DNP was nearly 10-fold more potent than ANP at stimulating cGMP production in GC-A expressing cells. Blockade of NPR-C might represent a novel therapeutic approach in augmenting the known beneficial actions of DNP in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and heart failure

  17. Criticality Data and its Application to Plant Clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, J.H.

    1966-01-01

    The results of a theoretical parametric survey of critical data for single homogeneous units of a number of compounds of uranium and plutonium are presented. Included are parameters for uranium metal-water systems between 93% and 5% enrichment; uranium oxide-water systems at 93% and from 10% to 2% enrichment; plutonium metal, nitrate, oxalate and oxide-water systems. The last mentioned inlcude the effect on mass and volume of 5 and 15% 240 Pu. The effects of the addition of nitric acid to both uranium and plutonium metal-water mixtures is considered within N/fissile ratios of 2-70 and 4-70 respectively. Also included are parameters for lattice arrangements of unclad uranium oxide rods of various diameters for enrichments between 1.3% and 5%. The method of calculation used for the majority of this work was Diffusion Theory using four energy groups. In some instances Monte Carlo calculations were made as a check on diffusion theory, in others Monte Carlo was used throughout. Some comparison is made with the results of other workers and with experiments in those instances where meaningful data checks-are available. The application of single unit data to-multi-body systems for plant clearance purposes is briefly discussed, and reference is made to other methods of calculation capable of dealing with arrays of non-standard geometries and units of complex shapes. (author)

  18. Evaluation of terrain geomorphometric characteristics for ground clearance charts production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko A. Borisov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphometric exploration applied in the military terrain analysis is based on the GIS methodology of spatial analyses and is related primarily to military terrain analyses. It includes relief assessment aiming at producing ground clearance charts for the analysis of terrain maneuverability and its deployment, cover and concealment possibilities. An evaluation analysis of geomorphological parameters was performed for the Avala test area using a few terrain parameters (visibility, terrain aspect and slope as well as some terrain qualitative categories (e.g. vegetation density. Terrain slope Slope and aspect are morphometric terrain parameters that can be derived directly from the DTM using some GIS operations. Slope is the first derivative of a surface and has both magnitude and direction. Slope is perhaps the most important aspect of the surface form, since surfaces are formed completely of slopes, and slope angles control the gravitational force available for geomorphic work. Mathematically, the tangent of the slope angle is the first derivative of altitude, and it is a tangent or percent slope as this surface parameter is generally referred to. Slope is defined at each point as the slope of a plane tangent to the surface at that point. In practice, however, slope is generally measured over a finite distance, especially when data are obtained from a contour map. Terrain aspect Aspect is also the first derivative of a surface and has both magnitude and direction. The term aspect is defined as the direction of the biggest slope vector on the tangent plane projected onto the horizontal plane. Aspect is the bearing (or azimuth of the slope direction, and its angle ranges from 0 to 360°. Analyses of terrain slope and ground clearance for military forces The analysis of land assessment of the Avala test area included the definition of relief categories in relation to cover and concealment purposes with the aim to include the geomorphological basis

  19. Plasma clearance of noradrenaline does not change with age in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1985-01-01

    Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects. Pla....... Plasma clearance of noradrenaline was identical in the two groups. The increase in plasma noradrenaline concentration, with age, probably reflects an increased sympathetic nervous activity.......Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects...

  20. Clearance, a powerful tool in optimizing the volume of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blommaert, W.; Teunckens, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework its activities in decommissioning nuclear installations, Belgoprocess applies the clearance practice in optimizing the volume of radioactive wastes. The applied clearance methodology is discussed with special emphasis to different types of materials and to the associated measurements. Four practical cases are elaborated, dealing with the decommissioning and decontamination of two small buildings up to green field conditions, the unconditional release of large quantities of slightly contaminated active carbon, the melting and clearance of stainless steel fuel racks and of aluminium heat exchangers. The attention is drawn on practical problems associated with sampling and measurement strategies, in relation to the proposed low limits for unconditional release. (author)

  1. Experimental Study of Unshrouded Impeller Pump Stage Sensitivity to Tip Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert W.; Zoladz, Thomas; Storey, Anne K.; Skelley, Stephen E.

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on an experiment. Its objective is to experimentally determine unshrouded impeller performance sensitivity to tip clearance. The experiment included: Determining impeller efficiency at scaled operating conditions in water at MSFC's Pump Test Equipment (PTE) Facility; Testing unshrouded impeller at three different tip clearances; Testing each tip clearance configuration at on- and off-design conditions, and collecting unsteady- and steady-state data in each configuration; Determining impeller efficiency directly using drive line torquemeter and pump inlet and exit total pressure measurements.

  2. Does sleep disturbance affect the amyloid clearance mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulug, Burak; Hanoglu, Lutfu; Kilic, Ertugrul

    2017-10-01

    Sleep is an important factor that plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. However, it is still unclear whether poor-quality sleep may overlap with sleep disturbances in the underlying dysfunctional mechanisms of amyloid beta (Aβ) clearance metabolism. Here, we aimed to evaluate the current evidence on the role of sleep deprivation in Aβ clearance metabolism. To that end, we discuss possible mechanisms underlying the bidirectional interaction between the sleep deprivation and Aβ clearance pathways. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. A pre- and postoperative study of split isotope clearance in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faerber, D.; Czempiel, H.; Muehle, P.; Schick, F.; Wenzl, H.; Technische Univ. Muenchen; Technische Univ. Muenchen

    1979-01-01

    In 1978 43 patients have been operated in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Krankenhaus Muenchen-Schwabing, because of recurrent urinary-tract infections with ureterovesical reflux or obstructive urinary-tract diseases. In all patients a split whole body clearance-study with a method modified after the method of Muehle with 131 J-Hippuran was carried out pre- or postoperatively, respectively. In 78,5% of these cases the clearance-results were corresponding to the results of X-ray examination; 6 of the remaining patients had a worse clearance result and 3 had a better result than the X-ray findings would have suggested. (orig.) [de

  4. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  5. Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    by applying a variable electric or electronmagnetic field. The modulation of the complex refractive index results in a modulation of the refractive index contrast and the absorption coefficient for the waveguide at the frequency of the light. By carefully adjusting the composition of the semiconducting...... components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient......The present invention relates to a method and a device for modulating optical signals based on modulating bending losses in bend, quantum well semiconductor waveguide sections. The complex refractive index of the optical active semiconducting components of the waveguide section is modulated...

  6. Geometrical interpretation of optical absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzon, J. J.; Barriuso, A. G.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L. [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Montesinos-Amilibia, J. M. [Departamento de Geometria y Topologia, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    We reinterpret the transfer matrix for an absorbing system in very simple geometrical terms. In appropriate variables, the system appears as performing a Lorentz transformation in a (1 + 3)-dimensional space. Using homogeneous coordinates, we map that action on the unit sphere, which is at the realm of the Klein model of hyperbolic geometry. The effects of absorption appear then as a loxodromic transformation, that is, a rhumb line crossing all the meridians at the same angle.

  7. Modernization of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasic, Visa; Milivojevic, Dragan; Karabasevic, Dejan

    2003-01-01

    In Copper Institute in Bor, connection has been made between absorption spectrophotometer and standard PC with the aim to make its operation more reliable and comfortable. Applied solution includes both software and hardware components. An I/O interface module has been installed in PC [1]. Software component consists of programs for measuring and interpretation of results. Paper presents details of this job realization.(Author)

  8. Turbulent effective absorptivity and refractivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    The problem of wave propagation in a turbulent magnetized plasma is investigated. Considering small scale, low frequency density fluctuations we solve the Maxwell equations and show that the eikonal approximation remains valid with an effective refractivity and an effective absorptivity taking into account the energy diffusion due to the turbulent motion. Then the result is applied to the problem of lower hybrid waves scattering by drift waves density fluctuations in tokamaks

  9. Slowing down with resonance absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The presence of heavy nuclei in nuclear reactors, in significant concentrations, facilitates the appearance of absorption resonances. For the moderation in the presence of absorbers an exact solution of the integral equations is possible by numerical methods. Approximated solutions for separated resonances in function of the practical width, (NR and NRIM approximations) are discussed in this paper. The method is generalized, presenting the solution by an intermediate approximation, in the definition of the resonance integral. (Author) [pt

  10. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    OpenAIRE

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has bee...

  11. Gamma-variate plasma clearance versus urinary plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Stefan; Henriksen, Ulrik L; Hansen, Hanne Boskov

    2017-01-01

    In patients with fluid retention, the plasma clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA (Clexp obtained by multiexponential fit) may overestimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The present study was undertaken to compare a gamma-variate plasma clearance (Clgv) with the urinary plasma clearance of (51) Cr......-EDTA (Clu ) in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention. A total of 81 patients with cirrhosis (22 without fluid retention, 59 with ascites) received a quantitative intravenous injection of (51) Cr-EDTA followed by plasma and quantitative urinary samples for 5 h. Clgv was determined from...... the injected dose relative to the plasma concentration-time area, obtained by a gamma-variate iterative fit. Clexp and Clu were determined by standard technique. In patients without fluid retention, Clgv , Clexp and Clu were closely similar. The difference between Clgv and Clu (Clgv - Clu = ΔCl) was mean -0...

  12. Organizational forms and knowledge absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing the entire portion of knowledge in an organization is a challenging task. At the organizational level, there can be enormous quantities of unknown, poorly valued or inefficiently applied knowledge. This is normally followed with the underdeveloped potential or inability of organizations to absorb knowledge from external sources. Facilitation of the efficient internal flow of knowledge within the established communication network may positively affect organizational capacity to absorb or identify, share and subsequently apply knowledge to commercial ends. Based on the evidences that the adoption of different organizational forms affects knowledge flows within an organization, this research analyzed the relationship between common organizational forms and absorptive capacity of organizations. In this paper, we test the hypothesis stating that the organizational structure affects knowledge absorption and exploitation in the organization. The methodology included quantitative and qualitative research method based on a questionnaire, while the data has been statistically analyzed and the hypothesis has been tested with the use of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The findings suggest that the type of organizational form affects knowledge absorption capacity and that having a less formalized and more flexible structure in an organization increases absorbing and exploiting opportunities of potentially valuable knowledge.

  13. Long-term follow-up of patients with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C: does viral clearance mean cure?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iqbal, M

    2017-06-01

    Up to 40% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies are negative for HCV RNA at initial evaluation. If there is a risk of viral re-activation, long term follow-up is required with attendant financial, psychological and medical implications. We investigated the risk of re-activation in the Irish anti-D cohort. Information was obtained from the national hepatitis C database which includes data on patients infected by anti-D immunoglobulin in two large outbreaks, 1977-9 and 1991-94. As part of a screening programme, starting in 1994, 64,907 females exposed to anti-D immunoglobulin were evaluated. Three hundred and forty-seven were found to be antibody positive but HCV RNA negative at initial assessment. 93% had subsequent RNA tests. There was no evidence of HCV recurrence in patients whose infection resolved spontaneously. It appears that two initial sequential negative results for HCV RNA are sufficient to confirm spontaneous viral clearance and probable cure of hepatitis C virus infection.

  14. Small Airway Absorption and Microdosimetry of Inhaled Corticosteroid Particles after Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, P Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To predict the cellular-level epithelial absorbed dose from deposited inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) particles in a model of an expanding and contracting small airway segment for different particle forms. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model of drug dissolution, absorption and clearance occurring in the surface liquid of a representative small airway generation (G13) was developed and used to evaluate epithelial dose for the same deposited drug mass of conventional microparticles, nanoaggregates and a true nanoaerosol. The ICS medications considered were budesonide (BD) and fluticasone propionate (FP). Within G13, total epithelial absorption efficiency (AE) and dose uniformity (microdosimetry) were evaluated. Conventional microparticles resulted in very poor AE of FP (0.37%) and highly nonuniform epithelial absorption, such that <5% of cells received drug. Nanoaggregates improved AE of FP by a factor of 57-fold and improved dose delivery to reach approximately 40% of epithelial cells. True nanoaerosol resulted in near 100% AE for both drugs and more uniform drug delivery to all cells. Current ICS therapies are absorbed by respiratory epithelial cells in a highly nonuniform manner that may partially explain poor clinical performance in the small airways. Both nanoaggregates and nanoaerosols can significantly improve ICS absorption efficiency and uniformity.

  15. Enriching Absorptive Capacity through Social Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under-addressed.

  16. Hopping absorption edge in silicon inversion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1983-09-01

    The low frequency gap observed in the absorption spectrum of silicon inversion layers is related to the AC variable range hopping. The frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient is calculated. (author)

  17. 76 FR 63680 - Public Roundtable on Execution, Clearance and Settlement of Microcap Securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... clearance and settlement process, potential regulatory changes impacting the Over-The-Counter markets, and Anti-Money Laundering concerns specific to microcap issuers. DATES: The roundtable discussion will be...

  18. 76 FR 50993 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... interviews, respondent debriefing, pilot surveys) to quickly test and implement new questions for research...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Generic Clearance to Conduct Methodological Testing, Surveys, Focus... proposed information collection. This information collection will conduct research by methodological...

  19. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad tracks...

  20. 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance in severe renal failure determined by one plasma sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Nielsen, S L

    1989-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty-four measurements of standard 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance were made in 50 patients with severe chronic renal failure. Based on these data two calculation methods were attempted using one plasma sample drawn 24 h after injection of 51Cr-EDTA. One of the methods used the 'one...... at zero-time was derived from injected dose and body surface area. This method might provide values 1.5 ml/min below or 0.8 ml/min above the established method of 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance, which would be acceptable for clinical purposes. It is concluded that exact plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA in severe...... renal dysfunction (estimated clearance values below 21 ml/min) may be determined with adequate precision by one plasma sample drawn at 24 h after injection of the tracer without sampling at 5 h. This appears to be a very practical simplification....

  1. Ginsenoside compound K promotes β-amyloid peptide clearance in primary astrocytes via autophagy enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhui; Chang, Li; Zhang, Xin; Pei, Sujuan; Yu, Meishuang; Gao, Jianlian

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginsenoside compound K on β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide clearance in primary astrocytes. Aβ degradation in primary astrocytes was determined using an intracellular Aβ clearance assay. Aggregated LC3 in astrocyte cells, which is a marker for the level of autophagy, was detected using laser scanning confocal microscope. The effect of compound K on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/autophagy pathway was determined using western blot analysis, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for Aβ detection. The results demonstrated that compound K promoted the clearance of Aβ and enhanced autophagy in primary astrocytes. In addition, it was found that phosphorylation of mTOR was inhibited by compound K, which may have contributed to the enhanced autophagy. In conclusion, compound K promotes Aβ clearance by enhancing autophagy via the mTOR signaling pathway in primary astrocytes.

  2. Turbine blade tip clearance measurement using a skewed dual-beam fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, De-chao; Duan, Fa-jie; Guo, Hao-tian; Li, Yangzong; Wang, Kai

    2012-08-01

    Optimization and active control of the tip clearance of turbine blades has been identified as a key to improve fuel efficiency, reduce emission, and increase service life of the engine. However, reliable and real-time tip clearance measurement is difficult due to the adverse environmental conditions that are typically found in a turbine. We describe a dual-beam fiber optic measurement system that can measure the tip timing and tip clearance simultaneously. Because the tip timing information is used to calculate the tip clearance, the method is insensitive to the signal intensity variation caused by fluctuations in environmental conditions such as light source instability, contamination, and blade tip imperfection. The system was calibrated and tested using experimental rotors. The test results indicated a high resolution of 4.5 μm and measurement accuracy of ±20 μm over the rotation speed range of 2000 to 10,000 rpm.

  3. Control of internal packing seal clearances considering for shaft behavior during steam turbine operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Min Sik; Lee, Si Yeon; Choi, Sung Choul; Lee, Jae Geun [Korea Plant Service and Engineering Co., Ltd., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Bo Suk [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of internal clearances for the interstage of blades and shaft gland seals on the steam turbine which are installed in tandem compound. Internal clearances was changed when the rotor turned in the cylindrical sleeve bearing due to the generation of oil film wedge. This presented concern is very useful to prevent the rubbing damage of seal edge between the fixed and moving parts in steam turbine due to the misalignment at the rotating and stationary parts. This method is applied for the unbalanced clearances distribution to the left and right sides in the turbine casing. A considerable amount of unbalanced clearances distribution trend is determined according to the rotating speed of rotor, size and type of journal bearing, oil viscosity, surface roughness of bearing and shaft, oil temperature, oil pressure and bearing load.

  4. Degradability and Clearance of Silicon, Organosilica, Silsesquioxane, Silica Mixed Oxide, and Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Croissant, Jonas G.; Fatieiev, Yevhen; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2017-01-01

    The biorelated degradability and clearance of siliceous nanomaterials have been questioned worldwide, since they are crucial prerequisites for the successful translation in clinics. Typically, the degradability and biocompatibility of mesoporous

  5. Using radioaerosols to monitor physiotherapy-enhanced mucus clearance at different levels of the bronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasani, A.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Patients with airways obstruction often find it difficult to clear excess lung secretions. Frequent coughing can clear the larger airways but may itself further damage the airways ciliated epithelium. Various physiotherapy regimes have been proposed yet objective evidence of their efficacy is sparse. Deposited aerosol particles - with an appropriate label for gamma imaging - can track clearance from different lung regions. Published reports have however tended to be equivocal in respect of clearance from the more distal conducting airways. Questions also arise as to coordination of transport rates at different levels of the bronchial tree. We therefore sought to re-assess requirements for effective analysis of physiotherapy-enhanced clearance to yield data on both peripheral and central airways clearance. (author)

  6. Using radioaerosols to monitor physiotherapy-enhanced mucus clearance at different levels of the bronchial tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani, A.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E. (Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    Patients with airways obstruction often find it difficult to clear excess lung secretions. Frequent coughing can clear the larger airways but may itself further damage the airways ciliated epithelium. Various physiotherapy regimes have been proposed yet objective evidence of their efficacy is sparse. Deposited aerosol particles - with an appropriate label for gamma imaging - can track clearance from different lung regions. Published reports have however tended to be equivocal in respect of clearance from the more distal conducting airways. Questions also arise as to coordination of transport rates at different levels of the bronchial tree. We therefore sought to re-assess requirements for effective analysis of physiotherapy-enhanced clearance to yield data on both peripheral and central airways clearance. (author).

  7. 76 FR 44020 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Partners and Customer Satisfaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Partners and Customer Satisfaction Surveys SUMMARY: In compliance with the... Voluntary Partners and Customers Satisfaction Surveys: Extension. The information collected in these surveys...

  8. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS FOR THE CASE OF RIGID ROTATING KINEMATIC COUPLING WITH BIG CLEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Cristian GRIGORE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an algorithm based on [1] [2] are numerical simulations, achieving generalized coordinates of motion, positions, speeds of a rigid rotating kinematic coupling with big clearance in joint, case without friction

  9. Proficiency testing criteria for clearance level in solid waste gamma measurement in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Wang, Jeng-Jong; Chiu, Huang-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    To guarantee the measurement quality for clearance level in solid waste material, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) established the criteria for proficiency testing of clearance level measurement. INER and the Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF) organized the Technique Committee Meeting twice to discuss these criteria in 2011. The participating laboratories must completely conform to the ISO/IEC 17025, and they also must meet the requirements of the criteria. According to the criteria, the participating laboratories analyzed the minimum detectable amount (MDA) and that should be less than 20% of the clearance level (AMDA) given in the Atomic Energy Council's (AEC) "Regulations on Clearance Level for Radioactive Waste Management". The testing results should conform to the deviation and traceability requirements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 69286 - Facility Security Clearance and Safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Clearance and Safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Executive Order 13526, Classified National Security Information. In addition, this direct final rule allowed... licensees (or their designees) to conduct classified [[Page 69287

  11. 78 FR 48037 - Facility Security Clearance and Safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Clearance and Safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... the objectives of Executive Order 13526, Classified National Security Information. The rule allows... signed Executive Order 13526, Classified National Security Information, which was published in the...

  12. Low Vertical Clearance Truss Bridges : Risk Assessment and Retrofit Mitigation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-10

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) has over 60 steel truss bridges in its inventory with vertical clearances less than the minimum 16-6 required for new bridges. This study evaluates the risks of oversized vehicle impacts...

  13. Traffic Incident Clearance Time and Arrival Time Prediction Based on Hazard Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang beibei Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of incident duration is not only important information of Traffic Incident Management System, but also an effective input for travel time prediction. In this paper, the hazard based prediction models are developed for both incident clearance time and arrival time. The data are obtained from the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads’ STREAMS Incident Management System (SIMS for one year ending in November 2010. The best fitting distributions are drawn for both clearance and arrival time for 3 types of incident: crash, stationary vehicle, and hazard. The results show that Gamma, Log-logistic, and Weibull are the best fit for crash, stationary vehicle, and hazard incident, respectively. The obvious impact factors are given for crash clearance time and arrival time. The quantitative influences for crash and hazard incident are presented for both clearance and arrival. The model accuracy is analyzed at the end.

  14. Clearance of Sclerostin, Osteocalcin, Fibroblast Growth Factor 23, and Osteoprotegerin by Dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Mortensen, Ole H.; Axelsen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF23), sclerostin, osteocalcin, and osteoprotegerin are important factors that control mineral bone metabolism. End-stage renal disease is associated with the pronounced dysregulation of mineral bone metabolism; however, the impact and clearance of mineral...

  15. Lithium clearance method and the renal response to low-dose dopamine in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N V; Olsen, M H; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1993-01-01

    .00 hours on three different occasions. After an overnight fast, the subjects were water-loaded and clearance studies were started at 09.00 hours with a 1h baseline period and three 1h periods during dopamine infusion. 2. Baseline sodium clearance with placebo was 0.65 +/- 0.35 ml/min, but with lithium......-induced changes in effective renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate or osmolal clearance. Neither lithium nor dopamine influenced plasma concentrations of renin, aldosterone or atrial natriuretic peptide. 4. In conclusion, single test doses of lithium, as normally used in lithium clearance studies......1. The effect of a single dose of lithium on renal function before and during intravenous infusion of dopamine (3 micrograms min-1 kg-1) was investigated in 12 healthy males. In a double-blind and randomized design, 450mg or 600mg of lithium carbonate or placebo was administered orally at 22...

  16. Lithium clearance method and the renal response to low-dose dopamine in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Olsen, M H; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1993-01-01

    .00 hours on three different occasions. After an overnight fast, the subjects were water-loaded and clearance studies were started at 09.00 hours with a 1h baseline period and three 1h periods during dopamine infusion. 2. Baseline sodium clearance with placebo was 0.65 +/- 0.35 ml/min, but with lithium...... in effective renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate or osmolal clearance. Neither lithium nor dopamine influenced plasma concentrations of renin, aldosterone or atrial natriuretic peptide. 4. In conclusion, single test doses of lithium, as normally used in lithium clearance studies, increase baseline......1. The effect of a single dose of lithium on renal function before and during intravenous infusion of dopamine (3 micrograms min-1 kg-1) was investigated in 12 healthy males. In a double-blind and randomized design, 450mg or 600mg of lithium carbonate or placebo was administered orally at 22...

  17. Anatomical factors predicting lower calyceal stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study shows that lower infundibular length and width are significant anatomical factors in determining stone clearance following ESWL treatment of lower calyceal stones and these should be assessed before planning the treatment for lower calyceal stones.

  18. Binding and clearance of Tc-99m pyrophosphate from the lungs of smokers and nonsmokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isitman, A.T.; Effros, R.; Collier, B.D.; Palmer, D.W.; Krasnow, A.Z.; Hellman, R.S.; Hacker, A.; Berger, C.; Trembath, L.

    1990-01-01

    Both acute and chronic lung disorders that affect the alveolar epithelium increase the rate at which aerosolized Tc-99 m DTPA is cleared from the lungs. Transalveolar clearance of Tc-99 DTPA has been used to detect lung injury, but- because smokers have a much faster clearance rate of Tc-99m DTPA-this examination has been limited primarily to nonsmokers. The purpose of this paper is to determine if the clearance of a larger molecule, Tc-99m PYP (molecular weight by ultrafiltration between 1.000 and 3,000 daltons), is also accelerated by smoking. Clearances of each indicator were studies for 6 hours in eight normal nonsmoking subjects and seven (otherwise normal smokers)

  19. Security Clearances and the Protection of National Security Information: Law and Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Sheldon

    2000-01-01

    ... designed to protect National Security information. The report provides an authoritative compendium for lawyers, security officers and for managers of corporations who must deal with the legal and procedural aspects of security clearances...

  20. Oral sugar clearance and root caries prevalence in rheumatic patients with dry mouth symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risheim, H; Arneberg, P; Birkhed, D

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between root caries, oral sugar clearance, salivary flow rate, and salivary counts of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and candida has been studied in a group of 22 rheumatic patients (age range 40-72 years). The study group comprised all subjects volunteering for a clinical trial on relief of dry mouth symptoms. The median salivary flow was 0.09 ml/min at rest and 0.9 ml/min during chewing stimulation. The median sugar clearance time was about 5 min in the sublingual area and 16 min in the lower buccal vestibule. For subjects with 0-2 root caries lesions the clearance time at both sites was shorter than for subjects with 3 or more lesions (p flow, and high salivary counts of mutans streptococci. It is concluded that root caries in rheumatic patients with low salivary flow is significantly related to oral sugar clearance time.

  1. 75 FR 22631 - Notice of Continuance for General Clearance for Guidelines, Applications, and Reporting Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES Notice of Continuance for General Clearance for Guidelines, Applications, and Reporting Forms AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services. ACTION... of higher education, library and museum professional associations, and museum and library...

  2. A Study to Determine Clearance Levels of Radioactive Wastes in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukakaa, Zaphania O. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Il [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Due to lack of a radioactive waste disposal facility in Kenya, radioactive wastes are stored in a bonded warehouse until such a time when their activity is low and they meet the criterion for clearance. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established activity concentrations of radionuclides to act as a universal guideline or standard for clearance in member countries. Radioactive wastes whose activity would yield a trivial risk to the people and environment, i.e. with an annual dose below 10 µSv are usually cleared from regulatory control with no further regulatory control mechanisms being taken. The Radiation Protection Board currently depends on the IAEA's generic clearance level activity concentrations for purposes of clearing the radiation wastes within its inventory. This study aims to determine activity concentrations of radionuclides in the Kenyan inventory that correspond to the clearance level dose of 10 µSv/a as set by the IAEA. The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) computer code, an important tool developed in 1989 to aid in evaluation of sites with radioactive contamination, will aid in modeling these clearance level values using a pathways analysis method and available site-specific data from Kenya. Afterwards, the obtained clearance level values will be compared with the IAEA's generic clearance level values of the corresponding radionuclides. The results modeled using the RESRAD code are conservative. For most of the radionuclides in the Kenyan inventory, the values do correspond with the IAEA standard generic clearance level values, albeit with minor differences. For most of the radionuclides, the difference is within the acceptable uncertainty limit. For these low probability events the effective dose resulting from them should not exceed 1 mSv per year. Thus, consideration was given to doses to the skin and an equivalent dose to the skin of 50 mSv per year was duly used in estimating the clearance level activities. The

  3. The Swedish nuclear industry way to approach higher demands on characterisation prior to clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Hellsten, Erik; Berglund, Malin; Larsson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) has introduced new regulations for clearance SSMFS 2011:2 'Regulations concerning clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil from activities with ionizing radiation'. The new regulations came into force January 1, 2012. Compared to the previous regulations these new regulations have a broader scope and have introduced new conditions such as nuclide specific clearance levels. Clearance is practiced to reduce the amount of radioactive waste generated. Cleared material can be reused, recycled or if these two possibilities are not available, disposed of as conventional waste. To be able to meet the requirements for clearance the Swedish nuclear industry has jointly developed guidance for clearance in the form of a handbook and a training course covering the competence requirements in the new regulations. The handbook was developed by a team of representatives from the Swedish nuclear license holders managed by Studsvik on behalf of Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The training program was developed in co-operation between Nuclear Safety and training Company (KSU) and Studsvik on behalf of the Swedish nuclear license holders. A major challenge in the adoption to the new regulations is how to provide robust yet cost effective characterisation data. This is especially difficult for mobile materials and equipment which cannot be fully tracked but also for other materials and areas where the nuclide fingerprint has varied over the years. To be able to deal with these issues a lot of attention has to be paid to the historical inventory records and traceability in the clearance process. Materials, rooms and buildings have been divided in four categories with different requirements on frequency and requirements of measurements. The categories are named 'extremely small risk', 'small risk', 'risk' and 'known contamination above clearance levels'. The two day training course is dived into seven parts

  4. Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soide, I; Klemsdal, E [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P; Hornut, J M [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1998-12-31

    Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)

  5. Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soide, I.; Klemsdal, E. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P.; Hornut, J.M. [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)

  6. Rapid clearance of xanthines from airway and pulmonary tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroell, F.K.; Karlsson, J.A.; Nilsson, E.; Ryrfeldt, A.; Persson, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The airway and pulmonary fate of two antiasthma xanthines was examined in a guinea pig perfused lung preparation where the airway mechanics and airway microvascular perfusion are maintained at near normal values. 14C-theophylline or 14C-enprofylline was infused for 10, 30, and 300 s into the pulmonary artery of the guinea pig isolated lung. The radioactivity increased rapidly (within 10 s) in tracheobronchial as well as in lung tissue, confirming that the large airway microcirculation was well supplied also by the perfusion. The effluent concentrations of total 3H and 14C radioactivity at the onset, during, and after intrapulmonary infusion of 14C-labeled xanthines and 3H-sucrose were closely associated, suggesting that the xanthines, like sucrose, largely distributed in extracellular fluid and were not taken up by the tissues. No metabolites of enprofylline or theophylline could be detected in the lung tissue or lung effluent, suggesting that xanthines are not biotransformed by the guinea pig lung. After intratracheal instillation of 14C-theophylline, the peak radioactivity in the lung effluent appeared in the second 15-s fraction after instillation, and after 10 and 60 min, 68.1 +/- 4.7% and 86.9 +/- 8.4%, respectively, of the given dose had appeared in the lung effluent. The present data suggest a mainly extracellular distribution and a rapid clearance of xanthines from the lung and airway tissues. The rapid disappearance of topical theophylline may explain the lack of success of inhalation therapy with this drug

  7. Metabolic clearance and blood production rates of estradiol in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, E C; Longcope, C; Maloof, F

    1975-09-01

    The metabolic clearance rate of 17beta-estradiol (MCR2), the plasma levels of 17beta-estradiol (E2)1, sex-steroid binding globulin (SSBG), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured in 10 hyperthyroid subjects (7 men and 3 women). The blood production rate of 17beta-estradiol (PB2) was calculated for all subjects. Nine of the 10 hyperthyroid subjects had a decreased MCR2 which returned towards normal in 5 of the 6 subjects restudied following therapy. In all 10 subjects the levels of SSBG were increased when they were hyperthyroid and returned toward normal with therapy. It is concluded that the decrease in MCR2 is largely due to the increased binding of 17beta-estradiol to SSBG. In 7 of the 10 hyperthyroid the plasma E2 concentrations were normal whereas 3 had slightly elevated levels. In 8 of the 10 hyperthyroid the PB2 was within the normal range. Only 2 hyperthyroid subjects had slightly elevated PB2. In the 6 subjects who were restudied after therapy, there was no consistent change in PB2 which remained in the normal range in all cases. It is concluded that the MCR2 is decreased in most subjects with hyperthyroidism in association with an increase of SSBG. Despite this change in MCR2 there is no significant change in PB2. The increase in SSBG levels in hyperthyroidism appears to be a direct effect of the elevation of thyroid hormone activity and is not mediated through estrogen.

  8. Characteristics of water absorption of beans

    OpenAIRE

    上中, 登紀子; 森, 孝夫; 豊沢, 功; Tokiko, Uenaka; Takao, Mori; Isao, Toyosawa

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of water absorption of soybean, azuki bean and kidney beans (cv. Toramame and Taishokintoki) were investigated. The way of water absorption of soybean was different from that of other beans, because soybeans absorbed water from whole surface of seed coat immediately after the immersion. Azuki beans absorbed extremely slowly water from only strophiole, and then the water absorption in other tissue was induced by a certain amount of water absorption playing a role of trigger. Th...

  9. The influence of a cooked meat meal on creatinine plasma concentration and creatinine clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayersohn, M; Conrad, K A; Achari, R

    1983-01-01

    1 The influence of a meal containing cooked meat (225 g) on creatinine plasma concentration, creatinine urinary excretion and creatinine clearance was determined in six healthy male subjects. 2 The meat meal produced an average 52% increase in creatinine plasma concentration within 1.5 to 3.5 h after ingestion. The 24 h area under the creatinine plasma concentration-time curve increased by about 19%. Urinary creatinine excretion during 24 h increased by an average of 13%. Creatinine clearance...

  10. Lung clearance of {sup 99m} Tc- DTPA in systemic lupus erythematous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalcin, P.T.R; Barreto, S.S.M.; Xavier, R.M.; Brenol, J.C.T. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Medicina Interna; Cunha, R.D.; Marroni, B.J. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: rxavier@hcpa.ufrgs.br

    2002-06-01

    The early demonstration of lung involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is a difficult but important task. In the present study we attempted to identify abnormalities in pulmonary clearance of 99 mTc-DTPA in SLE, correlating their clearance data with clinical findings and disease activity. Forty-six consecutive SLE patients with and without active disease (LACC score) and 30 normal volunteers were studied. All subjects were submitted to pulmonary scintigraphy with 99 mTc-DTPA to evaluate the pulmonary clearance, and to a chest X-ray, and SLE patients were submitted to tests of disease activity, spirometry, arterial blood gases and tests to assess acute-phase proteins. Pulmonary clearance was faster in SLE patients with active disease when compared to normal controls [half-life of 67.04 min (51.52-82.55 min) in active SLE versus 85.87 min (78.85-92.87 min) in controls, P<0.05] and there was a higher frequency of abnormal clearance rates in patients with active disease (11 of 26 patients, 42.3%) when compared with SLE patients without disease activity (2 of 20 patients, 10%) (P = 0.04). A significant correlation was observed between the clearance rates and cough (P<0.05), but not between the clearance rates and dyspnoea symptoms or radiological findings, duration of SLE disease, antinuclear antibody titers and patterns, C-reactive protein or anti-double stranded DNA antibodies. We conclude that the pulmonary clearance of 99 m Tc-DTPA is increased in SLE patients with active disease. (author)

  11. Lung clearance of 99m Tc- DTPA in systemic lupus erythematous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalcin, P.T.R; Barreto, S.S.M.; Xavier, R.M.; Brenol, J.C.T.; Cunha, R.D.; Marroni, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    The early demonstration of lung involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is a difficult but important task. In the present study we attempted to identify abnormalities in pulmonary clearance of 99 mTc-DTPA in SLE, correlating their clearance data with clinical findings and disease activity. Forty-six consecutive SLE patients with and without active disease (LACC score) and 30 normal volunteers were studied. All subjects were submitted to pulmonary scintigraphy with 99 mTc-DTPA to evaluate the pulmonary clearance, and to a chest X-ray, and SLE patients were submitted to tests of disease activity, spirometry, arterial blood gases and tests to assess acute-phase proteins. Pulmonary clearance was faster in SLE patients with active disease when compared to normal controls [half-life of 67.04 min (51.52-82.55 min) in active SLE versus 85.87 min (78.85-92.87 min) in controls, P<0.05] and there was a higher frequency of abnormal clearance rates in patients with active disease (11 of 26 patients, 42.3%) when compared with SLE patients without disease activity (2 of 20 patients, 10%) (P = 0.04). A significant correlation was observed between the clearance rates and cough (P<0.05), but not between the clearance rates and dyspnoea symptoms or radiological findings, duration of SLE disease, antinuclear antibody titers and patterns, C-reactive protein or anti-double stranded DNA antibodies. We conclude that the pulmonary clearance of 99 m Tc-DTPA is increased in SLE patients with active disease. (author)

  12. Evaluation of aorto-iliac disease with Doppler ultrasound and isotope clearance techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleberg, M [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Surgery; Lewis, J D

    1975-10-04

    The clearance of /sup 99/mTc from the hamstring muscle compartment of patients with aorto-iliac or iliac disease was examined with the patients at rest and after exercise. The values were compared with those obtained in a group of controls and another group with superficial femoral, or femoropopliteal arterial occlusion. A statistically significant difference in the rate of /sup 99/mTc clearance was found in patients with proximal vascular disease.

  13. Exercise increases the lung clearance of inhaled Tc-99m DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Cinotti, L.; Galle, P.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood flow have little effect on the lung clearance of Tc-99m DTPA which depends on the alveolar distension. However an increase of pulmonary blood flow, induces a recruitment of new vascular areas which can enhance this clearance. To assess this hypothesis the pulmonary apical and basal clearances of a sumicronic aerosol of Tc-99m DTPA were studied at rest and at exercise in seven non smoking volunteers in upright posture. As a matter of fact exercising upright is known to increase primarily the apical blood flow. After inhalation the subjects were seated on a bicycle their back against a gamma camera which was linked to a computer. The lung radioactivity was registered successively during a resting and an exercising period. At rest there was a gradient of clearance from the apex to the base of the lung, the apical clearance being significantly higher. At exercise (50 Watts, 60 c. min /sup -1/, 7 min.) this regional gradient was enhanced by a large and significant increase of the apical clearances (0.0340 min /sup -1/ +-0.0063 SD versus 0.00183 min /sup -1/ +- 0.074 SD at rest, n = 7, p < 0.01). By contrast the changes of the basal clearances were slight and unsignificant (0.0146 min /sup -1/ +- 0.0062 SD versus 0.0140 min /sup -1/ +- 0.0082 SD). Since exercise induces little distension of the apical alveoli but drastically enhances the apical blood flow, the observed increase of the apical lung clearance could be primarily attributed to the recruitment of new capillaries induced by exercise in the apices. This led to an increase of the surface area permeability product

  14. Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaide Marini

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥ 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high. The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low. To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001 and insulin clearance (P = 0.006 after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02 in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.

  15. Serial thallium-201 imaging after dipyridamole for coronary disease detection: quantitative analysis using myocardial clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Dai, Y.H.; Boucher, C.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    After dipyridamole, canine studies have demonstrated a slower rate of myocardial thallium-201 clearance from zones distal to a coronary artery stenosis compared to normal zones. To determine if criteria based on canine myocardial thallium-201 clearance rates could be applied clinically, 40 patients with and 26 patients without coronary artery disease (CAD) had serial thallium-201 images obtained for 2 to 5 hours after dipyridamole. Regions of interest were manually placed over six left ventricular segments in two projections for each of three imaging times. The myocardial thallium-201 clearance rate was calculated for each of the six segments and, using the clearance rate criterion found in canine studies, was considered abnormal if less than 6.5%/hr. Using this criterion alone, 22 of 26 patients (85%) without CAD had normal and 30 of 40 patients (75%) with CAD had abnormal myocardial thallium-201 clearance rates. A quantitative analysis of regional inhomogeneity in tracer distribution (normal was greater than or equal to 25% difference between segments) was negative in 24 of 26 patients (92%) without CAD and positive in 20 of 40 patients (50%) with CAD. When both clearance rate and regional inhomogeneity were considered, 21 of 26 patients (81%) without CAD had negative and 36 of 40 patients (90%) with CAD had positive results. Thus, post-dipyridamole myocardial clearance rate criteria derived from canine studies can be applied to clinical thallium imaging. Quantitative analysis of serial thallium-201 images after dipyridamole is optimized by using myocardial thallium-201 clearance rates. Such an approach is independent of regional inhomogeneities in tracer distribution

  16. Biological clearance and committed dose equivalent in pulmonary region from inhaled radioaerosols for lung scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, P.S.; Sharma, S.M.; Raghunath, B.; Somasundaram, S.

    1987-01-01

    Biological clearance half-lives (Tsub(b)) of different /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-labelled compounds from each lung have been determined, after administering the radioaerosol to normal subjects using the BARC dry aerosol generation and inhalation system. Based on these experimental clearance half-lives, the committed dose equivalent to the lungs has been computed using both the ICRP lung model and MIRD-11 values.

  17. Biological clearance and committed dose equivalent in pulmonary region from inhaled radioaerosols for lung scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, P.S.; Sharma, S.M.; Raghunath, B.; Somasundaram, S.

    1987-01-01

    Biological clearance half-lives (Tsub(b)) of different 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled compounds from each lung have been determined, after administering the radioaerosol to normal subjects using the BARC dry aerosol generation and inhalation system. Based on these experimental clearance half-lives, the committed dose equivalent to the lungs has been computed using both the ICRP lung model and MIRD-11 values. (author)

  18. Evaluation of aorto-iliac disease with Doppler ultrasound and isotope clearance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleberg, M.; Lewis, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The clearance of 99 mTc from the hamstring muscle compartment of patients with aorto-iliac or iliac disease was examined with the patients at rest and after exercise. The values were compared with those obtained in a group of controls and another group with superficial femoral, or femoropopliteal arterial occlusion. A statistically significant difference in the rate of 99 mTc clearance was found in patients with proximal vascular disease

  19. Creatinine Clearance and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate – When are they Interchangeable

    OpenAIRE

    Šimetić, Lucija; Zibar, Lada; Drmić, Sandra; Begić, Ivana; Šerić, Vatroslav

    2015-01-01

    Study goal was to examine which of glomerular rate equations is most suitable for prediction of creatinine clearance. Using a retrospective review of data from 500 hospital patients we calculated glomerular filtration rate according to Cockcroft-Gault equation (C-G), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (CKD-EPI). We determined if results of these equations were compatible with creatinine clearance, and does...

  20. Effect of tip clearance on performance of small axial hydraulic turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, J. L.; Rohlik, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    The first two stages of a six stage liquid oxygen turbine were tested in water. One and two stage performance was determined for one shrouded and two unshrouded blade end configurations over ranges of clearance and blade-jet speed ratio. First stage, two stage, and second stage efficiencies are included as well as the effect of clearance on mass flow for two stage operation.