WorldWideScience

Sample records for absolute percentage error

  1. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  2. Alternatives to accuracy and bias metrics based on percentage errors for radiation belt modeling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report reviews existing literature describing forecast accuracy metrics, concentrating on those based on relative errors and percentage errors. We then review how the most common of these metrics, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), has been applied in recent radiation belt modeling literature. Finally, we describe metrics based on the ratios of predicted to observed values (the accuracy ratio) that address the drawbacks inherent in using MAPE. Specifically, we define and recommend the median log accuracy ratio as a measure of bias and the median symmetric accuracy as a measure of accuracy.

  3. Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \

  4. Error analysis in newborn screening: can quotients support the absolute values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneth, Borros; Hintz, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Newborn screening is performed using modern tandem mass spectrometry, which can simultaneously detect a variety of analytes, including several amino acids and fatty acids. Tandem mass spectrometry measures the diagnostic parameters as absolute concentrations and produces fragments which are used as markers of specific substances. Several prominent quotients can also be derived, which are quotients of two absolute measured concentrations. In this study, we determined the precision of both the absolute concentrations and the derived quotients. First, the measurement error of the absolute concentrations and the measurement error of the ratios were practically determined. Then, the Gaussian theory of error calculation was used. Finally, these errors were compared with one another. The practical analytical accuracies of the quotients were significantly higher (e.g., coefficient of variation (CV) = 5.1% for the phenylalanine to tyrosine (Phe/Tyr) quotient and CV = 5.6% for the Fisher quotient) than the accuracies of the absolute measured concentrations (mean CVs = 12%). According to our results, the ratios are analytically correct and, from an analytical point of view, can support the absolute values in finding the correct diagnosis.

  5. Mean absolute error and root mean square error: which is the better metric for assessing model performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, Gary

    2017-04-01

    The mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are two metrics that are often used interchangeably as measures of ocean forecast accuracy. Recent literature has debated which of these should be preferred though their conclusions have largely been based on empirical arguments. We note that in general, RM SE2 = M AE2 + V ARk [|ɛ|] PIC PIC such that RMSE includes both the MAE as well as additional information related to the variance (biased estimator) of the errors ɛ with sample size k. The greater sensitivity of RMSE to a small number of outliers is directly attributable to the variance of absolute error. Further statistical properties for both metrics are derived and compared based on the assumption that the errors are Gaussian. For an unbiased (or bias corrected) model both MAE and RMSE are shown to estimate the total error standard deviation to within a constant coefficient such that ° -- M AE ≈ 2/πRM SE PIC . Both metrics have comparable behaviour in response to model bias and asymptote to the model bias as the bias increases. MAE is shown to be an unbiased estimator while RMSE is a biased estimator. MAE also has a lower sample variance compared with RMSE indicating MAE is the most robust choice. For real-time applications where there is a likelihood of "bad" observations we recommend ° - ° ---° - π- -1- π- π- TESD = 2 M AE ± √k- 2 - 1 2M AE PIC as an unbiased estimator of the total error standard deviation with error estimates (one standard deviation) based on the sample variance and defined as a scaling of the MAE itself. A sample size (k) on the order of 90 and 9000 provides an error scaling of 10% and 1% respectively. Nonetheless if the model performance is being analysed using a large sample of delayed-mode quality controlled observations then RMSE might be preferred where the second moment sensitivity to large model errors is important. Alternatively for model intercomparisons the information might compactly represented by a

  6. Corrected Lymphocyte Percentages Reduce the Differences in Absolute CD4+ T Lymphocyte Counts between Dual-Platform and Single-Platform Flow Cytometric Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noulsri, Egarit; Abudaya, Dinar; Lerdwana, Surada; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit

    2018-03-13

    To determine whether a corrected lymphocyte percentage could reduce bias in the absolute cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T lymphocyte counts obtained via dual-platform (DP) vs standard single-platform (SP) flow cytometry. The correction factor (CF) for the lymphocyte percentages was calculated at 6 laboratories. The absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in 300 blood specimens infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were determined using the DP and SP methods. Applying the CFs revealed that 4 sites showed a decrease in the mean bias of absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte counts determined via DP vs standard SP (-109 vs -84 cells/μL, -80 vs -58 cells/μL, -52 vs -45 cells/μL, and -32 vs 1 cells/μL). However, 2 participating laboratories revealed an increase in the difference of the mean bias (-42 vs -49 cells/μL and -20 vs -69 cells/μL). Use of the corrected lymphocyte percentage shows potential for decreasing the difference in CD4 counts between DP and the standard SP method.

  7. Reference intervals for absolute and percentage immature platelet fraction using the Sysmex XN-10 automated haematology analyser in a UK population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Knight, Gavin; Gibbs, Roz; Tsitsikas, Dimitris A

    2017-12-01

    Immature platelet fraction (IPF) estimation is a non-invasive and sensitive test that is available on recently introduced Sysmex XN-series of automated haematology analysers. It is a direct cellular indicator of thrombopoiesis. The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for IPF, for both absolute (A-IPF) and percentage (%-IPF) measurements. A total of 2366 samples that met the inclusion criteria were assayed for full blood count on the Sysmex XN-10 and a non-parametric percentile method was used for calculating the reference intervals. After the outliers were excluded, the reference interval for %-IPF and A-IPF on Sysmex XN-10 were 1.6-10.1% and 4.37-23.21 × 10 9 /L in total individuals, respectively. There was a statistical significance noted between the sexes (p = .004) for %-IPF, therefore a sex-specific reference interval was established, which was 1.8-10.0% for the males and 1.5-10.1% for females. No significant difference in sex status for A-IPF and age status for both %-IPF and A-IPF was observed. A very poor correlation was estimated between age versus %-IPF, ρ = 0.0156, and age versus A-IPF, ρ = -0.0023, indicating that there is no overall biological relationship between age and these parameters. As expected, a strong correlation between %-IPF and A-IPF was noted which could be attributed to their inter-relatedness. This large-scale study showed comparable reference intervals with the previous studies for %-IPF and A-IPF in a UK population. It found the need to establish sex-specific reference intervals for %-IPF, but not for A-IPF, whereas reference intervals were found to be stable across the age range.

  8. Error Budget for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the radiometric calibration error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.

  9. Measurement error correction in the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator model when validation data are available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Monica M; Hu, Chengcheng; Roe, Denise J; Halonen, Marilyn; Guerra, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of serum biomarkers by multiplex assays may be more variable as compared to single biomarker assays. Measurement error in these data may bias parameter estimates in regression analysis, which could mask true associations of serum biomarkers with an outcome. The Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) can be used for variable selection in these high-dimensional data. Furthermore, when the distribution of measurement error is assumed to be known or estimated with replication data, a simple measurement error correction method can be applied to the LASSO method. However, in practice the distribution of the measurement error is unknown and is expensive to estimate through replication both in monetary cost and need for greater amount of sample which is often limited in quantity. We adapt an existing bias correction approach by estimating the measurement error using validation data in which a subset of serum biomarkers are re-measured on a random subset of the study sample. We evaluate this method using simulated data and data from the Tucson Epidemiological Study of Airway Obstructive Disease (TESAOD). We show that the bias in parameter estimation is reduced and variable selection is improved.

  10. Systematic Errors of the Efficiency Tracer Technique for Measuring the Absolute Disintegration Rates of Pure Beta Emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.; Goodier, I.W.

    1967-01-01

    A basic requirement of, the theory of the efficiency tracer technique is the generally accepted assumption that there is a linear relationship between the efficiencies of the pure β-emitter and the tracer. However, an estimate of the inherent accuracy of the efficiency tracer technique has shown that, on theoretical grounds, this linear relationship would only be expected if the end-point energies and the shape of the β-spectra of the tracer and pure β-emitter were identical, the departure from linearity depending upon the ratio of the respective end-point energies. An experimentally determined value of the absolute disintegration rate of the pure emitter, obtained using a linear relationship, would have a significant systematic error if this relationship were in fact non-linear, for the usual straight-line extrapolation to 100% efficiency for the tracer would have to be replaced by an extrapolation with a significant curvature. To look for any non-linearity in the relationship it is first necessary to reduce the random measurement errors to a minimum. The first part of the paper contains a derivation of an expression for the expected value of these random errors in terms of the known statistical errors in the measurement. This expression shows that the ratio of the pure β-emitter and tracer activities can be chosen to make the random errors a minimum. The second part of the paper shows that it is possible to obtain an experimental error, which is comparable to that predicted in the expression derived above, for a pure β-emitter and tracer, combined in the same chemical form, whose end-point energies are similar (e.g. 32 P and 24 Na). To look for any non-linearity in the relationship between pure β-emitter and tracer efficiencies, 35 S (end-point energy E 0 = 168 keV) was measured with 60 Co(E 0 = 310 keV) and 134 Cs (effective E 0 = 110 keV) as tracers. The results of these measurements showed that there was a significant curvature, of opposite sign, for the

  11. Hydraulic head estimation at unobserved locations: Approximating the distribution of the absolute error based on geologic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Kaleris, Vassilios; Xeygeni, Vagia; Magkou, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the availability of groundwater reserves at a regional level, requires accurate and robust hydraulic head estimation at multiple locations of an aquifer. To that extent, one needs groundwater observation networks that can provide sufficient information to estimate the hydraulic head at unobserved locations. The density of such networks is largely influenced by the spatial distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the aquifer, and it is usually determined through trial-and-error, by solving the groundwater flow based on a properly selected set of alternative but physically plausible geologic structures. In this work, we use: 1) dimensional analysis, and b) a pulse-based stochastic model for simulation of synthetic aquifer structures, to calculate the distribution of the absolute error in hydraulic head estimation as a function of the standardized distance from the nearest measuring locations. The resulting distributions are proved to encompass all possible small-scale structural dependencies, exhibiting characteristics (bounds, multi-modal features etc.) that can be explained using simple geometric arguments. The obtained results are promising, pointing towards the direction of establishing design criteria based on large-scale geologic maps.

  12. Left-hemisphere activation is associated with enhanced vocal pitch error detection in musicians with absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Robin, Donald A; Larson, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    The ability to process auditory feedback for vocal pitch control is crucial during speaking and singing. Previous studies have suggested that musicians with absolute pitch (AP) develop specialized left-hemisphere mechanisms for pitch processing. The present study adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm combined with ERP recordings to test the hypothesis whether the neural mechanisms of the left-hemisphere enhance vocal pitch error detection and control in AP musicians compared with relative pitch (RP) musicians and non-musicians (NM). Results showed a stronger N1 response to pitch-shifted voice feedback in the right-hemisphere for both AP and RP musicians compared with the NM group. However, the left-hemisphere P2 component activation was greater in AP and RP musicians compared with NMs and also for the AP compared with RP musicians. The NM group was slower in generating compensatory vocal reactions to feedback pitch perturbation compared with musicians, and they failed to re-adjust their vocal pitch after the feedback perturbation was removed. These findings suggest that in the earlier stages of cortical neural processing, the right hemisphere is more active in musicians for detecting pitch changes in voice feedback. In the later stages, the left-hemisphere is more active during the processing of auditory feedback for vocal motor control and seems to involve specialized mechanisms that facilitate pitch processing in the AP compared with RP musicians. These findings indicate that the left hemisphere mechanisms of AP ability are associated with improved auditory feedback pitch processing during vocal pitch control in tasks such as speaking or singing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Errors and limits in the determination of plasma electron density by measuring the absolute values of the emitted continuum radiation intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, L.; Bruzzone, H.; Grondona, D.

    1994-01-01

    The reliable determination of a plasma electron structure requires a good knowledge of the errors affecting the employed technique. A technique based on the measurements of the absolute light intensity emitted by travelling plasma structures in plasma focus devices has been used, but it can be easily modified to other geometries and even to stationary plasma structures with time-varying plasma densities. The purpose of this work is to discuss in some detail the errors and limits of this technique. Three separate errors are shown: the minimum size of the density structure that can be resolved, an overall error in the measurements themselves, and an uncertainty in the shape of the density profile. (author)

  14. Performance evaluation of the touchscreen-based Muse™ Auto CD4/CD4% single-platform system for CD4 T cell numeration in absolute number and in percentage using blood samples from children and adult patients living in the Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new microcapillary and fluorescence-based EC IVD-qualified Muse™ Auto CD4/CD4% single-platform assay (EMD Millipore Corporation, Merck Life Sciences, KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany for CD4 T cell numeration in absolute number and in percentage was evaluated using Central African patients’ samples compared against the reference EC IVD-qualified BD FACSCount (Becton–Dickinson, USA flow cytometer. Methods EDTA-blood samples from 124 adults, 10 adolescents, 13 children and 3 infants were tested in parallel at 2 reference laboratories in Bangui. Results The Muse™ technique was highly reproducible, with low intra- and inter-run variabilities less than 15%. CD4 T cell counts of Muse™ and BD FACSCount in absolute number and percentage were highly correlated (r2 = 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. The mean absolute bias between Muse™ and BD FACSCount cells in absolute number and percentage were −5.91 cells/µl (95% CI −20.90 to 9.08 with limits of agreement from −77.50 to 202.40 cells/µl, and +1.69 %CD4 (95% CI ±1.29 to +2.09, respectively. The percentages of outliers outside the limits of agreement were nearly similar in absolute number (8% and percentage (10%. CD4 T cell counting by Muse™ allowed identifying the majority of individuals with CD4 T cell <200, <350 or <750 cells/µl corresponding to the relevant thresholds of therapeutic care, with sensitivities of 95.5–100% and specificities of 83.9–100%. Conclusions The Muse™ Auto CD4/CD4% Assay analyzer is a reliable alternative flow cytometer for CD4 T lymphocyte enumeration to be used in routine immunological monitoring according to World Health Organization recommendations in HIV-infected adults as well as children living in resource-constrained settings.

  15. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  16. Absolute reliability of five clinical tests for assessing hamstring flexibility in professional futsal players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco; Sainz de Baranda, Pilar; De Ste Croix, Mark; Santonja, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    To examine the absolute reliability of five methods for estimating hamstring flexibility in professional futsal players. Absolute reliability laboratory study (k=4). A total of 46 male futsal players (172.9±4.5 cm; 69.7±7.5 Kg) completed the study. All participants performed each measurement test twice in a randomized order on four different occasions. Absolute reliability was examined through typical percentage error, percentage change in the mean and intraclass correlations (ICC) as well as their respective confidence limits. The findings showed high reliability for the sit and reach test (SRT) (4.48% typical error; 0.84% change in the mean, 0.95 ICC), toe touch test (TT) (5.89% typical error; 2.31% change in the mean, 0.89 ICC) and back-saver sit and reach test (BSSR) (3.73% typical error; 0.51% change in the mean, 0.97 ICC) compared to the passive straight leg raise test (PSLR) (7.6% typical error; 8.86% change in the mean, 0.77 ICC) and modified sit and reach test (MSR) (11.87% typical error; 7.64% change in the mean, 0.84 ICC) which showed moderate reliability. An observed change larger than 6.72%, 7.55% and 5.59% for baseline SRT, TT and BSSR scores respectively would indicate that a real improvement in hamstring flexibility has occurred. In addition, the clinical reliability of PSLR and MSR are questioned and should be re-evaluated in future research studies. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  20. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  1. Decoherence at absolute zero

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Supurna

    2005-01-01

    We present an analytical study of the loss of quantum coherence at absolute zero. Our model consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators at absolute zero. We find that for an Ohmic bath, the offdiagonal elements of the density matrix in the position representation decay as a power law in time at late times. This slow loss of coherence in the quantum domain is qualitatively different from the exponential decay observed in studies of high temperature envir...

  2. Adjustment and testing comparison of absolute gravimeters in November 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pešková

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on a comparison measurement processing of absolute gravimeters in 2013. The comparison deals with a number of various types of absolute gravimeters and includes also an absolute gravimeter from Geodetic observatory Pecný. Comparative measurements are performed to detect systematic errors of gravimeters. A result of processing is most likely value of a gravity and a systematic error of individual devices. Measured values are input to a adjustment with condition a sum of systematic errors is zero. A part of this process is also verification following output: (i value of a posteriori standard deviation, (ii size of corrections and (iii statistical significance of systematic errors. The results of adjustment are 15 gravity values on the reference places and 25 systematic errors of measuring instruments. Result shows that the presence of systematic errors in measurements is not statistically provable because the systematic errors are similarly sized as their standard deviation.

  3. The Absolute Shielding Constants of Heavy Nuclei: Resolving the Enigma of the (119)Sn Absolute Shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Elena; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Demissie, Taye B; Ruud, Kenneth

    2013-02-07

    We demonstrate that the apparent disagreement between experimental determinations and four-component relativistic calculations of the absolute shielding constants of heavy nuclei is due to the breakdown of the commonly assumed relation between the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the NMR shielding constants. We demonstrate that this breakdown has significant consequences for the absolute shielding constant of (119)Sn, leading to errors of about 1000 ppm. As a consequence, we expect that many absolute shielding constants of heavy nuclei will be in need of revision.

  4. 12 CFR 226.14 - Determination of annual percentage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 226.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.14 Determination of annual percentage... calculation tool used in good faith by the creditor; and (2) upon discovery of the error, the creditor...

  5. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...

  6. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Approach to Absolute Zero 0.3 K. to a Few Milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 6-14. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/06/0006-0014 ...

  7. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Approach to Absolute Zero From 4. 22 K. to 0. 3 K. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0008-0016 ...

  8. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  9. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  10. Percentage Energy from Fat Screener: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    A short assessment instrument to estimate an individual's usual intake of percentage energy from fat. The foods asked about on the instrument were selected because they were the most important predictors of variability in percentage energy.

  11. Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly

    2013-01-01

    At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…

  12. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...... to the lasso. The lasso is applied both directly as a calibration method and as a method to select important variables/wave lengths. It is demonstrated that the lasso algorithm, in general, leads to parameter estimates of which some are zero while others are quite large (compared to e.g. the traditional PLS...

  13. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    away from this central location. An oval shaped zero uplift isoline tracks the general western and northern coastline of Norway and the Kola peninsula. It returns southwest through Russian Karelia and touches the southern tip of Sweden and northern Denmark. The uplift area (as measured by present day...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... acquired by IfE (FG5-220), FGI (FG5-221), and UMB (FG5-226). New absolute gravity stations were established by the national mapping agencies in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The total number of prepared sites in Fennoscandia is now about 30. Most of them are co-located with permanent GPS, for many of which...

  14. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  15. Incorrect Weighting of Absolute Performance in Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Scott A.; Cozzarin, Brian

    Students spend much of their life in an attempt to assess their aptitude for numerous tasks. For example, they expend a great deal of effort to determine their academic standing given a distribution of grades. This research finds that students use their absolute performance, or percentage correct as a yardstick for their self-assessment, even when relative standing is much more informative. An experiment shows that this reliance on absolute performance for self-evaluation causes a misallocation of time and financial resources. Reasons for this inappropriate responsiveness to absolute performance are explored.

  16. Making Sense of Fractions and Percentages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitin, David J.; Whitin, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    Because fractions and percentages can be difficult for children to grasp, connecting them whenever possible is beneficial. Linking them can foster representational fluency as children simultaneously see the part-whole relationship expressed numerically (as a fraction and as a percentage) and visually (as a pie chart). NCTM advocates these…

  17. Dynamic modeling of predictive uncertainty by regression on absolute errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pianosi, F.; Raso, L.

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty of hydrological forecasts represents valuable information for water managers and hydrologists. This explains the popularity of probabilistic models, which provide the entire distribution of the hydrological forecast. Nevertheless, many existing hydrological models are deterministic and

  18. Labelling alcoholic drinks: percentage proof, original gravity, percentage alcohol or standard drinks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, T; Honig, F

    1990-01-01

    Drivers who wish to stay 'under the limit', problem drinkers wishing to control their drinking and literally anyone who drinks alcohol and is concerned about their health are all increasingly exhorted to monitor their alcohol intake by counting 'standard drinks' (each containing 8-14 g, depending on the country in question). Unfortunately, the evidence presented in this paper suggests that this system permits many errors. In particular, it requires two assumptions to be met: (1) that drinks of the same beverage type (i.e. beer, wine, fortified wine or spirits) normally contain the same percentage of alcohol by volume; and (2) that people serve, or are served, alcoholic drinks in standard serves. It is shown that in practice the strength of drinks available for sale of a given beverage type varies widely and that 'atypical' strengths form a significant proportion of alcohol sales. Furthermore, whether drinking occurs in a private residence or on licensed premises, it is usual for quantities greater than the supposed Australian standard of 10 g to be served. In practice, most people are unaware of the strengths of different beverages or the rough equivalences between them. Even if they are taught the standard drink system, they cannot make allowances for 'atypical' variations in strength. It is suggested these problems could be readily overcome if all alcohol containers were labelled in terms of standard drinks. The benefits of such a labelling system are discussed with regard to health promotion, accident prevention and the accuracy of surveys of alcohol use.

  19. Absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Andres Calvache

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the epidemiological concepts of absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk through a clinical example. In addition, it emphasizes the usefulness of these concepts in clinical practice, clinical research and health decision-making process.

  20. Percentage of Fast-Track Receipts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The dataset provides the percentage of fast-track receipts by state during the reporting fiscal year. Fast-tracked cases consist of those cases identified as Quick...

  1. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  2. A Sensor Dynamic Measurement Error Prediction Model Based on NAPSO-SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minlan; Jiang, Lan; Jiang, Dingde; Li, Fei; Song, Houbing

    2018-01-15

    Dynamic measurement error correction is an effective way to improve sensor precision. Dynamic measurement error prediction is an important part of error correction, and support vector machine (SVM) is often used for predicting the dynamic measurement errors of sensors. Traditionally, the SVM parameters were always set manually, which cannot ensure the model's performance. In this paper, a SVM method based on an improved particle swarm optimization (NAPSO) is proposed to predict the dynamic measurement errors of sensors. Natural selection and simulated annealing are added in the PSO to raise the ability to avoid local optima. To verify the performance of NAPSO-SVM, three types of algorithms are selected to optimize the SVM's parameters: the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO), the improved PSO optimization algorithm (NAPSO), and the glowworm swarm optimization (GSO). The dynamic measurement error data of two sensors are applied as the test data. The root mean squared error and mean absolute percentage error are employed to evaluate the prediction models' performances. The experimental results show that among the three tested algorithms the NAPSO-SVM method has a better prediction precision and a less prediction errors, and it is an effective method for predicting the dynamic measurement errors of sensors.

  3. Precision errors, least significant change, and monitoring time interval in pediatric measurements of bone mineral density, body composition, and mechanostat parameters by GE lunar prodigy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Maciej; Pludowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is widely used in pediatrics in the study of bone density and body composition. However, there is a limit to how precise DXA can estimate bone and body composition measures in children. The study was aimed to (1) evaluate precision errors for bone mineral density, bone mass and bone area, body composition, and mechanostat parameters, (2) assess the relationships between precision errors and anthropometric parameters, and (3) calculate a "least significant change" and "monitoring time interval" values for DXA measures in children of wide age range (5-18yr) using GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer. It is observed that absolute precision error values were different for thin and standard technical modes of DXA measures and depended on age, body weight, and height. In contrast, relative precision error values expressed in percentages were similar for thin and standard modes (except total body bone mineral density [TBBMD]) and were not related to anthropometric variables (except TBBMD). Concluding, due to stability of percentage coefficient of variation values in wide range of age, the use of precision error expressed in percentages, instead of absolute error, appeared as convenient in pediatric population. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 13 CFR 115.31 - Guarantee percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals, on behalf of a... Contracts in excess of $100,000 which are executed on behalf of non-disadvantaged concerns. (c) Contract... Applicable Statutory Limit represents multiplied by the guarantee percentage approved by SBA. For example if...

  5. Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For an arithmetical function f with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the ∑ n ≤ N f(n)$ with explicit error term. As a corollary we obtain new results about sum-of-divisors functions and Jordan's totient functions.

  6. Dressing percentage in Romanian spotted breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are significant differences in terms of carcass weight, forequarters, hindquarters and the dressing percentage among Romanian Spotted breed steers and first generation crossbreed obtained between Romanian Spotted and Holstein at slaughter age of 12 and 17 months respectively. Study was done on Romanian Spotted breed steer aged 12 months (36 heads and 17 months (19 heads; Romanian Spotted x Holstein first generation crossbreed of aged 12 months (29 heads and 17 months (20 heads. The Romanian Spotted breed steer, show superiority in terms of carcass weight compared to crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein, therefore this breed has a better suitability for fattening for meat. Regarding dressing percentage is higher in crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein compared with Romanian Spotted breed steers, but the difference is insignificant.

  7. The Language of Comparisons: Communicating about Percentages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Polito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While comparisons between percentages or rates appear frequently in journalism and advertising, and are an essential component of quantitative writing, many students fail to understand precisely what percentages mean, and lack fluency with the language used for comparisons. After reviewing evidence demonstrating this weakness, this experience-based perspective lays out a framework for teaching the language of comparisons in a structured way, and illustrates it with several authentic examples that exemplify mistaken or misleading uses of such numbers. The framework includes three common types of erroneous or misleading quantitative writing: the missing comparison, where a key number is omitted; the apples-to-pineapples comparison, where two subtly incomparable rates are presented; and the implied fallacy, where an invalid quantitative conclusion is left to the reader to infer.

  8. Medication Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Errors and Patient Safety Centers for Disease Control and ... Quality Chasm Series National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  9. Errors in neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranci, Ferdinando; Tedeschi, Enrico; Leone, Giuseppe; Reginelli, Alfonso; Gatta, Gianluca; Pinto, Antonio; Squillaci, Ettore; Briganti, Francesco; Brunese, Luca

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 4 % of radiologic interpretation in daily practice contains errors and discrepancies that should occur in 2-20 % of reports. Fortunately, most of them are minor degree errors, or if serious, are found and corrected with sufficient promptness; obviously, diagnostic errors become critical when misinterpretation or misidentification should significantly delay medical or surgical treatments. Errors can be summarized into four main categories: observer errors, errors in interpretation, failure to suggest the next appropriate procedure, failure to communicate in a timely and a clinically appropriate manner. Misdiagnosis/misinterpretation percentage should rise up in emergency setting and in the first moments of the learning curve, as in residency. Para-physiological and pathological pitfalls in neuroradiology include calcification and brain stones, pseudofractures, and enlargement of subarachnoid or epidural spaces, ventricular system abnormalities, vascular system abnormalities, intracranial lesions or pseudolesions, and finally neuroradiological emergencies. In order to minimize the possibility of error, it is important to be aware of various presentations of pathology, obtain clinical information, know current practice guidelines, review after interpreting a diagnostic study, suggest follow-up studies when appropriate, communicate significant abnormal findings appropriately and in a timely fashion directly with the treatment team.

  10. Absolute beam current monitoring in endstation c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochna, C.

    1995-01-01

    The first few experiments at CEBAF require approximately 1% absolute measurements of beam currents expected to range from 10-25μA. This represents errors of 100-250 nA. The initial complement of beam current monitors are of the non intercepting type. CEBAF accelerator division has provided a stripline monitor and a cavity monitor, and the authors have installed an Unser monitor (parametric current transformer or PCT). After calibrating the Unser monitor with a precision current reference, the authors plan to transfer this calibration using CW beam to the stripline monitors and cavity monitors. It is important that this be done fairly rapidly because while the gain of the Unser monitor is quite stable, the offset may drift on the order of .5μA per hour. A summary of what the authors have learned about the linearity, zero drift, and gain drift of each type of current monitor will be presented

  11. The PMA Catalogue: 420 million positions and absolute proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, V. S.; Fedorov, P. N.; Velichko, A. B.; Shulga, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a catalogue that contains about 420 million absolute proper motions of stars. It was derived from the combination of positions from Gaia DR1 and 2MASS, with a mean difference of epochs of about 15 yr. Most of the systematic zonal errors inherent in the 2MASS Catalogue were eliminated before deriving the absolute proper motions. The absolute calibration procedure (zero-pointing of the proper motions) was carried out using about 1.6 million positions of extragalactic sources. The mean formal error of the absolute calibration is less than 0.35 mas yr-1. The derived proper motions cover the whole celestial sphere without gaps for a range of stellar magnitudes from 8 to 21 mag. In the sky areas where the extragalactic sources are invisible (the avoidance zone), a dedicated procedure was used that transforms the relative proper motions into absolute ones. The rms error of proper motions depends on stellar magnitude and ranges from 2-5 mas yr-1 for stars with 10 mag < G < 17 mag to 5-10 mas yr-1 for faint ones. The present catalogue contains the Gaia DR1 positions of stars for the J2015 epoch. The system of the PMA proper motions does not depend on the systematic errors of the 2MASS positions, and in the range from 14 to 21 mag represents an independent realization of a quasi-inertial reference frame in the optical and near-infrared wavelength range. The Catalogue also contains stellar magnitudes taken from the Gaia DR1 and 2MASS catalogues. A comparison of the PMA proper motions of stars with similar data from certain recent catalogues has been undertaken.

  12. Operator errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefer; Lindauer

    1980-01-01

    Besides that at spectacular events a combination of component failure and human error is often found. Especially the Rasmussen-Report and the German Risk Assessment Study show for pressurised water reactors that human error must not be underestimated. Although operator errors as a form of human error can never be eliminated entirely, they can be minimized and their effects kept within acceptable limits if a thorough training of personnel is combined with an adequate design of the plant against accidents. Contrary to the investigation of engineering errors, the investigation of human errors has so far been carried out with relatively small budgets. Intensified investigations in this field appear to be a worthwhile effort. (orig.)

  13. Fundamental principles of absolute radiometry and the philosophy of this NBS program (1968 to 1971)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, J.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given work performed on a program to develop an electrically calibrated detector (also called absolute radiometer, absolute detector, and electrically calibrated radiometer) that could be used to realize, maintain, and transfer a scale of total irradiance. The program includes a comprehensive investigation of the theoretical basis of absolute detector radiometry, as well as the design and construction of a number of detectors. A theoretical analysis of the sources of error is also included.

  14. Error Analysis of Determining Airplane Location by Global Positioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Burat, Alper

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the error analysis of determining airplane location by global positioning system (GPS) using statistical testing method. The Newton Rhapson method positions the airplane at the intersection point of four spheres. Absolute errors, relative errors and standard deviation have been calculated The results show that the positioning error of the airplane varies with the coordinates of GPS satellite and the airplane.

  15. An Empirical Analysis for the Prediction of a Financial Crisis in Turkey through the Use of Forecast Error Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Caliskan Cavdar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we try to examine whether the forecast errors obtained by the ANN models affect the breakout of financial crises. Additionally, we try to investigate how much the asymmetric information and forecast errors are reflected on the output values. In our study, we used the exchange rate of USD/TRY (USD, the Borsa Istanbul 100 Index (BIST, and gold price (GP as our output variables of our Artificial Neural Network (ANN models. We observe that the predicted ANN model has a strong explanation capability for the 2001 and 2008 crises. Our calculations of some symmetry measures such as mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, symmetric mean absolute percentage error (sMAPE, and Shannon entropy (SE, clearly demonstrate the degree of asymmetric information and the deterioration of the financial system prior to, during, and after the financial crisis. We found that the asymmetric information prior to crisis is larger as compared to other periods. This situation can be interpreted as early warning signals before the potential crises. This evidence seems to favor an asymmetric information view of financial crises.

  16. Medical error

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    is only when mistakes are recognised that learning can occur...All our previous medical training has taught us to fear error, as error is associated with blame. This fear may lead to concealment and this is turn can lead to fraud'. How real this fear is! All of us, during our medical training, have had the maxim 'prevention is.

  17. Relative and absolute risk in epidemiology and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, R.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The health risk from ionizing radiation commonly is expressed in two forms: (1) the relative risk, which is the percentage increase in natural disease rate and (2) the absolute or attributable risk which represents the difference between the natural rate and the rate associated with the agent in question. Relative risk estimates for ionizing radiation generally are higher than those expressed as the absolute risk. This raises the question of which risk estimator is the most appropriate under different conditions. The absolute risk has generally been used for radiation risk assessment, although mathematical combinations such as the arithmetic or geometric mean of both the absolute and relative risks, have also been used. Combinations of the two risk estimators are not valid because the absolute and relative risk are not independent variables. Both human epidemiologic studies and animal experimental data can be found to illustrate the functional relationship between the natural cancer risk and the risk associated with radiation. This implies that the radiation risk estimate derived from one population may not be appropriate for predictions in another population, unless it is adjusted for the difference in the natural disease incidence between the two populations

  18. Einstein's error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterflood, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    In discussing Einstein's Special Relativity theory it is claimed that it violates the principle of relativity itself and that an anomalous sign in the mathematics is found in the factor which transforms one inertial observer's measurements into those of another inertial observer. The apparent source of this error is discussed. Having corrected the error a new theory, called Observational Kinematics, is introduced to replace Einstein's Special Relativity. (U.K.)

  19. Controlling errors in unidosis carts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Díaz Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify errors in the unidosis system carts. Method: For two months, the Pharmacy Service controlled medication either returned or missing from the unidosis carts both in the pharmacy and in the wards. Results: Uncorrected unidosis carts show a 0.9% of medication errors (264 versus 0.6% (154 which appeared in unidosis carts previously revised. In carts not revised, the error is 70.83% and mainly caused when setting up unidosis carts. The rest are due to a lack of stock or unavailability (21.6%, errors in the transcription of medical orders (6.81% or that the boxes had not been emptied previously (0.76%. The errors found in the units correspond to errors in the transcription of the treatment (3.46%, non-receipt of the unidosis copy (23.14%, the patient did not take the medication (14.36%or was discharged without medication (12.77%, was not provided by nurses (14.09%, was withdrawn from the stocks of the unit (14.62%, and errors of the pharmacy service (17.56% . Conclusions: It is concluded the need to redress unidosis carts and a computerized prescription system to avoid errors in transcription.Discussion: A high percentage of medication errors is caused by human error. If unidosis carts are overlooked before sent to hospitalization units, the error diminishes to 0.3%.

  20. Absolute metrology for space interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René

    2017-11-01

    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  1. Using the t-distribution to improve the absolute structure assignment with likelihood calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, R.W.W.; Straver, L.H.; Spek, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    The previously described method for absolute structure determination [Hooft, Straver & Spek (2008). J. Appl. Cryst. 41, 96–103] assumes a Gaussian error distribution. The method is now extended to make it robust against poor data with large systematic errors with the introduction of the Student

  2. Absolute pitch--electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, A; Granot, R; Pratt, H

    1994-02-01

    People who have the ability to label or to produce notes without any reference are considered to possess Absolute Pitch (AP). Others, who need a reference in order to identify the notes, possess Relative Pitch (RP). The AP ability is assumed to reflect a unique, language-like representation of non-lexical musical notes in memory. The purpose of this study was to examine this assumption by comparing Event Related Potentials (ERP) of musicians with and without AP, to lexical and non-lexical representation of musical material. Subjects were eighteen young adult musicians. Seven were AP and eleven RP. Auditory stimuli, presented through earphones, were piano notes (non-lexical) or a voice saying the note's name (lexical). Visual stimuli, presented on a computer display were note symbols (non-lexical) or letters (lexical). Subjects performed a number of tasks, combining the two modalities (visual and auditory) and stimulus types (lexical and non-lexical), and reaction times (RT), performance accuracy and evoked potentials were recorded. The tasks forced the subjects to transfer mental representations of musical material from one mode to another. Our most important findings were the differences, between groups, in the scalp distribution of P300 amplitudes. We conclude that absolute pitch possessors use the same internal language as relative pitch possessors, when possible, but the distribution of the underlying brain activity is different between AP and RP subjects.

  3. Absolute MR thermometry using nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Roel; Sprinkhuizen, Sara M; Crielaard, Bart J; Ippel, Johannes H; Boelens, Rolf; Bakker, Chris J G; Storm, Gert; Lammers, Twan; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2014-01-01

    Accurate time-resolved temperature mapping is crucial for the safe use of hyperthermia-mediated drug delivery. We here propose a magnetic resonance imaging temperature mapping method in which drug delivery systems serve not only to improve tumor targeting, but also as an accurate and absolute nano-thermometer. This method is based on the temperature-dependent chemical shift difference between water protons and the protons in different groups of drug delivery systems. We show that the chemical shift of the protons in the ethylene oxide group in polyethylene glycol (PEG) is temperature-independent, whereas the proton resonance of water decreases with increasing temperature. The frequency difference between both resonances is linear and does not depend on pH and physiological salt conditions. In addition, we show that the proton resonance of the methyl group in N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide (HPMA) is temperature-independent. Therefore, PEGylated liposomes, polymeric mPEG-b-pHPMAm-Lac2 micelles and HPMA copolymers can provide a temperature-independent reference frequency for absolute magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry. Subsequently, we show that multigradient echo MR imaging with PEGylated liposomes in situ allows accurate, time-resolved temperature mapping. In conclusion, nanocarrier materials may serve as highly versatile tools for tumor-targeted drug delivery, acting not only as hyperthermia-responsive drug delivery systems, but also as accurate and precise nano-thermometers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Refractive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Refractive Errors in Children En Español Read in Chinese How does the ... birth and can occur at any age. The prevalence of myopia is low in US children under the age of eight, but much higher ...

  5. "Absolute" sterility and "absolute" freedom from particle contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J Z

    1998-01-01

    Until the recent past, sterility of an injectable product was only discussed in absolute terms. Any description of sterility other than as an absolute could simply not be envisioned. While dealing in absolute yes/no statements is philosophically satisfying, these yes/no statements can't accommodate all real world scientific problems. Among these problems is the sterility problems faced in the mass production of injectable compounds. Many descriptions of procedures employed to achieve sterility in parenteral production batches were reported in the literature. The theoretical framework that could unite the widespread observations and practices into practical methodology was missing until recently. Production line control of the sterility of injectable products was essentially based on gut evaluations. The present achievement of rational, production line control of product sterility is based on the recognition that product sterility could not be simply regarded as a sharply edged yes/no affair. The present rational control is based on the fact that the sterility of a product is determined by the degree of contamination in the product prior to sterilization and to the parameters of the sterilization process. The end result of the sterilization process is now described as a probabalistic reduction of the initial contamination. The essential laboratory measurements on which this conclusion was based is due to Pflug (1-3). He assembled a theoretical framework, based on experimental data, that characterizes the sterility achieved in an injectable product with a single number. The end result of the sterilization process is now described as a probabalistic reduction of the initial contamination. As in many disciplines, the ability to achieve an objective evaluation of this important attribute provided the basis for scientific analysis, improved control and thus improved production and reduced cost. An equivalent framework is essential for the communication and

  6. Absolute quantification in multi-pinhole micro-SPECT for different isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeghinste, Bert; Vanhove, Christian; De Beenhouwer, Jan; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Staelens, Steven

    2011-01-01

    In preclinical Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT), absolute quantification is interesting, expressed in percentage of injected radioactive dose per gram of tissue. This allows for accurate evaluation of disease progression and precise follow-up studies without the need for sacrificing animals. Accurate modeling of image degrading effects is currently under development for isotopes different from 99mTc. The aim of this work is to develop absolute micro-SPECT quantification for three dif...

  7. The Korean version of relative and absolute reliability of gait and balance assessment tools for patients with dementia in day care center and nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Park, Sun Wook; Chung, Hyung Kuk

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of Korean version tools of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Timed Up and Go (TUG), the Four-Meter Walking Test (4MWT) and the Groningen Meander Walking Test (GMWT) in patients with dementia. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 53 patients with dementia were tested on TUG, BBS, 4MWT and GMWT with a prospective cohort methodological design. Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) to assess relative reliability and the standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC 95 ) and its percentage (MDC % ) to analyze the absolute reliability were calculated. [Results] Inter-rater reliability (ICC (2,3) ) of TUG, BBS and GMWT was 0.99 and that of 4MWT was 0.82. Inter-rater reliability was high for TUG, BBS and GMWT, with low SEM, MDC 95 , and MDC % . Inter-rater reliability was low for 4MWT, with high SEM, MDC 95 , and MDC % . Test-retest (ICC (2,3) ) of TUG, BBS and GMWT was 0.96-0.99 and Test-retest (ICC (2,3) ) of 4MWT was 0.85. The test-retest was high for TUG, BBS and GMWT, with low SEM, MDC 95 , and MDC % , but it was low for 4MWT, with high SEM, MDC 95 , and MDC % . [Conclusion] The relative reliability was high for all the assessment tools. The absolute reliability has a reasonable level of stability except the 4MWT.

  8. High accuracy absolute distance metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, Bas L.; Bhattacharya, Nandini; Verlaan, Ad L.; Braat, Joseph J. M.

    2017-11-01

    One of ESA's future missions is the Darwin Space Interferometer, which aims to detect planets around nearby stars using optical aperture synthesis with free-flying telescopes. Since this involves interfering white (infra-red) light over large distances, the mission is not possible without a complex metrology system that monitors various speeds, distances and angles between the satellites. One of its sub-systems should measure absolute distances with an accuracy of around 70 micrometer over distances up to 250 meter. To enable such measurements, we are investigating a technique called frequency sweeping interferometry, in which a single laser is swept over a large known frequency range. Central to our approach is the use of a very stable, high finesse Fabry-Ṕerot cavity, to which the laser is stabilized at the endpoints of the frequency sweep. We will discuss the optical set-up, the control system that controls the fast sweeping, the calibration and the data analysis. We tested the system using long fibers and achieved a repeatability of 50 micrometers at a distance of 55 meters. We conclude with some recommendations for further improvements and the adaption for use in space.

  9. Binomial Distribution Sample Confidence Intervals Estimation 7. Absolute Risk Reduction and ARR-like Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ACHIMAŞ CADARIU

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of a controlled clinical trial suppose to interpret some key parameters as the controlled event rate, experimental event date, relative risk, absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, number needed to treat when the effect of the treatment are dichotomous variables. Defined as the difference in the event rate between treatment and control groups, the absolute risk reduction is the parameter that allowed computing the number needed to treat. The absolute risk reduction is compute when the experimental treatment reduces the risk for an undesirable outcome/event. In medical literature when the absolute risk reduction is report with its confidence intervals, the method used is the asymptotic one, even if it is well know that may be inadequate. The aim of this paper is to introduce and assess nine methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction – like function.Computer implementations of the methods use the PHP language. Methods comparison uses the experimental errors, the standard deviations, and the deviation relative to the imposed significance level for specified sample sizes. Six methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction-like functions were assessed using random binomial variables and random sample sizes.The experiments shows that the ADAC, and ADAC1 methods obtains the best overall performance of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction.

  10. Power and sample size calculations in the presence of phenotype errors for case/control genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finch Stephen J

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotype error causes reduction in power to detect genetic association. We present a quantification of phenotype error, also known as diagnostic error, on power and sample size calculations for case-control genetic association studies between a marker locus and a disease phenotype. We consider the classic Pearson chi-square test for independence as our test of genetic association. To determine asymptotic power analytically, we compute the distribution's non-centrality parameter, which is a function of the case and control sample sizes, genotype frequencies, disease prevalence, and phenotype misclassification probabilities. We derive the non-centrality parameter in the presence of phenotype errors and equivalent formulas for misclassification cost (the percentage increase in minimum sample size needed to maintain constant asymptotic power at a fixed significance level for each percentage increase in a given misclassification parameter. We use a linear Taylor Series approximation for the cost of phenotype misclassification to determine lower bounds for the relative costs of misclassifying a true affected (respectively, unaffected as a control (respectively, case. Power is verified by computer simulation. Results Our major findings are that: (i the median absolute difference between analytic power with our method and simulation power was 0.001 and the absolute difference was no larger than 0.011; (ii as the disease prevalence approaches 0, the cost of misclassifying a unaffected as a case becomes infinitely large while the cost of misclassifying an affected as a control approaches 0. Conclusion Our work enables researchers to specifically quantify power loss and minimum sample size requirements in the presence of phenotype errors, thereby allowing for more realistic study design. For most diseases of current interest, verifying that cases are correctly classified is of paramount importance.

  11. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  12. L’errore nel laboratorio di Microbiologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Lanzafame

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Error management plays one of the most important roles in facility process improvement efforts. By detecting and reducing errors quality and patient care improve. The records of errors was analysed over a period of 6 months and another was used to study the potential bias in the registrations.The percentage of errors detected was 0,17% (normalised 1720 ppm and the errors in the pre-analytical phase was the largest part.The major rate of errors was generated by the peripheral centres which send only sometimes the microbiology tests and don’t know well the specific procedures to collect and storage biological samples.The errors in the management of laboratory supplies were reported too. The conclusion is that improving operators training, in particular concerning samples collection and storage, is very important and that an affective system of error detection should be employed to determine the causes and the best corrective action should be applied.

  13. Absolute distance measurements using two-mode laser telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintz, Michel.; Courde, C.; Brillet, A.; Man, C. N.

    2017-11-01

    A novel laser ranging method is described that uses a two-mode laser source, and detection of the phase of the return beam. The design eliminates the cyclic error usually associated with phase measurements and provides unambiguous, absolute distance determination. Measurements of an ≍ 8m path are obtained at a beat frequency of 13 GHz. We analyse the ≍1 μm stability of the data obtained with this preliminary implementation, and expect that an improved version will allow accuracies well below 1 μm, for the kilometer-scale distances involved in satellite formation flight.

  14. Absolutely summing multilinear operators: a Panorama | Pellegrino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper has a twofold purpose: to present an overview of the theory of absolutely summing operators and its different generalizations for the multilinear setting, and to sketch the beginning of a research project related to an objective search of “perfect” multilinear extensions of the ideal of absolutely summing operators.

  15. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The accurate estimation of noise variance in an image is the first important stage ... lung image was lung image was developed. developed. developed. The development of mean of median absolute derivation technique development of mean of median absolute .... that are non-real numbers during initial processing.

  16. AC Own Motion Percentage of Randomly Sampled Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Longitudinal report detailing the numbers and percentages of Appeals Council (AC) own motion review actions taken on un-appealed favorable hearing level decisions...

  17. Quantum nonequilibrium equalities with absolute irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funo, Ken; Murashita, Yûto; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-07-01

    We derive quantum nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes. Here by absolute irreversibility we mean that in the backward process the density matrix does not return to the subspace spanned by those eigenvectors that have nonzero weight in the initial density matrix. Since the initial state of a memory and the postmeasurement state of the system are usually restricted to a subspace, absolute irreversibility occurs during the measurement and feedback processes. An additional entropy produced in absolutely irreversible processes needs to be taken into account to derive nonequilibrium equalities. We discuss a model of a feedback control on a qubit system to illustrate the obtained equalities. By introducing N heat baths each composed of a qubit and letting them interact with the system, we show how the entropy reduction via feedback control can be converted into work. An explicit form of extractable work in the presence of absolute irreversibility is given.

  18. Error Budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinyard, Natalia Sergeevna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Theodore Sonne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    We calculate opacity from k (hn)=-ln[T(hv)]/pL, where T(hv) is the transmission for photon energy hv, p is sample density, and L is path length through the sample. The density and path length are measured together by Rutherford backscatter. Δk = $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial T$ ΔT + $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial (pL)$. We can re-write this in terms of fractional error as Δk/k = Δ1n(T)/T + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission itself is calculated from T=(U-E)/(V-E)=B/B0, where B is transmitted backlighter (BL) signal and B0 is unattenuated backlighter signal. Then ΔT/T=Δln(T)=ΔB/B+ΔB0/B0, and consequently Δk/k = 1/T (ΔB/B + ΔB$_0$/B$_0$ + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission is measured in the range of 0.2

  19. 7 CFR 982.41 - Free and restricted percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 982.41 Free and restricted percentages. The free and restricted percentages computed by the Board or established by the Secretary pursuant to § 982.40 shall apply...

  20. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    networks model have shown a strong potential for predicting the percentage of water absorption of the geopolymer specimens. Keywords. Geopolymer; fly ash; rice husk bark ash; percentage of water absorption; artificial neural networks. 1. Introduction. Most building materials have typical porous structure and composed of ...

  1. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... conducted. According to these input parameters, in the neural networks model, the percentage of water absorption of each specimen was predicted. The training and testing results in the neural networks model have shown a strong potential for predicting the percentage of water absorption of the geopolymer specimens.

  2. Determination of percentage of caffeine content in some analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods were employed for the determination of percentage Caffeine content in three brands of analgesic tablets which are; Extraction using only water as a solvent and Extraction using both water and chloroform as solvents, watch glass has been used as the weighing apparatus and the percentage of Caffeine ...

  3. determination of perce rmination of percentage of caffeine content

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. Two methods were employed for the deter brands of analgesic tablets which are;. Extraction using both water and chlorofor weighing apparatus and the percentage of. The percentage of caffeine using only water. Boska, and Panadol Extra were 7.40%, 5.60 caffeine using both water and chloroform i.

  4. 26 CFR 1.613-1 - Percentage depletion; general rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-1 Percentage depletion; general rule. (a) In general. In the case of a taxpayer computing the deduction for depletion under section 611... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Percentage depletion; general rule. 1.613-1...

  5. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    According to these input parameters, in the neural networks model, the percentage of water absorption of each specimen was predicted. The training and testing results in the neural networks model have shown a strong potential for predicting the percentage of water absorption of the geopolymer specimens. Keywords.

  6. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ACL Safalaoh. Abstract. A study was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of a microbial preparation, Effective Micro organisms (EM), on body weight gain, dressing percentage, ...

  7. Error estimation in plant growth analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gregorczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scheme is presented for calculation of errors of dry matter values which occur during approximation of data with growth curves, determined by the analytical method (logistic function and by the numerical method (Richards function. Further formulae are shown, which describe absolute errors of growth characteristics: Growth rate (GR, Relative growth rate (RGR, Unit leaf rate (ULR and Leaf area ratio (LAR. Calculation examples concerning the growth course of oats and maize plants are given. The critical analysis of the estimation of obtained results has been done. The purposefulness of joint application of statistical methods and error calculus in plant growth analysis has been ascertained.

  8. Analysis of absolute flatness testing in sub-stitching interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Xu, Fuchao; Xie, Weimin; Xing, Tingwen

    2016-09-01

    Sub-aperture stitching is an effective way to extend the lateral and vertical dynamic range of a conventional interferometer. The test accuracy can be achieved by removing the error of reference surface by the absolute testing method. When the testing accuracy (repeatability and reproducibility) is close to 1nm, in addition to the reference surface, other factors will also affect the measuring accuracy such as environment, zoom magnification, stitching precision, tooling and fixture, the characteristics of optical materials and so on. In the thousand level cleanroom, we establish a good environment system. Long time stability, temperature controlled at 22°+/-0.02°.The humidity and noise are controlled in a certain range. We establish a stitching system in the clean room. The vibration testing system is used to test the vibration. The air pressure testing system is also used. In the motion system, we control the tilt error no more than 4 second to reduce the error. The angle error can be tested by the autocollimator and double grating reading head.

  9. The absolute environmental performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Kathrine Nykjær; Kalbar, Pradip; Petersen, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    sustainability for the standard house were proposed focusing on three measures: minimizing environmental impacts from building construction, minimizing impacts from energy consumption during use phase, and reducing the living area per person. In an intermediate path, absolute sustainability can be obtained...... by reducing the impacts from construction by 89%, use phase energy consumption by 80%, and the living area by 60%.......Our paper presents a novel approach for absolute sustainability assessment of a building's environmental performance. It is demonstrated how the absolute sustainable share of the earth carrying capacity of a specific building type can be estimated using carrying capacity based normalization factors...

  10. Teamwork behaviours and errors during neonatal resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A L; Lasky, R E; Dannemiller, J L; Andrei, A M; Thomas, E J

    2010-02-01

    To describe relationships between teamwork behaviours and errors during neonatal resuscitation. Trained observers viewed video recordings of neonatal resuscitations (n = 12) for the occurrence of teamwork behaviours and errors. Teamwork state behaviours (such as vigilance and workload management, which extend for some duration) were assessed as the percentage of each resuscitation that the behaviour was observed and correlated with the percentage of observed errors. Teamwork event behaviours (such as information sharing, inquiry and assertion, which occur at specific times) were counted in 20-s intervals before and after resuscitation steps, and a generalised linear mixed model was calculated to evaluate relationships between these behaviours and errors. Resuscitation teams who were more vigilant committed fewer errors (Spearman's rho for vigilance and errors = -0.62, 95% CI -0.07 to -0.87, p = 0.031). Assertions were more likely to occur before errors than correct steps (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.89, p = 0.008) and teaching/advising occurred less frequently after errors (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.94, p = 0.028). Though not statistically significant, there was less information sharing before errors (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.05, p = 0.172). Vigilance is an important behaviour for error management. Assertion may have caused errors, or perhaps was an indicator for some other factor that caused errors. Teams may have preferred to resolve errors directly, rather than using errors as opportunities to teach their teammates. These observations raise important questions about the appropriate use of some teamwork behaviours and how to include them in team training programmes.

  11. Pediatric Weight Errors and Resultant Medication Dosing Errors in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kristin M; Kang, Ann H; Ramirez, Gina V; Kimata, Chieko; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-10-02

    An accurate weight is critical for dosing medications in children. Weight errors can lead to medication-dosing errors. This study examined the frequency and consequences of weight errors occurring at 1 children's hospital and 2 general hospitals. Using an electronic medical record database, 79,000 emergency department encounters of children younger than 5 years were analyzed. Extreme weights were first identified using weight percentiles. Encounters with potential weight errors were further evaluated using a retrospective chart review to determine whether a weight error and medication-dosing error occurred. The percentage of weight errors of total encounters at all 3 institutions was low (0.63% on average), but a large proportion of weight errors led to subsequent medication-dosing errors (34% on average). The children's hospital did not have clinically significantly lower occurrences of weight errors or weight-based medication errors. Common weight errors included the weight in pounds being substituted for the weight in kilograms and decimal placement errors. Weight errors were uncommon at the 3 emergency departments that we studied, but they led to weight-based medication-dosing errors that had the potential to cause harm.

  12. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V10.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2006 March 14 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  13. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V11.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2007 April 2 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  14. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V12.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2008 April 20 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  15. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V7.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set tabulates the IAU-adopted absolute V magnitude and slope parameter for all numbered asteroids as of the given stop date. The data set is updated yearly.

  16. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V9.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2005 April 7 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  17. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V8.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2004 April 15 batch of Minor Planet Circulars

  18. Absolutely uniform illumination of laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Absolutely uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single beam is given by a simple cos 2 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this absolute illumination uniformity. Configurations based upon the cube and higher order Platonic solids satisfy the constraints, as well as an infinite class of other less symmetric configurations

  19. Absolutely uniform illumination of laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Absolutely uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single laser beam is given by a simple cos 2 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this absolute illumination uniformity. Configurations based upon the cube and higher order Platonic solids satisfy the constraints, as well as infinite class of other less symmetric configurations

  20. Absolute spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Smyth, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiometric photoelectric spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975 was carried out on 1975 August 31, September 2, 3. α Lyr was used as reference star and its absolute spectral energy distribution was used to reduce the spectrophotometry of the nova to absolute units. Emission strengths of Hα, Hβ, Hγ (in W cm -2 ) were derived. The Balmer decrement Hα:Hβ:Hγ was compared with theory, and found to deviate less than had been reported for an earlier nova. (author)

  1. Court Remands as a Percentage of New Court Cases Filed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Longitudinal report detailing the numbers and percentages of court remand actions received during each Fiscal Year 2010 - onward as compared to the total number of...

  2. Characterization of Methane Excess and Absolute Adsorption in Various Clay Nanopores from Molecular Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuanyuan; Yan, Changhui; Jin, Zhehui

    2017-09-20

    In this work, we use grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation to study methane adsorption in various clay nanopores and analyze different approaches to characterize the absolute adsorption. As an important constituent of shale, clay minerals can have significant amount of nanopores, which greatly contribute to the gas-in-place in shale. In previous works, absolute adsorption is often calculated from the excess adsorption and bulk liquid phase density of absorbate. We find that methane adsorbed phase density keeps increasing with pressure up to 80 MPa. Even with updated adsorbed phase density from GCMC, there is a significant error in absolute adsorption calculation. Thus, we propose to use the excess adsorption and adsorbed phase volume to calculate absolute adsorption and reduce the discrepancy to less than 3% at high pressure conditions. We also find that the supercritical Dubinin-Radushkevich (SDR) fitting method which is commonly used in experiments to convert the excess adsorption to absolute adsorption may not have a solid physical foundation for methane adsorption. The methane excess and absolute adsorptions per specific surface area are similar for different clay minerals in line with previous experimental data. In mesopores, the excess and absolute adsorptions per specific surface area become insensitive to pore size. Our work should provide important fundamental understandings and insights into accurate estimation of gas-in-place in shale reservoirs.

  3. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  4. Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.

  5. Dosimetric Changes Resulting From Patient Rotational Setup Errors in Proton Therapy Prostate Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejpal, Samir V.; Amos, Richard A.; Bluett, Jaques B.; Levy, Lawrence B.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Johnson, Jennifer; Choi, Seungtaek; Lee, Andrew K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose changes to the target and critical structures from rotational setup errors in prostate cancer patients treated with proton therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 70 plans were analyzed for 10 patients treated with parallel-opposed proton beams to a dose of 7,600 60 Co-cGy-equivalent (CcGE) in 200 CcGE fractions to the clinical target volume (i.e., prostate and proximal seminal vesicles). Rotational setup errors of +3 o , -3 deg., +5 deg., and -5 deg. (to simulate pelvic tilt) were generated by adjusting the gantry. Horizontal couch shifts of +3 deg. and -3 deg. (to simulate longitudinal setup variability) were also generated. Verification plans were recomputed, keeping the same treatment parameters as the control. Results: All changes shown are for 38 fractions. The mean clinical target volume dose was 7,780 CcGE. The mean change in the clinical target volume dose in the worse case scenario for all shifts was 2 CcGE (absolute range in worst case scenario, 7,729-7,848 CcGE). The mean changes in the critical organ dose in the worst case scenario was 6 CcGE (bladder), 18 CcGE (rectum), 36 CcGE (anterior rectal wall), and 141 CcGE (femoral heads) for all plans. In general, the percentage of change in the worse case scenario for all shifts to the critical structures was <5%. Deviations in the absolute percentage of volume of organ receiving 45 and 70 Gy for the bladder and rectum were <2% for all plans. Conclusion: Patient rotational movements of 3 deg. and 5 deg. and horizontal couch shifts of 3 deg. in prostate proton planning did not confer clinically significant dose changes to the target volumes or critical structures.

  6. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  7. Absolute reliability and concurrent validity of hand held dynamometry and isokinetic dynamometry in the hip, knee and ankle joint: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamorro Claudio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to establish absolute reliability and concurrent validity between hand-held dynamometers (HHDs and isokinetic dynamometers (IDs in lower extremity peak torque assessment. Medline, Embase, CINAHL databases were searched for studies related to psychometric properties in muscle dynamometry. Studies considering standard error of measurement SEM (% or limit of agreement LOA (% expressed as percentage of the mean, were considered to establish absolute reliability while studies using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC were considered to establish concurrent validity between dynamometers. In total, 17 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The COSMIN checklist classified them between fair and poor. Using HHDs, knee extension LOA (% was 33.59%, 95% confidence interval (CI 23.91 to 43.26 and ankle plantar flexion LOA (% was 48.87%, CI 35.19 to 62.56. Using IDs, hip adduction and extension; knee flexion and extension; and ankle dorsiflexion showed LOA (% under 15%. Lower hip, knee, and ankle LOA (% were obtained using an ID compared to HHD. ICC between devices ranged between 0.62, CI (0.37 to 0.87 for ankle dorsiflexion to 0.94, IC (0.91to 0.98 for hip adduction. Very high correlation were found for hip adductors and hip flexors and moderate correlations for knee flexors/extensors and ankle plantar/dorsiflexors.

  8. Absolute Reliability and Concurrent Validity of Hand Held Dynamometry and Isokinetic Dynamometry in the Hip, Knee and Ankle Joint: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Claudio; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; De la Fuente, Carlos; Fuentes, Javiera; Javier Chirosa, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to establish absolute reliability and concurrent validity between hand-held dynamometers (HHDs) and isokinetic dynamometers (IDs) in lower extremity peak torque assessment. Medline, Embase, CINAHL databases were searched for studies related to psychometric properties in muscle dynamometry. Studies considering standard error of measurement SEM (%) or limit of agreement LOA (%) expressed as percentage of the mean, were considered to establish absolute reliability while studies using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were considered to establish concurrent validity between dynamometers. In total, 17 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The COSMIN checklist classified them between fair and poor. Using HHDs, knee extension LOA (%) was 33.59%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 23.91 to 43.26 and ankle plantar flexion LOA (%) was 48.87%, CI 35.19 to 62.56. Using IDs, hip adduction and extension; knee flexion and extension; and ankle dorsiflexion showed LOA (%) under 15%. Lower hip, knee, and ankle LOA (%) were obtained using an ID compared to HHD. ICC between devices ranged between 0.62, CI (0.37 to 0.87) for ankle dorsiflexion to 0.94, IC (0.91to 0.98) for hip adduction. Very high correlation were found for hip adductors and hip flexors and moderate correlations for knee flexors/extensors and ankle plantar/dorsiflexors.

  9. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  10. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  11. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg 252 Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17 O. Detection sensitivities of 239 Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  12. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J. Emil; Forsberg, Rene; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In glaciated areas, the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of the ice sheets, a response known as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GIA can be investigated through observations of gravity change. For the ongoing assessment of the ice sheets mass balance, where satellite data are used, the study of GIA is important since it acts as an error source. GIA consists of three signals as seen by a gravimeter on the surface of the Earth. These signals are investigated in this study. The ICE-5G ice history and recently developed ice models of present day changes are used to model the gravity change in Greenland. The result is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected Greenland Network (GNET) sites.

  13. Absolute distance measurement by two-point-diffraction interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2002-01-01

    We present a point-diffraction interferometer that has been specially devised to perform absolute distance measurements in three dimensions. It is composed of two main parts: One is a target that moves in three dimensions, and the other is a stationary two-dimensional array of photodetectors. The target is made of point-diffraction sources that emit two spherical wave fronts, whose interference is monitored by the photodetectors. Application of a phase-shifting technique allows the phase values of the photodetectors to be precisely measured, which are then fitted to a geometric model of multilateration so as to determine the xyz location of the target by minimization of least-squares errors. Experimental results show that the proposed diffraction interferometer is capable of measuring the xyz coordinates of the target with a volumetric uncertainty of less than 1.0 μm over a working volume of a 100-mm side

  14. Simplified fringe order correction for absolute phase maps recovered with multiple-spatial-frequency fringe projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Lu, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Ziqi

    2017-01-01

    Various kinds of fringe order errors may occur in the absolute phase maps recovered with multi-spatial-frequency fringe projections. In existing methods, multiple successive pixels corrupted by fringe order errors are detected and corrected pixel-by-pixel with repeating searches, which is inefficient for applications. To improve the efficiency of multiple successive fringe order corrections, in this paper we propose a method to simplify the error detection and correction by the stepwise increasing property of fringe order. In the proposed method, the numbers of pixels in each step are estimated to find the possible true fringe order values, repeating the search in detecting multiple successive errors can be avoided for efficient error correction. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated by experimental results. (paper)

  15. Learning from prescribing errors

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, B

    2002-01-01

    

 The importance of learning from medical error has recently received increasing emphasis. This paper focuses on prescribing errors and argues that, while learning from prescribing errors is a laudable goal, there are currently barriers that can prevent this occurring. Learning from errors can take place on an individual level, at a team level, and across an organisation. Barriers to learning from prescribing errors include the non-discovery of many prescribing errors, lack of feedback to th...

  16. Comparative study of percentage yield of pulp from various Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of percentage yield of pulp from various Nigerian wood species using the kraft process. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... The infra red analysis of the pulp obtained from the various wood species confirmed the chemical integrity of the pulps obtained from all the hard wood ...

  17. 7 CFR 987.44 - Free and restricted percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... applicable grade and size available to supply the trade demand for free dates of any variety is likely to be... effectuate the declared policy of the act, it shall recommend such percentages to the Secretary. If the...

  18. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the ... intensity were the predictors of high BF%. Author Correspondence, e-mail: ... maintenance of weight loss among overweight and obese women [18]. 2. METHODOLOGY.

  19. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water absorption of geopolymers produced by waste ashes ... Different specimens, made from a mixture of fly ash and rice husk bark ash in fine and coarse form together with alkali activatormade of water glass and NaOH solution, were subjected to permeability tests at ...

  20. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  1. 78 FR 48789 - Loan Guaranty: Percentage to Determine Net Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... defined in 38 CFR 36.4301. Essentially ``net value'' is the fair market value of the property, minus the... signs of stability that can sustain a change in the net value to less than the historical high of 15.11... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Loan Guaranty: Percentage to Determine Net Value AGENCY: Department...

  2. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of percentage grains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... Chalkiness is a major concern in rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding because it is one of the key factors in determining quality and price, which is a complicated quantitative trait and controlled by maternal, endosperm and cytoplasmic effects. In this study, we conducted grain chalkiness percentage quantitative ...

  3. Effect of Tap Root Size, Percentage Rootlets Retention and Planting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two-factor interaction of length of tap root and percentage of retention of rootlets also had a significant influence on tree growth, except leaf dry weight. The best biomass production was observed for non-treated stump tap root and rootlets and planting at 9 cm soil depth ensuring a gain of about 486 % of tree dry weight ...

  4. Comparison of body fat percentage and physical performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the body fat percentage and physical performance of male national senior and junior karate athletes. Sixteen male karate kumite competitors of the national karate team (senior n = 8; junior n = 8) participated in this study. The tests included both assessment of selected ...

  5. Fringe order correction for the absolute phase recovered by two selected spatial frequency fringe projections in fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Yu, Miao; Lu, Lei; Zhao, Kun

    2017-08-01

    The performance of the two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods is limited by a phase error bound beyond which errors will occur in the fringe order leading to a significant error in the recovered absolute phase map. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders. Two constraints are introduced during the fringe order determination of two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods. A strategy to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders is also described. Compared with the existing methods, we do not need to estimate the threshold associated with absolute phase values to determine the fringe order error, thus making it more reliable and avoiding the procedure of search in detecting and correcting successive fringe order errors. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by the experimental results.

  6. Grammatical Errors In Oral Recount Of Eighth Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda, Alvina; Wijaya, Bambang; Susilawati, Endang

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to find out the most frequent type of grammatical error in oral recount, the frequency of grammatical error and the main causes of students' grammatical error in oral recount. The reserach was carried out at SMP N 2 Sungai Raya. It was descriptive research and the sample was eighth grade students of VIII A. Data analysis showed that the most frequent type of errors was misinformation by 141 errors made.The percentage of errors were omission by 36,25 % (moderat...

  7. Low-Cost Ultrasonic Distance Sensor Arrays with Networked Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhou Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Distance has been one of the basic factors in manufacturing and control fields, and ultrasonic distance sensors have been widely used as a low-cost measuring tool. However, the propagation of ultrasonic waves is greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. In order to solve the problem of inaccurate measurement, which is significant within industry, this paper presents a novel ultrasonic distance sensor model using networked error correction (NEC trained on experimental data. This is more accurate than other existing approaches because it uses information from indirect association with neighboring sensors, which has not been considered before. The NEC technique, focusing on optimization of the relationship of the topological structure of sensor arrays, is implemented for the compensation of erroneous measurements caused by the environment. We apply the maximum likelihood method to determine the optimal fusion data set and use a neighbor discovery algorithm to identify neighbor nodes at the top speed. Furthermore, we adopt the NEC optimization algorithm, which takes full advantage of the correlation coefficients for neighbor sensors. The experimental results demonstrate that the ranging errors of the NEC system are within 2.20%; furthermore, the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 0.01% after three iterations of this method, which means that the proposed method performs extremely well. The optimized method of distance measurement we propose, with the capability of NEC, would bring a significant advantage for intelligent industrial automation.

  8. Coral Reef Coverage Percentage on Binor Paiton-Probolinggo Seashore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Budi Wiyanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coral reef damage in Probolinggo region was expected to be caused by several factors. The first one comes from its society that exploits fishery by using cyanide toxin and bomb. The second one goes to the extraction of coral reef, which is used as decoration or construction materials. The other factor is likely caused by the existence of large industry on the seashore, such as Electric Steam Power Plant (PLTU Paiton and others alike. Related to the development of coral reef ecosystem, availability of an accurate data is crucially needed to support the manner of future policy, so the research of coral reef coverage percentage needs to be conducted continuously. The aim of this research is to collect biological data of coral reef and to identify coral reef coverage percentage in the effort of constructing coral reef condition basic data on Binor, Paiton, and Probolinggo regency seashore. The method used in this research is Line Intercept Transect (LIT method. LIT method is a method that used to decide benthic community on coral reef based on percentage growth, and to take note of benthic quantity along transect line. Percentage of living coral coverage in 3 meters depth on this Binor Paiton seashore that may be categorized in a good condition is 57,65%. While the rest are dead coral that is only 1,45%, other life form in 23,2%, and non-life form in 17,7%. A good condition of coral reef is caused by coral reef transplantation on the seashore, so this coral reef is dominated by Acropora Branching. On the other hand, Mortality Index (IM of coral reef resulted in 24,5%. The result from observation and calculation of coral reef is dominated by Hard Coral in Acropora Branching (ACB with coral reef coverage percentage of 39%, Coral Massive (CM with coral reef coverage percentage of 2,85%, Coral Foliose (CF with coral reef coverage percentage of 1,6%, and Coral Mushroom (CRM with coral reef coverage percentage of 8,5%. Observation in 10 meters depth

  9. Absolute chronology and stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    meaningful and representative of two separate and defined phases of occupation at this locale. This early period would correspond with the phase that the excavator of Lepenski Vir defined as Proto-Lepenski Vir although his ideas about the spatial distribution of this phase, its interpretation, duration and relation to the later phase of trapezoidal buildings must be revised in the light of new AMS dates and other available data. The phase with trapezoidal buildings most likely starts only around 6200 cal BC and most of the trapezoidal buildings might have been abandoned by around 5900 cal BC. The absolute span of only two or three hundred years and likely even less, for the flourishing of building activity related to trapezoidal structures at Lepenski Vir significantly compresses Srejović's phase I. Thus, it is difficult to maintain the excavator's five subphases which, similarly to Ivana Radovanović's more recent re-phasing of Lepenski Vir into I-1-3, remain largely guess works before more extensive and systematic dating of each building is accomplished along with statistical modeling in order to narrow the magnitude of error. On the whole, new dates from these contexts better correspond with Srejović's stratigraphic logic of sequencing buildings to particular phases on the basis of their superimposing and cutting than with Radovanović's stylistic logic, i.e. her typology of hearth forms, ash-places, entrance platforms, and presence/absence of -supports around rectangular hearths used as reliable chronological indicators. The short chronological span for phase I also suggests that phase Lepenski Vir II is not realistic. This has already been shown by overlapping plans of the phase I buildings and stone outlines that the excavator of the site attributed to Lepenski Vir II phase. According to Srejović, Lepenski Vir phase II was characterized by buildings with stone walls made in the shape of trapezes, repeating the outline of supposedly earlier limestone floors of his

  10. Percentage extremity fat, but not percentage trunk fat, is lower in adolescent boys with anorexia nervosa than in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Katzman, Debra K; Cord, Jennalee; Manning, Stephanie J; Mickley, Diane; Herzog, David B; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe undernutrition associated with altered regional fat distribution in females. Although primarily a disease of females, AN is increasingly being recognized in males and is associated with hypogonadism. Testosterone is a major regulator of body composition in males, and testosterone administration in adults decreases visceral fat. However, the effect of low testosterone and other hormonal alterations on body composition in boys with AN is not known. We hypothesized that testosterone deficiency in boys with AN is associated with higher trunk fat, as opposed to extremity fat, compared with control subjects. We assessed body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and measured fasting testosterone, estradiol, insulin- like growth factor-1, leptin, and active ghrelin concentrations in 15 boys with AN and in 15 control subjects of comparable maturity aged 12-19 y. Fat and lean mass in AN boys was 69% and 86% of that in control subjects. Percentage extremity fat and extremity lean mass were lower in boys with AN (P = 0.003 and 0.0008); however, percentage trunk fat and the trunk to extremity fat ratio were higher after weight was adjusted for (P = 0.005 and 0.003). Testosterone concentrations were lower in boys with AN, and, on regression modeling, positively predicted percentage extremity lean mass and inversely predicted percentage trunk fat and trunk to extremity fat ratio. Other independent predictors of regional body composition were bone age and weight. In adolescent boys with AN, higher percentage trunk fat, higher trunk to extremity fat ratio, lower percentage extremity fat, and lower extremity lean mass (adjusted for weight) are related to the hypogonadal state.

  11. Absolute quantitation of proteins by Acid hydrolysis combined with amino Acid detection by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgorodskaya, Olga A; Körner, Roman; Kozmin, Yuri P

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is among the most accurate methods for absolute quantification of proteins and peptides. Here, we combine acid hydrolysis with the addition of isotopically labeled standard amino acids and analysis by mass spectrometry for accurate and sensitive protein quantitation. Quantitat......Amino acid analysis is among the most accurate methods for absolute quantification of proteins and peptides. Here, we combine acid hydrolysis with the addition of isotopically labeled standard amino acids and analysis by mass spectrometry for accurate and sensitive protein quantitation....... Quantitation of less than 10 fmol of protein standards with errors below 10% has been demonstrated using this method (1)....

  12. The Absolute Normal Scores Test for Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Douglas A.; Sachdeva, Darshan

    1976-01-01

    The absolute normal scores test is described as a test for the symmetry of a distribution of scores about a location parameter. The test is compared to the sign test and the Wilcoxon test as an alternative to the "t"-test. (Editor/RK)

  13. The Theory of Absolute Reaction Rates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 7. The Theory of Absolute Reaction Rates. Henry Eyring. Classics Volume 17 Issue 7 July 2012 pp 704-711. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/07/0704-0711. Author Affiliations.

  14. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  15. Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, J.P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the information on the

  16. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorf...

  17. Absolute Distance Measurements with Tunable Semiconductor Laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    T118, - (2005), s. 41-44 ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB2065001 Keywords : tunable laser * absolute interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004

  18. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  19. systemic complications following absolute alcohol embolisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the superficial temporal (STA), middle meningeal. (MMA) and occipital ... external jugular vein. Absolute alcohol was injected into the feeder artery using the intermittent pulsed spray technique in aliquots of 1 ml. A total of 55 ml of alcohol was injected. ... cells, vessel wall necrosis resulting in thrombosis and permanent ...

  20. On the absolute measure of Beta activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.; Jimenez Reynaldo, O.; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1956-01-01

    A new method for absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The mea surements is made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction when using an infinite thick mounting is discussed and results for different materials given. (Author)

  1. Absolute tightness: the chemists hesitate to invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The safety requirements of industries as nuclear plants and the strengthening of regulations in the field of environment (more particularly those related to volatile organic compounds) have lead the manufacturers to build absolute tightness pumps. But these equipments do not answer all the problems and represent a high investment cost. In consequence, the chemists hesitate to invest. (O.L.)

  2. A novel capacitive absolute positioning sensor based on time grating with nanometer resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hongji; Liu, Hongzhong; Liu, Xiaokang; Peng, Kai; Yu, Zhicheng

    2018-05-01

    The present work proposes a novel capacitive absolute positioning sensor based on time grating. The sensor includes a fine incremental-displacement measurement component combined with a coarse absolute-position measurement component to obtain high-resolution absolute positioning measurements. A single row type sensor was proposed to achieve fine displacement measurement, which combines the two electrode rows of a previously proposed double-row type capacitive displacement sensor based on time grating into a single row. To achieve absolute positioning measurement, the coarse measurement component is designed as a single-row type displacement sensor employing a single spatial period over the entire measurement range. In addition, this component employs a rectangular induction electrode and four groups of orthogonal discrete excitation electrodes with half-sinusoidal envelope shapes, which were formed by alternately extending the rectangular electrodes of the fine measurement component. The fine and coarse measurement components are tightly integrated to form a compact absolute positioning sensor. A prototype sensor was manufactured using printed circuit board technology for testing and optimization of the design in conjunction with simulations. Experimental results show that the prototype sensor achieves a ±300 nm measurement accuracy with a 1 nm resolution over a displacement range of 200 mm when employing error compensation. The proposed sensor is an excellent alternative to presently available long-range absolute nanometrology sensors owing to its low cost, simple structure, and ease of manufacturing.

  3. Learning from error: identifying contributory causes of medication errors in an Australian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Pamela; Copeland, Tandy-Sue; Craib, Ian A; Hopkins, Paul; Bruce, David G

    2008-03-03

    To study the clinical contexts contributing to harmful medication errors. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted between March and August 2005 at Fremantle Hospital, a 450-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Twenty-six of 46 staff members (57%) identified by pharmacy staff as having contributed to a significant medication error were interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed for thematic analysis. Most errors were due to slips in attention that occurred during routine prescribing, dispensing or drug administration. Knowledge-based mistakes (eg, failure to follow a protocol) also contributed to prescribing errors. Errors were more likely to occur during tasks being carried out after hours by busy, distracted staff, often in relation to unfamiliar patients. Communication problems with senior staff and difficulty accessing appropriate drug dosing information contributed to knowledge-based prescribing errors. Several medical staff were unaware they had committed an error until their involvement with our study. Contextual factors that contributed to slips, lapses and knowledge-based mistakes in our sample are likely to be widespread in hospitals, and their impact on medication error may be substantial. Staff need training in how to recognise and deal with error-prone clinical situations. Safe prescribing practices (eg, the absolute requirement to acquire information before prescribing unfamiliar drugs) must be emphasised. Improved access to drug information at the point of prescribing, attention to communication barriers, and increasing staffing levels in particular areas are other potential strategies for reducing error.

  4. [Errors in Peruvian medical journals references].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; Pacheco-Romero, José

    2009-01-01

    References are fundamental in our studies; an adequate selection is asimportant as an adequate description. To determine the number of errors in a sample of references found in Peruvian medical journals. We reviewed 515 scientific papers references selected by systematic randomized sampling and corroborated reference information with the original document or its citation in Pubmed, LILACS or SciELO-Peru. We found errors in 47,6% (245) of the references, identifying 372 types of errors; the most frequent were errors in presentation style (120), authorship (100) and title (100), mainly due to spelling mistakes (91). References error percentage was high, varied and multiple. We suggest systematic revision of references in the editorial process as well as to extend the discussion on this theme. references, periodicals, research, bibliometrics.

  5. Optimal Design of the Absolute Positioning Sensor for a High-Speed Maglev Train and Research on Its Fault Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Junge Zhang; Song Xue; Zhiqiang Long; Dapeng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies an absolute positioning sensor for a high-speed maglev train and its fault diagnosis method. The absolute positioning sensor is an important sensor for the high-speed maglev train to accomplish its synchronous traction. It is used to calibrate the error of the relative positioning sensor which is used to provide the magnetic phase signal. On the basis of the analysis for the principle of the absolute positioning sensor, the paper describes the design of the sending and rece...

  6. 12 CFR 226.22 - Determination of annual percentage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 226.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.22 Determination of annual... resulted from a corresponding error in a calculation tool used in good faith by the creditor; and (2) upon...

  7. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  8. Part two: Error propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of exact results as related to nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities; propagation of error for a single measured value; propagation of error for several measured values; error propagation for materials balances; and an application of error propagation to an example of uranium hexafluoride conversion process

  9. Learning from Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Legaz, Juan Enrique; Soubeyran, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of learning in which agents learn from errors. If an action turns out to be an error, the agent rejects not only that action but also neighboring actions. We find that, keeping memory of his errors, under mild assumptions an acceptable solution is asymptotically reached. Moreover, one can take advantage of big errors for a faster learning.

  10. Alteration of the number and percentage of innate immune cells in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Xijin; Sun, Di; Cao, Junjun; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2017-11-01

    Heavy metal lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are widespread environmental contaminants and exert detrimental effects on the immune system. We evaluated the association between Pb/Cd exposures and innate immune cells in children from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area. A total number of 294 preschool children were recruited, including 153 children from Guiyu (e-waste exposed group), and 141 from Haojiang (reference group). Pb and Cd levels in peripheral blood were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, NK cell percentages were detected by flow cytometer, and other innate immune cells including monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils were immediately measured by automated hematology analyzer. Results showed children in Guiyu had significantly higher Pb and Cd levels than in reference group. Absolute counts of monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils, as well as percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher in the Guiyu group. In contrast, NK cell percentages were significantly lower in Guiyu group. Pb elicited significant escalation in counts of monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, as well as percentages of monocytes, but decline in percentages of neutrophils in different quintiles with respect to the first quintile of Pb concentrations. Cd induced significant increase in counts and percentages of neutrophils in the highest quintile compared with the first quintile of Cd concentrations. We concluded alteration of the number and percentage of innate immune cells are linked to higher levels of Pb and Cd, which indicates Pb and Cd exposures might affect the innate and adaptive immune response in Guiyu children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Data error effects on net radiation and evapotranspiration estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llasat, M.C.; Snyder, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential error in estimating the net radiation and reference evapotranspiration resulting from errors in the measurement or estimation of weather parameters. A methodology for estimating the net radiation using hourly weather variables measured at a typical agrometeorological station (e.g., solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity) is presented. Then the error propagation analysis is made for net radiation and for reference evapotranspiration. Data from the Raimat weather station, which is located in the Catalonia region of Spain, are used to illustrate the error relationships. The results show that temperature, relative humidity and cloud cover errors have little effect on the net radiation or reference evapotranspiration. A 5°C error in estimating surface temperature leads to errors as big as 30 W m −2 at high temperature. A 4% solar radiation (R s ) error can cause a net radiation error as big as 26 W m −2 when R s ≈ 1000 W m −2 . However, the error is less when cloud cover is calculated as a function of the solar radiation. The absolute error in reference evapotranspiration (ET o ) equals the product of the net radiation error and the radiation term weighting factor [W = Δ(Δ1+γ)] in the ET o equation. Therefore, the ET o error varies between 65 and 85% of the R n error as air temperature increases from about 20° to 40°C. (author)

  12. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  13. Trapped individual ion at absolute zero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Dehmelt, Hans; Nagourney, Warren

    1989-01-01

    Laser cooling and ion trapping have progressed to such an extent that one can now speak of realizing a confined atom at absolute zero temperature. In this short publication, we analyze an experiment toward such realization using a single Ba+ ion in a miniature rf trap. The Ba+ ion is first laser-cooled to the limit where the ion spends most of its time in the zero-point energy state. Then a test sequence allows one to verify whether or not the ion is actually in its zero-point state. The test sequence may also serve as a device for state selection of an atom at absolute zero temperature. PMID:16594054

  14. Medication errors: prescribing faults and prescription errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo, Giampaolo P; Minuz, Pietro

    2009-06-01

    1. Medication errors are common in general practice and in hospitals. Both errors in the act of writing (prescription errors) and prescribing faults due to erroneous medical decisions can result in harm to patients. 2. Any step in the prescribing process can generate errors. Slips, lapses, or mistakes are sources of errors, as in unintended omissions in the transcription of drugs. Faults in dose selection, omitted transcription, and poor handwriting are common. 3. Inadequate knowledge or competence and incomplete information about clinical characteristics and previous treatment of individual patients can result in prescribing faults, including the use of potentially inappropriate medications. 4. An unsafe working environment, complex or undefined procedures, and inadequate communication among health-care personnel, particularly between doctors and nurses, have been identified as important underlying factors that contribute to prescription errors and prescribing faults. 5. Active interventions aimed at reducing prescription errors and prescribing faults are strongly recommended. These should be focused on the education and training of prescribers and the use of on-line aids. The complexity of the prescribing procedure should be reduced by introducing automated systems or uniform prescribing charts, in order to avoid transcription and omission errors. Feedback control systems and immediate review of prescriptions, which can be performed with the assistance of a hospital pharmacist, are also helpful. Audits should be performed periodically.

  15. The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system for dynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.

  16. Interpolation of uniformly absolutely continuous operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cobos, F.; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Opic, B.; Pick, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 286, 5-6 (2013), s. 579-599 ISSN 0025-584X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : uniformly absolutely continuous operators * interpolation * type of an interpolation method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ mana .201100205/full

  17. Absolute spectrophotometry of the β Lyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnashev, V.I.; Skul'skij, M.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    In 1974 an absolute spectrophotometry of β Lyr was performed with the scanning spectrophotometer in the 3300-7400 A range. The energy distribution in the β Lyr spectrum is obtained. The β Lyr model is proposed. It is shown, that the continuous spectrum of the β Lyr radiation can be presented by the total radiation of the B8 3 and A5 3 two stars and of the gaseous envelope with Te =20000 K

  18. Benzofuranoid and bicyclooctanoid neolignans:absolute configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, M.A. de; Giesbrecht, A.M.; Gottlieb, O.R.; Yoshida, M.

    1977-01-01

    The naturally occuring benzofuranoid and bicyclo (3,2,1) octanoid neolignans have their relative configurations established by 1 H and 13 C NMR, inclusively with aid of the solvent shift technique. Interconversion of the benzofuranoid type compounds, as well as for a benzofuranoid to a bicyclooctanoid derivate, make ORD correlations, ultimately with (2S, 3S) - and (2R,3R)-2,3- dihydrobenzofurans, possible, and led to the absolute configurations of both series of neolignans [pt

  19. Learning from Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-03

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the beneficial effects are particularly salient when individuals strongly believe that their error is correct: Errors committed with high confidence are corrected more readily than low-confidence errors. Corrective feedback, including analysis of the reasoning leading up to the mistake, is crucial. Aside from the direct benefit to learners, teachers gain valuable information from errors, and error tolerance encourages students' active, exploratory, generative engagement. If the goal is optimal performance in high-stakes situations, it may be worthwhile to allow and even encourage students to commit and correct errors while they are in low-stakes learning situations rather than to assiduously avoid errors at all costs.

  20. Research on energy recycle percentage of servo motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Yen-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy recycle circuit fed back the energy to batteries is one of the important means to extend the travel distance of action vehicle for an electric vehicle or hybrid vehicle by driven batteries. In order to achieve energy recycle must be use, such as the motor characteristics, the principle of motor controller and design of circuit to reach the energy recycle of motor in action vehicles. Focus on the 24 V 8A 150W servo motor and its shaft coupling with a condition by magnetic brake to simulate as the analog load and adjust the brake to 0.2 Newton-meter. According to the characteristics of the motor, the principle of the motor controller and the design and energy recovery of the circuit system for discussion, that include drive control circuit of motor and based on the former to design the circuit of energy recycle circuit of motor and to feed back the energy to the driving batteries. According to the characteristics of the motor, the principle of the motor controller and the design and energy recovery of the circuit system for discussion, that include drive control circuit of motor and based on the former to design the circuit of energy recycle circuit of motor and to feed back the energy to the driving batteries. By mean of the architecture of energy recycle circuit to test the power recovery which divide into without load and without energy collector, without load and with energy collector, with load and without energy collector and with load and energy collector four cases under these conditions to investigate the power recovery analysis. For the statistics of energy, the average energy recovery power percentage by without load and without energy collector is 9.7%, the average energy recovery power percentage by without load and with energy collector is 20.5%, the average energy recovery power percentage by with load and without energy collector is 1.82%, and the average energy recovery power percentage by with load and with energy

  1. Absolute testing of flats in sub-stitching interferometer by rotation-shift method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Xu, Fuchao; Xie, Weimin; Li, Yun; Xing, Tingwen

    2015-09-01

    Most of the commercial available sub-aperture stitching interferometers measure the surface with a standard lens that produces a reference wavefront, and the precision of the interferometer is generally limited by the standard lens. The test accuracy can be achieved by removing the error of reference surface by the absolute testing method. When the testing accuracy (repeatability and reproducibility) is close to 1nm, in addition to the reference surface, other factors will also affect the measuring accuracy such as environment, zoom magnification, stitching precision, tooling and fixture, the characteristics of optical materials and so on. We establish a stitching system in the thousand level cleanroom. The stitching system is including the Zygo interferometer, the motion system with Bilz active isolation system at level VC-F. We review the traditional absolute flat testing methods and emphasize the method of rotation-shift functions. According to the rotation-shift method we get the profile of the reference lens and the testing lens. The problem of the rotation-shift method is the tilt error. In the motion system, we control the tilt error no more than 4 second to reduce the error. In order to obtain higher testing accuracy, we analyze the influence surface shape measurement accuracy by recording the environment error with the fluke testing equipment.

  2. Absolute measurement of the $\\beta\\alpha$ decay of $^{16}$N

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the $\\beta$-decay of $^{16}$N at ISOLDE with the aim of determining the branching ratio for $\\beta\\alpha$ decay on an absolute scale. There are indications that the previously measured branching ratio is in error by an amount significantly larger than the quoted uncertainty. This limits the precision with which the S-factor of the astrophysically important $^{12}$C($\\alpha, \\gamma)^{16}$O reaction can be determined.

  3. Field error lottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quimby, D.C. (Spectra Technology, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Arab ESL Secondary School Students’ Spelling Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Mohammad Saeed Al-Sobhi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available English spelling has always been described by many language researchers and teachers as a daunting task especially for learners whose first language is not English. Accordingly, Arab ESL learners commit serious errors when they spell out English words. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the types as well as the causes of spelling errors made by Arab ESL secondary school students. In order to collect the data, a fifty-word standardised spelling test was administered to seventy Arab student participants. The students’ types of spelling errors were detected, analysed and then categorised according to Cook’s (1999 classification of errors namely substitution, omission, insertion and transposition. In total, 2,873 spelling errors of various categories were identified. The study findings revealed that errors of substitution constituted the highest percentage of the students’ type of errors. In addition, the study indicated that the main causes of the students’ spelling errors were possibly attributed to the anomalous nature of the English spelling system, the Arab students’ lack of awareness of English spelling rules as well as L1 interference. Despite being conducted in an ESL context, the study was almost consistent with the findings indicated by other studies which were carried out in many Arabic EFL context. The findings suggest that spelling instruction should be emphasised while teaching English and should also be integrated with the skills and subskills of reading, writing, pronunciation and vocabulary in order to develop the students’ spelling accuracy.

  5. Inborn errors of metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism - inborn errors of ... Bodamer OA. Approach to inborn errors of metabolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 205. Rezvani I, Rezvani GA. An ...

  6. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  7. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  8. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  9. Online absolute pose compensation and steering control of industrial robot based on six degrees of freedom laser measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juqing; Wang, Dayong; Fan, Baixing; Dong, Dengfeng; Zhou, Weihu

    2017-03-01

    In-situ intelligent manufacturing for large-volume equipment requires industrial robots with absolute high-accuracy positioning and orientation steering control. Conventional robots mainly employ an offline calibration technology to identify and compensate key robotic parameters. However, the dynamic and static parameters of a robot change nonlinearly. It is not possible to acquire a robot's actual parameters and control the absolute pose of the robot with a high accuracy within a large workspace by offline calibration in real-time. This study proposes a real-time online absolute pose steering control method for an industrial robot based on six degrees of freedom laser tracking measurement, which adopts comprehensive compensation and correction of differential movement variables. First, the pose steering control system and robot kinematics error model are constructed, and then the pose error compensation mechanism and algorithm are introduced in detail. By accurately achieving the position and orientation of the robot end-tool, mapping the computed Jacobian matrix of the joint variable and correcting the joint variable, the real-time online absolute pose compensation for an industrial robot is accurately implemented in simulations and experimental tests. The average positioning error is 0.048 mm and orientation accuracy is better than 0.01 deg. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible, and the online absolute accuracy of a robot is sufficiently enhanced.

  10. Regional absolute conductivity reconstruction using projected current density in MREIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je; Kwon, Oh In

    2012-01-01

    slice and the reconstructed regional projected current density, we propose a direct non-iterative algorithm to reconstruct the absolute conductivity in the ROI. The numerical simulations in the presence of various degrees of noise, as well as a phantom MRI imaging experiment showed that the proposed method reconstructs the regional absolute conductivity in a ROI within a subject including the defective regions. In the simulation experiment, the relative L 2 -mode errors of the reconstructed regional and global conductivities were 0.79 and 0.43, respectively, using a noise level of 50 db in the defective region. (paper)

  11. Drug Errors in Anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Jain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Medication errors are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. The incidence of these drug errors during anaesthesia is not certain. They impose a considerable financial burden to health care systems apart from the patient losses. Common causes of these errors and their prevention is discussed.

  12. ATC operational error analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The primary causes of operational errors are discussed and the effects of these errors on an ATC system's performance are described. No attempt is made to specify possible error models for the spectrum of blunders that can occur although previous res...

  13. Budgetary Approach to Project Management by Percentage of Completion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Borowiec

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and effective project management process is made possible by the use of methods and techniques of project management. The aim of this paper is to present the problems of project management by using Percentage of Completion method. The research material was gathered based on the experience in implementing this method by the Johnson Controls International Company. The article attempts to demonstrate the validity of the thesis that the POC project management method, allows for effective implementation and monitoring of the project and thus is an effective tool in the managing of companies which exploit the budgetary approach. The study presents planning process of basic parameters affecting the effectiveness of the project (such as costs, revenue, margin and characterized how the primary measurements used to evaluate it. The present theme is illustrating by numerous examples for showing the essence of the raised problems and the results are presenting by using descriptive methods, graphical and tabular.

  14. The percentage of migration as indicator of femoral head position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekloef, O.; Ringertz, H.; Samuelsson, L.; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm

    1988-01-01

    In childhood subluxation of one or both hips may develop rather insidiously. For lack of generally accepted objective methods of assessment, ambiguous interpretations of findings in serial examinations are common. Many subluxations are overlooked during the early stages. In order to overcome such disadvantages, determination of the percentage of migration seems to be a reasonably easy and reliable technique facilitating evaluation of impending dislocation. This investigation was carried out in order to estabilsh norms applicable to patients in the pediatric age interval. The 98th percentile of migration increases with age from 16% in patients < 4 years of age to 24% in patients ≥ 12 years. Higher figures represent subluxation. If the migration exceeds 80% a manifest luxation is present. A difference in migration between the two hips larger than 12% indicates abnormality calling for clinical and radiologic follow-up. (orig.)

  15. Quantification of human body fat tissue percentage by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Raudies, Florian; Unrath, Alexander; Neumann, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The MRI-based evaluation of the quantity and regional distribution of adipose tissue is one objective measure in the investigation of obesity. The aim of this article was to report a comprehensive and automatic analytical method for the determination of the volumes of subcutaneous fat tissue (SFT) and visceral fat tissue (VFT) in either the whole human body or selected slices or regions of interest. Using an MRI protocol in an examination position that was convenient for volunteers and patients with severe diseases, 22 healthy subjects were examined. The software platform was able to merge MRI scans of several body regions acquired in separate acquisitions. Through a cascade of image processing steps, SFT and VFT volumes were calculated. Whole-body SFT and VFT distributions, as well as fat distributions of defined body slices, were analysed in detail. Complete three-dimensional datasets were analysed in a reproducible manner with as few operator-dependent interventions as possible. In order to determine the SFT volume, the ARTIS (Adapted Rendering for Tissue Intensity Segmentation) algorithm was introduced. The advantage of the ARTIS algorithm was the delineation of SFT volumes in regions in which standard region grow techniques fail. Using the ARTIS algorithm, an automatic SFT volume detection was feasible. MRI data analysis was able to determine SFT and VFT volume percentages using new analytical strategies. With the techniques described, it was possible to detect changes in SFT and VFT percentages of the whole body and selected regions. The techniques presented in this study are likely to be of use in obesity-related investigations, as well as in the examination of longitudinal changes in weight during various medical conditions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, ''A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set

  17. Mathematical model for body fat percentage of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Borba Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to develop a specific mathematical model to estimate the body fat percentage (BF% of children with cerebral palsy, based on a Brazilian population of patients with this condition. Method This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study included 63 Caucasian children with cerebral palsy, both males and females, aged between three and ten-years-old. Participants were assessed for functional motor impairment using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA and skinfold thickness. Total body mass (TBM and skinfolds thickness from: triceps (Tr, biceps (Bi, Suprailiac (Si, medium thigh (Th, abdominal (Ab, medial calf (Ca and subscapular (Se were collected. Fat mass (FM was estimated by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (gold standard. Results The model was built from multivariate linear regression; FM was set as a dependent variable and other anthropometric variables, age and sex, were set as independent variables. The final model was established as F%=((0.433xTBM + 0.063xTh + 0.167xSi - 6.768 ÷ TBM × 100, the R2 value was 0.950, R2adjusted=0.948 and the standard error of estimate was 1.039 kg. Conclusion This method was shown to be valid to estimate body fat percentage of children with cerebral palsy. Also, the measurement of skinfolds on both sides of the body showed good results in this modelling.

  18. Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Osvaldo; Del Río, Jesús A; Jaramillo, Oscar A; Martínez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.

  19. Absolute and Relative Time-Consistent Revealed Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    T. DEMUYNCK

    2007-01-01

    We introduce an Absolute (Relative) Time-consistent Axiom of Revealed Preference which characterizes the consistency of a choice function with the property of absolute (relative) time-consistency and impatience. The axiom requires that the absolute (relative) time-consistent and impatient closure of the revealed preference relation does not conflict with the strict revealed preference relation.

  20. X-ray output and percentage ripple in x-ray tube voltage. X-ray generators for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Shigeru; Katoh, Yoh; Negishi, Toru; Abe, Shinji; Ogura, Izumi

    1998-01-01

    Various characteristics of x-ray generators used for mammography (tube voltage, tube current, percentage average error of irradiation time, percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform, linearity, and reproducibility of the photographic effect) have already been clarified by the authors. In our more recent investigations, x-ray output and radiation quality as percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform were evaluated using the dynamic study method with the aluminum filter specified in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard. In addition, we also assessed the effects of fluctuation in percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform on the x-ray spectrum. Based on the results obtained, the characteristics of an ideal x-ray generator for mammography are discussed. The results of this study showed that x-ray output differences in terms of percentage ripple ranged from 45% to 82% compared with that of a constant-potential high-voltage generator. With regard to radiation quality, differences of 0.01 to 0.02 mm were found in the half value layer using an aluminum filter. The thicker the x-ray absorber, the more marked the effects of percentage ripple. In terms of the x-ray spectrum, moreover, characteristic x-rays (at 17.4 and 19.5 keV) cannot be effectively used, although a molybdenum target or molybdenum filter is used. Based on these results, a constant potential high-voltage generator with percentage ripple of 4% or less in the tube voltage waveform should be employed for mammography. (author)

  1. Aircraft system modeling error and control error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Nilesh V. (Inventor); Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for modeling error-driven adaptive control of an aircraft. Normal aircraft plant dynamics is modeled, using an original plant description in which a controller responds to a tracking error e(k) to drive the component to a normal reference value according to an asymptote curve. Where the system senses that (1) at least one aircraft plant component is experiencing an excursion and (2) the return of this component value toward its reference value is not proceeding according to the expected controller characteristics, neural network (NN) modeling of aircraft plant operation may be changed. However, if (1) is satisfied but the error component is returning toward its reference value according to expected controller characteristics, the NN will continue to model operation of the aircraft plant according to an original description.

  2. Absolute ion hydration enthalpies from absolute hardness and some VBT relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Savaş; Fernandes de Farias, Robson

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, absolute hydration enthalpies are calculated from ion absolute hardness for a series of +1 and -1 ions. The calculated values are compared with those previously reported (Housecroft, 2017) [2] and relationships between Vm-1/3 and absolute hardness are stablished. The following empirical equations have been derived, for cations and anions, respectively: ΔhydHo = -(9.645 η+ + 245.930) and ΔhydHo = -(64.601 η- + 12.321). In such equations, η+ and η- are the absolute hardness. It is shown that for d block monocations (Cu+, Ag+ and Au+), hydration enthalpy is closely related with Clementi effective nuclear charge by the equation: ΔhydHo = -(9.645 η+ + 245.930) (Zeff/(n - 1)), where n is the main quantum number. Furthermore, is shown that a typical VBT parameter (Vm-1/3) is related with η+ and η- values and so, with the energies of the frontier orbitals, that is, is stablished a direct relationship between a structural parameter available by X-ray data and the energy of atomic/molecular orbitals.

  3. Utility of Immature Granulocyte Percentage in Pediatric Appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Eleanor K.; Griffin, Russell L.; Mortellaro, Vincent; Beierle, Elizabeth A.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Chen, Mike K.; Russell, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal surgery in children. Adjuncts are utilized to help clinicians predict acute or perforated appendicitis, which may affect treatment decisions. Automated hematologic analyzers can perform more accurate automated differentials including immature granulocyte percentages (IG%). Elevated IG% has demonstrated improved accuracy for predicting sepsis in the neonatal population than traditional immature to total neutrophil count (I/T) ratios. We intended to assess the additional discriminatory ability of IG% to traditionally assessed parameters in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. Materials and Methods We identified all patients with appendicitis from July 2012 to June 2013 by ICD-9 code. Charts were reviewed for relevant demographic, clinical, and outcome data, which were compared between acute and perforated appendicitis groups using Fischer’s exact and t-test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. We utilized an adjusted logistic regression model utilizing clinical lab values to predict the odds of perforated appendicitis. Results 251 patients were included in the analysis. Those with perforated appendicitis had a higher white blood cell (WBC) count (p=0.0063), C-reactive protein (CRP) (pappendicitis. The c-statistic of the final model was 0.70, suggesting fair discriminatory ability in predicting perforated appendicitis. Conclusions IG% did not provide any additional benefit to elevated CRP and presence of left shift in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. PMID:24793450

  4. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  5. Used percentage veto for LIGO and virgo binary inspiral searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Tomoki; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2010-08-01

    A challenge for ground-based gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO and Virgo is to understand the origin of non-astrophysical transients that contribute to the background noise, obscuring real astrophysically produced signals. To help this effort, there are a number of environmental and instrumental sensors around the site, recording data in "channels". We developed a method called the used percentage veto to eliminate corrupted data based on the statistical correlation between transients in the gravitational wave channel and in the auxiliary channels. The results are used to improve inspiral binary searches on LIGO and Virgo data. We also developed a way to apply this method to help find the physical origin of such transients for detector characterization. After identifying statistically correlated channels, a follow-up code clusters coincident events between the gravitational wave channel and auxiliary channels, and thereby classifies noise by correlated channels. For each selected event, the code also gathers and creates information that is helpful for further investigations. The method is contributing to identifying problems and improving data quality for the LIGO S6 and Virgo VSR2 science runs.

  6. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  7. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  8. MLU and IPSyn measuring absolute complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Nieminen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the results of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU and Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn with the structural complexity of spontaneous utterances produced by 30-month-old Finnish children in a semi-structured playing situation. The comparison was carried out in order to determine the aspects of structural complexity which can be detected with MLU and IPSyn. This research adopts the frameworks of absolute complexity together with a multidimensional view of utterance structure and, furthermore, applies it through Utterance Analysis (UA. The results of the comparison between the metrics and changes in structural complexity discovered by UA reveal that MLU and IPSyn do function as measures of structural complexity but only if used in close relation to each other. Because they focus on different aspects of utterances, the results of both metrics should be interpreted in relation to one another.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa5.11

  9. WHY DOES LEIBNIZ NEED ABSOLUTE TIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLÁS VAUGHAN C.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este ensayo pongo en contraposición dos doctrinas conspicuamenteleibnicianas: la doctrina del tiempo relacional e ideal, y la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida. Argumentaré que si todas las substancias están necesariamentecoordinadas, entonces no tiene sentido negar el carácter absoluto y real del tiempo. En la primera sección describiré la concepción newtoniana y clarkeana del tiempo absoluto; en la segunda discutiré la crítica leibniciana a dicha concepción, crítica sobre la que se erige su doctrina relacional e ideal del tiempo; en la tercera sección daré un vistazo a la metafísica monádica madura de Leibniz, haciendo especial énfasis en la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida; finalmente, en la última sección sugeriré la existencia de una tensión irreconciliable entre estas dos doctrinas.Abstract: In this paper I bring together two characteristically Leibnizean doctrines:the doctrine of relational and ideal time, and the doctrine of preestablished harmony. I will argue that, if every substance is necessarily connected with another, then it makes no sense to deny absolute and real time. In the first section, I will describe Newton’s and Clarke’s conception of absolute time; then, in the second section, I will consider Leibniz’s critique of that conception, on which he bases his ideal and relational doctrine of time. In the third section I will look briefly at Leibniz’s mature monadic metaphysics, taking special account of his doctrine of preestablished harmony. In the last section, I will suggest that there is an irreconcilable tension between these two doctrines.

  10. An absolute calibration system for millimeter-accuracy APOLLO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelberger, E. G.; Battat, J. B. R.; Birkmeier, K. J.; Colmenares, N. R.; Davis, R.; Hoyle, C. D.; Huang, L. R.; McMillan, R. J.; Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Schlerman, E.; Skrobol, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zach, A.

    2017-12-01

    Lunar laser ranging provides a number of leading experimental tests of gravitation—important in our quest to unify general relativity and the standard model of physics. The apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation (APOLLO) has for years achieved median range precision at the  ∼2 mm level. Yet residuals in model-measurement comparisons are an order-of-magnitude larger, raising the question of whether the ranging data are not nearly as accurate as they are precise, or if the models are incomplete or ill-conditioned. This paper describes a new absolute calibration system (ACS) intended both as a tool for exposing and eliminating sources of systematic error, and also as a means to directly calibrate ranging data in situ. The system consists of a high-repetition-rate (80 MHz) laser emitting short (work on model capabilities. The ACS provides the means to deliver APOLLO data both accurate and precise below the 2 mm level.

  11. Error detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Eric J.

    2013-06-11

    An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

  12. Fluctuation theorems in feedback-controlled open quantum systems: Quantum coherence and absolute irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashita, Yûto; Gong, Zongping; Ashida, Yuto; Ueda, Masahito

    2017-10-01

    The thermodynamics of quantum coherence has attracted growing attention recently, where the thermodynamic advantage of quantum superposition is characterized in terms of quantum thermodynamics. We investigate the thermodynamic effects of quantum coherent driving in the context of the fluctuation theorem. We adopt a quantum-trajectory approach to investigate open quantum systems under feedback control. In these systems, the measurement backaction in the forward process plays a key role, and therefore the corresponding time-reversed quantum measurement and postselection must be considered in the backward process, in sharp contrast to the classical case. The state reduction associated with quantum measurement, in general, creates a zero-probability region in the space of quantum trajectories of the forward process, which causes singularly strong irreversibility with divergent entropy production (i.e., absolute irreversibility) and hence makes the ordinary fluctuation theorem break down. In the classical case, the error-free measurement ordinarily leads to absolute irreversibility, because the measurement restricts classical paths to the region compatible with the measurement outcome. In contrast, in open quantum systems, absolute irreversibility is suppressed even in the presence of the projective measurement due to those quantum rare events that go through the classically forbidden region with the aid of quantum coherent driving. This suppression of absolute irreversibility exemplifies the thermodynamic advantage of quantum coherent driving. Absolute irreversibility is shown to emerge in the absence of coherent driving after the measurement, especially in systems under time-delayed feedback control. We show that absolute irreversibility is mitigated by increasing the duration of quantum coherent driving or decreasing the delay time of feedback control.

  13. Genomic DNA-based absolute quantification of gene expression in Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, Gregory A; McElrone, Andrew J; Matthews, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Many studies in which gene expression is quantified by polymerase chain reaction represent the expression of a gene of interest (GOI) relative to that of a reference gene (RG). Relative expression is founded on the assumptions that RG expression is stable across samples, treatments, organs, etc., and that reaction efficiencies of the GOI and RG are equal; assumptions which are often faulty. The true variability in RG expression and actual reaction efficiencies are seldom determined experimentally. Here we present a rapid and robust method for absolute quantification of expression in Vitis where varying concentrations of genomic DNA were used to construct GOI standard curves. This methodology was utilized to absolutely quantify and determine the variability of the previously validated RG ubiquitin (VvUbi) across three test studies in three different tissues (roots, leaves and berries). In addition, in each study a GOI was absolutely quantified. Data sets resulting from relative and absolute methods of quantification were compared and the differences were striking. VvUbi expression was significantly different in magnitude between test studies and variable among individual samples. Absolute quantification consistently reduced the coefficients of variation of the GOIs by more than half, often resulting in differences in statistical significance and in some cases even changing the fundamental nature of the result. Utilizing genomic DNA-based absolute quantification is fast and efficient. Through eliminating error introduced by assuming RG stability and equal reaction efficiencies between the RG and GOI this methodology produces less variation, increased accuracy and greater statistical power. © 2012 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Errors in Neonatology

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Boldrini; Rosa T. Scaramuzzo; Armando Cuttano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy). Results: In Neonatology the main err...

  15. [Sedentary lifestyle: physical activity duration versus percentage of energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, María del C; Rodríguez-Benjumeda, Luis M; Anía-Lafuente, Basilio; Brito-Díaz, Buenaventura; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Almeida-González, Delia; Batista-Medina, Marta; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando

    2007-03-01

    To compare different definitions of a sedentary lifestyle and to determine which is the most appropriate for demonstrating its relationship with the metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study of 5814 individuals was carried out. Comparisons were made between two definitions of a sedentary lifestyle: one based on active energy expenditure being less than 10% of total energy expenditure, and the other, on performing less than 25-30 minutes of physical activity per day. Reported levels of physical activity, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk were recorded. The associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome and other risk factors were adjusted for gender, age and tobacco use. The prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle was higher in women (70%) than in men (45-60%, according to the definition used). The definitions based on physical activity duration and on energy expenditure were equally useful: there were direct associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome, body mass index, abdominal and pelvic circumferences, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides, and inverse associations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and paraoxonase activity, which demonstrated the greatest percentage difference between sedentary and active individuals. An incidental finding was that both definitions of a sedentary lifestyle were more strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome as defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria than by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Given that it is relatively easy to determine whether a patient performs less than 25 minutes of physical activity per day, use of this definition of a sedentary lifestyle is recommended for clinical practice. The serum paraoxonase activity level could provide a useful marker for studying sedentary lifestyles.

  16. Correction for quadrature errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, A.; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    1994-01-01

    In high bandwidth radar systems it is necessary to use quadrature devices to convert the signal to/from baseband. Practical problems make it difficult to implement a perfect quadrature system. Channel imbalance and quadrature phase errors in the transmitter and the receiver result in error signals......, which appear as self-clutter in the radar image. When digital techniques are used for generation and processing or the radar signal it is possible to reduce these error signals. In the paper the quadrature devices are analyzed, and two different error compensation methods are considered. The practical...

  17. Numerical evaluation of magnetic absolute measurements with arbitrarily distributed DI-fluxgate theodolite orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Brunke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At geomagnetic observatories the absolute measurements are needed to determine the calibration parameters of the continuously recording vector magnetometer (variometer. Absolute measurements are indispensable for determining the vector of the geomagnetic field over long periods of time. A standard DI (declination, inclination measuring scheme for absolute measurements establishes routines in magnetic observatories. The traditional measuring schema uses a fixed number of eight orientations (Jankowski et al., 1996.We present a numerical method, allowing for the evaluation of an arbitrary number (minimum of five as there are five independent parameters of telescope orientations. Our method provides D, I and Z base values and calculated error bars of them.A general approach has significant advantages. Additional measurements may be seamlessly incorporated for higher accuracy. Individual erroneous readings are identified and can be discarded without invalidating the entire data set. A priori information can be incorporated. We expect the general method to also ease requirements for automated DI-flux measurements. The method can reveal certain properties of the DI theodolite which are not captured by the conventional method.Based on the alternative evaluation method, a new faster and less error-prone measuring schema is presented. It avoids needing to calculate the magnetic meridian prior to the inclination measurements.Measurements in the vicinity of the magnetic equator are possible with theodolites and without a zenith ocular.The implementation of the method in MATLAB is available as source code at the GFZ Data Center Brunke (2017.

  18. Numerical evaluation of magnetic absolute measurements with arbitrarily distributed DI-fluxgate theodolite orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Heinz-Peter; Matzka, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    At geomagnetic observatories the absolute measurements are needed to determine the calibration parameters of the continuously recording vector magnetometer (variometer). Absolute measurements are indispensable for determining the vector of the geomagnetic field over long periods of time. A standard DI (declination, inclination) measuring scheme for absolute measurements establishes routines in magnetic observatories. The traditional measuring schema uses a fixed number of eight orientations (Jankowski et al., 1996).We present a numerical method, allowing for the evaluation of an arbitrary number (minimum of five as there are five independent parameters) of telescope orientations. Our method provides D, I and Z base values and calculated error bars of them.A general approach has significant advantages. Additional measurements may be seamlessly incorporated for higher accuracy. Individual erroneous readings are identified and can be discarded without invalidating the entire data set. A priori information can be incorporated. We expect the general method to also ease requirements for automated DI-flux measurements. The method can reveal certain properties of the DI theodolite which are not captured by the conventional method.Based on the alternative evaluation method, a new faster and less error-prone measuring schema is presented. It avoids needing to calculate the magnetic meridian prior to the inclination measurements.Measurements in the vicinity of the magnetic equator are possible with theodolites and without a zenith ocular.The implementation of the method in MATLAB is available as source code at the GFZ Data Center Brunke (2017).

  19. The dynamic control ratio at the equilibrium point (DCRe): introducing relative and absolute reliability scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Tobias; Knicker, Axel J; Strüder, Heiko K

    2017-04-01

    Analytical methods to assess thigh muscle balance need to provide reliable data to allow meaningful interpretation. However, reproducibility of the dynamic control ratio at the equilibrium point has not been evaluated yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare relative and absolute reliability indices of its angle and moment values with conventional and functional hamstring-quadriceps ratios. Furthermore, effects of familiarisation and angular velocity on reproducibility were analysed. A number of 33 male volunteers participated in 3 identical test sessions. Peak moments (PMs) were determined unilaterally during maximum concentric and eccentric knee flexion (prone) and extension (supine position) at 0.53, 1.57 and 2.62 rad · s -1 . A repeated measure, ANOVA, confirmed systematic bias. Intra-class correlation coefficients and standard errors of measurement indicated relative and absolute reliability. Correlation coefficients were averaged over respective factors and tested for significant differences. All balance scores showed comparable low-to-moderate relative (<0.8-0.9) and good absolute reliability (<10%). Relative reproducibility of dynamic control equilibrium parameters augmented with increasing angular velocity, but not with familiarisation. At 2.62 rad · s -1 , high (moment: 0.906) to moderate (angle: 0.833) relative reliability scores with accordingly high absolute indices (4.9% and 6.4%) became apparent. Thus, the dynamic control equilibrium is an equivalent method for the reliable assessment of thigh muscle balance.

  20. Action errors, error management, and learning in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina

    2015-01-03

    Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.

  1. Medical error and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew A; Gallagher, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Errors occur commonly in healthcare and can cause significant harm to patients. Most errors arise from a combination of individual, system, and communication failures. Neurologists may be involved in harmful errors in any practice setting and should familiarize themselves with tools to prevent, report, and examine errors. Although physicians, patients, and ethicists endorse candid disclosure of harmful medical errors to patients, many physicians express uncertainty about how to approach these conversations. A growing body of research indicates physicians often fail to meet patient expectations for timely and open disclosure. Patients desire information about the error, an apology, and a plan for preventing recurrence of the error. To meet these expectations, physicians should participate in event investigations and plan thoroughly for each disclosure conversation, preferably with a disclosure coach. Physicians should also anticipate and attend to the ongoing medical and emotional needs of the patient. A cultural change towards greater transparency following medical errors is in motion. Substantial progress is still required, but neurologists can further this movement by promoting policies and environments conducive to open reporting, respectful disclosure to patients, and support for the healthcare workers involved. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning from Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the…

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance Percentages of Salmonella and Shigella in Seafood Imported to Jordan: Higher Percentages and More Diverse Profiles in Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E

    2017-03-01

    This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of human-specific ( Shigella spp.) and zoonotic ( Salmonella enterica ) foodborne pathogens in internationally traded seafood. Sixty-four Salmonella and 61 Shigella isolates were obtained from 330 imported fresh fish samples from Egypt, Yemen, and India. The pathogens were isolated on selective media, confirmed by PCR, and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Approximately 79 and 98% of the Salmonella and Shigella isolates, respectively, exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and 8 and 49% exhibited multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes). Generally, Salmonella exhibited high resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; very low resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ciprofloxacin; and no resistance to ceftriaxone. Meanwhile, Shigella spp. exhibited high resistance to tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; low resistance to kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ceftriaxone; and very low resistance to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Salmonella isolates exhibited 14 resistance profiles, Shigella isolates 42. This study is novel in showing that a human-specific pathogen has higher antimicrobial resistance percentages and more diverse profiles than a zoonotic pathogen. Thus, the impact of antimicrobial use in humans is as significant as, if not more significant than, it is in animals in spreading antibiotic resistance through food. This study also demonstrates that locally derived antimicrobial resistance can spread and pose a public health risk worldwide through seafood trade and that high resistance would make a possible outbreak difficult to control. So, capacity building and monitoring harvest water areas are encouraged in fish producing countries.

  4. What is Needed for Absolute Paleointensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Many alternative approaches to the Thellier and Thellier technique for absolute paleointensity have been proposed during the past twenty years. One reason is the time consuming aspect of the experiments. Another reason is to avoid uncertainties in determinations of the paleofield which are mostly linked to the presence of multidomain grains. Despite great care taken by these new techniques, there is no indication that they always provide the right answer and in fact sometimes fail. We are convinced that the most valid approach remains the original double heating Thellier protocol provided that natural remanence is controlled by pure magnetite with a narrow distribution of small grain sizes, mostly single domains. The presence of titanium, even in small amount generates biases which yield incorrect field values. Single domain grains frequently dominate the magnetization of glass samples, which explains the success of this selective approach. They are also present in volcanic lava flows but much less frequently, and therefore contribute to the low success rate of most experiments. However the loss of at least 70% of the magnetization at very high temperatures prior to the Curie point appears to be an essential prerequisite that increases the success rate to almost 100% and has been validated from historical flows and from recent studies. This requirement can easily be tested by thermal demagnetization while low temperature experiments can document the detection of single domain magnetite using the δFC/δZFC parameter as suggested (Moskowitz et al, 1993) for biogenic magnetite.

  5. Pixel-based absolute surface metrology by three flat test with shifted and rotated maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Dede; Chen, Shanyong; Xue, Shuai; Yin, Ziqiang

    2018-03-01

    In traditional three flat test, it only provides the absolute profile along one surface diameter. In this paper, an absolute testing algorithm based on shift-rotation with three flat test has been proposed to reconstruct two-dimensional surface exactly. Pitch and yaw error during shift procedure is analyzed and compensated in our method. Compared with multi-rotation method proposed before, it only needs a 90° rotation and a shift, which is easy to carry out especially in condition of large size surface. It allows pixel level spatial resolution to be achieved without interpolation or assumption to the test surface. In addition, numerical simulations and optical tests are implemented and show the high accuracy recovery capability of the proposed method.

  6. High-precision absolute distance measurement using dual-laser frequency scanned interferometry under realistic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.-J.; Nyberg, Sven; Riles, Keith

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report on new high-precision absolute distance measurements performed with frequency scanned interferometry using a pair of single-mode optical fibers. Absolute distances were determined by counting the interference fringes produced while scanning the frequencies of the two chopped lasers. High-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometers were used to determine frequency changes during scanning. Dual lasers with oppositely scanning directions, combined with a multi-distance-measurement technique previously reported, were used to cancel drift errors and to suppress vibration effects and interference fringe uncertainties. Under realistic conditions, a precision about 0.2μm was achieved for a distance of 0.41m. With a precision that exceeds requirements, the frequency scanned interferometry is a promising high-precision optical alignment technique for International Linear Collider silicon tracker detector

  7. Uncorrected refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovin S Naidoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC, were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  8. Uncorrected refractive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin S; Jaggernath, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC), were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR) Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  9. Quantitative structure activity relationship model for predicting the depletion percentage of skin allergic chemical substances of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Hongzong; Wang Tao; Zhang Kejun; Duan Yunbo; Yuan Shuping; Fu Aiping; Hu Zhide

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative model was developed to predict the depletion percentage of glutathione (DPG) compounds by gene expression programming (GEP). Each kind of compound was represented by several calculated structural descriptors involving constitutional, topological, geometrical, electrostatic and quantum-chemical features of compounds. The GEP method produced a nonlinear and five-descriptor quantitative model with a mean error and a correlation coefficient of 10.52 and 0.94 for the training set, 22.80 and 0.85 for the test set, respectively. It is shown that the GEP predicted results are in good agreement with experimental ones, better than those of the heuristic method

  10. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  11. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Ahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1 A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2 To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4. Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  12. Absolute parameters of young stars: QZ Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. S. G.; Blackford, M.; Butland, R.; Budding, E.

    2017-09-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopy and BVR photometry together with literature data on the complex massive quaternary star QZ Car are collected and analysed. Absolute parameters are found as follows. System A: M1 = 43 (±3), M2 = 19 (+3 -7), R1 = 28 (±2), R2 = 6 (±2), (⊙); T1 ˜ 28 000, T2 ˜ 33 000 K; System B: M1 = 30 (±3), M2 = 20 (±3), R1 = 10 (±0.5), R2 = 20 (±1), (⊙); T1 ˜ 36 000, T2 ˜ 30 000 K (model dependent temperatures). The wide system AB: Period = 49.5 (±1) yr, Epochs, conjunction = 1984.8 (±1), periastron = 2005.3 (±3) yr, mean separation = 65 (±3), (au); orbital inclination = 85 (+5 -15) deg, photometric distance ˜2700 (±300) pc, age = 4 (±1) Myr. Other new contributions concern: (a) analysis of the timing of minima differences (O - C)s for the eclipsing binary (System B); (b) the width of the eclipses, pointing to relatively large effects of radiation pressure; (c) inferences from the rotational widths of lines for both Systems A and B; and (d) implications for theoretical models of early-type stars. While feeling greater confidence on the quaternary's general parametrization, observational complications arising from strong wind interactions or other, unclear, causes still inhibit precision and call for continued multiwavelength observations. Our high-inclination value for the AB system helps to explain failures to resolve the wide binary in the previous years. The derived young age independently confirms membership of QZ Car to the open cluster Collinder 228.

  13. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  14. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, S. M. Jawwad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

  15. An absolute nuclear magnetic resonance magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, A.

    1961-10-01

    After an introduction in which the various work undertaken since the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance is rapidly reviewed, the author describes briefly In the first chapter three types of NMR magnetometers, giving the advantages and disadvantages of each of them and deducing from this the design of the apparatus having the greatest number of qualities Chapter II is devoted to the crossed coil nuclear oscillator which operates continuously over a wide range (800 gamma). To avoid an error due to a carrying over the frequency, the measurement is carried out using bands of 1000 γ. Chapter III deals with frequency measurements. The author describes an original arrangement which makes possible the frequency-field conversion with an accuracy of ± 5 x 10 -6 , and the differential measurement between two nuclear oscillators. The report finishes with a conclusion and a few recordings. (author) [fr

  16. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  17. Disclosure of medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlow, Anne; Stevens, Polly; Harrison, Christine; Laxer, Ronald M

    2006-12-01

    The 1999 release of the Institute of Medicine's document To Err is Human was akin to removing the lid of Pandora's box. Not only were the magnitude and impact of medical errors now apparent to those working in the health care industry, but consumers or health care were alerted to the occurrence of medical events causing harm. One specific solution advocated was the disclosure to patients and their families of adverse events resulting from medical error. Knowledge of the historical perspective, ethical underpinnings, and medico-legal implications gives us a better appreciation of current recommendations for disclosing adverse events resulting from medical error to those affected.

  18. Absolute three-dimensional shape measurement with two-frequency square binary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chufan; Zhang, Song

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a novel method to achieve absolute three-dimensional shape measurement solely using square binary patterns. This method uses six patterns: three low-frequency phase-shifted patterns and three phase-shifted high-frequency patterns. The phase obtained from the low-frequency phase temporally unwraps the phase obtained from high-frequency patterns. The projector is defocused such that the high-frequency patterns produce a high-quality phase, but the phase retrieved from low-frequency patterns has a large harmonic error that fails the two-frequency temporal phase unwrapping process. In this paper, we develop a computational framework to address the challenge. The proposed computational framework includes four major approaches to alleviate the harmonic error problem: (i) use more than one period of low-frequency patterns enabled by a geometric constraint-based phase unwrapping method; (ii) artificially apply a large Gaussian filter to low-frequency patterns before phase computation; (iii) create an error lookup table to compensate for harmonic error; and (iv) develop a boundary error correction method to alleviate problems associated with filtering. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrated the success of the proposed method.

  19. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  20. Rounding errors in weighing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeach, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    When rounding error is large relative to weighing error, it cannot be ignored when estimating scale precision and bias from calibration data. Further, if the data grouping is coarse, rounding error is correlated with weighing error and may also have a mean quite different from zero. These facts are taken into account in a moment estimation method. A copy of the program listing for the MERDA program that provides moment estimates is available from the author. Experience suggests that if the data fall into four or more cells or groups, it is not necessary to apply the moment estimation method. Rather, the estimate given by equation (3) is valid in this instance. 5 tables

  1. Spotting software errors sooner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, D.

    1989-01-01

    Static analysis is helping to identify software errors at an earlier stage and more cheaply than conventional methods of testing. RTP Software's MALPAS system also has the ability to check that a code conforms to its original specification. (author)

  2. Error Reporting Logic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaspan, Ciera; Quan, Trisha; Aldrich, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    ... it. In this paper, we introduce error reporting logic (ERL), an algorithm and tool that produces succinct explanations for why a target system violates a specification expressed in first order predicate logic...

  3. Pedal Application Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This project examined the prevalence of pedal application errors and the driver, vehicle, roadway and/or environmental characteristics associated with pedal misapplication crashes based on a literature review, analysis of news media reports, a panel ...

  4. Design for Error Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1983-01-01

    An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability.......An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability....

  5. Flowdown of the TMT astrometry error budget(s) to the IRIS design

    OpenAIRE

    Schöck, Matthias; Andersen, David; Rogers, John; Ellerbroek, Brent; Chisholm, Eric; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincentsen, James; Wright, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    TMT has defined the accuracy to be achieved for both absolute and differential astrometry in its top-level requirements documents. Because of the complexities of different types of astrometric observations, these requirements cannot be used to specify system design parameters directly. The TMT astrometry working group therefore developed detailed astrometry error budgets for a variety of science cases. These error budgets detail how astrometric errors propagate through the calibration, observ...

  6. Inpatients’ medical prescription errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Melo Santos Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify and quantify the most frequent prescription errors in inpatients’ medical prescriptions. Methods: A survey of prescription errors was performed in the inpatients’ medical prescriptions, from July 2008 to May 2009 for eight hours a day. Rresults: At total of 3,931 prescriptions was analyzed and 362 (9.2% prescription errors were found, which involved the healthcare team as a whole. Among the 16 types of errors detected in prescription, the most frequent occurrences were lack of information, such as dose (66 cases, 18.2% and administration route (26 cases, 7.2%; 45 cases (12.4% of wrong transcriptions to the information system; 30 cases (8.3% of duplicate drugs; doses higher than recommended (24 events, 6.6% and 29 cases (8.0% of prescriptions with indication but not specifying allergy. Cconclusion: Medication errors are a reality at hospitals. All healthcare professionals are responsible for the identification and prevention of these errors, each one in his/her own area. The pharmacist is an essential professional in the drug therapy process. All hospital organizations need a pharmacist team responsible for medical prescription analyses before preparation, dispensation and administration of drugs to inpatients. This study showed that the pharmacist improves the inpatient’s safety and success of prescribed therapy.

  7. Comparing different error conditions in filmdosemeter evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, H.; Figel, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the evaluation of a film used as a personal dosemeter it may be necessary to mark the dosemeters when possible error conditions are recognized. These are errors that might have an influence on the ability to make a correct evaluation of the dose value, and include broken, contaminated or improperly handled dosemeters. In this project we have examined how two services (NIRH, GSF), from two different countries within the EU, mark their dosemeters. The services have a large difference in size, customer composition and issuing period, but both use film as their primary dosemeters. The possible error conditions that are examined here are dosemeters being contaminated, dosemeters exposed to moisture or light, missing filters in the dosemeter badges among others. The data are collected for the year 2003 where NIRH evaluated approximately 50 thousand and GSF about one million filmdosemeters. For each error condition the percentage of filmdosemeters belonging hereto is calculated as well as the distribution among different employee categories, i.e. industry, medicine, research, veterinary and other. For some error conditions we see a common pattern, while for others there is a large discrepancy between the services. The differences and possible explanations are discussed. The results of the investigation may motivate further comparisons between the different monitoring services in Europe. (author)

  8. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  9. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.

    Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  10. Human error in aviation operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David C.

    1988-01-01

    The role of human error in commercial and general aviation accidents and the techniques used to evaluate it are reviewed from a human-factors perspective. Topics addressed include the general decline in accidents per million departures since the 1960s, the increase in the proportion of accidents due to human error, methods for studying error, theoretical error models, and the design of error-resistant systems. Consideration is given to information acquisition and processing errors, visually guided flight, disorientation, instrument-assisted guidance, communication errors, decision errors, debiasing, and action errors.

  11. Error monitoring in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens eMaidhof

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To err is human, and hence even professional musicians make errors occasionally during their performances. This paper summarizes recent work investigating error monitoring in musicians, i.e. the processes and their neural correlates associated with the monitoring of ongoing actions and the detection of deviations from intended sounds. EEG Studies reported an early component of the event-related potential (ERP occurring before the onsets of pitch errors. This component, which can be altered in musicians with focal dystonia, likely reflects processes of error detection and/or error compensation, i.e. attempts to cancel the undesired sensory consequence (a wrong tone a musician is about to perceive. Thus, auditory feedback seems not to be a prerequisite for error detection, consistent with previous behavioral results. In contrast, when auditory feedback is externally manipulated and thus unexpected, motor performance can be severely distorted, although not all feedback alterations result in performance impairments. Recent studies investigating the neural correlates of feedback processing showed that unexpected feedback elicits an ERP component after note onsets, which shows larger amplitudes during music performance than during mere perception of the same musical sequences. Hence, these results stress the role of motor actions for the processing of auditory information. Furthermore, recent methodological advances like the combination of 3D motion capture techniques with EEG will be discussed. Such combinations of different measures can potentially help to disentangle the roles of different feedback types such as proprioceptive and auditory feedback, and in general to derive at a better understanding of the complex interactions between the motor and auditory domain during error monitoring. Finally, outstanding questions and future directions in this context will be discussed.

  12. Does Absolute Synonymy exist in Owere-Igbo? | Omego | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among Igbo linguistic researchers, determining whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo, a dialect of the Igbo language predominantly spoken by the people of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, has become a thorny issue. While some linguistic scholars strive to establish that absolute synonymy exists in the lexical ...

  13. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  14. Identifying error types in visual diagnostic skill assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravesloot, Cécile J; van der Gijp, Anouk; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; Huige, Josephine C B M; Ten Cate, Olle; Vincken, Koen L; Mol, Christian P; van Schaik, Jan P J

    2017-06-27

    Misinterpretation of medical images is an important source of diagnostic error. Errors can occur in different phases of the diagnostic process. Insight in the error types made by learners is crucial for training and giving effective feedback. Most diagnostic skill tests however penalize diagnostic mistakes without an eye for the diagnostic process and the type of error. A radiology test with stepwise reasoning questions was used to distinguish error types in the visual diagnostic process. We evaluated the additional value of a stepwise question-format, in comparison with only diagnostic questions in radiology tests. Medical students in a radiology elective (n=109) took a radiology test including 11-13 cases in stepwise question-format: marking an abnormality, describing the abnormality and giving a diagnosis. Errors were coded by two independent researchers as perception, analysis, diagnosis, or undefined. Erroneous cases were further evaluated for the presence of latent errors or partial knowledge. Inter-rater reliabilities and percentages of cases with latent errors and partial knowledge were calculated. The stepwise question-format procedure applied to 1351 cases completed by 109 medical students revealed 828 errors. Mean inter-rater reliability of error type coding was Cohen's κ=0.79. Six hundred and fifty errors (79%) could be coded as perception, analysis or diagnosis errors. The stepwise question-format revealed latent errors in 9% and partial knowledge in 18% of cases. A stepwise question-format can reliably distinguish error types in the visual diagnostic process, and reveals latent errors and partial knowledge.

  15. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  16. Pediatric antidepressant medication errors in a national error reporting database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Michael L; Bundy, David G; Shore, Andrew D; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Morlock, Laura L; Miller, Marlene R

    2010-01-01

    To describe inpatient and outpatient pediatric antidepressant medication errors. We analyzed all error reports from the United States Pharmacopeia MEDMARX database, from 2003 to 2006, involving antidepressant medications and patients younger than 18 years. Of the 451 error reports identified, 95% reached the patient, 6.4% reached the patient and necessitated increased monitoring and/or treatment, and 77% involved medications being used off label. Thirty-three percent of errors cited administering as the macrolevel cause of the error, 30% cited dispensing, 28% cited transcribing, and 7.9% cited prescribing. The most commonly cited medications were sertraline (20%), bupropion (19%), fluoxetine (15%), and trazodone (11%). We found no statistically significant association between medication and reported patient harm; harmful errors involved significantly more administering errors (59% vs 32%, p = .023), errors occurring in inpatient care (93% vs 68%, p = .012) and extra doses of medication (31% vs 10%, p = .025) compared with nonharmful errors. Outpatient errors involved significantly more dispensing errors (p errors due to inaccurate or omitted transcription (p errors. Family notification of medication errors was reported in only 12% of errors. Pediatric antidepressant errors often reach patients, frequently involve off-label use of medications, and occur with varying severity and type depending on location and type of medication prescribed. Education and research should be directed toward prompt medication error disclosure and targeted error reduction strategies for specific medication types and settings.

  17. Learning from Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Lendita Kryeziu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Errare humanum est”, a well known and widespread Latin proverb which states that: to err is human, and that people make mistakes all the time. However, what counts is that people must learn from mistakes. On these grounds Steve Jobs stated: “Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.” Similarly, in learning new language, learners make mistakes, thus it is important to accept them, learn from them, discover the reason why they make them, improve and move on. The significance of studying errors is described by Corder as: “There have always been two justifications proposed for the study of learners' errors: the pedagogical justification, namely that a good understanding of the nature of error is necessary before a systematic means of eradicating them could be found, and the theoretical justification, which claims that a study of learners' errors is part of the systematic study of the learners' language which is itself necessary to an understanding of the process of second language acquisition” (Corder, 1982; 1. Thus the importance and the aim of this paper is analyzing errors in the process of second language acquisition and the way we teachers can benefit from mistakes to help students improve themselves while giving the proper feedback.

  18. Visual symptoms associated with refractive errors among Thangka artists of Kathmandu valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Deepa; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar

    2017-12-21

    Prolong near work, especially among people with uncorrected refractive error is considered a potential source of visual symptoms. The present study aims to determine the visual symptoms and the association of those with refractive errors among Thangka artists. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 242 (46.1%) participants of 525 thangka artists examined, with age ranged between 16 years to 39 years which comprised of 112 participants with significant refractive errors and 130 absolutely emmetropic participants, were enrolled from six Thangka painting schools. The visual symptoms were assessed using a structured questionnaire consisting of nine items and scoring from 0 to 6 consecutive scales. The eye examination included detailed anterior and posterior segment examination, objective and subjective refraction, and assessment of heterophoria, vergence and accommodation. Symptoms were presented in percentage and median. Variation in distribution of participants and symptoms was analysed using the Kruskal Wallis test for mean, and the correlation with the Pearson correlation coefficient. A significance level of 0.05 was applied for 95% confidence interval. The majority of participants (65.1%) among refractive error group (REG) were above the age of 30 years, with a male predominance (61.6%), compared to the participants in the normal cohort group (NCG), where majority of them (72.3%) were below 30 years of age (72.3%) and female (51.5%). Overall, the visual symptoms are high among Thangka artists. However, blurred vision (p = 0.003) and dry eye (p = 0.004) are higher among the REG than the NCG. Females have slightly higher symptoms than males. Most of the symptoms, such as sore/aching eye (p = 0.003), feeling dry (p = 0.005) and blurred vision (p = 0.02) are significantly associated with astigmatism. Thangka artists present with significant proportion of refractive error and visual symptoms, especially among females. The most commonly reported

  19. Calculating SPRT Interpolation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe, E.; Gentil, S.; Lóio, I.; Bosma, R.; Peruzzi, A.

    2018-02-01

    Interpolation error is a major source of uncertainty in the calibration of standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) in the subranges of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). This interpolation error arises because the interpolation equations prescribed by the ITS-90 cannot perfectly accommodate all the SPRTs natural variations in the resistance-temperature behavior, and generates different forms of non-uniqueness. This paper investigates the type 3 non-uniqueness for fourteen SPRTs of five different manufacturers calibrated over the water-zinc subrange and demonstrates the use of the method of divided differences for calculating the interpolation error. The calculated maximum standard deviation of 0.25 mK (near 100°C) is similar to that observed in previous studies.

  20. WE-G-BRA-04: Common Errors and Deficiencies in Radiation Oncology Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric errors in radiotherapy dose delivery lead to suboptimal treatments and outcomes. This work reviews the frequency and severity of dosimetric and programmatic errors identified by on-site audits performed by the IROC Houston QA center. Methods: IROC Houston on-site audits evaluate absolute beam calibration, relative dosimetry data compared to the treatment planning system data, and processes such as machine QA. Audits conducted from 2000-present were abstracted for recommendations, including type of recommendation and magnitude of error when applicable. Dosimetric recommendations corresponded to absolute dose errors >3% and relative dosimetry errors >2%. On-site audits of 1020 accelerators at 409 institutions were reviewed. Results: A total of 1280 recommendations were made (average 3.1/institution). The most common recommendation was for inadequate QA procedures per TG-40 and/or TG-142 (82% of institutions) with the most commonly noted deficiency being x-ray and electron off-axis constancy versus gantry angle. Dosimetrically, the most common errors in relative dosimetry were in small-field output factors (59% of institutions), wedge factors (33% of institutions), off-axis factors (21% of institutions), and photon PDD (18% of institutions). Errors in calibration were also problematic: 20% of institutions had an error in electron beam calibration, 8% had an error in photon beam calibration, and 7% had an error in brachytherapy source calibration. Almost all types of data reviewed included errors up to 7% although 20 institutions had errors in excess of 10%, and 5 had errors in excess of 20%. The frequency of electron calibration errors decreased significantly with time, but all other errors show non-significant changes. Conclusion: There are many common and often serious errors made during the establishment and maintenance of a radiotherapy program that can be identified through independent peer review. Physicists should be cautious, particularly

  1. Weight Loss Percentage Prediction of Subsequent Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Exclusively Breastfed Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Jane Chang

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion: This study documented the relationship between weight loss percentage and subsequent hyperbilirubinemia incidence. Our data provide a basis for determination of an optimal weight loss percentage cut-off value that indicates supplementary feeding.

  2. Errors in Neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Boldrini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy. Results: In Neonatology the main error domains are: medication and total parenteral nutrition, resuscitation and respiratory care, invasive procedures, nosocomial infections, patient identification, diagnostics. Risk factors include patients’ size, prematurity, vulnerability and underlying disease conditions but also multidisciplinary teams, working conditions providing fatigue, a large variety of treatment and investigative modalities needed. Discussion and Conclusions: In our opinion, it is hardly possible to change the human beings but it is likely possible to change the conditions under they work. Voluntary errors report systems can help in preventing adverse events. Education and re-training by means of simulation can be an effective strategy too. In Pisa (Italy Nina (ceNtro di FormazIone e SimulazioNe NeonAtale is a simulation center that offers the possibility of a continuous retraining for technical and non-technical skills to optimize neonatological care strategies. Furthermore, we have been working on a novel skill trainer for mechanical ventilation (MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications, MERESSINA. Finally, in our opinion national health policy indirectly influences risk for errors. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  3. Absolute and relative emissions analysis in practical combustion systems—effect of water vapor condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J. P.; Mollendorf, J. C.; DesJardin, P. E.

    2016-11-01

    Accurate knowledge of the absolute combustion gas composition is necessary in the automotive, aircraft, processing, heating and air conditioning industries where emissions reduction is a major concern. Those industries use a variety of sensor technologies. Many of these sensors are used to analyze the gas by pumping a sample through a system of tubes to reach a remote sensor location. An inherent characteristic with this type of sampling strategy is that the mixture state changes as the sample is drawn towards the sensor. Specifically, temperature and humidity changes can be significant, resulting in a very different gas mixture at the sensor interface compared with the in situ location (water vapor dilution effect). Consequently, the gas concentrations obtained from remotely sampled gas analyzers can be significantly different than in situ values. In this study, inherent errors associated with sampled combustion gas concentration measurements are explored, and a correction methodology is presented to determine the absolute gas composition from remotely measured gas species concentrations. For in situ (wet) measurements a heated zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) oxygen sensor (Bosch LSU 4.9) is used to measure the absolute oxygen concentration. This is used to correct the remotely sampled (dry) measurements taken with an electrochemical sensor within the remote analyzer (Testo 330-2LL). In this study, such a correction is experimentally validated for a specified concentration of carbon monoxide (5020 ppmv).

  4. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  5. Auto-calibration of Systematic Odometry Errors in Mobile Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the phenomenon of systematic errors in odometry models in mobile robots and looks at various ways of avoiding it by means of auto-calibration. The systematic errors considered are incorrect knowledge of the wheel base and the gains from encoder readings to wheel displacement....... By auto-calibration we mean a standardized procedure which estimates the uncertainties using only on-board equipment such as encoders, an absolute measurement system and filters; no intervention by operator or off-line data processing is necessary. Results are illustrated by a number of simulations...

  6. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces. Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage.

  7. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces.Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage.

  8. Phantom Validation of Tc-99m Absolute Quantification in a SPECT/CT Commercial Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Gnesin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Similar to PET, absolute quantitative imaging is becoming available in commercial SPECT/CT devices. This study’s goal was to assess quantitative accuracy of activity recovery as a function of image reconstruction parameters and count statistics in a variety of phantoms. Materials and Methods. We performed quantitative Tc99m-SPECT/CT acquisitions (Siemens Symbia Intevo, Erlangen, Germany of a uniform cylindrical, NEMA/IEC, and an anthropomorphic abdominal phantom. Background activity concentrations tested ranged: 2–80 kBq/mL. SPECT acquisitions used 120 projections (20 s/projection. Reconstructions were performed with the proprietary iterative conjugate gradient algorithm. NEMA phantom reconstructions were obtained as a function of the iteration number (range: 4–48. Recovery coefficients, hot contrast, relative lung error (NEMA phantom, and image noise were assessed. Results. In all cases, absolute activity and activity concentration were measured within 10% of the expected value. Recovery coefficients and hot contrast in hot inserts did not vary appreciably with count statistics. RC converged at 16 iterations for insert size > 22 mm. Relative lung errors were comparable to PET levels indicating the efficient integration of attenuation and scatter corrections with adequate detector modeling. Conclusions. The tested device provided accurate activity recovery within 10% of correct values; these performances are comparable to current generation PET/CT systems.

  9. A Model of Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose Measurement Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretti, Martina; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    A reliable model of the probability density function (PDF) of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurement error would be important for several applications in diabetes, like testing in silico insulin therapies. In the literature, the PDF of SMBG error is usually described by a Gaussian function, whose symmetry and simplicity are unable to properly describe the variability of experimental data. Here, we propose a new methodology to derive more realistic models of SMBG error PDF. The blood glucose range is divided into zones where error (absolute or relative) presents a constant standard deviation (SD). In each zone, a suitable PDF model is fitted by maximum-likelihood to experimental data. Model validation is performed by goodness-of-fit tests. The method is tested on two databases collected by the One Touch Ultra 2 (OTU2; Lifescan Inc, Milpitas, CA) and the Bayer Contour Next USB (BCN; Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ). In both cases, skew-normal and exponential models are used to describe the distribution of errors and outliers, respectively. Two zones were identified: zone 1 with constant SD absolute error; zone 2 with constant SD relative error. Goodness-of-fit tests confirmed that identified PDF models are valid and superior to Gaussian models used so far in the literature. The proposed methodology allows to derive realistic models of SMBG error PDF. These models can be used in several investigations of present interest in the scientific community, for example, to perform in silico clinical trials to compare SMBG-based with nonadjunctive CGM-based insulin treatments.

  10. Systematic Review of Errors in Inhaler Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis, Joaquin; Gich, Ignasi; Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    in these outcomes over these 40 years and when partitioned into years 1 to 20 and years 21 to 40. Analyses were conducted in accordance with recommendations from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology. Results Data...... A systematic search for articles reporting direct observation of inhaler technique by trained personnel covered the period from 1975 to 2014. Outcomes were the nature and frequencies of the three most common errors; the percentage of patients demonstrating correct, acceptable, or poor technique; and variations...... were extracted from 144 articles reporting on a total number of 54,354 subjects performing 59,584 observed tests of technique. The most frequent MDI errors were in coordination (45%; 95% CI, 41%-49%), speed and/or depth of inspiration (44%; 40%-47%), and no postinhalation breath-hold (46%; 42...

  11. 45 CFR 98.102 - Content of Error Rate Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Discretionary Funds (which includes any funds transferred from the TANF Block Grant), Mandatory and Matching Funds and State Matching and Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE Funds): (1) Percentage of cases with an error... Funds (which includes any funds transferred from the TANF Block Grant), Mandatory and Matching Funds and...

  12. Pattern of Refractive Errors Among Ophthalmic Outpatients of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Uncorrected refractive error (RE) is the most common cause of visual impairment (VI) in the world. It has significant effects on individuals and community, restricting some educational and occupational employment opportunities of the otherwise healthy individual. A significant percentage of the world population ...

  13. Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget and Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, L. Larrabee; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite observations provide atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud information. The intent of the measurement of the thermodynamic state is the initialization of weather and climate models. Great effort has been given to retrieving and validating these atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud properties. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme (ECAS), through fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of absolute and standard deviation of differences in both spectral radiance and retrieved geophysical parameter domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without assistance of other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS re-evaluates instrument random noise, and establishes the link between radiometric accuracy and retrieved geophysical parameter accuracy. ECAS can be applied to measurements of any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with associated RTM. In this paper, ECAS is described and demonstration is made with the measurements of the METOP-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)..

  14. Relative and Absolute Reliability of Timed Up and Go Test in Community Dwelling Older Adult and Healthy Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Azadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Relative and absolute reliability are psychometric properties of the test that many clinical decisions are based on them. In many cases, only relative reliability takes into consideration while the absolute reliability is also very important. Methods & Materials: Eleven community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older (69.64±3.58 and 20 healthy young in the age range 20 to 35 years (28.80±4.15 using three versions of Timed Up and Go test were evaluated twice with an interval of 2 to 5 days. Results: Generally, the non-homogeneity of the study population was stratified to increase the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC this coefficient in elderly people is greater than young people and with a secondary task is reduced. In This study, absolute reliability indices using different data sources and equations lead to in more or less similar results. At general, in test–retest situations, the elderly more than the young people must be changed to be interpreted as a real change, not random. The random error contribution is slightly greater in elderly than young and with a secondary task is increased.It seems, heterogeneity leads to moderation in absolute reliability indices. Conclusion: In relative reliability studies, researchers and clinicians should pay attention to factors such as homogeneity of population and etc. As well as, absolute reliability beside relative reliability is needed and necessary in clinical decision making.

  15. Error management in audit firms: Error climate, type, and originator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gold, A.H.; Gronewold, U.; Salterio, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how the treatment of audit staff who discover errors in audit files by superiors affects their willingness to report these errors. The way staff are treated by superiors is labelled as the audit office error management climate. In a "blame-oriented" climate errors are not

  16. Error tolerance: an evaluation of residents' repeated motor coordination errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Katherine E; Gwillim, Eran C; Ray, Rebecca D; D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D; Cohen, Elaine R; Fiers, Rebekah M; Rutherford, Drew N; Pugh, Carla M

    2016-10-01

    The study investigates the relationship between motor coordination errors and total errors using a human factors framework. We hypothesize motor coordination errors will correlate with total errors and provide validity evidence for error tolerance as a performance metric. Residents' laparoscopic skills were evaluated during a simulated laparoscopic ventral hernia repair for motor coordination errors when grasping for intra-abdominal mesh or suture. Tolerance was defined as repeated, failed attempts to correct an error and the time required to recover. Residents (N = 20) committed an average of 15.45 (standard deviation [SD] = 4.61) errors and 1.70 (SD = 2.25) motor coordination errors during mesh placement. Total errors correlated with motor coordination errors (r[18] = .572, P = .008). On average, residents required 5.09 recovery attempts for 1 motor coordination error (SD = 3.15). Recovery approaches correlated to total error load (r[13] = .592, P = .02). Residents' motor coordination errors and recovery approaches predict total error load. Error tolerance proved to be a valid assessment metric relating to overall performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science, Bangalore. Her interests are in. Theoretical Computer. Science. SERIES I ARTICLE. Error Correcting Codes. 2. The Hamming Codes. Priti Shankar. In the first article of this series we showed how redundancy introduced into a message transmitted over a noisy channel could improve the reliability of transmission. In.

  18. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 33-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/03/0033-0047 ...

  19. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    focused pictures of Triton, Neptune's largest moon. This great feat was in no small measure due to the fact that the sophisticated communication system on Voyager had an elaborate error correcting scheme built into it. At Jupiter and Saturn, a convolutional code was used to enhance the reliability of transmission, and at ...

  20. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It was engineering on the grand scale. - the use of new material for .... ROAD REPAIRSCE!STOP}!TL.,ZBFALK where errors occur in both the message as well as the check symbols, the decoder would be able to correct all of these (as there are not more than 8 .... before it is conveyed to the master disc. Modulation caters for.

  1. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  2. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sound quality is, in essence, obtained by accurate waveform coding and decoding of the audio signals. In addition, the coded audio information is protected against disc errors by the use of a Cross Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code (CIRC). Reed-. Solomon codes were discovered by Irving Reed and Gus Solomon in 1960.

  3. Errors and ozone measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpeters, Richard D.; Gleason, James F.

    1993-01-01

    It is held that Mimm's (1993) comparison of hand-held TOPS instrument data with the Nimbus 7 satellite's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer's (TOMS) ozone data was intrinsically flawed, in that the TOMS data were preliminary and therefore unsuited for quantitative analysis. It is noted that the TOMS calibration was in error.

  4. Random errors revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that the random errors of sound intensity estimates can be much larger than the theoretical minimum value determined by the BT-product, in particular under reverberant conditions and when there are several sources present. More than ten years ago it was shown that one can predict...

  5. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Reason, James

    1999-01-01

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  6. Quantitative analysis of error mode, error effect and criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengcheng; Zhang Li; Xiao Dongsheng; Chen Guohua

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative method of human error mode, effect and criticality is developed in order to reach the ultimate goal of Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The criticality identification matrix of human error mode and task is built to identify the critical human error mode and task and the critical organizational root causes on the basis of the identification of human error probability, error effect probability and the criticality index of error effect. Therefore, this will be beneficial to take targeted measures to reduce and prevent the occurrence of critical human error mode and task. Finally, the application of the technique is explained through the application example. (authors)

  7. Inborn Errors of Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezgu, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism are single gene disorders resulting from the defects in the biochemical pathways of the body. Although these disorders are individually rare, collectively they account for a significant portion of childhood disability and deaths. Most of the disorders are inherited as autosomal recessive whereas autosomal dominant and X-linked disorders are also present. The clinical signs and symptoms arise from the accumulation of the toxic substrate, deficiency of the product, or both. Depending on the residual activity of the deficient enzyme, the initiation of the clinical picture may vary starting from the newborn period up until adulthood. Hundreds of disorders have been described until now and there has been a considerable clinical overlap between certain inborn errors. Resulting from this fact, the definite diagnosis of inborn errors depends on enzyme assays or genetic tests. Especially during the recent years, significant achievements have been gained for the biochemical and genetic diagnosis of inborn errors. Techniques such as tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for biochemical diagnosis and microarrays and next-generation sequencing for the genetic diagnosis have enabled rapid and accurate diagnosis. The achievements for the diagnosis also enabled newborn screening and prenatal diagnosis. Parallel to the development the diagnostic methods; significant progress has also been obtained for the treatment. Treatment approaches such as special diets, enzyme replacement therapy, substrate inhibition, and organ transplantation have been widely used. It is obvious that by the help of the preclinical and clinical research carried out for inborn errors, better diagnostic methods and better treatment approaches will high likely be available. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Meniscal tear. Diagnostic errors in MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, M. C.; Recondo, J. A.; Gervas, C.; Fernandez, E.; Villanua, J. A.M.; Salvador, E.

    2003-01-01

    To analyze diagnostic discrepancies found between magnetic resonance (MR) and arthroscopy, and the determine the reasons that they occur. Two-hundred and forty-eight MR knee explorations were retrospectively checked. Forty of these showed diagnostic discrepancies between MR and arthroscopy. Two radiologists independently re-analyzed the images from 29 of the 40 studies without knowing which diagnosis had resulted from which of the two techniques. Their interpretations were correlated with the initial MR diagnosis, MR images and arthroscopic results. Initial errors in MR imaging were classified as either unavoidable, interpretive, or secondary to equivocal findings. Eleven MR examinations could not be checked since their corresponding imaging results could not be located. Of 34 errors found in the original diagnoses, 12 (35.5%)were classified as unavoidable, 14 (41.2%) as interpretative and 8 (23.5%) as secondary to equivocal findings. 41.2% of the errors were avoided in the retrospective study probably due to our department having greater experience in interpreting MR images, 25.5% were unavailable even in the retrospective study. A small percentage of diagnostic errors were due to the presence of subtle equivocal findings. (Author) 15 refs

  9. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  10. Prognostic Value of Absolute versus Relative Rise of Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maternal outcome than a relative rise in the systolic/diastolic blood pressure from mid pregnancy, which did not reach this absolute level. We conclude that in the Nigerian obstetric population, the practice of diagnosing pregnancy hypertension on ...

  11. Efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol in unrespectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, J.I.; Hameed, K.; Khan, I.U.; Shah, S.

    2001-01-01

    To determine efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection in researchable hepatocellular carcinoma. A randomized, controlled, experimental and interventional clinical trial. Gastroenterology Department, PGMI, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar during the period from June, 1998 to June, 2000. Thirty patients were treated by percutaneous, intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection sin repeated sessions, 33 patients were not given or treated with alcohol to serve as control. Both the groups were comparable for age, sex and other baseline characteristics. Absolute alcohol therapy significantly improved quality of life of patients, reduced the tumor size and mortality as well as showed significantly better results regarding survival (P< 0.05) than the patients of control group. We conclude that absolute alcohol is a beneficial and safe palliative treatment measure in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (author)

  12. Changes in Absolute Sea Level Along U.S. Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows changes in absolute sea level from 1960 to 2016 based on satellite measurements. Data were adjusted by applying an inverted barometer (air pressure)...

  13. Standard errors: A review and evaluation of standard error estimators using Monte Carlo simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Harding

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of a population are often unknown. To estimate such characteristics, random sampling must be used. Sampling is the process by which a subgroup of a population is examined in order to infer the values of the population's true characteristics. Estimates based on samples are approximations of the population's true value; therefore, it is often useful to know the reliability of such estimates. Standard errors are measures of reliability of a given sample's descriptive statistics with respect to the population's true values. This article reviews some widely used descriptive statistics as well as their standard error estimators and their confidence intervals. The statistics discussed are: the arithmetic mean, the median, the geometric mean, the harmonic mean, the variance, the standard deviation, the median absolute deviation, the quantile, the interquartile range, the skewness, as well as the kurtosis. Evaluations using Monte-Carlo simulations show that standard errors estimators, assuming a normally distributed population, are almost always reliable. In addition, as expected, smaller sample sizes lead to less reliable results. The only exception is the estimate of the confidence interval for kurtosis, which shows evidence of unreliability. We therefore propose an alternative measure of confidence interval based on the lognormal distribution. This review provides easy to find information about many descriptive statistics which can be used, for example, to plot error bars or confidence intervals.

  14. Economic measurement of medical errors using a hospital claims database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Guy; Gunnarsson, Candace L; Waters, Heidi C; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Kaplan, Harold S

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the occurrence and costs of medical errors from the hospital perspective. Methods from a recent actuarial study of medical errors were used to identify medical injuries. A visit qualified as an injury visit if at least 1 of 97 injury groupings occurred at that visit, and the percentage of injuries caused by medical error was estimated. Visits with more than four injuries were removed from the population to avoid overestimation of cost. Population estimates were extrapolated from the Premier hospital database to all US acute care hospitals. There were an estimated 161,655 medical errors in 2008 and 170,201 medical errors in 2009. Extrapolated to the entire US population, there were more than 4 million unique injury visits containing more than 1 million unique medical errors each year. This analysis estimated that the total annual cost of measurable medical errors in the United States was $985 million in 2008 and just over $1 billion in 2009. The median cost per error to hospitals was $892 for 2008 and rose to $939 in 2009. Nearly one third of all medical injuries were due to error in each year. Medical errors directly impact patient outcomes and hospitals' profitability, especially since 2008 when Medicare stopped reimbursing hospitals for care related to certain preventable medical errors. Hospitals must rigorously analyze causes of medical errors and implement comprehensive preventative programs to reduce their occurrence as the financial burden of medical errors shifts to hospitals. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The sensitivity of patient specific IMRT QC to systematic MLC leaf bank offset errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Alejandra; Palte, Gesa; Dunscombe, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2, Canada and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive North West, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Patient specific IMRT QC is performed routinely in many clinics as a safeguard against errors and inaccuracies which may be introduced during the complex planning, data transfer, and delivery phases of this type of treatment. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of detecting systematic errors in MLC leaf bank position with patient specific checks. Methods: 9 head and neck (H and N) and 14 prostate IMRT beams were delivered using MLC files containing systematic offsets ({+-}1 mm in two banks, {+-}0.5 mm in two banks, and 1 mm in one bank of leaves). The beams were measured using both MAPCHECK (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) and the aS1000 electronic portal imaging device (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Comparisons with calculated fields, without offsets, were made using commonly adopted criteria including absolute dose (AD) difference, relative dose difference, distance to agreement (DTA), and the gamma index. Results: The criteria most sensitive to systematic leaf bank offsets were the 3% AD, 3 mm DTA for MAPCHECK and the gamma index with 2% AD and 2 mm DTA for the EPID. The criterion based on the relative dose measurements was the least sensitive to MLC offsets. More highly modulated fields, i.e., H and N, showed greater changes in the percentage of passing points due to systematic MLC inaccuracy than prostate fields. Conclusions: None of the techniques or criteria tested is sufficiently sensitive, with the population of IMRT fields, to detect a systematic MLC offset at a clinically significant level on an individual field. Patient specific QC cannot, therefore, substitute for routine QC of the MLC itself.

  16. Absolute Continuity of Stable Foliations for Mappings of Banach Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Alex; Young, Lai-Sang

    2017-09-01

    We prove the absolute continuity of stable foliations for mappings of Banach spaces satisfying conditions consistent with time- t maps of certain classes of dissipative PDEs. This property is crucial for passing information from submanifolds transversal to the stable foliation to the rest of the phase space; it is also used in proofs of ergodicity. Absolute continuity of stable foliations is well known in finite dimensional hyperbolic theory. On Banach spaces, the absence of nice geometric properties poses some additional difficulties.

  17. Video Error Correction Using Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie David L

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of any data is always subject to corruption due to errors, but video transmission, because of its real time nature must deal with these errors without retransmission of the corrupted data. The error can be handled using forward error correction in the encoder or error concealment techniques in the decoder. This MPEG-2 compliant codec uses data hiding to transmit error correction information and several error concealment techniques in the decoder. The decoder resynchronizes more quickly with fewer errors than traditional resynchronization techniques. It also allows for perfect recovery of differentially encoded DCT-DC components and motion vectors. This provides for a much higher quality picture in an error-prone environment while creating an almost imperceptible degradation of the picture in an error-free environment.

  18. Video Error Correction Using Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, David L.; Mersereau, Russell M.

    2002-12-01

    The transmission of any data is always subject to corruption due to errors, but video transmission, because of its real time nature must deal with these errors without retransmission of the corrupted data. The error can be handled using forward error correction in the encoder or error concealment techniques in the decoder. This MPEG-2 compliant codec uses data hiding to transmit error correction information and several error concealment techniques in the decoder. The decoder resynchronizes more quickly with fewer errors than traditional resynchronization techniques. It also allows for perfect recovery of differentially encoded DCT-DC components and motion vectors. This provides for a much higher quality picture in an error-prone environment while creating an almost imperceptible degradation of the picture in an error-free environment.

  19. Error reduction in surgical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Raouf E

    2006-05-01

    Because of its complex nature, surgical pathology practice is inherently error prone. Currently, there is pressure to reduce errors in medicine, including pathology. To review factors that contribute to errors and to discuss error-reduction strategies. Literature review. Multiple factors contribute to errors in medicine, including variable input, complexity, inconsistency, tight coupling, human intervention, time constraints, and a hierarchical culture. Strategies that may reduce errors include reducing reliance on memory, improving information access, error-proofing processes, decreasing reliance on vigilance, standardizing tasks and language, reducing the number of handoffs, simplifying processes, adjusting work schedules and environment, providing adequate training, and placing the correct people in the correct jobs. Surgical pathology is a complex system with ample opportunity for error. Significant error reduction is unlikely to occur without a sustained comprehensive program of quality control and quality assurance. Incremental adoption of information technology and automation along with improved training in patient safety and quality management can help reduce errors.

  20. Twice cutting method reduces tibial cutting error in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Yamagami, Ryota; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Bone cutting error can be one of the causes of malalignment in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The amount of cutting error in total knee arthroplasty has been reported. However, none have investigated cutting error in UKA. The purpose of this study was to reveal the amount of cutting error in UKA when open cutting guide was used and clarify whether cutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced the cutting errors in UKA. We measured the alignment of the tibial cutting guides, the first-cut cutting surfaces and the second cut cutting surfaces using the navigation system in 50 UKAs. Cutting error was defined as the angular difference between the cutting guide and cutting surface. The mean absolute first-cut cutting error was 1.9° (1.1° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.6° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane, whereas the mean absolute second-cut cutting error was 1.1° (0.6° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.4° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane. Cutting the tibia horizontally twice reduced the cutting errors in the coronal plane significantly (Pcutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced cutting error in the coronal plane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Human Error In Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nancy M.; Rouse, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Report presents results of research aimed at understanding causes of human error in such complex systems as aircraft, nuclear powerplants, and chemical processing plants. Research considered both slips (errors of action) and mistakes (errors of intention), and influence of workload on them. Results indicated that: humans respond to conditions in which errors expected by attempting to reduce incidence of errors; and adaptation to conditions potent influence on human behavior in discretionary situations.

  2. Transition Models with Measurement Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Magnac, Thierry; Visser, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate a transition model that allows for measurement errors in the data. The measurement errors arise because the survey design is partly retrospective, so that individuals sometimes forget or misclassify their past labor market transitions. The observed data are adjusted for errors via a measurement-error mechanism. The parameters of the distribution of the true data, and those of the measurement-error mechanism are estimated by a two-stage method. The results, based on ...

  3. Reporting Self-Made Errors: The Impact of Organizational Error-Management Climate and Error Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gold, A.H.; Gronewold, U.; Salterio, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    We study how an organization's error-management climate affects organizational members' beliefs about other members' willingness to report errors that they discover when chance of error detection by superiors and others is extremely low. An error-management climate, as a component of the

  4. Diagnostic errors in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.; Voss, Stephan D.; Melvin, Patrice R.; Graham, Dionne A.

    2011-01-01

    Little information is known about the frequency, types and causes of diagnostic errors in imaging children. Our goals were to describe the patterns and potential etiologies of diagnostic error in our subspecialty. We reviewed 265 cases with clinically significant diagnostic errors identified during a 10-year period. Errors were defined as a diagnosis that was delayed, wrong or missed; they were classified as perceptual, cognitive, system-related or unavoidable; and they were evaluated by imaging modality and level of training of the physician involved. We identified 484 specific errors in the 265 cases reviewed (mean:1.8 errors/case). Most discrepancies involved staff (45.5%). Two hundred fifty-eight individual cognitive errors were identified in 151 cases (mean = 1.7 errors/case). Of these, 83 cases (55%) had additional perceptual or system-related errors. One hundred sixty-five perceptual errors were identified in 165 cases. Of these, 68 cases (41%) also had cognitive or system-related errors. Fifty-four system-related errors were identified in 46 cases (mean = 1.2 errors/case) of which all were multi-factorial. Seven cases were unavoidable. Our study defines a taxonomy of diagnostic errors in a large academic pediatric radiology practice and suggests that most are multi-factorial in etiology. Further study is needed to define effective strategies for improvement. (orig.)

  5. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  6. Absolute earthquake locations using 3-D versus 1-D velocity models below a local seismic network: example from the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, T.; Chevrot, S.; Sylvander, M.; Monteiller, V.; Calvet, M.; Villaseñor, A.; Benahmed, S.; Pauchet, H.; Grimaud, F.

    2018-03-01

    Local seismic networks are usually designed so that earthquakes are located inside them (primary azimuthal gap 180° and distance to the first station higher than 15 km). Errors on velocity models and accuracy of absolute earthquake locations are assessed based on a reference data set made of active seismic, quarry blasts and passive temporary experiments. Solutions and uncertainties are estimated using the probabilistic approach of the NonLinLoc (NLLoc) software based on Equal Differential Time. Some updates have been added to NLLoc to better focus on the final solution (outlier exclusion, multiscale grid search, S-phases weighting). Errors in the probabilistic approach are defined to take into account errors on velocity models and on arrival times. The seismicity in the final 3-D catalogue is located with a horizontal uncertainty of about 2.0 ± 1.9 km and a vertical uncertainty of about 3.0 ± 2.0 km.

  7. Distinguishing Errors in Measurement from Errors in Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Rulon D. Pope; Richard E. Just

    2003-01-01

    Typical econometric production practices under duality ignore the source of disturbances. We show that, depending on the source, a different approach to estimation is required. The typical approach applies under errors in factor input measurement rather than errors in optimization. An approach to the identification of disturbance sources is suggested. We find credible evidence in U.S. agriculture of errors in optimization compared to errors of measurement, and thus reject the typical specific...

  8. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  9. Phonological errors predominate in Arabic spelling across grades 1-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Taha, Haitham

    2006-03-01

    Most of the spelling error analysis has been conducted in Latin orthographies and rarely conducted in other orthographies like Arabic. Two hundred and eighty-eight students in grades 1-9 participated in the study. They were presented nine lists of words to test their spelling skills. Their spelling errors were analyzed by error categories. The most frequent errors were phonological. The results did not indicate any significant differences in the percentages of phonological errors across grades one to nine.Thus, phonology probably presents the greatest challenge to students developing spelling skills in Arabic.

  10. Absolute Navigation Information Estimation for Micro Planetary Rovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilyas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides algorithms to estimate absolute navigation information, e.g., absolute attitude and position, by using low power, weight and volume Microelectromechanical Systems-type (MEMS sensors that are suitable for micro planetary rovers. Planetary rovers appear to be easily navigable robots due to their extreme slow speed and rotation but, unfortunately, the sensor suites available for terrestrial robots are not always available for planetary rover navigation. This makes them difficult to navigate in a completely unexplored, harsh and complex environment. Whereas the relative attitude and position can be tracked in a similar way as for ground robots, absolute navigation information, unlike in terrestrial applications, is difficult to obtain for a remote celestial body, such as Mars or the Moon. In this paper, an algorithm called the EASI algorithm (Estimation of Attitude using Sun sensor and Inclinometer is presented to estimate the absolute attitude using a MEMS-type sun sensor and inclinometer, only. Moreover, the output of the EASI algorithm is fused with MEMS gyros to produce more accurate and reliable attitude estimates. An absolute position estimation algorithm has also been presented based on these on-board sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite for low-cost and low-weight micro planetary rovers.

  11. Quantificação da falha na madeira em juntas coladas utilizando técnicas de visão artificial Measuring wood failure percentage using a machine vision system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christovão Pereira Abrahão

    2003-02-01

    measurement can replace the manual grid method. The proposed algorithms presented an average absolute error of 3%, as compared to the manual grid method.

  12. Bioelectrical impedance for measuring percentage body fat in young persons with Down syndrome: validation with dual-energy absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Sarah J; Thompson, John M D; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2012-11-01

    Children with Down syndrome have an increased prevalence of obesity, although there is little work describing body composition in this population. The aims of this study were to accurately measure body fat in children with Down syndrome and to identify which existing algorithm best predicts percentage body fat in this population. Seventy children with Down syndrome had anthropometric, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data collected to calculate percentage body fat (PBF). Pearson correlations were carried out to assess the relationships of various methods for measuring body fat and Bland-Altman plots to assess systematic error. Mean PBF was 30.5% for girls and 22.5% for boys. A total of 38% of girls and 23% of boys were obese according to international criteria. PBF as determined by DXA correlated well with PBF by BIA in both girls and boys (r = 0.91 and 0.89, respectively, p obesity in children with Down syndrome. BIA can be used to accurately determine adiposity in this population. We recommend the use of the Schaeffer algorithm for calculation of PBF in children with Down syndrome. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  13. Quantifying geocode location error using GIS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Bennett R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP collects maternal address information at the time of delivery for infants and fetuses with birth defects. These addresses have been geocoded by two independent agencies: (1 the Georgia Division of Public Health Office of Health Information and Policy (OHIP and (2 a commercial vendor. Geographic information system (GIS methods were used to quantify uncertainty in the two sets of geocodes using orthoimagery and tax parcel datasets. Methods We sampled 599 infants and fetuses with birth defects delivered during 1994–2002 with maternal residence in either Fulton or Gwinnett County. Tax parcel datasets were obtained from the tax assessor's offices of Fulton and Gwinnett County. High-resolution orthoimagery for these counties was acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. For each of the 599 addresses we attempted to locate the tax parcel corresponding to the maternal address. If the tax parcel was identified the distance and the angle between the geocode and the residence were calculated. We used simulated data to characterize the impact of geocode location error. In each county 5,000 geocodes were generated and assigned their corresponding Census 2000 tract. Each geocode was then displaced at a random angle by a random distance drawn from the distribution of observed geocode location errors. The census tract of the displaced geocode was determined. We repeated this process 5,000 times and report the percentage of geocodes that resolved into incorrect census tracts. Results Median location error was less than 100 meters for both OHIP and commercial vendor geocodes; the distribution of angles appeared uniform. Median location error was approximately 35% larger in Gwinnett (a suburban county relative to Fulton (a county with urban and suburban areas. Location error occasionally caused the simulated geocodes to be displaced into incorrect census tracts; the median percentage

  14. Absolute and Relative Reliability of the Timed 'Up & Go' Test and '30second Chair-Stand' Test in Hospitalised Patients with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyders Johansen, Katrine; Derby Stistrup, Rikke; Skibdal Schjøtt, Camilla; Madsen, Jacqueline; Vinther, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The timed 'Up & Go' test and '30second Chair-Stand' test are simple clinical outcome measures widely used to assess functional performance. The reliability of both tests in hospitalised stroke patients is unknown. The purpose was to investigate the relative and absolute reliability of both tests in patients admitted to an acute stroke unit. Sixty-two patients (men, n = 41) attended two test sessions separated by a one hours rest. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) were calculated to assess relative reliability. Absolute reliability was expressed as Standard Error of Measurement (with 95% certainty-SEM95) and Smallest Real Difference (SRD) and as percentage of their respective means if heteroscedasticity was observed in Bland Altman plots (SEM95% and SRD%). ICC values for interrater reliability were 0.97 and 0.99 for the timed 'Up & Go' test and 0.88 and 0.94 for '30second Chair-Stand' test, respectively. ICC values for intrarater reliability were 0.95 and 0.96 for the timed 'Up & Go' test and 0.87 and 0.91 for '30second Chair-Stand' test, respectively. Heteroscedasticity was observed in the timed 'Up & Go' test. Interrater SEM95% ranged from 9.8% to 14.2% with corresponding SRD% of 13.9-20.1%. Intrarater SEM95% ranged from 15.8% to 18.7% with corresponding SRD% of 22.3-26.5%. For '30second Chair-Stand' test interrater SEM95 ranged between 1.5 and 1.9 repetitions with corresponding SRD of 2 and 3 and intrarater SEM95 ranged between 1.8 and 2.0 repetitions with corresponding SRD values of 3. Excellent reliability was observed for the timed 'Up & Go' test and the '30second Chair-Stand' test in hospitalised stroke patients. The thresholds to detect a real change in performance were 18.7% for the timed 'Up & Go' test and 2.0 repetitions for the '30second Chair-Stand' in groups of patients and 26.5% and 3 repetitions in individual patients, respectively.

  15. The frequency and potential causes of dispensing errors in a hospital pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beso, Adnan; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Barber, Nick

    2005-06-01

    To determine the frequency and types of dispensing errors identified both at the final check stage and outside of a UK hospital pharmacy, to explore the reasons why they occurred, and to make recommendations for their prevention. A definition of a dispensing error and a classification system were developed. To study the frequency and types of errors, pharmacy staff recorded details of all errors identified at the final check stage during a two-week period; all errors identified outside of the department and reported during a one-year period were also recorded. During a separate six-week period, pharmacy staff making dispensing errors identified at the final check stage were interviewed to explore the causes; the findings were analysed using a model of human error. Percentage of dispensed items for which one or more dispensing errors were identified at the final check stage; percentage for which an error was reported outside of the pharmacy department; the active failures, error producing conditions and latent conditions that result in dispensing errors occurring. One or more dispensing errors were identified at the final check stage in 2.1% of 4849 dispensed items, and outside of the pharmacy department in 0.02% of 194,584 items. The majority of those identified at the final check stage involved slips in picking products, or mistakes in making assumptions about the products concerned. Factors contributing to the errors included labelling and storage of containers in the dispensary, interruptions and distractions, a culture where errors are seen as being inevitable, and reliance on others to identify and rectify errors. Dispensing errors occur in about 2% of all dispensed items. About 1 in 100 of these is missed by the final check. The impact on dispensing errors of developments such as automated dispensing systems should be evaluated.

  16. Payment Error Rate Measurement (PERM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PERM program measures improper payments in Medicaid and CHIP and produces error rates for each program. The error rates are based on reviews of the...

  17. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  18. Human Error in Pilotage Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Ernstsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pilotage operations require close interaction between human and machines. This complex sociotechnical system is necessary to safely and efficiently maneuver a vessel in constrained waters. A sociotechnical system consists of interdependent human- and technical variables that continuously must work together to be successful. This complexity is prone to errors, and statistics show that most these errors in the maritime domain are due to human components in the system (80 ? 85%. This explains the attention on research to reduce human errors. The current study deployed a systematic human error reduction and prediction approach (SHERPA to shed light on error types and error remedies apparent in pilotage operations. Data was collected using interviews and observation. Hierarchical task analysis was performed and 55 tasks were analyzed using SHERPA. Findings suggests that communication and action omission errors are most prone to human errors in pilotage operations. Practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed.

  19. Absolute marine gravimetry with matter-wave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, Y; Zahzam, N; Blanchard, C; Bonnin, A; Cadoret, M; Bresson, A; Rouxel, D; Lequentrec-Lalancette, M F

    2018-02-12

    Measuring gravity from an aircraft or a ship is essential in geodesy, geophysics, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, and navigation. Today, only relative sensors are available for onboard gravimetry. This is a major drawback because of the calibration and drift estimation procedures which lead to important operational constraints. Atom interferometry is a promising technology to obtain onboard absolute gravimeter. But, despite high performances obtained in static condition, no precise measurements were reported in dynamic. Here, we present absolute gravity measurements from a ship with a sensor based on atom interferometry. Despite rough sea conditions, we obtained precision below 10 -5  m s -2 . The atom gravimeter was also compared with a commercial spring gravimeter and showed better performances. This demonstration opens the way to the next generation of inertial sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope) based on atom interferometry which should provide high-precision absolute measurements from a moving platform.

  20. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia: the role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association of high body fat percentage (BF%) and lifestyle among adult women. The study was conducted on 327 women, aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program. Data on ...

  1. Effect of breed and non-genetic factors on percentage milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to determine the effect of breed and non-genetic factors on percentage milk composition of smallholders' dual-purpose cattle on-farm in the Ashanti Region. Fresh milk samples from various breeds of cows were assessed for percentage components of protein, fat, lactose, cholesterol, solidnon- fat and ...

  2. 48 CFR 52.222-31 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Percentage Method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act-Price... Provisions and Clauses 52.222-31 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method). As prescribed in 22.407(f), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method) (DEC 2001...

  3. Optimal Design of the Absolute Positioning Sensor for a High-Speed Maglev Train and Research on Its Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junge Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies an absolute positioning sensor for a high-speed maglev train and its fault diagnosis method. The absolute positioning sensor is an important sensor for the high-speed maglev train to accomplish its synchronous traction. It is used to calibrate the error of the relative positioning sensor which is used to provide the magnetic phase signal. On the basis of the analysis for the principle of the absolute positioning sensor, the paper describes the design of the sending and receiving coils and realizes the hardware and the software for the sensor. In order to enhance the reliability of the sensor, a support vector machine is used to recognize the fault characters, and the signal flow method is used to locate the faulty parts. The diagnosis information not only can be sent to an upper center control computer to evaluate the reliability of the sensors, but also can realize on-line diagnosis for debugging and the quick detection when the maglev train is off-line. The absolute positioning sensor we study has been used in the actual project.

  4. Optimal design of the absolute positioning sensor for a high-speed maglev train and research on its fault diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dapeng; Long, Zhiqiang; Xue, Song; Zhang, Junge

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies an absolute positioning sensor for a high-speed maglev train and its fault diagnosis method. The absolute positioning sensor is an important sensor for the high-speed maglev train to accomplish its synchronous traction. It is used to calibrate the error of the relative positioning sensor which is used to provide the magnetic phase signal. On the basis of the analysis for the principle of the absolute positioning sensor, the paper describes the design of the sending and receiving coils and realizes the hardware and the software for the sensor. In order to enhance the reliability of the sensor, a support vector machine is used to recognize the fault characters, and the signal flow method is used to locate the faulty parts. The diagnosis information not only can be sent to an upper center control computer to evaluate the reliability of the sensors, but also can realize on-line diagnosis for debugging and the quick detection when the maglev train is off-line. The absolute positioning sensor we study has been used in the actual project.

  5. Error Detection in ESL Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Rogoveanu Raluca

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the role of error correction in the larger paradigm of ESL teaching and learning. It conceptualizes error as an inevitable variable in the process of learning and as a frequently occurring element in written and oral discourses of ESL learners. It also identifies specific strategies in which error can be detected and corrected and makes reference to various theoretical trends and their approach to error correction, as well as to the relation between language instructor...

  6. [The error, source of learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyeux, Stéphanie; Bohic, Valérie

    2016-05-01

    The error itself is not recognised as a fault. It is the intentionality which differentiates between an error and a fault. An error is unintentional while a fault is a failure to respect known rules. The risk of error is omnipresent in health institutions. Public authorities have therefore set out a series of measures to reduce this risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander K R van Zon

    Full Text Available The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender.The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and

  8. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zon, Sander K R; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and health outcome

  9. Neural sensitivity to absolute and relative anticipated reward in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin G Vaidya

    Full Text Available Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards. This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude. While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing, adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity.

  10. Error analysis of 3D-PTV through unsteady interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutina, Yulia; Mydlarski, Laurent; Gaskin, Susan; Eiff, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    The feasibility of stereoscopic flow measurements through an unsteady optical interface is investigated. Position errors produced by a wavy optical surface are determined analytically, as are the optimal viewing angles of the cameras to minimize such errors. Two methods of measuring the resulting velocity errors are proposed. These methods are applied to 3D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) data obtained through the free surface of a water flow within a cavity adjacent to a shallow channel. The experiments were performed using two sets of conditions, one having no strong surface perturbations, and the other exhibiting surface gravity waves. In the latter case, the amplitude of the gravity waves was 6% of the water depth, resulting in water surface inclinations of about 0.2°. (The water depth is used herein as a relevant length scale, because the measurements are performed in the entire water column. In a more general case, the relevant scale is the maximum distance from the interface to the measurement plane, H, which here is the same as the water depth.) It was found that the contribution of the waves to the overall measurement error is low. The absolute position errors of the system were moderate (1.2% of H). However, given that the velocity is calculated from the relative displacement of a particle between two frames, the errors in the measured water velocities were reasonably small, because the error in the velocity is the relative position error over the average displacement distance. The relative position error was measured to be 0.04% of H, resulting in small velocity errors of 0.3% of the free-stream velocity (equivalent to 1.1% of the average velocity in the domain). It is concluded that even though the absolute positions to which the velocity vectors are assigned is distorted by the unsteady interface, the magnitude of the velocity vectors themselves remains accurate as long as the waves are slowly varying (have low curvature). The stronger the

  11. Improving blood safety: Errors management in transfusion medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujandrić Nevenka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The concept of blood safety includes the entire transfusion chain starting with the collection of blood from the blood donor, and ending with blood transfusion to the patient. The concept involves quality management system as the systematic monitoring of adverse reactions and incidents regarding the blood donor or patient. Monitoring of near-miss errors show the critical points in the working process and increase transfusion safety. Objective. The aim of the study was to present the analysis results of adverse and unexpected events in transfusion practice with a potential risk to the health of blood donors and patients. Methods. One-year retrospective study was based on the collection, analysis and interpretation of written reports on medical errors in the Blood Transfusion Institute of Vojvodina. Results. Errors were distributed according to the type, frequency and part of the working process where they occurred. Possible causes and corrective actions were described for each error. The study showed that there were not errors with potential health consequences for the blood donor/patient. Errors with potentially damaging consequences for patients were detected throughout the entire transfusion chain. Most of the errors were identified in the preanalytical phase. The human factor was responsible for the largest number of errors. Conclusion. Error reporting system has an important role in the error management and the reduction of transfusion-related risk of adverse events and incidents. The ongoing analysis reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the entire process and indicates the necessary changes. Errors in transfusion medicine can be avoided in a large percentage and prevention is costeffective, systematic and applicable.

  12. Reducing nurse medicine administration errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, Rose; Jarrett, Patricia

    Errors in administering medicines are common and can compromise the safety of patients. This review discusses the causes of drug administration error in hospitals by student and registered nurses, and the practical measures educators and hospitals can take to improve nurses' knowledge and skills in medicines management, and reduce drug errors.

  13. Uncertainty quantification and error analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higdon, Dave M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Mark C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klein, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berliner, Mark [OHIO STATE UNIV.; Covey, Curt [LLNL; Ghattas, Omar [UNIV OF TEXAS; Graziani, Carlo [UNIV OF CHICAGO; Seager, Mark [LLNL; Sefcik, Joseph [LLNL; Stark, Philip [UC/BERKELEY; Stewart, James [SNL

    2010-01-01

    UQ studies all sources of error and uncertainty, including: systematic and stochastic measurement error; ignorance; limitations of theoretical models; limitations of numerical representations of those models; limitations on the accuracy and reliability of computations, approximations, and algorithms; and human error. A more precise definition for UQ is suggested below.

  14. Cardiovascular medication errors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Diana C; Bundy, David G; Shore, Andrew D; Morlock, Laura; Hicks, Rodney W; Miller, Marlene R

    2009-07-01

    We sought to describe pediatric cardiovascular medication errors and to determine patients and medications with more-frequently reported and/or more-harmful errors. We analyzed cardiovascular medication error reports from 2003-2004 for patients error, no harm; E-I, harmful error). Proportions of harmful reports were determined according to drug class and age group. "High-risk" drugs were defined as antiarrhythmics, antihypertensives, digoxin, and calcium channel blockers. A total of 147 facilities submitted 821 reports with community hospitals predominating (70%). Mean patient age was 4 years (median: 0.9 years). The most common error locations were NICUs, general care units, PICUs, pediatric units, and inpatient pharmacies. Drug administration, particularly improper dosing, was implicated most commonly. Severity analysis showed 5% "near misses," 91% errors without harm, and 4% harmful errors, with no reported fatalities. A total of 893 medications were cited in 821 reports. Diuretics were cited most frequently, followed by antihypertensives, angiotensin inhibitors, beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, digoxin, and calcium channel blockers. Calcium channel blockers, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, antiarrhythmics, and digoxin had the largest proportions of harmful events, although the values were not statistically significantly different from those for other drug classes. Infants medication errors reaching inpatients, in a national, voluntary, error-reporting database. Proportions of harmful errors were not significantly different by age or cardiovascular medication. Most errors were related to medication administration, largely due to improper dosing.

  15. Clinical application of absolute ethanol as an embolizing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1982-01-01

    Transcatheter infusion of absolute ethanol was applied clinically in 3 cases of artificial embolization: 25 yrs old female with bilateral renal angiomyolipoma, 19 yrs old female with right paralumbar liposarcoma and 25 yrs old male with hypernephroma of right kidney. Selective or subselective manual infusion was made and 9 to 22 cc of pure ethanol was delivered in a speed of 1 to 2 cc per second. The sclerosing effect of absolute ethanol was potent. However, all 3 cases revealed mild post-embolization syndrome

  16. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  17. Absolute gain measurement by the image method under mismatched condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Baddour, Maurice F.

    1987-01-01

    Purcell's image method for measuring the absolute gain of an antenna is particularly attractive for small test antennas. The method is simple to use and utilizes only one antenna with a reflecting plane to provide an image for the receiving antenna. However, the method provides accurate results only if the antenna is matched to its waveguide. In this paper, a waveguide junction analysis is developed to determine the gain of an antenna under mismatched condition. Absolute gain measurements for two standard gain horn antennas have been carried out. Experimental results agree closely with published data.

  18. Absolute and conditional convergence within Sonora state municipalities, 1989- 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Bracamontes Neváre

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to identify the existence of convergence, absolut as muchas conditional, for the municipalities that conform the state of Sonora. Taking as abase the methodologic excercise of Mankiw, Romer and Weill (1992 that considersthe first model of Solow (1956 and makes an extension of it including thehuman capital, evidence shows that there is no tendency for poor municipalitiesto grow more quickly than rich municipalities, which means that there is no processof convergence –nor absolute or conditional– in the municipalities of Sonora,independently of the development layer in which these are classified: municipalitieswith high, average or low development.

  19. Total synthesis and absolute configuration of the marine norditerpenoid xestenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Koichiro; Kurokawa, Takao; Kawashima, Etsuko; Miyaoka, Hiroaki

    2009-11-24

    Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  20. Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyaoka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  1. Changes in intern attitudes toward medical error and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjavand, Nielufar; Bachegowda, Lohith S; Gracely, Edward; Novack, Dennis H

    2012-07-01

    The 2000 Institute of Medicine report, 'To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System', focused the medical community on medical error. This focus led to educational initiatives and legislation designed to minimise errors and increase their disclosure. This study aimed to investigate whether increased general awareness about medical error has affected interns' attitudes toward medical error and disclosure by comparing responses to surveys of interns carried out at either end of the last decade. Two cohorts of interns for the academic years 1999, 2000 and 2001 (n = 304) and 2008 and 2009 (n = 206) at a university hospital were presented with two hypothetical scenarios involving errors that resulted in, respectively, no permanent harm and an adverse outcome. The interns were questioned regarding their likely responses to error and disclosure. We collected 510 surveys (100% response rate). For both scenarios, the percentage of interns who would be willing to fully disclose their mistakes increased substantially from 1999-2001 to 2008-2009 ('no permanent harm': 38% and 71%, respectively [p error disclosure decreased (70% and 52%, respectively), the percentage of interns who felt that 'medical mistakes are preventable if doctors know enough' decreased (49% and 31%, respectively), belief that competent doctors keep emotions and uncertainties to themselves decreased (51% and 14%, respectively), and agreement with leaving medicine if one (as an intern) caused harm or death decreased (50% and 3%, respectively). Prior training about medical mistakes increased more than four-fold between the cohorts. This comparison of intern responses to a survey administered at either end of the last decade reveals that there may have been some important changes in interns' intended disclosure practices and attitudes toward medical error. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  2. Bounds on absolutely maximally entangled states from shadow inequalities, and the quantum MacWilliams identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Felix; Eltschka, Christopher; Siewert, Jens; Gühne, Otfried

    2018-04-01

    A pure multipartite quantum state is called absolutely maximally entangled (AME), if all reductions obtained by tracing out at least half of its parties are maximally mixed. Maximal entanglement is then present across every bipartition. The existence of such states is in many cases unclear. With the help of the weight enumerator machinery known from quantum error correction and the shadow inequalities, we obtain new bounds on the existence of AME states in dimensions larger than two. To complete the treatment on the weight enumerator machinery, the quantum MacWilliams identity is derived in the Bloch representation. Finally, we consider AME states whose subsystems have different local dimensions, and present an example for a 2×3×3×3 system that shows maximal entanglement across every bipartition.

  3. Absolute Density Calibration Cell for Laser Induced Fluorescence Erosion Rate Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domonkos, Matthew T.; Stevens, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Flight qualification of ion thrusters typically requires testing on the order of 10,000 hours. Extensive knowledge of wear mechanisms and rates is necessary to establish design confidence prior to long duration tests. Consequently, real-time erosion rate measurements offer the potential both to reduce development costs and to enhance knowledge of the dependency of component wear on operating conditions. Several previous studies have used laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to measure real-time, in situ erosion rates of ion thruster accelerator grids. Those studies provided only relative measurements of the erosion rate. In the present investigation, a molybdenum tube was resistively heated such that the evaporation rate yielded densities within the tube on the order of those expected from accelerator grid erosion. This work examines the suitability of the density cell as an absolute calibration source for LIF measurements, and the intrinsic error was evaluated.

  4. Thermoluminescence dating (TL-Dating): an absolute method for archeological dating of ceramic base materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2004-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dating is one of the known techniques that have been established in many laboratories across the regions. This technique is capable to date the archeological ceramic base materials and provides an absolute measurement with an accuracy of 5%. The study involves the dating of ceramic clay from historical site at Sungai Mas, Kuala Muda, Kedah. Pieces of broken poetry of archeological sample excavated by the Museum Department and Antiquity (JM4) have been dated using the TLD techniques at MINT laboratory. A TLD dosemeter of LiF chips is used for the background and sample dose measurement. The preparation of sample and the calibration techniques for the estimation of palaedose or dose presented in the sample since distant past is established. Results indicate that the samples are in the era of civilization from 200BP to 1600BP. Error factors associated in the measurement procedures are also discussed

  5. Use of a urinary sugars biomarker to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake in the nutrition and physical activity assessment study (NPAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; Midthune, Douglas; Tinker, Lesley F; Potischman, Nancy; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L; Beasley, Jeannette M; Van Horn, Linda; Prentice, Ross L; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-12-01

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may be obscuring the association between sugars and cancer risk in nutritional epidemiologic studies. We used 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose as a predictive biomarker for total sugars, to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS) is a biomarker study within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study that includes 450 postmenopausal women ages 60 to 91 years. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ), four-day food records (4DFR), and three 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) were collected along with sugars and energy dietary biomarkers. Using the biomarker, we found self-reported sugars to be substantially and roughly equally misreported across the FFQ, 4DFR, and 24HR. All instruments were associated with considerable intake- and person-specific bias. Three 24HRs would provide the least attenuated risk estimate for sugars (attenuation factor, AF = 0.57), followed by FFQ (AF = 0.48) and 4DFR (AF = 0.32), in studies of energy-adjusted sugars and disease risk. In calibration models, self-reports explained little variation in true intake (5%-6% for absolute sugars and 7%-18% for sugars density). Adding participants' characteristics somewhat improved the percentage variation explained (16%-18% for absolute sugars and 29%-40% for sugars density). None of the self-report instruments provided a good estimate of sugars intake, although overall 24HRs seemed to perform the best. Assuming the calibrated sugars biomarker is unbiased, this analysis suggests that measuring the biomarker in a subsample of the study population for calibration purposes may be necessary for obtaining unbiased risk estimates in cancer association studies. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Absolute determination of deuterium content of heavy water standards by distillation and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, W.M.; James, M.W.D.

    1984-01-01

    An absolute method for heavy water standardization is described which is based on linear extrapolation to 100% D 2 O. The method uses a reflux column attached to a boiler containing the sample to be standardized. With the column operating at equilibrium under total reflux, samples from both the top and bottom of the column are converted to hydrogen and mass analyzed by use of an arbitrary D 2 O scale. To minimize mass spectrometer errors, the difference between top and bottom HD/total ion current is measured at the sample concentration and at several other slightly higher HD concentrations. The difference values vary linearly with the HDO concentration in the boiler. The linear relationship is extrapolated to zero HD difference as would be observed if 100% D 2 O were used. The extrapolated value on the arbitrary D 2 O scale is compared with 100% and any discrepancy represents an adjustment required to establish an absolute scale. The method has been tested at both the D 2 O and H 2 O ends of the range and has shown that the accuracy of the method is within the precision of 0.0006 mass % D 2 O. 8 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  7. Meniscal tear. Diagnostic errors in MR imaging; Rotura de menisco. Errores diagnosticos en RM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, M. C.; Recondo, J. A.; Gervas, C.; Fernandez, E.; Villanua, J. A.M.; Salvador, E. [Departamento de RM Osatek Donostia. San Sebastian (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    To analyze diagnostic discrepancies found between magnetic resonance (MR) and arthroscopy, and the determine the reasons that they occur. Two-hundred and forty-eight MR knee explorations were retrospectively checked. Forty of these showed diagnostic discrepancies between MR and arthroscopy. Two radiologists independently re-analyzed the images from 29 of the 40 studies without knowing which diagnosis had resulted from which of the two techniques. Their interpretations were correlated with the initial MR diagnosis, MR images and arthroscopic results. Initial errors in MR imaging were classified as either unavoidable, interpretive, or secondary to equivocal findings. Eleven MR examinations could not be checked since their corresponding imaging results could not be located. Of 34 errors found in the original diagnoses, 12 (35.5%)were classified as unavoidable, 14 (41.2%) as interpretative and 8 (23.5%) as secondary to equivocal findings. 41.2% of the errors were avoided in the retrospective study probably due to our department having greater experience in interpreting MR images, 25.5% were unavailable even in the retrospective study. A small percentage of diagnostic errors were due to the presence of subtle equivocal findings. (Author) 15 refs.

  8. Study on error analysis and accuracy improvement for aspheric profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huimin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fang, Fengzhou

    2017-06-01

    Aspheric surfaces are important to the optical systems and need high precision surface metrology. Stylus profilometry is currently the most common approach to measure axially symmetric elements. However, if the asphere has the rotational alignment errors, the wrong cresting point would be located deducing the significantly incorrect surface errors. This paper studied the simulated results of an asphere with rotational angles around X-axis and Y-axis, and the stylus tip shift in X, Y and Z direction. Experimental results show that the same absolute value of rotational errors around X-axis would cause the same profile errors and different value of rotational errors around Y-axis would cause profile errors with different title angle. Moreover, the greater the rotational errors, the bigger the peak-to-valley value of profile errors. To identify the rotational angles in X-axis and Y-axis, the algorithms are performed to analyze the X-axis and Y-axis rotational angles respectively. Then the actual profile errors with multiple profile measurement around X-axis are calculated according to the proposed analysis flow chart. The aim of the multiple measurements strategy is to achieve the zero position of X-axis rotational errors. Finally, experimental results prove the proposed algorithms achieve accurate profile errors for aspheric surfaces avoiding both X-axis and Y-axis rotational errors. Finally, a measurement strategy for aspheric surface is presented systematically.

  9. Performance evaluations of continuous glucose monitoring systems: precision absolute relative deviation is part of the assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, Karin; Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Klötzer, Hans-Martin; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Eikmeier, Heino; del Re, Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Even though a Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute proposal exists on the design of studies and performance criteria for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, it has not yet led to a consistent evaluation of different systems, as no consensus has been reached on the reference method to evaluate them or on acceptance levels. As a consequence, performance assessment of CGM systems tends to be inconclusive, and a comparison of the outcome of different studies is difficult. Published information and available data (as presented in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology by Freckmann and coauthors) are used to assess the suitability of several frequently used methods [International Organization for Standardization, continuous glucose error grid analysis, mean absolute relative deviation (MARD), precision absolute relative deviation (PARD)] when assessing performance of CGM systems in terms of accuracy and precision. The combined use of MARD and PARD seems to allow for better characterization of sensor performance. The use of different quantities for calibration and evaluation, e.g., capillary blood using a blood glucose (BG) meter versus venous blood using a laboratory measurement, introduces an additional error source. Using BG values measured in more or less large intervals as the only reference leads to a significant loss of information in comparison with the continuous sensor signal and possibly to an erroneous estimation of sensor performance during swings. Both can be improved using data from two identical CGM sensors worn by the same patient in parallel. Evaluation of CGM performance studies should follow an identical study design, including sufficient swings in glycemia. At least a part of the study participants should wear two identical CGM sensors in parallel. All data available should be used for evaluation, both by MARD and PARD, a good PARD value being a precondition to trust a good MARD value. Results should be analyzed and

  10. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars: Integration, Test, and Ground Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew; Aldoroty, Lauren; Kurucz, Robert; McCandliss, Stephan; Rauscher, Bernard; Kimble, Randy; Kruk, Jeffrey; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul; Riess, Adam; Gardner, Jonathon; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana; Dixon, Van; Sahnow, David J.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2018-01-01

    Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, now exceed the statistical errors associated with merged databases of these measurements. ACCESS, “Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars”, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35‑1.7μm bandpass. To achieve this goal ACCESS (1) observes HST/ Calspec stars (2) above the atmosphere to eliminate telluric spectral contaminants (e.g. OH) (3) using a single optical path and (HgCdTe) detector (4) that is calibrated to NIST laboratory standards and (5) monitored on the ground and in-flight using a on-board calibration monitor. The observations are (6) cross-checked and extended through the generation of stellar atmosphere models for the targets. The ACCESS telescope and spectrograph have been designed, fabricated, and integrated. Subsystems have been tested. Performance results for subsystems, operations testing, and the integrated spectrograph will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX17AC83G supports this work.

  11. An energy-dependent photoemission study on line-shape analysis in determining the absolute coverage of metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C-M; Tsuei, K-D; Luh, D-A

    2008-01-01

    Energy-dependent photoemission was measured to investigate the validity of the analysis of line shape in determining the absolute coverage of atomically flat, metallic thin films. The surface states of two Ag/Au(1 1 1) thin films with carefully controlled coverage of Ag were measured and analysed. Our results confirm that line-shape analysis is a valid procedure; the absolute error associated with this technique is within 0.1 ML, which makes the technique advantageous over other techniques to determine the film coverage. The experimental procedure in our work provides a routine to determine an appropriate photon energy for use in line-shape analysis. Our results indicate that the widely accessible He Iα line is a suitable excitation source to utilize line-shape analysis for confined states in a Ag film

  12. Automated objective determination of percentage of malignant nuclei for mutation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viray, Hollis; Coulter, Madeline; Li, Kevin; Lane, Kristin; Madan, Aruna; Mitchell, Kisha; Schalper, Kurt; Hoyt, Clifford; Rimm, David L

    2014-01-01

    Detection of DNA mutations in tumor tissue can be a critical companion diagnostic test before prescription of a targeted therapy. Each method for detection of these mutations is associated with an analytic sensitivity that is a function of the percentage of tumor cells present in the specimen. Currently, tumor cell percentage is visually estimated resulting in an ordinal and highly variant result for a biologically continuous variable. We proposed that this aspect of DNA mutation testing could be standardized by developing a computer algorithm capable of accurately determining the percentage of malignant nuclei in an image of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue. Using inForm software, we developed an algorithm, to calculate the percentage of malignant cells in histologic specimens of colon adenocarcinoma. A criterion standard was established by manually counting malignant and benign nuclei. Three pathologists also estimated the percentage of malignant nuclei in each image. Algorithm #9 had a median deviation from the criterion standard of 5.4% on the training set and 6.2% on the validation set. Compared with pathologist estimation, Algorithm #9 showed a similar ability to determine percentage of malignant nuclei. This method represents a potential future tool to assist in determining the percent of malignant nuclei present in a tissue section. Further validation of this algorithm or an improved algorithm may have value to more accurately assess percentage of malignant cells for companion diagnostic mutation testing.

  13. Prioritising interventions against medication errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Marianne; Pape-Larsen, Louise; Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard

    Abstract Authors: Lisby M, Larsen LP, Soerensen AL, Nielsen LP, Mainz J Title: Prioritising interventions against medication errors – the importance of a definition Objective: To develop and test a restricted definition of medication errors across health care settings in Denmark Methods: Medication...... errors constitute a major quality and safety problem in modern healthcare. However, far from all are clinically important. The prevalence of medication errors ranges from 2-75% indicating a global problem in defining and measuring these [1]. New cut-of levels focusing the clinical impact of medication...... errors are therefore needed. Development of definition: A definition of medication errors including an index of error types for each stage in the medication process was developed from existing terminology and through a modified Delphi-process in 2008. The Delphi panel consisted of 25 interdisciplinary...

  14. Error adaptation in mental arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Charlotte; Imbo, Ineke; De Brauwer, Jolien; Brass, Marcel; Fias, Wim; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Until now, error and conflict adaptation have been studied extensively using simple laboratory tasks. A common finding is that responses slow down after errors. According to the conflict monitoring theory, performance should also improve after an error. However, this is usually not observed. In this study, we investigated whether the characteristics of the experimental paradigms normally used could explain this absence. More precisely, these paradigms have in common that behavioural adaptation has little room to be expressed. We therefore studied error and conflict adaptation effects in a task that encounters the richness of everyday life's behavioural adaptation--namely, mental arithmetic, where multiple solution strategies are available. In accordance with our hypothesis, we observed that post-error accuracy increases after errors in mental arithmetic. No support for conflict adaptation in mental arithmetic was found. Implications for current theories of conflict and error monitoring are discussed.

  15. Research on absolute measurement of 222Rn/220Rn concentrations based on a single small scintillation cell and delay-time method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbo; Zhao Xiuliang; Yu Hong; Xiao Yongjun; Wu Yongyan

    2009-01-01

    A single small scintillation with delay-time method is used to measure radon and thoron concentrations in their mixed atmosphere-of absolute measurement of radon and thoron concentrations was discussed. The conditions of using radon to test this method was described and a experiment was designed to prove it. Compare to the reference number, Its margin of error was -2.9%∼+3.4%, and the best time of the measurement of radon was 10-45 minutes. In conclusion, a single small scintillation cell could be used for absolute measurement radon and thoron concentrations. (authors)

  16. aCNViewer: Comprehensive genome-wide visualization of absolute copy number and copy neutral variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Renault

    Full Text Available Copy number variations (CNV include net gains or losses of part or whole chromosomal regions. They differ from copy neutral loss of heterozygosity (cn-LOH events which do not induce any net change in the copy number and are often associated with uniparental disomy. These phenomena have long been reported to be associated with diseases and particularly in cancer. Losses/gains of genomic regions are often correlated with lower/higher gene expression. On the other hand, loss of heterozygosity (LOH and cn-LOH are common events in cancer and may be associated with the loss of a functional tumor suppressor gene. Therefore, identifying recurrent CNV and cn-LOH events can be important as they may highlight common biological components and give insights into the development or mechanisms of a disease. However, no currently available tools allow a comprehensive whole-genome visualization of recurrent CNVs and cn-LOH in groups of samples providing absolute quantification of the aberrations leading to the loss of potentially important information.To overcome these limitations, we developed aCNViewer (Absolute CNV Viewer, a visualization tool for absolute CNVs and cn-LOH across a group of samples. aCNViewer proposes three graphical representations: dendrograms, bi-dimensional heatmaps showing chromosomal regions sharing similar abnormality patterns, and quantitative stacked histograms facilitating the identification of recurrent absolute CNVs and cn-LOH. We illustrated aCNViewer using publically available hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs Affymetrix SNP Array data (Fig 1A. Regions 1q and 8q present a similar percentage of total gains but significantly different copy number gain categories (p-value of 0.0103 with a Fisher exact test, validated by another cohort of HCCs (p-value of 5.6e-7 (Fig 2B.aCNViewer is implemented in python and R and is available with a GNU GPLv3 license on GitHub https://github.com/FJD-CEPH/aCNViewer and Docker https://hub.docker.com/r/fjdceph/acnviewer/.aCNViewer@cephb.fr.

  17. Body fat percentage of urban South African children: implications for health and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, D T; Toriola, A L; Shaw, B S; Amusa, L O; Khoza, L B; Shaw, I

    2013-09-01

    To explore gender and racial profiling of percentage body fat of 1136 urban South African children attending public schools in Pretoria Central. This is a cross-sectional survey of 1136 randomly selected children (548 boys and 588 girls) aged 9-13 years in urban (Pretoria Central) South Africa. Body mass, stature, skinfolds (subscapular and triceps) were measured. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations). Differences in the mean body fat percentage were examined for boys and girls according to their age group/race, using independent t-test samples. Girls had a significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat (22.7 ± 5.7%, 95% CI = 22.3, 23.2) compared to boys (16.1 ± 7.7%, 95% CI = 15.5, 16.8). Percentage body fat fluctuated with age in both boys and girls. Additionally, girls had significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat measurements at all ages compared to boys. Viewed racially, black children (20.1 ± 7.5) were significantly (p = 0.010) fatter than white children (19.0 ± 7.4) with a mean difference of 4.0. Black children were fatter than white children at ages 9, 10, 12 and 13 years, with a significant difference (p = 0.009) observed at age 12 years. There was a considerably higher level of excessive percentage body fat among school children in Central Pretoria, South Africa, with girls having significantly higher percentage body fat compared to boys. Racially, black children were fatter than white children. The excessive percentage body fat observed among the children in this study has implications for their health and fitness. Therefore, an intervention programme must be instituted in schools to prevent and control possible excessive percentage body fat in this age group.

  18. Spatial Variability of Grapevine Bud Burst Percentage and Its Association with Soil Properties at Field Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Hao, Xinmei; Kang, Shaozhong

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in precision viticulture with the development of global positioning system and geographical information system technologies. Limited information is available on spatial variation of bud behavior and its possible association with soil properties. The objective of this study was to investigate spatial variability of bud burst percentage and its association with soil properties based on 2-year experiments at a vineyard of arid northwest China. Geostatistical approach was used to describe the spatial variation in bud burst percentage within the vineyard. Partial least square regressions (PLSRs) of bud burst percentage with soil properties were used to evaluate the contribution of soil properties to overall spatial variability in bud burst percentage for the high, medium and low bud burst percentage groups. Within the vineyard, the coefficient of variation (CV) of bud burst percentage was 20% and 15% for 2012 and 2013 respectively. Bud burst percentage within the vineyard showed moderate spatial variability, and the overall spatial pattern of bud burst percentage was similar between the two years. Soil properties alone explained 31% and 37% of the total spatial variation respectively for the low group of 2012 and 2013, and 16% and 24% for the high group of 2012 and 2013 respectively. For the low group, the fraction of variations explained by soil properties was found similar between the two years, while there was substantial difference for the high group. The findings are expected to lay a good foundation for developing remedy measures in the areas with low bud burst percentage, thus in turn improving the overall grape yield and quality.

  19. A STUDY OF ERROR ON ENGLISH SPEECH USED BY THE RADIO ANNOUNCER AT BRASS FM KEDIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Sardanto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Error is violation from the rule of English grammar. The purpose of this study is to describe the kinds of errors and to calculate the frequency of occurrences of the types of errors made by the announcer at Brass FM Kediri. The data in this study were obtained from the English conversation program at Brass FM Kediri. The data was collected by doing 2 week observation to investigate the process of English conversation between announcer and participants of Brass FM in English Corner program. The researcher used the recording to know the errors of English speaking made by the announcer. The errors found were analyzed using Surface Strategy Taxonomy from Dulay (1982 and were classified into errors of omission, errors of addition, errors of misformation, and errors of disordering. Based on the analysis, it is show that highest frequency of occurrence of the types of errors is misformation with the percentage 47.92 %, omission with the percentage 33.33 % then followed by addition with the percentage of 16.67%, and the last percentage disordering 2.08%. From the data above that the announcer still makes errors in using grammar especially in the use of plural –s/-es, pronoun and to be. Based on the result of the study, it can be concluded that the announcer of radio Brass FM in English Corner still has many problems in using grammar in conversation on English broadcast. It suggests that the language learner must study more about English grammar and not forget to pay attention the punctuation, conjunction, preposition and any kinds of tenses to make of English grammar mastery.

  20. The systematic error of temperature noise correlation measurement method and self-calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hong; Tong Yunxian

    1993-04-01

    The turbulent transport behavior of fluid noise and the nature of noise affect on the velocity measurement system have been studied. The systematic error of velocity measurement system is analyzed. A theoretical calibration method is proposed, which makes the velocity measurement of time-correlation as an absolute measurement method. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experiments

  1. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  2. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of

  3. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises,…

  4. Mechanism for an absolute parametric instability of an inhomogeneous plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipenko, V. I.; Budnikov, V. N.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Romanchuk, I. A.; Simonchik, L. V.

    1984-05-01

    The structure of plasma oscillations in a region of parametric spatial amplification has been studied experimentally for the first time. A new mechanism for an absolute parametric instability has been observed. This mechanism operates when a pump wave with a spatial structure more complicated than a plane wave propagates through a plasma which is inhomogeneous along more than one dimension.

  5. Global Absolute Poverty: Behind the Veil of Dollars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global absolute poverty rates of the World Bank demonstrate a continued decline of poverty in developing countries between 1983 and 2012. However, the methodology applied to derive these results has received extensive criticism by scholars for requiring the application of PPP exchange rates and

  6. Global Absolute Poverty: Behind the Veil of Dollars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, M.

    2017-01-01

    The widely applied “dollar-a-day” methodology identifies global absolute poverty as declining precipitously since the early 80’s throughout the developing world. The methodological underpinnings of the “dollar-a-day” approach have been questioned in terms of adequately representing equivalent

  7. An improved generalized Newton method for absolute value equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingmei; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest and analyze an improved generalized Newton method for solving the NP-hard absolute value equations [Formula: see text] when the singular values of A exceed 1. We show that the global and local quadratic convergence of the proposed method. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method and the high accuracy of calculation.

  8. Multipliers for the absolute Euler summability of Fourier series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    (Math. Sci.), Vol. 111, No. 2, May 2001, pp. 203–219. Printed in India. Multipliers for the absolute Euler summability of Fourier series. PREM CHANDRA. School of Studies in Mathematics, Vikram University, Ujjain 456 010, India. MS received 30 December 1999; revised 30 October 2000. Abstract. In this paper, the author ...

  9. Predicting accurate absolute binding energies in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2015-01-01

    Recent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic. In this paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal...

  10. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. M. Jawwad Riaz

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Abstract. In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein–Smarr formula of the rotating. Banados–Teitelboim–Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system con- tributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the ...

  11. Multipliers for the Absolute Euler Summability of Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the author has investigated necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute Euler summability of the Fourier series with multipliers. These conditions are weaker than those obtained earlier by some workers. It is further shown that the multipliers are best possible in certain sense.

  12. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section 404.1205 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...) Employees of a State's political subdivision performing services in connection with that subdivision's...

  13. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  14. Dominated operators, absolutely summing operators and the strict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b(X;E) be the space of all E-valued bounded continuous functions on X, equipped with the strict topology β. We study dominated and absolutely summing operators T : Cb(X;E) → F. We derive that if X is a locally compact Hausdorff space and E ...

  15. NIST Stars: Absolute Spectrophotometric Calibration of Vega and Sirius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deustua, Susana; Woodward, John T.; Rice, Joseph P.; Brown, Steven W.; Maxwell, Stephen E.; Alberding, Brian G.; Lykke, Keith R.

    2018-01-01

    Absolute flux calibration of standard stars, traceable to SI (International System of Units) standards, is essential for 21st century astrophysics. Dark energy investigations that rely on observations of Type Ia supernovae and precise photometric redshifts of weakly lensed galaxies require a minimum accuracy of 0.5 % in the absolute color calibration. Studies that aim to address fundamental stellar astrophysics also benefit. In the era of large telescopes and all sky surveys well-calibrated standard stars that do not saturate and that are available over the whole sky are needed. Significant effort has been expended to obtain absolute measurements of the fundamental standards Vega and Sirius (and other stars) in the visible and near infrared, achieving total uncertainties between1% and 3%, depending on wavelength, that do not meet the needed accuracy. The NIST Stars program aims to determine the top-of-the-atmosphere absolute spectral irradiance of bright stars to an uncertainty less than 1% from a ground-based observatory. NIST Stars has developed a novel, fully SI-traceable laboratory calibration strategy that will enable achieving the desired accuracy. This strategy has two key components. The first is the SI-traceable calibration of the entire instrument system, and the second is the repeated spectroscopic measurement of the target star throughout the night. We will describe our experimental strategy, present preliminary results for Vega and Sirius and an end-to-end uncertainty budget

  16. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-04-01

    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional support for our model of enantioinduction in the palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ABSOLUTE GRAVITY METER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An absolute gravimeter which has been designed and constructed consists of a timing circuit which measures the time a body takes to fall between two points separated by a known distance. The time of fall and the known distance are used to calculate the acceleration of gravity at the point of experimentation.

  18. Absolutely continuous spectrum and spectral transition for some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Absolutely continuous spectrum and spectral transition for some continuous random operators. M KRISHNA. Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India. E-mail: krishna@imsc.res.in. MS received 28 February 2010; revised 6 June 2011. Dedicated to Barry Simon for his 65th birthday. Abstract.

  19. Frequency Windows of Absolute Negative Conductance in Josephson Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Machura, L.; Kostur, M.; Talkner, P.; Hanggi, P.; Luczka, J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on anomalous conductance in a resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction which is simultaneously driven by ac and dc currents. The dependence of the voltage across the junction on the frequency of the ac current shows windows of absolute negative conductance regimes, i.e. for a positive (negative) dc current, the voltage is negative (positive).

  20. Relative versus Absolute Stimulus Control in the Temporal Bisection Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinhiero; Machado, Armando

    2012-01-01

    When subjects learn to associate two sample durations with two comparison keys, do they learn to associate the keys with the short and long samples (relational hypothesis), or with the specific sample durations (absolute hypothesis)? We exposed 16 pigeons to an ABA design in which phases A and B corresponded to tasks using samples of 1 s and 4 s,…

  1. Use of absolute lymphocyte count or neutrophil ingestion rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate absolute lymphocyte count or neutrophil ingestion rate of NBT as alternative indices to CD4+ T cell count in the management of HIV/AIDS subjects. 158 adult participants (male = 70, female = 88) were recruited for the study and grouped as: (i) Symptomatic HIV subjects with or ...

  2. Necessity and sufficiency conditions for the absolute null ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We are inspired by the works of Chukwu [1], Eke [2], Schinterdorf and Barmish [4] to unveil necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute null controllability of a linear delay perturbed system with zero in the domain of null controllability. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 10 2006: pp. 549- ...

  3. Absolute Stability of Discrete-Time Systems with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Rigoberto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stability of nonlinear nonautonomous discrete-time systems with delaying arguments, whose linear part has slowly varying coefficients, and the nonlinear part has linear majorants. Based on the "freezing" technique to discrete-time systems, we derive explicit conditions for the absolute stability of the zero solution of such systems.

  4. DOES ABSOLUTE SYNONYMY EXIST IN OWERE-IGBO?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    or emotional overtones, etc. These are explained below: A. Contextual Differences: One of the implications of absolute synonymy is that it must be possible for synonyms to be used interchangeably in all sentence contexts. But our analyses of the sentences above as given by native speakers indicated that there are some ...

  5. The Absolute and the Relative Dimensions of Constitutional Rights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alexy, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2017), s. 31-47 ISSN 0143-6503 Keywords : constitutional rights * judicial review * proportionality Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law Impact factor: 1.242, year: 2016 https://academic.oup.com/ojls/article/37/1/31/2669583/The-Absolute-and-the-Relative-Dimensions-of

  6. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is considered.

  7. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is ...

  8. Absolute intensity calibration for ECE measurements on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Liu Xiang; Zhao Hailin

    2014-01-01

    In this proceeding, the results of the in-situ absolute intensity calibration for ECE measurements on EAST are presented. A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer system and a Michelson interferometer on EAST have been calibrated independently, and preliminary results from plasma operation indicate a good agreement between the electron temperature profiles obtained with different systems. (author)

  9. Fabricating the absolute fake: America in contemporary pop culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Onze wereld wordt gedomineerd door de Amerikaanse popcultuur. Fabricating the Absolute Fake onderzoekt de dynamiek van Amerikanisering aan de hand van hedendaagse films, televisieprogramma's en popsterren die reflecteren op de vraag wat het betekent om Amerikaan in een mondiale popcultuur te zijn.

  10. On quantum harmonic oscillator being subjected to absolute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On quantum harmonic oscillator being subjected to absolute potential state. SWAMI NITYAYOGANANDA. Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama, R.K. Beach, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India. E-mail: nityayogananda@gmail.com. MS received 1 May 2015; accepted 6 May 2016; published online 3 December 2016. Abstract.

  11. Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Chennai 600 113, India. E-mail: biswajyoti@imsc.res.in. MS received 9 May 2015; revised 9 July 2015. Abstract. For an arithmetical function f with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the sum. ∑.

  12. Standardization approaches in absolute quantitative proteomics with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Celis, Francisco; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2017-07-31

    Mass spectrometry-based approaches have enabled important breakthroughs in quantitative proteomics in the last decades. This development is reflected in the better quantitative assessment of protein levels as well as to understand post-translational modifications and protein complexes and networks. Nowadays, the focus of quantitative proteomics shifted from the relative determination of proteins (ie, differential expression between two or more cellular states) to absolute quantity determination, required for a more-thorough characterization of biological models and comprehension of the proteome dynamism, as well as for the search and validation of novel protein biomarkers. However, the physico-chemical environment of the analyte species affects strongly the ionization efficiency in most mass spectrometry (MS) types, which thereby require the use of specially designed standardization approaches to provide absolute quantifications. Most common of such approaches nowadays include (i) the use of stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, isotopologues to the target proteotypic peptides expected after tryptic digestion of the target protein; (ii) use of stable isotope-labeled protein standards to compensate for sample preparation, sample loss, and proteolysis steps; (iii) isobaric reagents, which after fragmentation in the MS/MS analysis provide a final detectable mass shift, can be used to tag both analyte and standard samples; (iv) label-free approaches in which the absolute quantitative data are not obtained through the use of any kind of labeling, but from computational normalization of the raw data and adequate standards; (v) elemental mass spectrometry-based workflows able to provide directly absolute quantification of peptides/proteins that contain an ICP-detectable element. A critical insight from the Analytical Chemistry perspective of the different standardization approaches and their combinations used so far for absolute quantitative MS-based (molecular and

  13. Towards absolute laser spectroscopic CO2 isotope ratio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of isotope composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is necessary to identify sources and sinks of this key greenhouse gas. In the last years, laser spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) have been shown to perform accurate isotope ratio measurements for CO2 and other gases like water vapour (H2O) [1,2]. Typically, isotope ratios are reported in literature referring to reference materials provided by e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). However, there could be some benefit if field deployable absolute isotope ratio measurement methods were developed to address issues such as exhausted reference material like the Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) standard. Absolute isotope ratio measurements would be particularly important for situations where reference materials do not even exist. Here, we present CRDS and TDLAS-based absolute isotope ratios (13C/12C ) in atmospheric CO2. We demonstrate the capabilities of the used methods by measuring CO2 isotope ratios in gas standards. We compare our results to values reported for the isotope certified gas standards. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant uncertainty budgets on the CRDS and TDLAS absolute isotope ratio measurements are presented, and traceability is addressed. We outline the current impediments in realizing high accuracy absolute isotope ratio measurements using laser spectroscopic methods, propose solutions and the way forward. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project-HIGHGAS. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. References [1] B. Kühnreich, S. Wagner, J. C. Habig,·O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, V. Ebert, Appl. Phys. B 119:177-187 (2015). [2] E. Kerstel, L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439-449 (2008).

  14. Errors in abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, S.; Marting, I.; Dixon, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-nine patients are presented in whom a substantial error was made on the initial abdominal computed tomography report. Certain features of these errors have been analysed. In 30 (43.5%) a lesion was simply not recognised (error of observation); in 39 (56.5%) the wrong conclusions were drawn about the nature of normal or abnormal structures (error of interpretation). The 39 errors of interpretation were more complex; in 7 patients an abnormal structure was noted but interpreted as normal, whereas in four a normal structure was thought to represent a lesion. Other interpretive errors included those where the wrong cause for a lesion had been ascribed (24 patients), and those where the abnormality was substantially under-reported (4 patients). Various features of these errors are presented and discussed. Errors were made just as often in relation to small and large lesions. Consultants made as many errors as senior registrar radiologists. It is like that dual reporting is the best method of avoiding such errors and, indeed, this is widely practised in our unit. (Author). 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  15. A Geomagnetic Reference Error Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, S.; Woods, A. J.; Nair, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    The accuracy of geomagnetic field models, such as the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and the World Magnetic Model (WMM), has benefitted tremendously from the ongoing series of satellite magnetic missions. However, what do we mean by accuracy? When comparing a geomagnetic reference model with a magnetic field measurement (for example of an electronic compass), three contributions play a role: (1) The instrument error, which is not subject of this discussion, (2) the error of commission, namely the error of the model coefficients themselves in representing the geomagnetic main field, and (3) the error of omission, comprising contributions to the geomagnetic field which are not represented in the reference model. The latter can further be subdivided into the omission of the crustal field and the omission of the disturbance field. Several factors have a strong influence on these errors: The error of commission primarily depends on the time elapsed since the last update of the reference model. The omission error for the crustal field depends on altitude of the measurement, while the omission error for the disturbance field has a strong latitudinal dependence, peaking under the auroral electrojets. A further complication arises for the uncertainty in magnetic declination, which is directly dependent on the strength of the horizontal field. Here, we present an error model which takes all of these factors into account. This error model will be implemented as an online-calculator, providing the uncertainty of the magnetic elements at the entered location and time.

  16. Sepsis: Medical errors in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Marta; Jurek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Health, safety and medical errors are currently the subject of worldwide discussion. The authors analysed medico-legal opinions trying to determine types of medical errors and their impact on the course of sepsis. The authors carried out a retrospective analysis of 66 medico-legal opinions issued by the Wroclaw Department of Forensic Medicine between 2004 and 2013 (at the request of the prosecutor or court) in cases examined for medical errors. Medical errors were confirmed in 55 of the 66 medico-legal opinions. The age of victims varied from 2 weeks to 68 years; 49 patients died. The analysis revealed medical errors committed by 113 health-care workers: 98 physicians, 8 nurses and 8 emergency medical dispatchers. In 33 cases, an error was made before hospitalisation. Hospital errors occurred in 35 victims. Diagnostic errors were discovered in 50 patients, including 46 cases of sepsis being incorrectly recognised and insufficient diagnoses in 37 cases. Therapeutic errors occurred in 37 victims, organisational errors in 9 and technical errors in 2. In addition to sepsis, 8 patients also had a severe concomitant disease and 8 had a chronic disease. In 45 cases, the authors observed glaring errors, which could incur criminal liability. There is an urgent need to introduce a system for reporting and analysing medical errors in Poland. The development and popularisation of standards for identifying and treating sepsis across basic medical professions is essential to improve patient safety and survival rates. Procedures should be introduced to prevent health-care workers from administering incorrect treatment in cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Contour Error Map Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceret, Francis; Lane, John; Immer, Christopher; Case, Jonathan; Manobianco, John

    2005-01-01

    The contour error map (CEM) algorithm and the software that implements the algorithm are means of quantifying correlations between sets of time-varying data that are binarized and registered on spatial grids. The present version of the software is intended for use in evaluating numerical weather forecasts against observational sea-breeze data. In cases in which observational data come from off-grid stations, it is necessary to preprocess the observational data to transform them into gridded data. First, the wind direction is gridded and binarized so that D(i,j;n) is the input to CEM based on forecast data and d(i,j;n) is the input to CEM based on gridded observational data. Here, i and j are spatial indices representing 1.25-km intervals along the west-to-east and south-to-north directions, respectively; and n is a time index representing 5-minute intervals. A binary value of D or d = 0 corresponds to an offshore wind, whereas a value of D or d = 1 corresponds to an onshore wind. CEM includes two notable subalgorithms: One identifies and verifies sea-breeze boundaries; the other, which can be invoked optionally, performs an image-erosion function for the purpose of attempting to eliminate river-breeze contributions in the wind fields.

  18. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 707 - Annual Percentage Yield Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percentage yield calculations for account disclosures and advertisements, while Part II discusses annual... number of days that would occur for any actual sequence of that many calendar months. If credit unions...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Annual Percentage Yield Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percentage yield calculations for account disclosures and advertisements, while Part II discusses annual... number of days that would occur for any actual sequence of that many calendar months. If institutions...

  20. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  1. Owners of nuclear power plants: Percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1987-08-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of June 1, 1987. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docked for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally canceled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants/licensees and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants/licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OL's). Footnotes for both parts appear at the end of this document

  2. Small percentage of anaphylactic reactions treated with epinephrine during food challenges in Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der Johanna P.M.; Berends, Irene; Wijk, van Roy Gerth; Arends, Nicolette J.T.; Maaren, van Maurits S.; Groot, de Hans; Wichers, Harry J.; Emons, Joyce A.M.; Dubois, Anthony E.J.; Jong, de Nicolette W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, occur during oral food challenges (OFCs) and the first-line treatment of anaphylaxis is epinephrine. Objective: To evaluate the percentage of anaphylactic reactions treated with epinephrine during OFCs and to identify associated factors

  3. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  4. Weight Percentage of Calcium Carbonate for 17 Equatorial Pacific Cores from Brown University

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weight percentages of calcium carbonate in this file were compiled by J. Farrell and W. L. Prell of Brown University for 17 equatorial Pacific Ocean sediment cores....

  5. QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants, by Selected Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protecting People.™ Search The CDC Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your ... QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants,* by Selected Diagnoses † — National Study of ...

  6. Source rock indication from the heavy mineral weight percentages, central Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Mahesh, R.

    mineral distribution. Though much variation in the positive direction is noticed, significant shift in the heavy mineral assemblage could not be recognized. Heavy minerals have been evaluated for the weight percentage distribution in the low tide and high...

  7. Absolute Position of Targets Measured Through a Chamber Window Using Lidar Metrology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubalak, David; Hadjimichael, Theodore; Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Telfer, Randal; Hayden, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Lidar is a useful tool for taking metrology measurements without the need for physical contact with the parts under test. Lidar instruments are aimed at a target using azimuth and elevation stages, then focus a beam of coherent, frequency modulated laser energy onto the target, such as the surface of a mechanical structure. Energy from the reflected beam is mixed with an optical reference signal that travels in a fiber path internal to the instrument, and the range to the target is calculated based on the difference in the frequency of the returned and reference signals. In cases when the parts are in extreme environments, additional steps need to be taken to separate the operator and lidar from that environment. A model has been developed that accurately reduces the lidar data to an absolute position and accounts for the three media in the testbed air, fused silica, and vacuum but the approach can be adapted for any environment or material. The accuracy of laser metrology measurements depends upon knowing the parameters of the media through which the measurement beam travels. Under normal conditions, this means knowledge of the temperature, pressure, and humidity of the air in the measurement volume. In the past, chamber windows have been used to separate the measuring device from the extreme environment within the chamber and still permit optical measurement, but, so far, only relative changes have been diagnosed. The ability to make accurate measurements through a window presents a challenge as there are a number of factors to consider. In the case of the lidar, the window will increase the time-of-flight of the laser beam causing a ranging error, and refract the direction of the beam causing angular positioning errors. In addition, differences in pressure, temperature, and humidity on each side of the window will cause slight atmospheric index changes and induce deformation and a refractive index gradient within the window. Also, since the window is a

  8. Superplastic Constitutive Equation Including Percentage of High-Angle Grain Boundaries as a Microstructural Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Liu, F. C.; Xue, P.; Wang, D.; Xiao, B. L.; Ma, Z. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen Al-Mg-Sc samples with subgrain/grain sizes in the range of 1.8 to 4.9 μm were prepared through the processing methods of friction stir processing (FSP), equal-channel-angular pressing (ECAP), rolling, annealing, and combinations of the above. The percentages of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) of these fine-grained alloys were distributed from 39 to 97 pct. The samples processed through FSP had a higher percentage of HAGBs compared to other samples. Superplasticity was achieved in all fifteen samples, but the FSP samples exhibited better superplasticity than other samples because their fine equiaxed grains, which were mostly surrounded by HAGBs, were conducive to the occurrence of grain boundary sliding (GBS) during superplastic deformation. The dominant deformation mechanism was the same for all fifteen samples, i.e., GBS controlled by grain boundary diffusion. However, the subgrains were the GBS units for the rolled or ECAP samples, which contained high percentages of unrecrystallized grains, whereas the fine grains were the GBS units for the FSP samples. Superplastic data analysis revealed that the dimensionless A in the classical constitutive equation for superplasticity of fine-grained Al alloys was not a constant, but increased with an increase in the percentage of HAGBs, demonstrating that the enhanced superplastic deformation kinetics can be ascribed to the high percentage of HAGBs. A modified superplastic constitutive equation with the percentage of HAGBs as a new microstructural parameter was established.

  9. Wound debridement: Comparative reliability of three methods for measuring fibrin percentage in chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplaud, Anne-Laure; Blaizot, Xavier; Gaillard, Cathy; Morice, Aurore; Lebreuilly, Ingrid; Clément, Cécile; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Dompmartin, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and interrater reliability of three methods to measure the percentage of fibrin within a wound, hence reflecting wound debridement. The three methods include visual assessment, a portable wound measurement system (PWMS) Visitrak(R), and a computerized planimetry software Canvas(R). The main objective was to compare the computerized planimetry with visual analysis. For each wound, a series of two repeated recordings of fibrin percentage based on the same Day 1 photograph at Day 8 and Day 15, respectively, was assessed by four evaluators using the two methods. Additional objectives consisted in the assessment of the inter-rater reliability of computerized planimetry and PWMS to assess fibrin percentage and total surface area. Twenty-four patients were included for a total of 31 wounds. Intraclass correlation coefficient revealed improved reproducibility and repeatability of computerized planimetry. The reproducibility of computerized planimetry was better than PWMS when measuring the percentage of fibrin and total wound area. Because average visual estimations were very close to the computerized planimetry, bedside evaluation of fibrin percentage and wound debridement was considered as reliable, and consequently a valid technique for daily practice. PWMS proved to be less convenient, owing to difficulties in identifying fibrin margins. The higher intra and interrater reliability of computerized planimetry probably reflected the fact that subjective clinical assessment and objective calculation of percentages were mandatory for correct wound evaluation. Therefore, digital image analysis was considered as an accurate method for double-blind and multicentric trials.

  10. [Percentage of psychoemotional problems in Spanish children and adolescents. Differences between 2006 and 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra, Virginia

    2016-11-04

    To examine the percentage of psychoemotional problems in Spanish children and adolescents and the difference between 2006 and 2012. Data from 9,761 participants were taken from the Spanish National Health Survey of 2006 and 2012. The Goodman Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess mental health. The percentage of participants with abnormal scores in the different scales was calculated. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, social level and adult mental health status were used. In 2012, the percentage of Spanish youths with emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, peer and prosocial problems and abnormal total problem score was 8.5, 6.7, 10.2, 7.7, 0.7 and 4%, respectively. In 2006, these percentages were 11.5, 10.2, 14.7, 10.1, 0.9 and 6.7%. A significant reduction was found for the percentage of children and adolescents with problematic behavior between 2006 and 2012. Based on the total problem score, about 4% of Spanish youths suffer from psychoemotional problems. This percentage has decreased between 2006 and 2012. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The Usability-Error Ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkin, Peter L.; Beuscart-zephir, Marie-Catherine; Pelayo, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    in patients coming to harm. Often the root cause analysis of these adverse events can be traced back to Usability Errors in the Health Information Technology (HIT) or its interaction with users. Interoperability of the documentation of HIT related Usability Errors in a consistent fashion can improve our...... ability to do systematic reviews and meta-analyses. In an effort to support improved and more interoperable data capture regarding Usability Errors, we have created the Usability Error Ontology (UEO) as a classification method for representing knowledge regarding Usability Errors. We expect the UEO...... will grow over time to support an increasing number of HIT system types. In this manuscript, we present this Ontology of Usability Error Types and specifically address Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE), Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Revenue Cycle HIT systems....

  12. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, Byron P.

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k 2

  13. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Byron P.

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k2. The specific terms unisim and multisim were coined by Peter Meyers and Steve Brice, respectively, for the MiniBooNE experiment. However, the concepts have been developed over time and have been in general use for some time.

  14. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, Byron P. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)]. E-mail: byronroe@umich.edu

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k{sup 2}.

  15. Processor register error correction management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Gupta, Meeta S.

    2016-12-27

    Processor register protection management is disclosed. In embodiments, a method of processor register protection management can include determining a sensitive logical register for executable code generated by a compiler, generating an error-correction table identifying the sensitive logical register, and storing the error-correction table in a memory accessible by a processor. The processor can be configured to generate a duplicate register of the sensitive logical register identified by the error-correction table.

  16. Perceptual Error Identification of Human and Synthesized Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Marina; Madazio, Glaucya; Gielow, Ingrid; Lucero, Jorge; Behlau, Mara

    2016-09-01

    To verify the discriminatory ability of human and synthesized voice samples. This is a prospective study. A total of 70 subjects, 20 voice specialist speech-language pathologists (V-SLPs), 20 general SLPs (G-SLPs), and 30 naive listeners (NLs) participated of a listening task that was simply to classify the stimuli as human or synthesized. Samples of 36 voices, 18 human and 18 synthesized vowels, male and female (9 each), with different type and degree of deviation, were presented with 50% of repetition to verify intrarater consistency. Human voices were collected from a vocal clinic database. Voice disorders were simulated by perturbations of vocal frequency, jitter (roughness), additive noise (breathiness) and by increasing tension and decreasing separation of the vocal folds (strain). The average amount of error considering all groups was 37.8%, 31.9% for V-SLP, 39.3% for G-SLP, and 40.8% for NL. V-SLP had smaller mean percentage error for synthesized (24.7%), breathy (36.7%), synthesized breathy (30.8%), and tense (25%) and female (27.5%) voices. G-SLP and NL presented equal mean percentage error for all voices classification. All groups together presented no difference on the mean percentage error between human and synthesized voices (P value = 0.452). The quality of synthesized samples was very high. V-SLP presented a lower amount of error, which allows us to infer that auditory training assists on vocal analysis tasks. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Error estimation for pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Braga Neto, U

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first of its kind to discuss error estimation with a model-based approach. From the basics of classifiers and error estimators to more specialized classifiers, it covers important topics and essential issues pertaining to the scientific validity of pattern classification. Additional features of the book include: * The latest results on the accuracy of error estimation * Performance analysis of resubstitution, cross-validation, and bootstrap error estimators using analytical and simulation approaches * Highly interactive computer-based exercises and end-of-chapter problems

  18. Heuristic errors in clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Melanie; Guerrasio, Jeannette

    2016-08-01

    Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the types of heuristic errors made by third-year medical students and first-year residents. This study surveyed approximately 150 clinical educators inquiring about the types of heuristic errors they observed in third-year medical students and first-year residents. Anchoring and premature closure were the two most common errors observed amongst third-year medical students and first-year residents. There was no difference in the types of errors observed in the two groups. Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality Clinical educators perceived that both third-year medical students and first-year residents committed similar heuristic errors, implying that additional medical knowledge and clinical experience do not affect the types of heuristic errors made. Further work is needed to help identify methods that can be used to reduce heuristic errors early in a clinician's education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Medication Errors in Outpatient Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrier, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Medication errors may occur during parental administration of prescription and over-the-counter medications in the outpatient pediatric setting. Misinterpretation of medication labels and dosing errors are two types of errors in medication administration. Health literacy may play an important role in parents' ability to safely manage their child's medication regimen. There are several proposed strategies for decreasing these medication administration errors, including using standardized dosing instruments, using strictly metric units for medication dosing, and providing parents and caregivers with picture-based dosing instructions. Pediatric healthcare providers should be aware of these strategies and seek to implement many of them into their practices.

  20. [DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS IN INTERNAL MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, Ami

    2017-02-01

    Diagnostic errors remain an important target in improving the quality of care and achieving better health outcomes. With a relatively steady rate estimated at 10-15% in many settings, research aiming to elucidate mechanisms of error is highly important. Results indicate that not only cognitive mistakes but a number of factors acting together often culminate in a diagnostic error. Far from being 'unpreventable', several methods and techniques are suggested that may show promise in minimizing diagnostic errors. These measures should be further investigated and incorporated into all phases of medical education.

  1. Identifying Error in AUV Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Joseph; Merrill, Kaylani; O'Rourke, Michael; Rajala, Andrew G; Edwards, Dean B

    2006-01-01

    Mine Countermeasures (MCM) involving Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are especially susceptible to error, given the constraints on underwater acoustic communication and the inconstancy of the underwater communication channel...

  2. A Hybrid Unequal Error Protection / Unequal Error Resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality layers are then assigned an Unequal Error Resilience to synchronization loss by unequally allocating the number of headers available for synchronization to them. Following that Unequal Error Protection against channel noise is provided to the layers by the use of Rate Compatible Punctured Convolutional ...

  3. Measurement Error and Equating Error in Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gary W.; Jiang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Power analysis is a fundamental prerequisite for conducting scientific research. Without power analysis the researcher has no way of knowing whether the sample size is large enough to detect the effect he or she is looking for. This paper demonstrates how psychometric factors such as measurement error and equating error affect the power of…

  4. Henry More and the development of absolute time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emily

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the nature, development and influence of the first English account of absolute time, put forward in the mid-seventeenth century by the 'Cambridge Platonist' Henry More. Against claims in the literature that More does not have an account of time, this paper sets out More's evolving account and shows that it reveals the lasting influence of Plotinus. Further, this paper argues that More developed his views on time in response to his adoption of Descartes' vortex cosmology and cosmogony, providing new evidence of More's wider project to absorb Cartesian natural philosophy into his Platonic metaphysics. Finally, this paper argues that More should be added to the list of sources that later English thinkers - including Newton and Samuel Clarke - drew on in constructing their absolute accounts of time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Absolute gravimetry - for monitoring climate change and geodynamics in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil

    be detected in Greenland, resulting from the loading and unloading of ice during winter and summer. Besides this kind of elastic signal, there will also be a more general trend due to the development of the ice. As already indicated, the two geophysical signals under investigation give rise to a vertical...... with the GPS data, it is possible to separate the different signals. The method used in this study is absolute gravimetry. An absolute gravimeter of the A10 type has been purchased by DTU Space for this purpose. This instrument can measure gravity changes as small as 6µGal (= 60nm=s2), which provides...... investigated with different processing methods. These preliminary results of the gravity measurements in Greenland are interesting new data which suggest that as more measurements become available it will be possible, along with the GPS data, to separate the different geodynamical processes and thereby give...

  6. Synesthesia and rhythm. The road to absolute cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Roncero Palomar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Absolute cinema, developed during the historical avant-garde, con-tinued with a long artistic tradition that linked musical with visual experience. Due to cinema as médium of expression, this filmmakers were able to work with the moving image to develop concepts such as rhythm, also with more complex figures than the colored spots that other devices could create at those time. This study starts with the published texts in 1704 by Newton about color, and provides an overview of those artistic highlights that link image and sound, and which creates the origins of absolute cinema. The connections and equivalences between the visual and sound experiences used by these filmmakers are also studied in order to know if there was a continuous line with the origins of these studies or if there was a rupture and other later investigations were able to have more repercussion in their works.

  7. Absolute configuration assignment of (+)-fluralaner using vibrational circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, John; Joyce, Leo A; Liu, Jinchu; Jarrell, Tiffany M; Culberson, J Chris; Sherer, Edward C

    2017-12-01

    The absolute configurations of the separated enantiomers of fluralaner, a racemic animal health product used to prevent fleas and ticks, have been assigned using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The crystallographic structure of the active enantiomer (+)-fluralaner has previously been shown to have the (S) configuration using small molecule crystallography. We sought a faster analytical method to determine the absolute configuration of the separated enantiomers. When comparing the measured IR (infrared) and VCD spectra, it is apparent that the amide carbonyl groups appear in the IR but are nearly absent in the VCD. Computational work to calculate the VCD and IR using in vacuo models, implicit solvation, and explicitly solvated complexes has implicated conformational averaging of the carbonyl VCD intensities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Absolute efficiencies of X-ray screens for fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giakoumakis, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    The absolute X-ray efficiencies of phosphor screens made of various materials (ZnCdS:Ag, CsI:Na, Y 2 O 2 S:Tb, Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb, CaWO 4 and ZnS:Cu) are reported. The measurements have been carried out under fluoroscopic conditions for tube voltages ranging from 50 to 250 kV and for screen weights from 20 to 200 mg cm -2 . There is also, for comparison, a set of measurements concerning the behaviour of the screens under soft X-rays (20-50 kV) excitation. All the experimental results are discussed on the basis of an improved Hammaker-Ludwig model and analytical expressions are presented permitting the theoretical calculation of the absolute efficiency of the screens. (author)

  9. Absolute dating of the Aegean Late Bronze Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A recent argument for raising the absolute date of the beginning of the Aegean Late Bronze (LB) Age to about 1700 B.C. is critically examined. It is argued here that: (1) the alabaster lid from Knossos did have the stratigraphical context assigned to it by Evans, in all probability Middle Minoan IIIA, c. 1650 B.C.; (2) the attempt to date the alabastron found in an early Eighteenth Dynasty context at Aniba to Late Minoan IIIA:1 is open to objections; (3) radiocarbon dates from Aegean LB I contexts are too wide in their calibrated ranges and too inconsistent both within and between site sets to offer any reliable grounds at present for raising Aegean LB I absolute chronology to 1700 B.C. Other evidence, however, suggests this period began about 1600 B.C., i.e. some fifty years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 B.C. (author)

  10. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, N. K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  11. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  12. Absolute scale-based imaging position encoder with submicron accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Andrey G.; Pantyushin, Anton V.; Lashmanov, Oleg U.; Vasilev, A. S.; Timofeev, Alexander N.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Gordeev, Sergey V.

    2013-04-01

    Study is devoted to experimental research and development of absolute imaging position encoder based on standard calibrated scale of invar alloy with 1 mm spacing. The encoder uses designed imaging system as a vernier and absolute magnetic encoder as a rough indication. The features of optical design, choice and use of imaging system as long as indexes images processing algorithm are described. A shadow method was implemented: indexes images on a CCD array are formed by the lens focused at the scale surface; the laser module lights up the scale through a beam-splitting prism by a parallel beam. Further dark indexes images on a light scale background are detected and analyzed to estimate the encoder position. Full range of experimental tests was set to calibrate the encoder and to estimate the accuracy. As a result, accuracy close to 1 μm at 1 m was achieved.

  13. ABSOLUTE AND COMPARATIVE SUSTAINABILITY OF FARMING ENTERPRISES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating absolute and comparative sustainability of farming enterprises is among the most topical issues for researchers, farmers, investors, administrators, politicians, interests groups and public at large. Nevertheless, in Bulgaria and most East European countries there are no comprehensive assessments on sustainability level of Bulgarian farms of different juridical type. This article applies a holistic framework and assesses absolute and comparative sustainability major farming structures in Bulgaria - unregistered farms of Natural Persons, Sole Traders, Cooperatives, and Companies. First, method of the study is outlined, and overall characteristics of surveyed farming enterprises presented. After that an assessment is made of integral, governance, economic, social, environmental sustainability of farming structures of different juridical type. Next, structure of farming enterprises with different sustainability levels is analyzed. Finally, conclusion from the study and directions for further research and amelioration of sustainability assessments suggested.

  14. Change with age in regression construction of fat percentage for BMI in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage.

  15. Absolute bunch length measurements by incoherent radiation fluctuation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Stupakov, Gennady; Zolotorev, Max; Filippetto, Daniele; Jagerhofer, Lukas

    2008-09-29

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  16. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC; Zolotorev, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Filippetto, D.; /INFN, Rome; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.

    2009-12-09

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  17. Mylar sources for the absolute determination of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenillas, Pablo A.

    1999-01-01

    Strong Mylar foils 2.5 μm thick are proposed as an alternative to the very fragile Vyns foils for the preparation of the radioactive sources for absolute counting. Several experiments have been carried out with β and X-ray emitters to demonstrate the suitability of this material. The results show that Mylar can replace Vyns foils even for low energy β emitters. (author)

  18. Purely absolutely continuous spectrum for almost Mathieu operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulaevsky, V.; Delyon, F.

    1989-01-01

    Using a recent result of Sinai, the authors prove that the almost Mathieu operators acting on l 2 (Z), (H αλ Psi)(n) = Ψ(n + 1) + Ψ(n - 1) + λ cos(ωn + α) Ψ(n), have a purely absolutely continuous spectrum for almost all α provided that ω is a good irrational and λ is sufficiently small. Furthermore, the generalized eigenfunctions are quasiperiodic

  19. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hoversten, Erik A.; Pritchard, Tyler; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Mazzali, Paolo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Foley, Ryan J.; Hicken, Malcolm; Kirshner, Robert P.; Gehrels, Neil; Holland, Stephen T.; Immler, Stefan; Phillips, Mark M.; Still, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1 rc covering ∼2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ∼ 3000-4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ∼2000-2400 A). The uvw1 rc - b colors show a scatter of ∼0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, ∼1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  20. Decreasing Absolute Risk Aversion and Option Pricing Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Basso; Paolo Pianca

    1997-01-01

    In this paper efficient bounds for the price of a call option are obtained using the decreasing absolute risk aversion (DARA) dominance rule. Such lower and upper bounds are obtained minimizing and maximizing, respectively, the objective function of a nonlinear optimization problem. An explicit formula (related to an exponential utility function) is given for the special case of three states of nature. A large number of experiments have been carried out and the numerical results support the c...

  1. On the Plane Geometry with Generalized Absolute Value Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bayar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metric spaces are among the most important widely studied topics in mathematics. In recent years, Mathematicians began to investigate using other metrics different from Euclidean metric. These metrics also find their place computer age in addition to their importance in geometry. In this paper, we consider the plane geometry with the generalized absolute value metric and define trigonometric functions and norm and then give a plane tiling example for engineers underlying Schwarz's inequality in this plane.

  2. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  3. Making Astrology Scientific with Negative Absolute Temperature and Holography

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article was written after reading Astronomy magazine's column "Strange Universe" by Bob Berman. Toeing the traditional line of his fellow astronomers, he claims astrology is just a bit of fun, and that it has no scientific support. If we only focus on today's science, he's spot on - it has no support. But I refer to some science involving holograms and negative absolute temperatures to show that astrology would have scientific support in a new science based on cosmic unification, it w...

  4. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzella, Patr?cia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP poss...

  5. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  6. Error begat error: design error analysis and prevention in social infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Peter E D; Lopez, Robert; Edwards, David J; Goh, Yang M

    2012-09-01

    Design errors contribute significantly to cost and schedule growth in social infrastructure projects and to engineering failures, which can result in accidents and loss of life. Despite considerable research that has addressed their error causation in construction projects they still remain prevalent. This paper identifies the underlying conditions that contribute to design errors in social infrastructure projects (e.g. hospitals, education, law and order type buildings). A systemic model of error causation is propagated and subsequently used to develop a learning framework for design error prevention. The research suggests that a multitude of strategies should be adopted in congruence to prevent design errors from occurring and so ensure that safety and project performance are ameliorated. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Medication errors in hospitalised children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Elizabeth; Kinney, Sharon; Cranswick, Noel; Williams, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the characteristics of reported medication errors occurring among children in an Australian children's hospital, and to examine the types, causes and contributing factors of medication errors. A retrospective clinical audit was undertaken of medication errors reported to an online incident facility at an Australian children's hospital over a 4-year period. A total of 2753 medication errors were reported over the 4-year period, with an overall medication error rate of 0.31% per combined admission and presentation, or 6.58 medication errors per 1000 bed days. The two most common severity outcomes were: the medication error occurred before it reached the child (n = 749, 27.2%); and the medication error reached the child who required monitoring to confirm that it resulted in no harm (n = 1519, 55.2%). Common types of medication errors included overdose (n = 579, 21.0%) and dose omission (n = 341, 12.4%). The most common cause relating to communication involved misreading or not reading medication orders (n = 804, 29.2%). Key contributing factors involved communication relating to children's transfer across different clinical settings (n = 929, 33.7%) and the lack of following policies and procedures (n = 617, 22.4%). More than half of the reports (72.5%) were made by nurses. Future research should focus on implementing and evaluating strategies aimed at reducing medication errors relating to analgesics, anti-infectives, cardiovascular agents, fluids and electrolytes and anticlotting agents, as they are consistently represented in the types of medication errors that occur. Greater attention needs to be placed on supporting health professionals in managing these medications. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Absolute Stock Returns and Trading Volumes: Psychological Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kudryavtsev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the effect of anchoring on stock trading volumes. I hypothesize that if on the days when the market index rises (falls, a given stock's return is higher (lower than the market return, potentially perceived as a psychological "anchor", then investors may treat that as a salient event and subsequently increase their trading activity in the stock. Employing a large sample of daily price and trading volume data, I find support for this hypothesis, documenting that average abnormal daily stock trading volumes are significantly higher on the days when absolute daily stock returns are higher than the contemporaneous absolute market returns. This effect is found to be stronger on the days of negative stock and market returns, suggesting that on these days, investors are probably more inclined to treat the market returns as anchors when making their trading decisions. The effect remains significant after controlling for other potentially influential factors, including contemporaneous and lagged actual and absolute stock and market returns, historical stock returns and volatilities, and company-specific events, like earnings announcements and dividend payments.

  9. A vibration correction method for free-fall absolute gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J.; Wang, G.; Wu, K.; Wang, L. J.

    2018-02-01

    An accurate determination of gravitational acceleration, usually approximated as 9.8 m s-2, has been playing an important role in the areas of metrology, geophysics, and geodetics. Absolute gravimetry has been experiencing rapid developments in recent years. Most absolute gravimeters today employ a free-fall method to measure gravitational acceleration. Noise from ground vibration has become one of the most serious factors limiting measurement precision. Compared to vibration isolators, the vibration correction method is a simple and feasible way to reduce the influence of ground vibrations. A modified vibration correction method is proposed and demonstrated. A two-dimensional golden section search algorithm is used to search for the best parameters of the hypothetical transfer function. Experiments using a T-1 absolute gravimeter are performed. It is verified that for an identical group of drop data, the modified method proposed in this paper can achieve better correction effects with much less computation than previous methods. Compared to vibration isolators, the correction method applies to more hostile environments and even dynamic platforms, and is expected to be used in a wider range of applications.

  10. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-02

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  11. Philosophy as Inquiry Aimed at the Absolute Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Snarskaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy as the absolute knowledge has been studied from two different but closely related approaches: historical and logical. The first approach exposes four main stages in the history of European metaphysics that marked out types of “philosophical absolutism”: the evolution of philosophy brought to light metaphysics of being, method, morals and logic. All of them are associated with the names of Aristotle, Bacon/Descartes, Kant and Hegel. Then these forms are considered in the second approach that defined them as subject-matter of philosophy as such. Due to their overall, comprehensive character, the focus of philosophy on them justifies its claim on absoluteness as far as philosophy is aimed at comprehension of the world’s unity regardless of the philosopher’s background, values and other preferences. And that is its prerogative since no other form of consciousness lays down this kind of aim. Thus, philosophy is defined as an everlasting attempt to succeed in conceiving the world in all its multifold manifestations. This article is to try to clarify the claim of philosophy on the absolute knowledge.

  12. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D.; Wagner, Trixie

    2013-01-01

    Differences and quotients can be defined using Friedel pairs of reflections and applied in refinement to enable absolute structure to be determined precisely even for light atom crystal structures. Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement

  13. Absolutely minimal extensions of functions on metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, V A

    1999-01-01

    Extensions of a real-valued function from the boundary ∂X 0 of an open subset X 0 of a metric space (X,d) to X 0 are discussed. For the broad class of initial data coming under discussion (linearly bounded functions) locally Lipschitz extensions to X 0 that preserve localized moduli of continuity are constructed. In the set of these extensions an absolutely minimal extension is selected, which was considered before by Aronsson for Lipschitz initial functions in the case X 0 subset of R n . An absolutely minimal extension can be regarded as an ∞-harmonic function, that is, a limit of p-harmonic functions as p→+∞. The proof of the existence of absolutely minimal extensions in a metric space with intrinsic metric is carried out by the Perron method. To this end, ∞-subharmonic, ∞-superharmonic, and ∞-harmonic functions on a metric space are defined and their properties are established

  14. Absolute activity determination of I-125 in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelled, O.; German, U.; Kol, R.; Levinson, S.; Laichter, Y.

    1997-01-01

    I-125 has been widely used in nuclear medicine and as a tracer in different experiments. The dose equivalent to the thyroid Tom internal contamination of 1-125, can be estimated by in-vivo monitoring of the thyroid or through bioassay of urine . The in-vivo monitoring of the thyroid can be carried out by counting the photon emission from the decay of the 1-125 , by a Nal(Tl) detector calibrated with a thyroid phantom. This direct method is sensitive , but due to the low photon energy (27keV to 35keV), the counting efficiency depends strongly on the variations of the thyroid mass , thyroid depth below the surface , thyroid shape and detector position . It is estimated that the uncertainty of the activity determination can reach several hundred percents . A mewed for absolute determination of the activity of a '251 source based on the counting rate values of file 27 keV photons and the 54 keV coincidence photo peak, which diminishes the geometry dependence of the counting efficiency , was applied to determine the uptake of 125-I in human thyroid In this work we checked also the application of the absolute determination method wife high sensitivity phoswich detectors. We compare the results of calculations of interval exposure to 125-I for a real case, evaluated by the absolute determination method and by the direct method. (authors)

  15. 242Pu absolute neutron-capture cross section measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. During target fabrication, a small amount of 239Pu was added to the active target so that the absolute scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section could be set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section covers four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. The cross section reported in ENDF/B-VII.1 for the 242Pu(n,γ) En,R = 2.68 eV resonance was found to be 2.4% lower than the new absolute 242Pu(n,γ) cross section.

  16. 242Pu absolute neutron-capture cross section measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckner M.Q.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. During target fabrication, a small amount of 239Pu was added to the active target so that the absolute scale of the 242Pu(n,γ cross section could be set according to the known 239Pu(n,f resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n,γ cross section covers four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. The cross section reported in ENDF/B-VII.1 for the 242Pu(n,γ En,R = 2.68 eV resonance was found to be 2.4% lower than the new absolute 242Pu(n,γ cross section.

  17. Overspecification of colour, pattern, and size: Salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammie eTarenskeen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rates of overspecification of colour, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Colour and pattern are absolute attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency towards consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of colour and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a between-participants design, however, we find similar rates of pattern and size overspecification, which are both lower than the rate of colour overspecification. This indicates that although many speakers are more likely to include colour than pattern (probably because colour is more salient, they may also treat pattern like colour due to a tendency towards consistency. We find no increase in size overspecification when the salience of size is increased, suggesting that speakers are more likely to include absolute than relative attributes. However, we do find an increase in size overspecification when mentioning the attributes is triggered, which again shows that speakers tend refer in a consistent manner, and that there are circumstances in which even size overspecification is frequently produced.

  18. The Influence of Oxygen Percentage, Carbon Dioxide Percentage, and Sea Level on the Mean Size and Diversity of Marine Animals during the Cambrian-Neogene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimo, C.; Gao, Y.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2016-12-01

    Throughout the course of time, mean body size and diversity have increased arguably due to relationship with environmental factors. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and sea level are possibly among the most essential environmental factors that influence body size and diversification of marine animals. We test this hypothesis using correlations between animal size and diversity and these environmental variables, but the correlation tests show that oxygen and carbon dioxide levels have no significant relationships with mean body size and diversity in general. According to Pearson's product-moment correlation test, sea level and mean body size of marine animals are inversely related to each other; sea level increases, the mean body sizes decrease or vise versa. Therefore, we looked at trends within individual phyla seeking correlations between the two factors and diversity. Carbon dioxide and oxygen levels are directly related to the diversification of Brachiopoda; sea level is directly related to the diversification of Arthropoda and Echinodermata. Oxygen percentage, carbon dioxide percentage, and sea level have influence toward the increase in mean body size and diversity of marine animals in specific phylum, with the exception of inverse relation between sea level and mean body size. Environmental factors do indeed influence the fluctuation of the mean body size and diversification of marine animals during the Cambrian-Neogene transition, which is proven through correlation test.

  19. The percentage of macrophage numbers in rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrio Wicaksono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Excessive accumulation of macrophages in sciatic nerve fascicles inhibits regeneration of peripheral nerves. The aim of this study is to determine the percentage of the macrophages inside and outside of the fascicles at the proximal, at the site of injury and at the distal segment of rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Thirty male 3 months age Wistar rats of 200-230 g were divided into sham-operation group and crush injury group. Termination was performed on day 3, 7, and 14 after crush injury. Immunohistochemical examination was done using anti CD68 antibody. Counting of immunopositive and immunonegative cells was done on three representative fields for extrafascicular and intrafascicular area of proximal, injury and distal segments. The data was presented as percentage of immunopositive cells. The percentage of the macrophages was significantly increased in crush injury group compared to the sham-operated group in all segments of the peripheral nerves. While the percentage of macrophages outside fascicle in all segments of sciatic nerve and within the fascicle in the proximal segment reached its peak on day 3, the percentage of macrophages within the fascicles at the site of injury and distal segments reached the peak later at day 7. In conclusions, accumulation of macrophages outside the nerve fascicles occurs at the beginning of the injury, and then followed later by the accumulation of macrophages within nerve fascicles

  20. Studies on the Effect of Type and Solarization Period on Germination Percentage of Four Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of soil solarization on weed control, an experiment with factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted in a fallow farm in Daregaz in 2008. Factors included solarization duration (0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks and soil moisture content (dry and moist. Soil seed bank was sampled (in two depth, 0-10 and 10-20 cm prior to the experiment and immediately after applying treatments, and germination percentage of weed species were determined. Results of this study showed that seed germination percentage in 10 cm soil depth was influenced by soil moisture and solarization and their interactions, while in 20 cm soil depth only solarization period affected the weed seed germination. Germination percentage in moist soil was less than that in dry soil. Seed germination percentage declined more by increasing solarization duration, so that the greatest decline was obtained after 6 weeks solarization. Solarization decreased germination percentage in moist soil more than that in dry soil. Overall, the results of this experiment indicated that solarization of moist soil for 6 weeks was the most effective treatment in controlling common lambsquatres (Chenopodium album, common purslane (Portulaca oleracea, redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus, and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis, while solarization of dry soil for 2 weeks was the least effective treatment for weed control. Keywords: Solarization, Soil moisture, Seed bank

  1. Investigation of Sound Speed Errors in Adaptive Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that adaptive beam-formers provide a significant increase of resolution and contrast, when the propagation speed is known precisely. This paper demonstrates the influence of sound speed errors on two adaptive beamformers; the minimum variance (MV) beamformer...... and the amplitude and phase (APES) beamformer. Simulations of a single point target are carried out in Field II, and a percentage error is applied on the speed of sound. As the error increases, MV and APES provide amplitude drops of 17 dB and 3 dB on the signal strength. Two approaches to overcome this amplitude...... decrease of resolution. From the investigations, it is concluded the performance of the adaptive beamformers are not outperformed by the conventional delay-and-sum beamformer....

  2. Human Error: A Concept Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Frederick D.

    2007-01-01

    Human error is the subject of research in almost every industry and profession of our times. This term is part of our daily language and intuitively understood by most people however, it would be premature to assume that everyone's understanding of human error s the same. For example, human error is used to describe the outcome or consequence of human action, the causal factor of an accident, deliberate violations,a nd the actual action taken by a human being. As a result, researchers rarely agree on the either a specific definition or how to prevent human error. The purpose of this article is to explore the specific concept of human error using Concept Analysis as described by Walker and Avant (1995). The concept of human error is examined as currently used in the literature of a variety of industries and professions. Defining attributes and examples of model, borderline, and contrary cases are described. The antecedents and consequences of human error are also discussed and a definition of human error is offered.

  3. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  4. Error Detection in Numeric Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    example, entering a wrong ISBN may result in purchase of a different book, entering a wrong debit card number may result in a debit from a wrong bank account. So, it is very important that these errors are detected during data entry so that the codes are rejected and the user cautioned. It is for this purpose that many error ...

  5. Barriers to Medical Error Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Rezaie, Shirin; Aghighi, Negar

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan, Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%), lack of proper reporting form (51.8%), lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%), and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%). The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%), age of 50-40 years (67.6%), less-experienced personnel (58.7%), educational level of MSc (87.5%), and staff of radiology department (88.9%). This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  6. Barriers to medical error reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorolajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan,Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Results: Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%, lack of proper reporting form (51.8%, lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%, and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%. The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%, age of 50-40 years (67.6%, less-experienced personnel (58.7%, educational level of MSc (87.5%, and staff of radiology department (88.9%. Conclusions: This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  7. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - http://www.muquans.com/) with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network (http://www.resif.fr/) belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of

  8. A theory of human error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Clement, W. F.; Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Human errors tend to be treated in terms of clinical and anecdotal descriptions, from which remedial measures are difficult to derive. Correction of the sources of human error requires an attempt to reconstruct underlying and contributing causes of error from the circumstantial causes cited in official investigative reports. A comprehensive analytical theory of the cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error is indispensable to a reconstruction of the underlying and contributing causes. A validated analytical theory of the input-output behavior of human operators involving manual control, communication, supervisory, and monitoring tasks which are relevant to aviation, maritime, automotive, and process control operations is highlighted. This theory of behavior, both appropriate and inappropriate, provides an insightful basis for investigating, classifying, and quantifying the needed cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error.

  9. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  10. Evaluation of electron mobility in InSb quantum wells by means of percentage-impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, T. D.; Edirisooriya, M.; Santos, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    In order to quantitatively analyze the contribution of each scattering factor toward the total carrier mobility, we use a new convenient figure-of-merit, named a percentage impact. The mobility limit due to a scattering factor, which is widely used to summarize a scattering analysis, has its own advantage. However, a mobility limit is not quite appropriate for the above purpose. A comprehensive understanding of the difference in contribution among many scattering factors toward the total carrier mobility can be obtained by evaluating percentage impacts of scattering factors, which can be straightforwardly calculated from their mobility limits and the total mobility. Our percentage impact analysis shows that threading dislocation is one of the dominant scattering factors for the electron transport in InSb quantum wells at room temperature

  11. PI/PID controller design based on IMC and percentage overshoot specification to controller setpoint change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmad; Majhi, Somanath

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the normalized Internal Model Control (IMC) filter time constant is designed to achieve a specified value of the maximum sensitivity for stable first and second order plus time delay process models, respectively. Since a particular value of the maximum sensitivity results in an almost constant percentage overshoot to controller setpoint change, an empirical relationship between the normalized IMC filter time constant and percentage overshoot is presented. The main advantage of the proposed method is that only a user-defined overshoot is required to design a PI/PID controller. Simulation examples are given to demonstrate the value of the proposed method.

  12. Noncircular features in Saturn's rings IV: Absolute radius scale and Saturn's pole direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Richard G.; McGhee-French, Colleen A.; Lonergan, Katherine; Sepersky, Talia; Jacobson, Robert A.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, Mathew M.; Marouf, Essam A.; Colwell, Joshua E.

    2017-07-01

    We present a comprehensive solution for the geometry of Saturn's ring system, based on orbital fits to an extensive set of occultation observations of 122 individual ring edges and gaps. We begin with a restricted set of very high quality Cassini VIMS, UVIS, and RSS measurements for quasi-circular features in the C and B rings and the Cassini Division, and then successively add suitably weighted additional Cassini and historical occultation measurements (from Voyager, HST and the widely-observed 28 Sgr occultation of 3 Jul 1989) for additional non-circular features, to derive an absolute radius scale applicable across the entire classical ring system. As part of our adopted solution, we determine first-order corrections to the spacecraft trajectories used to determine the geometry of individual occultation chords. We adopt a simple linear model for Saturn's precession, and our favored solution yields a precession rate on the sky n^˙P = 0.207 ± 0 .006‧‧yr-1 , equivalent to an angular rate of polar motion ΩP = 0.451 ± 0 .014‧‧yr-1 . The 3% formal uncertainty in the fitted precession rate is approaching the point where it can provide a useful constraint on models of Saturn's interior, although realistic errors are likely to be larger, given the linear approximation of the precession model and possible unmodeled systematic errors in the spacecraft ephemerides. Our results are largely consistent with independent estimates of the precession rate based on historical RPX times (Nicholson et al., 1999 AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #31 31, 44.01) and from theoretical expectations that account for Titan's 700-yr precession period (Vienne and Duriez 1992, Astronomy and Astrophysics 257, 331-352). The fitted precession rate based on Cassini data only is somewhat lower, which may be an indication of unmodeled shorter term contributions to Saturn's polar motion from other satellites, or perhaps the result of inconsistencies in the assumed

  13. The blue anbd visual absolute magnitude distributions of Type IA supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Thomas E.; Branch, David; Miller, Douglas L.; Perlmutter, Saul

    1995-02-01

    Tully-Fisher (TF), surface brightness fluctuation (SBF), and Hubble law distances to the parent galaxies of Type Ia supernovae (SNs Ia) are used in order to study the SN Ia blue and visual peak absolute magnitude (MB and MV) distributions. We propose two objective cuts, each of which produces a subsample with small intrinsic dispersion in M. One cut, which can be applied to either band, distinguishes between a subsample of bright events and a smaller subsample of dim events, some of which were extinquished in the parent galaxy and some of which were intrinsically subluminous. The bright events are found to be distributed with an observed dispersions of 0.3 less than or approximately = Sigmaobs less than or approximately = 0.4 about a mean absolut magnitude (M-barB or M-barV). Each of the dim SNs was spectroscopically peculiar and/or had a red B-V color; this motivates the adoption of an alternative cut that is based on B-V rather than on M. To wit, SNs Ia that are both known to have -0.25 less than B-V less than + 0.25 and not known to be spectroscopically peculiar show observational dispersion of only Sigmaobs(MB) = Sigmaobs(MV) = 0.3. Because characteristics observational errors produce Sigmaerr(M) greater than 0.2,the intrinsic dispersion among such SNs Ia is Sigmaint(M) less than or approximately = 0.2. The small observational dispersion indicates that SNs Ia, the TF relation, and SBFs all good relative distances to those galaxies that produce SNs Ia. The conflict between those who use SNs Ia in order to determine the value of the Hubble constant (H0) and those who use TF and SBF distances to determine H0 results from discrepant calibrations.

  14. Simple method for absolute calibration of geophones, seismometers, and other inertial vibration sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kann, Frank van; Winterflood, John

    2005-01-01

    A simple but powerful method is presented for calibrating geophones, seismometers, and other inertial vibration sensors, including passive accelerometers. The method requires no cumbersome or expensive fixtures such as shaker platforms and can be performed using a standard instrument commonly available in the field. An absolute calibration is obtained using the reciprocity property of the device, based on the standard mathematical model for such inertial sensors. It requires only simple electrical measurement of the impedance of the sensor as a function of frequency to determine the parameters of the model and hence the sensitivity function. The method is particularly convenient if one of these parameters, namely the suspended mass is known. In this case, no additional mechanical apparatus is required and only a single set of impedance measurements yields the desired calibration function. Moreover, this measurement can be made with the device in situ. However, the novel and most powerful aspect of the method is its ability to accurately determine the effective suspended mass. For this, the impedance measurement is made with the device hanging from a simple spring or flexible cord (depending on the orientation of its sensitive axis). To complete the calibration, the device is weighed to determine its total mass. All the required calibration parameters, including the suspended mass, are then determined from a least-squares fit to the impedance as a function of frequency. A demonstration using both a 4.5 Hz geophone and a 1 Hz seismometer shows that the method can yield accurate absolute calibrations with an error of 0.1% or better, assuming no a priori knowledge of any parameters

  15. Pantomime-grasping: Advance knowledge of haptic feedback availability supports an absolute visuo-haptic calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin eDavarpanah Jazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An emerging issue in movement neurosciences is whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting a simulated grasping response (i.e., pantomime-grasping. In particular, recent work by our group contrasted pantomime-grasping responses performed with (i.e., PH+ trials and without (i.e., PH- trials terminal haptic feedback in separate blocks of trials. Results showed that PH- trials were mediated via relative visual information. In contrast, PH+ trials showed evidence of an absolute visuo-haptic calibration – a finding attributed to an error signal derived from a comparison between expected and actual haptic feedback (i.e., an internal forward model. The present study examined whether advanced knowledge of haptic feedback availability influences the aforementioned calibration process. To that end, PH- and PH+ trials were completed in separate blocks (i.e., the feedback schedule used in our group’s previous study and a block wherein PH- and PH+ trials were randomly interleaved on a trial-by-trial basis (i.e., random feedback schedule. In other words, the random feedback schedule precluded participants from predicting whether haptic feedback would be available at the movement goal location. We computed just-noticeable-difference (JND values to determine whether responses adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber’s law. Results for the blocked feedback schedule replicated our group’s previous work, whereas in the random feedback schedule PH- and PH+ trials were supported via relative visual information. Accordingly, we propose that a priori knowledge of haptic feedback is necessary to support an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the presence and expectancy of haptic feedback is an important consideration in contrasting the behavioral and neural properties of natural and stimulated (i.e., pantomime-grasping grasping.

  16. Medical Errors in Cyprus: The 2005 Eurobarometer Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Pavlakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical errors have been highlighted in recent years by different agencies, scientific bodies and research teams alike. We sought to explore the issue of medical errors in Cyprus using data from the Eurobarometer survey.Methods: Data from the special Eurobarometer survey conducted in 2005 across all European Union countries (EU-25 and the acceding countries were obtained from the corresponding EU office. Statisticalanalyses including logistic regression models were performed using SPSS.Results: A total of 502 individuals participated in the Cyprus survey. About 90% reported that they had often or sometimes heard about medical errors, while 22% reported that a family member or they had suffered a serious medical error in a local hospital. In addition, 9.4% reported a serious problem from a prescribed medicine. We also found statistically significant differences across different ages and gender and in rural versus urban residents. Finally, using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, wefound that residents in rural areas were more likely to have suffered a serious medical error in a local hospital or from a prescribed medicine.Conclusion: Our study shows that the vast majority of residents in Cyprus in parallel with the other Europeans worry about medical errors and a significant percentage report having suffered a serious medical error at a local hospital or from a prescribed medicine. The results of our study could help the medical community in Cyprus and the society at large to enhance its vigilance with respect to medical errors in order to improve medical care.

  17. Technical errors in intraoral radiographs performed by undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Laureano da Rosa

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the technical errors in periapical examinations performed by dental students. Methods: Patient record charts at the dental clinic of the dentistry course were analyzed. Of these, the charts that presented at least ten periapical intraoral radiographs were used in the study, therefore a total of 219 patient record charts were selected, totaling 2 821 radiographs. The radiographs were analyzed one by one, using an uniform light negatoscope, in a darkened room, by a professional radiologist, taking into consideration the following evaluation criteria: technically good and unsatisfactory radiographs. The technical errorswere classified as errors in radiographic technique and radiographic processing errors. The data on quality critera stipulated and obtainedin the evaluation were tabulated, intervals of confidence were used to infer the percentage that were suitable and unsuitable in the studied period, and were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test, at the level of significance of 5%. Results: The results were: of the 2 821 radiographs analyzed, only 1 425 (50.51% were technically good. of the 1 396 (49.49% considered inadequat, 1 155 (82.74% presented errors in radiographic technique, while 241 (17.26% presented radiographic processing errors. The most frequently repeated error was image overlapping (32.88%, followed by the underexposure (25.43%, cut of the tooth (9.31%, chemicalcontamination problems (4.51%, cone cut (3.15%, other errors in radiographic technique (1.86% and other radiographic processing errors (1.43%. Conclusion: The conclusion was that steps must be taken to improve the quality of radiographs obtained because, although they did not make it impossible to interpret the radiographs, this was made extremely difficult, and the depreciated the value of the achives of past clinical situations and cases.

  18. Stochastic Models of Human Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshamy, Maged; Elliott, Dawn M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Humans play an important role in the overall reliability of engineering systems. More often accidents and systems failure are traced to human errors. Therefore, in order to have meaningful system risk analysis, the reliability of the human element must be taken into consideration. Describing the human error process by mathematical models is a key to analyzing contributing factors. Therefore, the objective of this research effort is to establish stochastic models substantiated by sound theoretic foundation to address the occurrence of human errors in the processing of the space shuttle.

  19. Linear network error correction coding

    CERN Document Server

    Guang, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    There are two main approaches in the theory of network error correction coding. In this SpringerBrief, the authors summarize some of the most important contributions following the classic approach, which represents messages by sequences?similar to algebraic coding,?and also briefly discuss the main results following the?other approach,?that uses the theory of rank metric codes for network error correction of representing messages by subspaces. This book starts by establishing the basic linear network error correction (LNEC) model and then characterizes two equivalent descriptions. Distances an

  20. 7 CFR 929.49 - Marketable quantity, allotment percentage, and annual allotment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF... history, established pursuant to § 929.48. Such allotment percentage shall be established by the Secretary and shall equal the marketable quantity divided by the total of all growers' sales histories including...

  1. Percentage of Protected Area Amounts within each Watershed Boundary for the Conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: This dataset uses spatial information from the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD, March 2011) and the Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US Version 1.0). The resulting data layer, with percentages of protected areas by category, was created using the ATtI...

  2. 7 CFR 981.47 - Method of establishing salable and reserve percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... terms of kernel weight) or the allocation quantity (marketable production plus almonds diverted to oil... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of establishing salable and reserve percentages... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.47 Method of...

  3. 45 CFR 305.33 - Determination of applicable percentages based on performance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.33 Determination of applicable percentages based on performance levels. (a) A State's... performance levels. 305.33 Section 305.33 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...

  4. 13 CFR 120.210 - What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee? 120.210 Section 120.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... percent, except as otherwise authorized by law. [61 FR 3235, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 68 FR 51680, Aug...

  5. Study of low weight percentage filler on dielectric properties of MCWNT-epoxy nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manindra Trihotri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made to study the effect of low weight percentage multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT powder on dielectric properties of MWCNT reinforced epoxy composites. For that MWCNT (of different low weight percentage reinforced epoxy composite was prepared by dispersing the MWCNT in resin. Samples were prepared by solution casting process and characterized for their dielectric properties such as dielectric constant (ε′, dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ and AC conductivity (σac. The main objective is the investigation of the dielectric properties of the prepared samples at the low weight percentage of the filler at different temperatures and frequencies. From the two mechanisms of electrical conduction, first the leakage current obtained by the formation of a percolation network in the matrix and the other by tunneling of electrons formed among conductors nearby (tunneling current; here we are getting conduction by the second mechanism. Generally, leakage current makes more contribution to conductivity than tunneling current. Dielectric dissipation factor at 250Hz frequency is greater than all other frequencies and starts increasing from 60∘C. The peak height of the transition temperature decreases with increasing frequency. This study shows that the addition of a low weight percentage of MWCNT can modify considerably the electrical behavior of epoxy nanocomposites without chemical functionalization of filler.

  6. Cognitive Load in Percentage Change Problems: Unitary, Pictorial, and Equation Approaches to Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Tobias, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Eighth grade students in Australia (N = 60) participated in an experiment on learning how to solve percentage change problems in a regular classroom in three conditions: unitary, pictorial, and equation approaches. The procedure involved a pre-test, an acquisition phase, and a post-test. The main goal was to test the relative merits of the three…

  7. Increased percentage of Th17 cells in peritoneal fluid is associated with severity of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogacz, Marek; Winkler, Izabela; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Semczuk, Andrzej; Rechberger, Tomasz; Adamiak, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Th17 cells are a newly discovered T helper lymphocyte subpopulation, producing interleukin IL-17. Th17 cells are present in blood and peritoneal fluid (PF) at different stages of endometriosis. We aim to establish their potential importance in the pathogenesis and clinical features of the disease. The percentage of Th17 cells among T helper lymphocytes was determined in the PF and peripheral blood (PB) of patients with endometriosis and in the control group by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies: anti-CD-4-FITC, anti-CD-3-PE/Cy5, and anti-IL-17A-PE. Th17 percentage is increased in PF in comparison with PB in both endometriotic patients and in the control group. In severe endometriosis, the percentage of Th17 cells in PF was higher than with early (I/II stage) endometriosis. A positive correlation between the percentage of Th17 cells in PF and the white blood cell count in PB was found in patients with endometriosis. Targeting the activity of PF Th17 cells may have an influence on the proliferation of ectopic tissue and clinical manifestations of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; de Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; McKenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P <5 × 10(-8)), of which eight

  9. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight

  10. Relation Between Bitumen Content and Percentage Air Voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R. P.; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sahoo, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a heterogeneous mix of aggregate, mineral filler, bitumen, additives and air voids. Researchers have indicated that the durability of the HMA is sensitive on the actual bitumen content and percentage air void. This paper aims at establishing the relationship between the bitumen content and the percentage air voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) using Viscosity Grade-30 (VG-30) bitumen. Total 54 samples have been collected, for formulation and validation of relationship and observed that the percentage air voids increases with decrease in actual bitumen content and vice versa. A minor increase in percentage air voids beyond practice of designed air voids in Marshall Method of design is required for better performance, indicating a need for reducing the codal provision of minimum bitumen content for SDBC as specified in Specification for Road & Bridges (Fourth Revision) published by Indian Road Congress, 2001. The study shows a possibility of reducing designed minimum bitumen content from codal provision for SDBC by 0.2% of weight with VG-30 grade of Bitumen.

  11. 13 CFR 108.1840 - Computation of NMVC Company's Capital Impairment Percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Capital Impairment Percentage. 108.1840 Section 108.1840 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM NMVC Company's Noncompliance With Terms of Leverage Computation of Nmvc Company's Capital Impairment § 108.1840 Computation of NMVC Company's Capital Impairment...

  12. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  13. Detection of erythropoietin misuse by the Athlete Biological Passport combined with reticulocyte percentage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the adaptive model of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and reticulocyte percentage (ret%) in detection of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) misuse was evaluated using both a long-term normal dose and a brief high dose treatment regime. Sixteen subjects received...

  14. The remaining percentage of 32P after burning of sulphur tablet containing 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Weiqing

    1991-01-01

    Three types of sulphur tablet containing 32 P are made artificially. The remaining percentage of 32 P after burning of three types of sulphur tablets containing 32 P is 98.1 ± 1.3% for 1st and 2nd types and 97.2 ± 2.8% for 3rd type

  15. 77 FR 69629 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families... of allotment percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State... IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a), the allotment...

  16. 76 FR 9788 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families... Biennial publication of allotment percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare... the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a), the...

  17. 75 FR 71710 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families... of allotment percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State... IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a), the allotment...

  18. Influence of N atomic percentages on cell attachment for CNx coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Influence of N atomic percentages on cell attachment for CNx coatings. D J LI* and L F NIU. Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, P.R. China. MS received 12 December 2002. Abstract. Carbon film is an excellent candidate for use as a biocompatible coating due to its excellent prop- erties.

  19. The effects of crude protein percentage and urea in different stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1977) concluded that diets containing more than 130/0 natural protein could not be improved by additions of NPN. Since high-producing dairy cows require diets containing. 16% crude protein (CP), urea would not be useful in such diets. Cows requiring a high percentage of dietary protein. (16% CP) probably can only use ...

  20. Consequences count: against absolutism at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C

    2004-05-01

    There has been a considerable amount of debate in the nursing literature about euthanasia, and especially the distinctions between acts and omissions, and killing and letting die. These distinctions are required by opponents of euthanasia to justify allowing some cases of passive euthanasia while forbidding all cases of active euthanasia. This paper adds to the debate by arguing that the position that absolutely forbids euthanasia is theoretically inconsistent. The paper first considers the place of moral theory in analysing moral problems, within the framework of the principles of biomedical ethics. It is argued that despite a moral pluralism that operates in many areas, the legal status of euthanasia is based upon an absolute deontological position against deliberate killing, which cannot be overridden by appeals to favourable consequences. In order that certain forms of passive euthanasia can be allowed, this position allows distinctions within three pairs of concepts--acts and omissions, killing and letting die, and ordinary and extraordinary means. A further method of justifying certain actions near the end of life is the doctrine of double effect. These paired concepts and the doctrine of double effect are analysed with special reference to their consequences. The application of the doctrine of double effect and the three distinctions relies on consideration of their consequences, allowing in practice what in theory is denied. This is important because it weakens the absolute case against euthanasia, which disallows any direct consequentialist appeal. If consequences count in the application of the doctrine and the distinctions, then they should also count directly prior to their application. This strengthens the argument for active euthanasia in certain cases.

  1. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Irene; Brandimonte, Maria A; Bruno, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse) without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT). Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale' of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task), in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task). A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo.

  2. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference.

  3. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Commissioning Phase Orbit Determination Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Lauren R.; Novak, Stefan; Long, Anne; Gramling, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission commissioning phase starts in a 185 km altitude x 12 Earth radii (RE) injection orbit and lasts until the Phase 1 mission orbits and orientation to the Earth-Sun li ne are achieved. During a limited time period in the early part of co mmissioning, five maneuvers are performed to raise the perigee radius to 1.2 R E, with a maneuver every other apogee. The current baseline is for the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility to p rovide MMS orbit determination support during the early commissioning phase using all available two-way range and Doppler tracking from bo th the Deep Space Network and Space Network. This paper summarizes th e results from a linear covariance analysis to determine the type and amount of tracking data required to accurately estimate the spacecraf t state, plan each perigee raising maneuver, and support thruster cal ibration during this phase. The primary focus of this study is the na vigation accuracy required to plan the first and the final perigee ra ising maneuvers. Absolute and relative position and velocity error hi stories are generated for all cases and summarized in terms of the ma ximum root-sum-square consider and measurement noise error contributi ons over the definitive and predictive arcs and at discrete times inc luding the maneuver planning and execution times. Details of the meth odology, orbital characteristics, maneuver timeline, error models, and error sensitivities are provided.

  4. Absolute dating methods for the Southern African Cainozoic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patridge, T.C. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Anatomy); Netterburg, F. (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Inst. for Transport and Road Research); Vogel, J.C. (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Physical Research Lab.); Sellschop, J.P.F. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Nuclear Physics Research Unit)

    1984-09-01

    Those absolute dating methods other than radiocarbon which appear most useful for the Southern African Cainozoic are uranium disequilibrium, amino acid racemization, thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance, potassium/argon, and accelerator mass spectrometry. Although they are comparative dating methods only, the palaeo- and archaeomagnetic techniques appear most promising. More than one method is necessary to cover the ages and types of Southern African materials. The need for local dating services justifies the establishment of further Cainozoic dating facilities in South Africa. The necessary equipment is already available, or could be developed by adapting existing apparatus, so that only additional staff and funding would be required.

  5. Absolute nondestructive quantitative determination of uranium in special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragnev, T.; Damyanov, B.; Grozev, G.; Karamanova, J.

    1985-01-01

    An absolute nondestructive method for quantitative measurement of uranium concentration and enrichment in special nuclear materials is proposed. The method uses intrinsic calibration and portable instrumentation and the particularly suitable for IAEA safequards applications. The intrinsic calibration accumulates the positive experience of the previous measurements and the results will be continuously improving. It is possible to measure standards in laboratories and use the results for analysis at different time and places. The tests show a good agreement with known classical methods and better results in some cases

  6. The absolute energy flux envelopes of B type stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Absolute energy flux envelopes covering the region of 1100 to 6000 A for main-sequence stars of types B3, B7 and A0 derived from published, ground-based observations and from spectrum scans with OAO-II are presented. These flux envelopes are compared with the predicted flux envelopes from lightly line-blanketed model atmospheres. The line blanketing at wavelengths shorter than 3000 A is severe, about one-half the predicted light being observed at 1600 A. These results demonstrate that a model which represents well the observed visible spectrum of a star may fail seriously for representing the ultraviolet spectrum.

  7. Absolute gravimetry on the agulhas negras calibration line

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Mauro Andrade de; Santos, Alcides Antonio dos

    2010-01-01

    The Agulhas Negras Gravity Calibration Line was established in the mid 1980s using LaCoste & Romberg gravimeters model "G" only. Five gravity stations were irregularly positioned along its 200 km length, spanning a total range of 627 mGal. The new absolute gravimeter Micro-g Solutions A-10 #011 of Observatório Nacional was taken to each calibration station and new measurements were made. The local vertical gravity gradient was also measured at each calibration station. This report shows their...

  8. Absolute Mass Scale Calibration Using Z->mumu

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Detailed simulations have been performed, investigating the possibility of calibrating the absolute mass scale of the muon spectrometer by using Z->mumu A sample of 10000 events was processed through DICE/ATRECON applying different scale factors to the magnetic field as a function of phi and eta. It is shown that these scale factors could be retrieved with high accuracy together with the muon energy loss as a function of eta. It is shown that the energy loss in the barrel region could be found with an accuracy of 45 MeV while calibrating at the same time 2 magnetic field scale factors with an accuracy of 0.001.

  9. Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolář, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2012-08-31

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  10. Exponential bound in the quest for absolute zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanatos, Dionisis

    2017-10-01

    In most studies for the quantification of the third law of thermodynamics, the minimum temperature which can be achieved with a long but finite-time process scales as a negative power of the process duration. In this article, we use our recent complete solution for the optimal control problem of the quantum parametric oscillator to show that the minimum temperature which can be obtained in this system scales exponentially with the available time. The present work is expected to motivate further research in the active quest for absolute zero.

  11. An Algorithm for Solving the Absolute Value Equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2009), s. 589-599 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : absolute value equation * algorithm * regularity * singularity * theorem of the alternatives Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.892, year: 2009 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol18_pp589-599.pdf

  12. Absolute coverage of the saturated cesium silicon interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, William Benjamin

    Metal/semiconductor interfaces are of great interest for a variety of reasons. They shed light on surface metal/semiconductor transitions, and they form Schottky barriers, which are of scientific as well as significant technological importance (primarily for the production of high speed, low-power logic circuitry). The cesium/silicon interfaces are of particular interest since the oxide forms a Negative Electron Affinity state. Cesium does not mix with the bulk silicon, so the interface is very abrupt, and the electronic structure of cesium is easier to understand than that of the transition metals. Further, cesium (like other alkali metals at room temperature) forms a single atomic layer on the various silicon faces and then the coverage saturates (i.e. atoms stop sticking to the surface). This makes the cesium/silicon interfaces ideal model systems of the metal/semiconductor interface. In spite of their importance, the detailed structures of the cesium saturated silicon faces are still uncertain. Numerous structural models have been proposed and many of them have quite different absolute coverages. Thus absolute coverage measurements can effectively distinguish between the various models. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) provides an ideal measurement of absolute coverage since its results can be directly interpreted without dependence upon any structural model. A new beam line has been set up on the Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter's tandem accelerator. The Ultrahigh Vacuum system is equipped with an Auger Electron Spectrometer, a Low Energy Electron Diffraction system, a retarding field method work function analyzer, a cesium doser, a Medium Energy Ion Scattering two dimensional toroidal analyzer and a Rutherford Backscattering: Spectrometry (RBS) solid state ion detector. It has been used to manufacture saturated Cs/Si(100)-2 x 1 and Cs/Si(111)-7 x 7 interfaces and measure their absolute coverage via RBS. The coverage for the Si

  13. Android and gynoid fat percentages and serum lipid levels in United States adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2015-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that fat distribution is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of android and gynoid fat percentages with lipid profiles to determine whether android and/or gynoid fat percentages are associated with serum lipid levels. A population-based cross-sectional study. Five thousand six hundred and ninety-six adults (20 years and older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. The regional body composition in the android and gynoid regions was defined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The estimation of lipid risk profiles included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) -cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Regardless of gender, android and gynoid body fat percentages were positively and significantly correlated with BMI and waist circumference. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, dyslipidaemia and BMI, increases in android fat percentage were significantly associated with total cholesterol, TG and HDL cholesterol in males, and total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in females. The gynoid fat percentages showed a positive correlation with total cholesterol in males, whereas gynoid fat accumulation in females showed a favourable association with TG and HDL cholesterol. The observed associations differed according to ethnic groups. Our results suggest that regional fat distribution in the android and gynoid regions have different effects on lipid profiles, and that fat in the android region, rather than the gynoid region, may be an important factor in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Correlation of Leukocyte Count and Percentage of Segmented Neutrophils with Pathohistological Findings of Appendix in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Baskovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAppendicitis is the most common indication for an emergency operation in children's age. Although none of the laboratory values has not high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of appendicitis, leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils are most commonly used. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a statistically significant correlation between leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils compared to the pathohistological finding of appendix in children. Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed the data in the period from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2016. The analysis was made on 211 patients. Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs was calculated. We determined the specificity and sensitivity of leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils used in the calculation of Alvorado and Pediatric Appendicitis score.ResultsThe results of the research have shown that the correlation between leukocyte count and the pathohistological findings is weak (rs = 0.29, p = 3.61*10-8, while there is no correlation between the percentage of segmented neutrophils and pathohistological findings (rs = 0.18, p = 7.08 *10-5. The sensitivity of leukocyte count is 93% and the specificity is 30%, while the sensitivity to the percentage of segmented neutrophils is 71% and the specificity is 50%. ROC analysis for leukocytes shows area under the curve of 0.648, while for segmented neutrophils of 0.574.ConclusionGiven the correlation results obtained, the clinical experience of physicians will still have one of the leading roles in diagnosing acute appendicitis in children.

  15. E-prescription errors and their resolution in a community compounding pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Kane, Dana; Vasquez, Kellie; Pavlik, Aaron; Peragine, Johanna; Sandberg, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Despite apparent benefits, electronic prescribing systems still face numerous challenges. Errors associated with electronic prescriptions can often lead to workflow disruptions. This may be particularly disruptive in smaller, independent community pharmacies that may not have the staffing resources to adequately cope with an increase in required correspondence with prescriber offices. The objective of this study was to follow-up on a 2012 quality-improvement project evaluating electronic prescription error type, error rate, and time between error discovery and resolution in an independent compounding pharmacy. The study design was quality improvement with descriptive data. Data were collected over a four-week period during which time the pharmacists completed a data collection form for each electronic prescription received that contained an error. Percentages were calculated for error type, error rate, and error resolution type. Using range, mean, and standard deviation, time until error resolution was reported. In the four-week study period an e-prescribing error rate of 23.2% was identified (32 errors identified in 138 e-prescriptions). The most frequent error was an invalid electronic prescription signature for a controlled substance (31.3%, n = 10). The most commonly used error resolution method was a phone call to the physician (59%, n = 19). The average time to resolve the most frequent error type was 10.30 hours with a standard deviation of 18.18 hours. The results show a 40% decrease in the number of e-prescription errors identified compared to the quality-improvement evaluation done in the same pharmacy one year ago. E-prescription errors continue to disrupt workflow and impede patient care but perhaps at a lower rate. Pharmacies should implement a quality-improvement review process to help identify solutions to systems issues.

  16. A kinetic-based sigmoidal model for the polymerase chain reaction and its application to high-capacity absolute quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Don

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based upon defining a common reference point, current real-time quantitative PCR technologies compare relative differences in amplification profile position. As such, absolute quantification requires construction of target-specific standard curves that are highly resource intensive and prone to introducing quantitative errors. Sigmoidal modeling using nonlinear regression has previously demonstrated that absolute quantification can be accomplished without standard curves; however, quantitative errors caused by distortions within the plateau phase have impeded effective implementation of this alternative approach. Results Recognition that amplification rate is linearly correlated to amplicon quantity led to the derivation of two sigmoid functions that allow target quantification via linear regression analysis. In addition to circumventing quantitative errors produced by plateau distortions, this approach allows the amplification efficiency within individual amplification reactions to be determined. Absolute quantification is accomplished by first converting individual fluorescence readings into target quantity expressed in fluorescence units, followed by conversion into the number of target molecules via optical calibration. Founded upon expressing reaction fluorescence in relation to amplicon DNA mass, a seminal element of this study was to implement optical calibration using lambda gDNA as a universal quantitative standard. Not only does this eliminate the need to prepare target-specific quantitative standards, it relegates establishment of quantitative scale to a single, highly defined entity. The quantitative competency of this approach was assessed by exploiting "limiting dilution assay" for absolute quantification, which provided an independent gold standard from which to verify quantitative accuracy. This yielded substantive corroborating evidence that absolute accuracies of ± 25% can be routinely achieved. Comparison

  17. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  18. Quantile Regression With Measurement Error

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Ying

    2009-08-27

    Regression quantiles can be substantially biased when the covariates are measured with error. In this paper we propose a new method that produces consistent linear quantile estimation in the presence of covariate measurement error. The method corrects the measurement error induced bias by constructing joint estimating equations that simultaneously hold for all the quantile levels. An iterative EM-type estimation algorithm to obtain the solutions to such joint estimation equations is provided. The finite sample performance of the proposed method is investigated in a simulation study, and compared to the standard regression calibration approach. Finally, we apply our methodology to part of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project growth data, a longitudinal study with an unusual measurement error structure. © 2009 American Statistical Association.

  19. Numerical optimization with computational errors

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    This book studies the approximate solutions of optimization problems in the presence of computational errors. A number of results are presented on the convergence behavior of algorithms in a Hilbert space; these algorithms are examined taking into account computational errors. The author illustrates that algorithms generate a good approximate solution, if computational errors are bounded from above by a small positive constant. Known computational errors are examined with the aim of determining an approximate solution. Researchers and students interested in the optimization theory and its applications will find this book instructive and informative. This monograph contains 16 chapters; including a chapters devoted to the subgradient projection algorithm, the mirror descent algorithm, gradient projection algorithm, the Weiszfelds method, constrained convex minimization problems, the convergence of a proximal point method in a Hilbert space, the continuous subgradient method, penalty methods and Newton’s meth...

  20. Aging transition by random errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongkui; Ma, Ning; Xu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the effects of random errors on the oscillating behaviors have been studied theoretically and numerically in a prototypical coupled nonlinear oscillator. Two kinds of noises have been employed respectively to represent the measurement errors accompanied with the parameter specifying the distance from a Hopf bifurcation in the Stuart-Landau model. It has been demonstrated that when the random errors are uniform random noise, the change of the noise intensity can effectively increase the robustness of the system. While the random errors are normal random noise, the increasing of variance can also enhance the robustness of the system under certain conditions that the probability of aging transition occurs reaches a certain threshold. The opposite conclusion is obtained when the probability is less than the threshold. These findings provide an alternative candidate to control the critical value of aging transition in coupled oscillator system, which is composed of the active oscillators and inactive oscillators in practice.