NONE
1999-01-10
Produced at Fuji Electric Co.,Ltd., on a commercial basis was a high resolution absolute incremental combined-use encoder, which is a serial transmission type with a resolution of 16bit per rotation, as a rotary sensor for a small high performance servo system FALDIC-{alpha} series. Accomplished in this encoder were a high resolution, which greatly improves uneven rotation at low speed and precision in positioning, and miniaturization which is on the top level in the industry, by means of a high performance CPU and a large scale LSI. In addition, less wiring by unique high-speed serial communication was contrived, as were protective functions of all types and intelligent systematization by data holding function. Moreover, a newly structured rotary disk was employed, greatly improving vibration resistance and impact resistance. By using the high resolution absolute incremental combined-use encoder as standard equipment in the servo motor, flexibility is secured in a system for a machine to which the device is applied. (NEDO)
LIU Yong; HAO Shuang-hui; HAO Ming-hui
2009-01-01
We developed a novel absolute multi-pole encoder structure to improve the resolution of the multi-pole encoder, realize absolute output and reduce the manufacturing cost of the encoder. The structure includes two ring alnicos defined as index track and sub-division track, respectively. The index track is magnetized based on the improved gray code, with linear halls placed around the track evenly. The outputs of linear halls show the region the rotor belongs to. The sub-division track is magnetized to N-S-N-S (north-south-north-south), and the number of N-S pole pairs is determined by the index track. Three linear hall sensors with an air-gap of 2 mm are used to translate the magnetic filed to voltage signals. The relative offset in a single N-S is obtained through look-up. The magnetic encoder is calibrated using a higher-resolution incremental optical encoder. The pulse output from the optical encoder and hall signals from the magnetic encoder are sampled at the same time and transmitted to a computer, and the relation between them is calculated, and stored in the FLASH of MCU (micro controller unit) for look-up. In the working state, the absolute angle is derived by looking-up with hall signals. The structure is simple and the manufacturing cost is very low and suitable for mass production.
Research on a novel orientation algorithm of single-ring absolute photoelectric shaft encoder
CHEN Yun
2007-01-01
A novel single-ring absolute optical shaft encoder is designed by studying the encoding principle of traditional absolute optical shaft encoder in this paper. The description of the orientation algorithm of the encoder is specified,and an example for explaining the orientation arithmetic is given,which indicates that the theory of the encoder works. The visual interface to acquire signals of CCD is shown with VB,which provides reliable foundation to process data. The effective factors of measurement precision of the encoder are analyzed.
On the absolute encoders%论绝对编码器
龚仲华
2011-01-01
This article illustrates the features of incremental encoder, resolver, absolute-value encoder, absolute encoder, grating encoder and magnetic grid encoder used on CNC machine tools, and their differences are explained as well, then points out the essence of the absolute rotary encoder and introduces the output method and interface for absolute positions.%说明了数控机床所使用的增量编码器、旋转变压器、绝对值编码器、绝对编码器以及光栅编码器与磁栅编码器的特点与区别,指出了绝对编码器的本质，介绍了绝对位置输出的方式与接口。
Enabling linear model for the IMGC-02 absolute gravimeter
Nagornyi, V D; Svitlov, S
2013-01-01
Measurement procedures of most rise-and-fall absolute gravimeters has to resolve singularity at the apex of the trajectory caused by the discrete fringe counting in the Michelson-type interferometers. Traditionally the singularity is addressed by implementing non-linear models of the trajectory, but they introduce problems of their own, such as biasness, non-uniqueness, and instability of the gravity estimates. Using IMGC-02 gravimeter as example, we show that the measurement procedure of the rise-and-fall gravimeters can be based on the linear models which successfully resolve the singularity and provide rigorous estimates of the gravity value. The linear models also facilitate further enhancements of the instrument, such as accounting for new types of disturbances and active compensation for the vibrations.
The optimal encodings for biased association in linear associative memories.
Leung, Yee; Dong, Tian Xin; Xu, Zong Ben
1998-07-01
In this paper, optimal encoding schemes for linear associative memories are derived for biased association under both the white-noise and colored-noise situations. Analysis and simulation results all show that the biased encodings thus derived are optimal and superior to existing models in their performance. Together with the Wee-Kohonen unbiased encoding, the study settles the optimality issue of linear associative memories and enhances their practicalities.
Zijian Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For the encoders, especially the sine-cosine magnetic ones, a new method to measure absolute angular position is proposed in the paper. In the method, the code disc of the encoder has only two circle tracks and each one was divided into N and (N-1 equal code cells. The cell angles, changing from 0° to 360° between any two neighboring code cells, are defined to represent any position on the code disc. The position value of the same point can be represented by different cell angle values of different tracks and the absolute angular position of the point can be obtained by the difference value between the cell angle value of the outer track and the inner one. To validate the correctness of the method theoretically, the derivation process of the method was provided. An electromagnetic encoder system was designed and the experimental platform was established to test the method. The experimental results indicate that the electromagnetic encoder can measure the absolute angular position. Besides, it shows that the method is easy to be realized in algorithm and can reduce computational complexity and decrease dimension of the encoder.
Negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors
Perlee, C.; Casasent, D.
1986-01-01
In the digital multiplication by analog convolution algorithm, the bits of two encoded numbers are convolved to form the product of the two numbers in mixed binary representation; this output can be easily converted to binary. Attention is presently given to negative base encoding, treating base -2 initially, and then showing that the negative base system can be readily extended to any radix. In general, negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors represents a more efficient technique than either sign magnitude or 2's complement encoding, when the additions of digitally encoded products are performed in parallel.
Absolute Difference and Low-Power Bus Encoding Method for LCD Digital Display Interfaces
Chia-Hao Fang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Power dissipation has been an inevitable problem of LCD systems for years. To ease the problem, many encoding methods have been developed, such as the methods of transition minimized differential signaling, the most popular one in use for DVI to date, chromatic encoding, and limited intraword transition. In this paper, the authors present the absolute difference and low-power encoding method for the serial transmission of LCD digital DVI display interface. In regard to the LCD digital display interface with UMC 90 nm technology, the proposed method minimizes the architectural complexity and reduces the power dissipation by about 67% and 12%, respectively, compared with the transition minimized differential signaling and limited intraword transition. In short, the proposed method is an efficient bus encoding method to largely decrease the dynamic and total power dissipation of the LCD digital display interfaces.
Determination of optimal period of absolute encoders with single track cyclic gray code
张帆; 朱衡君
2008-01-01
Low cost and miniaturized rotary encoders are important in automatic and precise production. Presented here is a code called Single Track Cyclic Gray Code (STCGC) that is an image etched on a single circular track of a rotary encoder disk read by a group of even spread reading heads to provide a unique codeword for every angular position and features such that every two adjacent words differ in exactly one component, thus avoiding coarse error. The existing construction or combination methods are helpful but not sufficient in determining the period of the STCGC of large word length and the theoretical approach needs further development to extend the word length. Three principles, such as the seed combination, short code removal and ergodicity examination were put forward that suffice determination of the optimal period for such absolute rotary encoders using STCGC with even spread heads. The optimal periods of STCGC in 3 through 29 bit length were determined and listed.
Absolute stability analysis of linear systems with Duhem hysteresis operator
Ouyang, Ruiyue; Jayawardhana, Bayu
2014-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the stability of positive and negative feedback interconnections of a linear system and a Duhem hysteresis operator. We provide sufficient conditions on the linear plant and on the Duhem operator which are based on the counterclockwise (CCW) or clockwise (CW) input–outp
Tape measuring system using linear encoder and digital camera
Eom, Tae Bong; Jeong, Don Young; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Jae Wan; Kim, Jong Ahn
2013-04-01
We have designed and constructed the calibration system of line standards such as tape and rule for the secondary calibration laboratories. The system consists of the main body with linear stage and linear encoder, the optical microscope with digital camera, and the computer. The base of the system is a aluminum profile with 2.9 m length, 0.09 m height and 0.18 m width. The linear stage and the linear encoder are fixed on the aluminum profile. The micro-stage driven by micrometer is fixed on the carriage of the long linear stage, and the optical microscope with digital camera and the tablet PC are on the this stage. The linear encoder counts the moving distance of the linear stage with resolution of 1 μm and its counting value is transferred to the tablet PC. The image of the scale mark of the tape is captured by the CCD camera of optical microscope and transferred to the PC through USB interface. The computer automatically determines the center of the scale mark by image processing technique and at the same time reads the moving distance of the linear stage. As a result, the computer can calculate the interval between the scale marks of the tape. In order to achieve the high accuracy, the linear encoder should be calibrated using the laser interferometer or the rigid steel rule. This calibration data of the linear encoder is stored at the computer and the computer corrects the reading value of the linear encoder. In order to determine the center of the scale mark, we use three different algorithms. First, the image profile over specified threshold level is fitted in even order polynomial and the axis of the polynomial is used as the center of the line. Second, the left side and right side areas at the center of the image profile are calculated so that two areas are same. Third, the left and right edges of the image profile are determined at every intensity level of the image and the center of the graduation is calculated as an average of the centers of the left
Power calculation of linear and angular incremental encoders
Prokofev, Aleksandr V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Mednikov, Sergey V.; Sycheva, Elena A.
2016-04-01
Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and transmit the measured values back to the control unit. The capabilities of these systems are undergoing continual development in terms of their resolution, accuracy and reliability, their measuring ranges, and maximum speeds. This article discusses the method of power calculation of linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders, to find the optimum parameters for its components, such as light emitters, photo-detectors, linear and angular scales, optical components etc. It analyzes methods and devices that permit high resolutions in the order of 0.001 mm or 0.001°, as well as large measuring lengths of over 100 mm. In linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders optical beam is usually formulated by a condenser lens passes through the measuring unit changes its value depending on the movement of a scanning head or measuring raster. Past light beam is converting into an electrical signal by the photo-detecter's block for processing in the electrical block. Therefore, for calculating the energy source is a value of the desired value of the optical signal at the input of the photo-detecter's block, which reliably recorded and processed in the electronic unit of linear and angular incremental optoelectronic encoders. Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and
The cerebellum linearly encodes whisker position during voluntary movement.
Chen, Susu; Augustine, George J; Chadderton, Paul
2016-01-19
Active whisking is an important model sensorimotor behavior, but the function of the cerebellum in the rodent whisker system is unknown. We have made patch clamp recordings from Purkinje cells in vivo to identify whether cerebellar output encodes kinematic features of whisking including the phase and set point. We show that Purkinje cell spiking activity changes strongly during whisking bouts. On average, the changes in simple spike rate coincide with or slightly precede movement, indicating that the synaptic drive responsible for these changes is predominantly of efferent (motor) rather than re-afferent (sensory) origin. Remarkably, on-going changes in simple spike rate provide an accurate linear read-out of whisker set point. Thus, despite receiving several hundred thousand discrete synaptic inputs across a non-linear dendritic tree, Purkinje cells integrate parallel fiber input to generate precise information about whisking kinematics through linear changes in firing rate.
Kaufman, A.N.; Brizard, A.J.; Morehead, J.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Tracy, E.R. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)
1997-12-31
The resonant interaction of a negative-energy wave with a positive-energy wave gives rise to a linear instability. Whereas a single crossing of rays in a nonuniform medium leads to a convectively saturated instability, we show that a double crossing can yield an absolute instability.
Study of Coding Image Acquisition System of Precise Absolute Optical Encoder%精密绝对光栅尺的编码采集系统研究
范朝龙; 王晗; 刘强; 陈新度
2014-01-01
通过对绝对光栅尺图像编码及解码原理的研究，完成了基于FPGA对绝对光栅尺编码图像软硬件采集系统的设计。在FPGA中实现基于SDRAM的控制模块，设计了CMOS摄像头的I2 C控制模块，建立了VGA输出显示模块，新增了 CMOS摄像头开窗扫瞄模块及灰度处理模块。整个模块的设计基于 Quartus II 9.0软件开发平台，使用 Verilog HDL 语言进行编程，在主控核心芯片EP2 C8 Q208 C8 N硬件平台上实现编码图像的采集，采集到的绝对编码数据传送给后端DSP解码得出绝对光栅尺的位移绝对位置。该系统实现了绝对位置的采码功能，同时保持了采码的可靠性，为绝对式光栅尺的开发研究提供了一条新的途径。%With studying of theory which is cording and decoding of image of absoluteoptical encoder, It have been designed that soft and hardware of Coding image acquisition system of absolute linear optical en-coder based on FPGA. It is have been completed on FPGA that controlling module based on SDRAM, and founded that I2 C controlling module of CMOS camera and designed that video display module of VGA out-put and newly increased that controlling module of window scanning of CMOS camera, and gray-scale pro-cessing module. All module have been designed onQuartus II 9. 0 that is software development platform, and have been assembled with Verilog HDL and have accomplished absolute coding image acquisition on hardware platform whose modle is EP2C8Q208C8N and that is main control chip. Images of the absolute encoding which is acquired is sent to DSP to decode and work out absolute position of moving of absoluteop-tical encoder. The system can accomplish acquisitionof absolute position and keep reliability of encoding ac-quisition, It provide a new approach to developing and studying of absoluteoptical encoder.
Min WU; Yong HE; Jinhua SHE
2004-01-01
Necessary and suffcient conditions for the existence of a Lyapunov function in the Lur'e form to guarantee the absolute stability ofLur' e control systems with multiple non-linearities are discussed in this paper. It simplifies the existence problem to one of solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). If those LMIs are feasible, free parameters in the Lyapunov function,such as the positive definite matrix and the coefficients of the integral terms, are given by the solution of the LMIs. Otherwise, this Lyapunov function does not exist. Some sufficient conditions are also obtained for the robust absolute stability of uncertain systems.A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Straight to the point: how people encode linear discontinuations
Rodrigo I. Mora
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Spatial discontinuations, as those found in cities and buildings, are everyday events. But, how do we encode and classify such misalignments? This is the topic of this paper. Twenty participants were asked to classify a total of 51 icons showing an upward-moving line being misaligned to the right, left and straight down. The results show that subjects were very sensitive to slight discontinuations occurring to vertical lines and that there was not exact symmetry between the left and right axis, meaning that the pieces slightly misaligned to the left were encoded differently than those misaligned to the right
Progressive encoding with non-linear source codes for compression of low-entropy sources
Ramírez Javega, Francisco; Lamarca Orozco, M. Meritxell; García Frías, Javier
2010-01-01
We propose a novel scheme for source coding of non-uniform memoryless binary sources based on progressively encoding the input sequence with non-linear encoders. At each stage, a number of source bits is perfectly recovered, and these bits are thus not encoded in the next stage. The last stage consists of an LDPC code acting as a source encoder over the bits that have not been recovered in the previous stages. Peer Reviewed
Fu, Glenn K; Wilhelmy, Julie; Stern, David; Fan, H Christina; Fodor, Stephen P A
2014-03-18
We present a new approach for the sensitive detection and accurate quantitation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) gene transcripts in single cells. First, the entire population of mRNAs is encoded with molecular barcodes during reverse transcription. After amplification of the gene targets of interest, molecular barcodes are counted by sequencing or scored on a simple hybridization detector to reveal the number of molecules in the starting sample. Since absolute quantities are measured, calibration to standards is unnecessary, and many of the relative quantitation challenges such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bias are avoided. We apply the method to gene expression analysis of minute sample quantities and demonstrate precise measurements with sensitivity down to sub single-cell levels. The method is an easy, single-tube, end point assay utilizing standard thermal cyclers and PCR reagents. Accurate and precise measurements are obtained without any need for cycle-to-cycle intensity-based real-time monitoring or physical partitioning into multiple reactions (e.g., digital PCR). Further, since all mRNA molecules are encoded with molecular barcodes, amplification can be used to generate more material for multiple measurements and technical replicates can be carried out on limited samples. The method is particularly useful for small sample quantities, such as single-cell experiments. Digital encoding of cellular content preserves true abundance levels and overcomes distortions introduced by amplification.
Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika
2009-01-01
made in the coding algorithm, in the ruler topology and in the dedicated software. The optimized ALE is a robust device able to work in industrial environment, with a high level of vibrations. By this reason it is ideal for the transport system control in automating manufacturing processes, intelligent...
2014-03-07
the convergent solution in the case of the continuum mechanics based bi- linear shear deformable ANCF shell element. 5.3 Slit Annular Plate Subjected...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. #24515 CONTINUUM MECHANICS BASED BI- LINEAR SHEAR DEFORMABLE SHELL ELEMENT...MAR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED 07-01-2014 to 04-03-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CONTINUUM MECHANICS BASED BI- LINEAR
Validity of linear encoder measurement of sit-to-stand performance power in older people.
Lindemann, U; Farahmand, P; Klenk, J; Blatzonis, K; Becker, C
2015-09-01
To investigate construct validity of linear encoder measurement of sit-to-stand performance power in older people by showing associations with relevant functional performance and physiological parameters. Cross-sectional study. Movement laboratory of a geriatric rehabilitation clinic. Eighty-eight community-dwelling, cognitively unimpaired older women (mean age 78 years). Sit-to-stand performance power and leg power were assessed using a linear encoder and the Nottingham Power Rig, respectively. Gait speed was measured on an instrumented walkway. Maximum quadriceps and hand grip strength were assessed using dynamometers. Mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area of both legs was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Associations of sit-to-stand performance power with power assessed by the Nottingham Power Rig, maximum gait speed and muscle cross-sectional area were r=0.646, r=0.536 and r=0.514, respectively. A linear regression model explained 50% of the variance in sit-to-stand performance power including muscle cross-sectional area (p=0.001), maximum gait speed (p=0.002), and power assessed by the Nottingham Power Rig (p=0.006). Construct validity of linear encoder measurement of sit-to-stand power was shown at functional level and morphological level for older women. This measure could be used in routine clinical practice as well as in large-scale studies. DRKS00003622. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Layton, Kelvin J; Gallichan, Daniel; Testud, Frederik; Cocosco, Chris A; Welz, Anna M; Barmet, Christoph; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim
2013-09-01
It has recently been demonstrated that nonlinear encoding fields result in a spatially varying resolution. This work develops an automated procedure to design single-shot trajectories that create a local resolution improvement in a region of interest. The technique is based on the design of optimized local k-space trajectories and can be applied to arbitrary hardware configurations that employ any number of linear and nonlinear encoding fields. The trajectories designed in this work are tested with the currently available hardware setup consisting of three standard linear gradients and two quadrupolar encoding fields generated from a custom-built gradient insert. A field camera is used to measure the actual encoding trajectories up to third-order terms, enabling accurate reconstructions of these demanding single-shot trajectories, although the eddy current and concomitant field terms of the gradient insert have not been completely characterized. The local resolution improvement is demonstrated in phantom and in vivo experiments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Linear-algebraic Lambda-calculus: higher-order, encodings and confluence
Arrighi, P; Arrighi, Pablo; Dowek, Gilles
2006-01-01
We introduce a minimal language combining both higher-order computation and linear algebra. Roughly, this is nothing else than the Lambda-calculus together with the possibility to make linear combinations of terms a.t+b.u. We describe how to "execute" this language in terms of a few rewrite rules, and justify them through the two fundamental requirements that the language be a language of linear operators, and that it be higher-order. We mention the perspectives of this work in field of quantum computation, which we show can be easily encoded in the calculus, as well as in other domains such as the interpretation of linear logic. Finally we prove the confluence of the calculus, this is our main result. Keywords: quantum programming language, quantum control, quantum logic, probabilistic and quantitative analysis, rewriting techniques.
A study on the fabrication of main scale of linear encoder using continuous roller imprint method
Fan, Shanjin; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei; Feng, Long; Liu, Hongzhong
2013-10-01
Linear encoder composed of main and index scales has an extensive application in the field of modern precision measurement. The main scale is the key component of linear encoder as measuring basis. In this article, the continuous roller imprint technology is applied to the manufacturing of the main scale, this method can realize the high efficiency and low cost manufacturing of the ultra-long main scale. By means of the plastic deformation of the soft metal film substrate, the grating microstructure on the surface of the cylinder mold is replicated to the soft metal film substrate directly. Through the high precision control of continuous rotational motion of the mold, ultra-long high precision grating microstructure is obtained. This paper mainly discusses the manufacturing process of the high precision cylinder mold and the effects of the roller imprint pressure and roller rotation speed on the imprint replication quality. The above process parameters were optimized to manufacture the high quality main scale. At last, the reading test of a linear encoder contains the main scale made by the above method was conducted to evaluate its measurement accuracy, the result demonstrated the feasibility of the continuous roller imprint method.
A Novel Magnetic Linear Encoder Designed by Using the Slant Multi-Phase Filtering Model
SHI Yu; XING Huai-Zhong; ZHANG Huai-Wu; LIU Ying-Li; JING Yu-Lan; ZHONG Zhi-Yong
2004-01-01
@@ A novel design model based on the slant multi-phase filtering model is presented. A magnetic linear encoder with sinusoidal output voltage waveform has been investigated, and the improved sinusoidal output waveform can be easily acquired. A minimum 6% of distortion factor, when the difference of slant phase is 2π/3, is observed. It is found that the Wheatstone bridge type sensor, made of NiFe(450A)/NiO(300A) bilayers deposited on Si (001)substrate, can enhance both output signal and thermal stability, and then can be widely used in the field of magneto-resistive sensor.
Generalized model of double random phase encoding based on linear algebra
Nakano, Kazuya; Takeda, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro
2013-01-01
We propose a generalized model for double random phase encoding (DRPE) based on linear algebra. We defined the DRPE procedure in six steps. The first three steps form an encryption procedure, while the later three steps make up a decryption procedure. We noted that the first (mapping) and second (transform) steps can be generalized. As an example of this generalization, we used 3D mapping and a transform matrix, which is a combination of a discrete cosine transform and two permutation matrices. Finally, we investigated the sensitivity of the proposed model to errors in the decryption key.
Lingxia Liu
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In order to find effective coding method, as much as possible eliminate the redundant information of original food packaging image and improve food packaging image compression efficiency, a kind of fast EZW food packaging encoding and decoding algorithm using linear indexing technique is proposed in this study. This kind of algorithm encodes and scans the linear sequence coefficients, which only needs less location information and improves the food packaging encoding and decoding speed to a certain degree, thus realizing a linear indexing technique similar to that in the non-linked list SPIHT. If the creation of linear sequence is placed before the coding of a group of food packaging images, then only the linear sequence is created once, the coding of these food packaging images can be implemented, so as to save a lot of coding time.
In-flow real-time detection of spectrally encoded microgels for miRNA absolute quantification.
Dannhauser, David; Causa, Filippo; Battista, Edmondo; Cusano, Angela M; Rossi, Domenico; Netti, Paolo A
2016-11-01
We present an in-flow ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) using spectrally encoded microgels. We researched and employed a viscoelastic fluid to achieve an optimal alignment of microgels in a straight measurement channel and applied a simple and inexpensive microfluidic layout, allowing continuous fluorescence signal acquisitions with several emission wavelengths. In particular, we chose microgels endowed with fluorescent emitting molecules designed for multiplex spectral analysis of specific miRNA types. We analysed in a quasi-real-time manner circa 80 microgel particles a minute at sample volumes down to a few microliters, achieving a miRNA detection limit of 202 fM in microfluidic flow conditions. Such performance opens up new routes for biosensing applications of particles within microfluidic devices.
Orrego, Juan F; Truong, Thanh N; Mondragón, Fanor
2008-09-11
A new linear relationship between absolute hardness and global activation energy of O-addition reaction to a series of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) is presented. A total of seventeen O((3)P)-addition reactions were evaluated. Thermal rate constants were calculated for each elementary reaction and used to estimate the total rate constants. This information was employed to obtain the global activation energy. A new linear relationship is shown and is estimated that it can be used within the RC-TST framework to predict relative rate constants for any reaction within an O-addition to PAH class from just absolute hardness values.
Qualification of HEIDENHAIN linear encoders for picometer resolution metrology in VTF Etalons
Halbgewachs, Clemens; Kentischer, Thomas J.; Sändig, Karsten; Baumgartner, Joerg; Bell, Alexander; Fischer, Andreas; Funk, Stefan; Heidecke, Frank; Scheiffelen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Spanner, Erwin; Speckbacher, Peter; von der Lühe, Oskar F.
2016-08-01
The Visible Tunable Filter (VTF) is a narrowband tunable instrument for imaging spectropolarimetry in the wavelength range between 520 and 870 nm. It is based on large-format Fabry Perots with a free aperture of 250 mm. The instrument will be one of the first-light instruments of the 4 m aperture Daniel K. Inoue Solar Telescope (DKIST) that is currently under construction on Maui (Hawaii). To provide stable and repeatable spectral scanning by tuning the air gap distance of the Etalons, a metrology system with 20 pm resolution and drift stability of better 100 pm per hour is needed. The integration of the metrology system must preserve the tight optical specifications of the Etalon plates. The HEIDENHAIN LIP 382 linear encoder system has a selected linear scale for low noise high signal interpolation. The signal period is 128nm and the interpolated signal from the sensor can be read out at 128 nm/ 14 bit = 7.8125 pm. To qualify the LIP 382 system for the VTF, we investigated the resolution and stability under nominal VTF operation conditions and verified a mounting concept for the sensor heads. We present results that demonstrate that the LIP 382 system fulfills the requirements for the VTF Etalons. We also present a design for the sensor head mounts.
The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors
Tran, Trong-Hieu; Chao, Paul Chang-Po; Chien, Ping-Chieh
2016-01-01
This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR) linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an “MR reader” stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB) over the input range of 0.5–2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm2, while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL) is −0.79–0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL) is −0.68–0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB) of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement measurement
The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors.
Tran, Trong-Hieu; Chao, Paul Chang-Po; Chien, Ping-Chieh
2016-09-02
This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR) linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an "MR reader" stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB) over the input range of 0.5-2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm², while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL) is -0.79-0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL) is -0.68-0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB) of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement measurement error is within
The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors
Trong-Hieu Tran
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an “MR reader” stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs. The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB over the input range of 0.5–2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm2, while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL is −0.79–0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL is −0.68–0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement
The vestibular system implements a linear-nonlinear transformation in order to encode self-motion.
Massot, Corentin; Schneider, Adam D; Chacron, Maurice J; Cullen, Kathleen E
2012-01-01
Although it is well established that the neural code representing the world changes at each stage of a sensory pathway, the transformations that mediate these changes are not well understood. Here we show that self-motion (i.e. vestibular) sensory information encoded by VIIIth nerve afferents is integrated nonlinearly by post-synaptic central vestibular neurons. This response nonlinearity was characterized by a strong (~50%) attenuation in neuronal sensitivity to low frequency stimuli when presented concurrently with high frequency stimuli. Using computational methods, we further demonstrate that a static boosting nonlinearity in the input-output relationship of central vestibular neurons accounts for this unexpected result. Specifically, when low and high frequency stimuli are presented concurrently, this boosting nonlinearity causes an intensity-dependent bias in the output firing rate, thereby attenuating neuronal sensitivities. We suggest that nonlinear integration of afferent input extends the coding range of central vestibular neurons and enables them to better extract the high frequency features of self-motion when embedded with low frequency motion during natural movements. These findings challenge the traditional notion that the vestibular system uses a linear rate code to transmit information and have important consequences for understanding how the representation of sensory information changes across sensory pathways.
The vestibular system implements a linear-nonlinear transformation in order to encode self-motion.
Corentin Massot
Full Text Available Although it is well established that the neural code representing the world changes at each stage of a sensory pathway, the transformations that mediate these changes are not well understood. Here we show that self-motion (i.e. vestibular sensory information encoded by VIIIth nerve afferents is integrated nonlinearly by post-synaptic central vestibular neurons. This response nonlinearity was characterized by a strong (~50% attenuation in neuronal sensitivity to low frequency stimuli when presented concurrently with high frequency stimuli. Using computational methods, we further demonstrate that a static boosting nonlinearity in the input-output relationship of central vestibular neurons accounts for this unexpected result. Specifically, when low and high frequency stimuli are presented concurrently, this boosting nonlinearity causes an intensity-dependent bias in the output firing rate, thereby attenuating neuronal sensitivities. We suggest that nonlinear integration of afferent input extends the coding range of central vestibular neurons and enables them to better extract the high frequency features of self-motion when embedded with low frequency motion during natural movements. These findings challenge the traditional notion that the vestibular system uses a linear rate code to transmit information and have important consequences for understanding how the representation of sensory information changes across sensory pathways.
Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely
Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage
2015-01-01
The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…
pEVL: A Linear Plasmid for Generating mRNA IVT Templates With Extended Encoded Poly(A Sequences
Alexandra E Grier
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Increasing demand for large-scale synthesis of in vitro transcribed (IVT mRNA is being driven by the increasing use of mRNA for transient gene expression in cell engineering and therapeutic applications. An important determinant of IVT mRNA potency is the 3′ polyadenosine (poly(A tail, the length of which correlates with translational efficiency. However, present methods for generation of IVT mRNA rely on templates derived from circular plasmids or PCR products, in which homopolymeric tracts are unstable, thus limiting encoded poly(A tail lengths to ≃120 base pairs (bp. Here, we have developed a novel method for generation of extended poly(A tracts using a previously described linear plasmid system, pJazz. We find that linear plasmids can successfully propagate poly(A tracts up to ≃500 bp in length for IVT mRNA production. We then modified pJazz by removing extraneous restriction sites, adding a T7 promoter sequence upstream from an extended multiple cloning site, and adding a unique type-IIS restriction site downstream from the encoded poly(A tract to facilitate generation of IVT mRNA with precisely defined encoded poly(A tracts and 3′ termini. The resulting plasmid, designated pEVL, can be used to generate IVT mRNA with consistent defined lengths and terminal residue(s.
Crespi, M; Messens, E; Caplan, A B; van Montagu, M; Desomer, J
1992-01-01
Rhodococcus fascians is a nocardiform bacteria that induces leafy galls (fasciation) on dicotyledonous and several monocotyledonous plants. The wild-type strain D188 contained a conjugative, 200 kb linear extrachromosomal element, pFiD188. Linear plasmid-cured strains were avirulent and reintroduction of this linear element restored virulence. Pulsed field electrophoresis indicated that the chromosome might also be a linear molecule of 4 megabases. Three loci involved in phytopathogenicity have been identified by insertion mutagenesis of this Fi plasmid. Inactivation of the fas locus resulted in avirulent strains, whereas insertions in the two other loci affected the degree of virulence, yielding attenuated (att) and hypervirulent (hyp) bacteria. One of the genes within the fas locus encoded an isopentenyltranferase (IPT) with low homology to analogous proteins from Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria. IPT activity was detected after expression of this protein in Escherichia coli cells. In R.fascians, ipt expression could only be detected in bacteria induced with extracts from fasciated tissue. R.fascians strains without the linear plasmid but containing this fas locus alone could not provoke any phenotype on plants, indicating additional genes from the linear plasmid were also essential for virulence. These studies, the first genetic analysis of the interaction of a Gram-positive bacterium with plants, suggest that a novel mechanism for plant tumour induction has evolved in R.fascians independently from the other branches of the eubacteria. Images PMID:1547783
Lim Meng-Hui
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Biometric discretization extracts a binary string from a set of real-valued features per user. This representative string can be used as a cryptographic key in many security applications upon error correction. Discretization performance should not degrade from the actual continuous features-based classification performance significantly. However, numerous discretization approaches based on ineffective encoding schemes have been put forward. Therefore, the correlation between such discretization and classification has never been made clear. In this article, we aim to bridge the gap between continuous and Hamming domains, and provide a revelation upon how discretization based on equal-width quantization and linearly separable subcode encoding could affect the classification performance in the Hamming domain. We further illustrate how such discretization can be applied in order to obtain a highly resembled classification performance under the general Lp distance and the inner product metrics. Finally, empirical studies conducted on two benchmark face datasets vindicate our analysis results.
A simple method encoding linear single strain DNA sequence with natural numbers
LI Jiye; XU Yuan; ZHANG Wang
2008-01-01
A simple method presenting linear single strain DNA (LssDNA) sequence with natural numbers is introduced in this paper. The method presents LssDNA correspondingly with the numerals 1, 2, 3 and 4. After calculation, the sequence can be coded in natural numbers which can also be decoded into the DNA sequence. Thus, an LssDNA sequence can be expressed in a natural number and a dot at coordinate axes. In the future, a new LssDNA sequences database termed "DotBank" would be realized in which each LssDNA sequence is determined as a dot.
Nachbagauer, Karin, E-mail: karin.nachbagauer@jku.at; Pechstein, Astrid S., E-mail: astrid.pechstein@jku.at; Irschik, Hans, E-mail: hans.irschik@jku.at [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Technical Mechanics (Austria); Gerstmayr, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.gerstmayr@lcm.at [Linz Center of Mechatronics GmbH (Austria)
2011-10-15
Many widely used beam finite element formulations are based either on Reissner's classical nonlinear rod theory or the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF). Advantages of the second method have been pointed out by several authors; among the benefits are the constant mass matrix of ANCF elements, the isoparametric approach and the existence of a consistent displacement field along the whole cross section. Consistency of the displacement field allows simpler, alternative formulations for contact problems or inelastic materials. Despite conceptional differences of the two formulations, the two models are unified in the present paper.In many applications, a nonlinear large deformation beam element with bending, axial and shear deformation properties is needed. In the present paper, linear and quadratic ANCF shear deformable beam finite elements are presented. A new locking-free continuum mechanics based formulation is compared to the classical Simo and Vu-Quoc formulation based on Reissner's virtual work of internal forces. Additionally, the introduced linear and quadratic ANCF elements are compared to a fully parameterized ANCF element from the literature. The performance of the respective elements is evaluated through analysis of conventional static and dynamic example problems. The investigation shows that the obtained linear and quadratic ANCF elements are advantageous compared to the original fully parameterized ANCF element.
Zhang, Yi; Gabr, Refaat E.; Zhou, Jinyuan; Weiss, Robert G.; Bottomley, Paul A.
2013-12-01
Noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with chemical shift imaging (CSI) provides valuable metabolic information for research and clinical studies, but is often limited by long scan times. Recently, spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) was shown to provide compartment-averaged spectra resolved in one spatial dimension with many-fold reductions in scan-time. This was achieved using a small subset of the CSI phase-encoding steps from central image k-space that maximized the signal-to-noise ratio. Here, SLAM is extended to two- and three-dimensions (2D, 3D). In addition, SLAM is combined with sensitivity-encoded (SENSE) parallel imaging techniques, enabling the replacement of even more CSI phase-encoding steps to further accelerate scan-speed. A modified SLAM reconstruction algorithm is introduced that significantly reduces the effects of signal nonuniformity within compartments. Finally, main-field inhomogeneity corrections are provided, analogous to CSI. These methods are all tested on brain proton MRS data from a total of 24 patients with brain tumors, and in a human cardiac phosphorus 3D SLAM study at 3T. Acceleration factors of up to 120-fold versus CSI are demonstrated, including speed-up factors of 5-fold relative to already-accelerated SENSE CSI. Brain metabolites are quantified in SLAM and SENSE SLAM spectra and found to be indistinguishable from CSI measures from the same compartments. The modified reconstruction algorithm demonstrated immunity to maladjusted segmentation and errors from signal heterogeneity in brain data. In conclusion, SLAM demonstrates the potential to supplant CSI in studies requiring compartment-average spectra or large volume coverage, by dramatically reducing scan-time while providing essentially the same quantitative results.
Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2005-01-01
In this paper a method for spatio-temporal encoding is presented for synthetic transmit aperture ultrasound imaging (STA). The purpose is to excite several transmitters at the same time in order to transmit more acoustic energy in every single transmission. When increasing the transmitted acoustic...... energy, the signal to noise ratio will increase. However, to focus the data properly using the STA approach, the transmitters have to be separated from each other. This is done by dividing the available spectrum into several subbands with a small overlap. Separating different transmitters can be done....... The method was tested using the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS and evaluated using a reference setup with a linear FM excitation waveform and STA beamforming. The point spread function (PSF) was measured on a wire phantom in water. A wire phantom with an attenuating medium was also measured, where...
J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)
2008-01-01
textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can a
Phillips, Alfred, Jr.
Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .
A novel approach of an absolute coding pattern based on Hamiltonian graph
Wang, Ya'nan; Wang, Huawei; Hao, Fusheng; Liu, Liqiang
2017-02-01
In this paper, a novel approach of an optical type absolute rotary encoder coding pattern is presented. The concept is based on the principle of the absolute encoder to find out a unique sequence that ensures an unambiguous shaft position of any angular. We design a single-ring and a n-by-2 matrix absolute encoder coding pattern by using the variations of Hamiltonian graph principle. 12 encoding bits is used in the single-ring by a linear array CCD to achieve an 1080-position cycle encoding. Besides, a 2-by-2 matrix is used as an unit in the 2-track disk to achieve a 16-bits encoding pattern by using an area array CCD sensor (as a sample). Finally, a higher resolution can be gained by an electronic subdivision of the signals. Compared with the conventional gray or binary code pattern (for a 2n resolution), this new pattern has a higher resolution (2n*n) with less coding tracks, which means the new pattern can lead to a smaller encoder, which is essential in the industrial production.
Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2005-01-01
energy, the signal to noise ratio will increase. However, to focus the data properly using the STA approach, the transmitters have to be separated from each other. This is done by dividing the available spectrum into several subbands with a small overlap. Separating different transmitters can be done......, thus, be avoided. To further increase the transmitted energy, the excitation waveforms are designed as linear frequency modulated (FM) signals. This makes it possible to maintain the full excitation amplitude during most of the transmission. The design of the separation filters will also be discussed...... the proposed method achieved approximately 2 cm improvement in penetration depth. The signal to noise ratio was also measured, where the gain was ∼ 7 dB in comparison to the reference....
Fischer, Rudolf Fritz; Baltes, Christof; Weiss, Kilian; Pazhenkottil, Aju; Rudin, Markus; Boesiger, Peter; Kozerke, Sebastian
2011-07-01
In this work Linear Response Equilibrium (LRE) and Echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) are compared in terms of sensitivity per unit time and power deposition. In addition an extended dual repetition time scheme to generate broad stopbands for improved inherent water suppression in LRE is presented. The feasibility of LRE and EPSI for assessing cholesterol esters in human carotid plaques with high spatial resolution of 1.95 × 1.15 × 1.15 mm 3 on a clinical 3T MR system is demonstrated. In simulations and phantom experiments it is shown that LRE has comparable but lower sensitivity per unit time relative to EPSI despite stronger signal generated. This relates to the lower sampling efficiency in LRE relative to EPSI as a result of limited gradient performance on clinical MR systems. At the same time, power deposition of LRE is significantly reduced compared to EPSI making it an interesting niche application for in vivo high field spectroscopic imaging of metabolites within a limited bandwidth.
van Rahden, Vanessa A; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Alawi, Malik; Brand, Kristina; Fellmann, Florence; Horn, Denise; Zeviani, Massimo; Kutsche, Kerstin
2015-04-01
Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is an X-linked male-lethal disorder also known as MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea). Additional clinical features include neurological and cardiac abnormalities. MLS syndrome is genetically heterogeneous given that heterozygous mutations in HCCS or COX7B have been identified in MLS-affected females. Both genes encode proteins involved in the structure and function of complexes III and IV, which form the terminal segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). However, not all individuals with MLS syndrome carry a mutation in either HCCS or COX7B. The majority of MLS-affected females have severe skewing of X chromosome inactivation, suggesting that mutations in HCCS, COX7B, and other as-yet-unidentified X-linked gene(s) cause selective loss of cells in which the mutated X chromosome is active. By applying whole-exome sequencing and filtering for X-chromosomal variants, we identified a de novo nonsense mutation in NDUFB11 (Xp11.23) in one female individual and a heterozygous 1-bp deletion in a second individual, her asymptomatic mother, and an affected aborted fetus of the subject's mother. NDUFB11 encodes one of 30 poorly characterized supernumerary subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, known as complex I (cI), the first and largest enzyme of the MRC. By shRNA-mediated NDUFB11 knockdown in HeLa cells, we demonstrate that NDUFB11 is essential for cI assembly and activity as well as cell growth and survival. These results demonstrate that X-linked genetic defects leading to the complete inactivation of complex I, III, or IV underlie MLS syndrome. Our data reveal an unexpected role of cI dysfunction in a developmental phenotype, further underscoring the existence of a group of mitochondrial diseases associated with neurocutaneous manifestations.
Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully
Wade, Angela
2012-01-01
What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…
Absolutely Indecomposable Modules
Göbel, Rüdiger
2007-01-01
A module is called absolutely indecomposable if it is directly indecomposable in every generic extension of the universe. We want to show the existence of large abelian groups that are absolutely indecomposable. This will follow from a more general result about R-modules over a large class of commutative rings R with endomorphism ring R which remains the same when passing to a generic extension of the universe. It turns out that `large' in this context has the precise meaning, namely being smaller then the first omega-Erdos cardinal defined below. We will first apply result on large rigid trees with a similar property established by Shelah in 1982, and will prove the existence of related ` R_omega-modules' (R-modules with countably many distinguished submodules) and finally pass to R-modules. The passage through R_omega-modules has the great advantage that the proofs become very transparent essentially using a few `linear algebra' arguments accessible also for graduate students. The result gives a new constru...
Mohammad Reza Marami Milani
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This study focuses on multiple linear regression models relating six climate indices (temperature humidity THI, environmental stress ESI, equivalent temperature index ETI, heat load HLI, modified HLI (HLI new, and respiratory rate predictor RRP with three main components of cow’s milk (yield, fat, and protein for cows in Iran. The least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO and the Akaike information criterion (AIC techniques are applied to select the best model for milk predictands with the smallest number of climate predictors. Uncertainty estimation is employed by applying bootstrapping through resampling. Cross validation is used to avoid over-fitting. Climatic parameters are calculated from the NASA-MERRA global atmospheric reanalysis. Milk data for the months from April to September, 2002 to 2010 are used. The best linear regression models are found in spring between milk yield as the predictand and THI, ESI, ETI, HLI, and RRP as predictors with p-value < 0.001 and R2 (0.50, 0.49 respectively. In summer, milk yield with independent variables of THI, ETI, and ESI show the highest relation (p-value < 0.001 with R2 (0.69. For fat and protein the results are only marginal. This method is suggested for the impact studies of climate variability/change on agriculture and food science fields when short-time series or data with large uncertainty are available.
Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application
Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David
2009-01-01
Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…
Absolute nuclear material assay
Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA
2012-05-15
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Päs, H; P\\"as, Heinrich; Weiler, Thomas J.
2002-01-01
The determination of absolute neutrino masses is crucial for the understanding of theories underlying the standard model, such as SUSY. We review the experimental prospects to determine absolute neutrino masses and the correlations among approaches, using the Delta m^2's inferred from neutrino oscillation experiments and assuming a three neutrino Universe.
Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.
2012-01-01
We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...
Sinha, Supurna
2005-01-01
We present an analytical study of the loss of quantum coherence at absolute zero. Our model consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators at absolute zero. We find that for an Ohmic bath, the offdiagonal elements of the density matrix in the position representation decay as a power law in time at late times. This slow loss of coherence in the quantum domain is qualitatively different from the exponential decay observed in studies of high temperature envir...
McLeod, Stephen
2014-07-01
Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.
Encoder designed to work in harsh environments
Toop, L.
2007-05-15
Dynapar has developed the Acuro AX71 absolute encoder for use on offshore or land-based oil rig operations. It provides feedback on the operation of automated systems such as draw works, racking systems, rotary tables and top drives. By ensuring that automated systems function properly, this encoder responds to a need by the oil and gas industry to keep workers safe and improve efficiency, particularly for operations in rugged situations. The encoder provides feedback from motor systems to controllers, giving information about position and speed of downhole drill bits. This newly developed encoder is better than commonly used incremental encoders which are not precise in strong electrical noise environments. Rather, the absolute encoder uses a different method of reporting to the controller. A digital signal is transmitted constantly as the device operates. It is less susceptible to noise issues. It is highly accurate, tolerant of noise and is not affected by power outages. However, the absolute encoder is generally more delicate in drilling applications with high ambient temperatures and shock levels. Dynapar addressed this issue by developing compact stainless steel housing that is useful for corrosion resistance in marine applications. The AX71 absolute encoder can withstand up to 100 G of mechanical shock and ambient temperatures of up to 60 degrees C. The encoder is ATEX certified without barriers, and offers the high resolution feedback of 4,000 counts of multiturn rotation and 16,000 counts of position. 1 fig.
Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia
Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.
motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...
Shao, Zhiyong; Graf, Shannon; Chaga, Oleg Y; Lavrov, Dennis V
2006-10-15
The 16,937-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) molecule of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) - the first mtDNA sequence from the class Scypozoa and the first sequence of a linear mtDNA from Metazoa - has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs. In addition, two open reading frames of 324 and 969 base pairs in length have been found. The deduced amino-acid sequence of one of them, ORF969, displays extensive sequence similarity with the polymerase [but not the exonuclease] domain of family B DNA polymerases, and this ORF has been tentatively identified as dnab. This is the first report of dnab in animal mtDNA. The genes in A. aurita mtDNA are arranged in two clusters with opposite transcriptional polarities; transcription proceeding toward the ends of the molecule. The determined sequences at the ends of the molecule are nearly identical but inverted and lack any obvious potential secondary structures or telomere-like repeat elements. The acquisition of mitochondrial genomic data for the second class of Cnidaria allows us to reconstruct characteristic features of mitochondrial evolution in this animal phylum.
Absolute Neutrino Mass Determination
Päs, H
2001-01-01
We discuss four approaches to the determination of absolute neutrino mass. These are the measurement of the zero-neutrino double beta decay rate, of the tritium decay end-point spectrum, of the cosmic ray spectrum above the GZK cutoff, and the cosmological measurement of the power spectrum governing the CMB and large scale structure. The first two approaches are sensitive to the mass eigenstates coupling to the electron neutrino, whereas the latter two are sensitive to the heavy component of the cosmic neutrino background. All mass eigenstates are related by the $\\Delta m^2$'s inferred from neutrino oscillation data. Consequently, the potential for absolute mass determination of each of the four approaches is correlated with the other three, in ways that we point out.
Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality
Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán
2015-12-01
Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.
Baumann, Henri
This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and
Okada, H; Bravar, A; Bunce, G; Dhawan, S; Eyser, K O; Gill, R; Haeberli, W; Huang, H; Jinnouchi, O; Makdisi, Y; Nakagawa, I; Nass, A; Saitô, N; Stephenson, E; Sviridia, D; Wise, T; Wood, J; Zelenski, A
2007-01-01
Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy of $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} < 5%$. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features \\textit{proton-proton} elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power $A_N$ of this process has allowed us to achieve $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} =4.2%$ in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of $A...
The absolute differential calculus (calculus of tensors)
Levi-Civita, Tullio
2013-01-01
Written by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical intro
Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia
Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.
The Fennoscandian postglacial uplift has been mapped geometrically using precise levelling, tide gauges, and networks of permanent GPS stations. The results identify major uplift rates at sites located around the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia. The vertical motions decay in all directions...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... from 1991, and in Sweden from 1992. FG5 was introduced in these three countries in 1993 (7 stations) and continued with an extended campaign in 1995 (12 stations). In 2003 a project was initiated by IfE, Hannover to collect observations simultaneously with GRACE on an annual cycle. New instruments were...
Optical tweezers absolute calibration
Dutra, R S; Neto, P A Maia; Nussenzveig, H M
2014-01-01
Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past fifteen years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spo...
Absolute multilateration between spheres
Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin
2017-04-01
Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.
Estimating Absolute Site Effects
Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L
2004-07-15
The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency
Absolute Stability of Discrete-Time Systems with Delay
Medina Rigoberto
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the stability of nonlinear nonautonomous discrete-time systems with delaying arguments, whose linear part has slowly varying coefficients, and the nonlinear part has linear majorants. Based on the "freezing" technique to discrete-time systems, we derive explicit conditions for the absolute stability of the zero solution of such systems.
Notes on absolute Hodge classes
Charles, François
2011-01-01
We survey the theory of absolute Hodge classes. The notes include a full proof of Deligne's theorem on absolute Hodge classes on abelian varieties as well as a discussion of other topics, such as the field of definition of Hodge loci and the Kuga-Satake construction.
An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System
Jeonggon Harrison Kim
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, respectively. A hysteresis test from 373K to 873K was also presented. Finally, robustness of the sensor system towards laser diode temperature drift, AFMZI temperature drift and PZT non-linearity was demonstrated.
Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.
Lin, Fa-Hsuan
2013-07-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled.
Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze
de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.
2011-01-01
This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.
Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze
M. de Angelis
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy. In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0 μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0 μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.
Self-Organising Stochastic Encoders
Luttrell, Stephen
2010-01-01
The processing of mega-dimensional data, such as images, scales linearly with image size only if fixed size processing windows are used. It would be very useful to be able to automate the process of sizing and interconnecting the processing windows. A stochastic encoder that is an extension of the standard Linde-Buzo-Gray vector quantiser, called a stochastic vector quantiser (SVQ), includes this required behaviour amongst its emergent properties, because it automatically splits the input space into statistically independent subspaces, which it then separately encodes. Various optimal SVQs have been obtained, both analytically and numerically. Analytic solutions which demonstrate how the input space is split into independent subspaces may be obtained when an SVQ is used to encode data that lives on a 2-torus (e.g. the superposition of a pair of uncorrelated sinusoids). Many numerical solutions have also been obtained, using both SVQs and chains of linked SVQs: (1) images of multiple independent targets (encod...
Absoluteness or relativity of morality
I. A. Kadievskaya
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Article is dedicated to the case study of absoluteness or relativity of morals. The questions are in a new way comprehended: Can exist absolute morals? Is how its content? Is necessary it for humanity? Is moral personality absolute value? Does justify the purpose of means? It is substantiated, that reflecting about the problem of absoluteness or relativity of morals, one ought not to be abstracted from the religion billions of people find in it the basis of their morals. Accumulated ethical experience is infinitely rich and diverse in humanity: it includes and the proclaimed prophets godly revelations, and the brilliant enlightenment of secular philosophers. Are analyzed such concepts, as morals, absolute morals, relativity, moral rigorizm, moral personality, formal ethics. The specific character of the moral relativity, which proclaims historicity and changeability of standards and standards of human behavior, is established. Moral rigorizm is understood as the principle, according to which the man must act only from the considerations of moral debt, whereas all other external motivations (interest, happiness, friendship, etc have no moral value. Is shown the priority significance of the nerigoristskoy formal ethics, in which strong idealizations and abstractions of the ethics of moral rigorizma are substituted by the weaker more realistic and more humane. In the nerigoristskoy formal ethics, as in the life, moral estimations completely can be and in the overwhelming majority of the cases are relative.
Database applicaton for absolute spectrophotometry
Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy
2002-12-01
32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.
Absolute Stability of Discrete-Time Systems with Delay
Rigoberto Medina
2008-02-01
Full Text Available We investigate the stability of nonlinear nonautonomous discrete-time systems with delaying arguments, whose linear part has slowly varying coefficients, and the nonlinear part has linear majorants. Based on the Ã¢Â€ÂœfreezingÃ¢Â€Â technique to discrete-time systems, we derive explicit conditions for the absolute stability of the zero solution of such systems.
On absolute stability of nonlinear systems with small delays
M. I. Gil
1998-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear nonautonomous retarded systems with separated autonomous linear parts and continuous nonlinear ones are considered. It is assumed that deviations of the argument are sufficiently small. Absolute stability conditions are derived. They are formulated in terms of eigenvalues of auxiliary matrices.
Absolute luminosity measurements at LHCb
Hopchev, Plamen
2011-01-01
Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC running at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer'' scan method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using both proton-gas and proton-proton interactions. The beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. We describe both methods and compare the two results. In addition, we present the techniques used to transport the absolute luminosity measurement ...
Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.
Vogt, W. Paul
1982-01-01
Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)
Absolute Standards for Climate Measurements
Leckey, J.
2016-10-01
In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.
Rapidly-Indexing Incremental-Angle Encoder
Christon, Philip R.; Meyer, Wallace W.
1989-01-01
Optoelectronic system measures relative angular position of shaft or other device to be turned, also measures absolute angular position after device turned through small angle. Relative angular position measured with fine resolution by optoelectronically counting finely- and uniformly-spaced light and dark areas on encoder disk as disk turns past position-sensing device. Also includes track containing coarsely- and nonuniformly-spaced light and dark areas, angular widths varying in proportion to absolute angular position. This second track provides gating and indexing signal.
Absolute Orientation Based on Distance Kernel Functions
Yanbiao Sun
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The classical absolute orientation method is capable of transforming tie points (TPs from a local coordinate system to a global (geodetic coordinate system. The method is based only on a unique set of similarity transformation parameters estimated by minimizing the total difference between all ground control points (GCPs and the fitted points. Nevertheless, it often yields a transformation with poor accuracy, especially in large-scale study cases. To address this problem, this study proposes a novel absolute orientation method based on distance kernel functions, in which various sets of similarity transformation parameters instead of only one set are calculated. When estimating the similarity transformation parameters for TPs using the iterative solution of a non-linear least squares problem, we assigned larger weighting matrices for the GCPs for which the distances from the point are short. The weighting matrices can be evaluated using the distance kernel function as a function of the distances between the GCPs and the TPs. Furthermore, we used the exponential function and the Gaussian function to describe distance kernel functions in this study. To validate and verify the proposed method, six synthetic and two real datasets were tested. The accuracy was significantly improved by the proposed method when compared to the classical method, although a higher computational complexity is experienced.
Physics of negative absolute temperatures
Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver
2017-01-01
Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.
Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection
Davuluri, Sankar
2016-07-01
In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.
The mixed Littlewood conjecture for pseudo-absolute values
Harrap, Stephen
2010-01-01
In this paper we prove the mixed Littlewood conjecture for a p-adic absolute value and any pseudo-absolute value with bounded ratios. More precisely we show that if p is a prime and D is a pseudo-absolute value sequence with elements divisible by finitely many primes not equal to p, and if the terms of D grow more slowly than the exponential of a polynomial then the infimum over natural numbers n of the quantity n.|n|_p.|n|_D.||nx|| equals 0 for all real x. Our proof relies on two deep results, a measure rigidity theorem due to Lindenstrauss and lower bounds for linear forms in logarithms due to Baker and Wustholz. We also deduce the answer to the related metric question of how fast the infimum above tends to zero, for almost every x.
Android Apps for Absolute Beginners
Jackson, Wallace
2011-01-01
Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl
An alternative approach to absolute-value test for the parameters of ...
An alternative approach to absolute-value test for the parameters of multiple linear regression models. ... Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or ...
On the class of p-absolutely summable sequence ( i p of interval numbers
Amar Jyoti Dutta
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this article we have studied on the class of p-absolutely summable sequence of interval numbers. We have discussed some important properties like linearity, completeness, solidity, symmetry and inclusion relation.
Ignacio Alejandre
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Se analiza la pérdida de precisión en codificadores (encoders opticos lineales por deformación de la retícula grabada. Los encoders ópticos lineales basados en el efecto moiré de franja infinita incorporan una retícula grabada sobre la superficie de un vidrio. Las deformaciones que dicho vidrio puede experimentar influyen de forma directa en la homogeneidad de la retícula, bien con carácter local o de forma más extendida. Dichas deformaciones pueden ser producidas por montajes inapropiados o por la propia modificación de la estructura de la máquina, en la que el encoder va montado, en las condiciones de funcionamiento. En este trabajo se compara la pérdida de precisión que se produce en los dos estados más probables de flexión del vidrio. Los resultados muestran que en las dos situaciones analizadas la deformación de la retícula del vidrio correspondiente al caso de colocación de calzos traseros es unas tres veces mayor que la correspondiente al caso de colocación de calzos inferiores.An analysis is made of the loss of precision in optical linear encoders due to deformation of the engraved reticule. Optical linear encoders based on the moiré effect of infinite boundary incorporate a reticule etched on a glass surface. Potential deformations of this glass directly influence the homogeneity of the reticule, in a local or generalised character. These deformations can be caused by inappropriate assembly or as a consequence of modification by the structure of the machine in which the encoder is incorporated, during working conditions. This study compares the loss of precision which occurs under the most probable conditions of flexion of the glass. The results showed that in the two situations analyzed, the deformation of the glass from a rear position was three times greater in effect than that observed in the case of deformation from below.
Absolute indoor calibration of large area solar cells
Metzdorf, J.; Wittchen, T.; Kaase, H.
1986-11-01
Equipment for the calibration of reference solar cells which is traceable back to their primary radiometric standards is presented. The apparatus, based on the differential spectral responsivity method is an absolute indoor procedure without reference solar cells, and needs no solar simulator. The method is applicable to all kinds of test devices up to solar cell areas of 10 x 10 cm without any requirements on linearity and spectral responsivity of the cells.
Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM
Dimsdle, Jeffrey William
2007-07-17
A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.
Cosmology with Negative Absolute Temperatures
Vieira, J P P; Lewis, Antony
2016-01-01
Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al (2013) has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ($w<-1$) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.
Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures
Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony
2016-08-01
Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.
Experimental study of absolute instability over a rotating disk
Othman Bekhit, Hesham Abdel Ghafar
2005-07-01
A series of experiments were performed to study the absolute instability of Type I traveling cross-flow modes in the boundary layer on a smooth disk rotating at constant speed. The basic flow agreed with analytic theory, and the growth of natural disturbances matched linear theory predictions. Controlled temporal disturbances were introduced by a short-duration air pulse from a hypodermic tube located above the disk and outside the boundary layer. The air pulse was positioned just outboard of the critical radius for Type I cross-flow modes. A hot-wire sensor primarily sensitive to the azirnuthal velocity component, was positioned at different spatial locations on the disk to document the growth of disturbances produced by the air pulses. Ensemble averages conditioned on the air pulses revealed wave packets that evolved in time and space. Two amplitudes of air pulses were used. The lower amplitude produced wave packets with linear amplitude characteristics that agreed with linear-theory wall-normal eigenfunction distributions and spatial growth rates. The higher amplitude pulse produced wave packets that had nonlinear amplitude characteristics. The space-time evolution of the leading and trailing edges of the wave packets were followed well past the critical radius for the absolute instability based on Lingwood (1995). With the linear amplitudes, the absolute instability was dominated by the convective modes, agreeing with the linear DNS simulations of Davies and Carpenter (2003). With the nonlinear amplitudes, larger temporal growth of the wave packets existed which supports the finite amplitude analysis of Pier (2003), and more closely resembles the wave packet evolution in the experimental study of Lingwood (1996). This suggests that the disturbance levels in the experiment that was intended to demonstrate the linear analysis, were likely fuite.
The Large Binocular Telescope azimuth and elevation encoder system
Ashby, David S.; Sargent, Tom; Cox, Dan; Rosato, Jerry; Brynnel, Joar G.
2008-08-01
A typical high-resolution encoder interpolator relies on careful mechanical alignment of the encoder read-heads and tight electrical tolerances of the signal processing electronics to ensure linearity. As the interpolation factor increases, maintaining these tight mechanical and electrical tolerances becomes impractical. The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is designed to utilize strip-type encoders on the main axes. Because of the very large scale of the telescope, the accumulative length of the azimuth and elevation encoder strips exceeds 80 meters, making optical tape prohibitively expensive. Consequently, the designers of the LBT incorporated the far less expensive Farrand Controls Inductosyn® linear strip encoder to encode the positions of the main axes and the instrument rotators. Since the cycle pitch of these encoders is very large compared to that of optical strip encoders, the interpolation factor must also be large in order to achieve the 0.005 arcsecond encoder resolution as specified. The authors present a description of the innovative DSP-based hardware / software solution that adaptively characterizes and removes common systematic cycle-to-cycle encoder interpolation errors. These errors can be caused by mechanical misalignment, encoder manufacturing flaws, variations in electrical gain, signal offset or cross-coupling of the encoder signals. Simulation data are presented to illustrate the performance of the interpolation algorithm, and telemetry data are presented to demonstrate the actual performance of the LBT main-axis encoder system.
Neural Sensitivity to Absolute and Relative Anticipated Reward in Adolescents
Vaidya, Jatin G.; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Block, Robert I.; Magnotta, Vincent
2013-01-01
Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046
Absolutely separating quantum maps and channels
Filippov, S. N.; Magadov, K. Yu; Jivulescu, M. A.
2017-08-01
Absolutely separable states ϱ remain separable under arbitrary unitary transformations U\\varrho {U}\\dagger . By example of a three qubit system we show that in a multipartite scenario neither full separability implies bipartite absolute separability nor the reverse statement holds. The main goal of the paper is to analyze quantum maps resulting in absolutely separable output states. Such absolutely separating maps affect the states in a way, when no Hamiltonian dynamics can make them entangled afterwards. We study the general properties of absolutely separating maps and channels with respect to bipartitions and multipartitions and show that absolutely separating maps are not necessarily entanglement breaking. We examine the stability of absolutely separating maps under a tensor product and show that {{{Φ }}}\\otimes N is absolutely separating for any N if and only if Φ is the tracing map. Particular results are obtained for families of local unital multiqubit channels, global generalized Pauli channels, and combination of identity, transposition, and tracing maps acting on states of arbitrary dimension. We also study the interplay between local and global noise components in absolutely separating bipartite depolarizing maps and discuss the input states with high resistance to absolute separability.
Gildeberto S. Cardoso
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a study of linear control systems based on exact feedback linearization and approximate feedback linearization. As exact feedback linearization is applied, a linear controller can perform the control objectives. The approximate feedback linearization is required when a nonlinear system presents a noninvolutive property. It uses a Taylor series expansion in order to compute a nonlinear transformation of coordinates to satisfy the involutivity conditions.
Absolute configuration of isovouacapenol C
Hoong-Kun Fun
2010-08-01
Full Text Available The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR-4a,6-dihydroxy-4,4,7,11b-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodecahydrophenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furanoditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclohexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å. An intramolecular C—H...O interaction generates an S(6 ring. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. C...O [3.306 (2–3.347 (2 Å] short contacts and C—H...π interactions also occur.
Measurement of the absolute speed is possible?
Shevchenko, Sergey V.; Vladimir V. Tokarevsky
2016-01-01
One of popular problems, which are experimentally studied in physics in a long time, is the testing of the special relativity theory, first of all – measurements of isotropy and constancy of light speed; as well as attempts to determine so called “absolute speed”, i.e. the Earth speed in the absolute spacetime (absolute reference frame), if this spacetime (ARF) exists. Corresponding experiments aimed at the measuring of proper speed of some reference frame in oth...
To measure the absolute speed is possible?
Shevchenko, Sergey; Tokarevsky, Vladimir
2013-01-01
One of popular problems, which are experimentally studied in physics in a long time, is the testing of the special relativity theory, first of all – measurements of isotropy and constancy of light speed; as well as attempts to determine so called “absolute speed”, i.e. the Earth speed in the absolute spacetime (absolute reference frame), if this spacetime (ARF) exists. Corresponding experiments aimed at the measuring of proper speed of some reference frame in other one, incl...
Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians
Brandimonte, Maria A.; Bruno, Nicola
2016-01-01
The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse) without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT). Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale’ of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task), in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task). A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo. PMID:27760198
Shilov, Georgi E
1977-01-01
Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.
Agarwalla Arun
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Linear psoriasis, inflammatory linear varrucous epidermal naevus (ILVEN. Lichen straitus, linear lichen planus and invasion of epidermal naevi by psoriasis have clinical and histopathological overlap. We report two young male patients of true linear psoriasis without classical lesions elsewhere which were proved histopathologically. Seasonal variation and good response to topical antipsoriatic treatment supported the diagnosis.
Combinatorial Selection and Least Absolute Shrinkage via the CLASH Algorithm
Kyrillidis, Anastasios
2012-01-01
The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) for linear regression exploits the geometric interplay of the $\\ell_2$-data error objective and the $\\ell_1$-norm constraint to arbitrarily select sparse models. Guiding this uninformed selection process with sparsity models has been precisely the center of attention over the last decade in order to improve learning performance. To this end, we alter the selection process of LASSO to explicitly leverage combinatorial sparsity models (CSMs) via the combinatorial selection and least absolute shrinkage (CLASH) operator. We provide concrete guidelines how to leverage combinatorial constraints within CLASH, and characterize CLASH's guarantees as a function of the set restricted isometry constants of the sensing matrix. Finally, our experimental results show that CLASH can outperform both LASSO and model-based compressive sensing in sparse estimation.
Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness
Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna
2008-01-01
This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…
Newton On Absolute Space A Commentary
Adewole, A I A
2001-01-01
Newton seems to have stated a quantitative relationship between the position of a body in relative space and the position of the body in absolute space in the first scholium of his Principia. We show that if this suspected relationship is assumed to hold, it will dispel many errors and misrepresentations that have befallen Newton's ideas on absolute space.
Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system
Wanke, Michael C.
2016-07-12
Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.
Absolute V-R colors of trans-Neptunian objects
Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro; Ayala-Loera, Carmen; Ortiz, Jose-Luis; Duffard, Rene; Estela, Fernandez-Valenzuela; Santos-Sanz, Pablo
2016-10-01
The absolute magnitude of a minor body is the apparent magnitude that the body would have if observed from the Sun at a distance of 1AU. Absolute magnitudes are measured using phase curves, showing the change of the magnitude, normalized to unit helio and geo-centric distance, vs. phase angle. The absolute magnitude is then the Y-intercept of the curve. Absolute magnitudes are related to the total reflecting surface of the body and thus bring information of its size, coupled with the reflecting properties.Since 2011 our team has been collecting data from several telescopes spread in Europe and South America. We complemented our data with those available in the literature in order to construct phase curves of trans-Neptunian objects with at least three points. In a first release (Alvarez-Candal et al. 2016, A&A, 586, A155) we showed results for 110 trans-Neptunian objects using V magnitudes only, assuming an overall linear trend and taking into consideration rotational effects, for objects with known light-curves.In this contribution we show results for more than 130 objects, about 100 of them with phase curves in two filters: V and R. We compute absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients in both filters, when available. The average values are HV = 6.39 ± 2.37, βV = (0.09 ± 0.32) mag per degree, HR = 5.38 ± 2.30, and βR = (0.08 ± 0.42) mag per degree.
Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.
Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning
2015-01-01
Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM
Absolutely stable solitons in two-component active systems
Malomed, B A; Malomed, Boris; Winful, Herbert
1995-01-01
As is known, a solitary pulse in the complex cubic Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation is unstable. We demonstrate that a system of two linearly coupled GL equations with gain and dissipation in one subsystem and pure dissipation in another produces absolutely stable solitons and their bound states. The problem is solved in a fully analytical form by means of the perturbation theory. The soliton coexists with a stable trivial state; there is also an unstable soliton with a smaller amplitude, which is a separatrix between the two stable states. This model has a direct application in nonlinear fiber optics, describing an Erbium-doped laser based on a dual-core fiber.
Sinan AYDIN
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Linear algebra is a basic course followed in mathematics, science, and engineering university departments.Generally, this course is taken in either the first or second year but there have been difficulties in teachingand learning. This type of active algebra has resulted in an increase in research by mathematics educationresearchers. But there is insufficient information on this subject in Turkish and therefore it has not beengiven any educational status. This paper aims to give a general overview of this subject in teaching andlearning. These education studies can be considered quadruple: a the history of linear algebra, b formalismobstacles of linear algebra and cognitive flexibility to improve teaching and learning, c the relation betweenlinear algebra and geometry, d using technology in the teaching and learning linear algebra.Mathematicseducation researchers cannot provide an absolute solution to overcome the teaching and learning difficultiesof linear algebra. Epistemological analyses and experimental teaching have shown the learning difficulties.Given these results, further advice and assistance can be offered locally.
Dynamical encoding of cursive handwriting.
Singer, Y; Tishby, N
1994-01-01
A model-based approach to on-line cursive handwriting analysis and recognition is presented and evaluated. In this model, on-line handwriting is considered as a modulation of a simple cycloidal pen motion, described by two coupled oscillations with a constant linear drift along the line of the writing. By slow modulations of the amplitudes and phase lags of the two oscillators, a general pen trajectory can be efficiently encoded. These parameters are then quantized into a small number of values without altering the writing intelligibility. A general procedure for the estimation and quantization of these cycloidal motion parameters for arbitrary handwriting is presented. The result is a discrete motor control representation of the continuous pen motion, via the quantized levels of the model parameters. This motor control representation enables successful word spotting and matching of cursive scripts. Our experiments clearly indicate the potential of this dynamic representation for complete cursive handwriting recognition.
Daubechies, I; Wang, Y; Yilmaz, Ö
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a novel Nyquist-rate analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion algorithm which achieves exponential accuracy in the bit-rate despite using imperfect components. The proposed algorithm is based on a robust implementation of a beta-encoder where the value of the base beta is equal to golden mean. It was previously shown that beta-encoders can be implemented in such a way that their exponential accuracy is robust against threshold offsets in the quantizer element. This paper extends this result by allowing for imperfect analog multipliers with imprecise gain values as well. A formal computational model for algorithmic encoders and a general test bed for evaluating their robustness is also proposed.
The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality
Mijuskovic, Ben
1975-01-01
In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)
The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality
Mijuskovic, Ben
1975-01-01
In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)
Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions
Tyc, Tomas
2011-01-01
We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.
Hyperstereopsis in helmet-mounted NVDs: absolute distance perception
Flanagan, Patrick; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Gibbs, Peter
2007-04-01
Modern helmet-mounted night vision devices, such as the Thales TopOwl helmet, project imagery from intensifiers mounted on the side of the helmet onto the helmet faceplate. The increased separation of the cameras induces hyperstereopsis - the exaggeration of the stereoscopic disparities that support the perception of relative depth around the point of fixation. Increased camera separation may also affect absolute depth perception, because it increases the amount of vergence (crossing) of the eyes required for binocular fusion, and because the differential perspective from the viewpoints of the two eyes is increased. The effect of hyperstereopsis on the perception of absolute distance was investigated using a large-scale stereoscopic display system. A fronto-parallel textured surface was projected at a distance of 6 metres. Three stereoscopic viewing conditions were simulated - hyperstereopsis (four times magnification), normal stereopsis, and hypostereopsis (one quarter magnification). The apparent distance of the surface was measured relative to a grid placed in a virtual "leaf room" that provided rich monocular cues, such as texture gradients and linear perspective, to absolute distance as well as veridical sterescopic disparity cues. The different stereoscopic viewing conditions had no differential effect on the apparent distance of the textured surface at this viewing distance.
Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.
Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X
2016-01-02
A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles.
The risks of absolute medical confidentiality.
Crook, M A
2013-03-01
Some ethicists argue that patient confidentiality is absolute and thus should never be broken. I examine these arguments that when critically scrutinised, become porous. I will explore the concept of patient confidentiality and argue that although, this is a very important medical and bioethical issue, this needs to be wisely delivered to reduce third party harm or even detriment to the patient. The argument for absolute confidentiality is particularly weak when it comes to genetic information and inherited disease.
BILINEAR FORMS AND LINEAR CODES
高莹
2004-01-01
Abraham Lempel et al[1] made a connection between linear codes and systems of bilinear forms over finite fields. In this correspondence, a new simple proof of a theorem in [1] is presented; in addition, the encoding process and the decoding procedure of RS codes are simplified via circulant matrices. Finally, the results show that the correspondence between bilinear forms and linear codes is not unique.
Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2008-01-01
A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\
DNA sequences encoding erythropoietin
Lin, F.K.
1987-10-27
A purified and isolated DNA sequence is described consisting essentially of a DNA sequence encoding a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence sufficiently duplicative of that of erythropoietin to allow possession of the biological property of causing bone marrow cells to increase production of reticulocytes and red blood cells, and to increase hemoglobin synthesis or iron uptake.
Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik
2014-11-01
This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.
Absolute instability in viscoelastic mixing layers
Ray, Prasun K.; Zaki, Tamer A.
2014-01-01
The spatiotemporal linear stability of viscoelastic planar mixing layers is investigated. A one-parameter family of velocity profiles is used as the base state with the parameter, S, controlling the amount of shear and backflow. The influence of viscoelasticity in dilute polymer solutions is modeled with the Oldroyd-B and FENE-P constitutive equations. Both models require the specification of the ratio of the polymer-relaxation and convective time scales (the Weissenberg number, We) and the ratio of solvent and solution viscosities (β). The maximum polymer extensibility, L, must also be specified for the FENE-P model. We examine how the variation of these parameters along with the Reynolds number, Re, affects the minimum value of S at which the flow becomes locally absolutely unstable. With the Oldroyd-B model, the influence of viscoelasticity is shown to be almost fully captured by the elasticity, E^* equiv (1-β ) We/Re, and Scrit decreases as elasticity is increased, i.e., elasticity is destabilizing. A simple approximate dispersion relation obtained via long-wave asymptotic analysis is shown to accurately capture this destabilizing influence. Results obtained with the FENE-P model exhibit a rich variety of behavior. At large values of the extensibility, L, results are similar to those for the Oldroyd-B fluid as expected. However, when the extensibility is reduced to more realistic values (L ≈ 100), one must consider the scaled shear rate, η _c equiv We S/2L, in addition to the elasticity. When ηc is large, the base-state polymer stress obtained by the FENE-P model is reduced, and there is a corresponding reduction in the overall influence of viscoelasticity on stability. Additionally, elasticity exhibits a stabilizing effect which is driven by the streamwise-normal perturbation polymer stress. As ηc is reduced, the base-state and perturbation normal polymer stresses predicted by the FENE-P model move towards the Oldroyd-B values, and the destabilizing
A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity
T. J. McDougall
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.
When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg^{−1} in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.
To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.
The report documents a series of seminars at Rome Air Development Center with the content equivalent to an intense course in Linear Systems . Material...is slanted toward the practicing engineer and introduces some of the fundamental concepts and techniques for analyzing linear systems . Techniques for
Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef
2009-09-01
Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.
Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.
Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V
2013-12-15
Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.
Stoll, R R
1968-01-01
Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand
Absolute Asymmetric Synthesis Using A Cocrystal Approach
H.Koshima
2007-01-01
1 Results Absolute asymmetric synthesis by means of solid-state reaction of chiral crystals self-assembled from achiral molecules is an attractive and promising methodology for asymmetric synthesis because it is not necessary to employ any external chiral source like a chiral catalyst.In order to design reliably absolute asymmetric syntheses in the solid state,it is inevitable to prepare and predict the formation of chiral crystals from achiral compounds.We have prepared a number of chiral cocrystals co...
Absolute-Magnitude Distributions of Supernovae
Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Maddox, Larry
2014-01-01
The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M_B -15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of -19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at -16.75.
Absolute Stability Limit for Relativistic Charged Spheres
Giuliani, Alessandro
2007-01-01
We find an exact solution for the stability limit of relativistic charged spheres for the case of constant gravitational mass density and constant charge density. We argue that this provides an absolute stability limit for any relativistic charged sphere in which the gravitational mass density decreases with radius and the charge density increases with radius. We then provide a cruder absolute stability limit that applies to any charged sphere with a spherically symmetric mass and charge distribution. We give numerical results for all cases. In addition, we discuss the example of a neutral sphere surrounded by a thin, charged shell.
Searle, Shayle R
2012-01-01
This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.
Solow, Daniel
2014-01-01
This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.
Berberian, Sterling K
2014-01-01
Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.
Liesen, Jörg
2015-01-01
This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...
Absolute and convective instabilities in a one-dimensional Brusselator flow model
Kuznetsov, S.P.; Mosekilde, Erik; Dewel, G.
1997-01-01
The paper considers a one-dimensional Brusselator model with a uniform flow of the mixture of reaction components. An absolute as well as a convective instability can arise for both the Hopf and the Turing modes. The corresponding linear stability analysis is presented and supported by the results...
Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification
Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen
2016-01-01
This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…
Time Function and Absolute Black Hole
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid
2006-01-01
Einstein’s theory of gravity is not consistent with quantum mechanics, because general relativity cannot be quantized. [1] But without conversion of force and energy, it is impossible to find a grand unified theory. A very important result of CPH theory is time function that allows we give a new ...... description of absolute black hole and before the big bang....
Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students
Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea
2011-01-01
This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…
Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector
Groenland, Johannes Petrus Jacobus
1990-01-01
The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the informatio
Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed
Lægaard, Sune
2014-01-01
Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorf...
Magnetoresistive sensor for absolute position detection
Groenland, J.P.J.
1984-01-01
A digital measurement principle for absolute position is decscribed. The position data is recorded serially into a single track of a hard-magnetic layer with the help of longitudinal saturation recording. Detection is possible by means of an array of sensor elements which can be made of a substrate.
Generalized Norms Inequalities for Absolute Value Operators
Ilyas Ali
2014-02-01
Full Text Available In this article, we generalize some norms inequalities for sums, differences, and products of absolute value operators. Our results based on Minkowski type inequalities and generalized forms of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Some other related inequalities are also discussed.
New Techniques for Absolute Gravity Measurements.
1983-01-07
Hammond, J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J. A., and Iliff, R. L. (1979) The AFGL absolute gravity system...International Gravimetric Bureau, No. L:I-43. 7. Hammond. J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J.A., and
Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed
Lægaard, Sune
2014-01-01
Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorfor...
Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification
Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen
2016-01-01
This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…
Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy
Tearney, G.J.; Webb, R.H.; Bouma, B.E. [Wellman Laboratories of Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Blossom Street, BAR 703, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)
1998-08-01
An endoscope-compatible, submicrometer-resolution scanning confocal microscopy imaging system is presented. This approach, spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM), uses a quasi-monochromatic light source and a transmission diffraction grating to detect the reflectivity simultaneously at multiple points along a transverse line within the sample. Since this method does not require fast spatial scanning within the probe, the equipment can be miniaturized and incorporated into a catheter or endoscope. Confocal images of an electron microscope grid were acquired with SECM to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Optical Society of America}
Absolute Radiation Thermometry in the NIR
Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.
2017-04-01
A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its absolute spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the absolute spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The absolute radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).
Olive, David J
2017-01-01
This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...
Sahai, Vivek
2013-01-01
Beginning with the basic concepts of vector spaces such as linear independence, basis and dimension, quotient space, linear transformation and duality with an exposition of the theory of linear operators on a finite dimensional vector space, this book includes the concept of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization, triangulation and Jordan and rational canonical forms. Inner product spaces which cover finite dimensional spectral theory and an elementary theory of bilinear forms are also discussed. This new edition of the book incorporates the rich feedback of its readers. We have added new subject matter in the text to make the book more comprehensive. Many new examples have been discussed to illustrate the text. More exercises have been included. We have taken care to arrange the exercises in increasing order of difficulty. There is now a new section of hints for almost all exercises, except those which are straightforward, to enhance their importance for individual study and for classroom use.
Edwards, Harold M
1995-01-01
In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject
Allenby, Reg
1995-01-01
As the basis of equations (and therefore problem-solving), linear algebra is the most widely taught sub-division of pure mathematics. Dr Allenby has used his experience of teaching linear algebra to write a lively book on the subject that includes historical information about the founders of the subject as well as giving a basic introduction to the mathematics undergraduate. The whole text has been written in a connected way with ideas introduced as they occur naturally. As with the other books in the series, there are many worked examples.Solutions to the exercises are available onlin
Inviscid instability of the Batchelor vortex: Absolute-convective transition and spatial branches
Olendraru, Cornel; Sellier, Antoine; Rossi, Maurice; Huerre, Patrick
1999-07-01
The main objective of the study is to examine the spatio-temporal instability properties of the Batchelor q-vortex, as a function of swirl ratio q and external axial flow parameter a. The inviscid dispersion relation between complex axial wave number and frequency is determined by numerical integration of the Howard-Gupta ordinary differential equation. The absolute-convective nature of the instability is then ascertained by application of the Briggs-Bers zero-group-velocity criterion. A moderate amount of swirl is found to promote the onset of absolute instability. In the case of wakes, transition from convective to absolute instability always takes place via the helical mode of azimuthal wave number m=-1. For sufficiently large swirl, co-flowing wakes become absolutely unstable. In the case of jets, transition from absolute to convective instability occurs through various helical modes, the transitional azimuthal wave number m being negative but sensitive to increasing swirl. For sufficiently large swirl, weakly co-flowing jets become absolutely unstable. These results are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with those obtained by Delbende et al. through a direct numerical simulation of the linear response. Finally, the spatial (complex axial wave number, real frequency) instability characteristics are illustrated for the case of zero-external flow swirling jets.
A modified phase-coding method for absolute phase retrieval
Xing, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.
2016-12-01
Fringe projection technique is one of the most robust tools for three dimensional (3D) shape measurement. Various fringe projection methods have been proposed for addressing different issues in profilometry and phase-coding is one such technique employed to determine fringe orders for absolute phase retrieval. However this method is prone to fringe order error, while dealing with high-frequency fringes. This paper studies phase error introduced by system non-linearity in phase-coding and provides a mathematical model to obtain the maximum number of achievable codewords in a given scheme. In addition, a modified phase-coding method is also proposed for phase error compensation. Experimental study validates the theoretical analysis on the maximum number of achievable codewords and the performance of the modified phase-coding method is also illustrated.
From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes
Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don
2012-01-01
Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.
Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED
Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.
2013-07-01
The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.
Learning in a unidimensional absolute identification task.
Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D; Cowan, Nelson; Pfaltz, Monique
2004-10-01
We tested whether there is long-term learning in the absolute identification of line lengths. Line lengths are unidimensional stimuli, and there is a common belief that learning of these stimuli quickly reaches a low-level asymptote of about seven items and progresses no more. We show that this is not the case. Our participants served in a 1.5-h session each day for over a week. Although they did not achieve perfect performance, they continued to improve day by day throughout the week and eventually learned to distinguish between 12 and 20 line lengths. These results are in contrast to common characterizations of learning in absolute identification tasks with unidimensional stimuli. We suggest that this learning reflects improvement in short-term processing.
Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters
Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Loughlin, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)
1995-06-01
The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.
Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters
Tedesco, Edward F.
1991-01-01
A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.
Absolute zero and the conquest of cold
Shachtman, Tom
2000-01-01
In a sweeping yet marvelously concise history, Tom Shachtman ushers us into a world in which scientists tease apart the all-important secrets of cold. Readers take an extraordinary trip, starting in the 1600s with an alchemist's air conditioning of Westminster Abbey and scientists' creation of thermometers. Later, while entrepreneurs sold Walden Pond ice to tropical countries -- packed in "high-tech" sawdust -- researchers pursued absolute zero and interpreted their work as romantically as did adventurers to remote regions. Today, playing with ultracold temperatures is one of the hottest frontiers in physics, with scientists creating useful particles Einstein only dreamed of. Tom Shachtman shares a great scientific adventure story and its characters' rich lives in a book that has won a grant from the prestigious Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Absolute Zero is for everyone who loves history and science history stories, who's eager to explore Nobel Prize-winning physics today, or who has ever sighed with pleasure ...
An absolute measure for a key currency
Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito
It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.
Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED
Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)
2013-07-26
The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.
Absolute vs. Relative Notion of Wealth Changes
2009-01-01
This paper discusses solutions derived from lottery experiments using two alternative assumptions: that people perceive wealth changes as absolute amounts of money; and that people consider wealth changes as a proportion of some reference value dependant on the context of the problem under consideration. The former assumption leads to the design of Prospect Theory, the latter - to a solution closely resembling the utility function hypothesized by Markowitz (1952B). This paper presents several...
Dong Jian-Wen; Hu Xin-Hua; Wang He-Zhou
2007-01-01
This paper has theoretically studied the characteristic frequencies of band structures in two-dimensional metallicdielectric photonic crystals. It is demonstrated that a large filling fraction benefits the existence of absolute photonic band gap, while a smaller filling fraction benefits an absolute negative refraction band. In addition, it also finds that the relation between the cut-off frequency of E-polarized wave and the filling fraction exceeding 10% is content with a linear increasing function, whose coefficients are exponential to the normalized lattice constant. These investigations have significant implications for tuning the operational frequencies to desired applications and manufacturing photonic crystals.
Composite pulses for RF phase encoded MRI: A simulation study.
Salajeghe, Somaie; Babyn, Paul; Sarty, Gordon E
2017-02-01
In B1 encoded MRI, a realistic non-linear phase RF encoding coil will generate an inhomogeneous B1 field that leads to spatially dependent flip angles. The non-linearity of the B1 phase gradient can be compensated for in the reconstruction, but B1 inhomogeneity remains a problem. The effect of B1 inhomogeneity on tip angles for conventional, B0 encoded MRI, may be minimized using composite pulses. The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using composite pulses with non-linear RF phase encoding coils and to identify the most appropriate composite pulse scheme. RF encoded signals were simulated via the Bloch equation for various symmetric, asymmetric and antisymmetric composite pulses. The simulated signals were reconstructed using a constrained least squares method. Root mean square reconstruction errors varied from 6% (for an asymmetric composite pulse) to 9.7% (for an antisymmetric composite pulse). An asymmetric composite pulse scheme created images with fewer artifacts than other composite pulse schemes in inhomogeneous B0 and B1 fields making it the best choice for decreasing the effects of spatially varying flip angles. This is contrary to the conclusion that antisymmetric composite pulses are the best ones to use for spin echo sequences in conventional, B0 encoded, MRI. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karloff, Howard
1991-01-01
To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...
Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding
Tomasz Praczyk
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.
Temporal encoding in a nervous system.
Aldworth, Zane N; Dimitrov, Alexander G; Cummins, Graham I; Gedeon, Tomáš; Miller, John P
2011-05-01
We examined the extent to which temporal encoding may be implemented by single neurons in the cercal sensory system of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. We found that these neurons exhibit a greater-than-expected coding capacity, due in part to an increased precision in brief patterns of action potentials. We developed linear and non-linear models for decoding the activity of these neurons. We found that the stimuli associated with short-interval patterns of spikes (ISIs of 8 ms or less) could be predicted better by second-order models as compared to linear models. Finally, we characterized the difference between these linear and second-order models in a low-dimensional subspace, and showed that modification of the linear models along only a few dimensions improved their predictive power to parity with the second order models. Together these results show that single neurons are capable of using temporal patterns of spikes as fundamental symbols in their neural code, and that they communicate specific stimulus distributions to subsequent neural structures.
Temporal encoding in a nervous system.
Zane N Aldworth
2011-05-01
Full Text Available We examined the extent to which temporal encoding may be implemented by single neurons in the cercal sensory system of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. We found that these neurons exhibit a greater-than-expected coding capacity, due in part to an increased precision in brief patterns of action potentials. We developed linear and non-linear models for decoding the activity of these neurons. We found that the stimuli associated with short-interval patterns of spikes (ISIs of 8 ms or less could be predicted better by second-order models as compared to linear models. Finally, we characterized the difference between these linear and second-order models in a low-dimensional subspace, and showed that modification of the linear models along only a few dimensions improved their predictive power to parity with the second order models. Together these results show that single neurons are capable of using temporal patterns of spikes as fundamental symbols in their neural code, and that they communicate specific stimulus distributions to subsequent neural structures.
A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors
Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.
2004-09-01
The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.
Bourlès, Henri
2013-01-01
Linear systems have all the necessary elements (modeling, identification, analysis and control), from an educational point of view, to help us understand the discipline of automation and apply it efficiently. This book is progressive and organized in such a way that different levels of readership are possible. It is addressed both to beginners and those with a good understanding of automation wishing to enhance their knowledge on the subject. The theory is rigorously developed and illustrated by numerous examples which can be reproduced with the help of appropriate computation software. 60 exe
Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit
Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.
2013-01-01
The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.
Data-driven encoding for quantitative genetic trait prediction.
He, Dan; Wang, Zhanyong; Parida, Laxmi
2015-01-01
Given a set of biallelic molecular markers, such as SNPs, with genotype values on a collection of plant, animal or human samples, the goal of quantitative genetic trait prediction is to predict the quantitative trait values by simultaneously modeling all marker effects. Quantitative genetic trait prediction is usually represented as linear regression models which require quantitative encodings for the genotypes: the three distinct genotype values, corresponding to one heterozygous and two homozygous alleles, are usually coded as integers, and manipulated algebraically in the model. Further, epistasis between multiple markers is modeled as multiplication between the markers: it is unclear that the regression model continues to be effective under this. In this work we investigate the effects of encodings to the quantitative genetic trait prediction problem. We first showed that different encodings lead to different prediction accuracies, in many test cases. We then proposed a data-driven encoding strategy, where we encode the genotypes according to their distribution in the phenotypes and we allow each marker to have different encodings. We show in our experiments that this encoding strategy is able to improve the performance of the genetic trait prediction method and it is more helpful for the oligogenic traits, whose values rely on a relatively small set of markers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that discusses the effects of encodings to the genetic trait prediction problem.
Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors
Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; /Buenos Aires, IAFE; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.
2005-07-01
Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.
Absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow.
Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara
2016-07-21
With the increasing availability of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging, the absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) has become popular in clinical settings. Quantitative MBF provides an important additional diagnostic or prognostic information over conventional visual assessment. The success of MBF quantification using PET/computed tomography (CT) has increased the demand for this quantitative diagnostic approach to be more accessible. In this regard, MBF quantification approaches have been developed using several other diagnostic imaging modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, CT, and cardiac magnetic resonance. This review will address the clinical aspects of PET MBF quantification and the new approaches to MBF quantification.
婷婷（整理）
2007-01-01
ABSOLUT与创意素来有着不解之缘。由Andy Warhal的ABSOLUT WARHOL至今，已有超过400位不同领域的创意大师为ABSOLUT的当代艺术宝库贡献了自己的得意之作。ABSOLUT的创意仿佛永远不会枯竭，而一系列的作品也让惊喜从未落空。
Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET
Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad
In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.
Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability
Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard
2014-01-01
Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...
Development of an absolute neutron dosimeter
Acevedo, C; Birstein, L; Loyola, H [Section de Desarrollos Innovativos, Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear (CCHEN), Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: lbirstei@cchen.cl
2008-11-01
An Absolute Neutron Dosimeter was developed to be used as a calibration standard for the Radiation Metrology Laboratory at CCHEN. The main component of the Dosimeter consists of a Proportional Counter of cylindrical shape, with Polyethylene walls and Ethylene gas in its interior. It includes a cage shaped arrangement of graphite bars that operates like the Proportional Counter cathode and a tungsten wire of 25 {mu}m in diameter {mu}m as the anode. Results of a Montecarlo modeling for the Dosimeter operation and results of tests and measurements performed with a radioactive source are presented.
Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability
Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard
2014-01-01
Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...
Assessing the performance capabilities of LRE-based assays for absolute quantitative real-time PCR.
Robert G Rutledge
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Linear regression of efficiency or LRE introduced a new paradigm for conducting absolute quantification, which does not require standard curves, can generate absolute accuracies of +/-25% and has single molecule sensitivity. Derived from adapting the classic Boltzmann sigmoidal function to PCR, target quantity is calculated directly from the fluorescence readings within the central region of an amplification profile, generating 4-8 determinations from each amplification reaction. FINDINGS: Based on generating a linear representation of PCR amplification, the highly visual nature of LRE analysis is illustrated by varying reaction volume and amplification efficiency, which also demonstrates how LRE can be used to model PCR. Examining the dynamic range of LRE further demonstrates that quantitative accuracy can be maintained down to a single target molecule, and that target quantification below ten molecules conforms to that predicted by Poisson distribution. Essential to the universality of optical calibration, the fluorescence intensity generated by SYBR Green I (FU/bp is shown to be independent of GC content and amplicon size, further verifying that absolute scale can be established using a single quantitative standard. Two high-performance lambda amplicons are also introduced that in addition to producing highly precise optical calibrations, can be used as benchmarks for performance testing. The utility of limiting dilution assay for conducting platform-independent absolute quantification is also discussed, along with the utility of defining assay performance in terms of absolute accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Founded on the ability to exploit lambda gDNA as a universal quantitative standard, LRE provides the ability to conduct absolute quantification using few resources beyond those needed for sample preparation and amplification. Combined with the quantitative and quality control capabilities of LRE, this kinetic-based approach has the
ABSOLUTE STABILITY OF GENERAL LURIE TYPE INDIRECT CONTROL SYSTEMS
甘作新; 葛渭高; 赵素霞; 仵永先
2001-01-01
In this paper, by introducing a new concept of absolute stability for a certain argument, necessary and sufficient conditions for absolute stability of general Lurie indirect control systems are obtained, and some practical sufficient conditions are also given.
Absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A and alterporriols.
Kanamaru, Saki; Honma, Miho; Murakami, Takanori; Tsushima, Taro; Kudo, Shinji; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Nihei, Ken-Ichi; Nehira, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Masaru
2012-02-01
The absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A (1) was established by observing a positive exciton couplet in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of the C3,C4-O-bis(2-naphthoyl) derivative 10 and by chemical correlations with known compound 8. Before the discussion, the relative stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The shielding effect at C7'-OMe group by C1-O-benzoylation established the relative stereochemical relationship between the C8-C8' axial bonding and the C1-C4/C1'-C4' polyol moieties of alterporriols E (3), an atropisomer of the C8-C8' dimer of 1. As 3 could be obtained by dimerization of 1 in vitro, the absolute configuration of its central chirality elements (C1-C4) must be identical to those of 1. Spectral comparison between the experimental and theoretical CD spectra supported the above conclusion. Axial stereochemistry of novel C4-O-deoxy dimeric derivatives, alterporriols F (4) and G (5), were also revealed by comparison of their CD spectra to those of 2 and 3.
Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon
Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter
2016-03-01
Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
The new INRIM rotating encoder angle comparator (REAC)
Pisani, Marco; Astrua, Milena
2017-04-01
A novel angle comparator has been built and tested at INRIM. The device is based on a double air bearing structure embedding a continuously rotating encoder, which is read by two heads: one fixed to the base of the comparator and a second fixed to the upper moving part of the comparator. The phase measurement between the two heads’ signals is proportional to the relative angle suspended between them (and, therefore, the angle between the base and the upper, movable part of the comparator). The advantage of this solution is to reduce the encoder graduation errors and to cancel the cyclic errors due to the interpolation of the encoder lines. By using only two pairs of reading heads, we have achieved an intrinsic accuracy of ±0.04″ (rectangular distribution) that can be reduced through self-calibration. The residual cyclic errors have shown to be less than 0.01″ peak-to-peak. The random fluctuations are less than 0.01″ rms on a 100 s time interval. A further advantage of the rotating encoder is the intrinsic knowledge of the absolute position without the need of a zeroing procedure. Construction details of the rotating encoder angle comparator (REAC), characterization tests, and examples of practical use are given.
Analysis of Large Flexible Body Deformation in Multibody Systems Using Absolute Coordinates
Dombrowski, Stefan von [Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics, German Aerospace Center (DLR) (Germany)], E-mail: stefan.von.dombrowski@dlr.de
2002-11-15
To consider large deformation problems in multibody system simulations a finite element approach, called absolute nodal coordinate.formulation,has been proposed. In this formulation absolute nodal coordinates and their material derivatives are applied to represent both deformation and rigid body motion. The choice of nodal variables allows a fully nonlinear representation of rigid body motion and can provide the exact rigid body inertia in the case of large rotations. The methodology is especially suited for but not limited to modeling of beams, cables and shells in multibody dynamics.This paper summarizes the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for a 3D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, in particular the definition of nodal variables, corresponding generalized elastic and inertia forces and equations of motion. The element stiffness matrix is a nonlinear function of the nodal variables even in the case of linearized strain/displacement relations. Nonlinear strain/displacement relations can be calculated from the global displacements using quadrature formulae.Computational examples are given which demonstrate the capabilities of the applied methodology. Consequences of the choice of shape.functions on the representation of internal forces are discussed. Linearized strain/displacement modeling is compared to the nonlinear approach and significant advantages of the latter, when using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, are outlined.
A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities
Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.
2011-01-01
The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…
Invariant and Absolute Invariant Means of Double Sequences
Abdullah Alotaibi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We examine some properties of the invariant mean, define the concepts of strong σ-convergence and absolute σ-convergence for double sequences, and determine the associated sublinear functionals. We also define the absolute invariant mean through which the space of absolutely σ-convergent double sequences is characterized.
Bai, Yang; Lu, Yunfeng; Hu, Pengcheng; Wang, Gang; Xu, Jinxin; Zeng, Tao; Li, Zhengkun; Zhang, Zhonghua; Tan, Jiubin
2016-05-11
A simple differential capacitive sensor is provided in this paper to measure the absolute positions of length measuring systems. By utilizing a shield window inside the differential capacitor, the measurement range and linearity range of the sensor can reach several millimeters. What is more interesting is that this differential capacitive sensor is only sensitive to one translational degree of freedom (DOF) movement, and immune to the vibration along the other two translational DOFs. In the experiment, we used a novel circuit based on an AC capacitance bridge to directly measure the differential capacitance value. The experimental result shows that this differential capacitive sensor has a sensitivity of 2 × 10(-4) pF/μm with 0.08 μm resolution. The measurement range of this differential capacitive sensor is 6 mm, and the linearity error are less than 0.01% over the whole absolute position measurement range.
Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.
2008-01-01
Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…
Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.
2008-01-01
Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…
Nagornyi, V D
2011-01-01
The article (Niebauer et al. 2011 Metrologia 48 154-163) reports on the important innovations enhancing the ability of absolute gravimeter to measure vertical gravity gradient along with the gravity acceleration. This comment suggests experiments to further assess the improvements and the results obtained with the modified instrument, considers some limitations of non-linear models in metrology and ways to overcome them, and discusses possible applications of the described instrument.
How is an absolute democracy possible?
Joanna Bednarek
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.
Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans
Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang
2016-11-01
A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.
Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.
Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E
2011-07-01
We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.
WHY DOES LEIBNIZ NEED ABSOLUTE TIME?
NICOLÁS VAUGHAN C.
2007-08-01
Full Text Available Resumen: En este ensayo pongo en contraposición dos doctrinas conspicuamenteleibnicianas: la doctrina del tiempo relacional e ideal, y la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida. Argumentaré que si todas las substancias están necesariamentecoordinadas, entonces no tiene sentido negar el carácter absoluto y real del tiempo. En la primera sección describiré la concepción newtoniana y clarkeana del tiempo absoluto; en la segunda discutiré la crítica leibniciana a dicha concepción, crítica sobre la que se erige su doctrina relacional e ideal del tiempo; en la tercera sección daré un vistazo a la metafísica monádica madura de Leibniz, haciendo especial énfasis en la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida; finalmente, en la última sección sugeriré la existencia de una tensión irreconciliable entre estas dos doctrinas.Abstract: In this paper I bring together two characteristically Leibnizean doctrines:the doctrine of relational and ideal time, and the doctrine of preestablished harmony. I will argue that, if every substance is necessarily connected with another, then it makes no sense to deny absolute and real time. In the first section, I will describe Newton’s and Clarke’s conception of absolute time; then, in the second section, I will consider Leibniz’s critique of that conception, on which he bases his ideal and relational doctrine of time. In the third section I will look briefly at Leibniz’s mature monadic metaphysics, taking special account of his doctrine of preestablished harmony. In the last section, I will suggest that there is an irreconcilable tension between these two doctrines.
PNA-encoded chemical libraries.
Zambaldo, Claudio; Barluenga, Sofia; Winssinger, Nicolas
2015-06-01
Peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-encoded chemical libraries along with DNA-encoded libraries have provided a powerful new paradigm for library synthesis and ligand discovery. PNA-encoding stands out for its compatibility with standard solid phase synthesis and the technology has been used to prepare libraries of peptides, heterocycles and glycoconjugates. Different screening formats have now been reported including selection-based and microarray-based methods that have yielded specific ligands against diverse target classes including membrane receptors, lectins and challenging targets such as Hsp70.
ABSOLUTE STABILIZATION RELATED TO CIRCLE CRITERION: AN LMI-BASED APPROACH
杨莹; 黄琳
2003-01-01
A method is proposed for synthesizing output feedback controllers for nonlinear Lur' e systems. The problem of designing an output dynamic controller for uncertain-free systems and systems subject to multiplicative norm-bounded perturbations in the linear part were proposed respectively. The procedure is based on the use of the absolute stability,through the circle criterion, and a linear matrix inequalities (LMI) formulation. The controller existence conditions are given in terms of existence of suitable solutions to a set of parameter- dependent LMIs.
LINEAR SYSTEMS AND LINEAR INTERPOLATION I
丁立峰
2001-01-01
he linear interpolation of linear system on a family of linear systems is introduced and discussed. Some results and examples on singly generated systems on a finite dimensional vector space are given.
Compressed Encoding for Rank Modulation
Gad, Eyal En; Jiang,; Bruck, Jehoshua
2011-01-01
Rank modulation has been recently proposed as a scheme for storing information in flash memories. While rank modulation has advantages in improving write speed and endurance, the current encoding approach is based on the "push to the top" operation that is not efficient in the general case. We propose a new encoding procedure where a cell level is raised to be higher than the minimal necessary subset - instead of all - of the other cell levels. This new procedure leads to a significantly more compressed (lower charge levels) encoding. We derive an upper bound for a family of codes that utilize the proposed encoding procedure, and consider code constructions that achieve that bound for several special cases.
Cell encoding recombinant human erythropoietin
Beck, A.K.; Withy, R.M.; Zabrecky, J.R.; Masiello, N.C.
1990-09-04
This patent describes a C127 cell transformed with a recombinant DNA vector. It comprises: a DNA sequence encoding human erythropoietin, the transformed cell being capable of producing N-linked and O-linked glycosylated human erythropoietin.
Experimental investigation of absolute instability of a rotating-disk boundary layer
Othman, H.; Corke, T. C.
2006-10-01
A series of experiments were performed to study the absolute instability of Type I travelling crossflow modes in the boundary layer on a smooth disk rotating at constant speed. The basic flow agreed with analytic theory, and the growth of natural disturbances matched linear theory predictions. Controlled temporal disturbances were introduced by a short-duration air pulse from a hypodermic tube located above the disk and outside the boundary layer. The air pulse was positioned just outboard of the linear-theory critical radius for Type I crossflow modes. A hot-wire sensor primarily sensitive to the azimuthal velocity component, was positioned at different spatial (r,theta) locations on the disk to document the growth of disturbances produced by the air pulses. Ensemble averages conditioned on the air pulses revealed wave packets that evolved in time and space. Two amplitudes of air pulses were used. The lower amplitude was verified to produced wave packets with linear amplitude characteristics. The space time evolution of the leading and trailing edges of the wave packets were followed past the critical radius for the absolute instability, r_{c_{A}}. With the lower amplitudes, the spreading of the disturbance wave packets did not continue to grow in time as r_{c_{A}} was approached. Rather, the spreading of the trailing edge of the wave packet decelerated and asymptotically approached a constant. This result supports previous linear DNS simulations where it was concluded that the absolute instability does not produce a global mode and that linear disturbance wave packets are dominated by the convective instability. The larger-amplitude disturbances were found to produce larger temporal spreading of the wave packets. This was accompanied by a sharp growth in the wave packet amplitude past r_{c_{A}}. Explanations for this are discussed.
Using absolute gravimeter data to determine vertical gravity gradients
Robertson, D.S.
2001-01-01
The position versus time data from a free-fall absolute gravimeter can be used to estimate the vertical gravity gradient in addition to the gravity value itself. Hipkin has reported success in estimating the vertical gradient value using a data set of unusually good quality. This paper explores techniques that may be applicable to a broader class of data that may be contaminated with "system response" errors of larger magnitude than were evident in the data used by Hipkin. This system response function is usually modelled as a sum of exponentially decaying sinusoidal components. The technique employed here involves combining the x0, v0 and g parameters from all the drops made during a site occupation into a single least-squares solution, and including the value of the vertical gradient and the coefficients of system response function in the same solution. The resulting non-linear equations must be solved iteratively and convergence presents some difficulties. Sparse matrix techniques are used to make the least-squares problem computationally tractable.
Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence
Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett
2011-01-10
A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.
Color assimilation and contrast near absolute threshold
McCann, John
2012-01-01
Simultaneous Contrast and Assimilation test targets are almost always viewed at high light levels. We measured the appearances of Simultaneous Contrast, Assimilation and other spatial surrounds near absolute rod threshold. Given the very different spatial organizations of receptive fields in rod and cone vision at detection threshold, it is not obvious that these familiar cone-vision spatial effects would be observed at rod light levels. Nevertheless, the spatial experiments showed that these targets have the same changes in appearance as those observed in bright light. Our experiments used very dim candle light that was above threshold for rods and L cones, and below threshold for M and S cones. Although detection threshold experiments show very different spatial organizations for rod and cone vision, we found that spatial contrast experiments gave the same changes of appearance. Neural contrast mechanisms at the lowest end of our visual HDR range are very similar to those at the top of the range in sunlight. This is true for both chromatic and achromatic targets.
PROFIT – THE ABSOLUTE EXPRESSION OF PROFITABILITY
Daniela SIMTION
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Profitability of an economic unit is expressed through a system of indicators, because "no index or economic category can reflect the total, perfect, complex reality of economic phenomena or processes. Each expresses a side of concrete, essential details (indexes, but a full one (economic category. This system of indexes for profitability is characterized by a higher degree of consolidation, of reflection of the economic-financial results. They must be correlated to the other indexes of economic efficiency from the various subsystems that constitute the factors which determine the actual amount of profit and the rate of return. Each indicator has a certain form of expression according to the phenomena to which it refers. Thus, they can be expressed in relative sizes as medium sizes or indexes. They can also be expressed in physical, conventional or value units. The ability to develop monetary results can not be judged independently to the employed means for achieving them. Therefore, the profitability analysis is not limited to investigating its absolute indexes but also the relative ones, obtained by comparing the results to the means employed or consumed for developing the specific activity
Logemann, H; Curtain, RF
2000-01-01
We derive absolute stability results for well-posed infinite-dimensional systems which, in a sense, extend the well-known circle criterion to the case that the underlying linear system is the series interconnection of an exponentially stable well-posed infinite-dimensional system and an integrator a
Fast color flow mode imaging using plane wave excitation and temporal encoding
Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2005-01-01
velocity image is presented. The method is based on using a plane wave excitation with temporal encoding to compensate for the decreased SNR, resulting from the lack of focusing. The temporal encoding is done with a linear frequency modulated signal. To decrease lateral sidelobes, a Tukey window is used...
Schuh, Fabian
2012-01-01
In this paper we propose a matched decoding scheme for convolutionally encoded transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels and devise a nonlinear trellis description. As an application we show that for coded continuous phase modulation (CPM) using a non-coherent receiver the number of states of the super trellis can be significantly reduced by means of a matched non-linear trellis encoder.
Positioning, alignment and absolute pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope
Fehr, F [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1 (Germany); Distefano, C, E-mail: fehr@physik.uni-erlangen.d [INFN Laboratori Nazional del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)
2010-01-01
A precise detector alignment and absolute pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The absolute calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The absolute pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.
Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer
Carter, Scott L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew
2012-01-01
We developed a computational method (ABSOLUTE) that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. ABSOLUTE can detect subclonal heterogeneity, somatic homozygosity, and calculate statistical sensitivity to detect specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze ovarian cancer data and identified pervasive subclonal somatic point mutations. In contrast, mutations occurring in key tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and NF1 were predominantly clonal ...
Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer
Carter, Scott L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew
2015-01-01
We developed a computational method (ABSOLUTE) that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. ABSOLUTE can detect subclonal heterogeneity, somatic homozygosity, and calculate statistical sensitivity to detect specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze ovarian cancer data and identified pervasive subclonal somatic point mutations. In contrast, mutations occurring in key tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and NF1 were predominantly clonal ...
New identification method for Hammerstein models based on approximate least absolute deviation
Xu, Bao-Chang; Zhang, Ying-Dan
2016-07-01
Disorder and peak noises or large disturbances can deteriorate the identification effects of Hammerstein non-linear models when using the least-square (LS) method. The least absolute deviation technique can be used to resolve this problem; however, its absolute value cannot meet the need of differentiability required by most algorithms. To improve robustness and resolve the non-differentiable problem, an approximate least absolute deviation (ALAD) objective function is established by introducing a deterministic function that exhibits the characteristics of absolute value under certain situations. A new identification method for Hammerstein models based on ALAD is thus developed in this paper. The basic idea of this method is to apply the stochastic approximation theory in the process of deriving the recursive equations. After identifying the parameter matrix of the Hammerstein model via the new algorithm, the product terms in the matrix are separated by calculating the average values. Finally, algorithm convergence is proven by applying the ordinary differential equation method. The proposed algorithm has a better robustness as compared to other LS methods, particularly when abnormal points exist in the measured data. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is easier to apply and converges faster. The simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.
Parry, Christopher; Blonquist, J Mark; Bugbee, Bruce
2014-11-01
In situ optical meters are widely used to estimate leaf chlorophyll concentration, but non-uniform chlorophyll distribution causes optical measurements to vary widely among species for the same chlorophyll concentration. Over 30 studies have sought to quantify the in situ/in vitro (optical/absolute) relationship, but neither chlorophyll extraction nor measurement techniques for in vitro analysis have been consistent among studies. Here we: (1) review standard procedures for measurement of chlorophyll; (2) estimate the error associated with non-standard procedures; and (3) implement the most accurate methods to provide equations for conversion of optical to absolute chlorophyll for 22 species grown in multiple environments. Tests of five Minolta (model SPAD-502) and 25 Opti-Sciences (model CCM-200) meters, manufactured from 1992 to 2013, indicate that differences among replicate models are less than 5%. We thus developed equations for converting between units from these meter types. There was no significant effect of environment on the optical/absolute chlorophyll relationship. We derive the theoretical relationship between optical transmission ratios and absolute chlorophyll concentration and show how non-uniform distribution among species causes a variable, non-linear response. These results link in situ optical measurements with in vitro chlorophyll concentration and provide insight to strategies for radiation capture among diverse species.
Testing the absolute-tempo hypothesis: context effects for familiar and unfamiliar songs.
Rashotte, Matthew A; Wedell, Douglas H
2014-11-01
In two experiments, we investigated context effects on tempo judgments for familiar and unfamiliar songs performed by popular artists. In Experiment 1, participants made comparative tempo judgments to a remembered standard for song clips drawn from either a slow or a fast context, created by manipulating the tempos of the same songs. Although both familiar and unfamiliar songs showed significant shifts in their points of subjective equality toward the tempo context values, more-familiar songs showed significantly reduced contextual bias. In Experiment 2, tempo pleasantness ratings showed significant context effects in which the ordering of tempos on the pleasantness scale differed across contexts, with the most pleasant tempo shifting toward the contextual values, an assimilation of ideal points. Once again, these effects were significant but reduced for the more-familiar songs. The moderating effects of song familiarity support a weak version of the absolute-tempo hypothesis, in which long-term memory for tempo reduces but does not eliminate contextual effects. Thus, although both relative and absolute tempo information appear to be encoded in memory, the absolute representation may be subject to rapid revision by recently experienced tempo-altered versions of the same song.
Merging Absolute and Relative Quantitative PCR Data to Quantify STAT3 Splice Variant Transcripts.
Turton, Keren B; Esnault, Stephane; Delain, Larissa P; Mosher, Deane F
2016-10-09
Human signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is one of many genes containing a tandem splicing site. Alternative donor splice sites 3 nucleotides apart result in either the inclusion (S) or exclusion (ΔS) of a single residue, Serine-701. Further downstream, splicing at a pair of alternative acceptor splice sites result in transcripts encoding either the 55 terminal residues of the transactivation domain (α) or a truncated transactivation domain with 7 unique residues (β). As outlined in this manuscript, measuring the proportions of STAT3's four spliced transcripts (Sα, Sβ, ΔSα and ΔSβ) was possible using absolute qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). The protocol therefore distinguishes and measures highly similar splice variants. Absolute qPCR makes use of calibrator plasmids and thus specificity of detection is not compromised for the sake of efficiency. The protocol necessitates primer validation and optimization of cycling parameters. A combination of absolute qPCR and efficiency-dependent relative qPCR of total STAT3 transcripts allowed a description of the fluctuations of STAT3 splice variants' levels in eosinophils treated with cytokines. The protocol also provided evidence of a co-splicing interdependence between the two STAT3 splicing events. The strategy based on a combination of the two qPCR techniques should be readily adaptable to investigation of co-splicing at other tandem splicing sites.
High-precision Absolute Coordinate Measurement using Frequency Scanned Interferometry
Chen, Tianxiang; Riles, Keith; Li, Cheng
2013-01-01
In this paper, we report high-precision absolute position measurement performed with frequency scanned interferometry (FSI). We reported previously on measurement of absolute distance with FSI [1]. Absolute position is determined by several related absolute distances measured simultaneously. The achieved precision of 2-dimensional measurements is better than 1 micron, and in 3-dimensional measurements, the precision on X and Y is confirmed to be below 1 micron, while the confirmed precision on Z is about 2 microns, where the confirmation is limited by the lower precision of the moving stage in Z direction.
The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.
Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne
2016-06-01
There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1).
Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra
Vasantha, Kandasamy
2003-01-01
The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and ve...
Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra
Vasantha, Kandasamy
2003-01-01
The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and ve...
Approximation Limits of Linear Programs (Beyond Hierarchies)
Braun, Gábor; Pokutta, Sebastian; Steurer, David
2012-01-01
We develop a framework for approximation limits of polynomial-size linear programs from lower bounds on the nonnegative ranks of suitably defined matrices. This framework yields unconditional impossibility results that are applicable to any linear program as opposed to only programs generated by hierarchies. Using our framework, we prove that O(n^{1/2-eps})-approximations for CLIQUE require linear programs of size 2^{n^\\Omega(eps)}. (This lower bound applies to linear programs using a certain encoding of CLIQUE as a linear optimization problem.) Moreover, we establish a similar result for approximations of semidefinite programs by linear programs. Our main ingredient is a quantitative improvement of Razborov's rectangle corruption lemma for the high error regime, which gives strong lower bounds on the nonnegative rank of certain perturbations of the unique disjointness matrix.
Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential
D. T. Shindell
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.
Absolute parameters of young stars: QZ Carinae
Walker, W. S. G.; Blackford, M.; Butland, R.; Budding, E.
2017-09-01
New high-resolution spectroscopy and BVR photometry together with literature data on the complex massive quaternary star QZ Car are collected and analysed. Absolute parameters are found as follows. System A: M1 = 43 (±3), M2 = 19 (+3 -7), R1 = 28 (±2), R2 = 6 (±2), (⊙); T1 ∼ 28 000, T2 ∼ 33 000 K; System B: M1 = 30 (±3), M2 = 20 (±3), R1 = 10 (±0.5), R2 = 20 (±1), (⊙); T1 ∼ 36 000, T2 ∼ 30 000 K (model dependent temperatures). The wide system AB: Period = 49.5 (±1) yr, Epochs, conjunction = 1984.8 (±1), periastron = 2005.3 (±3) yr, mean separation = 65 (±3), (au); orbital inclination = 85 (+5 -15) deg, photometric distance ∼2700 (±300) pc, age = 4 (±1) Myr. Other new contributions concern: (a) analysis of the timing of minima differences (O - C)s for the eclipsing binary (System B); (b) the width of the eclipses, pointing to relatively large effects of radiation pressure; (c) inferences from the rotational widths of lines for both Systems A and B; and (d) implications for theoretical models of early-type stars. While feeling greater confidence on the quaternary's general parametrization, observational complications arising from strong wind interactions or other, unclear, causes still inhibit precision and call for continued multiwavelength observations. Our high-inclination value for the AB system helps to explain failures to resolve the wide binary in the previous years. The derived young age independently confirms membership of QZ Car to the open cluster Collinder 228.
Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A
Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.
2016-06-01
This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.
Applicability and efficiency of near-optimal spatial encoding for dynamically adaptive MRI.
Zientara, G P; Panych, L P; Jolesz, F A
1998-02-01
Adaptive near-optimal MRI spatial encoding entails, for the acquisition of each image update in a dynamic series, the computation of encodes in the form of a linear algebra-derived orthogonal basis set determined from an image estimate. The origins of adaptive encoding relevant to MRI are reviewed. Sources of error of this approach are identified from the linear algebraic perspective where MRI data acquisition is viewed as the projection of information from the field-of-view onto the encoding basis set. The definitions of ideal and non-ideal encoding follow, with nonideal encoding characterized by the principal angles between two vector spaces. An analysis of the distribution of principal angles is introduced and applied in several example cases to quantitatively describe the suitability of a basis set derived from a specific image estimate for the spatial encoding of a given field-of-view. The robustness of adaptive near-optimal spatial encoding for dynamic MRI is favorably shown by results computed using singular value decomposition encoding that simulates specific instances of worst case data acquisition when all objects have changed or new objects have appeared in the field-of-view. The mathematical analysis and simulations presented clarify the applicability and efficiency of adaptively determined near-optimal spatial encoding throughout a range of circumstances as may typically occur during use of dynamic MRI.
Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R
2001-01-01
A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...... in various parts of the viral life cyclus. Most of the receptors encoded by human pathogenic virus are still orphan receptors, i.e. the endogenous ligand is unknown. In the few cases where it has been possible to characterize these receptors pharmacologically, they have been found to bind a broad spectrum...... expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets....
Synaptic encoding of temporal contiguity
Srdjan eOstojic
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Often we need to perform tasks in an environment that changes stochastically. In these situations it is important to learn the statistics of sequences of events in order to predict the future and the outcome of our actions. The statistical description of many of these sequences can be reduced to the set of probabilities that a particular event follows another event (temporal contiguity. Under these conditions, it is important to encode and store in our memory these transition probabilities. Here we show that for a large class of synaptic plasticity models, the distribution of synaptic strengths encodes transitions probabilities. Specifically, when the synaptic dynamics depend on pairs of contiguous events and the synapses can remember multiple instances of the transitions, then the average synaptic weights are a monotonic function of the transition probabilities. The synaptic weights converge to the distribution encoding the probabilities also when the correlations between consecutive synaptic modifications are considered. We studied how this distribution depends on the number of synaptic states for a specific model of a multi-state synapse with hard bounds. In the case of bistable synapses, the average synaptic weights are a smooth function of the transition probabilities and the accuracy of the encoding depends on the learning rate. As the number of synaptic states increases, the average synaptic weights become a step function of the transition probabilities. We finally show that the information stored in the synaptic weights can be read out by a simple rate-based neural network. Our study shows that synapses encode transition probabilities under general assumptions and this indicates that temporal contiguity is likely to be encoded and harnessed in almost every neural circuit in the brain.
Quantum algorithms for solving linear differential equations
Berry, Dominic W
2010-01-01
Linear differential equations are ubiquitous in science and engineering. Quantum computers can simulate quantum systems, which are described by homogeneous linear differential equations that produce only oscillating terms. Here we extend quantum simulation algorithms to general inhomogeneous linear differential equations, which can include exponential terms as well as oscillating terms in their solution. As with other algorithms of this type, the solution is encoded in amplitudes of the quantum state. The algorithm does not give the explicit solution, but it is possible to extract global features of the solution.
Absolute chronology and stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir
Borić Dušan
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In the last decade, a number of specialist analyses were made on the material from old excavations of Mesolithic-Neolithic sites in the Danube Gorges. These new results altered significantly our understanding of the Lepenski Vir culture. The question of chronology of this regional phenomenon has been acute since the discovery of Lepenski Vir in the 1960s, and it remains of key importance for understanding the character of Mesolithic-Neolithic transformations in this and the neighbouring regions. The most heated debate was fuelled by the initial stratigraphic and chronological attribution of the type-site itself. There remained the question about the adequate dating of the most prominent phase at this site characterized by buildings with trapezoidal bases covered with limestone floors and with rectangular stone-lined hearths placed in the centre of these features. There have been suggestions that these features also contain Early Neolithic Starčevo type pottery and other similar items of material culture and should thus be dated to the Early Neolithic historical context. Moreover, the first series of conventional radiocarbon determinations (21 dates also suggested that the absolute chronology of these features should be confined to the period from around 6400-5500 cal BC (Fig. 1. Due to the importance of defining more precisely the chronology for the start of construction of these particular features at Lepenski Vir and for establishing the life-span of these buildings and their associated material culture, we have AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry dated a number of contexts from this site. The results are presented in this paper. The project was made possible through the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerate Dating Service (ORADS programme funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC of the Great Britain. Apart from those dates presented in this paper, there are 29 previously published
Malik, R P; Rai, S K
2009-01-01
The celebrated Curci-Ferrari (CF) type of restrictions are invoked to obtain an absolutely anticommuting and off-shell nilpotent (anti-) BRST as well as (anti-) co-BRST symmetry transformation in the context of the Lagrangian description of the four (3 + 1)-dimensional (4D) free Abelian 2-form gauge theory. We show that the above conditions, which turn out to be the secondary constraints of the theory, remain invariant with respect to the time evolution of the above Abelian 2-form gauge system in the Hamiltonian formulation. This time evolution invariance (i) physically ensures the linear independence of the BRST versus anti-BRST as well as co-BRST versus anti-co-BRST symmetry transformations, and (ii) provides a logical reason behind the imposition of the CF type restrictions in the proof of the absolute anticommutativity of the off-shell nilpotent (anti-) BRST as well as (anti-) co-BRST symmetry transformations.
Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)
Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.
2010-12-01
Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.
Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute
Mika, Carl
2016-01-01
Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…
A Global Forecast of Absolute Poverty and Employment.
Hopkins, M. J. D.
1980-01-01
Estimates are made of absolute poverty and employment under the hypothesis that existing trends continue. Concludes that while the number of people in absolute poverty is not likely to decline by 2000, the proportion will fall. Jobs will have to grow 3.9% per year in developing countries to achieve full employment. (JOW)
Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory
Amrani, D.
2007-01-01
We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…
Absolute instruments and perfect imaging in geometrical optics
Tyc, Tomas; Sarbort, Martin; Bering, Klaus
2011-01-01
We investigate imaging by spherically symmetric absolute instruments that provide perfect imaging in the sense of geometrical optics. We derive a number of properties of such devices, present a general method for designing them and use this method to propose several new absolute instruments, in particular a lens providing a stigmatic image of an optically homogeneous region and having a moderate refractive index range.
ABSOLUTE STABILITY OF GENERAL LURIE DISCRETE NONLINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS
GAN Zuoxin; HAN Jingqing; ZHAO Suxia; WU Yongxian
2002-01-01
In the present paper, the absolute stability of general Lurie discrete nonlinear control systems has been discussed by Lyapunov function approach. A sufficient condition of absolute stability for the general Lurie discrete nonlinear control systems is derived, and some necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained in special cases. Meanwhile, we give a simple example to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.
On the Mean Absolute Error in Inverse Binomial Sampling
Mendo, Luis
2009-01-01
A closed-form expression and an upper bound are obtained for the mean absolute error of the unbiased estimator of a probability in inverse binomial sampling. The results given permit the estimation of an arbitrary probability with a prescribed level of the normalized mean absolute error.
A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.
Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren
2017-03-01
The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.
Singh, Nidhi; Warshel, Arieh
2010-05-15
Calculating the absolute binding free energies is a challenging task. Reliable estimates of binding free energies should provide a guide for rational drug design. It should also provide us with deeper understanding of the correlation between protein structure and its function. Further applications may include identifying novel molecular scaffolds and optimizing lead compounds in computer-aided drug design. Available options to evaluate the absolute binding free energies range from the rigorous but expensive free energy perturbation to the microscopic linear response approximation (LRA/beta version) and related approaches including the linear interaction energy (LIE) to the more approximated and considerably faster scaled protein dipoles Langevin dipoles (PDLD/S-LRA version) as well as the less rigorous molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area (MM/PBSA) and generalized born/surface area (MM/GBSA) to the less accurate scoring functions. There is a need for an assessment of the performance of different approaches in terms of computer time and reliability. We present a comparative study of the LRA/beta, the LIE, the PDLD/S-LRA/beta, and the more widely used MM/PBSA and assess their abilities to estimate the absolute binding energies. The LRA and LIE methods perform reasonably well but require specialized parameterization for the nonelectrostatic term. The PDLD/S-LRA/beta performs effectively without the need of reparameterization. Our assessment of the MM/PBSA is less optimistic. This approach appears to provide erroneous estimates of the absolute binding energies because of its incorrect entropies and the problematic treatment of electrostatic energies. Overall, the PDLD/S-LRA/beta appears to offer an appealing option for the final stages of massive screening approaches.
An 8×8/4×4 Adaptive Hadamard Transform Based FME VLSI Architecture for 4K×2K H.264/AVC Encoder
Fan, Yibo; Liu, Jialiang; Zhang, Dexue; Zeng, Xiaoyang; Chen, Xinhua
Fidelity Range Extension (FRExt) (i.e. High Profile) was added to the H.264/AVC recommendation in the second version. One of the features included in FRExt is the Adaptive Block-size Transform (ABT). In order to conform to the FRExt, a Fractional Motion Estimation (FME) architecture is proposed to support the 8×8/4×4 adaptive Hadamard Transform (8×8/4×4 AHT). The 8×8/4×4 AHT circuit contributes to higher throughput and encoding performance. In order to increase the utilization of SATD (Sum of Absolute Transformed Difference) Generator (SG) in unit time, the proposed architecture employs two 8-pel interpolators (IP) to time-share one SG. These two IPs can work in turn to provide the available data continuously to the SG, which increases the data throughput and significantly reduces the cycles that are needed to process one Macroblock. Furthermore, this architecture also exploits the linear feature of Hadamard Transform to generate the quarter-pel SATD. This method could help to shorten the long datapath in the second-step of two-iteration FME algorithm. Finally, experimental results show that this architecture could be used in the applications requiring different performances by adjusting the supported modes and operation frequency. It can support the real-time encoding of the seven-mode 4K×2K@24fps or six-mode 4K×2K@30fps video sequences.
Encoding information into precipitation structures
Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan
2008-12-01
Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A+ + B- → C reaction-diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction-diffusion-precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm.
CMOS MEMS capacitive absolute pressure sensor
Narducci, M.; Yu-Chia, L.; Fang, W.; Tsai, J.
2013-05-01
This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a capacitive pressure sensor using a commercial 0.18 µm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) process and postprocess. The pressure sensor is capacitive and the structure is formed by an Al top electrode enclosed in a suspended SiO2 membrane, which acts as a movable electrode against a bottom or stationary Al electrode fixed on the SiO2 substrate. Both the movable and fixed electrodes form a variable parallel plate capacitor, whose capacitance varies with the applied pressure on the surface. In order to release the membranes the CMOS layers need to be applied postprocess and this mainly consists of four steps: (1) deposition and patterning of PECVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition) oxide to protect CMOS pads and to open the pressure sensor top surface, (2) etching of the sacrificial layer to release the suspended membrane, (3) deposition of PECVD oxide to seal the etching holes and creating vacuum inside the gap, and finally (4) etching of the passivation oxide to open the pads and allow electrical connections. This sensor design and fabrication is suitable to obey the design rules of a CMOS foundry and since it only uses low-temperature processes, it allows monolithic integration with other types of CMOS compatible sensors and IC (integrated circuit) interface on a single chip. Experimental results showed that the pressure sensor has a highly linear sensitivity of 0.14 fF kPa-1 in the pressure range of 0-300 kPa.
Geometric Hyperplanes: Desargues Encodes Doily
Saniga, Metod
2011-01-01
It is shown that the structure of the generalized quadrangle of order two is fully encoded in the properties of the Desargues configuration. A point of the quadrangle is represented by a geometric hyperplane of the Desargues configuration and its line by a set of three hyperplanes such that one of them is the complement of the symmetric difference of the remaining two and they all share a pair of non-collinear points.
Absolute gravimetry - for monitoring climate change and geodynamics in Greenland
Nielsen, Jens Emil
with the GPS data, it is possible to separate the different signals. The method used in this study is absolute gravimetry. An absolute gravimeter of the A10 type has been purchased by DTU Space for this purpose. This instrument can measure gravity changes as small as 6µGal (= 60nm=s2), which provides....... The time allocated for a PhD project is not sufficient to gather enough data for an elaborated analysis of the different signals which can be detected in Greenland. However, as will be presented in this thesis, the preliminary results indicate interesting possibilities for the use of absolute gravimetry...
Absolute stability for the lateral-directional BWB model with rate limited actuator
Ionel IORGA
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a study regarding the interaction between the human pilot and the aircraft which may result in a dangerous phenomenon called Pilot Induced Oscillations (PIO, in the context of the lateral directional motion. The theoretical model of the airplane used is a Blended Wing Body (BWB configuration and the human operator is expressed by the Synchronous Pilot Model (represented by a simple gain. The Popov criterion, in the case of the infinite parameter, is applied in order to investigate the absolute stability of the pilot-airplane linearized system in the presence of the rate saturation of the actuator.
Modified Lee-Friedberg soliton-bag model with absolute confinement
Bayer, L.; Forkel, H.; Weise, W.
1986-12-01
We systematically investigate solutions of a modified Lee-Friedberg model for fermions bound in a non-linearly self-interacting scalar field σ. In this model a running σ-fermion coupling strength g(σ) is introduced such as to interpolate between a perturbative vacuum with σ=0 and a non-trivial vacuum ( σ=σ v ) with strong coupling. We find soliton-bag-like solutions in which the fermions experience absolute confinement. These solutions are almost independent of the detailed form of g(σ).
The Postglacial Rebound Signal of Fennoscandia Observed by Absolute Gravimetry, GPS, and Tide Gauges
Bjørn Ragnvald Pettersen
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We have compiled time derivatives of gravity and vertical motion for a dozen sites in Fennoscandia. Time series of absolute gravimetry and permanent GPS cover a time span of about a decade. Tide gauges have operated for many decades near seven of the sites. Linear relations are found to range from −0.17 to −0.22 for the slope between gravity and vertical uplift rates. An eustatic sea level rate of 1.2 mm/year is derived from these data. This compares well with results for North America and with theoretical predictions for viscoelastic Earth models.
Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks
Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo
Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.
Linearly constrained minimax optimization
Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1978-01-01
We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...
Delay-Dependent Absolute Stability ofUncertain Lur′e Systems with Time-Delays1）
CHENWu-Hua; GUANZhi-Hong; LUXiao-Mei; YANGXuan-Fang
2004-01-01
This paper is concerned with delay dependent absolute stability for a class of uncertain Lur′e systems with multiple time-delays. By using a descriptor model transformation of the sys-tem and by applying a recent result on bounding of cross products of vectors, a new type of Lya-punov-Krasovskii functional is constructed. Based on the new functional, delay-dependent suffi-cient conditions for absolute stability are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. These con-ditions do not require any parameter tuning, and can be solved numerically using the software LMI Lab. A numerical example is presented which shows that the proposed method can substantiallyimprove the delay bound for absolute stability of Lur′e system with time-delays, compared to theexisting ones.
Reiff, Ellen-Christine [Redaktionsbuero Stutensee (Germany); Tuschke, Claus [Baumer GmbH, Friedberg (Germany). Industrial Segment Windkraftindustrie
2010-06-15
The service life of a wind turbine as a rule is between 20 and 30 years. During this period, there should be no technical problems, and uninterrupted operation should be ensured in all wind conditions. Sensoric elements, especially absolute and incremental rotary encoders and tachogenerators, have an important role in this. Up to a dozen of such sensors can be installed in different positions inside and on the outside of a wind turbine. (orig.)
Non-linear index coding outperforming the linear optimum
Lubetzky, Eyal
2008-01-01
The following source coding problem was introduced by Birk and Kol: a sender holds a word $x\\in\\{0,1\\}^n$, and wishes to broadcast a codeword to $n$ receivers, $R_1,...,R_n$. The receiver $R_i$ is interested in $x_i$, and has prior \\emph{side information} comprising some subset of the $n$ bits. This corresponds to a directed graph $G$ on $n$ vertices, where $i j$ is an edge iff $R_i$ knows the bit $x_j$. An \\emph{index code} for $G$ is an encoding scheme which enables each $R_i$ to always reconstruct $x_i$, given his side information. The minimal word length of an index code was studied by Bar-Yossef, Birk, Jayram and Kol (FOCS 2006). They introduced a graph parameter, $\\minrk_2(G)$, which completely characterizes the length of an optimal \\emph{linear} index code for $G$. The authors of BBJK showed that in various cases linear codes attain the optimal word length, and conjectured that linear index coding is in fact \\emph{always} optimal. In this work, we disprove the main conjecture of BBJK in the following s...
Significance of absolute energy scale for physics at BESⅢ
FU Cheng-Dong; MO Xiao-Hu
2008-01-01
The effects of absolute energy calibration on BESⅢ physics are discussed in detail,which mainly involve the effects on τ mass measurement,cross section scan measurement,and generic error determination in other measurements.
Producing Absolute Truth: CSI Science as Wishful Thinking
Kruse, Corinna
2010-01-01
...). I argue that CSI science, in delivering an absolute “truth” about how and by whom crimes have been committed, is equated with justice, effectively superseding nonfictional forensic science as well as nonfictional judicature as a whole...
Changes in Absolute Sea Level Along U.S. Coasts
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows changes in absolute sea level from 1960 to 2016 based on satellite measurements. Data were adjusted by applying an inverted barometer (air pressure)...
Absolute position total internal reflection microscopy with an optical tweezer
Lulu Liu; Alexander Woolf; Alejandro W. Rodriguez; Federico Capasso
2014-01-01
.... We show that by making only simple modifications to the basic TIRM sensing setup and procedure, a probe particle's absolute position relative to a dielectric interface may be known with better than...
Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers
Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Hartmann, J.
2011-08-01
A monochromator integrating-sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been developed to calibrate standard radiation thermometers in terms of the absolute spectral radiance responsivity, traceable to the PTB cryogenic radiometer. The absolute responsivity calibration has been improved using a 75 W xenon lamp with a reflective mirror and imaging optics to a relative standard uncertainty at the peak wavelength of approximately 0.17 % ( k = 1). Via a relative measurement of the out-of-band responsivity, the spectral responsivity of radiation thermometers can be fully characterized. To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer is used to measure Au and Cu freezing-point temperatures and then to compare the obtained results with the values obtained by absolute methods, resulting in T - T 90 values of +52 mK and -50 mK for the gold and copper fixed points, respectively.
Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.
Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G
1992-06-01
Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved.
Does long-term object priming depend on the explicit detection of object identity at encoding?
Gomes, Carlos A.; Mayes, Andrew
2015-01-01
It is currently unclear whether objects have to be explicitly identified at encoding for reliable behavioral long-term object priming to occur. We conducted two experiments that investigated long-term object and non-object priming using a selective-attention encoding manipulation that reduces explicit object identification. In Experiment 1, participants either counted dots flashed within an object picture (shallow encoding) or engaged in an animacy task (deep encoding) at study, whereas, at test, they performed an object-decision task. Priming, as measured by reaction times (RTs), was observed for both types of encoding, and was of equivalent magnitude. In Experiment 2, non-object priming (faster RTs for studied relative to unstudied non-objects) was also obtained under the same selective-attention encoding manipulation as in Experiment 1, and the magnitude of the priming effect was equivalent between experiments. In contrast, we observed a linear decrement in recognition memory accuracy across conditions (deep encoding of Experiment 1 > shallow encoding Experiment 1 > shallow encoding of Experiment 2), suggesting that priming was not contaminated by explicit memory strategies. We argue that our results are more consistent with the identification/production framework than the perceptual/conceptual distinction, and we conclude that priming of pictures largely ignored at encoding can be subserved by the automatic retrieval of two types of instances: one at the motor level and another at an object-decision level. PMID:25852594
Does long-term object priming depend on the explicit detection of object identity at encoding?
Gomes, Carlos A; Mayes, Andrew
2015-01-01
It is currently unclear whether objects have to be explicitly identified at encoding for reliable behavioral long-term object priming to occur. We conducted two experiments that investigated long-term object and non-object priming using a selective-attention encoding manipulation that reduces explicit object identification. In Experiment 1, participants either counted dots flashed within an object picture (shallow encoding) or engaged in an animacy task (deep encoding) at study, whereas, at test, they performed an object-decision task. Priming, as measured by reaction times (RTs), was observed for both types of encoding, and was of equivalent magnitude. In Experiment 2, non-object priming (faster RTs for studied relative to unstudied non-objects) was also obtained under the same selective-attention encoding manipulation as in Experiment 1, and the magnitude of the priming effect was equivalent between experiments. In contrast, we observed a linear decrement in recognition memory accuracy across conditions (deep encoding of Experiment 1 > shallow encoding Experiment 1 > shallow encoding of Experiment 2), suggesting that priming was not contaminated by explicit memory strategies. We argue that our results are more consistent with the identification/production framework than the perceptual/conceptual distinction, and we conclude that priming of pictures largely ignored at encoding can be subserved by the automatic retrieval of two types of instances: one at the motor level and another at an object-decision level.
Wall Effect on the Convective-Absolute Boundary for the Compressible Shear Layer
Robinet, Jean-Christophe; Dussauge, Jean-Paul; Casalis, Grégoire
The linear stability of inviscid compressible shear layers is studied. When the layer develops at the vicinity of a wall, the two parallel flows can have a velocity of the same sign or of opposite signs. This situation is examined in order to obtain first hints on the stability of separated flows in the compressible regime. The shear layer is described by a hyperbolic tangent profile for the velocity component and the Crocco relation for the temperature profile. Gravity effects and the superficial tension are neglected. By examining the temporal growth rate at the saddle point in the wave-number space, the flow is characterized as being either absolutely unstable or convectively unstable. This study principally shows the effect of the wall on the convective-absolute transition in compressible shear flow. Results are presented, showing the amount of the backflow necessary to have this type of transition for a range of primary flow Mach numbers M1 up to 3.0. The boundary of the convective-absolute transition is defined as a function of the velocity ratio, the temperature ratio and the Mach number. Unstable solutions are calculated for both streamwise and oblique disturbances in the shear layer.
Absolute absorption on rubidium D1 line: including resonant dipole-dipole interactions
Weller, Lee; Siddons, Paul; Adams, Charles S; Hughes, Ifan G
2011-01-01
Here we report on measurements of the absolute absorption spectra of dense rubidium vapour on the D1 line in the weak-probe regime for temperatures up to 170 C and number densities up to 3 \\times 10^14 cm^-3. In such vapours, modifications to the homogeneous linewidth of optical transitions arise due to dipole-dipole interactions between identical atoms, in superpositions of the ground and excited states. Absolute absorption spectra were recorded with deviation of 0.1% between experiment and a theory incorporating resonant dipole-dipole interactions. The manifestation of dipole-dipole interactions is a self-broadening contribution to the homogeneous linewidth, which grows linearly with number density of atoms. Analysis of the absolute absorption spectra allow us to ascertain the value of the self-broadening coefficient for the rubidium D1 line: \\beta/2\\pi = (0.69 \\pm 0.04) \\times 10^-7 Hz cm^3, in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction.
Foundations of linear and generalized linear models
Agresti, Alan
2015-01-01
A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,
DIAGNOSTIC TEST FOR GARCH MODELS BASED ON ABSOLUTE RESIDUAL AUTOCORRELATIONS
Farhat Iqbal
2013-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper the asymptotic distribution of the absolute residual autocorrelations from generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH models is derived. The correct asymptotic standard errors for the absolute residual autocorrelations are also obtained and based on these results, a diagnostic test for checking the adequacy of GARCH-type models are developed. Our results do not depend on the existence of higher moments and is therefore robust under heavy-tailed distributions.
Global trends in relative and absolute wealth concentrations
2014-01-01
This paper compares changes in relative and absolute wealth concentrations to establish if both processes have followed similar trajectories. The findings indicate that while the level of relative wealth concentration has increased recently, it is not extraordinarily high in an historical perspective. On the contrary, the level of absolute wealth concentration is most likely higher than that previously occurred because of the increase in the wealth holdings and population size of high net wor...
Spectra of absolute instruments from the WKB approximation
Tyc, Tomas
2013-01-01
We calculate frequency spectra of absolute optical instruments using the WKB approximation. The resulting eigenfrequencies approximate the actual values very accurately, in some cases they even give the exact values. Our calculations confirm results obtained previously by a completely different method. In particular, the eigenfrequencies of absolute instruments form tight groups that are almost equidistantly spaced. We demonstrate our method and its results on several examples.
DIAGNOSTIC TEST FOR GARCH MODELS BASED ON ABSOLUTE RESIDUAL AUTOCORRELATIONS
Farhat Iqbal
2013-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper the asymptotic distribution of the absolute residual autocorrelations from generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH models is derived. The correct asymptotic standard errors for the absolute residual autocorrelations are also obtained and based on these results, a diagnostic test for checking the adequacy of GARCH-type models are developed. Our results do not depend on the existence of higher moments and is therefore robust under heavy-tailed distributions.
Absolute Free Energies for Biomolecules in Implicit or Explicit Solvent
Berryman, Joshua T.; Schilling, Tanja
Methods for absolute free energy calculation by alchemical transformation of a quantitative model to an analytically tractable one are discussed. These absolute free energy methods are placed in the context of other methods, and an attempt is made to describe the best practice for such calculations given the current state of the art. Calculations of the equilibria between the four free energy basins of the dialanine molecule and the two right- and left-twisted basins of DNA are discussed as examples.
Multiple coding strategies in the retention of musical tones by possessors of absolute pitch.
Zatorre, R J; Beckett, C
1989-09-01
Eighteen musicians with absolute pitch (AP) confirmed by screening tests participated in tonal and verbal short-term-retention tasks. In the tonal task, subjects identified three successive piano tones by their letter names. Recall of these note names after 18 sec of counting backwards was near perfect. Recall after an 18-sec delay filled with random piano tones was also near perfect. In contrast, the same subjects demonstrated significant forgetting when required to retain letter trigrams while counting backwards for 18 sec. These results were essentially replicated in a second experiment using longer (27 sec) retention intervals, a more demanding verbal interference task, and an active musical interference task (singing a descending scale). We interpret these results as indicating that retention of note names by possessors of AP is not limited to verbal encoding; rather, multiple codes (e.g., auditory, kinesthetic, and visual imagery) are probably used.
On Random Linear Network Coding for Butterfly Network
Guang, Xuan
2010-01-01
Random linear network coding is a feasible encoding tool for network coding, specially for the non-coherent network, and its performance is important in theory and application. In this letter, we study the performance of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network by analyzing the failure probabilities. We determine the failure probabilities of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network and the butterfly network with channel failure probability p.
Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors
Berard, C. A.; Furia, T. J.; Goldberg, E. A.; Greene, R. C.
1970-01-01
Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.
Kappatou, A.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Delabie, E.; Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Jakobs, M. A.
2012-10-01
Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.
Kappatou, A.; Delabie, E. [FOM Institute DIFFER - Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E.; Jakobs, M. A. [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Marchuk, O.; Biel, W. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Julich (Germany)
2012-10-15
Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.
Absolute-magnitude Calibration for W UMa-type Systems Based on Gaia Data
Mateo, Nicole M.; Rucinski, Slavek M.
2017-09-01
Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) parallax data are used to determine absolute magnitudes M V for 318 W UMa-type (EW) contact binary stars. A very steep (slope ≃ ‑9), single-parameter ({log}P), linear calibration can be used to predict M V to about 0.1–0.3 mag over the whole range of accessible orbital period, 0.22distribution. Although the scatter around the linear {log}P-fit is fairly large (0.2–0.4 mag), the current data do not support the inclusion of a B-V color term in the calibration. ). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement.
Tam, Leo K; Stockmann, Jason P; Galiana, Gigi; Constable, R Todd
2012-10-01
To increase image acquisition efficiency, we develop alternative gradient encoding strategies designed to provide spatial encoding complementary to the spatial encoding provided by the multiple receiver coil elements in parallel image acquisitions. Intuitively, complementary encoding is achieved when the magnetic field encoding gradients are designed to encode spatial information where receiver spatial encoding is ambiguous, for example, along sensitivity isocontours. Specifically, the method generates a basis set for the null space of the coil sensitivities with the singular value decomposition and calculates encoding fields from the null space vectors. A set of nonlinear gradients is used as projection imaging readout magnetic fields, replacing the conventional linear readout field and phase encoding. Multiple encoding fields are used as projections to capture the null space information, hence the term null space imaging. The method is compared to conventional Cartesian SENSitivity Encoding as evaluated by mean squared error and robustness to noise. Strategies for developments in the area of nonlinear encoding schemes are discussed. The null space imaging approach yields a parallel imaging method that provides high acceleration factors with a limited number of receiver coil array elements through increased time efficiency in spatial encoding.
Linear and Branching Formats in Culture Assimilator Training
Malpass, Roy S.; Salancik, Gerald R.
1977-01-01
Defines the "branching format" of training materials as materials not requiring an absolute judgement of appropriateness of alternatives and the "linear format" as materials requiring an independent evaluation of each alternative. Tests these contrasting formats for effectiveness in cross cultural training programs. Available from: International…
Feedback linearization of piecewise linear systems
Camlibel, Kanat; Ustoglu, Ilker
2005-01-01
One of the classical problems of nonlinear systems and control theory is feedback linearization. Its obvious motivation is that one can utilize linear control theory if the nonlinear system at hand is linearizable by feedback. This problem is well-understood for the smooth nonlinear systems. In the
Engineering multiphoton states for linear optics computation
Aniello, P; Napolitano, M; Paris, M G A; Aniello, Paolo; Lupo, Cosmo; Napolitano, Mario; Paris, Matteo G.A.
2006-01-01
Transformations achievable by linear optical components allow to generate the whole unitary group only when restricted to the one-photon subspace of a multimode Fock space. In this paper, we address the more general problem of encoding quantum information by multiphoton states, and elaborating it via ancillary extensions, linear optical passive devices and photodetection. Our scheme stems in a natural way from the mathematical structures underlying the physics of linear optical passive devices. In particular, we analyze an economical procedure for mapping a fiducial 2-photon 2-mode state into an arbitrary 2-photon 2-mode state using ancillary resources and linear optical passive N-ports assisted by post-selection. We found that adding a single ancilla mode is enough to generate any desired target state. The effect of imperfect photodetection in post-selection is considered and a simple trade-off between success probability and fidelity is derived.
Resource-efficient linear optical quantum computation.
Browne, Daniel E; Rudolph, Terry
2005-07-01
We introduce a scheme for linear optics quantum computation, that makes no use of teleported gates, and requires stable interferometry over only the coherence length of the photons. We achieve a much greater degree of efficiency and a simpler implementation than previous proposals. We follow the "cluster state" measurement based quantum computational approach, and show how cluster states may be efficiently generated from pairs of maximally polarization entangled photons using linear optical elements. We demonstrate the universality and usefulness of generic parity measurements, as well as introducing the use of redundant encoding of qubits to enable utilization of destructive measurements--both features of use in a more general context.
Global identifiability of linear structural equation models
Drton, Mathias; Sullivant, Seth
2010-01-01
Structural equation models are multivariate statistical models that are defined by specifying noisy functional relationships among random variables. We consider the classical case of linear relationships and additive Gaussian noise terms. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for global identifiability of the model in terms of a mixed graph encoding the linear structural equations and the correlation structure of the error terms. Global identifiability is understood to mean injectivity of the parametrization of the model and is fundamental in particular for applicability of standard statistical methodology.
Evolving evolutionary algorithms using linear genetic programming.
Oltean, Mihai
2005-01-01
A new model for evolving Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed in this paper. The model is based on the Linear Genetic Programming (LGP) technique. Every LGP chromosome encodes an EA which is used for solving a particular problem. Several Evolutionary Algorithms for function optimization, the Traveling Salesman Problem and the Quadratic Assignment Problem are evolved by using the considered model. Numerical experiments show that the evolved Evolutionary Algorithms perform similarly and sometimes even better than standard approaches for several well-known benchmarking problems.
[Neurons that encode sound direction].
Peña, J L
In the auditory system, the inner ear breaks down complex signals into their spectral components, and encodes the amplitude and phase of each. In order to infer sound direction in space, a computation on each frequency component of the sound must be performed. Space specific neurons in the owl s inferior colliculus respond only to sounds coming from a particular direction and represent the results of this computation. The interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD define the auditory space for the owl and are processed in separate neural pathways. The parallel pathways that process these cues merge in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus where the space specific neurons are selective to combinations of ITD and ILD. How do inputs from the two sources interact to produce combination selectivity to ITD ILD pairs? A multiplication of postsynaptic potentials tuned to ITD and ILD can account for the subthreshold responses of these neurons to ITD ILD pairs. Examples of multiplication by neurons or neural circuits are scarce, but many computational models assume the existence of this basic operation. The owl s auditory system uses such operation to create a 2 dimensional map of auditory space. The map of space in the owl s auditory system shows important similarities with representations of space in the cerebral cortex and other sensory systems. In encoding space or other stimulus features, individual neurons appear to possess analogous functional properties related to the synthesis of high order receptive fields.
Implications of an absolute simultaneity theory for cosmology and universe acceleration.
Edward T Kipreos
Full Text Available An alternate Lorentz transformation, Absolute Lorentz Transformation (ALT, has similar kinematics to special relativity yet maintains absolute simultaneity in the context of a preferred reference frame. In this study, it is shown that ALT is compatible with current experiments to test Lorentz invariance only if the proposed preferred reference frame is locally equivalent to the Earth-centered non-rotating inertial reference frame, with the inference that in an ALT framework, preferred reference frames are associated with centers of gravitational mass. Applying this theoretical framework to cosmological data produces a scenario of universal time contraction in the past. In this scenario, past time contraction would be associated with increased levels of blueshifted light emissions from cosmological objects when viewed from our current perspective. The observation that distant Type Ia supernovae are dimmer than predicted by linear Hubble expansion currently provides the most direct evidence for an accelerating universe. Adjusting for the effects of time contraction on a redshift-distance modulus diagram produces a linear distribution of supernovae over the full redshift spectrum that is consistent with a non-accelerating universe.
Implications of an absolute simultaneity theory for cosmology and universe acceleration.
Kipreos, Edward T
2014-01-01
An alternate Lorentz transformation, Absolute Lorentz Transformation (ALT), has similar kinematics to special relativity yet maintains absolute simultaneity in the context of a preferred reference frame. In this study, it is shown that ALT is compatible with current experiments to test Lorentz invariance only if the proposed preferred reference frame is locally equivalent to the Earth-centered non-rotating inertial reference frame, with the inference that in an ALT framework, preferred reference frames are associated with centers of gravitational mass. Applying this theoretical framework to cosmological data produces a scenario of universal time contraction in the past. In this scenario, past time contraction would be associated with increased levels of blueshifted light emissions from cosmological objects when viewed from our current perspective. The observation that distant Type Ia supernovae are dimmer than predicted by linear Hubble expansion currently provides the most direct evidence for an accelerating universe. Adjusting for the effects of time contraction on a redshift-distance modulus diagram produces a linear distribution of supernovae over the full redshift spectrum that is consistent with a non-accelerating universe.
Absolute neutrophil values in malignant patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Madu, A J; Ibegbulam, O G; Ocheni, S; Madu, K A; Aguwa, E N
2011-01-01
A total of eighty patients with various malignancies seen between September 2008 and April 2009 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria, had their absolute neutrophil counts, done at Days 0 and 12 of the first cycle of their various chemotherapeutic regimens. They were adult patients who had been diagnosed of various malignancies, consisting of Breast cancer 36 (45%), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 8 (10%), Hodgkin's lymphoma 13 (16.25%), Colorectal carcinoma 6 (7.5%), Multiple myeloma 7 (8.75%), Cervical carcinoma 1 (1.25%) and other malignancies 9 (11.25%), Manual counting of absolute neutrophil count was done using Turks solution and improved Neubauer counting chamber and Galen 2000 Olympus microscope. The socio demographic data of the patients were assessed from a questionnaire. There were 27 males (33.75%) and 53 females (66.25%). Their ages ranged from 18 - 80 years with a median of 45 years. The mean absolute neutrophil count of the respondents pre-and post chemotherapy was 3.7 +/- 2.1 x 10(9)/L and 2.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(9)/L respectively. There were significant differences in both the absolute neutrophil count (p=0.00) compared to the pre-chemotherapy values. Chemotherapeutic combinations containing cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin were observed to cause significant reduction in absolute neutrophil.
Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer.
Carter, Scott L; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W; Onofrio, Robert C; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A; Lander, Eric S; Meyerson, Matthew; Getz, Gad
2012-05-01
We describe a computational method that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. The method, named ABSOLUTE, can detect subclonal heterogeneity and somatic homozygosity, and it can calculate statistical sensitivity for detection of specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze exome sequencing data from 214 ovarian carcinoma tumor-normal pairs. This analysis identified both pervasive subclonal somatic point-mutations and a small subset of predominantly clonal and homozygous mutations, which were overrepresented in the tumor suppressor genes TP53 and NF1 and in a candidate tumor suppressor gene CDK12. We also used ABSOLUTE to infer absolute allelic copy-number profiles from 3,155 diverse cancer specimens, revealing that genome-doubling events are common in human cancer, likely occur in cells that are already aneuploid, and influence pathways of tumor progression (for example, with recessive inactivation of NF1 being less common after genome doubling). ABSOLUTE will facilitate the design of clinical sequencing studies and studies of cancer genome evolution and intra-tumor heterogeneity.
Absolute frequency measurement of unstable lasers with optical frequency combs
Beverini, N.; Poli, N.; Sutyrin, D.; Wang, F.-Y.; Schioppo, M.; Tarallo, M. G.; Tino, G. M.
2010-09-01
Here we report on absolute frequency measurements of a commercial high power CW diode-pumped solid-state laser (Coherent Verdi-V5). This kind of lasers usually presents large frequency jitter (up to 50 MHz) both in the short term (1 ms time scale) and in the long term (>10 s time scale). A precise measurement of absolute frequency deviations in both temporal scales should require a set of different devices (optical cavities, optical wave-meters), each suited for measurements only at a specific integration time. Here we demonstrate how a frequency comb can be used to overcome this difficulty, allowing in a single step a full characterization of both short ( 103 s) absolute frequency jitter with a resolution better than 1 MHz. We demonstrate in this way the flexibility of optical frequency combs for absolute frequency measurements not only of ultra-stable lasers but also of relatively unstable lasers. The absolute frequency calibration of the Verdi laser that we have obtained have been used in order to improve the accuracy of the measurements of the local gravitational acceleration value with 88Sr atoms trapped in 1D vertical lattices.
Absolute and relative family affluence and psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents.
Elgar, Frank J; De Clercq, Bart; Schnohr, Christina W; Bird, Phillippa; Pickett, Kate E; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Hofmann, Felix; Currie, Candace
2013-08-01
Previous research on the links between income inequality and health and socioeconomic differences in health suggests that relative differences in affluence impact health and well-being more than absolute affluence. This study explored whether self-reported psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents relate more closely to relative affluence (i.e., relative deprivation or rank affluence within regions or schools) than to absolute affluence. Data on family material assets and psychosomatic symptoms were collected from 48,523 adolescents in eight countries (Austria, Belgium, Canada, Norway, Scotland, Poland, Turkey, and Ukraine) as part of the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Multilevel regression analyses of the data showed that relative deprivation (Yitzhaki Index, calculated in regions and in schools) and rank affluence (in regions) (1) related more closely to symptoms than absolute affluence, and (2) related to symptoms after differences in absolute affluence were held constant. However, differences in family material assets, whether they are measured in absolute or relative terms, account for a significant variation in adolescent psychosomatic symptoms. Conceptual and empirical issues relating to the use of material affluence indices to estimate socioeconomic position are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Absolute Navigation Information Estimation for Micro Planetary Rovers
Muhammad Ilyas
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper provides algorithms to estimate absolute navigation information, e.g., absolute attitude and position, by using low power, weight and volume Microelectromechanical Systems-type (MEMS sensors that are suitable for micro planetary rovers. Planetary rovers appear to be easily navigable robots due to their extreme slow speed and rotation but, unfortunately, the sensor suites available for terrestrial robots are not always available for planetary rover navigation. This makes them difficult to navigate in a completely unexplored, harsh and complex environment. Whereas the relative attitude and position can be tracked in a similar way as for ground robots, absolute navigation information, unlike in terrestrial applications, is difficult to obtain for a remote celestial body, such as Mars or the Moon. In this paper, an algorithm called the EASI algorithm (Estimation of Attitude using Sun sensor and Inclinometer is presented to estimate the absolute attitude using a MEMS-type sun sensor and inclinometer, only. Moreover, the output of the EASI algorithm is fused with MEMS gyros to produce more accurate and reliable attitude estimates. An absolute position estimation algorithm has also been presented based on these on-board sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite for low-cost and low-weight micro planetary rovers.
Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance.
Wiltzius, Jed J W; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R; Apostol, Marcin I; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David
2009-09-01
In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of beta-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct beta-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.
Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance
Wiltzius, Jed J.W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David; (Cornell); (HHMI)
2009-12-01
In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of {beta}-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct {beta}-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.
Associative data search in phase-encoded volume holographic storage systems
Berger, G.; Dietz, M.; Brauckmann, N.; Denz, C.
2008-08-01
We present a technique that enables true associative data search in phase-encoded volume holographic storage systems. The technique overcomes crucial shortcomings related to the only two methods proposed for associative searches in phase-encoded systems so far. An additional interferometric readout during content addressing is utilized to ascertain the cross-correlations between an input information and all data pages that are recorded by superposition in one location of the storage media. We present experimental investigations and thoroughly discuss the reliability of the technique. Under realistic conditions the inevitable normalization procedure, used to determine absolute correlation values, as well as the probability of small correlation values crucially affect the capabilities of associative search in phase-encoded holographic storage systems.
Genetically Encoded Sensors for Metabolites
Deuschle, Karen; Fehr, Marcus; Hilpert, Melanie; Lager, Ida; Lalonde, Sylvie; Looger, Loren L.; Okumoto, Sakiko; Persson, Jörgen; Schmidt, Anja; Frommer, Wolf B.
2009-01-01
Background Metabolomics, i.e., the multiparallel analysis of metabolite changes occurring in a cell or an organism, has become feasible with the development of highly efficient mass spectroscopic technologies. Functional genomics as a standard tool helped to identify the function of many of the genes that encode important transporters and metabolic enzymes over the past few years. Advanced expression systems and analysis technologies made it possible to study the biochemical properties of the corresponding proteins in great detail. We begin to understand the biological functions of the gene products by systematic analysis of mutants using systematic PTGS/RNAi, knockout and TILLING approaches. However, one crucial set of data especially relevant in the case of multicellular organisms is lacking: the knowledge of the spatial and temporal profiles of metabolite levels at cellular and subcellular levels. Methods We therefore developed genetically encoded nanosensors for several metabolites to provide a basic set of tools for the determination of cytosolic and subcellular metabolite levels in real time by using fluorescence microscopy. Results Prototypes of these sensors were successfully used in vitro and also in vivo, i.e., to measure sugar levels in fungal and animal cells. Conclusions One of the future goals will be to expand the set of sensors to a wider spectrum of substrates by using the natural spectrum of periplasmic binding proteins from bacteria and by computational design of proteins with altered binding pockets in conjunction with mutagenesis. This toolbox can then be applied for four-dimensional imaging of cells and tissues to elucidate the spatial and temporal distribution of metabolites as a discovery tool in functional genomics, as a tool for high-throughput, high-content screening for drugs, to test metabolic models, and to analyze the interplay of cells in a tissue or organ. PMID:15688353
Absolute distance sensing by two laser optical interferometry.
Thurner, Klaus; Braun, Pierre-François; Karrai, Khaled
2013-11-01
We have developed a method for absolute distance sensing by two laser optical interferometry. A particularity of this technique is that a target distance is determined in absolute and is no longer limited to within an ambiguity range affecting usually multiple wavelength interferometers. We implemented the technique in a low-finesse Fabry-Pérot miniature fiber based interferometer. We used two diode lasers, both operating in the 1550 nm wavelength range. The wavelength difference is chosen to create a 25 μm long periodic beating interferometric pattern allowing a nanometer precise position measurement but limited to within an ambiguity range of 25 μm. The ambiguity is then eliminated by scanning one of the wavelengths over a small range (3.4 nm). We measured absolute distances in the sub-meter range and this with just few nanometer repeatability.
Abelian varieties with many endomorphisms and their absolutely simple factors
Guitart, Xavier
2011-01-01
We characterize the abelian varieties arising as absolutely simple factors of GL2-type varieties over a number field k. In order to obtain this result, we study a wider class of abelian varieties: the k-varieties A/k satisfying that $\\End_k^0(A)$ is a maximal subfield of $\\End_k^0(A)$. We call them Ribet-Pyle varieties over k. We see that every Ribet-Pyle variety over k is isogenous over $\\bar k$ to a power of an abelian k-variety and, conversely, that every abelian k-variety occurs as the absolutely simple factor of some Ribet-Pyle variety over k. We deduce from this correspondence a precise description of the absolutely simple factors of the varieties over k of GL2-type.
Absolute Uniqueness of Phase Retrieval with Random Illumination
Fannjiang, Albert
2011-01-01
Random phase or amplitude illumination is proposed to remove at once all types of ambiguity, trivial or nontrivial, at once from phase retrieval. Almost sure irreducibility is proved for {\\em any} complex-valued object of arbitrary sparsity. While this irreducibility result can be viewed as a probabilistic version of the classical result by Bruck, Sodin and Hayes, it provides a new perspective and an effective method for achieving absolute uniqueness in phase retrieval for {\\em every} object, not just objects outside of a measure-zero set. In particular, almost sure absolute uniqueness is proved for complex-valued objects under a general two-point assumption. For objects of nonnegative real and imaginary parts, absolute uniqueness is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as the object sparsity increases.
Determination of absolute adsorption in highly ordered porous media
Mertens, Florian O.
2009-06-01
Recently developed Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are the materials with the highest intrinsic surface areas to date and their discovery increased the research activity in the field of microporous adsorption materials significantly. In this contribution, a generic method of analysis for volumetrically measured adsorption isotherms is presented that separates absolute adsorption from excess adsorption to the best possible degree by representing the absolute adsorption isotherm by a superposition of in respect to pressure strictly monotonously increasing fitting function. The procedure allows to determine the heat of adsorption at constant gas uptake via implicitly defined quantities. The method was applied to adsorption data of hydrogen on MOF-5 ranging from 40 K to 200 K. Methane adsorption on MOF-5 was used to demonstrate that the common practice of neglecting the difference between excess and absolute adsorption leads to erroneously increased heat of adsorption values at high coverages and temperatures.
Linear Amplifier Model for Optomechanical Systems
Botter, Thierry; Brahms, Nathan; Schreppler, Sydney; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M
2011-01-01
We model optomechanical systems as linear optical amplifiers. This provides a unified treatment of diverse optomechanical phenomena. We emphasize, in particular, the relationship between ponderomotive squeezing and optomechanically induced transparency, two foci of current research. We characterize the amplifier response to quantum and deliberately applied fluctuations, both optical and mechanical. Further, we apply these results to establish quantum limits on external force sensing both on and off cavity resonance. We find that the maximum sensitivity attained on resonance constitutes an absolute upper limit, not surpassed when detuning off cavity resonance. The theory can be extended to a two-sided cavity with losses and limited detection efficiency.
Optical-spectrum-encoded analog-to-digital converter
LIAO Xiao-jun; YANG Ya-pei
2007-01-01
A novel optical-spectrum-encoded (OSE) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is proposed in this letter. To simply exemplify the conversion idea, a 5-bit device structure consisted of Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI) is analyzed and numerically simulated. The dependence of peak-transmission wavelength on modulation voltage in an electro-optical FPI and the dependence of transmitted power on incident light wavelength in an FPI are discussed and utilized to implement OSEADC.A linearly tunable mode-locked laser, as a voltage-wavelength transformer and a sampler, and chirped grating FPIs, as an encoder array, can be used to obtain much greater sampling rate and bit-resolution.
Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.
Sander K R van Zon
Full Text Available The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender.The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and
Tuey, R. C.
1972-01-01
Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.
Absolute small-angle measurement based on optical feedback interferometry
Jingang Zhong; Xianhua Zhang; Zhixiang Ju
2008-01-01
We present a simple but effective method for small-angle measurement based on optical feedback inter-ferometry (or laser self-mixing interferometry). The absolute zero angle can be defined at the biggest fringe amplitude point, so this method can also achieve absolute angle measurement. In order to verify the method, we construct an angle measurement system. The Fourier-transform method is used to analysis the interference signal. Rotation angles are experimentally measured with a resolution of 10-6 rad and a measurement range of approximately from -0.0007 to +0.0007 rad.
Improved Absolute Radiometric Calibration of a UHF Airborne Radar
Chapin, Elaine; Hawkins, Brian P.; Harcke, Leif; Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling; Michel, Thierry R.; Moreira, Laila; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Shimada, Joanne G.; Tham, Kean W.;
2015-01-01
The AirMOSS airborne SAR operates at UHF and produces fully polarimetric imagery. The AirMOSS radar data are used to produce Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) depth profiles. The absolute radiometric accuracy of the imagery, ideally of better than 0.5 dB, is key to retrieving RZSM, especially in wet soils where the backscatter as a function of soil moisture function tends to flatten out. In this paper we assess the absolute radiometric uncertainty in previously delivered data, describe a method to utilize Built In Test (BIT) data to improve the radiometric calibration, and evaluate the improvement from applying the method.
Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor (AESSIM)
Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Kuehne, M.; Kock, M.
1988-01-01
AESSIM, the Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor, is designed to measure the absolute solar spectral irradiance at extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. The data are required for studies of the processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere and for predictions of atmospheric drag on space vehicles. AESSIM is comprised of sun-pointed spectrometers and newly-developed, secondary standards of spectral irradiance for the EUV. Use of the in-orbit standard sources will eliminate the uncertainties caused by changes in spectrometer efficiency that have plagued all previous measurements of the solar spectral EUV flux.
Properties of Absolute Stability in the Presence of Time Lags
M. De la Sen
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This study is concerned with the properties of absolute stability independent of the delays of time-delay systems, possessing non commensurate internal point delays, for any nonlinearity satisfying a Popov’s- type time positivity inequality. That property holds if an associate delay-free system is absolutely stable and the size of the delayed dynamics is sufficiently small. The results are obtained for nonlinearities belonging to sectors [0, k] and [h, k+h], and are based on a parabola test type.
Stability comparison of two absolute gravimeters: optical versus atomic interferometers
Gillot, Pierre; Landragin, Arnaud; Santos, Franck Pereira Dos; Merlet, Sébastien
2014-01-01
We report the direct comparison between the stabilities of two mobile absolute gravimeters of different technology: the LNE-SYRTE Cold Atom Gravimeter and FG5X\\#216 of the Universit\\'e du Luxembourg. These instruments rely on two different principles of operation: atomic and optical interferometry. The comparison took place in the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics in Luxembourg, at the beginning of the last International Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters, ICAG-2013. We analyse a 2h10 duration common measurement, and find that the CAG shows better immunity with respect to changes in the level of vibration noise, as well as a slightly better short term stability.
Absolute cross-sections from X-{gamma} coincidence measurements
Lemasson, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Shrivastava, A. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Navin, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: navin@ganil.fr; Rejmund, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Nanal, V. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bhattacharyya, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Mahata, K.; Parkar, V.V. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pillay, R.G. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Ramachandran, K.; Rout, P.C. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)
2009-01-11
An activation technique using coincidences between characteristic X-rays and {gamma}-rays to obtain absolute cross-sections is described. This method is particularly useful in the case of nuclei that decay by electron capture. In addition to the reduction of possible contamination, an improved detection sensitivity is achieved as compared to inclusive measurements, thereby allowing the extraction of absolute fusion cross-sections in the nano-barn range. Results of this technique for {sup 6}Li+{sup 198}Pt system, at energies around the Coulomb barrier are described. Future applications with low intensity radioactive ion beams are also discussed.
Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone
Hiroaki Miyaoka
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.
Classifying Linear Canonical Relations
Lorand, Jonathan
2015-01-01
In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.
Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.
2017-07-11
Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.
T. (A)LVAREZ
2012-01-01
For a closed linear relation in a Banach space the concept of regularity is introduced and studied.It is shown that many of the results of Mbekhta and other authors for operators remain valid in the context of multivalued linear operators.We also extend the punctured neighbourhood theorem for operators to linear relations and as an application we obtain a characterization of semiFredholm linear relations which are regular.
Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.
1982-01-01
The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.
Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.
1982-01-01
The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.
Structure and function of a cyanophage-encoded peptide deformylase.
Frank, Jeremy A; Lorimer, Don; Youle, Merry; Witte, Pam; Craig, Tim; Abendroth, Jan; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Robert A; Segall, Anca M; Burgin, Alex B
2013-06-01
Bacteriophages encode auxiliary metabolic genes that support more efficient phage replication. For example, cyanophages carry several genes to maintain host photosynthesis throughout infection, shuttling the energy and reducing power generated away from carbon fixation and into anabolic pathways. Photodamage to the D1/D2 proteins at the core of photosystem II necessitates their continual replacement. Synthesis of functional proteins in bacteria requires co-translational removal of the N-terminal formyl group by a peptide deformylase (PDF). Analysis of marine metagenomes to identify phage-encoded homologs of known metabolic genes found that marine phages carry PDF genes, suggesting that their expression during infection might benefit phage replication. We identified a PDF homolog in the genome of Synechococcus cyanophage S-SSM7. Sequence analysis confirmed that it possesses the three absolutely conserved motifs that form the active site in PDF metalloproteases. Phylogenetic analysis placed it within the Type 1B subclass, most closely related to the Arabidopsis chloroplast PDF, but lacking the C-terminal α-helix characteristic of that group. PDF proteins from this phage and from Synechococcus elongatus were expressed and characterized. The phage PDF is the more active enzyme and deformylates the N-terminal tetrapeptides from D1 proteins more efficiently than those from ribosomal proteins. Solution of the X-ray/crystal structures of those two PDFs to 1.95 Å resolution revealed active sites identical to that of the Type 1B Arabidopsis chloroplast PDF. Taken together, these findings show that many cyanophages encode a PDF with a D1 substrate preference that adds to the repertoire of genes used by phages to maintain photosynthetic activities.
Index coding via linear programming
Blasiak, Anna; Lubetzky, Eyal
2010-01-01
Index Coding has received considerable attention recently motivated in part by applications such as fast video-on-demand and efficient communication in wireless networks and in part by its connection to Network Coding. The basic setting of Index Coding encodes the side-information relation, the problem input, as an undirected graph and the fundamental parameter is the broadcast rate $\\beta$, the average communication cost per bit for sufficiently long messages (i.e. the non-linear vector capacity). Recent nontrivial bounds on $\\beta$ were derived from the study of other Index Coding capacities (e.g. the scalar capacity $\\beta_1$) by Bar-Yossef et al (FOCS'06), Lubetzky and Stav (FOCS'07) and Alon et al (FOCS'08). However, these indirect bounds shed little light on the behavior of $\\beta$ and its exact value remained unknown for \\emph{any graph} where Index Coding is nontrivial. Our main contribution is a hierarchy of linear programs whose solutions trap $\\beta$ between them. This enables a direct information-...
NMDA receptors and memory encoding.
Morris, Richard G M
2013-11-01
It is humbling to think that 30 years have passed since the paper by Collingridge, Kehl and McLennan showing that one of Jeff Watkins most interesting compounds, R-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (d-AP5), blocked the induction of long-term potentiation in vitro at synapses from area CA3 of the hippocampus to CA1 without apparent effect on baseline synaptic transmission (Collingridge et al., 1983). This dissociation was one of the key triggers for an explosion of interest in glutamate receptors, and much has been discovered since that collectively contributes to our contemporary understanding of glutamatergic synapses - their biophysics and subunit composition, of the agonists and antagonists acting on them, and their diverse functions in different networks of the brain and spinal cord. It can be fairly said that Collingridge et al.'s (1983) observation was the stimulus that has led, on the one hand, to structural biological work at the atomic scale describing the key features of NMDA receptors that enables their coincidence function to happen; and, on the other, to work with whole animals investigating the contributions that calcium signalling via this receptor can have on rhythmical activities controlled by spinal circuits, memory encoding in the hippocampus (the topic of this article), visual cortical plasticity, sensitization in pain, and other functions. In this article, I lay out how my then interest in long-term potentiation (LTP) as a model of memory enabled me to recognise the importance of Collingridge et al.'s discovery - and how I and my colleagues endeavoured to take things forward in the area of learning and memory. This is in some respects a personal story, and I tell it as such. The idea that NMDA receptor activation is essential for memory encoding, though not for storage, took time to develop and to be accepted. Along the way, there have been confusions, challenges, and surprises surrounding the idea that activation of NMDA receptors can
Cooperstein, Bruce
2010-01-01
Vector SpacesFieldsThe Space FnVector Spaces over an Arbitrary Field Subspaces of Vector SpacesSpan and IndependenceBases and Finite Dimensional Vector SpacesBases and Infinite Dimensional Vector SpacesCoordinate VectorsLinear TransformationsIntroduction to Linear TransformationsThe Range and Kernel of a Linear TransformationThe Correspondence and Isomorphism TheoremsMatrix of a Linear TransformationThe Algebra of L(V, W) and Mmn(F)Invertible Transformations and MatricesPolynomialsThe Algebra of PolynomialsRoots of PolynomialsTheory of a Single Linear OperatorInvariant Subspaces of an Operator
Fabricating the absolute fake: America in contemporary pop culture
Kooijman, J.
2008-01-01
Onze wereld wordt gedomineerd door de Amerikaanse popcultuur. Fabricating the Absolute Fake onderzoekt de dynamiek van Amerikanisering aan de hand van hedendaagse films, televisieprogramma's en popsterren die reflecteren op de vraag wat het betekent om Amerikaan in een mondiale popcultuur te zijn. J
Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine
Behenna, Douglas C.
2011-04-01
We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional support for our model of enantioinduction in the palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ophthalmoplegic migraine. Two patients with an absolute response to indomethacin.
Pareja, J A; Churruca, J; de la Casa Fages, B; de Silanes, C López; Sánchez, C; Barriga, F J
2010-06-01
Two patients suffering from ophthalmoplegic migraine had a strictly unilateral headache absolutely responsive to indomethacin, but not to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics or corticosteroids. Such observations raise a therapeutic alternative and suggest that ophthalmoplegic migraine may present with different headache phenotypes.
Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansions
BISWAJYOTI SAHA
2016-08-01
For an arithmetical function $f$ with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the $\\sum_{n\\leq N}$ f(n)$ with explicit error term. As a corollary we obtain new results about sum-of-divisors functions and Jordan’s totient functions.
Urey: to measure the absolute age of Mars
Randolph, J. E.; Plescia, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bartlett, P.; Bickler, D.; Carlson, R.; Carr, G.; Fong, M.; Gronroos, H.; Guske, P. J.;
2003-01-01
UREY, a proposed NASA Mars Scout mission will, for the first time, measure the absolute age of an identified igneous rock formation on Mars. By extension to relatively older and younger rock formations dated by remote sensing, these results will enable a new and better understanding of Martian geologic history.
Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction
Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.
1987-01-01
Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.
Absolute configuration and antiprotozoal activity of minquartynoic acid
Rasmussen, H B; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Kvist, L P;
2000-01-01
Minquartynoic acid (1) was isolated as an antimalarial and antileishmanial constituent of the Peruvian tree Minquartia guianensis and its absolute configuration at C-17 established to be (+)-S through conversion to the known (+)-(S)-17-hydroxystearic acid (2) and confirmed using Mosher's method....
Individual Differences in Absolute and Relative Metacomprehension Accuracy
Maki, Ruth H.; Shields, Micheal; Wheeler, Amanda Easton; Zacchilli, Tammy Lowery
2005-01-01
The authors investigated absolute and relative metacomprehension accuracy as a function of verbal ability in college students. Students read hard texts, revised texts, or a mixed set of texts. They then predicted their performance, took a multiple-choice test on the texts, and made posttest judgments about their performance. With hard texts,…
Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC
Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A
2012-01-01
Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...
Multipliers for the Absolute Euler Summability of Fourier Series
Prem Chandra
2001-05-01
In this paper, the author has investigated necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute Euler summability of the Fourier series with multipliers. These conditions are weaker than those obtained earlier by some workers. It is further shown that the multipliers are best possible in certain sense.
Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects
Alvarez-Candal, A; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Morales, N; Santos-Sanz, P; Thirouin, A; Silva, J S
2015-01-01
Context: Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, Hv, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, yet not many are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of trans-Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modeled, within the 'TNOs are cool' program, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V band absolute m...
The harmonic force field and absolute infrared intensities of diacetylene
Koops, Th.; Visser, T.; Smit, W.M.A.
1984-01-01
The frequencies, harmonic force field and absolute IR intensities for C4H2 and C4D2 are reported. The experimental harmonized frequencies obey the Teller—Redlich product rule very well. An approximate harmonic force field was obtained from a refinement procedure in which the starting values are adj
Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions
Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva
2012-01-01
Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…
Two methods for absolute calibration of dynamic pressure transducers
Swift, G. W.; Migliori, A.; Garrett, S. L.; Wheatley, J. C.
1982-12-01
Two techniques are described for absolute calibration of a dynamic pressure transducer from 0 to 400 Hz in 1-MPa helium gas. One technique is based on a comparison to a mercury manometer; the other is based on the principle of reciprocity. The two techniques agree within the instrumental uncertainties of 1%.
Absolute measurement of detector quantum efficiency using parametric downconversion.
Rarity, J G; Ridley, K D; Tapster, P R
1987-11-01
We show that a parametric downconversion crystal emitting angle resolved coincident photon pairs can be used to measure the absolute quantum efficiency of a photon counting detection system. We have measured the quantum efficiency of a silicon avalanche photodiode, operated in Geiger mode, as a function of operating voltage and compare this to results obtained using a conventional method.
Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section
Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.
2015-01-01
The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of h
Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section
Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.
The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of
Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes
The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...
Toward The Absolute Age of M92 With MIST
Choi, Jieun; Conroy, Charlie; Dotter, Aaron; Weisz, Daniel; Rosenfield, Philip; Dolphin, Andrew
2016-08-01
Globular clusters provide a fundamental link between stars and galaxies. For example, it has been suggested that ultra faint dwarf galaxies formed all of their stars prior to the epoch of reionization, but this conclusion hinges entirely on the striking similarity of their stellar populations to the ancient, metal-poor globular cluster M92. The accurate measurement of absolute ages of ancient globular clusters therefore has direct implications for the formation histories of the smallest galaxies in the Universe. However, a reliable determination of the absolute ages of globular clusters has proven to be a challenge due to uncertainties in stellar physics and complications in how the models are compared to observations. I will present preliminary results from a comprehensive study to measure the absolute age of M92 using high-quality HST archival imaging data. We pair our new MESA Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) models with a full CMD fitting framework to jointly fit multi-color CMDs, taking into account the uncertainties in abundances, distance, and stellar physics. The goal of this project is two-fold. First, we aim to provide the most secure absolute age of M92 to date with robustly estimated uncertainties. Second, we explore and quantify the degeneracies between uncertain physical quantities and model variables, such as the distance, mixing-length-alpha parameter, and helium abundance, with the ultimate goal of better constraining these unknowns with data from ongoing and future surveys such as K2, Gaia, TESS, JWST, and WFIRST.
Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance
Bavier, Richard
2009-01-01
The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises,…
Computability of Homology for Compact Absolute Neighbourhood Retracts
P.J. Collins (Pieter); A. Bauer; P. Hertling; K.-I. Ko
2009-01-01
textabstractIn this note we discuss the information needed to compute the homology groups of a topological space. We argue that the natural class of spaces to consider are the compact absolute neighbourhood retracts, since for these spaces the homology groups are finite. We show that we need to
Absolute Quantification Using Turbo Spectroscopic Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Dwihapsari, Yanurita; Mostert, J. P.; Hoogduin, J. M.
2010-01-01
One of the drawbacks of scanning patients using multiple-voxel spectroscopic imaging is the long acquisition time. This is especially true when one is interested in obtaining absolute metabolite concentrations which requires acquisition of unsuppressed water spectra in addition to the suppressed
Fabricating the absolute fake: America in contemporary pop culture
Kooijman, J.
2008-01-01
Onze wereld wordt gedomineerd door de Amerikaanse popcultuur. Fabricating the Absolute Fake onderzoekt de dynamiek van Amerikanisering aan de hand van hedendaagse films, televisieprogramma's en popsterren die reflecteren op de vraag wat het betekent om Amerikaan in een mondiale popcultuur te zijn.
Gray- and White-Matter Anatomy of Absolute Pitch Possessors
Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Chakravarty, Mallar
2015-01-01
Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate...
AIdentification of encoding proteins related to SARS-CoV
MEI Hu; SUN Lili; ZHOU Yuan; XIONG Qing; LI Zhiliang
2004-01-01
By sampling 100 encoding proteins from SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV, NC 004718) and other six coronaviruses and selecting 23 variables through stepwise multiple regression (SMR) from 172 variables, the multiple linear regression (MLR) model was established with good results of the quantitative modelling correlation coefficient R2 = 0.645 and the cross-validation correlation coefficient 0.375. After removing 4 outliers, the quantitative modelling and cross-validation correlation coefficients were R2 = 0.743 and R2CV=0.543, respectively.
Four Years of Absolute Gravity in the Taiwan Orogen (AGTO)
Mouyen, Maxime; Masson, Frédéric; Hwang, Cheinway; Cheng, Ching-Chung; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Lee, Chiung-Wu; Kao, Ricky; Hsieh, Nicky
2010-05-01
AGTO is a scientific project between Taiwanese and French institutes, which aim is to improve tectonic knowledge of Taiwan primarily using absolute gravity measurements and permanent GPS stations. Both tools are indeed useful to study vertical movements and mass transfers involved in mountain building, a major process in Taiwan located at the convergent margin between Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate. This convergence results in two subductions north and south of Taiwan (Ryukyu and Manilla trenches, respectively), while the center is experiencing collision. These processes make Taiwan very active tectonically, as illustrated by numerous large earthquakes and rapid uplift of the Central Range. High slopes of Taiwan mountains and heavy rains brought by typhoons together lead to high landslides and mudflows risks. Practically, absolute gravity measurements have been yearly repeated since 2006 along a transect across south Taiwan, from Penghu to Lutao islands, using FG5 absolute gravimeters. This transect contains ten sites for absolute measurements and has been densified in 2008 by incorporating 45 sites for relative gravity measurements with CG5 gravimeters. The last relative and absolute measurements have been performed in November 2009. Most of the absolute sites have been measured with a good accuracy, about 1 or 2 ?Gal. Only the site located in Tainan University has higher standard deviation, due to the city noise. We note that absolute gravity changes seem to follow a trend in every site. However, straightforward tectonic interpretation of these trends is not valuable as many non-tectonic effects are supposed to change g with time, like groundwater or erosion. Estimating and removing these effects leads to a tectonic gravity signal, which has theoretically two origins : deep mass transfers around the site and vertical movements of the station. The latter can be well constrained by permanent GPS stations located close to the measurement pillar. Deep mass
Novelty's effect on memory encoding.
Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Janenaite, Sigita; Meeter, Martijn
2015-07-01
It is often thought that novelty benefits memory formation. However, support for this idea mostly comes from paradigms that are open to alternative explanations. In the present study we manipulated novelty in a word-learning task through task-irrelevant background images. These background images were either standard (presented repeatedly), or novel (presented only once). Two types of background images were used: Landscape pictures and fractals. EEG was also recorded during encoding. Contrary to the idea that novelty aids memory formation, memory performance was not affected by the novelty of the background. In the evoked response potentials, we found evidence of distracting effects of novelty: both the N1 and P3b components were smaller to words studied with novel backgrounds, and the amplitude of the N2b component correlated negatively with subsequent retrieval. We conclude that although evidence from other studies does suggest benefits on a longer time scale, novelty has no instantaneous benefits for learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Optical systolic solutions of linear algebraic equations
Neuman, C. P.; Casasent, D.
1984-01-01
The philosophy and data encoding possible in systolic array optical processor (SAOP) were reviewed. The multitude of linear algebraic operations achievable on this architecture is examined. These operations include such linear algebraic algorithms as: matrix-decomposition, direct and indirect solutions, implicit and explicit methods for partial differential equations, eigenvalue and eigenvector calculations, and singular value decomposition. This architecture can be utilized to realize general techniques for solving matrix linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, least mean square error solutions, FIR filters, and nested-loop algorithms for control engineering applications. The data flow and pipelining of operations, design of parallel algorithms and flexible architectures, application of these architectures to computationally intensive physical problems, error source modeling of optical processors, and matching of the computational needs of practical engineering problems to the capabilities of optical processors are emphasized.
Computational Intelligence and Its Encoding Mechanism
LIU Man-dan
2004-01-01
The origin and characteristics of computational intelligence, and several typical computational intelligence algorithms such as genetic algorithm and DNA computing are described, and the influence of evolution strategies and convergence properties on the encoding mechanism is discussed. A novel genetic algorithm based on degressive carry number encoding is then proposed. This algorithm uses degressive carry number encoding in the evolutionary process instead of commonly used fixed carry number. Finally a novel encoding mechanism and a new algorithm are proposed, which combine modern computational intelligence with the traditional Chinese methodology.
Computational Intelligence and Its Encoding Mechanism
LIUMan-dan
2004-01-01
The origin and characteristics of computational intelligence, and several typical computational intelligence algorithms such as genetic algorithm and DNA computing are described, and the influence of evolution strategies and convergence properties on the encoding mechanism is discussed. A novel genetic algorithm based on degressive carry number encoding is then proposed. This algorithm uses degressive carry number encoding in the evolutionary process instead of commonly used fixed carry number. Finally a novel encoding mechanism and a new algorithm are proposed, which combine modem computational intelligence with the traditional Chinese methodology.
The PMA Catalogue: 420 million positions and absolute proper motions
Akhmetov, V. S.; Fedorov, P. N.; Velichko, A. B.; Shulga, V. M.
2017-07-01
We present a catalogue that contains about 420 million absolute proper motions of stars. It was derived from the combination of positions from Gaia DR1 and 2MASS, with a mean difference of epochs of about 15 yr. Most of the systematic zonal errors inherent in the 2MASS Catalogue were eliminated before deriving the absolute proper motions. The absolute calibration procedure (zero-pointing of the proper motions) was carried out using about 1.6 million positions of extragalactic sources. The mean formal error of the absolute calibration is less than 0.35 mas yr-1. The derived proper motions cover the whole celestial sphere without gaps for a range of stellar magnitudes from 8 to 21 mag. In the sky areas where the extragalactic sources are invisible (the avoidance zone), a dedicated procedure was used that transforms the relative proper motions into absolute ones. The rms error of proper motions depends on stellar magnitude and ranges from 2-5 mas yr-1 for stars with 10 mag mas yr-1 for faint ones. The present catalogue contains the Gaia DR1 positions of stars for the J2015 epoch. The system of the PMA proper motions does not depend on the systematic errors of the 2MASS positions, and in the range from 14 to 21 mag represents an independent realization of a quasi-inertial reference frame in the optical and near-infrared wavelength range. The Catalogue also contains stellar magnitudes taken from the Gaia DR1 and 2MASS catalogues. A comparison of the PMA proper motions of stars with similar data from certain recent catalogues has been undertaken.
Towards absolute laser spectroscopic CO2 isotope ratio measurements
Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker
2017-04-01
Knowledge of isotope composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is necessary to identify sources and sinks of this key greenhouse gas. In the last years, laser spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) have been shown to perform accurate isotope ratio measurements for CO2 and other gases like water vapour (H2O) [1,2]. Typically, isotope ratios are reported in literature referring to reference materials provided by e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). However, there could be some benefit if field deployable absolute isotope ratio measurement methods were developed to address issues such as exhausted reference material like the Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) standard. Absolute isotope ratio measurements would be particularly important for situations where reference materials do not even exist. Here, we present CRDS and TDLAS-based absolute isotope ratios (13C/12C ) in atmospheric CO2. We demonstrate the capabilities of the used methods by measuring CO2 isotope ratios in gas standards. We compare our results to values reported for the isotope certified gas standards. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant uncertainty budgets on the CRDS and TDLAS absolute isotope ratio measurements are presented, and traceability is addressed. We outline the current impediments in realizing high accuracy absolute isotope ratio measurements using laser spectroscopic methods, propose solutions and the way forward. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project-HIGHGAS. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. References [1] B. Kühnreich, S. Wagner, J. C. Habig,·O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, V. Ebert, Appl. Phys. B 119:177-187 (2015). [2] E. Kerstel, L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439-449 (2008).
Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters
Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.
2014-12-01
The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant
Networks of Absolute Calibration Stars for SST, AKARI, and WISE
Cohen, M.
2007-04-01
I describe the Cohen-Walker-Witteborn (CWW) network of absolute calibration stars built to support ground-based, airborne, and space-based sensors, and how they are used to calibrate instruments on the SPITZER Space Telescope (SST and Japan's AKARI (formerly ASTRO-F), and to support NASA's planned MidEx WISE (the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer). All missions using this common calibration share a self-consistent framework embracing photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy. CWW also underpins COBE/DIRBE several instruments used on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory ({KAO}), the joint Japan-USA ``IR Telescope in Space" (IRTS) Near-IR and Mid-IR spectrometers, the European Space Agency's IR Space Observatory (ISO), and the US Department of Defense's Midcourse Space eXperiment (MSX). This calibration now spans the far-UV to mid-infrared range with Sirius (one specific Kurucz synthetic spectrum) as basis, and zero magnitude defined from another Kurucz spectrum intended to represent an ideal Vega (not the actual star with its pole-on orientation and mid-infrared dust excess emission). Precision 4-29 μm radiometric measurements on MSX validate CWW's absolute Kurucz spectrum of Sirius, the primary, and a set of bright K/MIII secondary standards. Sirius is measured to be 1.0% higher than predicted. CWW's definitions of IR zero magnitudes lie within 1.1% absolute of MSX measurements. The US Air Force Research Laboratory's independent analysis of on-orbit {MSX} stellar observations compared with emissive reference spheres show CWW primary and empirical secondary spectra lie well within the ±1.45% absolute uncertainty associated with this 15-year effort. Our associated absolute calibration for the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the SST lies within ˜2% of the recent extension of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope's STIS instrument to NICMOS (Bohlin, these Proceedings), showing the closeness of these two independent approaches to calibration.
Risk factor modification and projections of absolute breast cancer risk.
Petracci, Elisabetta; Decarli, Adriano; Schairer, Catherine; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Pee, David; Masala, Giovanna; Palli, Domenico; Gail, Mitchell H
2011-07-06
Although modifiable risk factors have been included in previous models that estimate or project breast cancer risk, there remains a need to estimate the effects of changes in modifiable risk factors on the absolute risk of breast cancer. Using data from a case-control study of women in Italy (2569 case patients and 2588 control subjects studied from June 1, 1991, to April 1, 1994) and incidence and mortality data from the Florence Registries, we developed a model to predict the absolute risk of breast cancer that included five non-modifiable risk factors (reproductive characteristics, education, occupational activity, family history, and biopsy history) and three modifiable risk factors (alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity, and body mass index). The model was validated using independent data, and the percent risk reduction was calculated in high-risk subgroups identified by use of the Lorenz curve. The model was reasonably well calibrated (ratio of expected to observed cancers = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.96 to 1.26), but the discriminatory accuracy was modest. The absolute risk reduction from exposure modifications was nearly proportional to the risk before modifying the risk factors and increased with age and risk projection time span. Mean 20-year reductions in absolute risk among women aged 65 years were 1.6% (95% CI = 0.9% to 2.3%) in the entire population, 3.2% (95% CI = 1.8% to 4.8%) among women with a positive family history of breast cancer, and 4.1% (95% CI = 2.5% to 6.8%) among women who accounted for the highest 10% of the total population risk, as determined from the Lorenz curve. These data give perspective on the potential reductions in absolute breast cancer risk from preventative strategies based on lifestyle changes. Our methods are also useful for calculating sample sizes required for trials to test lifestyle interventions.
Nikitin, Evgeny S.; Bal, Natalia V.; Malyshev, Aleksey; Ierusalimsky, Victor N.; Spivak, Yulia; Balaban, Pavel M.; Volgushev, Maxim
2017-01-01
The ability of neocortical neurons to detect and encode rapid changes at their inputs is crucial for basic neuronal computations, such as coincidence detection, precise synchronization of activity and spike-timing dependent plasticity. Indeed, populations of cortical neurons can respond to subtle changes of the input very fast, on a millisecond time scale. Theoretical studies and model simulations linked the encoding abilities of neuronal populations to the fast onset dynamics of action potentials (APs). Experimental results support this idea, however mechanisms of fast onset of APs in cortical neurons remain elusive. Studies in neuronal cultures, that are allowing for accurate control over conditions of growth and microenvironment during the development of neurons and provide better access to the spike initiation zone, may help to shed light on mechanisms of AP generation and encoding. Here we characterize properties of AP encoding in neocortical neurons grown for 11–25 days in culture. We show that encoding of high frequencies improves upon culture maturation, which is accompanied by the development of passive electrophysiological properties and AP generation. The onset of APs becomes faster with culture maturation. Statistical analysis using correlations and linear model approaches identified the onset dynamics of APs as a major predictor of age-dependent changes of encoding. Encoding of high frequencies strongly correlated also with the input resistance of neurons. Finally, we show that maturation of encoding properties of neurons in cultures is similar to the maturation of encoding in neurons studied in slices. These results show that maturation of AP generators and encoding is, to a large extent, determined genetically and takes place even without normal micro-environment and activity of the whole brain in vivo. This establishes neuronal cultures as a valid experimental model for studying mechanisms of AP generation and encoding, and their maturation. PMID
What physics is encoded in Maxwell's equations?
Kosyakov, B. P.
2005-08-01
We reconstruct Maxwell's equations showing that a major part of the information encoded in them is taken from topological properties of spacetime, and the residual information, divorced from geometry, which represents the physical contents of electrodynamics, %these equations, translates into four assumptions:(i) locality; (ii) linearity; %of the dynamical law; (iii) identity of the charge-source and the charge-coupling; and (iv) lack of magnetic monopoles. However, a closer inspection of symmetries peculiar to electrodynamics shows that these assumptions may have much to do with geometry. Maxwell's equations tell us that we live in a three-dimensional space with trivial (Euclidean) topology; time is a one-dimensional unidirectional and noncompact continuum; and spacetime is endowed with a light cone structure readable in the conformal invariance of electrodynamics. Our geometric feelings relate to the fact that Maxwell's equations are built in our brain, hence our space and time orientation, our visualization and imagination capabilities are ensured by perpetual instinctive processes of solving Maxwell's equations. People are usually agree in their observations of angle relations, for example, a right angle is never confused with an angle slightly different from right. By contrast, we may disagree in metric issues, say, a colour-blind person finds the light wave lengths quite different from those found by a man with normal vision. This lends support to the view that conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations is responsible for producing our notion of space. Assuming that our geometric intuition is guided by our innate realization of electrodynamical laws, some abnormal mental phenomena, such as clairvoyance, may have a rational explanation.
Yue, Qiang [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Shibata, Yasushi; Kawamura, Hiraku; Matsumura, Akira [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan); Isobe, Tomonori [Kitasato University, Department of Medical Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Minato, Tokyo (Japan); Anno, Izumi [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Gong, Qi-Yong [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China)]|[University of Liverpool, Division of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Liverpool (United Kingdom)
2009-01-15
This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and pathological changes in meningioma. Twenty-two meningioma cases underwent single voxel 1H-MRS (point-resolved spectroscopy sequence, repetition time/echo time = 2,000 ms/68, 136, 272 ms). Absolute choline (Cho) concentration was calculated using tissue water as the internal reference and corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts. Pathological specimens were stained with MIB-1 antibody to measure cell density and proliferation index. Correlation analysis was performed between absolute Cho concentration and cell density and MIB-1 labeled proliferation index. Average Cho concentration of all meningiomas before correction was 2.95 {+-} 0.86 mmol/kg wet weight. It was increased to 3.23 {+-} 1.15 mmol/kg wet weight after correction. Average cell density of all meningiomas was 333 {+-} 119 cells/HPF, and average proliferation index was 2.93 {+-} 5.72%. A linear, positive correlation between cell density and Cho concentration was observed (r = 0.650, P = 0.001). After correction of Cho concentration, the correlation became more significant (r = 0.737, P < 0.001). However, no significant correlation between Cho concentration and proliferation index was found. There seemed to be a positive correlation trend after correction of Cho concentration but did not reach significant level. Absolute Cho concentration, especially Cho concentration corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts, reflects cell density of meningioma. (orig.)
Non linear system become linear system
Petre Bucur
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.
A Novel Design Of An NTC Thermistor Linearization Circuit
Lukić Jelena
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A novel design of a circuit used for NTC thermistor linearization is proposed. The novelty of the proposed design consists in a specific combination of two linearization circuits, a serial-parallel resistive voltage divider and a two-stage piecewise linear analog-to-digital converter. At the output of the first linearization circuit the quasi-linear voltage is obtained. To remove the residual voltage nonlinearity, the second linearization circuit, i.e., a two-stage piecewise linear analog-to-digital converter is employed. This circuit is composed of two flash analog-to-digital converters. The first analog-to-digital converter is piecewise linear and it is actually performing the linearization, while the second analog-to-digital converter is linear and it is performing the reduction of the quantization error introduced by the first converter. After the linearization is performed, the maximal absolute value of a difference between the measured and real temperatures is 0.014°C for the temperature range between −25 and 75°C, and 0.001°C for the temperature range between 10 and 40°C.
Wiedemann, H.
1981-11-01
Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
Blyth, T S
2002-01-01
Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...
Linearity in Process Languages
Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn
2002-01-01
The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open-map bisi......The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....
Testud, Frederik; Gallichan, Daniel; Layton, Kelvin J; Barmet, Christoph; Welz, Anna M; Dewdney, Andrew; Cocosco, Chris A; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim
2015-03-01
PatLoc (Parallel Imaging Technique using Localized Gradients) accelerates imaging and introduces a resolution variation across the field-of-view. Higher-dimensional encoding employs more spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs) than the corresponding image dimensionality requires, e.g. by applying two quadratic and two linear spatial encoding magnetic fields to reconstruct a 2D image. Images acquired with higher-dimensional single-shot trajectories can exhibit strong artifacts and geometric distortions. In this work, the source of these artifacts is analyzed and a reliable correction strategy is derived. A dynamic field camera was built for encoding field calibration. Concomitant fields of linear and nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields were analyzed. A combined basis consisting of spherical harmonics and concomitant terms was proposed and used for encoding field calibration and image reconstruction. A good agreement between the analytical solution for the concomitant fields and the magnetic field simulations of the custom-built PatLoc SEM coil was observed. Substantial image quality improvements were obtained using a dynamic field camera for encoding field calibration combined with the proposed combined basis. The importance of trajectory calibration for single-shot higher-dimensional encoding is demonstrated using the combined basis including spherical harmonics and concomitant terms, which treats the concomitant fields as an integral part of the encoding. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cardiovascular responses to exercise as functions of absolute and relative work load
Lewis, S. F.; Taylor, W. F.; Graham, R. M.; Pettinger, W. A.; Schutte, J. E.; Blomqvist, C. G.
1983-01-01
The roles of absolute and relative oxygen uptake (VO2 and percent of muscle group specific VO2-max) as determinants of the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to exercise over a wide range of active muscle mass are investigated. Experiments were conducted using four types of dynamic exercise: one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one and two-leg cycling at four different relative work loads (25, 50, 75, and 100 percent of VO2-max) for the corresponding muscle group. Results show that VO2 during maximal one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one-leg cycling averaged 20, 50, and 75 percent, respectively, of that for maximal two-leg cycling. Cardiac output was determined to be linearly related to VO2 with a similar slope and intercept for each type of exercise, and the heart rate at a given percent VO2-max was higher with larger active muscle mass. It is concluded that the cardiovascular responses to exercise was determined to a large extent by the active muscle mass and the absolute oxygen uptake, with the principal feature appearing to be the tight linkage between systematic oxygen transport and utilization.
Zhao, Keqiang; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Wang, Yunzhi; Chen, Liang
2015-12-01
This paper proposed a novel absolute displacement measurement technology which is based on the wavenumber spectrum of low coherence interferometry. The signal from a Michelson interferometer, which is derived from a broadband light source, is dispersed by a bulk dispersing grating. The interferometric signal of each wavelength is detected by a linear array charge coupled device (CCD). By transforming the wavelength spectrum of the signal into wavenumber spectrum, absolute displacement can be measured precisely by measuring the wavenumber difference between two neighboring peaks of the wavenumber spectrum. Unlike the normal low coherence interferometric measurement systems (LCIMS) which have to scan the optical path difference (OPD) of the interferometer in order to demodulate the measurand, there is no need of scanning action during the measurement procedure, which not only simplifies the measurement system but also improves the measurement speed greatly. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is employed to produce a feedback signal which is used to stabilize the Michelson interferometer so as to obtain high measurement precision. A step height with the calibrated value of 50 μm that is configurated with two gauge blocks is measured by the system. The measurement resolution is 6.03 nm and the standard deviation of 10 times measurement results is 6.8 nm.
Hui Xue; Weidong Shen; Peifu Gu; Zhenyue Luo; Yueguang Zhang; Xu Liu
2009-01-01
A novel method to measure the absolute phase shift on reflection of thin film is presented utilizing a white-light interferometer in spectral domain.By applying Fourier transformation to the recorded spectral interference signal,we retrieve the spectral phase function ф,which is induced by three parts:the path length difference in air L,the effective thickness of slightly dispersive cube beam splitter Teff and the nonlinear phase function due to multi-reflection of the thin film structure.We utilize the fact that the overall optical path difference(OPD)is linearly dependent on the refractive index of the beam splitter to determine both L and Teff.The spectral phase shift on reflection of thin film structure can be obtained by subtracting these two parts from ф.We show theoretically and experimentally that our now method can provide a sinlple and fast solution in calculating the absolute spectral phase function of optical thin films,while still maintaining high accuracy.
Cardiovascular responses to exercise as functions of absolute and relative work load
Lewis, S. F.; Taylor, W. F.; Graham, R. M.; Pettinger, W. A.; Schutte, J. E.; Blomqvist, C. G.
1983-01-01
The roles of absolute and relative oxygen uptake (VO2 and percent of muscle group specific VO2-max) as determinants of the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to exercise over a wide range of active muscle mass are investigated. Experiments were conducted using four types of dynamic exercise: one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one and two-leg cycling at four different relative work loads (25, 50, 75, and 100 percent of VO2-max) for the corresponding muscle group. Results show that VO2 during maximal one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one-leg cycling averaged 20, 50, and 75 percent, respectively, of that for maximal two-leg cycling. Cardiac output was determined to be linearly related to VO2 with a similar slope and intercept for each type of exercise, and the heart rate at a given percent VO2-max was higher with larger active muscle mass. It is concluded that the cardiovascular responses to exercise was determined to a large extent by the active muscle mass and the absolute oxygen uptake, with the principal feature appearing to be the tight linkage between systematic oxygen transport and utilization.
Self-attraction effect and correction on the T-1 absolute gravimeter
Li, Z.; Hu, H.; Wu, K.; Li, G.; Wang, G.; Wang, L. J.
2015-12-01
The self-attraction effect (SAE) in an absolute gravimeter is a kind of systematic error due to the gravitation of the instrument to the falling object. This effect depends on the mass distribution of the gravimeter, and is estimated to be a few microgals (1 μGal = 10-8 m s-2) for the FG5 gravimeter. In this paper, the SAE of a home-made T-1 absolute gravimeter is analyzed and calculated. Most of the stationary components, including the dropping chamber, the laser interferometer, the vibration isolation device and two tripods, are finely modelled, and the related SAEs are computed. In addition, the SAE of the co-falling carriage inside the dropping chamber is carefully calculated because the distance between the falling object and the co-falling carriage varies during the measurement. In order to get the correction of the SAE, two different methods are compared. One is to linearize the SAE curve, the other one is to calculate the perturbed trajectory. The results from these two methods agree with each other within 0.01 μGal. With an uncertainty analysis, the correction of the SAE of the T-1 gravimeter is estimated to be (-1.9 ± 0.1) μGal.
Matrices and linear transformations
Cullen, Charles G
1990-01-01
""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first
Shelah, Saharon
2011-01-01
We address the following question: Can we expand an NIP theory by adding a linear order such that the expansion is still NIP? Easily, if acl(A)=A for all A, then this is true. Otherwise, we give counterexamples. More precisely, there is a totally categorical theory for which every expansion by a linear order has IP. There is also an \\omega-stable NDOP theory for which every expansion by a linear order interprets bounded arithmetic.
Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers
Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2006-01-01
Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....
Carr, Joseph
1996-01-01
The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa
Charges for linearized gravity
Aksteiner, Steffen
2013-01-01
Maxwell test fields as well as solutions of linearized gravity on the Kerr exterior admit non-radiating modes, i.e. non-trivial time-independent solutions. These are closely related to conserved charges. In this paper we discuss the non-radiating modes for linearized gravity, which may be seen to correspond to the Poincare Lie-algebra. The 2-dimensional isometry group of Kerr corresponds to a 2-parameter family of gauge-invariant non-radiating modes representing infinitesimal perturbations of mass and azimuthal angular momentum. We calculate the linearized mass charge in terms of linearized Newman-Penrose scalars.
Chen, Qingwen; Narayanan, Kumaran
2015-01-01
Recombineering is a powerful genetic engineering technique based on homologous recombination that can be used to accurately modify DNA independent of its sequence or size. One novel application of recombineering is the assembly of linear BACs in E. coli that can replicate autonomously as linear plasmids. A circular BAC is inserted with a short telomeric sequence from phage N15, which is subsequently cut and rejoined by the phage protelomerase enzyme to generate a linear BAC with terminal hairpin telomeres. Telomere-capped linear BACs are protected against exonuclease attack both in vitro and in vivo in E. coli cells and can replicate stably. Here we describe step-by-step protocols to linearize any BAC clone by recombineering, including inserting and screening for presence of the N15 telomeric sequence, linearizing BACs in vivo in E. coli, extracting linear BACs, and verifying the presence of hairpin telomere structures. Linear BACs may be useful for functional expression of genomic loci in cells, maintenance of linear viral genomes in their natural conformation, and for constructing innovative artificial chromosome structures for applications in mammalian and plant cells.
Fault tolerant linear actuator
Tesar, Delbert
2004-09-14
In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.
Faraway, Julian J
2014-01-01
A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz
Cellular encoding for interactive evolutionary robotics
Gruau, F.C.; Quatramaran, K.
1996-01-01
This work reports experiments in interactive evolutionary robotics. The goal is to evolve an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to control the locomotion of an 8-legged robot. The ANNs are encoded using a cellular developmental process called cellular encoding. In a previous work similar experiments ha
A METHOD OF SHAPE ENCODING AND RETRIEVAL
Huang Xianglin; Song Lei; Shen Lansun
2002-01-01
A method of shape encoding and retrieval is proposed in this letter, which uses centripetal code to encode shape and extracts shape's convex for retrieval. For the rotation invariance and translation invariance of the centripetal code and the normalization of convex,the proposed retrieval method is similarity transform resistant, Experimental results confirm this capability.
Absolute versus convective helical magnetorotational instability in a Taylor-Couette flow
Priede, JÄnis
2008-01-01
We analyze numerically the magnetorotational instability of a Taylor-Couette flow in a helical magnetic field (HMRI) using the inductionless approximation defined by a zero magnetic Prandtl number (Pm=0). The Chebyshev collocation method is used to calculate the eigenvalue spectrum for small amplitude perturbations. First, we carry out a detailed conventional linear stability analysis with respect to perturbations in the form of Fourier modes that corresponds to the convective instability which is not in general self-sustained. The helical magnetic field is found to extend the instability to a relatively narrow range beyond its purely hydrodynamic limit defined by the Rayleigh line. There is not only a lower critical threshold at which HMRI appears but also an upper one at which it disappears again. The latter distinguishes the HMRI from a magnetically-modified Taylor vortex flow. Second, we find an absolute instability threshold as well. In the hydrodynamically unstable regime before the Rayleigh line, the t...
Absolute quantification of dehydroacetic acid in processed foods using quantitative ¹H NMR.
Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Furusho, Noriko; Kubota, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi
2013-11-15
An absolute quantification method for the determination of dehydroacetic acid in processed foods using quantitative (1)H NMR was developed and validated. The level of dehydroacetic acid was determined using the proton signals of dehydroacetic acid referenced to 1,4-bis (trimethylsilyl) benzene-d4 after simple solvent extraction from processed foods. All the recoveries from three processed foods spiked at two different concentrations were larger than 85%. The proposed method also proved to be precise, with inter-day precision and excellent linearity. The limit of quantification was confirmed as 0.13g/kg in processed foods, which is sufficiently low for the purposes of monitoring dehydroacetic acid. Furthermore, the method is rapid and easy to apply, and provides International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte reference materials. Therefore, the proposed method is a useful and practical tool for determining the level of dehydroacetic acid in processed foods.
Can corner-cube absolute gravimeters sense the effects of Special Relativity?
Nagornyi, V D; Zanimonskiy, Y Y
2012-01-01
Relativistic treatment of the finite speed of light correction in absolute gravimeters, as evolved by Rothleitner and Francis in Metrologia 2011, 48 442-445, following the initial publication in Metrologia 2011, 48 187-195, leads to spurious conclusions. The double Doppler shift implemented in the gravimeters obliterates the difference between its relativistic and non-relativistic formulation. Optical heterodyning used in Michelson-type interferometers makes the quadratic Lorenz-like term of the double Doppler shift discernable against the linear term, while in relativistic experiments the quadratic term has to be detected against the unit. The disturbance of the registered trajectory caused by the finite speed of light includes tracking signal delay as intrinsic part not reducible to the Doppler shifts.
Calibration of Fourier domain short coherence interferometer for absolute distance measurements.
Montonen, R; Kassamakov, I; Hæggström, E; Österberg, K
2015-05-20
We calibrated and determined the measurement uncertainty of a custom-made Fourier domain short coherence interferometer operated in laboratory conditions. We compared the optical thickness of two thickness standards and three coverslips determined with our interferometer to the geometric thickness determined by SEM. Using this calibration data, we derived a calibration function with a 95% confidence level system uncertainty of (5.9×10(-3)r+2.3) μm, where r is the optical distance in μm, across the 240 μm optical measurement range. The confidence limit includes contributions from uncertainties in the optical thickness, geometric thickness, and refractive index measurements as well as uncertainties arising from cosine errors and thermal expansion. The results show feasibility for noncontacting absolute distance characterization with micrometer-level accuracy. This instrument is intended for verifying the alignment of the discs of an accelerating structure in the possible future compact linear collider.
The Arabic Diatessaron Project: Digitalizing, Encoding, Lemmatization
Giuliano Lancioni
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The Arabic Diatessaron Project (henceforth ADP is an international research project in Digital Humanities that aims to collect, digitalise and encode all known manuscripts of the Arabic Diatessaron (henceforth AD, a text that has been relatively neglected in scholarly research. ADP’s final goal is to provide a number of tools that can enable scholars to effectively query, compare and investigate all known variants of the text that will be encoded as far as possible in compliance with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI guidelines. The paper addresses a number of issues involved in the process of digitalising manuscripts included in the two existing editions (Ciasca 1888 and Marmardji 1935, adding variants in unedited manuscripts, encoding and lemmatising the text. Issues involved in the design of the ADP include presentation of variants, choice of the standard text, applicability of TEI guidelines, automatic translation between different encodings, cross-edition concordances and principles of lemmatisation.
Van Camp, M.; Viron, O.; Avouac, J. P.
2016-05-01
We estimate the signature of the climate-induced mass transfers in repeated absolute gravity measurements based on satellite gravimetric measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. We show results at the globe scale and compare them with repeated absolute gravity (AG) time behavior in three zones where AG surveys have been published: Northwestern Europe, Canada, and Tibet. For 10 yearly campaigns, the uncertainties affecting the determination of a linear gravity rate of change range 3-4 nm/s2/a in most cases, in the absence of instrumental artifacts. The results are consistent with what is observed for long-term repeated campaigns. We also discuss the possible artifact that can result from using short AG survey to determine the tectonic effects in a zone of high hydrological variability. We call into question the tectonic interpretation of several gravity changes reported from stations in Tibet, in particular the variation observed prior to the 2015 Gorkha earthquake.
Sun, Zhibin; Chang, Chein-I.; Ren, Hsuan; D"Amico, Francis M.; Jensen, James O.
2003-12-01
Fully constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (FCLSMA) has been used for material quantification in remotely sensed imagery. In order to implement FCLSMA, two constraints are imposed on abundance fractions, referred to as Abundance Sum-to-one Constraint (ASC) and Abundance Nonnegativity Constraint (ANC). While the ASC is linear equality constraint, the ANC is a linear inequality constraint. A direct approach to imposing the ASC and ANC has been recently investigated and is called fully constrained least-squares (FCLS) method. Since there is no analytical solution resulting from the ANC, a modified fully constrained least-squares method (MFCLS) which replaces the ANC with an Absolute Abundance Sum-to-one Constraint (AASC) was proposed to convert a set of inequality constraints to a quality constraint. The results produced by these two approaches have been shown to be very close. In this paper, we take an oopposite approach to the MFCLS method, called least-squares with linear inequality constraints (LSLIC) method which also solves FCLSMA, but replaces the ASC with two linear inequalities. The proposed LSLIC transforms the FCLSMA to a linear distance programming problem which can be solved easily by a numerical algorithm. In order to demonstrate its utility in solving FCLSMA, the LSLIC method is compared to the FCLS and MFCLS methods. The experimental results show that these three methods perform very similarly with only subtle differences resulting from their problem formations.
Determination of the Absolute Luminosity at the LHC
White, Simon Mathieu; Puzo, P
2010-01-01
For particle colliders, the most important performance parameters are the beam energy and the luminosity. High energies allow the particle physics experiments to study and observe new effects. The luminosity describes the ability of the collider to produce the required number of useful interactions or events. It is defined as the proportionality factor between the event rate, measured by the experiments, and the cross section of the observed event which describes its probability to occur. The absolute knowledge of the luminosity therefore allows for the experiments to measure the absolute cross sections. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was designed to produce proton proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. This energy would be the highest ever reached in a particle accelerator. The knowledge and understanding of particle physics at such high energy is based on simulations and theoretical predictions. As opposed to e+ e- colliders, for which the Bhabba scattering cross section can be accurately ...
Absolute configuration of labdane diterpenoids from Physalis nicandroides.
Maldonado, Emma; Pérez-Castorena, Ana L; Romero, Yunuen; Martínez, Mahinda
2015-02-27
A mixture of the new epimeric labdenetriols 1 and 2 was isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis nicandroides. The structures of 1 and 2, including their absolute configurations, were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data, together with the X-ray diffraction analysis of acetonide 3 and chemical correlation with (-)-(13E)-labd-13-ene-8α,15-diol (6), whose absolute configuration was also confirmed by X-ray analysis of its dibromo derivative 7. The epimeric labdenediols 8 and 9, the known labdanes 6 and 11, and the acylsucroses 12 and 13 were also isolated. Labdanes 6 and 11 showed moderate anti-inflammatory activities in the induced ear edema model.
Remote ultrasound palpation for robotic interventions using absolute elastography.
Schneider, Caitlin; Baghani, Ali; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Septimiu
2012-01-01
Although robotic surgery has addressed many of the challenges presented by minimally invasive surgery, haptic feedback and the lack of knowledge of tissue stiffness is an unsolved problem. This paper presents a system for finding the absolute elastic properties of tissue using a freehand ultrasound scanning technique, which utilizes the da Vinci Surgical robot and a custom 2D ultrasound transducer for intraoperative use. An external exciter creates shear waves in the tissue, and a local frequency estimation method computes the shear modulus. Results are reported for both phantom and in vivo models. This system can be extended to any 6 degree-of-freedom tracking method and any 2D transducer to provide real-time absolute elastic properties of tissue.
Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars
Glendenning, N. K.
1994-03-01
The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.
Absolute Stability for Lurie Control System with Unbound Time Delays
王天成; 王耀才; 洪留荣
2004-01-01
Time delay existes widely in various real engineering systems and can result in unsatisfactory performance or even an instability of control systems. Therefore, to investigate the stability for time delay systems is of vitul importance in control theory and its applications. Many researchers have studied the stability criteria of systems with constant delay or bound varying time delay, but few of them studied large time delay or unbound time delay. Large time delay existes commonly in various engineering applications. In this paper, the absolute stability of Lurie type direct control systems and indirect control systems with several time delays are discussed. Based on Lyapunov theory, the new delay dependent absolute stability criteria are derived. In our theorem, time delays can be unbound functions, which shows that the results are less conservative than that of existed criteria.
Absolute quantification methods in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy
Matcher, Steven J.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Nahid, K.; Cope, Mark; Delpy, David T.
1995-05-01
Recent work aimed at providing an absolute measurement of tissue haemoglobin saturation and a new instrument development, the spatially resolved spectrometer (SRS), are discussed. The theoretical basis of operation of this device and its hardware implementation are described and the results of validation studies on tissue simulating phantoms are presented as are preliminary measurements on human volunteers and observations on patients undergoing neurosurgery. In its present form the instrument appears to produce absolute haemoglobin saturation values for resting human skeletal muscle and the normally perfused human head which are rather low based on physiological expectations. However, we obtained a tight correlation between the saturation values measured by the SRS instrument and those obtained from blood-gas analysis of samples drawn from a jugular bulb catheter in one neurosurgery subject during clamping of the right carotid arteries.
Self consistent, absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors.
Avella, A; Brida, G; Degiovanni, I P; Genovese, M; Gramegna, M; Lolli, L; Monticone, E; Portesi, C; Rajteri, M; Rastello, M L; Taralli, E; Traina, P; White, M
2011-11-07
Well characterized photon number resolving detectors are a requirement for many applications ranging from quantum information and quantum metrology to the foundations of quantum mechanics. This prompts the necessity for reliable calibration techniques at the single photon level. In this paper we propose an innovative absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors, using a pulsed heralded photon source based on parametric down conversion. The technique, being absolute, does not require reference standards and is independent upon the performances of the heralding detector. The method provides the results of quantum efficiency for the heralded detector as a function of detected photon numbers. Furthermore, we prove its validity by performing the calibration of a Transition Edge Sensor based detector, a real photon number resolving detector that has recently demonstrated its effectiveness in various quantum information protocols.
Simultaneously improving the sensitivity and absolute accuracy of CPT magnetometer.
Liang, Shang-Qing; Yang, Guo-Qing; Xu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Chen, Zheng-Xiang
2014-03-24
A new method to improve the sensitivity and absolute accuracy simultaneously for coherent population trapping (CPT) magnetometer based on the differential detection method is presented. Two modulated optical beams with orthogonal circular polarizations are applied, in one of which two magnetic resonances are excited simultaneously by modulating a 3.4GHz microwave with Larmor frequency. When a microwave frequency shift is introduced, the difference in the power transmitted through the cell in each beam shows a low noise resonance. The sensitivity of 2pT/Hz @ 10Hz is achieved. Meanwhile, the absolute accuracy of ± 0.5nT within the magnetic field ranging from 20000nT to 100000nT is realized.
Absolute configuration assignment of (+)-fluralaner using vibrational circular dichroism.
Kong, John; Joyce, Leo A; Liu, Jinchu; Jarrell, Tiffany M; Culberson, J Chris; Sherer, Edward C
2017-10-05
The absolute configurations of the separated enantiomers of fluralaner, a racemic animal health product used to prevent fleas and ticks, have been assigned using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The crystallographic structure of the active enantiomer (+)-fluralaner has previously been shown to have the (S) configuration using small molecule crystallography. We sought a faster analytical method to determine the absolute configuration of the separated enantiomers. When comparing the measured IR (infrared) and VCD spectra, it is apparent that the amide carbonyl groups appear in the IR but are nearly absent in the VCD. Computational work to calculate the VCD and IR using in vacuo models, implicit solvation, and explicitly solvated complexes has implicated conformational averaging of the carbonyl VCD intensities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Automated absolute phase retrieval in across-track interferometry
Madsen, Soren N.; Zebker, Howard A.
1992-01-01
Discussed is a key element in the processing of topographic radar maps acquired by the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar configured as an across-track interferometer (TOPSAR). TOPSAR utilizes a single transmit and two receive antennas; the three-dimensional target location is determined by triangulation based on a known baseline and two measured slant ranges. The slant range difference is determined very accurately from the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas. This phase is measured modulo 2pi, whereas it is the absolute phase which relates directly to the difference in slant range. It is shown that splitting the range bandwidth into two subbands in the processor and processing each individually allows for the absolute phase. The underlying principles and system errors which must be considered are discussed, together with the implementation and results from processing data acquired during the summer of 1991.
Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer
Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.
2016-03-01
A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.
Demonstrating an absolute quantum advantage in direct absorption measurement
Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Whittaker, Rebecca; Joshi, Siddarth K; Birchall, Patrick; McMillan, Alex; Rarity, John G; Matthews, Jonathan C F
2016-01-01
Engineering apparatus that harness quantum theory offers practical advantages over current technology. A fundamentally more powerful prospect is the long-standing prediction that such quantum technologies could out-perform any future iteration of their classical counterparts, no matter how well the attributes of those classical strategies can be improved. Here, we experimentally demonstrate such an instance of \\textit{absolute} advantage per photon probe in the precision of optical direct absorption measurement. We use correlated intensity measurements of spontaneous parametric downconversion using a commercially available air-cooled CCD, a new estimator for data analysis and a high heralding efficiency photon-pair source. We show this enables improvement in the precision of measurement, per photon probe, beyond what is achievable with an ideal coherent state (a perfect laser) detected with $100\\%$ efficient and noiseless detection. We see this absolute improvement for up to $50\\%$ absorption, with a maximum ...
Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer
Sorri, J., E-mail: juha.m.t.sorri@jyu.fi [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Cox, D.M. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Herzberg, R.-D. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)
2016-03-11
A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 166}Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.
Correction due to finite speed of light in absolute gravimeters
Nagornyi, V D; Zanimonskiy, Y Y
2010-01-01
Correction due to finite speed of light is among the most inconsistent ones in absolute gravimetry. Formulas reported by different authors yield corrections scattered up to 8 $\\mu$Gal with no obvious reasons. The problem, though noted before, has never been studied, and nowadays the correction is rather postulated than rigorously proven. In this paper we investigate the problem from several prospectives, find the corrections for different types of absolute gravimeters, and establish relationships between different ways of implement them. The obtained results enabled us to analyze and understand the discrepancies in the results of other authors. We found that the correction derived from the Doppler effect is accountable only for $\\tfrac{2}{3}$ of the total correction due to finite speed of light, if no signal delays are considered. Another major source of inconsistency was found in the tacit use of simplified trajectory models.
Enantiomers of a nonylphenol isomer: absolute configurations and estrogenic potencies.
Zhang, Haifeng; Oppel, Iris M; Spiteller, Michael; Guenther, Klaus; Boehmler, Gabriele; Zuehlke, Sebastian
2009-02-01
Enantiomers of 4-(1,1,2-trimethylhexyl)phenol, a chiral isomer of the endocrine disrupting chemical nonylphenol, have been resolved and isolated by preparative chiral HPLC. The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were then determined by an X-ray crystallographic study of the (-)-camphanoyl derivative of the first eluted enantiomer NP(35)E1. The first enantiomer (NP(35)E1) and the second enantiomer (NP(35)E2) eluted were found to have the S and R absolute configurations, respectively. The estrogenic potencies of the S and R enantiomers were tested by the E-screen assay. A slight difference was observed in the relative proliferative effect between the S enantiomer and R enantiomer in the E-screen assay.
Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity
Loczi, Lajos
2014-05-19
We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.
A model for visual memory encoding.
Rodolphe Nenert
Full Text Available Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA. All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN. Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.
A model for visual memory encoding.
Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P
2014-01-01
Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA) with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA). All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions) and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN). Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s) of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.
The United States and assassination policy : diluting the absolute
2003-01-01
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. has reached a crossroads with its policy regarding assassination. Executive Order 12333, which explicitly and absolutely prohibits assassination, is still in effect. The ban, however, has been diluted and circumvented since its inception. Past administrations have targeted enemy leaders with "indirect" strikes such as the 1986 attacks against Libya and the 1998 missile strikes in Afghanistan and Sudan. Currently, the U.S. deli...
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation
Jaworski JM
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between
Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of the Ds+- meson
Abe, K; Dragic, J; Fujii, H; Gershon, T; Haba, J; Hazumi, M; Higuchi, T; Igarashi, Y; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Katayama, N; Kichimi, H; Krokovnyi, P P; Limosani, A; Nakamura, I; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nishida, S; Nozaki, T; Ozaki, H; Ronga, F J; Saitoh, S; Sakai, Y; Stamen, R; Sumisawa, K; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tanaka, M; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsukamoto, T; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Ushiroda, Y; Yamauchi, M; Zhang, J; Hoshi, Y; Neichi, K; Aihara, H; Hastings, N C; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, K; Iwasaki, M; Kakuno, H; Kusaka, A; Nakahama, Y; Tanabe, K; Anipko, D; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Bedny, I; Bondar, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D A; Gabyshev, N; Kuzmin, A; Poluektov, A; Root, N; Shwartz, B; Sidorov, V; Usov, Yu; Zhilich, V; Aoki, K; Enari, Y; Hara, K; Hayasaka, K; Hokuue, T; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Kishimoto, N; Kozakai, Y; Kubota, T; Miyazaki, Y; Ohshima, T; Okabe, T; Sato, N; Senyo, K; Yoshino, S; Arakawa, T; Kawasaki, T; Miyata, H; Tamura, N; Watanabe, M; Asano, Y; Aso, T; Aushev, T; Bay, A; Hinz, L; Jacoby, C; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Villa, S; Wicht, J; Zürcher, D; Aziz, T; Banerjee, S; Gokhroo, G; Majumder, G; Bahinipati, S; Drutskoy, A; Goldenzweig, P; Kinoshita, K; Kulasiri, R; Sayeed, K; Schwartz, A J; Somov, A; Bakich, A M; Cole, S; McOnie, S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Stöck, H; Varvell, K E; Yabsley, B D; Balagura, V; Chistov, R; Danilov, M; Liventsev, D; Medvedeva, T; Mizuk, R; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Tikhomirov, I; Uglov, T; Tian, Y BanX C; Barberio, E; Dalseno, J; Dowd, R; Moloney, G R; Sevior, M E; Taylor, G N; Tse, Y F; Urquijo, P; Barbero, M; Browder, T E; Guler, H; Jones, M; Li, J; Nishimura, K; Olsen, S L; Peters, M; Rorie, J; Sahoo, H; Uchida, K; Varner, G; Belous, K S; Shapkin, M; Sokolov, A; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Fratina, S; Gorisek, A; Pestotnik, R; Staric, M; Zupanc, A; Blyth, S; Chen, A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Hou, S; Kuo, C C; Bozek, A; Kapusta, P; Lesiak, T; Matyja, A; Natkaniec, Z; Ostrowicz, W; Palka, H; Rózanska, M; Wiechczynski, J; Bracko, M; Korpar S; Brodzicka, J; Chang, M C; Kikuchi, N; Mikami, Y; Nagamine, T; Schonmeier, P; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Lee, Y J; Lin, C Y; Lin, S W; Shen, Y T; Tsai, Y T; Ueno, K; Wang, C C; Wang, M Z; Wu, C H; Cheon, B G; Choi, J H; Ha, H; Kang, J S; Won, E; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Park, C W; Park, K S; Chuvikov, A; Garmash, A; Marlow, D; Ziegler, T; Dash, M; Mohapatra, D; Piilonen, L E; Yusa, Y; Fujikawa, M; Hayashii, H; Imoto, A; Kataoka, S U; Miyabayashi, K; Noguchi, S; Krizan, P; Golob, B; Seidl, R; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Hara, T; Heffernan, D; Miyake, H; Hasegawa, Y; Satoyama, N; Takada, N; Nitoh, O; Hoshina, K; Ishino, H; Khan, H R; Kibayashi, A; Mori, T; Ono, S; Watanabe, Y; Iwabuchi, M; Kim, Y J; Liu, Y; Sarangi, T R; Uchida, Y; Kang, J H; Kim, T H; Kwon, Y J; Kurihara, E; Kawai, H; Park, H; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Lee, J; Lee, S E; Yang He Young; Kumar, R; Singh, J B; Soni, N; Lange, J S; Leder, G; MacNaughton, J; Mandl, F; Mitaroff, W A; Pernicka, M; Schwanda, C; Widhalm, L; Matsumoto, T; Nakagawa, T; Seki, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yamamoto, S; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Sakaue, H; Teramoto, Y; Ogawa, A; Shibuya, H; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Sakamoto, H; Wang, C H; Schümann, J; Stanic, S; Xie, Q L; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zhang, C C; Yamashita, Y; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P
2006-01-01
The Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+- absolute branching fraction is measured using e+e- -> Ds*+- Ds1-+(2536) events collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider. Using the ratio of yields when either the Ds1 or Ds* is fully reconstructed, we find Br(Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+-)= (4.0+-0.4(stat)+-0.4(sys))%.
Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology
Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.
2004-10-03
The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.
Relative or Absolute Poverty Lines - A New Approach
Madden, David
1999-01-01
When measuring poverty over time analysts must choose the value of the income elasticity of the poverty line, which essentially determines whether an absolute or relative poverty line is being used. The choice of this parameter is ultimately a value judgement but this paper suggests an approach which has some empirical basis. Borrowing from the life-style and deprivation approach to poverty various dimensions of poverty and deprivation are identified and the income elasticity of these items i...
The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet
Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Ciardullo, Robin; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan J.; Gehrels, Neil; Gronwall, Caryl; Hicken, Malcolm; Holland, Stephen T.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Immler, Stefan; Kirshner, Robert P.; Li, Weidong; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, Mark M.; Pritchard, Tyler; Still, Martin; Turatto, Massimo; Vanden Berk, Daniel
2010-10-01
We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1 rc covering ~2600-3300 Å after removing optical light, and u ≈ 3000-4000 Å) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ≈2000-2400 Å). The uvw1 rc - b colors show a scatter of ~0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 Å. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, ~1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.
ABSTRACT FUNCTIONS OF BOUNDED VARIATION AND ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY
WuCongxin; LiuTiefu
1994-01-01
As well known that in 1938,I. M. Gelfand firstly introduced abstract functions of bounded variation from [a,b] to a Banach space. After Gelfand's work,many mathematicians investigated various properties and of this kind of abstract functions, and also paid attention to the abstract functions of absolute continuity In this paper, we summarize to explain our work [1-17] about this topic.
Measuring absolute spectral radiance using an Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier
Sanguinetti, Bruno; Monteiro, Fernando; Gisin, Nicolas; Zbinden, Hugo
2012-01-01
We describe a method to measure the spectral radiance of a source in an absolute way without the need of a reference. Here we give the necessary detail to allow for the device to be reproduced from standard fiber-optic components. The device is suited for fiber-optic applications at telecom wavelengths and calibration of powermeters and spectrometers at light levels from 1nW to 1uW.
Monocular 3D scene reconstruction at absolute scale
Wöhler, Christian; d'Angelo, Pablo; Krüger, Lars; Kuhl, Annika; Groß, Horst-Michael
In this article we propose a method for combining geometric and real-aperture methods for monocular three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of static scenes at absolute scale. Our algorithm relies on a sequence of images of the object acquired by a monocular camera of fixed focal setting from different viewpoints. Object features are tracked over a range of distances from the camera with a small depth of field, leading to a varying degree of defocus for each feature. Information on absolute depth is obtained based on a Depth-from-Defocus approach. The parameters of the point spread functions estimated by Depth-from-Defocus are used as a regularisation term for Structure-from-Motion. The reprojection error obtained from bundle adjustment and the absolute depth error obtained from Depth-from-Defocus are simultaneously minimised for all tracked object features. The proposed method yields absolutely scaled 3D coordinates of the scene points without any prior knowledge about scene structure and camera motion. We describe the implementation of the proposed method both as an offline and as an online algorithm. Evaluating the algorithm on real-world data, we demonstrate that it yields typical relative scale errors of a few per cent. We examine the influence of random effects, i.e. the noise of the pixel grey values, and systematic effects, caused by thermal expansion of the optical system or by inclusion of strongly blurred images, on the accuracy of the 3D reconstruction result. Possible applications of our approach are in the field of industrial quality inspection; in particular, it is preferable to stereo cameras in industrial vision systems with space limitations or where strong vibrations occur.
Electroweak absolute, meta-, and thermal stability in neutrino mass models
Lindner, Manfred; Patel, Hiren H.; Radovčić, Branimir
2016-04-01
We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right-handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.
Absolute configuration of novel bioactive flavonoids from Tephrosia purpurea.
Chang, L C; Chávez, D; Song, L L; Farnsworth, N R; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D
2000-02-24
[structure: see text] Three novel flavonoids, (+)-tephrorins A (1) and B (2) and (+)-tephrosone (3), were isolated from Tephrosia purpurea. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectral analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by Mosher ester methodology. Compounds 1 and 2 are flavanones containing an unusual tetrahydrofuran moiety. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their potential cancer chemopreventive properties using a cell-based quinone reductase induction assay.
An International Comparison of Absolute Radiant Power Measurement Capabilities
Thomas, Douglas B.
1990-01-01
We report the results of an intercomparison of monochromatic radiant power measurement capabilities recently completed by 11 national laboratories. The intercomparison radiometers, distributed in pairs, included an amplifier with six decades of precision gain and one of two types of silicon photodiode (pn or np-type construction). Eleven of the laboratories measured the absolute responsivity of the radiometers at 633 nm and nine at 488 nm. The standard deviation of the overall difference was ...
Electroweak Absolute, Meta-, and Thermal Stability in Neutrino Mass Models
Lindner, Manfred; Radovčić, Branimir
2015-01-01
We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.
Crystal structure of meteoritic schreibersites: determination of absolute structure
Skála, Roman; Císařová, Ivana
Minerals of the schreibersite nickelphosphide series (Fe,Ni)3P crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric space group Ibar 4. As a consequence, they can possess two different spatial arrangements of the constituting atoms within the unit cell, related by the inversion symmetry operation. Here, we present the crystal structure refinements from single crystal X-ray diffraction data for schreibersite grains from iron meteorites Acuña, Carlton, Hex River Mts. (three different crystals), Odessa (two different crystals), Sikhote Alin, and Toluca aiming for the determination of the absolute structure of the examined crystals. The crystals studied cover the composition range from 58 mol% to 80 mol% Fe3P end-member. Unit-cell parameter a and volume of the unit cell V, as well as certain topological structural parameters tightly correlate with Fe3P content. Unit-cell parameter c, on the other hand, does not show such strong correlation. Eight of the nine crystal structure refinements allowed unambiguous absolute structure assignment. The single crystal extracted from Toluca is, however, of poor quality and consequently the structure refinement did not provide as good results as the rest of the materials. Also, this crystal has only weak inversion distinguishing power to provide unequivocal absolute structure determination. Six of the eight unambiguous absolute structure determinations indicated inverted atomic arrangement compared to that reported in earlier structure refinements (here called standard). Only two grains, one taken from Odessa iron and the other from the Hex River Mts. meteorite, reveal the dominance of standard crystal structure setting.
Absolute configuration determination using enantiomeric pairs of molecularly imprinted polymers.
Meador, Danielle S; Spivak, David A
2014-03-07
A new method for determination of absolute configuration (AC) is demonstrated using an enantiomeric pair of molecularly imprinted polymers, referred to as "DuoMIPs". The ratio of HPLC capacity factors (k') for the analyte on each of the DuoMIPs is defined as the γ factor and can be used to determine AC when above 1.2. A mnemonic based on the complementary binding geometry of the DuoMIPs was used to aid in understanding and prediction of AC.
Predictive visual tracking based on least absolute deviation estimation
Rongtai Cai; Yanjie Wang
2008-01-01
To cope with the occlusion and intersection between targets and the environment, location prediction is employed in the visual tracking system. Target trace is fitted by sliding subsection polynomials based on least absolute deviation (LAD) estimation, and the future location of target is predicted with the fitted trace. Experiment results show that the proposed location prediction algorithm based on LAD estimation has significant robustness advantages over least square (LS) estimation, and it is more effective than LS-based methods in visual tracking.
傅微芳; 杨洲
2008-01-01
<正>绝对伏特加酒(Absolut Vodka)永恒的个性化包装,对每一个人来说都不陌生。短颈圆肩的水晶瓶,独创性地将所有标注Absolut Vodka的文字信息用彩色粗体字体直接印在瓶身,透过完全透明的酒瓶,感触到纯正、净爽、自信的Absolut Vodka。同样来自瑞典经典轿车沃尔沃(Volvo)家族的C30就像斯堪的纳维亚的烈酒一样展现着恒久魅力,为人们的眼球、心境带来激情与渴望的强力冲击,Volvo C30那种灵动的性感气质让钟爱者静静地迷醉其中。
The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet
Brown, Peter J; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Ciardullo, Robin; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V; Foley, Ryan J; Gehrels, Neil; Gronwall, Caryl; Hicken, Malcolm; Holland, Stephen T; Hoversten, Erik A; Immler, Stefan; Kirshner, Robert P; Li, Weidong; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, Mark M; Pritchard, Tyler; Still, Martin; Turatto, Massimo; Berk, Daniel Vanden
2010-01-01
We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby(redshift z = 0.004--0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way (MW) extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1_rc covering ~2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ~3000--4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ~2000-2400 A). The uvw1_rc-b colors show a scatter of ~0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2-uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with ...
The absolute infrared magnitudes of type Ia supernovae
Meikle, W P S
2000-01-01
The absolute luminosities and homogeneity of early-time infrared (IR) light curves of type Ia supernovae are examined. Eight supernovae are considered. These are selected to have accurately known epochs of maximum blue light as well as having reliable distance estimates and/or good light curve coverage. Two approaches to extinction correction are considered. Owing to the low extinction in the IR, the differences in the corrections via the two methods are small. Absolute magnitude light curves in the J, H and K-bands are derived. Six of the events, including five established ``Branch-normal'' supernovae show similar coeval magnitudes. Two of these, SNe 1989B and 1998bu, were observed near maximum infrared light. This occurs about 5 days {\\it before} maximum blue light. Absolute peak magnitudes of about -19.0, -18.7 and -18.8 in J, H & K respectively were obtained. The two spectroscopically peculiar supernovae in the sample, SNe 1986G and 1991T, also show atypical IR behaviour. The light curves of the six s...
Son preference in Indian families: absolute versus relative wealth effects.
Gaudin, Sylvestre
2011-02-01
The desire for male children is prevalent in India, where son preference has been shown to affect fertility behavior and intrahousehold allocation of resources. Economic theory predicts less gender discrimination in wealthier households, but demographers and sociologists have argued that wealth can exacerbate bias in the Indian context. I argue that these apparently conflicting theories can be reconciled and simultaneously tested if one considers that they are based on two different notions of wealth: one related to resource constraints (absolute wealth), and the other to notions of local status (relative wealth). Using cross-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 National Family and Health Surveys, I construct measures of absolute and relative wealth by using principal components analysis. A series of statistical models of son preference is estimated by using multilevel methods. Results consistently show that higher absolute wealth is strongly associated with lower son preference, and the effect is 20%-40% stronger when the household's community-specific wealth score is included in the regression. Coefficients on relative wealth are positive and significant although lower in magnitude. Results are robust to using different samples, alternative groupings of households in local areas, different estimation methods, and alternative dependent variables.
On the absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield
Rosado, J; Arqueros, F
2014-01-01
The absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield is a key parameter for the energy reconstruction of extensive air showers registered by fluorescence telescopes. In previous publications, we reported a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the air-fluorescence generation that allowed the theoretical evaluation of this parameter. This simulation has been upgraded in the present work. As a result, we determined an updated absolute value of the fluorescence yield of 7.9+-2.0 ph/MeV for the band at 337 nm in dry air at 800 hPa and 293 K, in agreement with experimental values. We have also performed a critical analysis of available absolute measurements of the fluorescence yield with the assistance of our simulation. Corrections have been applied to some measurements to account for a bias in the evaluation of the energy deposition. Possible effects of other experimental aspects have also been discussed. From this analysis, we determined an average fluorescence yield of 7.04+-0.24 ph/MeV at the above conditions.
Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry
Dong, Yue
Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.
Yuce, C
2015-01-01
We predict the existence of linear discrete rogue waves. We discuss that Josephson effect is the underlying reason for the formation of such waves. We study linear rogue waves in continuous system and present an exact analytical rogue wave solution of the Schrodinger-like equation.
2014-01-01
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. Motivated by recent extensive studies on Wenger graphs, we introduce a new infinite class of bipartite graphs of a similar type, called linearized Wenger graphs. The spectrum, diameter and girth of these linearized Wenger graphs are determined.
Encoding field theories into gravities
Aoki, Sinya; Onogi, Tetsuya
2016-01-01
We propose a method to give a $d+1$ geometry from a $d$ dimensional quantum field theory in the large N expansion. We first construct a $d+1$ dimensional field from the $d$ dimensional one using the gradient flow equation, whose flow time $t$ represents the energy scale of the system such that $t\\rightarrow 0$ corresponds to the ultra-violet (UV) while $t\\rightarrow\\infty$ to the infra-red (IR). We define the induced metric using $d+1$ dimensional field operators. We show that the metric defined in this way becomes classical in the large N limit: quantum fluctuations of the metric are suppressed as 1/N due to the large $N$ factorization property. As a concrete example, we apply our method to the O(N) non-linear $\\sigma$ model in two dimensions. We calculate the three dimensional induced metric, which describes an AdS space in the massless limit. We finally discuss several open issues for future investigations.
Non-linear dendrites can tune neurons
Romain Daniel Cazé
2014-03-01
Full Text Available A signature of visual, auditory, and motor cortices is the presence of neurons tuned to distinct features of the environment. While neuronal tuning can be observed in most brain areas, its origin remains enigmatic, and new calcium imaging data complicate this problem. Dendritic calcium signals, in a L2/3 neuron from the mouse visual cortex, display a wide range of tunings that could be different from the neuronal tuning (Jia et al 2010. To elucidate this observation we use multi-compartmental models of increasing complexity, from a binary to a realistic biophysical model of L2/3 neuron. These models possess non-linear dendritic subunits inside which the result of multiple excitatory inputs is smaller than their arithmetic sum. While dendritic non-linear subunits are ad-hoc in the binary model, non-linearities in the realistic model come from the passive saturation of synaptic currents. Because of these non-linearities our neuron models are scatter sensitive: the somatic membrane voltage is higher when presynaptic inputs target different dendrites than when they target a single dendrite. This spatial bias in synaptic integration is, in our models, the origin of neuronal tuning. Indeed, assemblies of presynaptic inputs encode the stimulus property through an increase in correlation or activity, and only the assembly that encodes the preferred stimulus targets different dendrites. Assemblies coding for the non-preferred stimuli target single dendrites, explaining the wide range of observed tunings and the possible difference between dendritic and somatic tuning. We thus propose, in accordance with the latest experimental observations, that non-linear integration in dendrites can generate neuronal tuning independently of the coding regime.
Generalized encoding and decoding operators for lattice-based associative memories.
McElroy, John; Gader, Paul
2009-10-01
During the 1990s Ritter, introduced a new family of associative memories based on lattice algebra instead of linear algebra. These memories provide unlimited storage capacity, unlike linear-correlation-based models. The canonical lattice-based memories, however, are susceptible to noise in the initial input data. In this brief, we present novel methods of encoding and decoding lattice-based memories using two families of ordered weighted average (OWA) operators. The result is a greater robustness to distortion in the initial input data, and a greater understanding of the effect of the choice of encoding and decoding operators on the behavior of the system, with the tradeoff that the time complexity for encoding is increased.
Dynamic properties of the action potential encoder in an insect mechanosensory neuron.
French, A S
1984-08-01
A variety of sensory receptors show adaptation to dynamic stimuli that can be well characterized as fractional differentiation of the input signal. The cause of this behavior is unknown, but because it can be represented by linear systems theory, it has been assumed to arise during early linear processes of transduction or adaptation, rather than during the nonlinear process of action potential encoding. I measured the action potential encoding properties of an insect mechanoreceptor by direct electrical stimulation of the sensory cell axon and found a dynamic response that is identical to the response given by mechanical stimulation. This indicates that the fractional differentiation is a property of the encoder rather than the transducer.
Multi-DOF Incremental Optical Encoder with Laser Wavelength Compensation
Cha'o-Kuang Chen
2013-09-01
Full Text Available This study used a reflective diffraction grating as the medium to develop a multi-DOF incremental optical encoder for motion stage. The optical encoder can measure three angular displacements, roll, yaw and pitch of the motion stage simultaneously, as well as the horizontal straightness and linear displacement, summed to five DOF errors of motion stage by only using the positive and negative first-order diffracted light. The grating diffraction theory, Doppler effect, and optical interference technique were used. Two quadrant photodetectors were used to measure the changes in three-dimensional space of diffraction direction of diffracted light, in order to construct a multi-DOF incremental optical encoder. Considering the working stability of a laser diode and preventing the influence of the zeroth-order diffracted light returning to the laser diode, an additional optical isolation system was designed and a wavelength variation monitoring module was created. The compensation for the light source wavelength variation could be 0.001 nm. The multi-DOF verification results showed that the roll error is ±0.7/60 arcsec, the standard deviation is 0.025 arcsec; the yaw error is ±0.7/30 arcsec, the standard deviation is 0.05 arcsec; the pitch error is ±0.8/90 arcsec, the standard deviation is 0.18 arcsec, the horizontal straightness error is ±0.5/250 μm, the standard deviation is 0.05 μm and the linear displacement error is ±1/20000 μm, the standard deviation is 12 nm.
Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers
Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2006-01-01
Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption.......Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...
Axler, Sheldon
2015-01-01
This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...
Linear perturbations of Hyperkähler metrics
Alexandrov, S.; Pioline, B.; Saueressig, F.; Vandoren, S.J.G.
2009-01-01
We study general linear perturbations of a class of 4d real-dimensional hyperkähler manifolds obtainable by the (generalized) Legendre transform method. Using twistor methods, we show that deformations can be encoded in a set of holomorphic functions of 2d + 1 variables, as opposed to the functions
Kawada, Nanaka; Sakuma, Hajime; Takeda, Kan; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamakado, Tetsu; Nakano, Takeshi [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine
1997-04-01
Absolute coronary blood flow per myocardial mass and coronary flow reserve for the entire left ventricle were evaluated in normals and in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by using fast cine MR imaging and fast velocity encoded cine (VENC) MR imaging. Nine healthy volunteers and 8 patients with HCM were studied with a 1.5 T imager. Breath-hold cine MR images encompassing the whole left ventricle were acquired on short axis imaging planes in order to evaluate myocardial mass. A fast VENC MR images were obtained to measure blood flow volume in the coronary sinus before and after dipyridamole administration (TR/TE=15/5 ms, FOV=28 x 22 cm, slice thickness=5 mm). Coronary flow reserve was calculated as a ratio of hyperemic to baseline coronary flow volumes. In the baseline state, coronary blood flow per myocardial mass was significantly lower in patients with HCM than in normal myocardium (0.56{+-}0.23 vs. 0.78{+-}0.27 ml/min/g, p<0.05). After dipyridamole administration, coronary blood flow per myocardial mass in patients with HCM increased substantially less than that in healthy subjects (0.99{+-}0.38 vs. 2.22{+-}0.55 ml/min/g, p<0.01), resulting in the significantly decreased coronary flow reserve ratio in HCM in comparison with that in normal myocardium (1.86{+-}0.56 vs. 3.11{+-}1.37, p<0.05). In conclusion, breath-hold velocity encoded cine MR imaging is a noninvasive technique which can provide assessments of altered coronary blood flow volume per myocardial mass and vasodilator flow reserve in patients with HCM. (author)
Magnetic resonance imaging with nonlinear gradient fields signal encoding and image reconstruction
Schultz, Gerrit
2013-01-01
Within the past few decades magnetic resonance imaging has become one of the most important imaging modalities in medicine. For a reliable diagnosis of pathologies further technological improvements are of primary importance. This text deals with a radically new approach of image encoding: The fundamental principle of gradient linearity is challenged by investigating the possibilities of acquiring anatomical images with the help of nonlinear gradient fields. Besides a thorough theoretical analysis with a focus on signal encoding and image reconstruction, initial hardware implementations are tested using phantom as well as in-vivo measurements. Several applications are presented that give an impression about the implications that this technological advancement may have for future medical diagnostics. Contents n Image Reconstruction in MRI n Nonlinear Gradient Encoding: PatLoc Imaging n Presentation of Initial Hardware Designs n Basics of Signal Encoding and Image Reconstruction in PatLoc Imaging n ...
The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives
Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre
2016-04-01
Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - http://www.muquans.com/) with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network (http://www.resif.fr/) belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of
何勇; 吴敏
2005-01-01
Some delay-dependent absolute stability criteria for Lurie control systems with timevarying delay are derived, in which some free-weighting matrices are used to express the relationships between the terms in the Leibniz-Newton formula. These criteria are based on linear matrix inequality(LMI) such that the upper bound of time-delay guaranteeing the absolute stability and the free-weighting matrices can be obtained through the solutions of the LMI. Moreover, the Lyapunov functional constructed by the solutions of these LMIs is adopted to guarantee the absolute stability of the systems. Finally, some examples axe provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Schneider, Hans
1989-01-01
Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t
Weisberg, Sanford
2013-01-01
Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus
Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N
1962-01-01
Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a
Weisberg, Sanford
2005-01-01
Master linear regression techniques with a new edition of a classic text Reviews of the Second Edition: ""I found it enjoyable reading and so full of interesting material that even the well-informed reader will probably find something new . . . a necessity for all of those who do linear regression."" -Technometrics, February 1987 ""Overall, I feel that the book is a valuable addition to the now considerable list of texts on applied linear regression. It should be a strong contender as the leading text for a first serious course in regression analysis."" -American Scientist, May-June 1987
Abian, Alexander
1973-01-01
Linear Associative Algebras focuses on finite dimensional linear associative algebras and the Wedderburn structure theorems.The publication first elaborates on semigroups and groups, rings and fields, direct sum and tensor product of rings, and polynomial and matrix rings. The text then ponders on vector spaces, including finite dimensional vector spaces and matrix representation of vectors. The book takes a look at linear associative algebras, as well as the idempotent and nilpotent elements of an algebra, ideals of an algebra, total matrix algebras and the canonical forms of matrices, matrix
Quad-copter UAV BLDC Motor Control: Linear v/s non-linear control maps
Deep Parikh
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents some investigations and comparison of using linear versus non-linear static motor-control maps for the speed control of a BLDC (Brush Less Direct Current motors used in quad-copter UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The motor-control map considered here is the inverse of the static map relating motor-speed output to motor-voltage input for a typical out-runner type Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM. Traditionally, quad-copter BLDC motor speed control uses simple linear motor-control map defined by the motor-constant specification. However, practical BLDC motors show non-linear characteristic, particularly when operated across wide operating speed-range as is commonly required in quad-copter UAV flight operations. In this paper, our investigations to compare performance of linear versus non-linear motor-control maps are presented. The investigations cover simulation-based and experimental study of BLDC motor speed control systems for quad-copter vehicle available. First the non-linear map relating rotor RPM to motor voltage for quad-copter BLDC motor is obtained experimentally using an optical speed encoder. The performance of the linear versus non-linear motor-control-maps for the speed control are studied. The investigations also cover study of time-responses for various standard test input-signals e.g. step, ramp and pulse inputs, applied as the reference speed-commands. Also, simple 2-degree of freedom test-bed is developed in our laboratory to help test the open-loop and closed-loop experimental investigations. The non-linear motor-control map is found to perform better in BLDC motor speed tracking control performance and thereby helping achieve better quad-copter roll-angle attitude control.
Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from India and China--geographic variations.
Braun, Norbert A; Sim, Sherina
2012-05-01
Seven Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from different locations in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Focus was placed on 41 key ingredients to investigate geographic variations in this species. These seven absolutes were compared with an Indian bud absolute and commercially available J. sambac flower absolutes from India and China. All absolutes showed broad variations for the 10 main ingredients between 8% and 96%. In addition, the odor of Indian and Chinese J. sambac flower absolutes were assessed.
Reduction of a 4q35-encoded nuclear envelope protein in muscle differentiation
Ostlund, Cecilia [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Guan, Tinglu [Department of Cell Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Figlewicz, Denise A. [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hays, Arthur P. [Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Worman, Howard J. [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Gerace, Larry [Department of Cell Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Schirmer, Eric C., E-mail: e.schirmer@ed.ac.uk [Department of Cell Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR (United Kingdom)
2009-11-13
Muscular dystrophy and peripheral neuropathy have been linked to mutations in genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders remain unresolved. Nuclear envelope protein p19A is a protein of unknown function encoded by a gene at chromosome 4q35. p19A levels are significantly reduced in human muscle as cells differentiate from myoblasts to myotubes; however, its levels are not similarly reduced in all differentiation systems tested. Because 4q35 has been linked to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and some adjacent genes are reportedly misregulated in the disorder, levels of p19A were analyzed in muscle samples from patients with FSHD. Although p19A was increased in most cases, an absolute correlation was not observed. Nonetheless, p19A downregulation in normal muscle differentiation suggests that in the cases where its gene is inappropriately re-activated it could affect muscle differentiation and contribute to disease pathology.
Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding same
Wogulis, Mark
2017-04-04
The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.
Chemical Space of DNA-Encoded Libraries.
Franzini, Raphael M; Randolph, Cassie
2016-07-28
In recent years, DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) have attracted considerable attention as a potential discovery tool in drug development. Screening encoded libraries may offer advantages over conventional hit discovery approaches and has the potential to complement such methods in pharmaceutical research. As a result of the increased application of encoded libraries in drug discovery, a growing number of hit compounds are emerging in scientific literature. In this review we evaluate reported encoded library-derived structures and identify general trends of these compounds in relation to library design parameters. We in particular emphasize the combinatorial nature of these libraries. Generally, the reported molecules demonstrate the ability of this technology to afford hits suitable for further lead development, and on the basis of them, we derive guidelines for DECL design.
Unsupervised Linear Discriminant Analysis
无
2006-01-01
An algorithm for unsupervised linear discriminant analysis was presented. Optimal unsupervised discriminant vectors are obtained through maximizing covariance of all samples and minimizing covariance of local k-nearest neighbor samples. The experimental results show our algorithm is effective.
Isolated linear blaschkoid psoriasis.
Nasimi, M; Abedini, R; Azizpour, A; Nikoo, A
2016-10-01
Linear psoriasis (LPs) is considered a rare clinical presentation of psoriasis, which is characterized by linear erythematous and scaly lesions along the lines of Blaschko. We report the case of a 20-year-old man who presented with asymptomatic linear and S-shaped erythematous, scaly plaques on right side of his trunk. The plaques were arranged along the lines of Blaschko with a sharp demarcation at the midline. Histological examination of a skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of psoriasis. Topical calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate ointments were prescribed for 2 months. A good clinical improvement was achieved, with reduction in lesion thickness and scaling. In patients with linear erythematous and scaly plaques along the lines of Blaschko, the diagnosis of LPs should be kept in mind, especially in patients with asymptomatic lesions of late onset. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.
Linear systems theory revisited
Willigenburg, van L.G.; Koning, de W.L.
2008-01-01
This paper investigates and clarifies how different definitions of reachability, observability, controllability, reconstructability and minimality that appear in the control literature, may be equivalent or different, depending on the type of linear system. The differences are caused by (1) whether
Virtual pitch extraction from harmonic structures by absolute-pitch musicians
Hsieh, I.-Hui; Saberi, Kourosh
2009-03-01
The ability of absolute-pitch (AP) musicians to identify or produce virtual pitch from harmonic structures without feedback or an external acoustic referent was examined in three experiments. Stimuli consisted of pure tones, missing-fundamental harmonic complexes, or piano notes highpass filtered to remove their fundamental frequency and lower harmonics. Results of Experiment I showed that relative to control (non-AP) musicians, AP subjects easily (>90%) identified pitch of harmonic complexes in a 12-alternative forced-choice task. Increasing harmonic order (i.e., lowest harmonic number in the complex), however, resulted in a monotonic decline in performance. Results suggest that AP musicians use two pitch cues from harmonic structures: 1) spectral spacing between harmonic components, and 2) octave-related cues to note identification in individually resolved harmonics. Results of Experiment II showed that highpass filtered piano notes are identified by AP subjects at better than 75% accuracy even when the note’s energy is confined to the 4th and higher harmonics. Identification of highpass piano notes also appears to be better than that expected from pure or complex tones, possibly due to contributions from familiar timbre cues to note identity. Results of Experiment III showed that AP subjects can adjust the spectral spacing between harmonics of a missing-fundamental complex to accurately match the expected spacing from a target musical note. Implications of these findings for mechanisms of AP encoding are discussed.
Lahtvee, Petri-Jaan; Sanchez, Benjamin J.; Smialowska, Agata
2017-01-01
to model translation efficiencies and found that they vary more than 400-fold between genes. Non-linear regression analysis detected that mRNA abundance and translation elongation were the dominant factors controlling protein synthesis, explaining 61% and 15% of its variance. Metabolic flux balance......Protein synthesis is the most energy-consuming process in a proliferating cell, and understanding what controls protein abundances represents a key question in biology and biotechnology. We quantified absolute abundances of 5,354 mRNAs and 2,198 proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under ten...
Andrilli, Stephen
2010-01-01
Elementary Linear Algebra develops and explains in careful detail the computational techniques and fundamental theoretical results central to a first course in linear algebra. This highly acclaimed text focuses on developing the abstract thinking essential for further mathematical study. The authors give early, intensive attention to the skills necessary to make students comfortable with mathematical proofs. The text builds a gradual and smooth transition from computational results to general theory of abstract vector spaces. It also provides flexbile coverage of practical applications, expl
Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.
1991-01-01
The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.
1985-04-01
7.0 % % o the testing of an experimental linear motor driven expander using a standard production 1/4W split Stirling Common Module compressor. . - o...3 2.2 Expander Design CTI-CRYOGENICS has long recognized the potential of employing a linear drive motor to assist regenerator displacement and...assessment of the expander’s performance with lip seals and clearance seals for a regenerator comprised of nickel balls. Further comparison of a stainless
Høskuldsson, Agnar
1996-01-01
Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....
Clustering of polarization-encoded images.
Zallat, Jihad; Collet, Christophe; Takakura, Yoshitate
2004-01-10
Polarization-encoded imaging consists of the distributed measurements of polarization parameters for each pixel of an image. We address clustering of multidimensional polarization-encoded images. The spatial coherence of polarization information is considered. Two methods of analysis are proposed: polarization contrast enhancement and a more-sophisticated image-processing algorithm based on a Markovian model. The proposed algorithms are applied and validated with two different Mueller images acquired by a fully polarimetric imaging system.
Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata
Oliver Lyttleton
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.
Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata.
Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul
2011-01-01
The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.
Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.
Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert
2009-12-01
There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference.
Consequences count: against absolutism at the end of life.
Snelling, Paul C
2004-05-01
There has been a considerable amount of debate in the nursing literature about euthanasia, and especially the distinctions between acts and omissions, and killing and letting die. These distinctions are required by opponents of euthanasia to justify allowing some cases of passive euthanasia while forbidding all cases of active euthanasia. This paper adds to the debate by arguing that the position that absolutely forbids euthanasia is theoretically inconsistent. The paper first considers the place of moral theory in analysing moral problems, within the framework of the principles of biomedical ethics. It is argued that despite a moral pluralism that operates in many areas, the legal status of euthanasia is based upon an absolute deontological position against deliberate killing, which cannot be overridden by appeals to favourable consequences. In order that certain forms of passive euthanasia can be allowed, this position allows distinctions within three pairs of concepts--acts and omissions, killing and letting die, and ordinary and extraordinary means. A further method of justifying certain actions near the end of life is the doctrine of double effect. These paired concepts and the doctrine of double effect are analysed with special reference to their consequences. The application of the doctrine of double effect and the three distinctions relies on consideration of their consequences, allowing in practice what in theory is denied. This is important because it weakens the absolute case against euthanasia, which disallows any direct consequentialist appeal. If consequences count in the application of the doctrine and the distinctions, then they should also count directly prior to their application. This strengthens the argument for active euthanasia in certain cases.
Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources
MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.
1978-09-01
A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.
Neurally Encoding Time for Olfactory Navigation.
In Jun Park
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Accurately encoding time is one of the fundamental challenges faced by the nervous system in mediating behavior. We recently reported that some animals have a specialized population of rhythmically active neurons in their olfactory organs with the potential to peripherally encode temporal information about odor encounters. If these neurons do indeed encode the timing of odor arrivals, it should be possible to demonstrate that this capacity has some functional significance. Here we show how this sensory input can profoundly influence an animal's ability to locate the source of odor cues in realistic turbulent environments-a common task faced by species that rely on olfactory cues for navigation. Using detailed data from a turbulent plume created in the laboratory, we reconstruct the spatiotemporal behavior of a real odor field. We use recurrence theory to show that information about position relative to the source of the odor plume is embedded in the timing between odor pulses. Then, using a parameterized computational model, we show how an animal can use populations of rhythmically active neurons to capture and encode this temporal information in real time, and use it to efficiently navigate to an odor source. Our results demonstrate that the capacity to accurately encode temporal information about sensory cues may be crucial for efficient olfactory navigation. More generally, our results suggest a mechanism for extracting and encoding temporal information from the sensory environment that could have broad utility for neural information processing.
Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER.
Sasao, M; Bertalot, L; Ishikawa, M; Popovichev, S
2010-10-01
Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10(10) n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10(8) n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.
Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability
Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson,; Gitschier, Jane
2007-01-01
Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved...
Absolute Measurement Fiber-optic Sensors in Large Structural Monitoring
无
2003-01-01
The security of civil engineering is an important task due to the economic, social and environmental significance. Compared with conventional sensors, the optical fiber sensors have their unique characteristics.Being durable, stable and insensitive to external perturbations,they are particular interesting for the long-term monitoring of civil structures.Focus is on absolute measurement optical fiber sensors, which are emerging from the monitoring large structural, including SOFO system, F-P optical fiber sensors, and fiber Bragg grating sensors. The principle, characteristic and application of these three kinds of optical fiber sensors are described together with their future prospects.
Absolute band gaps in two-dimensional graphite photonic crystal
Gaoxin Qiu(仇高新); Fanglei Lin(林芳蕾); Hua Wang(王华); Yongping Li(李永平)
2003-01-01
The off-plane propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in a two-dimensional (2D) graphite photoniccrystal structure was studied using transfer matrix method. Transmission spectra calculations indicatethat such a 2D structure has a common band gap from 0.202 to 0.2035 c/a for both H and E polarizationsand for all off-plane angles form 0° up to 90°. The presence of such an absolute band gap implies that 2Dgraphite photonic crystal, which is much easier and more feasible to fabricate, can exhibit some propertiesof a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal.
Absolute distance measurement based on multiple self-mixing interferometry
Duan, Zhiwei; Yu, Yangyang; Gao, Bingkun; Jiang, Chunlei
2017-04-01
To improve the precision of distance measurement using laser Self-Mixing Interferometry (SMI) and compute short distance, we propose a method of Multiple Self-Mixing Interferometry (MSMI) that is modulated with a triangular wave. The principle of this method has been described in this paper. Experiments at different distances and amplitudes of modulation current are based on the proposed method. Low-priced and easily operated experimental devices are built. Experimental results show that a resolution of 2.7 mm can be achieved for absolute distance ranging from 2.2 to 23 cm.
Absolute regularity and ergodicity of Poisson count processes
Neumann, Michael H
2012-01-01
We consider a class of observation-driven Poisson count processes where the current value of the accompanying intensity process depends on previous values of both processes. We show under a contractive condition that the bivariate process has a unique stationary distribution and that a stationary version of the count process is absolutely regular. Moreover, since the intensities can be written as measurable functionals of the count variables, we conclude that the bivariate process is ergodic. As an important application of these results, we show how a test method previously used in the case of independent Poisson data can be used in the case of Poisson count processes.
3D measurement of absolute radiation dose in grid therapy
Trapp, J V [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Department of Applied Physics, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Warrington, A P [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Partridge, M [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Philps, A [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Leach, M O [Cancer Research UK Clinical MR Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Webb, S [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)
2004-01-01
Spatially fractionated radiotherapy through a grid is a concept which has a long history and was routinely used in orthovoltage radiation therapy in the middle of last century to minimize damage to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. With the advent of megavoltage radiotherapy and its skin sparing effects the use of grids in radiotherapy declined in the 1970s. However there has recently been a revival of the technique for use in palliative treatments with a single fraction of 10 to 20 Gy. In this work the absolute 3D dose distribution in a grid irradiation is measured for photons using a combination of film and gel dosimetry.
Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle.
Kolář, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G
2012-08-31
A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.
Analysis of Absolute Stability for Time-delay Teleoperation Systems
Qi-Wen Deng; Qing Wei; Ze-Xiang Li
2007-01-01
In this paper, a new bilateral control algorithm based on absolute stability theory is put forward, which aims at the time-delay teleoperation system with force feedback from the slave directly. In the new control algorithm, the delay-dependent stability,instead of delay-independent stability, is taken as the aim of control design. It improves the transparency of the system at the price of unnecessary stability. With this algorithm, the time-delay teleoperation systems have good transparency and stability. A simulation system is established to verify the effect of this algorithm.
Absolute cross-section normalization of magnetic neutron scattering data
Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Zhijun; Tranquada, J. M.
2013-08-01
We discuss various methods to obtain the resolution volume for neutron scattering experiments, in order to perform absolute normalization on inelastic magnetic neutron scattering data. Examples from previous experiments are given. We also try to provide clear definitions of a number of physical quantities which are commonly used to describe neutron magnetic scattering results, including the dynamic spin correlation function and the imaginary part of the dynamic susceptibility. Formulas that can be used for general purposes are provided and the advantages of the different normalization processes are discussed.
Absolute efficiency measurements with the 10B based Jalousie detector
Modzel, G.; Henske, M.; Houben, A.; Klein, M.; Köhli, M.; Lennert, P.; Meven, M.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, U.; Schweika, W.
2014-04-01
The 10B based Jalousie detector is a replacement for 3He counter tubes, which are nowadays less affordable for large area detectors due to the 3He crisis. In this paper we investigate and verify the performance of the new 10B based detector concept and its adoption for the POWTEX diffractometer, which is designed for the detection of thermal neutrons with predicted detection efficiencies of 75-50% for neutron energies of 10-100 meV, respectively. The predicted detection efficiency has been verified by absolute measurements using neutrons with a wavelength of 1.17 Å (59 meV).
System Design of the ATLAS Absolute Luminosity Monitor
Anghinolfi, Francis; Franz, Sebastien; Iwanski, W; Lundberg, B; PH-EP
2007-01-01
The ATLAS absolute luminosity monitor is composed of 8 roman pots symmetrically located in the LHC tunnel. Each pot contains 23 multi anode photomultiplier tubes, and each one of those is fitted with a front-end assembly called PMF. A PMF provides the high voltage biasing of the tube, the frontend readout chip and the readout logic in a very compact arrangement. The 25 PMFs contained in one roman pot are connected to a motherboard used as an interface to the backend electronics. The system allows to configure the front-end electronics from the ATLAS detector control system and to transmit the luminosity data over Slink.
Predicting accurate absolute binding energies in aqueous solution
Jensen, Jan Halborg
2015-01-01
Recent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic. In this paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal......-represented by continuum models. While I focus on binding free energies in aqueous solution the approach also applies (with minor adjustments) to any free energy difference such as conformational or reaction free energy differences or activation free energies in any solvent....
Absolute Photoionization Cross Sections of Two Cyclic Ketones: Cyclopentanone & Cyclohexanone.
Price, Chelsea; Fathi, Yasmin; Meloni, Giovanni
2017-02-23
Absolute photoionization cross sections for cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone, as well as partial ionization cross sections for the dissociative ionized fragments, are presented in this investigation. Experiments are performed via a multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer utilizing VUV synchrotron radiation supplied by the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These results allow the quantification of these species that is relevant to investigate the kinetics and combustion reactions of potential biofuels. The CBS-QB3 calculated values for the adiabatic ionization energies agree well with the experimental values and the identification of possible dissociative fragments is discussed for both systems.
Results from an absolute gravity survey in the United States
Zumberge, M. A.; Faller, J. E.; Gschwind, J.
1983-01-01
Using the recently completed JTLA absolute gravity meter, we made a survey of twelve sites in the United States. Over a period of eight weeks, the instrument was driven a total distance of nearly 20,000 km to sites in California, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Maryland and Massachusetts. The time spent in carrying out a measurement at a single location was typically one day. We report the results of the measurements in this survey along with earlier measurements made with the instrument, discuss the measurement accuracy and compare our results with other measurements. Previously announced in STAR as N83-20480
Electromagnetic Hydrophone with Tomographic System for Absolute Velocity Field Mapping
Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Mari, Jean-Martial; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril; 10.1063/1.4726178
2012-01-01
The velocity and pressure of an ultrasonic wave can be measured by an electromagnetic hydrophone made of a thin wire and a magnet. The ultrasonic wave vibrates the wire inside a magnetic field, inducing an electrical current. Previous articles reported poor spatial resolution of comparable hydrophones along the axis of the wire. In this study, submillimetric spatial resolution has been achieved by using a tomographic method. Moreover, a physical model is presented for obtaining absolute measurements. A pressure differential of 8% has been found between piezoelectric and electromagnetic hydrophone measurements. These characteristics show this technique as an alternative to standard hydrophones.
Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability
Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane
2007-01-01
Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved...
Absolute and Convective Ion Beam Instability Studied through Green's Function
Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul; Hsuan, H. C. S.
1974-01-01
A Vlasov plasma with a double‐humped, unstable ion velocity distribution function is considered. A δ function in space is assumed as the initial perturbation and the plasma response to this perturbation is calculated, i.e., the Green's function for the problem is found. The response can be divide...... into two parts: a self‐similar, damped part of the form t−1h(x/t), and an unstable, exponentially growing part. The conditions for absolute and convective growth of the latter are discussed....
The absolute frequency of the 87Sr optical clock transition
Campbell, Gretchen K.; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian;
2008-01-01
The absolute frequency of the 1S0–3P0 clock transition of 87Sr has been measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.65 (37) Hz using lattice-confined atoms, where the fractional uncertainty of 8.6 × 10-16 represents one of the most accurate measurements of an atomic transition frequency to date. After a d...... is made possible using a femtosecond laser based optical frequency comb to phase coherently connect the optical and microwave spectral regions and by a 3.5 km fibre transfer scheme to compare the remotely located clock signals....
Absolute Measurement of Quantum-Limited Interferometric Displacements
Thiel, Valérian; Treps, Nicolas; Roslund, Jonathan
2016-01-01
A methodology is introduced that enables an absolute, quantum-limited measurement of sub-wavelength interferometric displacements. The technique utilizes a high-frequency optical path modulation within an interferometer operated in a homodyne configuration. All of the information necessary to fully characterize the resultant path displacement is contained within the relative strengths of the various harmonics of the phase modulation. The method, which is straightforward and readily implementable, allows a direct measurement of the theoretical Cram\\'er-Rao limit of detection without any assumptions on the nature of the light source.
Theoretical properties of recursive neural networks with linear neurons.
Bianchini, M; Gori, M
2001-01-01
Recursive neural networks are a powerful tool for processing structured data, thus filling the gap between connectionism, which is usually related to poorly organized data, and a great variety of real-world problems, where the information is naturally encoded in the relationships among the basic entities. In this paper, some theoretical results about linear recursive neural networks are presented that allow one to establish conditions on their dynamical properties and their capability to encode and classify structured information. A lot of the limitations of the linear model, intrinsically related to recursive processing, are inherited by the general model, thus establishing their computational capabilities and range of applicability. As a byproduct of our study some connections with the classical linear system theory are given where the processing is extended from sequences to graphs.
Laser beam splitting by polarization encoding.
Wan, Chenhao
2015-03-20
A scheme is proposed to design a polarization grating that splits an incident linearly polarized beam to an array of linearly polarized beams of identical intensity distribution and various azimuth angles of linear polarization. The grating is equivalent to a wave plate with space-variant azimuth angle and space-variant phase retardation. The linear polarization states of all split beams make the grating suitable for coherent beam combining architectures based on Dammann gratings.
A contribution to the design of fast code converters for position encoders
Denic, Dragan B.; Dincic, Milan R.; Miljkovic, Goran S.; Peric, Zoran H.
2016-10-01
Pseudorandom binary sequences (PRBS) are very useful in many areas of applications. Absolute position encoders based on PRBS have many advantages. However, the pseudorandom code is not directly applicable to the digital electronic systems, hence a converter from pseudorandom to natural binary code is needed. Recently, a fast pseudorandom/natural code converter based on Galois PRBS generator (much faster than previously used converter based on Fibonacci PRBS generator) was proposed. One of the main parts of the Galois code converter is an initial logic. The problem of the design of the initial logic has been solved only for some single values of resolution, but it is still not solved for any value of resolution, which significantly limits the applicability of the fast Galois code converter. This paper solves this problem presenting the solution for the design of the initial logic of the fast Galois pseudorandom/natural code converters used in the pseudorandom position encoders, in general manner, that is for any value of the resolution, allowing for a wide applicability of the fast Galois pseudorandom position encoders. Rigorous mathematical derivation of the formula for the designing of the initial logic is presented. Simulation of the proposed converter is performed in NI MultiSim software. The proposed solution, although developed for pseudorandom position encoders, can be used in many other fields where PRBS are used.
Vinay U. Kale
2010-05-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for image compression which uses the Wavelet-based Image/Texture Coding Hybrid (WITCH scheme [1] in combination with Huffman encoder. It implements a hybrid coding approach, while nevertheless preserving the features of progressive and lossless coding. The hybrid scheme was designed to encode the structural image information by Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW encoding algorithm [2] and the stochastic texture in a model-based manner and this encoded data is then compressed using Huffman encoder. The scheme proposed here achieves superior subjective quality while increasing the compression ratio by more than a factor of three or even four. With this technique, it is possible to achieve compression ratios as high as 10 to 12 but with some minor distortions in the encoded image.
ABSOLUTELY E-PURE MODULES AND E-PURE SPLIT MODULES
Yan Hangyu
2011-01-01
We first introduce the concepts of absolutely E-pure modules and Epure split modules. Then, we characterize the IF rings in terms of absolutely E-pure modules. The E-pure split modules are also characterized.
Lassen, Peter Rygaard
2005-01-01
The absolute configuration of the norlignan (+)-nyasol was determined to be S by comparison of the experimental vibrational circular dichroism data with first-principle calculations taking into account the eight lowest energy conformations. The established absolute configuration of (+)-nyasol...
Lassen, Peter Rygaard
2005-01-01
The absolute configuration of the norlignan (+)-nyasol was determined to be S by comparison of the experimental vibrational circular dichroism data with first-principle calculations taking into account the eight lowest energy conformations. The established absolute configuration of (+)-nyasol...
Automatic section thickness determination using an absolute gradient focus function.
Elozory, D T; Kramer, K A; Chaudhuri, B; Bonam, O P; Goldgof, D B; Hall, L O; Mouton, P R
2012-12-01
Quantitative analysis of microstructures using computerized stereology systems is an essential tool in many disciplines of bioscience research. Section thickness determination in current nonautomated approaches requires manual location of upper and lower surfaces of tissue sections. In contrast to conventional autofocus functions that locate the optimally focused optical plane using the global maximum on a focus curve, this study identified by two sharp 'knees' on the focus curve as the transition from unfocused to focused optical planes. Analysis of 14 grey-scale focus functions showed, the thresholded absolute gradient function, was best for finding detectable bends that closely correspond to the bounding optical planes at the upper and lower tissue surfaces. Modifications to this function generated four novel functions that outperformed the original. The 'modified absolute gradient count' function outperformed all others with an average error of 0.56 μm on a test set of images similar to the training set; and, an average error of 0.39 μm on a test set comprised of images captured from a different case, that is, different staining methods on a different brain region from a different subject rat. We describe a novel algorithm that allows for automatic section thickness determination based on just out-of-focus planes, a prerequisite for fully automatic computerized stereology.