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Sample records for absolute light yield

  1. Measurement of absolute light yield and determination of a lower limit for the light attenuation length for YAP:Ce crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Guerra, A.; Domenico, G.D.; Zavattini, G.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the peak position of the photoabsorption peak as a function of the interaction distance from the photomultiplier window in order to get some information about the light attenuation length, internal reflectivity and absolute light yield for a 2 x 2 x 30 mm 3 YAP:Ce scintillator

  2. Decay time and light yield measurements for plastic scintillating fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, C.M.; Kuhlen, M.; Milliken, B.; Stroynowski, R.; Wicklung, E.; Shimizu, T.; Shinji, O.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied light production and propagation in three different samples of plastic scintillating fibers manufactured by Kyowa Gas Co.: SCSF-81, SCSF-38 and SCSF-38 with a quenching additive. The emission time distribution is described phenomenologically by a fast two-step scintillation process and an additional slow component, the time constants of which are determined. The light yield from the fibers is measured as a function of distance for the two light components which propagate by total internal reflection from the core-clad interface and from the clad-air interface. We obtain the absolute light yield and attenuation lengths for the different fibers. (orig.)

  3. Absolute quantum yield measurements for the formation of oxygen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    For this purpose, narrow band VUV laser light tunable around the H atom Lyman α transition ... carefully separated from the fundamental laser light by a lens monochromator followed by a light baffle system. ..... carried out by Hui and Rice for SO2 at room-temperature under bulb conditions.20 In the latter work, for the 222⋅4 ...

  4. Absolute quantum yields and proof of proton and nonproton transient release and uptake in photoexcited bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, T; Mauzerall, D

    1983-01-01

    Using a sensitive differential ac conductance apparatus, we have measured transient ion movements in and the heating of bacteriorhodopsin suspensions after a light flash. The signal from the heating serves as an internal calibration of the absorbed photons and therefore the method gives the absolute quantum yield (phi) from a single measurement. At pH 4, H+ uptake precedes release, with phi = 0.4. By varying the buffer composition, we can prove that this signal is due to protons. At pH 8, however, the transient conductance increase is virtually independent of the buffer composition, showing that ions other than H+ are first released and then taken up by the purple membrane. If these ions are typical monovalent cations such as Na+ (lambda = 50 ohm-1 X cm2 X equiv-1), this process has a quantum yield of 2 or more at high salt concentrations. PMID:6296866

  5. Absolute measurement of the DT primary neutron yield on the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeper R.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the absolute neutron yield produced in inertial confinement fusion target experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF is essential in benchmarking progress towards the goal of achieving ignition on this facility. This paper describes three independent diagnostic techniques that have been developed to make accurate and precise DT neutron yield measurements on the NIF.

  6. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  7. Improved light yield of lead tungstate scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Annenkov, A N; Hofstäetter, A; Korzhik, M V; Ligun, V; Lecoq, P; Missevitch, O V; Novotny, R; Peigneux, J P

    2000-01-01

    The application at medium and low energies of lead tungstate scintillators, so far optimized for the ECAL calorimeter of CMS for the future LHC, is strongly limited by their poor light yield. Suitable dopants like molybdenum and terbium can help to overcome this problem. Concepts, results, advantages and drawbacks of this approach are discussed. (11 refs).

  8. Traceable Determination of the Absolute Neutron Emission Yields of UO2F2 Working Reference Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFleur, A.M.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Mayo, D.R.; Sapp, B.A.; Croft, S.; Mayer, R.L.

    2013-06-01

    The nuclear material contained in the process equipment of a uranium enrichment plant (referred to as holdup) is an important component of the overall nuclear material inventory for the plant. Accurate quantification and verification of holdup is needed to improve international safeguards and nuclear material accountancy. This is also needed for criticality safety and waste disposition. Passive neutron and gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) methods are used to measure the holdup in process equipment. A key advantage of neutron measurements is that neutrons are highly penetrating and can be measured through thick walled equipment. The dominant source of neutrons in the UO 2 F 2 holdup is from the 19 F(α, n) 22 Na reaction resulting from 234 U alpha decay when uranium is enriched. There is a considerable spread between different historic determinations of the 19 F(α, n) yield from uranium which limits the accuracy of modeling and the calibration of NDA instruments. Furthermore, the compound form and presence of water also significantly affects the neutron emission rate from the holdup. This paper describes a series of experimental measurements performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to determine the absolute neutron emission yield from 10 different UO 2 F 2 working reference materials (WRMs) fabricated at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The Mini Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (Mini ENMC) and a NIST certified 252 Cf neutron source were used for these measurements. The high efficiency and short die-away time of the Mini ENMC provides the high measurement precision needed to certify the neutron emission yield. The experiment was designed to achieve sub 1% accuracy in the net counting rate on each item and to provide assurance that important factors such as instrument stability, item placement and background were well understood. The traceable neutron yields measured from the WRMs were used to determine a more accurate neutron yield

  9. Comparison of the methods for determination of scintillation light yield

    CERN Document Server

    Sysoeva, E; Zelenskaya, O

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important characteristics of scintillators is the light yield. It depends not only on the properties of scintillators, but also on the conditions of measurements. Even for widely used crystals, such as alkali halide scintillators NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl), light yield data, obtained by various authors, are different. Therefore, it is very important to choose the convenient method of the light yield measurements. In the present work, methods for the determination of the physical light yield, based on measurements of pulse amplitude, single-electron pulses and intrinsic photomultiplier resolution are discussed. These methods have been used for the measurements of light yield of alkali halide crystals and oxide scintillators. Repeatability and reproducibility of results were determined. All these methods are rather complicated in use, not for measurements, but for further data processing. Besides that, they demand a precise determination of photoreceiver's parameters, as well as determination of light ...

  10. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Bionta, R M; Bleuel, D L; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S; Hartouni, E; Hatchett, S P; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Moses, E; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Smalyuk, V; Yeamans, C B; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Chandler, G A; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A J; Fletcher, K; Kilkenny, J; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Paguio, R

    2012-10-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  11. Absolute I(asterisk) quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain-vs-absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Absolute I(asterisk) quantum yields have been measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-vs-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 + or - 2 percent and it falls off to 53.4 + or - 2 percent and 44.0 + or - 4 percent at 284 and 248 nm, respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I(asterisk) quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I(asterisk) yields reported here. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I(asterisk) quantum yield results.

  12. Determination of light yield from weak scintillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandzhukov, I.G.; Mandzhukova, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation of amplitude distribution of weak scintillation pulses by Puasson distribution is suggestd, if average number of photoelectrons collected on the first dinode of the photomultiplier is of the order of 1. The method permits to determine scintillation yield even in those cases, when the photomultiplier does not have a maximum in monoelectron pulse distribution. Scintillation yields of some aqueous solutions of sodium salicylate and aromatic solvents (benzene, toluene, xylol) at inner α-particle irradiation are determined. It is observed from the given results that efficiency of 239 Pu α-particle detection for aqueous solutions of sodium salicylate with 10% concentration is rather high; it makes up 0.94. They may appear useful for applied problems, paticularly, for measuring α-radiation

  13. Experimental assessment of the speed of light perturbation in free-fall absolute gravimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, H; Blas, D.; Sibiryakov, S.; Eichenberger, A.; Klingelé, E.E.

    2015-01-01

    Precision absolute gravity measurements are growing in importance, especially in the context of the new definition of the kilogram. For the case of free-fall absolute gravimeters with a Michelson-type interferometer tracking the position of a free falling body, one of the effects that needs to be taken into account is the speed of light perturbation due to the finite speed of propagation of light. This effect has been extensively discussed in the past, and there is at present a disagreement between different studies. In this work, we present the analysis of new data and confirm the result expected from the theoretical analysis applied nowadays in free-fall gravimeters. We also review the standard derivations of this effect (by using phase shift or Doppler effect arguments) and show their equivalence.

  14. Ultrahigh enhancement in absolute and relative rotation sensing using fast and slow light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahriar, M. S.; Pati, G. S.; Tripathi, R.; Gopal, V.; Messall, M.; Salit, K.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a resonator-based optical gyroscope whose sensitivity for measuring absolute rotation is enhanced via use of the anomalous dispersion characteristic of superluminal light propagation. The enhancement is given by the inverse of the group index, saturating to a bound determined by the group velocity dispersion. We also show how the offsetting effect of the concomitant broadening of the resonator linewidth may be circumvented by using an active cavity. For realistic conditions, the enhancement factor is as high as 10 6 . We also show how normal dispersion used for slow light can enhance relative rotation sensing in a specially designed Sagnac interferometer, with the enhancement given by the slowing factor

  15. On the absolute calibration of a DT fusion neutron yield diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz C.L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF have underscored the need for accurate total yield measurements of DT neutrons because yield measurements provide a measure of the predicted performance of the experiments. Future gas-puff DT experiments at Sandia National Laboratory's Z facility will also require similar measurements. For ICF DT experiments, the standard technique for measuring the neutron (14.1 MeV yield, counts the activity (counts/minute induced in irradiated copper samples. This activity occurs by the 63Cu(n,2n62Cu reaction where 62Cu decays by positrons (β+ with a half-life of 9.67 minutes. The calibrations discussed here employ the associated-particle method (APM, where the α (4He particles from the T(d,n4He reaction are measured to infer neutron fluxes on a copper sample. The flux induces 62Cu activity, measured in a coincidence counting system. The method leads to a relationship between a DT neutron yield and copper activity known as the F-factor. The goal in future experiments is to apply this calibration to measure the yield at NIF with a combined uncertainty approaching 5%.

  16. Precise measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of the 337 nm band in atmospheric gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ave, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Curry, E.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Giulio, C.; Facal San Luis, P.; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J.; Hrabovský, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Li, S.; Monasor, M.; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Řídký, Jan; Rizi, V.; Rouille D’Orfeuil, B.; Salamida, F.; Schovánek, Petr; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, Feb (2013), 90-102 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nitrogen fluorescence yield * air fluorescence detection * ultra-high energy cosmic rays Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.450, year: 2013

  17. Systematic determination of the JET absolute neutron yield using the MPR spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronborg-Pettersson, N

    2003-04-01

    This thesis describes the first high-statistics systematic analysis of JET neutron yield and rate measurements obtained by using data acquired with the Magnetic Proton Recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer. The neutron yield and rate were determined by using the count-rate from the MPR neutron spectrometer together with neutron profile information from other neutron diagnostic systems. This has previously been done manually for a few pulses. To be able to do this in a more systematic way a part of the neutron spectrum evaluation code was extracted and put into a separate custom-made program and modifications were done to extract sets of MPR data automatically. The codes have been used for analysis of a large set of pulses from the deuterium-tritium campaign at JET in 1997. Several results were obtained, the most significant of which was the clear improvement seen when neutron profile corrections were applied. Neutron yield-rates derived from MPR count-rate are shown to be in excellent agreement with other JET neutron diagnostic data.

  18. Precise determination of the light yield of scintillating crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccaro, S.; Barone, L.M.; Borgia, B.; Castelli, F.; Cavallari, F.; De Notaristefani, F.; Diemoz, M.; Faccini, R.; Festinesi, A.; Leonardi, E.; Longo, E.; Montecchi, M.; Organtini, G.; Pacciani, L.; Pirro, S.

    1997-01-01

    A method to determine the photopeak position of the γ absorption spectrum of radioactive sources in low light yield scintillators as lead tungstate is discussed. The method is based on the parametrization of both the Compton and photoelectric contributions to the spectrum and it is proven to be reliable and to give stable and precise results. (orig.)

  19. Light yield from a scintillator tile with embedded readout fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trost, H.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Tonnison, J.I.; Barnes, V.E. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1991-07-15

    We have studied the light yield in two straight fibers embedded in a square scintillator tile by means of computer simulation. The tile and fiber dimensions are taken in the ballpark of interest for the SDC main calorimeter. A fairly flat total response across the tile can be obtained. Important parameters to be controlled are identified.

  20. Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai

    2011-01-01

    Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a γ-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.

  1. Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a {gamma}-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.

  2. Performance of Different Light Sources for the Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M. J.; Mantilla, J. M.; del Campo, D.; Hernanz, M. L.; Pons, A.; Campos, J.

    2017-09-01

    The evolving mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin (MeP-K) [1, 2] will, in its forthcoming edition, encourage the realization and dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature either directly (primary thermometry) or indirectly (relative primary thermometry) via fixed points with assigned reference thermodynamic temperatures. In the last years, the Centro Español de Metrología (CEM), in collaboration with the Instituto de Óptica of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IO-CSIC), has developed several setups for absolute calibration of standard radiation thermometers using the radiance method to allow CEM the direct dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature and the assignment of the thermodynamic temperatures to several fixed points. Different calibration facilities based on a monochromator and/or a laser and an integrating sphere have been developed to calibrate CEM's standard radiation thermometers (KE-LP2 and KE-LP4) and filter radiometer (FIRA2). This system is based on the one described in [3] placed in IO-CSIC. Different light sources have been tried and tested for measuring absolute spectral radiance responsivity: a Xe-Hg 500 W lamp, a supercontinuum laser NKT SuperK-EXR20 and a diode laser emitting at 6473 nm with a typical maximum power of 120 mW. Their advantages and disadvantages have been studied such as sensitivity to interferences generated by the laser inside the filter, flux stability generated by the radiant sources and so forth. This paper describes the setups used, the uncertainty budgets and the results obtained for the absolute temperatures of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C fixed points, measured with the three thermometers with central wavelengths around 650 nm.

  3. A New Light-Speed Anisotropy Experiment: Absolute Motion and Gravitational Waves Detected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from a new experiment measuring the anisotropy of the one-way speed of EM waves in a coaxial cable, gives the speed of light as 300,000 +/- 400 (+/- 20 km/s in a measured direction RA=5.5 +/- 2 hrs, Dec=70 +/- 10 Deg S, is shown to be in excellent agreement with the results from seven previous anisotropy experiments, particularly those of Miller (1925/26, and even those of Michelson and Morley (1887. The Miller gas-mode interferometer results, and those from the RF coaxial cable experiments of Torr and Kolen (1983, De Witte (1991 and the new experiment all reveal the presence of gravitational waves, as indicated by the last +/- variations above, but of a kind different from those supposedly predicted by General Relativity. Miller repeated the Michelson-Morley 1887 gas-mode interferometer experiment and againdetected the anisotropy of the speed of light, primarily in the years 1925/1926 atop Mt.Wilson, California. The understanding of the operation of the Michelson interferometer in gas-mode was only achieved in 2002 and involved a calibration for the interferometer that necessarily involved Special Relativity effects and the refractive index of the gas in the light paths. The results demonstrate the reality of the Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction as an observer independent relativistic effect. A common misunderstanding is that the anisotropy of the speed of light is necessarily in conflict with Special Relativity and Lorentz symmetry - this is explained. All eight experiments and theory show that we have both anisotropy of the speed of light and relativistic effects, and that a dynamical 3-space exists - that absolute motion through that space has been repeatedly observed since 1887. These developments completely change fundamental physics and our understanding of reality. Modern vacuum-mode Michelson interferometers, particularly the long baseline terrestrial versions, are, by design flaw, incapable of detecting the anisotropy effect and the

  4. CsI(Tl) infrared scintillation light yield and spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Belogurov, S; Carugno, Giovanni; Conti, E; Iannuzzi, D; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Infrared emission from CsI(Tl) excited by approx 70 keV electrons was detected with an InGaAs PIN photodiode. Some parameters of infrared scintillation were studied. The emission spectrum is located between 1.55 and 1.70 mu m with a maximum at 1.60 mu m. The light yield of infrared scintillation is (4.9+-0.3)x10 sup 3 photons/MeV. Infrared scintillation caused by 3 MeV alpha-particles is detected as well.

  5. Nonproportionality in the scintillation light yield of bismuth germanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Bales, M. J.; Breuer, H.; Chupp, T. E.; Coakley, K. J.; Cooper, R. L.; Nico, J. S.; O`Neill, B.

    2015-06-01

    We present measurements of nonproportionality in the scintillation light yield of bismuth germanate (BGO) for gamma-rays with energies between 6 keV and 662 keV. The scintillation light was read out by avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with both the BGO crystals and APDs operated at a temperature of ≈ 90 K. Data were obtained using radioisotope sources to illuminate both a single BGO crystal in a small test cryostat and a 12-element detector in a neutron radiative beta-decay experiment. In addition one datum was obtained in a 4.6 T magnetic field based on the bismuth K x-ray escape peak produced by a continuum of background gamma rays in this apparatus. These measurements and comparison to prior results were motivated by an experiment to study the radiative decay mode of the free neutron. The combination of data taken under different conditions yields a reasonably consistent picture for BGO nonproportionality that should be useful for researchers employing BGO detectors at low gamma ray energies.

  6. submitter Measurement of LYSO Intrinsic Light Yield Using Electron Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Turtos, Rosana; Pizzichemi, Marco; Ghezzi, Alessio; Pauwels, Kristof; Auffray, Etiennette; Lecoq, Paul; Paganoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the intrinsic light yield $(LY_{int})$ of scintillating crystals, i.e. number of optical photons created per amount of energy deposited, constitutes a key factor in order to characterize and optimize their energy and time resolution. However, until now measurements of this quantity are affected by large uncertainties and often rely on corrections for bulk absorption and surface/edge state. The novel idea presented in this contribution is based on the confinement of the scintillation emission in the central upper part of a 10 mm cubic crystal using a 1.5 MeV electron beam with diameter of 1 mm. A black non-reflective pinhole aligned with the excitation point is used to fix the light extraction solid angle (narrower than total reflection angle), which then sets a light cone travel path through the crystal. The final number of photoelectrons detected using a Hamamatsu R2059 photomultiplier tube (PMT) was corrected for the extraction solid angle, the Fresnel reflection coefficient and quantum...

  7. Effect of low electric fields on alpha scintillation light yield in liquid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Asner, D. M.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bocci, V.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Dionisi, C.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giagu, S.; Giganti, C.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, A.; James, I.; Johnson, T. N.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Longo, G.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Milincic, R.; Miller, J. D.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Navrer Agasson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Oleinik, A.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Sands, W.; Savarese, C.; Schlitzer, B.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Verducci, M.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements were made of scintillation light yield of alpha particles from the 222Rn decay chain within the DarkSide-50 liquid argon time projection chamber. The light yield was found to increase as the applied electric field increased, with alphas in a 200 V/cm electric field exhibiting a ~2% increase in light yield compared to alphas in no field.

  8. Highly Luminescent Phase-Stable CsPbI3 Perovskite Quantum Dots Achieving Near 100% Absolute Photoluminescence Quantum Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Zhang, Yaohong; Ding, Chao; Kobayashi, Syuusuke; Izuishi, Takuya; Nakazawa, Naoki; Toyoda, Taro; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Hayase, Shuzi; Minemoto, Takashi; Yoshino, Kenji; Dai, Songyuan; Shen, Qing

    2017-10-24

    Perovskite quantum dots (QDs) as a new type of colloidal nanocrystals have gained significant attention for both fundamental research and commercial applications owing to their appealing optoelectronic properties and excellent chemical processability. For their wide range of potential applications, synthesizing colloidal QDs with high crystal quality is of crucial importance. However, like most common QD systems such as CdSe and PbS, those reported perovskite QDs still suffer from a certain density of trapping defects, giving rise to detrimental nonradiative recombination centers and thus quenching luminescence. In this paper, we show that a high room-temperature photoluminescence quantum yield of up to 100% can be obtained in CsPbI 3 perovskite QDs, signifying the achievement of almost complete elimination of the trapping defects. This is realized with our improved synthetic protocol that involves introducing organolead compound trioctylphosphine-PbI 2 (TOP-PbI 2 ) as the reactive precursor, which also leads to a significantly improved stability for the resulting CsPbI 3 QD solutions. Ultrafast kinetic analysis with time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy evidence the negligible electron or hole-trapping pathways in our QDs, which explains such a high quantum efficiency. We expect the successful synthesis of the "ideal" perovskite QDs will exert profound influence on their applications to both QD-based light-harvesting and -emitting devices.

  9. Measurements of periods, relative abundances and absolute yields of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission of {sup 237}Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piksaikine, V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The experimental method for measurements of the delayed neutron yields and period is presented. The preliminary results of the total yield, relative abundances and periods are shown comparing with the previously reported values. (J.P.N.)

  10. Continuous light on tomato : from gene to yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Ramirez, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    Light essentially sustains all life on planet earth surface. Plants transform light energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis. Hence, it can be anticipated that extending the daily photoperiod, using artificial light, results in increased plant productivity. Although this premise is true

  11. Absolute calibration method for fast-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Frogget, Brent; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Maron, Yitzhak; Droemer, Darryl W.; Crain, Marlon D.

    2010-01-01

    This report outlines a convenient method to calibrate fast (<1ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in the A-K gap of electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA). On RITS, light is collected through a small diameter (200 micron) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator (F/7 optics). To calibrate such a system, it is necessary to efficiently couple light from a spectral lamp into a 200 micron diameter fiber, split it into its spectral components, with 10 Angstroms or less resolution, and record it on a streak camera with 1ns or less temporal resolution.

  12. Influence of dissolved gas and temperature on the light yield of new liquid scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Buontempo, S; Golovkin, S V; Martellotti, G; Medvedkov, A M; Penso, G; Soloviev, A S; Vasilchenko, V G

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen new liquid scintillators, emitting green light, were studied. They are based on four solvents combined with four dopants. The influence of different gas atmospheres was studied. In particular it was shown that by keeping these liquid scintillators in vacuum or in a neutral gas, the light yield increases up to 32~\\% at 20 $^{\\circ}$C and for the best solvent-dopant combinations. The dependance of the light yield on temperature was also studied for these scintillators. In the 20--60 $^{\\circ}$C interval, some exhibit a light yield variation of $\\sim$ 3 \\% which is smaller than that of the NE 102A plastic scintillator.

  13. An analytical model of nonproportional scintillator light yield in terms of recombination rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizarri, G.; Moses, W. W.; Singh, J.; Vasil'ev, A. N.; Williams, R. T.

    2009-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the local light yield as a function of the local deposited energy (-dE/dx) and total scintillation yield integrated over the track of an electron of initial energy E are derived from radiative and/or nonradiative rates of first through third order in density of electronic excitations. The model is formulated in terms of rate constants, some of which can be determined independently from time-resolved spectroscopy and others estimated from measured light yield efficiency as a constraint assumed to apply in each kinetic order. The rates and parameters are used in the theory to calculate scintillation yield versus primary electron energy for comparison to published experimental results on four scintillators. Influence of the track radius on the yield is also discussed. Results are found to be qualitatively consistent with the observed scintillation light yield. The theory can be applied to any scintillator if the rates of the radiative and nonradiative processes are known

  14. Light on Cut Chrysanthemum : Measurements and Simulation of Crop Growth and Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Lee, J.H.; Buiskool, R.P.M.; Ortega, L.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of plant density and light intensity on crop growth and yield of cut chrysanthemum were investigated experimentally and simulated with a generic explanatory crop growth model (HORTISIM). In winter, supplementary light (HPS; 48 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR) increased total incident PAR with

  15. Effects of Low Light on Agronomic and Physiological Characteristics of Rice Including Grain Yield and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-hua LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the basic characteristics of rice development. However, continuously cloudy weather or rainfall, especially during the grain-filling stage, induces a significant loss in yield and results in poor grain quality. Stress caused by low light often creates severe meteorological disasters in some rice-growing regions worldwide. This review was based on our previous research and related research regarding the effects of low light on rice growth, yield and quality as well as the formation of grain, and mainly reviewed the physiological metabolism of rice plants, including characteristics of photosynthesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes in rice leaves and key enzymes involved in starch synthesis in grains, as well as the translocations of carbohydrate and nitrogen. These characteristics include various grain yield and rice quality components (milling and appearance as well as cooking, eating and nutritional qualities under different rates of shading imposed at the vegetative or reproductive stages of rice plants. Furthermore, we discussed why grain yield and quality are reduced under the low light environment. Next, we summarized the need for future research that emphasizes methods can effectively improve rice grain yield and quality under low light stress. These research findings can provide a beneficial reference for rice cultivation management and breeding program in low light environments.

  16. Study of temperature dependence of light yield from NaBi(WO4)2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amosov, C.Yu.; Kalinin, B.N.; Krechetov, Yu.F.; Moiseenko, A.V.; Naumenko, G.A.; Potylitsin, A.P.; Sarytchev, V.P.; Shuvalov, Ye.N.; Vznuzdaev, Ye.A.; Samsonov, V.M.; Solodov, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The scintillation time structure and the temperature dependence of the light yield from NaBi(WO 4 ) 2 crystals bombarded by 500 MeV electrons have been measured experimentally. These crystals showed a tendency to exhibit scintillator properties when the temperature of the samples was decreased. The light yield increased by more than an order of magnitude with the temperature falling from the room level to that of liquid nitrogen. The scintillation time structure was of a complex pattern, and a slow luminescent component (τ=30 ns) was present in the spectrum. ((orig.))

  17. Light yield of undoped sapphire at low temperature under particle excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J.; Beltran, B.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Gomez, H.; Irastorza, I.G.; Luzon, G.; Martinez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedon, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J.A.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Leblanc, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we report on the performance of scintillating sapphire bolometers developed in the framework of the ROSEBUD (Rare Objects Search with Bolometers UnDerground) Collaboration devoted to dark matter searches. The simultaneous measurement of heat and light allows the discrimination of the type of particle increasing the sensitivity for these searches. A heat versus light negative correlation for gamma events has been observed. Its interpretation, in a simple framework, allows the estimation of the light yield of undoped sapphire at a temperature of about 20 mK under gamma, alpha, and neutron excitation

  18. Photosynthesis, light use efficiency, and yield of reduced-chlorophyll soybean mutants in field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing chlorophyll (chl) content may improve the conversion efficiency of absorbed radiation into biomass (ec) and therefore yield in dense monoculture crops by improving light penetration and distribution within the canopy. Modeling suggests that reducing chl content may also reduce leaf temperat...

  19. Applications of fluorene moiety containing polymers for improved scintillation light yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishpaugh, David; Hajagos, Tibor; Liu, Chao; Chen, Qi; Pei, Qibing

    2017-10-01

    A terfluorene compound, designed and synthesized for its photophysical and polymerizable properties, was employed as a host material in polymer scintillators to achieve a 31% increase in light yield versus a commercial standard viewed with a Silicon Photomultilier. Monomers of the compound were mixed with a solubility promoting vinyl toluene and either a commercial or custom designed fluor containing fluorene moiety structures. Fluors were chosen with overlapping energy levels to promote resonance energy transfer from the host material and improve light emission. The mixture was cured via bulk polymerization into cylindrical polymer monoliths which were coupled to either a photomultiplier tube or silicon photomultiplier to measure the scintillation light yield upon exposure to Cs-137 gamma. Samples emitted at longer wavelengths than commercial blue scintillators such as EJ-212 but outperformed this standard when accounting for the variability of photomultiplier tube sensitivity.

  20. Maximizing Information Yield From Pheromone-Baited Monitoring Traps: Estimating Plume Reach, Trapping Radius, and Absolute Density of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Michigan Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C G; Schenker, J H; McGhee, P S; Gut, L J; Brunner, J F; Miller, J R

    2017-04-01

    Novel methods of data analysis were used to interpret codling moth (Cydia pomonella) catch data from central-trap, multiple-release experiments using a standard codlemone-baited monitoring trap in commercial apple orchards not under mating disruption. The main objectives were to determine consistency and reliability for measures of: 1) the trapping radius, composed of the trap's behaviorally effective plume reach and the maximum dispersive distance of a responder population; and 2) the proportion of the population present in the trapping area that is caught. Two moth release designs were used: 1) moth releases at regular intervals in the four cardinal directions, and 2) evenly distributed moth releases across entire approximately 18-ha orchard blocks using both high and low codling moth populations. For both release designs, at high populations, the mean proportion catch was 0.01, and for the even release of low populations, that value was approximately 0.02. Mean maximum dispersive distance for released codling moth males was approximately 260 m. Behaviorally effective plume reach for the standard codling moth trap was < 5 m, and total trapping area for a single trap was approximately 21 ha. These estimates were consistent across three growing seasons and are supported by extraordinarily high replication for this type of field experiment. Knowing the trapping area and mean proportion caught, catch number per single monitoring trap can be translated into absolute pest density using the equation: males per trapping area = catch per trapping area/proportion caught. Thus, catches of 1, 3, 10, and 30 codling moth males per trap translate to approximately 5, 14, 48, and 143 males/ha, respectively, and reflect equal densities of females, because the codling moth sex ratio is 1:1. Combined with life-table data on codling moth fecundity and mortality, along with data on crop yield per trapping area, this fundamental knowledge of how to interpret catch numbers

  1. Ultraviolet photochemistry of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-dienes: laser spectroscopic absolute hydrogen atom quantum yield and translational energy distribution measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, A; Volpp, H-R; Sharma, P; Mittal, J P; Vatsa, R K

    2010-07-14

    Using pulsed H-atom Lyman-alpha laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy along with a photolytic calibration approach, absolute H-atom product quantum yields of phi(H-b13d) = (0.32+/-0.04) and phi(H-b12d) = (0.36+/-0.04) were measured under collision-free conditions for the 193 nm gas-phase laser flash photolysis of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene at room temperature, which demonstrate that nascent H-atom formation is of comparable importance for both parent molecules. Comparison of the available energy fraction, f(T-b13d) = (0.22+/-0.03) and f(T-b12d) = (0.13+/-0.01), released as H+C(4)H(5) product translational energy with results of impulsive and statistical energy partitioning modeling calculations indicates that for both, buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene, H-atom formation is preceded by internal conversion to the respective electronic ground state (S(0)) potential energy surfaces. In addition, values of sigma(b-1,3-d-L alpha) = (3.5+/-0.2)x10(-17) cm(2) and sigma(b-1,2-d-L alpha) = (4.4+/-0.2)x10(-17) cm(2) for the previously unknown Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm) radiation photoabsorption cross sections of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene in the gas-phase were determined.

  2. Prism-pair interferometry by homodyne interferometers with a common light source for high-accuracy measurement of the absolute refractive index of glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yasuaki; Hirai, Akiko; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2011-03-10

    A prism-pair interferometer comprising two homodyne interferometers with a common light source was developed for high-precision measurements of the refractive index of optical glasses with an uncertainty of the order of 10(-6). The two interferometers measure changes in the optical path length in the glass sample and in air, respectively. Uncertainties in the absolute wavelength of the common light source are cancelled out by calculating a ratio between the results from the interferometers. Uncertainties in phase measurement are suppressed by a quadrature detection system. The combined standard uncertainty of the developed system is evaluated as 1.1×10(-6).

  3. An experimental set-up to measure Light Yield of Scintillating Fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Alfieri, C; Joram, C; Kenzie, M W

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the LHCb SciFi Tracker project, an experimental set up was designed and built to provide reliable and reproducible measurements of the light yield of scintillating fibres. This document describes the principle and technical realisation of the set-up. A few examples illustrate the operation and data analysis. In the first implementation of the set-up a photomultiplier tube with bialkali photocathode was used for the reading of the light from the fibres under test. In order to measure also green emitting fibres, the photomultiplier was replaced in January 2016 by a SiPM with higher sensitivity and larger spectral coverage1.

  4. Estimating crop yield using a satellite-based light use efficiency model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Chen, Yang; Xia, Jiangzhou

    2016-01-01

    for simulating crops’ GPP. At both irrigated and rainfed sites, the EC-LUE model exhibits a similar level of performance. However, large errors are found when simulating yield based on crop harvest index. This analysis highlights the need to improve the representation of the harvest index and carbon allocation......Satellite-based techniques that provide temporally and spatially continuous information over vegetated surfaces have become increasingly important in monitoring the global agriculture yield. In this study, we examine the performance of a light use efficiency model (EC-LUE) for simulating the gross...... primary production (GPP) and yield of crops. The EC-LUE model can explain on average approximately 90% of the variability in GPP for 36 FLUXNET sites globally. The results indicate that a universal set of parameters, independent of crop species (except for C4 crops), can be adopted in the EC-LUE model...

  5. Crop yield and light / energy efficiency in a closed ecological system: two laboratory biosphere experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    Two crop growth experiments in the soil-based closed ecological facity, Laboratory Biosphere, were conducted from 2003-2004 with candidate space life support crops. Apogee wheat (Utah State University variety) was grown, planted in 2 densities, 400 and 800 seeds m-2. The lighting regime for the wheat crop was 16 hours of light -- 8 hours dark at a total light intensity of around 840 mol m2 sec-1 and 48.4 mol m-2 d-1 over 84 days Average biomass was 1395 g m-2, 16.0 g m-2 day-1 and average seed production was 689 g m-2 and 7.9 g m2 day-1. The less densely planted side was more productive than the denser planting, with 1634 g m-2 and 18.8g m-2 day-1 of biomass vs. 1156 g m-2 and 13.3 g m-2 day-1; and a seed harvest of 812.3 g m-2 and 9.3 g m-2 day-1 vs. 566.5 g m-2 and 6.5 g m-2 day-1 Harvest index was 0.49 for the wheat crop. The experiment with sweet potato used TU-82-155, a compact variety developed at Tuskegee University. Light during the sweet potato experiment, on a 16 hour on/8 hours dark cycle, totalled 5568 total moles of light in 126 days for the sweet potatoes, or an average of 44.2 moles m-2 day-1. Temperature regime was 28 deg +/- 3 deg C day /22 deg +/- 4 deg C night. Sweet potato tuber yield was 39.7 kg wet weight, or an average of 7.4 kg m-2 and 7.7 kg dry weight of tubers since dry weight was about 18.6% wet weight.^Average per day production was 58.7 g m-2 day-1 wet weight and 11.3 g m-2 day-1. For the wheat, average light efficiency was 0.34 grams biomass per mole, and 0.17 grams seed per mole. The best area of wheat had an efficiency of light utilization of 0.51 g biomass per mole and 0.22 g seed per mole. For the sweet potato crop, light efficiency per tuber wet weight was 7.13 g/mole and 1.38 g dry weight of tuber per mole of light. The best area of tuber production had 9.49 g/mole wet weight and 1.85 g/mole of light dry weight. Production from the wheat was The Laboratory Biosphere experiment's light efficiency was somewhat higher than the USU

  6. Light yield determination in large sodium iodide detectors applied in the search for dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliván, M. A.; Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Martínez, M.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2017-07-01

    Application of NaI(Tl) detectors in the search for galactic dark matter particles through their elastic scattering off the target nuclei is well motivated because of the long standing DAMA/LIBRA highly significant positive result on annual modulation, still requiring confirmation. For such a goal, it is mandatory to reach very low threshold in energy (at or below the keV level), very low radioactive background (at a few counts/keV/kg/day), and high detection mass (at or above the 100 kg scale). One of the most relevant technical issues is the optimization of the crystal intrinsic scintillation light yield and the efficiency of the light collecting system for large mass crystals. In the frame of the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) dark matter search project large NaI(Tl) crystals from different providers coupled to two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have been tested at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. In this paper we present the estimates of the NaI(Tl) scintillation light collected using full-absorption peaks at very low energy from external and internal sources emitting gammas/electrons, and single-photoelectron events populations selected by using very low energy pulses tails. Outstanding scintillation light collection at the level of 15 photoelectrons/keV can be reported for the final design and provider chosen for ANAIS detectors. Taking into account the quantum efficiency of the PMT units used, the intrinsic scintillation light yield in these NaI(Tl) crystals is above 40 photons/keV for energy depositions in the range from 3 up to 25 keV. This very high light output of ANAIS crystals allows triggering below 1 keV, which is very important in order to increase the sensitivity in the direct detection of dark matter.

  7. Light yield and energy resolution studies for SoLid phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursette, Delphine; SoLid Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The SoLid experiment is searching for sterile neutrinos at a nuclear research reactor. It looks for inverse beta decays (producing a positron and a neutron in delayed coincidence) with a very segmented detector made of thousands of scintillating cubes. SoLid has a very innovative hybrid technology with two different scintillators which have different light emissions: polyvynil-toluene cubes (PVT) to detect the positrons and 6LiF:ZnS sheets on two faces of each PVT cube to detect the neutrons. It allows us to do an efficient pulse shape analysis to identify the signals from neutrons and positrons. The 288 kg detector prototype (SM1) took data in 2015. It demonstrated the detection principle and background rejection efficiency. The construction of SoLid phase I (˜ 1.5 t) has now started. To improve the energy resolution of SoLid phase I, we have tried to increase the light yield studying separately the two scintillators: PVT and ZnS. A test bench has been built to fully characterize and improve the neutron detection with the ZnS using an AmBe source. To study the positron light yield on the PVT, we have built another test bench with a 207Bi source. We have improved the design of the cubes, their wrapping or the type and the configuration of the fibers. We managed to increase the PVT light yield by about 66 % and improve the resolution of the positron energy on the test bench from 21 % to 16 % at 1 MeV.

  8. Measurement of light and charge yield of low-energy electronic recoils in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzke, L. W.; Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; Plante, G.; Weber, M.

    2017-11-01

    The dependence of the light and charge yield of liquid xenon on the applied electric field and recoil energy is important for dark matter detectors using liquid xenon time projections chambers. Few measurements have been made of this field dependence at recoil energies less than 10 keV. In this paper, we present results of such measurements using a specialized detector. Recoil energies are determined via the Compton coincidence technique at four drift fields relevant for liquid xenon dark matter detectors: 0.19, 0.48, 1.02, and 2.32 kV /cm . Mean recoil energies down to 1 keV were measured with unprecedented precision. We find that the charge and light yield are anticorrelated above ˜3 keV and that the field dependence becomes negligible below ˜6 keV . However, below 3 keV, we find a charge yield significantly higher than expectation and a reconstructed energy deviating from linearity.

  9. Radiation Hard and High Light Yield Scintillator Search for CMS Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Tiras, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    The CMS detector at the LHC requires a major upgrade to cope with the higher instantaneous luminosity and the elevated radiation levels. The active media of the forward backing hadron calorimeters is projected to be radiation-hard, high light yield scintillation materials or similar alternatives. In this context, we have studied various radiation-hard scintillating materials such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN), High Efficiency Mirror (HEM) and quartz plates with various coatings. The quartz plates are pure Cerenkov radiators and their radiation hardness has been confirmed. In order to increase the light output, we considered organic and inorganic coating materials such as p-Terphenyl (pTp), Anthracene and Gallium-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO Ga) that are applied as thin layers on the surface of the quartz plates. Here, we present the results of the related test beam activities, laboratory measurements and recent developments.

  10. Synthesis of crystalline Ce-activated garnet phosphor powders and technique to characterize their scintillation light yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordienko, E.; Fedorov, A.; Radiuk, E.; Mechinsky, V.; Dosovitskiy, G.; Vashchenkova, E.; Kuznetsova, D.; Retivov, V.; Dosovitskiy, A.; Korjik, M.; Sandu, R.

    2018-04-01

    This work reports on a process of preparation of garnet phosphor powders and a technique for light yield evaluation of strongly light scattering samples. Powders of scintillation compounds could be used as individual materials or as samples for express tests of scintillation properties. However, estimation of their light yield (LY) is complicated by strong light scattering of this kind of materials. Ce3+-activated yttrium-aluminum and gallium-gadolinium-aluminum garnet phosphor powders, Y3Al5O12 (YAG:Ce) and Gd3Ga3Al2O12 (GGAG:Ce), were obtained using a modified coprecipitation technique. Ga tends to residue in mother liquor in ammonia media, but the modification allows to avoid the loss of components. We propose an approach for sample preparation and LY measurement setup with alpha particles excitation, allowing to decrease light scattering influence and to estimate a light yield of powder samples. This approach is used to evaluate the obtained powders.

  11. Determinations of its Absolute Dimensions and Distance by the Analyses of Light and Radial-Velocity Curves of the Contact Binary -I. V417 Aquilae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Lee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available New photometric and spectroscopic solutions of W-type overcontact binary V417 Aql were obtained by solving the UBV light curves of Samec et al. (1997 and radial-velocity ones of Lu & Rucinski (1999 with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney binary code. In the light curve synthesis the light of a third-body, which Qian (2003 proposed, was considered and obtained about 2.7%, 2.2%, and 0.4% for U, B, and V bandpasses, respectively. The model with third-light is better fitted to eclipse parts than that with no third-light. Absolute dimensions of V417 Aql are determined from our solution as M1=0.53 M⊙, M2=1.45 M⊙, R1=0.84 R⊙ and R2=1.31 M⊙, and the distance to it is deduced as about 216pc. Our distance is well consistent with that (204pc derived from Rucinski & Duerbeck's (1997 relation, MV=MV(log P, B-V, but is more distant than that (131±40pc determined by the Hipparcos trigonometric parallax. The difference may result from the relatively large error of Hipparcos parallax for V417 Aql.

  12. Delayed detonation models for normal and subluminous type Ia sueprnovae: Absolute brightness, light curves, and molecule formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoflich, P.; Khokhlov, A. M.; Wheeler, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    We compute optical and infrared light curves of the pulsating class of delayed detonation models for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia's) using an elaborate treatment of the Local Thermodynamic Equilbrium (LTE) radiation transport, equation of state and ionization balance, expansion opacity including the cooling by CO, Co(+), and SiO, and a Monte Carlo gamma-ray deposition scheme. The models have an amount of Ni-56 in the range from approximately or equal to 0.1 solar mass up to 0.7 solar mass depending on the density at which the transition from a deflagration to a detonation occurs. Models with a large nickel production give light curves comparable to those of typical Type Ia supernovae. Subluminous supernovae can be explained by models with a low nickel production. Multiband light curves are presented in comparison with the normally bright event SN 1992bc and the subluminous events Sn 1991bg and SN 1992bo to establish the principle that the delayed detonation paradigm in Chandrasekhar mass models may give a common explosion mechanism accounting for both normal and subluminous SN Ia's. Secondary IR-maxima are formed in the models of normal SN Ia's as a photospheric effect if the photospheric radius continues to increase well after maximum light. Secondary maxima appear later and stronger in models with moderate expansion velocities and with radioactive material closer to the surface. Model light curves for subluminous SN Ia's tend to show only one 'late' IR-maximum. In some delayed detonation models shell-like envelopes form, which consist of unburned carbon and oxygen. The formation of molecules in these envelopes is addressed. If the model retains a C/O-envelope and is subluminous, strong vibration bands of CO may appear, typically several weeks past maximum light. CO should be very weak or absent in normal Sn Ia's.

  13. Improvement on the light yield of a high-Z inorganic scintillator GSO(Ce)

    CERN Document Server

    Kamae, T; Isobe, N; Kokubun, M; Kubota, A; Osone, S; Takahashi, T; Tsuchida, N; Ishibashi, H

    2002-01-01

    Cerium-doped gadolinium silicic dioxide crystal, GSO(Ce), is a high-Z non-hydroscopic scintillator that gives higher light yield than BGO, and can potentially replace NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl) and BGO in many applications. Its production cost, however, has been substantially higher than any of them, while its energy resolution has been worse than that of NaI(Tl) or CsI(Tl). The merit did not overcome these deficiencies except in limited applications. We developed a low background phoswich counter (the well-type phoswich counter) for the Hard X-ray Detector of the Astro-E project based on GSO scintillator. In the developmental work, we have succeeded in improving the light yield of GSO(Ce) by 40-50%. For energies above 500 keV, a large GSO(Ce) crystal (4.5 cmx4.5phi cm) now gives energy resolution comparable to or better than the best NaI(Tl) when read out with a phototube. With a small GSO(Ce) crystal (5x5x5 mm sup 3) and a photodiode, an energy resolution comparable to or better than the best CsI(Tl) has been obtaine...

  14. Photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield of wheat plants grown under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with and without supplemental blue lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, G. D.; Yorio, N. C.; Sanwo, M. M.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential light source for growing plants in spaceflight systems because of their safety, small mass and volume, wavelength specificity, and longevity. Despite these attractive features, red LEDs must satisfy requirements for plant photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis for successful growth and seed yield. To determine the influence of gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) red LEDs on wheat photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield, wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. 'USU-Super Dwarf') plants were grown under red LEDs and compared to plants grown under daylight fluorescent (white) lamps and red LEDs supplemented with either 1% or 10% blue light from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. Compared to white light-grown plants, wheat grown under red LEDs alone demonstrated less main culm development during vegetative growth through preanthesis, while showing a longer flag leaf at 40 DAP and greater main culm length at final harvest (70 DAP). As supplemental BF light was increased with red LEDs, shoot dry matter and net leaf photosynthesis rate increased. At final harvest, wheat grown under red LEDs alone displayed fewer subtillers and a lower seed yield compared to plants grown under white light. Wheat grown under red LEDs+10% BF light had comparable shoot dry matter accumulation and seed yield relative to wheat grown under white light. These results indicate that wheat can complete its life cycle under red LEDs alone, but larger plants and greater amounts of seed are produced in the presence of red LEDs supplemented with a quantity of blue light.

  15. The α-induced thick-target γ-ray yield from light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R. K. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1994-10-01

    The α-induced thick-target γ-ray yield from light elements has been measured in the energy range 5.6 MeV ≤ Eα ≤ 10 MeV. The γ-ray yield for > 2.1 MeV from thick targets of beryllium, boron nitride, sodium fluoride, magnesium, aluminum and silicon were measured using the α-particle beam from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories 88 in. cyclotron. The elemental yields from this experiment were used to construct the α-induced direct production γ-ray spectrum from materials in the SNO detector, a large volume ultra-low background neutrino detector located in the Creighton mine near Sudbury, Canada. This background source was an order of magnitude lower than predicted by previous calculations. These measurements are in good agreement with theoretical calculations of this spectrum based on a statistical nuclear model of the reaction, with the gross high energy spectrum structure being reproduced to within a factor of two. Detailed comparison of experimental and theoretical excitation population distribution of several residual nuclei indicate the same level of agreement within experimental uncertainties.

  16. Zeaxanthin protects plant photosynthesis by modulating chlorophyll triplet yield in specific light-harvesting antenna subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Holt, Nancy E; Kaligotla, Shanti; Fuciman, Marcel; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Carbonera, Donatella; Frank, Harry A; Alric, Jean; Bassi, Roberto

    2012-12-07

    Plants are particularly prone to photo-oxidative damage caused by excess light. Photoprotection is essential for photosynthesis to proceed in oxygenic environments either by scavenging harmful reactive intermediates or preventing their accumulation to avoid photoinhibition. Carotenoids play a key role in protecting photosynthesis from the toxic effect of over-excitation; under excess light conditions, plants accumulate a specific carotenoid, zeaxanthin, that was shown to increase photoprotection. In this work we genetically dissected different components of zeaxanthin-dependent photoprotection. By using time-resolved differential spectroscopy in vivo, we identified a zeaxanthin-dependent optical signal characterized by a red shift in the carotenoid peak of the triplet-minus-singlet spectrum of leaves and pigment-binding proteins. By fractionating thylakoids into their component pigment binding complexes, the signal was found to originate from the monomeric Lhcb4-6 antenna components of Photosystem II and the Lhca1-4 subunits of Photosystem I. By analyzing mutants based on their sensitivity to excess light, the red-shifted triplet-minus-singlet signal was tightly correlated with photoprotection in the chloroplasts, suggesting the signal implies an increased efficiency of zeaxanthin in controlling chlorophyll triplet formation. Fluorescence-detected magnetic resonance analysis showed a decrease in the amplitude of signals assigned to chlorophyll triplets belonging to the monomeric antenna complexes of Photosystem II upon zeaxanthin binding; however, the amplitude of carotenoid triplet signal does not increase correspondingly. Results show that the high light-induced binding of zeaxanthin to specific proteins plays a major role in enhancing photoprotection by modulating the yield of potentially dangerous chlorophyll-excited states in vivo and preventing the production of singlet oxygen.

  17. Zeaxanthin Protects Plant Photosynthesis by Modulating Chlorophyll Triplet Yield in Specific Light-harvesting Antenna Subunits*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Holt, Nancy E.; Kaligotla, Shanti; Fuciman, Marcel; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Carbonera, Donatella; Frank, Harry A.; Alric, Jean; Bassi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Plants are particularly prone to photo-oxidative damage caused by excess light. Photoprotection is essential for photosynthesis to proceed in oxygenic environments either by scavenging harmful reactive intermediates or preventing their accumulation to avoid photoinhibition. Carotenoids play a key role in protecting photosynthesis from the toxic effect of over-excitation; under excess light conditions, plants accumulate a specific carotenoid, zeaxanthin, that was shown to increase photoprotection. In this work we genetically dissected different components of zeaxanthin-dependent photoprotection. By using time-resolved differential spectroscopy in vivo, we identified a zeaxanthin-dependent optical signal characterized by a red shift in the carotenoid peak of the triplet-minus-singlet spectrum of leaves and pigment-binding proteins. By fractionating thylakoids into their component pigment binding complexes, the signal was found to originate from the monomeric Lhcb4–6 antenna components of Photosystem II and the Lhca1–4 subunits of Photosystem I. By analyzing mutants based on their sensitivity to excess light, the red-shifted triplet-minus-singlet signal was tightly correlated with photoprotection in the chloroplasts, suggesting the signal implies an increased efficiency of zeaxanthin in controlling chlorophyll triplet formation. Fluorescence-detected magnetic resonance analysis showed a decrease in the amplitude of signals assigned to chlorophyll triplets belonging to the monomeric antenna complexes of Photosystem II upon zeaxanthin binding; however, the amplitude of carotenoid triplet signal does not increase correspondingly. Results show that the high light-induced binding of zeaxanthin to specific proteins plays a major role in enhancing photoprotection by modulating the yield of potentially dangerous chlorophyll-excited states in vivo and preventing the production of singlet oxygen. PMID:23066020

  18. Absolute technique for measuring internal electric fields in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by electroreflectance applicable to all crystal orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Shojiki, Kanako; Katayama, Ryuji; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Matsuoka, Takashi; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    The internal electric fields in III-polar (0001), N-polar (000\\bar{1}), and semipolar (10\\bar{1}1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes were investigated by electroreflectance (ER) spectroscopy. The ER spectra reflected the difference in the direction and strength of internal electric fields. Phase analyses of the ER signal revealed that only III-polar InGaN wells have the opposite direction of the internal electric field at zero bias voltage; this finding is in good agreement with the results of numerical analyses. Quantitative analyses of internal electric fields were conducted by the linewidth analyses of ER spectra. Our experimental results indicate that the absolute value of internal electric fields can be measured from ER spectra.

  19. Absolute Ly-α yields for beam foil excitations of protons between 0.3 and 2.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.

    1981-01-01

    Beam foil excitation of protons and other positive ions is a well established technique in atomic physics. It was proposed to extend this technique to exotic atoms, especially to the spectroscopy of the hitherto unobserved pionium atom, a bound state of a postive pion and an electron. A pionium atom excited into a 2p-state could for instance be created by passing slow pions through thin foils and detected by its Ly-α radiation. Since the excitation cross-sections depend only on the velocity of the particle, not on its mass, one may use proton data in the design study for such an experiment. The measurements described extend the energy interval from 0.2 to 2 MeV, and absolute cross-sections are reported. (Auth.)

  20. Curtain color and lighting program in broiler production: II. carcass and parts yield and abdominal fat deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Nascimento Abreu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate carcass and parts' yield, abdominal fat deposition and breast and foot pad blisters of broilers reared under two lighting programs (nearly continuous or intermittent in broilers houses with yellow and blue curtains. The experiment was conducted between June, 2004 and May, 2005. Six flocks were sequentially housed in four 12 × 10 m broiler houses divided into 4 pens with 200 birds each. The litter was reused six times or until flock 6. A completely randomized design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (flocks, lighting programs, curtains with four replicates per treatment was applied. A total of 288 birds were evaluated for carcass yield. Curtain color did not affect carcass or parts' yield. The effect of lighting program and curtain color on carcass yield may depend on other factors related to flock. Intermittent lighting program promoted the highest drumstick and thigh yields. Lighting programs and curtain colors did not affect abdominal fat deposition or the presence of breast and foot pad blisters.

  1. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  2. Photosynthesis, Light Use Efficiency, and Yield of Reduced-Chlorophyll Soybean Mutants in Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Rebecca A.; VanLoocke, Andy; Bernacchi, Carl J.; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Ort, Donald R.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing chlorophyll (chl) content may improve the conversion efficiency of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation into biomass and therefore yield in dense monoculture crops by improving light penetration and distribution within the canopy. The effects of reduced chl on leaf and canopy photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were studied in two reportedly robust reduced-chl soybean mutants, Y11y11 and y9y9, in comparison to the wild-type (WT) “Clark” cultivar. Both mutants were characterized during the 2012 growing season whereas only the Y11y11 mutant was characterized during the 2013 growing season. Chl deficiency led to greater rates of leaf-level photosynthesis per absorbed photon early in the growing season when mutant chl content was ∼35% of the WT, but there was no effect on photosynthesis later in the season when mutant leaf chl approached 50% of the WT. Transient benefits of reduced chl at the leaf level did not translate to improvements in canopy-level processes. Reduced pigmentation in these mutants was linked to lower water use efficiency, which may have dampened any photosynthetic benefits of reduced chl, especially since both growing seasons experienced significant drought conditions. These results, while not confirming our hypothesis or an earlier published study in which the Y11y11 mutant significantly outyielded the WT, do demonstrate that soybean significantly overinvests in chl. Despite a >50% chl reduction, there was little negative impact on biomass accumulation or yield, and the small negative effects present were likely due to pleiotropic effects of the mutation. This outcome points to an opportunity to reinvest nitrogen and energy resources that would otherwise be used in pigment-proteins into increasing biochemical photosynthetic capacity, thereby improving canopy photosynthesis and biomass production. PMID:28458677

  3. The Absolute Total Delayed Neutron Yields, Relative Abundances and Half-Lives of Delayed Neutron Groups from Neutron Induced Fission of 232Th, 233U, 236U, 239Pu and 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksaikin, V.M.; Egorov, A.S.; Mitrofanov, K.V.

    2013-10-01

    The absolute total yield, relative yields and half-lives of individual delayed neutron groups produced from fast neutron-induced fission of 232 Th, 233 U, 236 U, 239 Pu and 241 Am are measured by performing cyclic irradiations of the sample and subsequently measuring the time dependence of the delayed neutron activity decay. The data are analysed using an iterative least-squares fitting procedure to estimate the temporary delayed neutron parameters both for the 6- and 8-group models at each incident neutron energy. The improved data contribute to the continuing effort to meet the data requirements emerging from the current trends in reactor technologies, including the growing interest in fuel recycling strategies and new concepts of actinide burners. (author)

  4. Light yield and light loss coefficient of LuAG:Ce and LuAG:Pr under excitation with α- and γ-rays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sreebunpeng, K.; Chewpraditkul, W.; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 468, Jun (2017), s. 373-375 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-15569S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : light yield * light loss coefficient * LuAG:Ce * LuAG:Pr * lα/γ ratio Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  5. Intrinsic light yield and light loss coefficient of Bi.sub.4./sub.Ge.sub.3./sub.O.sub.12./sub. single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yawai, N.; Chewpraditkul, W.; Wanarak, C.; Nikl, Martin; Ratanatongchai, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 12 (2014), s. 2030-2033 ISSN 0925- 3467 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 * energy resolution * light yield * photofraction * mass attenuation coefficient Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2014

  6. Further study on different dopings into PbWO.sub.4./sub. single crystals to increase the scintillation light yield

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobayashi, M.; Usuki, Y.; Ishii, M.; Itoh, M.; Nikl, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 540, - (2005), s. 381-394 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK1010104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : lead tungstate * scintillator * light yield * doping, PET Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  7. Chemometric investigation of light-shade effects on essential oil yield and morphology of Moroccan Myrtus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadil, Mouhcine; Farah, Abdellah; Ihssane, Bouchaib; Haloui, Taoufik; Lebrazi, Sara; Zghari, Badreddine; Rachiq, Saâd

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of environmental factors such as light and shade on essential oil yield and morphological traits of Moroccan Myrtus communis, a chemometric study was conducted on 20 individuals growing under two contrasting light environments. The study of individual's parameters by principal component analysis has shown that essential oil yield, altitude, and leaves thickness were positively correlated between them and negatively correlated with plants height, leaves length and leaves width. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis have also shown that the individuals of each sampling site were grouped separately. The one-way ANOVA test has confirmed the effect of light and shade on essential oil yield and morphological parameters by showing a statistically significant difference between them from the shaded side to the sunny one. Finally, the multiple linear model containing main, interaction and quadratic terms was chosen for the modeling of essential oil yield in terms of morphological parameters. Sun plants have a small height, small leaves length and width, but they are thicker and richer in essential oil than shade plants which have shown almost the opposite. The highlighted multiple linear model can be used to predict essential oil yield in the studied area.

  8. Development of a New Class of Scintillating Fibres with Very Short Decay Time and High Light Yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borshchev, O.; Ponomarenko, S.; Surin, N.; Cavalcante, A.B.R.; Gavardi, L.; Gruber, L.; Joram, C.; Shinji, O.

    2017-01-01

    We present first studies of a new class of scintillating fibres which are characterised by very short decay times and high light yield. The fibres are based on a novel type of luminophores admixed to a polystyrene core matrix. These so-called Nanostructured Organosilicon Luminophores (NOL) have high photoluminescense quantum yield and decay times just above 1 ns. A blue and a green emitting prototype fibre with 250 μm diameter were produced and characterised in terms of attenuation length, ionisation light yield, decay time and tolerance to x-ray irradiation. The well-established Kuraray SCSF-78 and SCSF-3HF fibres were taken as references. Even though the two prototype fibres mark just an intermediate step in an ongoing development, their performance is already on a competitive level. In particular, their decay time constants are about a factor of two shorter than the fastest known fibres, which makes them promising candidates for time critical applications.

  9. Alkylation of isobutane with light olefins: Yields of alkylates for different olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, L.F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kranz, K.E.; Masters, K.R. [STRATCO, Inc., Leawood, KS (United States)

    1993-12-01

    For alkylation of isobutane with C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} olefins using sulfuric acid as the catalyst, the yields of alkylates with different olefins are compared as the operating conditions are changed. The results of recent pilot plant experiments with propylene, C{sub 4} olefins, and C{sub 5} olefins permit such comparisons. The yields expressed as weight of alkylate produced per 100 wt of olefin consumed varied from about 201:100 to 220:100. Weight ratios of the isobutane consumed per olefin consumed vary from about 101:100 to 120:100. differences of yield values are explained by the changes in the overall chemistry. The procedure employed to calculate yields with good accuracy is based on the analysis of the alkylate and the amount of conjunct polymers produced. Based on literature data, yields are also reported for alkylations using HF as the catalyst.

  10. The effect of light intensity on the growth, development and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is an important cheap source of plant protein in Nigeria. Its production is constrained by low light intensity in the southern rainforest ecology due to cloud cover during the production season. Understanding the physiological basis of performance under low light intensity is therefore central ...

  11. Cultivation of microalgae: effect of light/dark cycles on biomass yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis the efficiency of light utilization of microalgae was studied under light/dark cycles encountered in photobioreactors. Phototrophic microorganisms such as microalgae and cyanobacteria could provide valuable compounds. For many of these applications it is essential to use

  12. Light yield of an undoped CsI crystal coupled directly to a photomultiplier tube at 77 Kelvin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Soma, A.K.; Yamashita, M.

    2016-01-01

    A light yield of 20.4 ± 0.8 photoelectrons/keV was achieved with an undoped CsI crystal coupled directly to a photomultiplier tube at 77 Kelvin. This is by far the largest yield in the world achieved with CsI crystals. An energy threshold that is several times lower than the current dark matter experiments utilizing CsI(Tl) crystals may be achievable using this technique. Together with novel CsI crystal purification methods, the technique may be used to improve the sensitivities of dark matter and coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments. Also measured were the scintillation light decay constants of the undoped CsI crystal at both room temperature and 77 Kelvin. The results are consistent with those in the literature.

  13. Excitonic processes and their contribution to non-proportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; Koblov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Using the derived expression for the light yield in a scintillator, the influence of linear radiative and non-radiative (quenching) rates on the non-proportionality in light yield is studied. It is found that if the excitation created within the electron track initiated by a γ-photon incident on a scintillator, remains mainly excitonic, then non-proportionality can be minimized by inventing a scintillator material with linear radiative rate > 10 7 s -1 , linear quenching rate 6 s -1 and track radius ≥ 70 nm along with maintaining the rates of other non-linear processes as discovered earlier. If one can increase the linear radiative rate to 10 9 s -1 , then the non-proportionality can be eliminated at a track radius > 20 nm. (authors)

  14. Using Machine Learning To Predict Which Light Curves Will Yield Stellar Rotation Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüeros, Marcel; Teachey, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Using time-domain photometry to reliably measure a solar-type star's rotation period requires that its light curve have a number of favorable characteristics. The probability of recovering a period will be a non-linear function of these light curve features, which are either astrophysical in nature or set by the observations. We employ standard machine learning algorithms (artificial neural networks and random forests) to predict whether a given light curve will produce a robust rotation period measurement from its Lomb-Scargle periodogram. The algorithms are trained and validated using salient statistics extracted from both simulated light curves and their corresponding periodograms, and we apply these classifiers to the most recent Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) data release. With this pipeline, we anticipate measuring rotation periods for a significant fraction of the ∼4x108 stars in the iPTF footprint.

  15. Luminescence and light yield of (Gd2Y)(Ga3Al2)O12:Pr3+ single crystal scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertloypanyachai, Prapon; Pathumrangsan, Nichakorn; Sreebunpeng, Krittiya; Pattanaboonmee, Nakarin; Chewpraditkul, Weerapong; Yoshikawa, Akira; Kamada, Kei; Nikl, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Praseodymium-doped (Gd2Y)(Ga3Al2)O12 (GYGAG: Pr) single crystals are grown by the micro-pulling down method with different Pr concentrations. The energy transfer process between Pr3+ and Gd3+ is investigated by photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectra measurements. Photoelectron yield measurements are carried out using photomultiplier. At 662 keV γ-rays, photoelectron yield of 2520 phe/MeV obtained for the GYGAG: Pr (0.01%) sample is larger than that of 1810 phe/MeV obtained for BGO crystal. Light yield degradation for the GYGAG: Pr scintillators is presumably due to the energy transfer from 5d state of Pr3+ to 4f state of Gd3+ together with the concentration quenching in the Gd3+-sublattice.

  16. Crop yield and light/energy efficiency in a closed ecological system: Laboratory Biosphere experiments with wheat and sweet potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    Two crop growth experiments in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, were conducted from 2003 to 2004 with candidate space life support crops. Apogee wheat (Utah State University variety) was grown, planted at two densities, 400 and 800 seeds m -2. The lighting regime for the wheat crop was 16 h of light - 8 h dark at a total light intensity of around 840 μmol m -2 s -1 and 48.4 mol m -2 d -1 over 84 days. Average biomass was 1395 g m -2, 16.0 g m -2 d -1 and average seed production was 689 g m -2 and 7.9 g m -2 d -1. The less densely planted side was more productive than the denser planting, with 1634 g m -2 and 18.8 g m -2 d -1 of biomass vs. 1156 g m -2 and 13.3 g m -2 d -1; and a seed harvest of 812.3 g m -2 and 9.3 g m -2 d -1 vs. 566.5 g m -2 and 6.5 g m -2 d -1. Harvest index was 0.49 for the wheat crop. The experiment with sweet potato used TU-82-155 a compact variety developed at Tuskegee University. Light during the sweet potato experiment, on a 18 h on/6 h dark cycle, totaled 5568 total moles of light per square meter in 126 days for the sweet potatoes, or an average of 44.2 mol m -2 d -1. Temperature regime was 28 ± 3 °C day/22 ± 4 °C night. Sweet potato tuber yield was 39.7 kg wet weight, or an average of 7.4 kg m -2, and 7.7 kg dry weight of tubers since dry weight was about 18.6% wet weight. Average per day production was 58.7 g m -2 d -1 wet weight and 11.3 g m -2 d -1. For the wheat, average light efficiency was 0.34 g biomass per mole, and 0.17 g seed per mole. The best area of wheat had an efficiency of light utilization of 0.51 g biomass per mole and 0.22 g seed per mole. For the sweet potato crop, light efficiency per tuber wet weight was 1.33 g mol -1 and 0.34 g dry weight of tuber per mole of light. The best area of tuber production had 1.77 g mol -1 wet weight and 0.34 g mol -1 of light dry weight. The Laboratory Biosphere experiment's light efficiency was somewhat higher than the USU field results but

  17. Light dependence of quantum yields for PSII charge separation and oxygen evolution in eucaryotic algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flameling, I.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum yields of photosystem II (PSII) charge separation (Phi(P)) and oxygen production (Phi(O2)) were determined by simultaneous measurements of oxygen production and variable fluorescence in four different aquatic microalgae representing three different taxonomic groups: the freshwater alga

  18. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  19. In high-light-acclimated coffee plants the metabolic machinery is adjusted to avoid oxidative stress rather than to benefit from extra light enhancement in photosynthetic yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C V Martins

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea arabica L. has been traditionally considered as shade-demanding, although it performs well without shade and even out-yields shaded coffee. Here we investigated how coffee plants adjust their metabolic machinery to varying light supply and whether these adjustments are supported by a reprogramming of the primary and secondary metabolism. We demonstrate that coffee plants are able to adjust its metabolic machinery to high light conditions through marked increases in its antioxidant capacity associated with enhanced consumption of reducing equivalents. Photorespiration and alternative pathways are suggested to be key players in reductant-consumption under high light conditions. We also demonstrate that both primary and secondary metabolism undergo extensive reprogramming under high light supply, including depression of the levels of intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle that were accompanied by an up-regulation of a range of amino acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, polyamines and flavonoids such as kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. When taken together, the entire dataset is consistent with these metabolic alterations being primarily associated with oxidative stress avoidance rather than representing adjustments in order to facilitate the plants from utilizing the additional light to improve their photosynthetic performance.

  20. In high-light-acclimated coffee plants the metabolic machinery is adjusted to avoid oxidative stress rather than to benefit from extra light enhancement in photosynthetic yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Samuel C V; Araújo, Wagner L; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R; DaMatta, Fábio M

    2014-01-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) has been traditionally considered as shade-demanding, although it performs well without shade and even out-yields shaded coffee. Here we investigated how coffee plants adjust their metabolic machinery to varying light supply and whether these adjustments are supported by a reprogramming of the primary and secondary metabolism. We demonstrate that coffee plants are able to adjust its metabolic machinery to high light conditions through marked increases in its antioxidant capacity associated with enhanced consumption of reducing equivalents. Photorespiration and alternative pathways are suggested to be key players in reductant-consumption under high light conditions. We also demonstrate that both primary and secondary metabolism undergo extensive reprogramming under high light supply, including depression of the levels of intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle that were accompanied by an up-regulation of a range of amino acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, polyamines and flavonoids such as kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. When taken together, the entire dataset is consistent with these metabolic alterations being primarily associated with oxidative stress avoidance rather than representing adjustments in order to facilitate the plants from utilizing the additional light to improve their photosynthetic performance.

  1. Light- and water-use efficiency model synergy: a revised look at crop yield estimation for agricultural decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M.; Tu, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    Large-area crop yield models (LACMs) are commonly employed to address climate-driven changes in crop yield and inform policy makers concerned with climate change adaptation. Production efficiency models (PEMs), a class of LACMs that rely on the conservative response of carbon assimilation to incoming solar radiation absorbed by a crop contingent on environmental conditions, have increasingly been used over large areas with remote sensing spectral information to improve the spatial resolution of crop yield estimates and address important data gaps. Here, we present a new PEM that combines model principles from the remote sensing-based crop yield and evapotranspiration (ET) model literature. One of the major limitations of PEMs is that they are evaluated using data restricted in both space and time. To overcome this obstacle, we first validated the model using 2009-2014 eddy covariance flux tower Gross Primary Production data in a rice field in the Central Valley of California- a critical agro-ecosystem of the United States. This evaluation yielded a Willmot's D and mean absolute error of 0.81 and 5.24 g CO2/d, respectively, using CO2, leaf area, temperature, and moisture constraints from the MOD16 ET model, Priestley-Taylor ET model, and the Global Production Efficiency Model (GLOPEM). A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that the model was most sensitive to the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) input, followed by Photosynthetically Active Radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and air temperature. The model will now be evaluated using 30 x 30m (Landsat resolution) biomass transects developed in 2011 and 2012 from spectroradiometric and other non-destructive in situ metrics for several cotton, maize, and rice fields across the Central Valley. Finally, the model will be driven by Daymet and MODIS data over the entire State of California and compared with county-level crop yield statistics. It is anticipated that the new model will facilitate agro-climatic decision-making in

  2. Optimization of {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) Scintillator Light Yield Using Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yehuda-Zada, Y. [Nuclear Research Center Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Ben-Gurion University (Israel); Pritchard, K.; Ziegler, J.B.; Cooksey, C.; Siebein, K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Jackson, M.; Hurlbut, C. [Eljen Technology, Sweetwater Texas (United States); Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y.; Maliszewskyj, N.C. [Nuclear Research Center Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Ibberson, R.M.; Majkrzak, C.F. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Orion, Y. [Ben-Gurion University (Israel); Osovizky, A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Rotem Industries Ltd, Rotem Industrial Park (Israel); University of Maryland (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Neutrons provide an effective tool to probe materials structure. Neutron diffraction is a method to determine the atomic and magnetic structure of a material based on neutron scattering. By this method a collimated incident beam of thermal neutrons heat the examined sample and based on the obtained diffraction pattern information on the structure of the material is provided. Research for developing a novel cold neutron detector for Chromatic Analysis Neutron Diffractometer Or Reflectometer (CANDOR) is underway at the NIST center for neutron research. The system unique design is aimed to provide over ten times fold faster analysis of materials than conventional system. In order to achieve the fast analysis a large number of neutron detectors is required. A key design constraint for this detector is the thickness of the neutron sensitive element. This is met using {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillation material with embedded wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers conducting scintillation light to silicon photomultiplier photo-sensors. The detector sensitivity is determined by both the neutron capture probability ({sup 6}Li density) and the detectable light output produced by the ZnS(Ag) ionization, the latter of which is hindered by the fluorescence absorption of the scintillation light by the ZnS. Tradeoffs between the neutron capture probability, stimulated light production and light attenuation for determining the optimal stoichiometry of the {sup 6}LiF and ZnS(Ag) as well as the volume ratio of scintillator and fiber. Simulations performed using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo package were made in order to optimize the detector design. GEANT4 enables the investigation of the neutron interaction with the detector, the ionization process and the light transfer process following the nuclear process. The series of conversions required for this detector were modelled: - A cold neutron enters the sensor and is captured by {sup 6}Li in the scintillator mixture ({sup 6}Li (n,α) {sup 3}H

  3. Light yield as a function of gas pressure and electric field in gas scintillation proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favata, F.; Smith, A.; Bavdaz, M.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the dependence of the scintillation light output for Xe on gas pressure in the range 0.14-1.4 bar, using a gas scintillation proportional counter, in different experimental configurations. We have compared our work with that of previous workers, and have shown that both our results and the results of previous authors are compatible with the intrinsic light output being independent of gas pressure, with any observed dependence being a pure experimental effect due to the spectral response of the various UV detectors used. We also use our experimental data for determining the ratio between the cross section of the Xe 2 ** +Xe→Xe 2 * +Xe reaction and the rate of the Xe 2 ** →2Xe+γ UV reaction. (orig.)

  4. Productive common light chain libraries yield diverse panels of high affinity bispecific antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blarcom, Thomas; Melton, Zea; Cheung, Wai Ling; Wagstrom, Chris; McDonough, Dan; Valle Oseguera, Cendy; Ding, Sheng; Rossi, Andrea; Potluri, Shobha; Sundar, Purnima; Sirota, Marina; Yan, Yu; Jones, Jeffrey; Roe-Zurz, Zygy; Srivatsa Srinivasan, Surabhi; Zhai, Wenwu; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The commercial success of bispecific antibodies generally has been hindered by the complexities associated with generating appropriate molecules for both research scale and large scale manufacturing purposes. Bispecific IgG (BsIgG) based on two antibodies that use an identical common light chain can be combined with a minimal set of Fc mutations to drive heavy chain heterodimerization in order to address these challenges. However, the facile generation of common light chain antibodies with properties similar to traditional monoclonal antibodies has not been demonstrated and they have only been used sparingly. Here, we describe the design of a synthetic human antibody library based on common light chains to generate antibodies with biochemical and biophysical properties that are indistinguishable to traditional therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. We used this library to generate diverse panels of well-behaved, high affinity antibodies toward a variety of epitopes across multiple antigens, including mouse 4-1BB, a therapeutically important T cell costimulatory receptor. Over 200 BsIgG toward 4-1BB were generated using an automated purification method we developed that enables milligram-scale production of BsIgG. This approach allowed us to identify antibodies with a wide range of agonistic activity that are being used to further investigate the therapeutic potential of antibodies targeting one or more epitopes of 4-1BB. PMID:29227213

  5. Effect of Salinity Stress and Iron Spraying on Leaf Area Index, Light Absorption and Relations with Yield in Sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Shariatmadari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress results to decreasing leaf area index (LAI and light absorption in plant leading in yield decrease. In order to study effect of salinity and iron sulphate on LAI, absorbed light percentage and yield of sunflower (Euroflor cultivar, an experiment was carried out as split plot based on complete randomized block design with four replications in the Research Field of University of Birjand on 2009. In this experiment main plots were different levels of irrigation with saline water and subplot was levels of Iron Sulphate. Results showed that with decreased LAI and light absorption, yield was negatively responded to salinity. One way for recovery of light absorption in salinity condition is spraying iron sulphate. The Highest light absorption percentage up to 70.34% was obtained in control condition with the LAI of 3. In this condition yield of sunflower was 4250 kg/ha. Iron sulphate spraying reduced the negative effects of salinity on LAI.

  6. Observed light yield of scintillation pixels: Extending the two-ray model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantorski, Igor; Jurkowski, Jacek; Drozdowski, Winicjusz

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we propose an extended, two dimensional model describing the propagation of scintillation photons inside a cuboid crystal until they reach a PMT window. In the simplest approach the model considers two main reasons for light losses: standard absorption obeying the classical Lambert-Beer law and non-ideal reflectivity of the "mummy" covering formed by several layers of Teflon tape wrapping the sample. Results of the model calculations are juxtaposed with experimental data as well as with predictions of an earlier, one dimensional model.

  7. Study and optimization of the light-yield of a triple-GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Campagnola, Roberto; Mazzitelli, Giovanni

    The high-resolution tracking of low energy release particles had a remarkable development in recent years and will give a crucial contribution in different fields, from medical uses to those in dark matter search. Characteristics, such as high space and time resolution, low material budget, large volumes, low costs, make gas detectors ideal candidates for this type of devices. A very promising technique involves the optical reading of the light produced by the de-excitation of gas molecules during the processes of electron multiplication. This type of detector has been made possible thanks to the great progresses achieved in last years in the performance in micro pattern gas detector and in the evolution of the CMOS technology which led to the production of sensors able of offering high sensitivity and granularity combined with a very low noise level. In this thesis the performance of a prototype where the light is produced through the multiplication of electrons in a triple GEM structure and acquired by a c...

  8. A comprehensive & systematic study of coincidence time resolution and light yield using scintillators of different size, wrapping and doping

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, E.; Geraci, F.; Ghezzi, A.; Gundacker, S.; Hillemanns, H.; Jarron, P.; Meyer, T.; Paganoni, M.; Pauwels, K.; Pizzichemi, M.; Lecoq, P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last years interest in using time-of-flight-based Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET) systems has significantly increased. High time resolution in such PET systems is a powerful tool to improve signal to noise ratio and therefore to allow smaller exposure rates for patients as well as faster image reconstruction. Improvement in coincidence time resolution (CTR) in PET systems to the level of 200ps FWHM requires the optimization of all parameters in the photon detection chain influencing the time resolution: crystal, photodetector and readout electronics. After reviewing the factors influencing the time resolution of scintillators, we will present in this paper the light yield and CTR obtained for different scintillator types (LSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce, LGSO:Ce, LSO:Ce:0.4Ca, LuAG:Ce, LuAG:Pr) with different cross-sections, lengths and reflectors. Whereas light yield measurements were made with a classical PMT, all CTR tests were performed with Hamamatsu-MPPCs or SiPMs S10931-050P. The CTR measurements were ...

  9. Decreased TK activity alters growth, yield and tolerance to low temperature and low light intensity in transgenic cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Huangai; Dong, Xubing; Wu, Guoxiu; Wang, Meiling; Ai, Xizhen

    2015-02-01

    Four CsTK antisense transgenic cucumber plants were obtained. Decreased TK activity decreased the photosynthetic rate, seed germination rate, growth yield, and the tolerance to low temperature and weak light stress. Transketolase (TK, EC 2.2.1.1) is a key enzyme in the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (Calvin cycle). A cDNA fragment (526 bp) encoding transketolase was cloned from cucumber plants (Cucumis sativa L. cv 'Jinyou 3') by RT-PCR. The antisense expression [(PBI-CsTK(-)] vector containing the CsTK gene fragment was constructed. The resulting plasmid was introduced into the cucumber inbred lines '08-1' using the agrobacterium-mediated method, and four antisense transgenic cucumber plants were obtained. Decreased CsTK expression either unaltered or slightly increased the mRNA abundance and activities of the other main enzymes in the Calvin cycle, however, it decreased the TK activity and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in antisense transgenic cucumber leaves. Antisense plants showed decreases in the growth, ratio of female flowers and yield compared with the wild-type (WT) plants. The decrease in Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) and the increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) were greater in antisense transgenic plants than in WT plants under low temperature (5 °C) and low light intensity (100 μmol m(-2) s(-1)).

  10. The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on light interception and dry matter yield in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad reza asghari poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on canopy light interception and on flowering was investigated in hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cv. ‘Kompolti’ Crop grown at initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 at the Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 at the Shirvan. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied before and 45 days after sowing at a rates of 50 and 200 kg/ha at the Mashhad, and 50, 150 and 250 kg/ha at the Shirvan. Rate of canopy development increased with increasing plant density and nitrogen fertilizer in both sites. At the Mashhad, interception of 90% of light was attained at 380 to 665 degree days (base 2°C from emergence for the crop grown at different densities. At Shirvan, rate of canopy development was slower. Interception of 90% of light was attained at 586 degree days from emergence for the crop grown at 30 plants/m2 and at 712 degree days for the crop grown at 150 plants/m2, probably as a result of cold weather. Nitrogen fertilizer in a similar way as plant density increased light interception. Maximum light interception did not depend on plant density and nitrogen fertilizer and was about 95%. In both sites, the flowering date was later with increasing plant density. Dates of 75% flowering for the initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 in Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 in Shirvan were, respectively 26 August, 1, 6, 6, 11 and 12 September. Independent of plant density, canopy light interception started to decline at about 150 degree days after flowering, reaching 58 to 75% at about 700 degree days post-flowering. Morphological characteristics at both sites were highly correlated with plant sexual, plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. Highest stem, leaf and inflorescence yield were obtained in Mashhad at 250 plant/m-2 and in Shirvan at 150 plant m-2 when 200 kg N ha-1 in Mashhad and 250 kg N/ha in Shirvan was used. Above ground dry matter increased at both sites with increasing plant density and

  11. Effect of Salinity Stress and Iron Spraying on Leaf Area Index, Light Absorption and Relations with Yield in Sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M.H Shariatmadari; G.R Zamani; M.H Sayari

    2012-01-01

    Salinity stress results to decreasing leaf area index (LAI) and light absorption in plant leading in yield decrease. In order to study effect of salinity and iron sulphate on LAI, absorbed light percentage and yield of sunflower (Euroflor cultivar), an experiment was carried out as split plot based on complete randomized block design with four replications in the Research Field of University of Birjand on 2009. In this experiment main plots were different levels of irrigation with saline wate...

  12. Nighttime Supplemental LED Inter-lighting Improves Growth and Yield of Single-Truss Tomatoes by Enhancing Photosynthesis in Both Winter and Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Fasil T; Lu, Na; Shiina, Kouta; Maruo, Toru; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouses with sophisticated environmental control systems, or so-called plant factories with solar light, enable growers to achieve high yields of produce with desirable qualities. In a greenhouse crop with high planting density, low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) at the lower leaves tends to limit plant growth, especially in the winter when the solar altitude and PPFD at the canopy are low and day length is shorter than in summer. Therefore, providing supplemental lighting to the lower canopy can increase year-round productivity. However, supplemental lighting can be expensive. In some places, the cost of electricity is lower at night, but the effect of using supplemental light at night has not yet been examined. In this study, we examined the effects of supplemental LED inter-lighting (LED inter-lighting hereafter) during the daytime or nighttime on photosynthesis, growth, and yield of single-truss tomato plants both in winter and summer. We used LED inter-lighting modules with combined red and blue light to illuminate lower leaves right after the first anthesis. The PPFD of this light was 165 μmol m(-2) s(-1) measured at 10 cm from the LED module. LED inter-lighting was provided from 4:00 am to 4:00 pm for the daytime treatments and from 10:00 pm to 10:00 am for the nighttime treatments. Plants exposed only to solar light were used as controls. Daytime LED inter-lighting increased the photosynthetic capacity of middle and lower canopy leaves, which significantly increased yield by 27% in winter; however, photosynthetic capacity and yield were not significantly increased during summer. Nighttime LED inter-lighting increased photosynthetic capacity in both winter and summer, and yield increased by 24% in winter and 12% in summer. In addition, nighttime LED inter-lighting in winter significantly increased the total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content of the tomato fruits, by 20 and 25%, respectively. Use of nighttime LED inter-lighting was also

  13. Nighttime Supplemental LED Inter-lighting Improves Growth and Yield of Single-Truss Tomatoes by Enhancing Photosynthesis in Both Winter and Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Fasil T.; Lu, Na; Shiina, Kouta; Maruo, Toru; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouses with sophisticated environmental control systems, or so-called plant factories with solar light, enable growers to achieve high yields of produce with desirable qualities. In a greenhouse crop with high planting density, low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) at the lower leaves tends to limit plant growth, especially in the winter when the solar altitude and PPFD at the canopy are low and day length is shorter than in summer. Therefore, providing supplemental lighting to the lower canopy can increase year-round productivity. However, supplemental lighting can be expensive. In some places, the cost of electricity is lower at night, but the effect of using supplemental light at night has not yet been examined. In this study, we examined the effects of supplemental LED inter-lighting (LED inter-lighting hereafter) during the daytime or nighttime on photosynthesis, growth, and yield of single-truss tomato plants both in winter and summer. We used LED inter-lighting modules with combined red and blue light to illuminate lower leaves right after the first anthesis. The PPFD of this light was 165 μmol m-2 s-1 measured at 10 cm from the LED module. LED inter-lighting was provided from 4:00 am to 4:00 pm for the daytime treatments and from 10:00 pm to 10:00 am for the nighttime treatments. Plants exposed only to solar light were used as controls. Daytime LED inter-lighting increased the photosynthetic capacity of middle and lower canopy leaves, which significantly increased yield by 27% in winter; however, photosynthetic capacity and yield were not significantly increased during summer. Nighttime LED inter-lighting increased photosynthetic capacity in both winter and summer, and yield increased by 24% in winter and 12% in summer. In addition, nighttime LED inter-lighting in winter significantly increased the total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content of the tomato fruits, by 20 and 25%, respectively. Use of nighttime LED inter-lighting was also more

  14. Structural, mechanical and light yield characterisation of heat treated LYSO:Ce single crystals for medical imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengucci, P; Auffray, E; Barucca, G; Cecchi, C; Chipaux, R; Cousson, A; Davì, F; Di Vara, N; Rinaldi, D; Santecchia, E

    2015-01-01

    Five single crystals of cerium-doped lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO:Ce) grown by the Czochralski method were submitted to structural characterisation by X-ray (XRD) and neutron (ND) diffraction, scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDS). The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), the Young Modulus (YM) and the Light Yield (LY) of the samples were also measured in order to correlate the mechanical and the optical behaviour of the crystals with the characteristics of their microstructure. Two of the samples analysed were also heat treated at 300 °C for 10 h to evidence possible variations induced by the temperature in the optical and mechanical response of the crystals. Results showed that the mean compositional variations evidenced by the structural analyses do not affect the mechanical and optical behaviour of the samples. On the contrary, the thermal treatment could induce the formation of coherent spherical particles (size 10 to 15 nm), not unifo...

  15. LIGHT-WEIGHT MULTISPECTRAL UAV SENSORS AND THEIR CAPABILITIES FOR PREDICTING GRAIN YIELD AND DETECTING PLANT DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nebiker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the performance of new light-weight multispectral sensors for micro UAV and their application to selected tasks in agronomical research and agricultural practice. The investigations are based on a series of flight campaigns in 2014 and 2015 covering a number of agronomical test sites with experiments on rape, barley, onion, potato and other crops. In our sensor comparison we included a high-end multispectral multiSPEC 4C camera with bandpass colour filters and reference channel in zenith direction and a low-cost, consumer-grade Canon S110 NIR camera with Bayer pattern colour filters. Ground-based reference measurements were obtained using a terrestrial hyperspectral field spectrometer. The investigations show that measurements with the high-end system consistently match very well with ground-based field spectrometer measurements with a mean deviation of just 0.01-0.04 NDVI values. The low-cost system, while delivering better spatial resolutions, expressed significant biases. The sensors were subsequently used to address selected agronomical questions. These included crop yield estimation in rape and barley and plant disease detection in potato and onion cultivations. High levels of correlation between different vegetation indices and reference yield measurements were obtained for rape and barley. In case of barley, the NDRE index shows an average correlation of 87% with reference yield, when species are taken into account. With high geometric resolutions and respective GSDs of down to 2.5 cm the effects of a thrips infestation in onion could be analysed and potato blight was successfully detected at an early stage of infestation.

  16. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Structural, mechanical and light yield characterisation of heat treated LYSO:Ce single crystals for medical imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengucci, P., E-mail: p.mengucci@univpm.it [Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); André, G. [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, CEA-CNRS, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Auffray, E. [Department PH-CMX CERN, Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Barucca, G. [Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Cecchi, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Chipaux, R. [CEA DSM/IRFU/SEDI, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Cousson, A. [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, CEA-CNRS, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Davì, F. [Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Di Vara, N. [Department PH-CMX CERN, Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rinaldi, D.; Santecchia, E. [Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2015-06-11

    Five single crystals of cerium-doped lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO:Ce) grown by the Czochralski method were submitted to structural characterisation by X-ray (XRD) and neutron (ND) diffraction, scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDS). The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), the Young Modulus (YM) and the Light Yield (LY) of the samples were also measured in order to correlate the mechanical and the optical behaviour of the crystals with the characteristics of their microstructure. Two of the samples analysed were also heat treated at 300 °C for 10 h to evidence possible variations induced by the temperature in the optical and mechanical response of the crystals. Results showed that the mean compositional variations evidenced by the structural analyses do not affect the mechanical and optical behaviour of the samples. On the contrary, the thermal treatment could induce the formation of coherent spherical particles (size 10 to 15 nm), not uniformly distributed inside the sample, that strongly reduce the UTS and YM values, but it does not affect the optical response of the crystal. This latter result was attributed to the low value of the heating temperature (300 °C) that is not sufficiently high to induce annealing of the oxygen vacancies traps that are responsible of the deterioration of the scintillation properties of the LYSO:Ce crystals. This study was carried out in the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration (CCC)

  19. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. "Batavia" (green) and cv. "Lollo Rossa" (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m(-2) s(-1) for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent.

  20. The light-yield response of a NE-213 liquid-scintillator detector measured using 2–6 MeV tagged neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherzinger, J.; Al Jebali, R.; Annand, J.R.M.; Fissum, K.G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Kanaki, K.; Lundin, M.; Nilsson, B.; Perrey, H.; Rosborg, A.; Svensson, H.

    2016-01-01

    The response of a NE-213 liquid-scintillator detector has been measured using tagged neutrons from 2 to 6 MeV originating from an Am/Be neutron source. The neutron energies were determined using the time-of-flight technique. Pulse-shape discrimination was employed to discern between gamma-rays and neutrons. The behavior of both the fast (35 ns) and the combined fast and slow (475 ns) components of the neutron scintillation-light pulses were studied. Three different prescriptions were used to relate the neutron maximum energy-transfer edges to the corresponding recoil-proton scintillation-light yields, and the results were compared to simulations. The overall normalizations of parametrizations which predict the fast or total light yield of the scintillation pulses were also tested. Our results agree with both existing data and existing parametrizations. We observe a clear sensitivity to the portion and length of the neutron scintillation-light pulse considered.

  1. Historical gains in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) seed yield are driven by linear increases in light interception, energy conversion, and partitioning efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Robert P; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Cary, Troy R; Diers, Brian W; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown leguminous crop and an important source of protein and oil for food and feed. Soybean yields have increased substantially throughout the past century, with yield gains widely attributed to genetic advances and improved cultivars as well as advances in farming technology and practice. Yet, the physiological mechanisms underlying the historical improvements in soybean yield have not been studied rigorously. In this 2-year experiment, 24 soybean cultivars released between 1923 and 2007 were grown in field trials. Physiological improvements in the efficiencies by which soybean canopies intercepted light (εi), converted light energy into biomass (εc), and partitioned biomass into seed (εp) were examined. Seed yield increased by 26.5kg ha(-1) year(-1), and the increase in seed yield was driven by improvements in all three efficiencies. Although the time to canopy closure did not change in historical soybean cultivars, extended growing seasons and decreased lodging in more modern lines drove improvements in εi. Greater biomass production per unit of absorbed light resulted in improvements in εc. Over 84 years of breeding, soybean seed biomass increased at a rate greater than total aboveground biomass, resulting in an increase in εp. A better understanding of the physiological basis for yield gains will help to identify targets for soybean improvement in the future. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D.; Wagner, Trixie

    2013-01-01

    Differences and quotients can be defined using Friedel pairs of reflections and applied in refinement to enable absolute structure to be determined precisely even for light atom crystal structures. Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement

  3. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  4. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  5. Decoherence at absolute zero

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Supurna

    2005-01-01

    We present an analytical study of the loss of quantum coherence at absolute zero. Our model consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators at absolute zero. We find that for an Ohmic bath, the offdiagonal elements of the density matrix in the position representation decay as a power law in time at late times. This slow loss of coherence in the quantum domain is qualitatively different from the exponential decay observed in studies of high temperature envir...

  6. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  7. Light yield of (Lu,Y,Gd).sub.3./sub.Al.sub.2./sub.Ga.sub.3./sub.O.sub.12./sub.:Ce garnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průša, Petr; Kamada, K.; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, A.; Mareš, Jiří A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, SEP (2013), s. 62-65 ISSN 1350-4487. [International Conference on Luminescent Detectors and Transformers of Ionizing Radiation 2012 /8./, LUMDETR 2012. Halle (Saale), 10.09.2012-14.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805; GA MŠk LH12150 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * garnet * light yield * hybrid photomultiplier Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2013

  8. Ce3+ activated LaBr3?xIx : High-light-yield and fast-response mixed halide scintillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birowosuto, M.D.; Dorenbos, P.; Krämer, K.W.; Güdel, H.U.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we report the scintillation properties of LaBr3?xIx:5%Ce3+ with four different compositions of x, i.e., x = 0.75, 1.5, 2, and 2.25. Radioluminescence spectra reveal a shift of the emission wavelength with the LaBr3 to LaI3 ratio. LaBr1.5I1.5:5%Ce3+ shows the highest scintillation light yield

  9. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  10. Phenotyping of field-grown wheat in the UK highlights contribution of light response of photosynthesis and flag leaf longevity to grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Andralojc, P John; Scales, Joanna C; Driever, Steven M; Mead, Andrew; Lawson, Tracy; Raines, Christine A; Parry, Martin A J

    2017-06-15

    Improving photosynthesis is a major target for increasing crop yields and ensuring food security. Phenotyping of photosynthesis in the field is critical to understand the limits to crop performance in agricultural settings. Yet, detailed phenotyping of photosynthetic traits is relatively scarce in field-grown wheat, with previous studies focusing on narrow germplasm selections. Flag leaf photosynthetic traits, crop development, and yield traits were compared in 64 field-grown wheat cultivars in the UK. Pre-anthesis and post-anthesis photosynthetic traits correlated significantly and positively with grain yield and harvest index (HI). These traits included net CO2 assimilation measured at ambient CO2 concentrations and a range of photosynthetic photon flux densities, and traits associated with the light response of photosynthesis. In most cultivars, photosynthesis decreased post-anthesis compared with pre-anthesis, and this was associated with decreased Rubisco activity and abundance. Heritability of photosynthetic traits suggests that phenotypic variation can be used to inform breeding programmes. Specific cultivars were identified with traits relevant to breeding for increased crop yields in the UK: pre-anthesis photosynthesis, post-anthesis photosynthesis, light response of photosynthesis, and Rubisco amounts. The results indicate that flag leaf longevity and operating photosynthetic activity in the canopy can be further exploited to maximize grain filling in UK bread wheat. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...

  12. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Approach to Absolute Zero 0.3 K. to a Few Milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 6-14. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/06/0006-0014 ...

  13. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Approach to Absolute Zero From 4. 22 K. to 0. 3 K. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0008-0016 ...

  14. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  15. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  16. Versatile spectrophotometer for photosynthesis (light-induced changes in absorbance and fluorescence yield, circular and linear dichroism) and other biophysical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Bacon; Breeze, Robert H.; Dolan, Edward; Vore, Duane

    1985-01-01

    The construction of a versatile, single-beam spectrophotometer expanded from a previously reported circular dichrometer utilizing an elasto-optic modulator (EOM) for producing circular polarization, is described. The new spectrophotometer is capable of measuring circular dichroism as well as linear dichroism and light-induced changes in absorbance and fluorescence yield, the latter being two of the most commonly measured properties in photosynthesis research. The use of an EOM, along with a phase-sensitive detector, affords high sensitivity and at the same time, in conjuction with a mechanical phosphoroscopic device, a high degree of immunity from artifacts in studies employing actinic light. A description is given of the generation and use of timing signals essential for control and signal processing. Its performance is illustrated by examples drawn from light-induced absorbance and fluorescence-yield changes associated with photosynthetic electron transport and changes in redox state of electron carriers. This photometer, with very little modification, may also be used to perform a host of other types of measurements.

  17. Characterization of plastic scintillators for detection of radioactivity: Light yield, Time decay measurements and Neutron/γ Pulse Shape Discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montbarbon, E.; Pansu, R.B.; Hamel, M.; Coulon, R.

    2015-07-01

    Since Helium-3 shortage, organic scintillators play a major role in neutron detection. CEA LIST decided to focus on plastic scintillators. By definition, a plastic scintillator is a radio-luminescent polymer; this means that it emits light after interaction with an ionizing radiation. A platform was developed to characterize lab-made prepared scintillators and to compare them with commercial scintillators. Three physicochemical criteria are determined with this unique platform. (authors)

  18. Precise measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of nitrogen in air. Consequences on the detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays; Mesure precise du rendement absolu de la fluorescence de l'azote dans l'air. Consequences sur la detection des rayons cosmiques d'ultra-haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefeuvre, G

    2006-07-15

    The study of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (E > 10{sup 20} eV) requires to determine the energy with much more precision than what is currently achieved. The shower of particles created in the atmosphere can be detected either by sampling particle on the ground, or by detecting the fluorescence induced by the excitation of nitrogen by shower electrons. At present, the measurement of the fluorescence is the simplest and the most reliable method, since it does not call upon hadronic physics laws at extreme energies, a field still inaccessible to accelerators. The precise knowledge of the conversion factor between deposited energy and the number of fluorescence photons produced (the yield) is thus essential. Up to now, it has been determined with an accuracy of 15 % only. This main goal of this work is to measure this yield to better than 5 per cent. To do this, 1 MeV electrons from a radioactive source excite nitrogen of the air. The accuracy has been reached thanks to the implementation of a new method for the absolute calibration of the photomultipliers detecting the photons, to better than 2 per cent. The fluorescence yield, measured and normalized to 0.85 MeV, 760 mmHg and 15 Celsius degrees, is (4.23 {+-} 0.20) photons per meter, or (20.46 {+-} 0.98) photons per deposited MeV. In addition, and for the first time, the absolute fluorescence spectrum of nitrogen excited by a source has been measured with an optical grating spectrometer. (author)

  19. Influence of harvest time and frequency on light interception and biomass yield of festulolium and tall fescue cultivated on a peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2016-01-01

    tIn this study, we report efficiencies of light capture and biomass yield of festulolium and tall fescue cul-tivated on a riparian fen in Denmark under different harvesting managements. Green biomass targetedfor biogas production was harvested either as two cuts (2C) or three cuts (3C) in a year......-early and 2C-mid managementsdeclined faster than in 2C-late and 3C managements in the second growth period and thus growingperiod IPAR of 2C-early and 2C-mid declined by 8% as compared to 3C management where IPAR was925 MJ m−2. Annual festulolium dry matter (DM) yield in 2C-early and 2C-mid managements...

  20. Light interception, utilisation and conversion efficiencies and yield performance of sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, grown from IBA-treated basal and untreated terminal vine cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nzima, M.D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Sweet potatoes grown from IBA-treated basal vines produced a significantly higher total yield of 28.99 t ha -1 and marketable tubers 23.54 t ha -1 , than those grown from untreated terminal vine cuttings which produced 22.43 and 17.46 t ha -1 of total and marketable tubers respectively. Field measurements indicated that IBA-treated basal vine plants were significantly less efficient in light interception, yet this treatment produced a higher proportion (31.20%) of large tubers, compared with untreated terminal vine plants (14.64%). Untreated terminal vine plants intercepted 95% of the incident solar radiation three weeks earlier than IBA-treated basal vine plants. However, the treatment increased the efficiency of converting light energy to chemical energy (Ec%) and of utilising this chemical energy to produce plant dry matter (Eu%) through an increased 'sink' demand. The practical implications of the results and future research are outlined

  1. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...... to the lasso. The lasso is applied both directly as a calibration method and as a method to select important variables/wave lengths. It is demonstrated that the lasso algorithm, in general, leads to parameter estimates of which some are zero while others are quite large (compared to e.g. the traditional PLS...

  2. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    away from this central location. An oval shaped zero uplift isoline tracks the general western and northern coastline of Norway and the Kola peninsula. It returns southwest through Russian Karelia and touches the southern tip of Sweden and northern Denmark. The uplift area (as measured by present day...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... acquired by IfE (FG5-220), FGI (FG5-221), and UMB (FG5-226). New absolute gravity stations were established by the national mapping agencies in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The total number of prepared sites in Fennoscandia is now about 30. Most of them are co-located with permanent GPS, for many of which...

  3. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  4. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  5. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Light is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind light, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  6. Phosphorescence quantum yield determination with time-gated fluorimeter and Tb(III)-acetylacetonate as luminescence reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► Procedure for absolute phosphorescence quantum yield measurement is described. ► Experimental setup for absolute luminescence quantum yield standard calibration. ► Tb(acac){sub 3} proposed as phosphorescence quantum yield reference standard. ► Luminescence quantum yield of Tb(acac){sub 3} in cyclohexane measured. ► Luminescence lifetime of Tb(acac){sub 3} in cyclohexane measured. - Abstract: Phosphorescence quantum yield measurements of fluorescent and phosphorescent samples require the use of time-gated fluorimeters in order to discriminate against the fluorescence contribution. As reference standard a non-fluorescent luminescent compound is needed for absolute phosphorescence quantum yield determination. For this purpose the luminescence behavior of the rare earth chelate terbium(III)-acetylacetonate (Tb(acac){sub 3}) was studied (determination of luminescence quantum yield and luminescence lifetime). The luminescence quantum yield of Tb(acac){sub 3} was determined by using an external light source and operating the fluorimeter in chemo/bioluminescence mode with a fluorescent dye (rhodamine 6G in methanol) as reference standard. A procedure is developed for absolute luminescence (phosphorescence) quantum yield determination of samples under investigation with a time-gated fluorimeter using a non-fluorescent luminescent compound of known luminescence quantum yield and luminescence lifetime.

  7. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  8. Absolute quantum yield measurements for the formation of oxygen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... under collision-free conditions by vacuum ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence. The use of narrow-band probe laser radiation, generated via resonant third-order sum-difference frequency conversion of dye laser radiation in Krypton, allowed the measurement of the nascent O(3P=2,1,0) fine-structure state distribution: ...

  9. Absolute quantum yield measurements for the formation of oxygen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ment TOF apparatus, Felder et al12,13 obtained a SO vibrational state distribution which was found to be in good agreement with the distribution measured by Kanamori et al in the gas-phase photodissociation study using diode laser spectroscopy for SO detection.14. The latter SO vibrational distributions, however, were ...

  10. Construction of covariance matrix for absolute fission yield data measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin; Sun Zhengjun

    1999-01-01

    The purpose is to provide a tool for experimenters and evaluators to conveniently construct the covariance based on the information of the experiment. The method used is so called as parameter analysis one. The basic method and formula are given in the first section, a practical program is introduced in the second section, and finally, some examples are given in the third section

  11. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  12. Thallium magnesium chloride: A high light yield, large effective atomic number, intrinsically activated crystalline scintillator for X-ray and gamma-ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yutaka; Koshimizu, Masanori; Yanagida, Takayuki; Okada, Go; Saeki, Keiichiro; Asai, Keisuke

    2016-09-01

    We report the luminescence and the scintillation properties of a newly developed thallium magnesium chloride (TlMgCl3) crystal. The crystal sample can be easily fabricated from the melt using the Bridgman method. The photoluminescence band appeared near the wavelength of 405 nm under excitation at 230 nm. An X-ray-induced scintillation spectrum showed an intense emission band near the wavelength of 405 nm. The decay time constant was estimated to be approximately 60 ns (∼25%) and 350 ns (∼75%) using a bi-exponential fitting. The scintillation light yield reached 46,000 photons/MeV with an energy resolution of 5% at 662 keV.

  13. Bidentate Ligand-passivated CsPbI3 Perovskite Nanocrystals for Stable Near-unity Photoluminescence Quantum Yield and Efficient Red Light-emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2017-12-17

    Although halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are promising materials for optoelectronic devices, they suffer severely from chemical and phase instabilities. Moreover, the common capping ligands like oleic acid and oleylamine that encapsulate the NCs will form an insulating layer, precluding their utility in optoelectronic devices. To overcome these limitations, we develop a post-synthesis passivation process for CsPbI3 NCs by using a bidentate ligand, namely 2,2’-Iminodibenzoic acid. Our passivated NCs exhibit narrow red photoluminescence with exceptional quantum yield (close to unity) and substantially improved stability. The passivated NCs enabled us to realize red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with 5.02% external quantum efficiency and 748 cd/m2 luminance, surpassing by far LEDs made from the non-passivated NCs.

  14. High accuracy absolute distance metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, Bas L.; Bhattacharya, Nandini; Verlaan, Ad L.; Braat, Joseph J. M.

    2017-11-01

    One of ESA's future missions is the Darwin Space Interferometer, which aims to detect planets around nearby stars using optical aperture synthesis with free-flying telescopes. Since this involves interfering white (infra-red) light over large distances, the mission is not possible without a complex metrology system that monitors various speeds, distances and angles between the satellites. One of its sub-systems should measure absolute distances with an accuracy of around 70 micrometer over distances up to 250 meter. To enable such measurements, we are investigating a technique called frequency sweeping interferometry, in which a single laser is swept over a large known frequency range. Central to our approach is the use of a very stable, high finesse Fabry-Ṕerot cavity, to which the laser is stabilized at the endpoints of the frequency sweep. We will discuss the optical set-up, the control system that controls the fast sweeping, the calibration and the data analysis. We tested the system using long fibers and achieved a repeatability of 50 micrometers at a distance of 55 meters. We conclude with some recommendations for further improvements and the adaption for use in space.

  15. Absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Andres Calvache

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the epidemiological concepts of absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk through a clinical example. In addition, it emphasizes the usefulness of these concepts in clinical practice, clinical research and health decision-making process.

  16. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  17. Single component Mn-doped perovskite-related CsPb2ClxBr5-x nanoplatelets with a record white light quantum yield of 49%: a new single layer color conversion material for light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Xu, Shuhong; Shao, Haibao; Li, Lang; Cui, Yiping; Wang, Chunlei

    2017-11-09

    Single component nanocrystals (NCs) with white fluorescence are promising single layer color conversion media for white light-emitting diodes (LED) because the undesirable changes of chromaticity coordinates for the mixture of blue, green and red emitting NCs can be avoided. However, their practical applications have been hindered by the relative low photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) for traditional semiconductor NCs. Though Mn-doped perovskite nanocube is a potential candidate, it has been unable to realize a white-light emission to date. In this work, the synthesis of Mn-doped 2D perovskite-related CsPb 2 Cl x Br 5-x nanoplatelets with a pure white emission from a single component is reported. Unlike Mn-doped perovskite nanocubes with insufficient energy transfer efficiency, the current reported Mn-doped 2D perovskite-related CsPb 2 Cl x Br 5-x nanoplatelets show a 10 times higher energy transfer efficiency from perovskite to Mn impurities at the required emission wavelengths (about 450 nm for perovskite emission and 580 nm for Mn emission). As a result, the Mn/perovskite dual emission intensity ratio surprisingly elevates from less than 0.25 in case of Mn-doped nanocubes to 0.99 in the current Mn-doped CsPb 2 Cl x Br 5-x nanoplatelets, giving rise to a pure white light emission with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.35, 0.32). More importantly, the highest PL QY for Mn-doped perovskite-related CsPb 2 Cl x Br 5-x nanoplatelets is up to 49%, which is a new record for white-emitting nanocrystals with single component. These highly luminescent nanoplatelets can be blended with polystyrene (PS) without changing the white light emission but dramatically improving perovskite stability. The perovskite-PS composites are available not only as a good solution processable coating material for assembling LED, but also as a superior conversion material for achieving white light LED with a single conversion layer.

  18. Multicomponent (Lu,Y,Gd).sub.3./sub.(Ga,Al).sub.5./sub.O.sub.12./sub. garnets - a new kind of high light yield scintillating material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří A.; Nikl, Martin; Průša, Petr; Beitlerová, Alena; Kamada, K.; Yoshikawa, A.; Blažek, K.; Krasnikov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), s. 287-290 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillation * multicomponent garnets * Ce 3+ and Pr 3+ dopants * light yield * energy resolution Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  19. The influence of various doses of phosphorus and of the addition of calcium or potassium fertilization upon the yield of tomatoes in Wrocław hydroponic culture using two intensities of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gumicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out with phosphate fertilization of tomatoes in hydroponic culture. It has been proved that an additional dose of phosphorus given during the second cluster bloom, caused an yield increase. The optimal dose is 12 g of superphosphate (16% P2O5 per plant. The "green back" symptoms did not appear in these conditions. The parallel additional applying of calcium or potassium gave a decrease of the yield. When the light intensity was lowered to about 50%, the yield has decreased by half. In these conditions an additional applying of calcium (0,4 g CaCO3 and phosphorus (1g superphosphate annulated the negative influence of the low light intensity.

  20. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  1. Dietary anion variation on absolute weight and carcass and prime cuts yield for broilers in southern of Mato Grosso State, Brazil Variação aniônica na dieta sobre o peso absoluto e rendimento de carcaça e cortes nobres de frangos de corte na região sul de Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Garcia Caramori Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted to determine the best electrolyte balance (EB for broilers considering live weight at 42 days and carcass and prime cuts yield. Eight hundred and sixty-four Cobb male broilers were fed corn-soybean based diets supplemented with NH4Cl to obtain the following EB levels: -50, 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mEq/kg. A block randomized design with six replicates and 24 birds per experimental unit was used. The EB levels affected the live weight at 42 days and the carcass and prime cuts absolute weights, showing that the level of 200 mEq/kg is the most appropriated. The relative weight of carcass and prime cuts were not affect by the EB level. High dietary clorine levels affected the live weight and carcass and prime cuts weights. It is recommended levels of EB of at least 200 mEq/kg for broilers reared at southern of Mato Grosso state, based on the evaluated characteristics.Foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de determinar os melhores valores de balanço eletrolítico (BE para frangos de corte, considerando-se o peso vivo aos 42 dias e o rendimento de carcaça e de cortes nobres. Utilizaram-se 864 pintinhos da marca comercial Cobb, machos, alimentados com rações à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com NH4Cl, a fim de se obterem os seguintes níveis de BE: -50; 0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 mEq/kg. Foi utilizado delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, seis repetições e 24 aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de BE influenciaram o peso vivo aos 42 dias e o peso absoluto da carcaça e dos cortes nobres, demonstrando que 200 mEq/kg é o mais indicado. O peso relativo da carcaça e dos cortes nobres não sofreu influência do nível de BE. Verificou-se que o excesso de cloro nas rações de frangos de corte prejudicou o peso vivo ao abate e o peso da carcaça e dos cortes nobres. Recomenda-se para frangos de corte criados na região sul do estado de Mato Grosso níveis de BE de pelo menos 200 mEq/kg, com base

  2. Degradation Mechanisms in Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices by Exciton-Polaron Interactions: Loss in Quantum Yield versus Loss in Charge Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Aziz, Hany

    2017-01-11

    We study the relative importance of deterioration of material quantum yield and charge balance to the electroluminescence stability of PHOLEDs, with a special emphasis on blue devices. Investigations show that the quantum yields of both host and emitter in the emission layer degrade due to exciton-polaron interactions and that the deterioration in material quantum yield plays the primary role in device degradation under operation. On the other hand, the results show that the charge balance factor is also affected by exciton-polaron interactions but only plays a secondary role in determining device stability. Finally, we show that the degradation mechanisms in blue PHOLEDs are fundamentally the same as those in green PHOLEDs. The limited stability of the blue devices is a result of faster deterioration in the quantum yield of the emitter.

  3. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  4. Development of Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Tandem Thin-Film Solar Modules with Low Output Voltage, High Energy Yield, Low Light-Induced Degradation, and High Damp-Heat Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Yi Tsai; Chin-Yao Tsai

    2014-01-01

    In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar modules with low output voltage, high energy yield, low light-induced degradation, and high damp-heat reliability were successfully designed and developed. Several key technologies of passivation, transparent-conducting-oxide films, and cell and segment laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to enhance the performance of these low-voltage modules. A 900 kWp photovoltaic system w...

  5. YIELD INDICATORS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, East and Southern Africa, Centre, P.O. Box 7878,. Kampala, Uganda. Makerere ... would have great potential in terms of human nutrition. Storage root yield , the ... Inter-relationships among traits and path analysis for yield components of cassava. 604 collected included plant ...

  6. Diet cationic variation on absolute weight, carcass yield and noble broilers cuts Variação catiônica na dieta sobre o peso absoluto, rendimento de carcaça e cortes nobres de frangos de corte na região sul de Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Vargas Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted at Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Cuiabá in order to determine the best electrolyte balance (EB for broilers, based on the live weight at 42 days, the carcass yield and noble cuts. 720 male broilers with 42-day-old, from Coob commercial line, were used. The birds were reared in floor, covered with shaving woods and fed with corn soybean rations, supplemented with NH4Cl, in order to obtain the following levels of EB: - 50; 0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 mEq/kg. A block randomized design was used with six replicates and 24 birds per experimental unit. The EB levels affect the live weight at 42 days, the carcass absolute weight and also the noble cuts, showing that the levels between 270 up to 300 mEq/kg should be the most appropriated. The relative weight of carcass and noble cuts were not affected by the EB level. It was verified that the simultaneous adition of both sodium and potassium is more indicated to obtain the best value of EB, for those characteristic evaluated.Foi realizado um experimento, no Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Cuiabá, com o objetivo de determinar os melhores valores de balanços eletrolíticos (BE para frangos de corte, com base no peso vivo aos 42 dias, no rendimento de carcaça e dos cortes nobres. Utilizaram-se 720 pintos da linhagem Cobb, machos, criados em boxes em um galpão de alvenaria, cobertos com maravalha e alimentados com rações à base de milho e farelo de soja, suplementadas com K2CO3 e NaHCO3, a fim de se obter os seguintes níveis de BE: - 200; 250; 300; 350 e 400 mEq/kg. Foi utilizado delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições e 24 aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de BE influenciaram o peso vivo aos 42 dias, o peso absoluto da carcaça e dos cortes nobres, e indicaram que níveis entre 270 a 300 mEq/kg seriam os mais recomendados. O peso relativo da carcaça e dos cortes nobres não sofreram influência do nivel de BE

  7. Absolute metrology for space interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René

    2017-11-01

    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  8. A comparative study of quantum yield and electrical energy per order (E Eo) for advanced oxidative decolourisation of reactive azo dyes by UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muruganandham, M.; Selvam, K.; Swaminathan, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the quantum yield and electrical energy per order (E Eo ) efficiency of Reactive Orange 4 (RO4) and Reactive Yellow 14 (RY14) azo dyes by three advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Both dyes were completely decolourised by all these processes. The relative decolourisation efficiencies of these processes were in the following order: Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 /UV > UV/TiO 2 > UV/H 2 O 2 . The low efficiency of UV/H 2 O 2 process is mainly due to low UV absorption by hydrogen peroxide at the 365 nm. The figure of merit E Eo values showed that UV/H 2 O 2 process consumes more electrical energy than the other two processes. The electrical energy consumption is in the following order: UV/H 2 O 2 > UV/TiO 2 > Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 /UV. At low initial dye concentration higher quantum yield was observed in UV/TiO 2 process, whereas in photo-Fenton process higher quantum yield was observed at high initial dye concentration. The structure of dye molecule also influences the quantum yield and E Eo value

  9. A comparative study of quantum yield and electrical energy per order (E(Eo)) for advanced oxidative decolourisation of reactive azo dyes by UV light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandham, M; Selvam, K; Swaminathan, M

    2007-06-01

    This paper evaluates the quantum yield and electrical energy per order (E(Eo)) efficiency of Reactive Orange 4 (RO4) and Reactive Yellow 14 (RY14) azo dyes by three advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Both dyes were completely decolourised by all these processes. The relative decolourisation efficiencies of these processes were in the following order: Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/UV>UV/TiO(2)>UV/H(2)O(2). The low efficiency of UV/H(2)O(2) process is mainly due to low UV absorption by hydrogen peroxide at the 365nm. The figure of merit E(Eo) values showed that UV/H(2)O(2) process consumes more electrical energy than the other two processes. The electrical energy consumption is in the following order: UV/H(2)O(2)>UV/TiO(2)>Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/UV. At low initial dye concentration higher quantum yield was observed in UV/TiO(2) process, whereas in photo-Fenton process higher quantum yield was observed at high initial dye concentration. The structure of dye molecule also influences the quantum yield and E(Eo) value.

  10. Phenotyping of field-grown wheat in the UK highlights contribution of light response of photosynthesis and flag leaf longevity to grain yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Andralojc, P.J.; Scales, Joanna C.; Driever, Steven M.; Mead, Andrew; Lawson, Tracy; Raines, Christine A.; Parry, Martin A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Improving photosynthesis is a major target for increasing crop yields and ensuring food security. Phenotyping of photosynthesis in the field is critical to understand the limits to crop performance in agricultural settings. Yet, detailed phenotyping of photosynthetic traits is relatively scarce in

  11. Energy resolution and light yield non-proportionality of ZnSe Te scintillator studied by large area avalanche photodiodes and photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Balcerzyk, M; Moszynski, M; Kapusta, M; Szawlowski, M

    2002-01-01

    The ZnSe : Te scintillator has been studied by means of a photomultiplier with an extended bialkali photocathode, a large area avalanche photodiode (LAAPD) and a PIN photodiode. The light output was determined to be 28 300+-1700 photons/MeV. Results indicate good proportionality for light output versus gamma-ray energy. Measurements of the 662 keV gamma-ray energy spectrum recorded using a LAAPD resulted in an energy resolution of 5.4+-0.3%. Based on these results, an intrinsic energy resolution of 3.3+-0.7% has been calculated.

  12. Improvement of liquefaction solvent. Increase of light oil yield with a reduction in catalyst addition; Ekika yozai no kairyo kenkyu. Sekitan ekikayu no keishitsuka to shokubai tenkaryo no teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, N.; Yasumuro, M.; Sato, K.; Komatsu, N.; Okui, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For developing coal liquefaction processes, it is an important problem to improve the light oil yield with increased oil yield. It was previously reported that distillate mainly containing lighter fraction can be produced with high oil yield by reducing the iron/sulfur catalyst addition in slurry, by recycling gas in the process operation, by utilizing these effects, and by using heavy oil as recycling solvent. In this study, the maximum distillate yield of Victorian brown coal was investigated through continuous liquefaction using a bench scale unit. In addition, operation conditions for obtaining sufficient oil yield were investigated under the reduced catalyst addition into one-third. Consequently, it was confirmed that the maximum content of lighter fraction in distillate product was obtained with reduced catalyst addition by using heavy oil as recycling solvent, by adopting new catalyst, and by utilizing effects of CLB recycling and gas recycling in maximum. It was also revealed that lighter distillate can be produced compared with the oil product obtained by recycling conventional solvent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Continuum Theory (CT):. Its Particle-Tied Aether Yields a Continuous Auto-creation, Non-expanding Cosmology and New Light on Galaxy Evolution and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    2013-09-01

    equipped with randomly moving aether, from whose motion and energy content the entire mass content of the Universe has grown over time by auto-creation, the local rate of which experiences positive feedback and acceleration as gravitational accumulations drive energy levels higher. Hence the clumpiness of galaxy distributions. The infall of cosmogonally young material from the auto-creation auras of clusters has 3 major implications. (1) It completely inverts the Big Bang perspective that lowmetallicity material, widespread in galaxy haloes, is very ancient. (2) Quasi-axial infall of such broadly neutral material (mostly H) onto a Spiral will spread out in the galactic plane, driven radially from the ionizing bulge by the G-E field, maintaining constant tangential velocity; all without CDM. This pattern means that the arms, although trailing, are actually being blown outward (unwrapping). See Paper I for detail. For such ongoing disruption of Spirals to prevail so widely means that originally each must have started life as an a.m.-conserving, tightly-wound spiral of mostly neutral, cosmogonically young material (mainly H), in which G-E field action was minimal until star formation and ionization had set in. (3) In cluster interiors, other cluster members may deflect the two infall streams as they converge onto a Spiral, introducing a dynamical rotational couple near the centre, with an axis roughly in the galactic plane, to produce a Barred Spiral. Cessation of infall then results in endwise collapse of that bar, yielding a fattened Elliptical. Those are indeed typically concentrated in the centres of clusters and show a dearth of active star formation, consistent with being deprived of young infall. We present images and diagrams in support and elaboration of (2) and (3). The CT model for quasars provides large intrinsic redshift by the CT analogue of Transverse Doppler Effect and offers light-element synthesis by the evolutionary precipitation of a runaway rotational

  14. Absolute pitch--electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, A; Granot, R; Pratt, H

    1994-02-01

    People who have the ability to label or to produce notes without any reference are considered to possess Absolute Pitch (AP). Others, who need a reference in order to identify the notes, possess Relative Pitch (RP). The AP ability is assumed to reflect a unique, language-like representation of non-lexical musical notes in memory. The purpose of this study was to examine this assumption by comparing Event Related Potentials (ERP) of musicians with and without AP, to lexical and non-lexical representation of musical material. Subjects were eighteen young adult musicians. Seven were AP and eleven RP. Auditory stimuli, presented through earphones, were piano notes (non-lexical) or a voice saying the note's name (lexical). Visual stimuli, presented on a computer display were note symbols (non-lexical) or letters (lexical). Subjects performed a number of tasks, combining the two modalities (visual and auditory) and stimulus types (lexical and non-lexical), and reaction times (RT), performance accuracy and evoked potentials were recorded. The tasks forced the subjects to transfer mental representations of musical material from one mode to another. Our most important findings were the differences, between groups, in the scalp distribution of P300 amplitudes. We conclude that absolute pitch possessors use the same internal language as relative pitch possessors, when possible, but the distribution of the underlying brain activity is different between AP and RP subjects.

  15. Absolute MR thermometry using nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Roel; Sprinkhuizen, Sara M; Crielaard, Bart J; Ippel, Johannes H; Boelens, Rolf; Bakker, Chris J G; Storm, Gert; Lammers, Twan; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2014-01-01

    Accurate time-resolved temperature mapping is crucial for the safe use of hyperthermia-mediated drug delivery. We here propose a magnetic resonance imaging temperature mapping method in which drug delivery systems serve not only to improve tumor targeting, but also as an accurate and absolute nano-thermometer. This method is based on the temperature-dependent chemical shift difference between water protons and the protons in different groups of drug delivery systems. We show that the chemical shift of the protons in the ethylene oxide group in polyethylene glycol (PEG) is temperature-independent, whereas the proton resonance of water decreases with increasing temperature. The frequency difference between both resonances is linear and does not depend on pH and physiological salt conditions. In addition, we show that the proton resonance of the methyl group in N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide (HPMA) is temperature-independent. Therefore, PEGylated liposomes, polymeric mPEG-b-pHPMAm-Lac2 micelles and HPMA copolymers can provide a temperature-independent reference frequency for absolute magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry. Subsequently, we show that multigradient echo MR imaging with PEGylated liposomes in situ allows accurate, time-resolved temperature mapping. In conclusion, nanocarrier materials may serve as highly versatile tools for tumor-targeted drug delivery, acting not only as hyperthermia-responsive drug delivery systems, but also as accurate and precise nano-thermometers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Optimization of biomass, vitamins, and carotenoid yield on light energy in a flat-panel reactor using the A-stat technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, M.J.; Zijffers, J.F.; Nisworo, A.; Vaes, W.; Schoonhoven, van J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Acceleration-stat (A-stat) cultivations in which the dilution rate is continuously changed at a constant acceleration rate, leading to different average light intensities inside the photobioreactor, can supply more information and reduce experimental time compared with chemostat cultivations. The

  17. "Absolute" sterility and "absolute" freedom from particle contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J Z

    1998-01-01

    Until the recent past, sterility of an injectable product was only discussed in absolute terms. Any description of sterility other than as an absolute could simply not be envisioned. While dealing in absolute yes/no statements is philosophically satisfying, these yes/no statements can't accommodate all real world scientific problems. Among these problems is the sterility problems faced in the mass production of injectable compounds. Many descriptions of procedures employed to achieve sterility in parenteral production batches were reported in the literature. The theoretical framework that could unite the widespread observations and practices into practical methodology was missing until recently. Production line control of the sterility of injectable products was essentially based on gut evaluations. The present achievement of rational, production line control of product sterility is based on the recognition that product sterility could not be simply regarded as a sharply edged yes/no affair. The present rational control is based on the fact that the sterility of a product is determined by the degree of contamination in the product prior to sterilization and to the parameters of the sterilization process. The end result of the sterilization process is now described as a probabalistic reduction of the initial contamination. The essential laboratory measurements on which this conclusion was based is due to Pflug (1-3). He assembled a theoretical framework, based on experimental data, that characterizes the sterility achieved in an injectable product with a single number. The end result of the sterilization process is now described as a probabalistic reduction of the initial contamination. As in many disciplines, the ability to achieve an objective evaluation of this important attribute provided the basis for scientific analysis, improved control and thus improved production and reduced cost. An equivalent framework is essential for the communication and

  18. A Dominant Negative OsKAT2 Mutant Delays Light-Induced Stomatal Opening and Improves Drought Tolerance without Yield Penalty in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Hyun Y; Hwang, Hyunsik; Kim, Jin-Ae; Lee, Yongsang; Min, Myung K; Yoon, In S; Kwon, Taek-Ryoun; Kim, Beom-Gi

    2017-01-01

    Stomata are the main gateways for water and air transport between leaves and the environment. Inward-rectifying potassium channels regulate photo-induced stomatal opening. Rice contains three inward rectifying shaker-like potassium channel proteins, OsKAT1, OsKAT2, and OsKAT3. Among these, only OsKAT2 is specifically expressed in guard cells. Here, we investigated the functions of OsKAT2 in stomatal regulation using three dominant negative mutant proteins, OsKAT2(T235R), OsKAT2(T285A) and OsKAT2(T285D), which are altered in amino acids in the channel pore and at a phosphorylation site. Yeast complementation and patch clamp assays showed that all three mutant proteins lost channel activity. However, among plants overexpressing these mutant proteins, only plants overexpressing OsKAT2(T235R) showed significantly less water loss than the control. Moreover, overexpression of this mutant protein led to delayed photo-induced stomatal opening and increased drought tolerance. Our results indicate that OsKAT2 is an inward- rectifying shaker-like potassium channel that mainly functions in stomatal opening. Interestingly, overexpression of OsKAT2(T235R) did not cause serious defects in growth or yield in rice, suggesting that OsKAT2 is a potential target for engineering plants with improved drought tolerance without yield penalty.

  19. A Dominant Negative OsKAT2 Mutant Delays Light-Induced Stomatal Opening and Improves Drought Tolerance without Yield Penalty in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jun Moon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stomata are the main gateways for water and air transport between leaves and the environment. Inward-rectifying potassium channels regulate photo-induced stomatal opening. Rice contains three inward rectifying shaker-like potassium channel proteins, OsKAT1, OsKAT2, and OsKAT3. Among these, only OsKAT2 is specifically expressed in guard cells. Here, we investigated the functions of OsKAT2 in stomatal regulation using three dominant negative mutant proteins, OsKAT2(T235R, OsKAT2(T285A and OsKAT2(T285D, which are altered in amino acids in the channel pore and at a phosphorylation site. Yeast complementation and patch clamp assays showed that all three mutant proteins lost channel activity. However, among plants overexpressing these mutant proteins, only plants overexpressing OsKAT2(T235R showed significantly less water loss than the control. Moreover, overexpression of this mutant protein led to delayed photo-induced stomatal opening and increased drought tolerance. Our results indicate that OsKAT2 is an inward- rectifying shaker-like potassium channel that mainly functions in stomatal opening. Interestingly, overexpression of OsKAT2(T235R did not cause serious defects in growth or yield in rice, suggesting that OsKAT2 is a potential target for engineering plants with improved drought tolerance without yield penalty.

  20. Absolute scale-based imaging position encoder with submicron accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Andrey G.; Pantyushin, Anton V.; Lashmanov, Oleg U.; Vasilev, A. S.; Timofeev, Alexander N.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Gordeev, Sergey V.

    2013-04-01

    Study is devoted to experimental research and development of absolute imaging position encoder based on standard calibrated scale of invar alloy with 1 mm spacing. The encoder uses designed imaging system as a vernier and absolute magnetic encoder as a rough indication. The features of optical design, choice and use of imaging system as long as indexes images processing algorithm are described. A shadow method was implemented: indexes images on a CCD array are formed by the lens focused at the scale surface; the laser module lights up the scale through a beam-splitting prism by a parallel beam. Further dark indexes images on a light scale background are detected and analyzed to estimate the encoder position. Full range of experimental tests was set to calibrate the encoder and to estimate the accuracy. As a result, accuracy close to 1 μm at 1 m was achieved.

  1. Concentration dependence of the light yield and energy resolution of NaI:Tl and CsI:Tl crystals excited by gamma, soft X-rays and alpha particles

    CERN Document Server

    Trefilova, L N; Kovaleva, L V; Zaslavsky, B G; Zosim, D I; Bondarenko, S K

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of light yield dependence on activator concentration for NaI:Tl and CsI:Tl excited by gamma-rays, soft X-rays and alpha-particles, an explanation of the effect of energy resolution enhancement with the rise of Tl content has been proposed. Based on the concept regarding the electron track structure, we proposed an alternative explanation of the intrinsic resolution value. The concept does not take into account the non-proportional response to electrons of different energies and is based on the statistic fluctuation of scintillation photon number formed outside and inside the regions of higher ionization density.

  2. Efeitos dos programas de luz sobre desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e resposta imunológica em frangos de corte Effect of lighting programs on performance, carcass yield, and immunological response of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Moraes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos programas de luz 23L:1E (23L; crescente (CRES; 16L:8E (16L e luz natural (NAT sobre o desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e resposta imunológica de frangos de corte machos da linhagem Cobb-500. O período de criação foi de um a 45 dias de idade, e os tratamentos foram definidos de acordo com os programas de luz. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições de 35 aves cada. As aves submetidas ao programa de luz CRES apresentaram maior peso vivo em relação aos demais tratamentos (P0,05. A viabilidade das aves do tratamento NAT foi maior em relação às aves do tratamento 23L (P0,05. A conversão alimentar e o rendimento de carcaça não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos (P>0,05. As aves do tratamento 23L apresentaram maior rendimento de peito quando comparado aos demais tratamentos (P0,05.The effects of lighting programs 23L:1E (23L; increasing (INC; 16L: 8E (16L and natural light (NAT on performance, carcass yield and immune response of Cobb-500 male broiler were evaluated. Chicks were raised from one to 45-day-old and the treatments were defined according to the lighting programs. The experiment was designed in four treatments with six repetitions of 35 birds each. Broilers of the INC lighting program showed heavier weights (P0.05. The viability of the NAT treatment broilers was higher than the broilers of the 23L (P0.05. The 23L treatment broilers showed higher breast yield when compared to the other treatments (P0.05.

  3. Absolute bunch length measurements by incoherent radiation fluctuation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Stupakov, Gennady; Zolotorev, Max; Filippetto, Daniele; Jagerhofer, Lukas

    2008-09-29

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  4. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC; Zolotorev, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Filippetto, D.; /INFN, Rome; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.

    2009-12-09

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  5. Correlation of yield and yield components for afila and normal leave pea, Pissum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Radiša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the correlation of yield and yield components of Afila and normal leaf Pea, we conducted a three years research (1993 - 1995. We have researched a correlative junction of yield and yield components (number of pods, number of grains per pod, number of grains per plant and the absolute grain weight of 8 Afila lines and 4 parent varieties. The results showed that the yield and yield components are highly related r - 0.82 - 0.95, while the absolute weight is not related to the yield r - 0, 19 and due to that it does not represent the yield component. The determined correlative values for all researched genotypes and parents were the same as previously researched by other authors, which leads us to the conclusion that the absence of leaves does not directly impact the change of correlative values.

  6. What is Needed for Absolute Paleointensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Many alternative approaches to the Thellier and Thellier technique for absolute paleointensity have been proposed during the past twenty years. One reason is the time consuming aspect of the experiments. Another reason is to avoid uncertainties in determinations of the paleofield which are mostly linked to the presence of multidomain grains. Despite great care taken by these new techniques, there is no indication that they always provide the right answer and in fact sometimes fail. We are convinced that the most valid approach remains the original double heating Thellier protocol provided that natural remanence is controlled by pure magnetite with a narrow distribution of small grain sizes, mostly single domains. The presence of titanium, even in small amount generates biases which yield incorrect field values. Single domain grains frequently dominate the magnetization of glass samples, which explains the success of this selective approach. They are also present in volcanic lava flows but much less frequently, and therefore contribute to the low success rate of most experiments. However the loss of at least 70% of the magnetization at very high temperatures prior to the Curie point appears to be an essential prerequisite that increases the success rate to almost 100% and has been validated from historical flows and from recent studies. This requirement can easily be tested by thermal demagnetization while low temperature experiments can document the detection of single domain magnetite using the δFC/δZFC parameter as suggested (Moskowitz et al, 1993) for biogenic magnetite.

  7. The absolute energy flux envelopes of B type stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Absolute energy flux envelopes covering the region of 1100 to 6000 A for main-sequence stars of types B3, B7 and A0 derived from published, ground-based observations and from spectrum scans with OAO-II are presented. These flux envelopes are compared with the predicted flux envelopes from lightly line-blanketed model atmospheres. The line blanketing at wavelengths shorter than 3000 A is severe, about one-half the predicted light being observed at 1600 A. These results demonstrate that a model which represents well the observed visible spectrum of a star may fail seriously for representing the ultraviolet spectrum.

  8. Determination of the absolute second-order rate constant for the reaction Na + O3 → NaO + O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, David; Marshall, Paul; Plane, J.M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute second-order rate constant for the reaction Na + O 3 -> NaO + O 2 (k 1 ) has been determined by time-resolved atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy at lambda = 589 nm [Na(3 2 Psub(j)) 2 Ssub(1/2))] following pulsed irradiation, coupled with monitoring of O 3 by light absorption in the ultra-violet; this yields k 1 (500 K) = 4(+4,-2) x 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , resolving large differences for various estimates of this important quantity used in modelling the sodium layer in the mesosphere. (author)

  9. Yield stress determination of a physical gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresse...... values of these gels depend on test type and measurement time, and no absolute yield stress value can be determined for these physical gels....

  10. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  11. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hoversten, Erik A.; Pritchard, Tyler; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Mazzali, Paolo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Foley, Ryan J.; Hicken, Malcolm; Kirshner, Robert P.; Gehrels, Neil; Holland, Stephen T.; Immler, Stefan; Phillips, Mark M.; Still, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1 rc covering ∼2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ∼ 3000-4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ∼2000-2400 A). The uvw1 rc - b colors show a scatter of ∼0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, ∼1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  12. Absolutely summing multilinear operators: a Panorama | Pellegrino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper has a twofold purpose: to present an overview of the theory of absolutely summing operators and its different generalizations for the multilinear setting, and to sketch the beginning of a research project related to an objective search of “perfect” multilinear extensions of the ideal of absolutely summing operators.

  13. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The accurate estimation of noise variance in an image is the first important stage ... lung image was lung image was developed. developed. developed. The development of mean of median absolute derivation technique development of mean of median absolute .... that are non-real numbers during initial processing.

  14. Quantum nonequilibrium equalities with absolute irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funo, Ken; Murashita, Yûto; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-07-01

    We derive quantum nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes. Here by absolute irreversibility we mean that in the backward process the density matrix does not return to the subspace spanned by those eigenvectors that have nonzero weight in the initial density matrix. Since the initial state of a memory and the postmeasurement state of the system are usually restricted to a subspace, absolute irreversibility occurs during the measurement and feedback processes. An additional entropy produced in absolutely irreversible processes needs to be taken into account to derive nonequilibrium equalities. We discuss a model of a feedback control on a qubit system to illustrate the obtained equalities. By introducing N heat baths each composed of a qubit and letting them interact with the system, we show how the entropy reduction via feedback control can be converted into work. An explicit form of extractable work in the presence of absolute irreversibility is given.

  15. Development of Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Tandem Thin-Film Solar Modules with Low Output Voltage, High Energy Yield, Low Light-Induced Degradation, and High Damp-Heat Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar modules with low output voltage, high energy yield, low light-induced degradation, and high damp-heat reliability were successfully designed and developed. Several key technologies of passivation, transparent-conducting-oxide films, and cell and segment laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to enhance the performance of these low-voltage modules. A 900 kWp photovoltaic system with these low-voltage panels was installed and its performance ratio has been simulated and projected to be 92.1%, which is 20% more than the crystalline silicon and CdTe counterparts.

  16. Absolute Kα line spectroscopy for cone-guided fast-ignition targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura H.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Absolute Kα line spectroscopy is proposed to study laser-plasma interactions taking place in cone-guided fast ignition targets. A transmission-type spectrometer was developed, and its absolute sensitivity was measured with laser-generated x-rays and radioisotopes, showing good agreement with theoretical predictions. The absolute yield of Au Kα line was mesured in the fast ignition experimental campaign perfomed at ILE, Osaka University. Assuming a single Maxwellian electron spectrum and one-way travel of hot electrons through the cone, energy transfer efficiency of incident LFEX laser to hot electrons was derived.

  17. Cs4PbBr6/CsPbBr3 Perovskite Composites with Near-Unity Luminescence Quantum Yield: Large-Scale Synthesis, Luminescence and Formation Mechanism, and White Light-Emitting Diode Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yameng; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Junying; Ma, Ju-Ping; Xuan, Tong-Tong; Guo, Shao-Qiang; Yong, Zi-Jun; Wang, Jing; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Sun, Hong-Tao

    2018-04-18

    All-inorganic perovskites have emerged as a new class of phosphor materials owing to their outstanding optical properties. Zero-dimensional inorganic perovskites, in particular the Cs4PbBr6-related systems, are inspiring intensive research owing to the high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and good stability. However, synthesizing such perovskites with high PLQYs through an enviromentally friendly, cost-effective, scalable, and high-yield approach remains challenging, and their luminescence mechanisms has been elusive. Here, we report a simple, scalable, room-temperature self-assembly strategy for the synthesis of Cs4PbBr6/CsPbBr3 perovskite composites with near-unity PLQY (95%), high product yield (71%) and good stability, using low-cost, low-toxicity chemicals as precursors. A broad range of experimental and theoretical characterizations suggest that the high-efficiency PL originates from CsPbBr3 nanocrystals well passivated by the zero-dimensional Cs4PbBr6 matrix that forms based on a dissolution-crystallization process. These findings underscore the importance in accurately identifying the phase purity of zero-dimensional perovskites by synchrotron X-ray technique to gain deep insights into the structure-property relationship. Additionally, we demonstrate that green-emitting Cs4PbBr6/CsPbBr3, combined with red-emitting K2SiF6:Mn4+, can be used for the construction of WLEDs. Our work may pave the way for the use of such composite perovskites as highly luminescent emitters in various applications such as lighting, displays, and other optoelectronic and photonic devices.

  18. The absolute environmental performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Kathrine Nykjær; Kalbar, Pradip; Petersen, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    sustainability for the standard house were proposed focusing on three measures: minimizing environmental impacts from building construction, minimizing impacts from energy consumption during use phase, and reducing the living area per person. In an intermediate path, absolute sustainability can be obtained...... by reducing the impacts from construction by 89%, use phase energy consumption by 80%, and the living area by 60%.......Our paper presents a novel approach for absolute sustainability assessment of a building's environmental performance. It is demonstrated how the absolute sustainable share of the earth carrying capacity of a specific building type can be estimated using carrying capacity based normalization factors...

  19. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V10.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2006 March 14 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  20. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V11.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2007 April 2 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  1. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V12.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2008 April 20 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  2. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V7.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set tabulates the IAU-adopted absolute V magnitude and slope parameter for all numbered asteroids as of the given stop date. The data set is updated yearly.

  3. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V9.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2005 April 7 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  4. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V8.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2004 April 15 batch of Minor Planet Circulars

  5. Absolutely uniform illumination of laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Absolutely uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single beam is given by a simple cos 2 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this absolute illumination uniformity. Configurations based upon the cube and higher order Platonic solids satisfy the constraints, as well as an infinite class of other less symmetric configurations

  6. Absolutely uniform illumination of laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Absolutely uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single laser beam is given by a simple cos 2 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this absolute illumination uniformity. Configurations based upon the cube and higher order Platonic solids satisfy the constraints, as well as infinite class of other less symmetric configurations

  7. Absolute spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Smyth, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiometric photoelectric spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975 was carried out on 1975 August 31, September 2, 3. α Lyr was used as reference star and its absolute spectral energy distribution was used to reduce the spectrophotometry of the nova to absolute units. Emission strengths of Hα, Hβ, Hγ (in W cm -2 ) were derived. The Balmer decrement Hα:Hβ:Hγ was compared with theory, and found to deviate less than had been reported for an earlier nova. (author)

  8. Light dosimetry in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Willem M.

    1997-05-01

    This paper starts with definitions of radiance, fluence (rate) and other quantities that are important with regard to in vivo light dosimetry. The light distribution in mammalian tissues can be estimated from model calculations using measured optical properties or from direct measurements of fluence rate using a suitable detector. A historical introduction is therefore followed by a brief discussion of tissue optical properties and of calculations using diffusion theory, the -approximation or Monte Carlo simulations. In particular the form of the scattering function is considered in relation to the fluence rate close to the tissue boundary, where light is incident. Non-invasive measurements of optical properties yield the absorption coefficient and , where is the scattering coefficient and g is the mean cosine of the scattering angle. An important question is whether this combination is sufficient, or whether g itself must be known. It appears that for strongly forward scattering, as in mammalian tissues, rather detailed knowledge of the scattering function is needed to reliably calculate the fluence rate close to the surface. Deeper in the tissue is sufficient. The construction, calibration and use of fibre-optic probes for measurements of fluence rate in tissues or optical phantoms is discussed. At present, minimally invasive absolute fluence (rate) measurements seem to be possible with an accuracy of 10 - 20%. Examples are given of in vivo measurements in animal experiments and in humans during clinical treatments. Measurements in mammalian tissues, plant leaves and marine sediments are compared and similarities and differences pointed out. Most in vivo light fluence rate measurements have been concerned with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Optical properties of the same normal tissue may differ between patients. Tumours of the same histological type may even show different optical properties in a single patient. Treatment-induced changes of optical properties may

  9. Philosophy as Inquiry Aimed at the Absolute Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Snarskaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy as the absolute knowledge has been studied from two different but closely related approaches: historical and logical. The first approach exposes four main stages in the history of European metaphysics that marked out types of “philosophical absolutism”: the evolution of philosophy brought to light metaphysics of being, method, morals and logic. All of them are associated with the names of Aristotle, Bacon/Descartes, Kant and Hegel. Then these forms are considered in the second approach that defined them as subject-matter of philosophy as such. Due to their overall, comprehensive character, the focus of philosophy on them justifies its claim on absoluteness as far as philosophy is aimed at comprehension of the world’s unity regardless of the philosopher’s background, values and other preferences. And that is its prerogative since no other form of consciousness lays down this kind of aim. Thus, philosophy is defined as an everlasting attempt to succeed in conceiving the world in all its multifold manifestations. This article is to try to clarify the claim of philosophy on the absolute knowledge.

  10. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D.; Wagner, Trixie

    2013-01-01

    Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement. PMID:23719469

  11. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of high quantum yield and oscillator strength 6-chloro-2-(4-cynophenyl)-4-phenyl quinoline (cl-CN-DPQ) organic phosphor for solid-state lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Minakshi; Dahule, H K; Thejo Kalyani, N; Dhoble, S J

    2018-03-01

    A novel blue luminescent 6-chloro-2-(4-cynophenyl) substituted diphenyl quinoline (Cl-CN DPQ) organic phosphor has been synthesized by the acid-catalyzed Friedlander reaction and then characterized to confirm structural, optical and thermal properties. Structural properties of Cl-CN-DPQ were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of different functional groups and bond stretching. 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR confirmed the formation of an organic Cl-CN-DPQ compound. X-ray diffraction study provided its crystalline nature. The surface morphology of Cl-CN-DPQ was analyzed by SEM, while EDAX spectroscopy revealed the elemental analysis. Differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) disclosed its thermal stability up to 250°C. The optical properties of Cl-CN-DPQ were investigated by UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Cl-CN-DPQ exhibits intense blue emission at 434 nm in a solid-state crystalline powder with CIE co-ordinates (0.157, 0.027), when excited at 373 nm. Cl-CN-DPQ shows remarkable Stokes shift in the range 14800-5100 cm -1 , which is the characteristic feature of intense light emission. A narrow full width at half-maximum (FWHM) value of PL spectra in the range 42-48 nm was observed. Oscillator strength, energy band gap, quantum yield, and fluorescence energy yield were also examined using UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra. These results prove its applications towards developing organic luminescence devices and displays, organic phosphor-based solar cells and displays, organic lasers, chemical sensors and many more. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  14. Absolute spectroscopy of activated ionic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuketaev, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Researches on potassium chlorides activated by one-valency ions of copper and silver are carried out. It was shown, that electron recombination photoluminescence is brought about by photoexcitation. It was established, that impurities excitation de-locates in the result of ionization. The particular mechanism of activator's ions ionization is defining by temperature dependence of recombination luminescence. In case of autoionization the luminescence yield does not depends from temperature. During excitation of KCl-Cu, NaCl-Ag, KCl-Ag crystals by photons with energies of 6.1, 5.9 and 6.3 eV, relatively, the recombination luminescence light sum increase. That is explained as direct manifestation of thermal ionization of these excitations, which freeze under lowered irradiation temperature. Experimental data evident that excited centers ionization takes place after equilibrium distribution of centers setting by oscillation levels of this electron state. Therefore energy of thermal ionization of exited center corresponds to energy gap of excited impurity center relaxation equation with bottom of conductivity zone. After definition of relaxation excited electron state of impurity ions relatively conductivity bottom zone a possibility for evaluation of activator's levels position with precision to ground state energy relaxation opens. For potassium chlorides activated by copper and silver ions the assessment shows that ground levels of impurity ions are situating within zone of forbidden energies on 2-2.6 eV higher than ceiling of valency zone

  15. Photoinduced oxygen consumption in melanin systems. Action spectra and quantum yields for eumelanin and synthetic melanin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarna, T.; Sealy, R.C. (Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1984-01-01

    Consumption of oxygen during irradiation of melanins with either visible or ultraviolet light (230 to 600 nm) was monitored using a spin-probe nitroxide-electron spin resonance spectroscopic approach. Eumelanins are moderately effective in promoting oxygen consumption; quantum yields are low for irradiation with visible light, but increase sharply with light of shorter wavelengths. The absolute quantum yield for oxygen consumption is about 0.1% for natural melanin at 320 nm. The action spectrum is similar for both natural and synthetic melanins indicating that the major chromophore responsible for oxygen consumption is the same for both kinds of material. This chromophore is not the major melanin chromophore responsible for absorption of visible light. The action spectrum also clearly differs from published action spectra for melanogenesis; however, the weak wavelength dependence for visible light is similar to that found for immediate pigment darkening. Catalase decreases the rate of oxygen consumption by 50% confirming that hydrogen peroxide is the major molecular product of oxygen reduction. The results suggest that a Type I (free radical) mechanism predominates in the oxygen consumption process.

  16. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  17. On determining absolute entropy without quantum theory or the third law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steane, Andrew M.

    2016-04-01

    We employ classical thermodynamics to gain information about absolute entropy, without recourse to statistical methods, quantum mechanics or the third law of thermodynamics. The Gibbs-Duhem equation yields various simple methods to determine the absolute entropy of a fluid. We also study the entropy of an ideal gas and the ionization of a plasma in thermal equilibrium. A single measurement of the degree of ionization can be used to determine an unknown constant in the entropy equation, and thus determine the absolute entropy of a gas. It follows from all these examples that the value of entropy at absolute zero temperature does not need to be assigned by postulate, but can be deduced empirically.

  18. Absolute activity determinations on large volume geological samples independent of self-absorption effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a method for measuring the absolute activity of large volume samples by γ-spectroscopy independent of self-absorption effects using Ge detectors. The method yields accurate matrix independent results at the expense of replicative counting of the unknown sample. (orig./HP)

  19. Near-infrared absolute magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Arturo; Friedman, Andrew S.; Mandel, Kaisey; Kirshner, Robert; Challis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia Supernovae light curves (SN Ia) in the near infrared (NIR) exhibit low dispersion in their peak luminosities and are less vulnerable to extinction by interstellar dust in their host galaxies. The increasing number of high quality NIR SNe Ia light curves, including the recent CfAIR2 sample obtained with PAIRITEL, provides updated evidence for their utility as standard candles for cosmology. Using NIR YJHKs light curves of ~150 nearby SNe Ia from the CfAIR2 and CSP samples, and from the literature, we determine the mean value and dispersion of the absolute magnitude in the range between -10 to 50 rest-frame days after the maximum luminosity in B band. We present the mean light-curve templates and Hubble diagram for YJHKs bands. This work contributes to a firm local anchor for supernova cosmology studies in the NIR which will help to reduce the systematic uncertainties due to host galaxy dust present in optical-only studies. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-156854, AST-1211196, Fundacion Mexico en Harvard, and CONACyT.

  20. The Absolute Normal Scores Test for Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Douglas A.; Sachdeva, Darshan

    1976-01-01

    The absolute normal scores test is described as a test for the symmetry of a distribution of scores about a location parameter. The test is compared to the sign test and the Wilcoxon test as an alternative to the "t"-test. (Editor/RK)

  1. The Theory of Absolute Reaction Rates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 7. The Theory of Absolute Reaction Rates. Henry Eyring. Classics Volume 17 Issue 7 July 2012 pp 704-711. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/07/0704-0711. Author Affiliations.

  2. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  3. Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, J.P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the information on the

  4. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorf...

  5. Absolute Distance Measurements with Tunable Semiconductor Laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    T118, - (2005), s. 41-44 ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB2065001 Keywords : tunable laser * absolute interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004

  6. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  7. systemic complications following absolute alcohol embolisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the superficial temporal (STA), middle meningeal. (MMA) and occipital ... external jugular vein. Absolute alcohol was injected into the feeder artery using the intermittent pulsed spray technique in aliquots of 1 ml. A total of 55 ml of alcohol was injected. ... cells, vessel wall necrosis resulting in thrombosis and permanent ...

  8. On the absolute measure of Beta activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.; Jimenez Reynaldo, O.; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1956-01-01

    A new method for absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The mea surements is made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction when using an infinite thick mounting is discussed and results for different materials given. (Author)

  9. Absolute tightness: the chemists hesitate to invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The safety requirements of industries as nuclear plants and the strengthening of regulations in the field of environment (more particularly those related to volatile organic compounds) have lead the manufacturers to build absolute tightness pumps. But these equipments do not answer all the problems and represent a high investment cost. In consequence, the chemists hesitate to invest. (O.L.)

  10. Absolute chronology and stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    meaningful and representative of two separate and defined phases of occupation at this locale. This early period would correspond with the phase that the excavator of Lepenski Vir defined as Proto-Lepenski Vir although his ideas about the spatial distribution of this phase, its interpretation, duration and relation to the later phase of trapezoidal buildings must be revised in the light of new AMS dates and other available data. The phase with trapezoidal buildings most likely starts only around 6200 cal BC and most of the trapezoidal buildings might have been abandoned by around 5900 cal BC. The absolute span of only two or three hundred years and likely even less, for the flourishing of building activity related to trapezoidal structures at Lepenski Vir significantly compresses Srejović's phase I. Thus, it is difficult to maintain the excavator's five subphases which, similarly to Ivana Radovanović's more recent re-phasing of Lepenski Vir into I-1-3, remain largely guess works before more extensive and systematic dating of each building is accomplished along with statistical modeling in order to narrow the magnitude of error. On the whole, new dates from these contexts better correspond with Srejović's stratigraphic logic of sequencing buildings to particular phases on the basis of their superimposing and cutting than with Radovanović's stylistic logic, i.e. her typology of hearth forms, ash-places, entrance platforms, and presence/absence of -supports around rectangular hearths used as reliable chronological indicators. The short chronological span for phase I also suggests that phase Lepenski Vir II is not realistic. This has already been shown by overlapping plans of the phase I buildings and stone outlines that the excavator of the site attributed to Lepenski Vir II phase. According to Srejović, Lepenski Vir phase II was characterized by buildings with stone walls made in the shape of trapezes, repeating the outline of supposedly earlier limestone floors of his

  11. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  12. The Absolute Shielding Constants of Heavy Nuclei: Resolving the Enigma of the (119)Sn Absolute Shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Elena; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Demissie, Taye B; Ruud, Kenneth

    2013-02-07

    We demonstrate that the apparent disagreement between experimental determinations and four-component relativistic calculations of the absolute shielding constants of heavy nuclei is due to the breakdown of the commonly assumed relation between the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the NMR shielding constants. We demonstrate that this breakdown has significant consequences for the absolute shielding constant of (119)Sn, leading to errors of about 1000 ppm. As a consequence, we expect that many absolute shielding constants of heavy nuclei will be in need of revision.

  13. Trapped individual ion at absolute zero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Dehmelt, Hans; Nagourney, Warren

    1989-01-01

    Laser cooling and ion trapping have progressed to such an extent that one can now speak of realizing a confined atom at absolute zero temperature. In this short publication, we analyze an experiment toward such realization using a single Ba+ ion in a miniature rf trap. The Ba+ ion is first laser-cooled to the limit where the ion spends most of its time in the zero-point energy state. Then a test sequence allows one to verify whether or not the ion is actually in its zero-point state. The test sequence may also serve as a device for state selection of an atom at absolute zero temperature. PMID:16594054

  14. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, E.M.; Juárez, A.M.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernández, L.; Antillón, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; González-Magaña, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A.M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    2015-01-01

    The photoionization of Cl + leading to Cl 2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5–28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl + ion beam with a photon beam of highly monochromatic synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The measured photoionization of Cl + consists of several autoionization resonances surperimposed on the direct photoionization signal. Most of the prominent resonances are assigned to members of Rydberg series originating from the singlet ground state and from metastable triplet levels within the ground-state configuration of Cl + . The direct ionization cross section is no larger than 12 Mb. - Highlights: • The single photoionization absolute cross section of Cl + ion was measured. • Numerous resonances were identified as belonging to Rydberg series. • A large population of the metastable Cl + ( 1 D 2 ) was identified. • Identified resulting Cl 2+ state terms correspond to 2 D 5/2 and 2 D 3/2

  15. Interpolation of uniformly absolutely continuous operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cobos, F.; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Opic, B.; Pick, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 286, 5-6 (2013), s. 579-599 ISSN 0025-584X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : uniformly absolutely continuous operators * interpolation * type of an interpolation method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ mana .201100205/full

  16. Absolute spectrophotometry of the β Lyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnashev, V.I.; Skul'skij, M.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    In 1974 an absolute spectrophotometry of β Lyr was performed with the scanning spectrophotometer in the 3300-7400 A range. The energy distribution in the β Lyr spectrum is obtained. The β Lyr model is proposed. It is shown, that the continuous spectrum of the β Lyr radiation can be presented by the total radiation of the B8 3 and A5 3 two stars and of the gaseous envelope with Te =20000 K

  17. Benzofuranoid and bicyclooctanoid neolignans:absolute configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, M.A. de; Giesbrecht, A.M.; Gottlieb, O.R.; Yoshida, M.

    1977-01-01

    The naturally occuring benzofuranoid and bicyclo (3,2,1) octanoid neolignans have their relative configurations established by 1 H and 13 C NMR, inclusively with aid of the solvent shift technique. Interconversion of the benzofuranoid type compounds, as well as for a benzofuranoid to a bicyclooctanoid derivate, make ORD correlations, ultimately with (2S, 3S) - and (2R,3R)-2,3- dihydrobenzofurans, possible, and led to the absolute configurations of both series of neolignans [pt

  18. Ensuring long-term stability of infrared camera absolute calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattnig, Alain; Thetas, Sophie; Primot, Jérôme

    2015-07-13

    Absolute calibration of cryogenic 3-5 µm and 8-10 µm infrared cameras is notoriously instable and thus has to be repeated before actual measurements. Moreover, the signal to noise ratio of the imagery is lowered, decreasing its quality. These performances degradations strongly lessen the suitability of Infrared Imaging. These defaults are often blamed on detectors reaching a different "response state" after each return to cryogenic conditions, while accounting for the detrimental effects of imperfect stray light management. We show here that detectors are not to be blamed and that the culprit can also dwell in proximity electronics. We identify an unexpected source of instability in the initial voltage of the integrating capacity of detectors. Then we show that this parameter can be easily measured and taken into account. This way we demonstrate that a one month old calibration of a 3-5 µm camera has retained its validity.

  19. Absolute dimensions and evolutionary status of UW CMa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, M.

    1978-01-01

    Photoelectric B and V light curves of close binary system UW Canis Majoris (08.5 If + O-B) are analysed. Combining the photoelectric elements and the spectroscopic orbit absolute dimensions of the system are determined. The mass of the bright primary (08.5 If) component is found to be 19.3 solar masses and that of the faint secondary to be 23.2 solar masses. The primary has filled the Roche lobe and it is 1 to 2 mag over-luminous for its mass. The massive secondary component is most likely a main sequence star. Comparison with the theoretical evolutionary models of massive close binary systems undergoing case A of mass exchange indicate that UW CMa is close to the contact stage of evolution. (author)

  20. Precise measurement of the absolute yield of fluorescence photons in atmospheric gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ave, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Giulio, C.; San Luis, P.F.; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J.R.; Hrabovský, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Monasor, M.; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Řídký, Jan; Rizi, V.; d´Orfeuil, B.R.; Salamida, F.; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    212-213, - (2011), s. 356-361 ISSN 0920-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016; GA AV ČR KJB100100904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : airfly * fluorescence photons * ultra-high energy cosmic rays Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics http://particle.astro.ru.nl/pub/NuclPhysB212-356.pdf

  1. A novel method for the absolute fluorescence yield measurement by AIRFLY

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ave, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Buonomo, B.; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 597, č. 1 (2008), s. 55-60 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : fluorescence * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.019, year: 2008

  2. Effective lactation yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Akke; Middelaar, van C.E.; Engel, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Kemp, B.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving

  3. Absolute coverage of the saturated cesium silicon interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, William Benjamin

    Metal/semiconductor interfaces are of great interest for a variety of reasons. They shed light on surface metal/semiconductor transitions, and they form Schottky barriers, which are of scientific as well as significant technological importance (primarily for the production of high speed, low-power logic circuitry). The cesium/silicon interfaces are of particular interest since the oxide forms a Negative Electron Affinity state. Cesium does not mix with the bulk silicon, so the interface is very abrupt, and the electronic structure of cesium is easier to understand than that of the transition metals. Further, cesium (like other alkali metals at room temperature) forms a single atomic layer on the various silicon faces and then the coverage saturates (i.e. atoms stop sticking to the surface). This makes the cesium/silicon interfaces ideal model systems of the metal/semiconductor interface. In spite of their importance, the detailed structures of the cesium saturated silicon faces are still uncertain. Numerous structural models have been proposed and many of them have quite different absolute coverages. Thus absolute coverage measurements can effectively distinguish between the various models. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) provides an ideal measurement of absolute coverage since its results can be directly interpreted without dependence upon any structural model. A new beam line has been set up on the Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter's tandem accelerator. The Ultrahigh Vacuum system is equipped with an Auger Electron Spectrometer, a Low Energy Electron Diffraction system, a retarding field method work function analyzer, a cesium doser, a Medium Energy Ion Scattering two dimensional toroidal analyzer and a Rutherford Backscattering: Spectrometry (RBS) solid state ion detector. It has been used to manufacture saturated Cs/Si(100)-2 x 1 and Cs/Si(111)-7 x 7 interfaces and measure their absolute coverage via RBS. The coverage for the Si

  4. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  5. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  6. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  7. Accurate absolute measurement of trapped Cs atoms in a MOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera O, M.; Lopez R, M.; Carlos L, E. de; Jimenez S, S.

    2007-01-01

    A Cs-133 Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) has been developed at the Time and Frequency Division of the Centro Nacional de Metrologia, CENAM, in Mexico. This MOT is part of a primary frequency standard based on ultra-cold Cs atoms, called CsF-1 clock, under development at CENAM. In this Cs MOT, we use the standard configuration (σ + - σ - ) 4-horizontal 2-vertical laser beams 1.9 cm in diameter, with 5 mW each. We use a 852 nm, 5 mW, DBR laser as a master laser which is stabilized by saturation spectroscopy. Emission linewidth of the master laser is l MHz. In order to amplify the light of the master laser, a 50 mW, 852 nm AlGaAs laser is used as slave laser. This slave laser is stabilized by light injection technique. A 12 MHz red shift of the light is performed by two double passes through two Acusto-Optic Modulators (AOMs). The optical part of the CENAMs MOT is very robust against mechanical vibration, acoustic noise and temperature changes in our laboratory, because none of our diode lasers use an extended cavity to reduce the linewidth. In this paper, we report results of our MOT characterization as a function of several operation parameters such as the intensity of laser beams, the laser beam diameter, the red shift of light, and the gradient of the magnetic field. We also report accurate absolute measurement of the number of Cs atoms trapped in our Cs MOT. We found up to 6 x 10 7 Cs atoms trapped in our MOT measured with an uncertainty no greater than 6.4%. (Author)

  8. Simulation of oil palm growth and yield.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraalingen, van D.W.G.; Breure, C.J.; Spitters, C.J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented to simulate growth and yield formation of oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) in dependence of weather data and plant characteristics. From incoming amounts of light, light interception of the foliage and photosynthetic characteristics of individual leaflets, daily rates

  9. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, ''A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set

  10. Concept of white light in stage lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Mauricio R.

    2002-06-01

    In perceiving objects, generally we see them in a white light situation. But, actually, there is not an absolute white, in such a manner that the different light sources have a determined kind of white, what it is known as color temperature. Even the white light may be of different kinds (different color temperature), the individual mind tends to perceive it as the same kind of white, that is to say, there is in our mind a psychological function by which we operate an integration in the perception in order to do the object perceptually invariable. On the other hand, it is a common practice in stage lighting to use color light sources. It is a well known phenomenon that a color of light produces a change in the object color perception. However, when we go to theater, we see the objects as having their real color, even if the lighting is not white. In this paper the concept of white light in stage lighting is presented, showing its possibilities of aesthetical expression.

  11. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  12. Application of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) absolute analysis method for silica refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Hideo; Yamada, Yasujiro; Kansai, Kouhei; Tomatsu, Ichirou; Murata, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a rapid and precise quantitative analytical method for the determination of major and trace elements in many industries and academics. XRF analytical values are relative due to the use of the calibration curves calculated from measuring the reference standard materials such as Japanese Refractory Reference Materials (JRRM) series with certified values determined by wet chemical analysis. The development of the XRF analytical method from relative to absolute analysis will help much to determine the absolute values of samples from the fields where reference standard samples have not been prepared, and thus can be applied widely in many industries. The implement of the absolute XRF analysis for silica refractories requires high purity reagents and/or reference standard solution for the binary basic calibration curve, and theoretical matrix correction coefficients for the multi-components silica refractories analysis. The reproducibility and repeatability of this method for Al 2 O 3 5 mass% sample were 0.009 and 0.006 mass% in Al 2 O 3 and showed better values that those of ICP-AES recognized as an absolute method in JIS R 2212-2, which yielded 0.028 and 0.031 mass%, respectively. The XRF absolute analysis for JRRM 200 series, 201a and 205a does not show a bias but coincides with their certified values. (author)

  13. Absolute and Relative Time-Consistent Revealed Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    T. DEMUYNCK

    2007-01-01

    We introduce an Absolute (Relative) Time-consistent Axiom of Revealed Preference which characterizes the consistency of a choice function with the property of absolute (relative) time-consistency and impatience. The axiom requires that the absolute (relative) time-consistent and impatient closure of the revealed preference relation does not conflict with the strict revealed preference relation.

  14. Absolute ion hydration enthalpies from absolute hardness and some VBT relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Savaş; Fernandes de Farias, Robson

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, absolute hydration enthalpies are calculated from ion absolute hardness for a series of +1 and -1 ions. The calculated values are compared with those previously reported (Housecroft, 2017) [2] and relationships between Vm-1/3 and absolute hardness are stablished. The following empirical equations have been derived, for cations and anions, respectively: ΔhydHo = -(9.645 η+ + 245.930) and ΔhydHo = -(64.601 η- + 12.321). In such equations, η+ and η- are the absolute hardness. It is shown that for d block monocations (Cu+, Ag+ and Au+), hydration enthalpy is closely related with Clementi effective nuclear charge by the equation: ΔhydHo = -(9.645 η+ + 245.930) (Zeff/(n - 1)), where n is the main quantum number. Furthermore, is shown that a typical VBT parameter (Vm-1/3) is related with η+ and η- values and so, with the energies of the frontier orbitals, that is, is stablished a direct relationship between a structural parameter available by X-ray data and the energy of atomic/molecular orbitals.

  15. Absolute beam current monitoring in endstation c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochna, C.

    1995-01-01

    The first few experiments at CEBAF require approximately 1% absolute measurements of beam currents expected to range from 10-25μA. This represents errors of 100-250 nA. The initial complement of beam current monitors are of the non intercepting type. CEBAF accelerator division has provided a stripline monitor and a cavity monitor, and the authors have installed an Unser monitor (parametric current transformer or PCT). After calibrating the Unser monitor with a precision current reference, the authors plan to transfer this calibration using CW beam to the stripline monitors and cavity monitors. It is important that this be done fairly rapidly because while the gain of the Unser monitor is quite stable, the offset may drift on the order of .5μA per hour. A summary of what the authors have learned about the linearity, zero drift, and gain drift of each type of current monitor will be presented

  16. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  17. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  18. MLU and IPSyn measuring absolute complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Nieminen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the results of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU and Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn with the structural complexity of spontaneous utterances produced by 30-month-old Finnish children in a semi-structured playing situation. The comparison was carried out in order to determine the aspects of structural complexity which can be detected with MLU and IPSyn. This research adopts the frameworks of absolute complexity together with a multidimensional view of utterance structure and, furthermore, applies it through Utterance Analysis (UA. The results of the comparison between the metrics and changes in structural complexity discovered by UA reveal that MLU and IPSyn do function as measures of structural complexity but only if used in close relation to each other. Because they focus on different aspects of utterances, the results of both metrics should be interpreted in relation to one another.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa5.11

  19. WHY DOES LEIBNIZ NEED ABSOLUTE TIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLÁS VAUGHAN C.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este ensayo pongo en contraposición dos doctrinas conspicuamenteleibnicianas: la doctrina del tiempo relacional e ideal, y la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida. Argumentaré que si todas las substancias están necesariamentecoordinadas, entonces no tiene sentido negar el carácter absoluto y real del tiempo. En la primera sección describiré la concepción newtoniana y clarkeana del tiempo absoluto; en la segunda discutiré la crítica leibniciana a dicha concepción, crítica sobre la que se erige su doctrina relacional e ideal del tiempo; en la tercera sección daré un vistazo a la metafísica monádica madura de Leibniz, haciendo especial énfasis en la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida; finalmente, en la última sección sugeriré la existencia de una tensión irreconciliable entre estas dos doctrinas.Abstract: In this paper I bring together two characteristically Leibnizean doctrines:the doctrine of relational and ideal time, and the doctrine of preestablished harmony. I will argue that, if every substance is necessarily connected with another, then it makes no sense to deny absolute and real time. In the first section, I will describe Newton’s and Clarke’s conception of absolute time; then, in the second section, I will consider Leibniz’s critique of that conception, on which he bases his ideal and relational doctrine of time. In the third section I will look briefly at Leibniz’s mature monadic metaphysics, taking special account of his doctrine of preestablished harmony. In the last section, I will suggest that there is an irreconcilable tension between these two doctrines.

  20. Status of fission product yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuninghame, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The topics covered in this paper are: (a) cumulative yields in thermal neutron fission and in fast fission up to 14 MeV incident neutron energy, (b) dependence of the yields on incident neutron energy and spectrum, (c) independent yields, (d) charge dispersion and distribution, and (e) yields of light particles from ternary fission. The paper reviews information on these subjects for fission of actinides from 232 Th upwards with special emphasis on data published since the 1973 Bologna FPND Panel, compares data sets, and discusses the gaps still to be found in them. (author)

  1. iPhone 4s photoplethysmography: which light color yields the most accurate heart rate and normalized pulse volume using the iPhysioMeter Application in the presence of motion artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Matsumura

    Full Text Available Recent progress in information and communication technologies has made it possible to measure heart rate (HR and normalized pulse volume (NPV, which are important physiological indices, using only a smartphone. This has been achieved with reflection mode photoplethysmography (PPG, by using a smartphone's embedded flash as a light source and the camera as a light sensor. Despite its widespread use, the method of PPG is susceptible to motion artifacts as physical displacements influence photon propagation phenomena and, thereby, the effective optical path length. Further, it is known that the wavelength of light used for PPG influences the photon penetration depth and we therefore hypothesized that influences of motion artifact could be wavelength-dependant. To test this hypothesis, we made measurements in 12 healthy volunteers of HR and NPV derived from reflection mode plethysmograms recorded simultaneously at three different spectral regions (red, green and blue at the same physical location with a smartphone. We then assessed the accuracy of the HR and NPV measurements under the influence of motion artifacts. The analyses revealed that the accuracy of HR was acceptably high with all three wavelengths (all rs > 0.996, fixed biases: -0.12 to 0.10 beats per minute, proportional biases: r =  -0.29 to 0.03, but that of NPV was the best with green light (r = 0.791, fixed biases: -0.01 arbitrary units, proportional bias: r = 0.11. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio obtained with green and blue light PPG was higher than that of red light PPG. These findings suggest that green is the most suitable color for measuring HR and NPV from the reflection mode photoplethysmogram under motion artifact conditions. We conclude that the use of green light PPG could be of particular benefit in ambulatory monitoring where motion artifacts are a significant issue.

  2. Hyperspectral interferometry for single-shot absolute measurement of 3-D shape and displacement fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz P. D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method that we call Hyperspectral Interferometry (HSI to resolve the 2π phase unwrapping problem in the analysis of interferograms recorded with a narrow-band light source. By using a broad-band light source and hyperspectral imaging system, a set of interferograms at different wavenumbers are recorded simultaneously on a high resolution image sensor. These are then assembled to form a three-dimensional intensity distribution. By Fourier transformation along the wavenumber axis, an absolute optical path difference is obtained for each pixel independently of the other pixels in the field of view. As a result, interferograms with spatially distinct regions are analysed as easily as continuous ones. The approach is illustrated with a HSI system to measure 3-D profiles of optically smooth or rough surfaces. Compared to existing profilometers able to measure absolute path differences, the single shot nature of the approach provides greater immunity from environmental disturbance.

  3. Measurement of absolute photo-ionization cross sections using magnesium magneto-optical traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, D.N.; Thomsen, J.W. [Niels Bohr Institute, Oersted Laboratory, Copenhagen (Denmark)]. E-mail: jwt@fys.ku.dk

    2002-05-14

    This paper reports on an experimental study of resonant photo-ionization of the 3s3p {sup 1}P{sub 1} level of magnesium using near-resonant light at 285 nm. We extract an absolute photo-ionization cross section of (8.1{+-}2.3)x10{sup -17} cm{sup 2} using a magneto-optical trap and compare this value to current theoretical calculations. We find good agreement between theory and experiment. (author)

  4. Hot spots of wheat yield decline with rising temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseng, Senthold; Cammarano, Davide; Basso, Bruno; Chung, Uran; Alderman, Phillip D; Sonder, Kai; Reynolds, Matthew; Lobell, David B

    2017-06-01

    Many of the irrigated spring wheat regions in the world are also regions with high poverty. The impacts of temperature increase on wheat yield in regions of high poverty are uncertain. A grain yield-temperature response function combined with a quantification of model uncertainty was constructed using a multimodel ensemble from two key irrigated spring wheat areas (India and Sudan) and applied to all irrigated spring wheat regions in the world. Southern Indian and southern Pakistani wheat-growing regions with large yield reductions from increasing temperatures coincided with high poverty headcounts, indicating these areas as future food security 'hot spots'. The multimodel simulations produced a linear absolute decline of yields with increasing temperature, with uncertainty varying with reference temperature at a location. As a consequence of the linear absolute yield decline, the relative yield reductions are larger in low-yielding environments (e.g., high reference temperature areas in southern India, southern Pakistan and all Sudan wheat-growing regions) and farmers in these regions will be hit hardest by increasing temperatures. However, as absolute yield declines are about the same in low- and high-yielding regions, the contributed deficit to national production caused by increasing temperatures is higher in high-yielding environments (e.g., northern India) because these environments contribute more to national wheat production. Although Sudan could potentially grow more wheat if irrigation is available, grain yields would be low due to high reference temperatures, with future increases in temperature further limiting production. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Absolute densities, masses, and radii of the WASP-47 system determined dynamically

    OpenAIRE

    Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonfils, X.; Udry, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a self-consistent modelling of the available light curve and radial velocity data of WASP-47 that takes into account the gravitational interactions between all known bodies in the system. The joint analysis of light curve and radial velocity data in a multi-planetary system allows deriving absolute densities, radii, and masses without the use of theoretical stellar models. For WASP-47 the precision is limited by the reduced dynamical information that is due to the short time span o...

  6. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  7. Luminescence and light yield of (Gd.sub.2./sub.Y)(Ga.sub.3./sub.Al.sub.2./sub.)O.sub.12./sub.:Pr.sup.3+./sup. single crystal scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lertloypanyachai, P.; Pathumrangsan, N.; Sreebunpeng, K.; Pattanaboonmee, N.; Chewpraditkul, W.; Yoshikawa, A.; Kamada, K.; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 468, Jun (2017), s. 369-372 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-15569S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : (Gd 2 Y)(Ga 3 Al 2 )O 12 :Pr 3+ * photoelectron yield * luminescence * scintillation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  8. Absolute Dimensions of Contact Binary Stars in Baade Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woon Kang

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The light curves of the representative 6 contact binary stars observed by OGLE Project of searching for dark matter in our Galaxy have been analyzed by the method of the Wilson and Devinney Differential Correction to find photometric solutions. The orbital inclinations of these binaries are in the range of 52 deg - 69 deg which is lower than that of the solar neighborhood binaries. The Roche lobe filling factor of these binaries are distributed in large range of 0.12 - 0.90. Since absence of spectroscopic observations for these binaries we have found masses of the 6 binary systems based on the intersection between Kepler locus and locus derived from Vandenberg isochrones in the mass - luminosity plane. Then absolute dimensions and distances have been found by combining the masses and the photometric solutions. The distances of the 6 binary systems are distributed in the range of 1 kpc - 6 kpc. This distance range is the limiting range where the contact binaries which have period shorter than a day are visible. Most contact binaries discovered in the Baade window do not belong to the Galactic bulge.

  9. Athermal fiber laser for the SWARM absolute scalar magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcault, W.; Léger, J.-M.; Costes, V.; Fratter, I.; Mondin, L.

    2017-11-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) developed by CEA-LETI/CNES is an optically pumped 4He magnetic field sensor based on the Zeeman effect and an electronic magnetic resonance whose effects are amplified by a laser pumping process [1-2]. Consequently, the role of the laser is to pump the 4He atoms at the D0 transition as well as to allow the magnetic resonance signal detection. The ASM will be the scalar magnetic reference instrument of the three ESA Swarm satellites to be launched in 2012 in order to carry out the best ever survey of the Earth magnetic field and its temporal evolution. The sensitivity and accuracy of this magnetometer based on 4He optical pumping depend directly on the characteristics of its light source, which is the key sub-system of the sensor. We describe in this paper the selected fiber laser architecture and its wavelength stabilization scheme. Its main performance in terms of spectral emission, optical power at 1083 nm and intensity noise characteristics in the frequency bands used for the operation of the magnetometer, are then presented. Environmental testing results (thermal vacuum cycling, vibrations, shocks and ageing) are also reported at the end of this paper.

  10. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  11. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Ahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1 A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2 To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4. Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  12. Absolute parameters of young stars: QZ Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. S. G.; Blackford, M.; Butland, R.; Budding, E.

    2017-09-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopy and BVR photometry together with literature data on the complex massive quaternary star QZ Car are collected and analysed. Absolute parameters are found as follows. System A: M1 = 43 (±3), M2 = 19 (+3 -7), R1 = 28 (±2), R2 = 6 (±2), (⊙); T1 ˜ 28 000, T2 ˜ 33 000 K; System B: M1 = 30 (±3), M2 = 20 (±3), R1 = 10 (±0.5), R2 = 20 (±1), (⊙); T1 ˜ 36 000, T2 ˜ 30 000 K (model dependent temperatures). The wide system AB: Period = 49.5 (±1) yr, Epochs, conjunction = 1984.8 (±1), periastron = 2005.3 (±3) yr, mean separation = 65 (±3), (au); orbital inclination = 85 (+5 -15) deg, photometric distance ˜2700 (±300) pc, age = 4 (±1) Myr. Other new contributions concern: (a) analysis of the timing of minima differences (O - C)s for the eclipsing binary (System B); (b) the width of the eclipses, pointing to relatively large effects of radiation pressure; (c) inferences from the rotational widths of lines for both Systems A and B; and (d) implications for theoretical models of early-type stars. While feeling greater confidence on the quaternary's general parametrization, observational complications arising from strong wind interactions or other, unclear, causes still inhibit precision and call for continued multiwavelength observations. Our high-inclination value for the AB system helps to explain failures to resolve the wide binary in the previous years. The derived young age independently confirms membership of QZ Car to the open cluster Collinder 228.

  13. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  14. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, S. M. Jawwad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

  15. Maximum photosynthetic yield of green microalgae in photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijffers, Jan-Willem F; Schippers, Klaske J; Zheng, Ke; Janssen, Marcel; Tramper, Johannes; Wijffels, René H

    2010-11-01

    The biomass yield on light energy of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlorella sorokiniana was investigated in a 1.25- and 2.15-cm light path panel photobioreactor at constant ingoing photon flux density (930 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹). At the optimal combination of biomass density and dilution rate, equal biomass yields on light energy were observed for both light paths for both microalgae. The observed biomass yield on light energy appeared to be based on a constant intrinsic biomass yield and a constant maintenance energy requirement per gram biomass. Using the model of Pirt (New Phytol 102:3-37, 1986), a biomass yield on light energy of 0.78 and 0.75 g mol photons⁻¹ and a maintenance requirement of 0.0133 and 0.0068 mol photons g⁻¹ h⁻¹ were found for D. tertiolecta and C. sorokiniana, respectively. The observed yield decreases steeply at low light supply rates, and according to this model, this is related to the increase of the amount of useable light energy diverted to biomass maintenance. With this study, we demonstrated that the observed biomass yield on light in short light path bioreactors at high biomass densities decreases because maintenance requirements are relatively high at these conditions. All our experimental data for the two strains tested could be described by the physiological models of Pirt (New Phytol 102:3-37, 1986). Consequently, for the design of a photobioreactor, we should maintain a relatively high specific light supply rate. A process with high biomass densities and high yields at high light intensities can only be obtained in short light path photobioreactors.

  16. High Yield Non-detergent Isolation of Photosystem I-Light-harvesting Chlorophyll II Membranes from Spinach Thylakoids: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF THE PS I ANTENNAE IN HIGHER PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Adam J; Frankel, Laurie K; Bricker, Terry M

    2015-07-24

    Styrene-maleic acid copolymer was used to effect a non-detergent partial solubilization of thylakoids from spinach. A high density membrane fraction, which was not solubilized by the copolymer, was isolated and was highly enriched in the Photosystem (PS) I-light-harvesting chlorophyll (LHC) II supercomplex and depleted of PS II, the cytochrome b6/f complex, and ATP synthase. The LHC II associated with the supercomplex appeared to be energetically coupled to PS I based on 77 K fluorescence, P700 photooxidation, and PS I electron transport light saturation experiments. The chlorophyll (Chl) a/b ratio of the PS I-LHC II membranes was 3.2 ± 0.9, indicating that on average, three LHC II trimers may associate with each PS I. The implication of these findings within the context of higher plant PS I antenna organization is discussed. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Mapping absolute tissue endogenous fluorophore concentrations with chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang; Reilley, Michael; Li, Run; Xu, Min

    2017-06-01

    We report chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy for imaging the spatial distribution and concentration of endogenous fluorophores in thin tissue sections. Nonnegative factorization aided by spatial diversity is used to learn both the spectral signature and the spatial distribution of endogenous fluorophores from microscopic fluorescence color images obtained under broadband excitation and detection. The absolute concentration map of individual fluorophores is derived by comparing the fluorescence from "pure" fluorophores under the identical imaging condition following the identification of the fluorescence species by its spectral signature. This method is then demonstrated by characterizing the concentration map of endogenous fluorophores (including tryptophan, elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide) for lung tissue specimens. The absolute concentrations of these fluorophores are all found to decrease significantly from normal, perilesional, to cancerous (squamous cell carcinoma) tissue. Discriminating tissue types using the absolute fluorophore concentration is found to be significantly more accurate than that achievable with the relative fluorescence strength. Quantification of fluorophores in terms of the absolute concentration map is also advantageous in eliminating the uncertainties due to system responses or measurement details, yielding more biologically relevant data, and simplifying the assessment of competing imaging approaches.

  18. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  19. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    ) information. Spatial variations and day-to-day changes in the visible oil concentration on the surface of the water were observed in performing these measurements. An assessment of the thermal imagery variation will be made based on the absolute calibration of the sensor to determine if the visible variation was due to properties of the reflected light or of the actual oil composition. Comparisons with satellite data (both SAR and thermal infrared images) and buoy data will also be included.

  20. Absolute total and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine at electron and proton intermediate impact velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail: wania@if.ufrj.br; Luna, Hugo; Sigaud, Lucas; Montenegro, Eduardo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PO 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tavares, Andre C. [Departamento de Física, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, PO 38071, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-02-14

    Absolute total non-dissociative and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine were measured for electron impact energies ranging from 70 to 400 eV and for proton impact energies from 125 up to 2500 keV. MOs ionization induced by coulomb interaction were studied by measuring both ionization and partial dissociative cross sections through time of flight mass spectrometry and by obtaining the branching ratios for fragment formation via a model calculation based on the Born approximation. The partial yields and the absolute cross sections measured as a function of the energy combined with the model calculation proved to be a useful tool to determine the vacancy population of the valence MOs from which several sets of fragment ions are produced. It was also a key point to distinguish the dissociation regimes induced by both particles. A comparison with previous experimental results is also presented.

  1. Quantifying discipline practices using absolute versus relative frequencies: clinical and research implications for child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne; Kolko, David J

    2014-01-01

    In the parent intervention outcome literatures, discipline practices are generally quantified as absolute frequencies or, less commonly, as relative frequencies. These differences in methodology warrant direct comparison as they have critical implications for study results and conclusions among treatments targeted at reducing parental aggression and harsh discipline. In this study, we directly compared the absolute frequency method and the relative frequency method for quantifying physically aggressive, psychologically aggressive, and nonaggressive discipline practices. Longitudinal data over a 3-year period came from an existing data set of a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a psychosocial treatment in reducing parental physical and psychological aggression and improving child behavior (N = 139). Discipline practices (aggressive and nonaggressive) were assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale. The two methods yielded different patterns of results, particularly for nonaggressive discipline strategies. We suggest that each method makes its own unique contribution to a more complete understanding of the association between parental aggression and intervention effects.

  2. Measurement of absolute neutron flux in LWSCR based on the nuclear track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghzadeh, J.; Nassiri Mofakham, N.; Khajehmiri, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Up to now the spectral parameters of thermal neutrons are measured with activation foils that are not always reliable in low flux systems. ► We applied a solid state nuclear track detector to measure the absolute neutron flux in the light water sub-critical reactor (LWSCR). ► Experiments concerning fission track detecting were performed and were investigated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. ► The neutron fluxes obtained in experiment are in fairly good agreement with the results obtained by MCNP. - Abstract: In the present paper, a solid state nuclear track detector is applied to measure the absolute neutron flux in the light water sub-critical reactor (LWSCR) in Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI). Up to now, the spectral parameters of thermal neutrons have been measured with activation foils that are not always reliable in low flux systems. The method investigated here is the irradiation method. Experiments concerning fission track detecting were performed. The experiment including neutron flux calculation method has also been investigated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The analysis shows that the values of neutron flux obtained by experiment are in fairly good agreement with the results obtained by MCNP. Thus, this method may be able to predict the absolute value of neutron flux at LWSCR and other similar reactors.

  3. Does Absolute Synonymy exist in Owere-Igbo? | Omego | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among Igbo linguistic researchers, determining whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo, a dialect of the Igbo language predominantly spoken by the people of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, has become a thorny issue. While some linguistic scholars strive to establish that absolute synonymy exists in the lexical ...

  4. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  5. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  6. Performance of a procedure for yield estimation in fruit orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aravena Zamora, Felipe; Potin, Camila; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio

    for fruit yield estimation. In the Spring of 2009 we estimated the total number of fruit in several rows in each of 14 commercial fruit orchards growing apple, kiwi, and table grapes in central Chile. Survey times were 10-100 minutes for apples, 85 minutes for table grapes, and up to 150 minutes for kiwis....... At harvest in the Fall, the fruit were counted to obtain the true yield. Yields ranged from lows of several thousand (grape bunches), to highs of more than 40 thousand fruit (apples, kiwis). In 11 orchards, true errors less than 10% were obtained. In two highly variable orchards we obtained absolute true...

  7. The Absolute, Relative and Multi-Wavelength Calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory Fluorescence Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapik, R.; Bauleo, P.; Becker, B.R.; Brack, J.; Caruso, R.; Fratte, C.Delle; Dorofeev, A.; Harton, J.; Insolia, A.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Menshikov, A.

    2007-08-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a 375 nm light source at the telescope aperture. This end-to-end technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The relative response has been measured at wavelengths of 320, 337, 355, 380 and 405 nm, defining a spectral response curve which has been normalized to the absolute calibration. Before and after each night of data taking a relative calibration of the phototubes is performed. This relative calibration is used to track both short and long term changes in the detector's response. A cross check of the calibration in some phototubes is performed using an independent laser technique. Overall uncertainties, current results and future plans are discussed.

  8. Simplified absolute phase retrieval of dual-frequency fringe patterns in fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin; Mo, Rong; Sun, Huibin; Chang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaxia

    2016-04-01

    In fringe projection profilometry, a simplified method is proposed to recover absolute phase maps of two-frequency fringe patterns by using a unique mapping rule. The mapping rule is designed from the rounded phase values to the fringe order of each pixel. Absolute phase can be recovered by the fringe order maps. Unlike the existing techniques, where the lowest frequency of dual- or multiple-frequency fringe patterns must be single, the presented method breaks the limitation and simplifies the procedure of phase unwrapping. Additionally, due to many issues including ambient light, shadow, sharp edges, step height boundaries and surface reflectivity variations, a novel framework of automatically identifying and removing invalid phase values is also proposed. Simulations and experiments have been carried out to validate the performances of the proposed method.

  9. Communication: Probing the absolute configuration of chiral molecules at aqueous interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotze, Stephan, E-mail: lotze@amolf.nl; Versluis, Jan [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Schijndel, Luuk van; Milroy, Lech G.; Voets, Ilja K. [Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Bakker, Huib J., E-mail: bakker@amolf.nl [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-11-28

    We demonstrate that the enantiomers of chiral macromolecules at an aqueous interface can be distinguished with monolayer sensitivity using heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG). We perform VSFG spectroscopy with a polarization combination that selectively probes chiral molecular structures. By using frequencies far detuned from electronic resonances, we probe the chiral macromolecular structures with high surface specificity. The phase of the sum-frequency light generated by the chiral molecules is determined using heterodyne detection. With this approach, we can distinguish right-handed and left-handed helical peptides at a water-air interface. We thus show that heterodyne-detected VSFG is sensitive to the absolute configuration of complex, interfacial macromolecules and has the potential to determine the absolute configuration of enantiomers at interfaces.

  10. Yield and yield component analysis of twelve upland rice genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple correlation and path coefficient analysis were used to study yield and yield components. Genotypic stability analysis was performed on the yield and the two traits most related to yield using mean yield-coefficient of variation (CV). The genotype, ITA 324 had the highest grain yield and percentage fertile spikelets in ...

  11. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces. Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage.

  12. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces.Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage.

  13. Incorrect Weighting of Absolute Performance in Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Scott A.; Cozzarin, Brian

    Students spend much of their life in an attempt to assess their aptitude for numerous tasks. For example, they expend a great deal of effort to determine their academic standing given a distribution of grades. This research finds that students use their absolute performance, or percentage correct as a yardstick for their self-assessment, even when relative standing is much more informative. An experiment shows that this reliance on absolute performance for self-evaluation causes a misallocation of time and financial resources. Reasons for this inappropriate responsiveness to absolute performance are explored.

  14. Red and NIR light dosimetry in the human deep brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, A; Lovisa, B; Seydoux, O; Zellweger, M; Pfleiderer, M; Tardy, Y; Wagnières, G

    2015-04-07

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) appears promising to treat the hallmarks of Parkinson's Disease (PD) in cellular or animal models. We measured light propagation in different areas of PD-relevant deep brain tissue during transcranial, transsphenoidal illumination (at 671 and 808 nm) of a cadaver head and modeled optical parameters of human brain tissue using Monte-Carlo simulations. Gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, ventricles, thalamus, pons, cerebellum and skull bone were processed into a mesh of the skull (158 × 201 × 211 voxels; voxel side length: 1 mm). Optical parameters were optimized from simulated and measured fluence rate distributions. The estimated μeff for the different tissues was in all cases larger at 671 than at 808 nm, making latter a better choice for light delivery in the deep brain. Absolute values were comparable to those found in the literature or slightly smaller. The effective attenuation in the ventricles was considerably larger than literature values. Optimization yields a new set of optical parameters better reproducing the experimental data. A combination of PBM via the sphenoid sinus and oral cavity could be beneficial. A 20-fold higher efficiency of light delivery to the deep brain was achieved with ventricular instead of transcranial illumination. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to illuminate deep brain tissues transcranially, transsphenoidally and via different application routes. This opens therapeutic options for sufferers of PD or other cerebral diseases necessitating light therapy.

  15. Prognostic Value of Absolute versus Relative Rise of Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maternal outcome than a relative rise in the systolic/diastolic blood pressure from mid pregnancy, which did not reach this absolute level. We conclude that in the Nigerian obstetric population, the practice of diagnosing pregnancy hypertension on ...

  16. Efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol in unrespectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, J.I.; Hameed, K.; Khan, I.U.; Shah, S.

    2001-01-01

    To determine efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection in researchable hepatocellular carcinoma. A randomized, controlled, experimental and interventional clinical trial. Gastroenterology Department, PGMI, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar during the period from June, 1998 to June, 2000. Thirty patients were treated by percutaneous, intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection sin repeated sessions, 33 patients were not given or treated with alcohol to serve as control. Both the groups were comparable for age, sex and other baseline characteristics. Absolute alcohol therapy significantly improved quality of life of patients, reduced the tumor size and mortality as well as showed significantly better results regarding survival (P< 0.05) than the patients of control group. We conclude that absolute alcohol is a beneficial and safe palliative treatment measure in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (author)

  17. Changes in Absolute Sea Level Along U.S. Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows changes in absolute sea level from 1960 to 2016 based on satellite measurements. Data were adjusted by applying an inverted barometer (air pressure)...

  18. On the photosynthetic and devlopmental responses of leaves to the spectral composition of light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: action spectrum, artificial solar spectrum, blue light, Cucumis sativus, gas-exchange, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), light interception, light quality, non-photosynthetic pigments, photo-synthetic capacity, photomorphogenesis, photosystem excitation balance, quantum yield, red light.

  19. On the photosynthetic and devlopmental responses of leaves to the spectral composition of light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: action spectrum, artificial solar spectrum, blue light, Cucumis sativus, gas-exchange, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), light interception, light quality, non-photosynthetic pigments, photo-synthetic capacity, photomorphogenesis, photosystem excitation balance, quantum yield, red light. A

  20. Calculating Absolute Transition Probabilities for Deformed Nuclei in the Rare-Earth Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratman, Anne; Casarella, Clark; Aprahamian, Ani

    2017-09-01

    Absolute transition probabilities are the cornerstone of understanding nuclear structure physics in comparison to nuclear models. We have developed a code to calculate absolute transition probabilities from measured lifetimes, using a Python script and a Mathematica notebook. Both of these methods take pertinent quantities such as the lifetime of a given state, the energy and intensity of the emitted gamma ray, and the multipolarities of the transitions to calculate the appropriate B(E1), B(E2), B(M1) or in general, any B(σλ) values. The program allows for the inclusion of mixing ratios of different multipolarities and the electron conversion of gamma-rays to correct for their intensities, and yields results in absolute units or results normalized to Weisskopf units. The code has been tested against available data in a wide range of nuclei from the rare earth region (28 in total), including 146-154Sm, 154-160Gd, 158-164Dy, 162-170Er, 168-176Yb, and 174-182Hf. It will be available from the Notre Dame Nuclear Science Laboratory webpage for use by the community. This work was supported by the University of Notre Dame College of Science, and by the National Science Foundation, under Contract PHY-1419765.

  1. Absolute Continuity of Stable Foliations for Mappings of Banach Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Alex; Young, Lai-Sang

    2017-09-01

    We prove the absolute continuity of stable foliations for mappings of Banach spaces satisfying conditions consistent with time- t maps of certain classes of dissipative PDEs. This property is crucial for passing information from submanifolds transversal to the stable foliation to the rest of the phase space; it is also used in proofs of ergodicity. Absolute continuity of stable foliations is well known in finite dimensional hyperbolic theory. On Banach spaces, the absence of nice geometric properties poses some additional difficulties.

  2. Long Term Evaluation of Yield Stability Trend for Cereal Crops in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi nassiri mahalati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades cereals yield have increased drastically at the national level however, information about yield stability and its resistance to annual environmental variability are scare. In this study long term stability of grin yield of wheat, barley, rice, corn and overall cereals in Iran were evaluated during a 40-year period (1971-2011. Stability analysis was conducted using two different methods. In the first method the residuals of regression between crop yield and time (years were calculated as stability index. For this different segmented regression models including linear, bi-linear and tri-linear were fitted to yield trend data and the best model for each crop was selected based on statistical measures. Absolute residuals (the difference between actual and predicted yields for each year as well as relative residuals (absolute residuals as percent of predicted yield were estimated. In the second method yield stability was estimated from the slope of the regression line between average annual yield of all cereals (environmental index and the yield of each crop in the same year. Results indicted that in wheat and barley absolute and relative residuals were increased during the study period leading to reduction of stability despite considerable yield increment. However, for rice and corn residuals followed a decreasing trend and therefore yield stability of these crops was increased during the last 40 years. The same result was obtained with the environmental index but in this method reduction of yield stability in barley was lower than wheat. Based on the results, yield and yield stability of cereals crops in Iran increased during the last 40 years. However, the percentage increase in stability is lower than that of yield. Application of nitrogen fertilizers was led to reduction in stability. Yield stability of wheat, barley, rice, corn and overall cereals was improved with increasing their cultivated area.

  3. Absolute space-time and realism in Lorentz invariant interpretations of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combourieu, Marie-Christine; Vigier, Jean-Pierre

    1993-04-01

    The assertion that Lorentz invariance must necessarily be violated in models aimed at giving a realistic account of quantum theory is shown to be incorrect. Assuming that an absolute curved system ofaxes forms the envelope of Local inertial frames where the 2.7 K radiation field as the preferred frame is isotropic, we demonstrate that Lorentz invariance, as well as covariance, stil apply to quantum mechanics in all frames of reference whenever Einstein and de Broglie's theory of light, recently revisited by Vigier [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 18 (1990) 64; in: Proc. ISQM-SAT Conf.], is considered.

  4. Measurement of the Absolute Proton and Helium Flux at the Top of the Atmosphere using IMAX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menn, W.; Hof, M.; Reimer, O.

    1996-01-01

    The balloon-borne experiment IMAX launched from Lynn Lake, Canada in 1992 has been used to measure the cosmic ray proton and helium spectra from 0.2 GV to approximately 100 GV. The IMAX apparatus was designed to search for antiprotons and light isotopes using a superconducting magnet spectrometer...... with ancillary scintillators, time-of-flight, and aerogel cherenkov detectors. High resolution drift chambers and MWPCs were used as the tracking devices. Using redundant detectors, an extensive examination of the instrument efficiency was carried out. We present the absolute spectra of protons and helium...

  5. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  6. Narrowband Compton Scattering Yield Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykovanov, Sergey; Seipt, Daniel; Kharin, Vasily

    2017-10-01

    Compton Scattering (CS) of laser light off high-energy electrons is a well-established source of X- and gamma-rays for applications in medicine, biology, nuclear and material sciences. Main advantage of CS photon sources is the possibility to generate narrow spectra as opposed to a broad continuum obtained when utilizing Bremsstrahlung. However, due to the low cross-section of the linear process, the total photon yield is quite low. The most straightforward way to increase the number of photon-electron beam scattering events is to increase the laser pulse intensity at the interaction point by harder focusing. This leads to an unfortunate consequence. Increase in the laser pulse normalized amplitude a0, leads to additional ponderomotive spectrum broadening of the scattered radiation. The ponderomotive broadening is caused by the v × B force, which slows the electron down near the peak of the laser pulse where the intensity is high, and can be neglected near the wings of the pulse, where the intensity is low. We show that laser pulse chirping, both nonlinear (laser pulse frequency ''following'' the envelope of the pulse) and linear, leads to compensation of the ponderomotive broadening and considerably enhances the yield of the nonlinear Compton sources. Work supported by the Helmholtz Association via Helmholtz Young Investigators Grant (VH-NG-1037).

  7. Absolute flatness measurements of silicon mirrors by a three-intersection method by near-infrared interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Absolute flatness of three silicon plane mirrors have been measured by a three-intersection method based on the three-flat method using a near-infrared interferometer. The interferometer was constructed using a near-infrared laser diode with a 1,310-nm wavelength light where the silicon plane mirror is transparent. The height differences at the coordinate values between the absolute line profiles by the three-intersection method have been evaluated. The height differences of the three flats were 4.5 nm or less. The three-intersection method using the near-infrared interferometer was useful for measuring the absolute flatness of the silicon plane mirrors. PMID:23758916

  8. Creation of tunable absolute bandgaps in a two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystal modulated by a nematic liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chenyang

    2008-01-01

    Photonic crystals (PCs) have many potential applications because of their ability to control light-wave propagation. We have investigated the tunable absolute bandgap in a two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystal structures modulated by a nematic liquid crystal. The PC structure composed of an anisotropic-dielectric cylinder in the liquid crystal medium is studied by solving Maxwell's equations using the plane wave expansion method. The photonic band structures are found to exhibit absolute bandgaps for the square and triangular lattices. Numerical simulations show that the absolute bandgaps can be continuously tuned in the square and triangular lattices consisting of anisotropic-dielectric cylinders by infiltrating nematic liquid crystals. Such a mechanism of bandgap adjustment should open up a new application for designing components in photonic integrated circuits

  9. Comparative timber-yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. T. Haig

    1932-01-01

    During the last decade the U. S. Forest Service and several of the forest schools have completed rather comprehensive studies of the growth and yield of a number of commercially important native conifers. As the majority of these studies show the volumes obtainable in fully-stocked stands to very similar standards of utilization, they furnish an excellent opportunity...

  10. Crop yields in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Intercropping, the cultivation of two or more crop species simultaneously in the same field, has been widely practiced by smallholder farmers in developing countries and is gaining increasing interest in developed countries. Intercropping can increase the yield per unit

  11. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have stable, not too short crop duration with ... Ndiaye is located in the. Costal Delta region of Senegal. The climate of the Delta is characterized by a wet season from July to October with approximately. 200 mm of ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant height of 16 rice.

  12. Coherent effects in semiconductor light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, M.; Jahnke, Frank; Hoyer, W.; Koch, Stephan W.

    2000-03-01

    Coherent signatures in the semiconductor light emission are studied using a fully quantum mechanical theory for the system of photons and Coulomb interacting electron-hole pairs. The dominant light-matter correlations couple the semiconductor Bloch and luminescence equations yielding significant quantum corrections. A coherent excitation leads to squeezing of the emitted light as well as to entanglement between light and matter.

  13. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  14. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tobacco manufacturers label “light,” “low,” or “mild.” Tobacco advertisements once implied that “low-yield” cigarettes were safer ... take in more nicotine. 1,5,6,7 Many smokers block the ventilation holes, thus inhaling more ...

  15. Brazilian Soybean Yields and Yield Gaps Vary with Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.

  16. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  17. Misconceptions in recent papers on special relativity and absolute space theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, D. G.; Kolen, P.

    1982-01-01

    Several recent papers which purport to substantiate or negate arguments in favor of certain theories of absolute space have been based on fallacious principles. This paper discusses three related instances, indicating where misconceptions have arisen. It is established, contrary to popular belief, that the classical Lorentz ether theory accounts for all the experimental evidence which supports the special theory of relativity. It is demonstrated that the ether theory predicts the null results obtained from pulsar timing and Moessbauer experiments. It is concluded that a measurement of the one-way velocity of light has physical meaning within the context of the Lorentz theory, and it is argued that an adequately designed experiment to measure the one-way velocity of light should be attempted.

  18. Absolute Navigation Information Estimation for Micro Planetary Rovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilyas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides algorithms to estimate absolute navigation information, e.g., absolute attitude and position, by using low power, weight and volume Microelectromechanical Systems-type (MEMS sensors that are suitable for micro planetary rovers. Planetary rovers appear to be easily navigable robots due to their extreme slow speed and rotation but, unfortunately, the sensor suites available for terrestrial robots are not always available for planetary rover navigation. This makes them difficult to navigate in a completely unexplored, harsh and complex environment. Whereas the relative attitude and position can be tracked in a similar way as for ground robots, absolute navigation information, unlike in terrestrial applications, is difficult to obtain for a remote celestial body, such as Mars or the Moon. In this paper, an algorithm called the EASI algorithm (Estimation of Attitude using Sun sensor and Inclinometer is presented to estimate the absolute attitude using a MEMS-type sun sensor and inclinometer, only. Moreover, the output of the EASI algorithm is fused with MEMS gyros to produce more accurate and reliable attitude estimates. An absolute position estimation algorithm has also been presented based on these on-board sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite for low-cost and low-weight micro planetary rovers.

  19. Relative and absolute risk in epidemiology and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, R.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The health risk from ionizing radiation commonly is expressed in two forms: (1) the relative risk, which is the percentage increase in natural disease rate and (2) the absolute or attributable risk which represents the difference between the natural rate and the rate associated with the agent in question. Relative risk estimates for ionizing radiation generally are higher than those expressed as the absolute risk. This raises the question of which risk estimator is the most appropriate under different conditions. The absolute risk has generally been used for radiation risk assessment, although mathematical combinations such as the arithmetic or geometric mean of both the absolute and relative risks, have also been used. Combinations of the two risk estimators are not valid because the absolute and relative risk are not independent variables. Both human epidemiologic studies and animal experimental data can be found to illustrate the functional relationship between the natural cancer risk and the risk associated with radiation. This implies that the radiation risk estimate derived from one population may not be appropriate for predictions in another population, unless it is adjusted for the difference in the natural disease incidence between the two populations

  20. Camera-based speckle noise reduction for 3-D absolute shape measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Kuschmierz, Robert; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-05-30

    Simultaneous position and velocity measurements enable absolute 3-D shape measurements of fast rotating objects for instance for monitoring the cutting process in a lathe. Laser Doppler distance sensors enable simultaneous position and velocity measurements with a single sensor head by evaluating the scattered light signals. The superposition of several speckles with equal Doppler frequency but random phase on the photo detector results in an increased velocity and shape uncertainty, however. In this paper, we present a novel image evaluation method that overcomes the uncertainty limitations due to the speckle effect. For this purpose, the scattered light is detected with a camera instead of single photo detectors. Thus, the Doppler frequency from each speckle can be evaluated separately and the velocity uncertainty decreases with the square root of the number of camera lines. A reduction of the velocity uncertainty by the order of one magnitude is verified by the numerical simulations and experimental results, respectively. As a result, the measurement uncertainty of the absolute shape is not limited by the speckle effect anymore.

  1. Optimized subsequent-annealing-free Ni/Ag based metallization contact to p-type GaN for vertical light emitting diodes with high yield and extremely low operating voltage (2.75 V@350 mA, >95%)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Ting; Wang, Liancheng; Guo, Enqing; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Teng; Guo, Jinxia; Yi, Xiaoyan; Li, Jing; Wang, Guohong

    2014-01-01

    A Ni/Ag based metallization contact to p-type GaN (p-GaN), free of a subsequent annealing process, was optimized to couple excellent optical reflectance (as high as 90% at 460 nm) and electrical characteristics (specific contact resistivity as low as 2.1 × 10 −5  Ω cm 2 ) simultaneously. Vertical light emitting diode devices with optimized Ni/Ag/Pt/Au contacts were fabricated, and they exhibited extremely low forward voltage (2.75 V@350 mA, approaching its corresponding theoretical limit) and light output power was improved by 35%. Chip-on-wafer mapping tests revealed significantly high yield and excellent uniformity across the wafer. X-ray diffraction results indicated improved crystalline quality and more favourable crystal orientation of Ni [1 1 1]∥Ag [1 1 1]∥GaN [0 0 0 2] at high deposition temperature. Auger electron spectroscopy profiles were used to examine the inter-diffusion of Ni/Ag atoms and Ga atoms in p-GaN, which led to the formation of a Ni/Ag–Ga alloy interface and the improvement of hole concentration in p-GaN. As a result, the chips' reliability and Ni/Ag-p-GaN contact characteristics were improved. (paper)

  2. Performance of a procedure for yield estimation in fruit orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aravena Zamora, Felipe; Potin, Camila; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio

    . At harvest in the Fall, the fruit were counted to obtain the true yield. Yields ranged from lows of several thousand (grape bunches), to highs of more than 40 thousand fruit (apples, kiwis). In 11 orchards, true errors less than 10% were obtained. In two highly variable orchards we obtained absolute true...... errors of about 20%. An analysis based on systematic sub-sampling of sample data across each sampling stage was used to determine how to distribute sampling effort to acheive the desired precision....

  3. Growth, phenological and yield responses of a bambara groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergence (up to 35 d after planting), plant height, leaf number, leaf area index, chlorophyll content index and stomatal conductance were measured in situ. Yield and components of yield were determined at harvest. The Red, Brown and Light Brown landrace selections emerged well (84%, 81% and 51%, respectively).

  4. Absolute marine gravimetry with matter-wave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, Y; Zahzam, N; Blanchard, C; Bonnin, A; Cadoret, M; Bresson, A; Rouxel, D; Lequentrec-Lalancette, M F

    2018-02-12

    Measuring gravity from an aircraft or a ship is essential in geodesy, geophysics, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, and navigation. Today, only relative sensors are available for onboard gravimetry. This is a major drawback because of the calibration and drift estimation procedures which lead to important operational constraints. Atom interferometry is a promising technology to obtain onboard absolute gravimeter. But, despite high performances obtained in static condition, no precise measurements were reported in dynamic. Here, we present absolute gravity measurements from a ship with a sensor based on atom interferometry. Despite rough sea conditions, we obtained precision below 10 -5  m s -2 . The atom gravimeter was also compared with a commercial spring gravimeter and showed better performances. This demonstration opens the way to the next generation of inertial sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope) based on atom interferometry which should provide high-precision absolute measurements from a moving platform.

  5. Adjustment and testing comparison of absolute gravimeters in November 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pešková

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on a comparison measurement processing of absolute gravimeters in 2013. The comparison deals with a number of various types of absolute gravimeters and includes also an absolute gravimeter from Geodetic observatory Pecný. Comparative measurements are performed to detect systematic errors of gravimeters. A result of processing is most likely value of a gravity and a systematic error of individual devices. Measured values are input to a adjustment with condition a sum of systematic errors is zero. A part of this process is also verification following output: (i value of a posteriori standard deviation, (ii size of corrections and (iii statistical significance of systematic errors. The results of adjustment are 15 gravity values on the reference places and 25 systematic errors of measuring instruments. Result shows that the presence of systematic errors in measurements is not statistically provable because the systematic errors are similarly sized as their standard deviation.

  6. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... and yield components in soybean under Bursa, Mustafakemalpaşa ecological conditions. Trials were conducted ... that increase in plant density and nitrogen rate increased plant height, lowest pod height, harvest index and seed yield. .... nitrogen doses, plant density and their interaction on yield and yield ...

  7. Origin of apparent viscosity in yield stress fluids below yielding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Møller, P.C.F.; Fall, A.; Bonn, D.

    2009-01-01

    For more than 20 years it has been debated if yield stress fluids are solid below the yield stress or actually flow; whether true yield stress fluids exist or not. Advocates of the true yield stress picture have demonstrated that the effective viscosity increases very rapidly as the stress is

  8. Overview of tritium fast-fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.

    1981-03-01

    Tritium production rates are very important to the development of fast reactors because tritium may be produced at a greater rate in fast reactors than in light water reactors. This report focuses on tritium production and does not evaluate the transport and eventual release of the tritium in a fast reactor system. However, if an order-of-magnitude increase in fast fission yields for tritium is confirmed, fission will become the dominant production source of tritium in fast reactors

  9. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander K R van Zon

    Full Text Available The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender.The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and

  10. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zon, Sander K R; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and health outcome

  11. Neural sensitivity to absolute and relative anticipated reward in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin G Vaidya

    Full Text Available Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards. This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude. While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing, adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity.

  12. Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Oliver, Bryan V.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D.; Maron, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast ( 2 /steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +/– 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement.

  13. Absolute pulse energy measurements of soft x-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tiedtke, K.; Sorokin, A. A.; Jastrow, U.; Juranić, P.; Kreis, S.; Gerken, N.; Richter, M.; Arp, U.; Feng, Y.; Nordlund, D.; Soufli, R.; Fernández-Perea, M.; Juha, Libor; Heimann, P.; Nagler, B.; Lee, H.J.; Mack, S.; Cammarata, M.; Krupin, O.; Messerschmidt, M.; Holmes, M.; Rowen, M.; Schlotter, W.; Moeller, S.; Turner, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 18 (2014), s. 21214-21226 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : soft x-ray * free electron laser * LCLS * instrumentation * measurement * metrology Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.488, year: 2014

  14. Clinical application of absolute ethanol as an embolizing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1982-01-01

    Transcatheter infusion of absolute ethanol was applied clinically in 3 cases of artificial embolization: 25 yrs old female with bilateral renal angiomyolipoma, 19 yrs old female with right paralumbar liposarcoma and 25 yrs old male with hypernephroma of right kidney. Selective or subselective manual infusion was made and 9 to 22 cc of pure ethanol was delivered in a speed of 1 to 2 cc per second. The sclerosing effect of absolute ethanol was potent. However, all 3 cases revealed mild post-embolization syndrome

  15. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  16. Absolute gain measurement by the image method under mismatched condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Baddour, Maurice F.

    1987-01-01

    Purcell's image method for measuring the absolute gain of an antenna is particularly attractive for small test antennas. The method is simple to use and utilizes only one antenna with a reflecting plane to provide an image for the receiving antenna. However, the method provides accurate results only if the antenna is matched to its waveguide. In this paper, a waveguide junction analysis is developed to determine the gain of an antenna under mismatched condition. Absolute gain measurements for two standard gain horn antennas have been carried out. Experimental results agree closely with published data.

  17. Absolute and conditional convergence within Sonora state municipalities, 1989- 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Bracamontes Neváre

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to identify the existence of convergence, absolut as muchas conditional, for the municipalities that conform the state of Sonora. Taking as abase the methodologic excercise of Mankiw, Romer and Weill (1992 that considersthe first model of Solow (1956 and makes an extension of it including thehuman capital, evidence shows that there is no tendency for poor municipalitiesto grow more quickly than rich municipalities, which means that there is no processof convergence –nor absolute or conditional– in the municipalities of Sonora,independently of the development layer in which these are classified: municipalitieswith high, average or low development.

  18. Total synthesis and absolute configuration of the marine norditerpenoid xestenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Koichiro; Kurokawa, Takao; Kawashima, Etsuko; Miyaoka, Hiroaki

    2009-11-24

    Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  19. Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyaoka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  20. Maximum Photosynthetic Yield of Green Microalgae in Photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijffers, J.F.; Schippers, K.J.; Ke Zheng,; Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    The biomass yield on light energy of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlorella sorokiniana was investigated in a 1.25- and 2.15-cm light path panel photobioreactor at constant ingoing photon flux density (930 µmol photons m-2¿s-1). At the optimal combination of biomass density and dilution rate, equal

  1. "Tangible Lights"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tor; Merritt, Timothy; Andersen, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    interaction with lighting technology beyond the smartphone and physical controllers. We examine the usefulness of the in-air gestural interaction style for lighting control. We bring forward "Tangible Lights", which serves as a novel interface for in-air interaction with lighting, drawing on existing...

  2. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  3. Triaxial testing beyond yielding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    This paper is continuation of work published at ISOPE 2015, where capabilities of undrained triaxial testing were presented. Now, drained loading is emphasized, recovery of disturbed sand properties is observed. After liquefying or yielding, sand becomes disturbed: stiffness and resistance...... to liquefaction become compromised. However, sand can "heal" itself. It can recover during drained deformation cycles. The recovery mechanism can be observed using a triaxial apparatus. Such tests are relevant for offshore, seismic, and other fields of engineering, where disturbed soil states are encountered....

  4. Iron sensitizer converts light to electrons with 92% yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlang, Tobias C. B.; Liu, Yizhu; Gordivska, Olga

    2015-01-01

    a thousand-fold longer than that of traditional iron polypyridyl complexes. By the use of electron paramagnetic resonance, transient absorption spectroscopy, transient terahertz spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations, we show that the iron complex generates photoelectrons in the conduction band...

  5. Absolute densities, masses, and radii of the WASP-47 system determined dynamically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonfils, X.; Udry, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a self-consistent modelling of the available light curve and radial velocity data of WASP-47 that takes into account the gravitational interactions between all known bodies in the system. The joint analysis of light curve and radial velocity data in a multi-planetary system allows deriving absolute densities, radii, and masses without the use of theoretical stellar models. For WASP-47 the precision is limited by the reduced dynamical information that is due to the short time span of the K2 light curve. We achieve a precision of around 22% for the radii of the star and the transiting planets, between 40% and 60% for their masses, and between 1.5% and 38% for their densities. All values agree with previously reported measurements. When theoretical stellar models are included, the system parameters are determined with a precision that exceeds that achieved by previous studies, thanks to the self-consistent modelling of light curve and radial velocity data.

  6. The dual rod system of amphibians supports colour discrimination at the absolute visual threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovanovich, Carola A M; Koskela, Sanna M; Nevala, Noora; Kondrashev, Sergei L; Kelber, Almut; Donner, Kristian

    2017-04-05

    The presence of two spectrally different kinds of rod photoreceptors in amphibians has been hypothesized to enable purely rod-based colour vision at very low light levels. The hypothesis has never been properly tested, so we performed three behavioural experiments at different light intensities with toads ( Bufo ) and frogs ( Rana ) to determine the thresholds for colour discrimination. The thresholds of toads were different in mate choice and prey-catching tasks, suggesting that the differential sensitivities of different spectral cone types as well as task-specific factors set limits for the use of colour in these behavioural contexts. In neither task was there any indication of rod-based colour discrimination. By contrast, frogs performing phototactic jumping were able to distinguish blue from green light down to the absolute visual threshold, where vision relies only on rod signals. The remarkable sensitivity of this mechanism comparing signals from the two spectrally different rod types approaches theoretical limits set by photon fluctuations and intrinsic noise. Together, the results indicate that different pathways are involved in processing colour cues depending on the ecological relevance of this information for each task.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  8. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of

  9. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises,…

  10. Mechanism for an absolute parametric instability of an inhomogeneous plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipenko, V. I.; Budnikov, V. N.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Romanchuk, I. A.; Simonchik, L. V.

    1984-05-01

    The structure of plasma oscillations in a region of parametric spatial amplification has been studied experimentally for the first time. A new mechanism for an absolute parametric instability has been observed. This mechanism operates when a pump wave with a spatial structure more complicated than a plane wave propagates through a plasma which is inhomogeneous along more than one dimension.

  11. Global Absolute Poverty: Behind the Veil of Dollars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global absolute poverty rates of the World Bank demonstrate a continued decline of poverty in developing countries between 1983 and 2012. However, the methodology applied to derive these results has received extensive criticism by scholars for requiring the application of PPP exchange rates and

  12. Global Absolute Poverty: Behind the Veil of Dollars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, M.

    2017-01-01

    The widely applied “dollar-a-day” methodology identifies global absolute poverty as declining precipitously since the early 80’s throughout the developing world. The methodological underpinnings of the “dollar-a-day” approach have been questioned in terms of adequately representing equivalent

  13. An improved generalized Newton method for absolute value equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingmei; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest and analyze an improved generalized Newton method for solving the NP-hard absolute value equations [Formula: see text] when the singular values of A exceed 1. We show that the global and local quadratic convergence of the proposed method. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method and the high accuracy of calculation.

  14. Multipliers for the absolute Euler summability of Fourier series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    (Math. Sci.), Vol. 111, No. 2, May 2001, pp. 203–219. Printed in India. Multipliers for the absolute Euler summability of Fourier series. PREM CHANDRA. School of Studies in Mathematics, Vikram University, Ujjain 456 010, India. MS received 30 December 1999; revised 30 October 2000. Abstract. In this paper, the author ...

  15. Predicting accurate absolute binding energies in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2015-01-01

    Recent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic. In this paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal...

  16. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. M. Jawwad Riaz

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Abstract. In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein–Smarr formula of the rotating. Banados–Teitelboim–Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system con- tributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the ...

  17. Multipliers for the Absolute Euler Summability of Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the author has investigated necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute Euler summability of the Fourier series with multipliers. These conditions are weaker than those obtained earlier by some workers. It is further shown that the multipliers are best possible in certain sense.

  18. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section 404.1205 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...) Employees of a State's political subdivision performing services in connection with that subdivision's...

  19. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  20. Dominated operators, absolutely summing operators and the strict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b(X;E) be the space of all E-valued bounded continuous functions on X, equipped with the strict topology β. We study dominated and absolutely summing operators T : Cb(X;E) → F. We derive that if X is a locally compact Hausdorff space and E ...

  1. NIST Stars: Absolute Spectrophotometric Calibration of Vega and Sirius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deustua, Susana; Woodward, John T.; Rice, Joseph P.; Brown, Steven W.; Maxwell, Stephen E.; Alberding, Brian G.; Lykke, Keith R.

    2018-01-01

    Absolute flux calibration of standard stars, traceable to SI (International System of Units) standards, is essential for 21st century astrophysics. Dark energy investigations that rely on observations of Type Ia supernovae and precise photometric redshifts of weakly lensed galaxies require a minimum accuracy of 0.5 % in the absolute color calibration. Studies that aim to address fundamental stellar astrophysics also benefit. In the era of large telescopes and all sky surveys well-calibrated standard stars that do not saturate and that are available over the whole sky are needed. Significant effort has been expended to obtain absolute measurements of the fundamental standards Vega and Sirius (and other stars) in the visible and near infrared, achieving total uncertainties between1% and 3%, depending on wavelength, that do not meet the needed accuracy. The NIST Stars program aims to determine the top-of-the-atmosphere absolute spectral irradiance of bright stars to an uncertainty less than 1% from a ground-based observatory. NIST Stars has developed a novel, fully SI-traceable laboratory calibration strategy that will enable achieving the desired accuracy. This strategy has two key components. The first is the SI-traceable calibration of the entire instrument system, and the second is the repeated spectroscopic measurement of the target star throughout the night. We will describe our experimental strategy, present preliminary results for Vega and Sirius and an end-to-end uncertainty budget

  2. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-04-01

    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional support for our model of enantioinduction in the palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ABSOLUTE GRAVITY METER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An absolute gravimeter which has been designed and constructed consists of a timing circuit which measures the time a body takes to fall between two points separated by a known distance. The time of fall and the known distance are used to calculate the acceleration of gravity at the point of experimentation.

  4. Absolutely continuous spectrum and spectral transition for some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Absolutely continuous spectrum and spectral transition for some continuous random operators. M KRISHNA. Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India. E-mail: krishna@imsc.res.in. MS received 28 February 2010; revised 6 June 2011. Dedicated to Barry Simon for his 65th birthday. Abstract.

  5. Frequency Windows of Absolute Negative Conductance in Josephson Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Machura, L.; Kostur, M.; Talkner, P.; Hanggi, P.; Luczka, J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on anomalous conductance in a resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction which is simultaneously driven by ac and dc currents. The dependence of the voltage across the junction on the frequency of the ac current shows windows of absolute negative conductance regimes, i.e. for a positive (negative) dc current, the voltage is negative (positive).

  6. Relative versus Absolute Stimulus Control in the Temporal Bisection Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinhiero; Machado, Armando

    2012-01-01

    When subjects learn to associate two sample durations with two comparison keys, do they learn to associate the keys with the short and long samples (relational hypothesis), or with the specific sample durations (absolute hypothesis)? We exposed 16 pigeons to an ABA design in which phases A and B corresponded to tasks using samples of 1 s and 4 s,…

  7. Use of absolute lymphocyte count or neutrophil ingestion rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate absolute lymphocyte count or neutrophil ingestion rate of NBT as alternative indices to CD4+ T cell count in the management of HIV/AIDS subjects. 158 adult participants (male = 70, female = 88) were recruited for the study and grouped as: (i) Symptomatic HIV subjects with or ...

  8. Necessity and sufficiency conditions for the absolute null ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We are inspired by the works of Chukwu [1], Eke [2], Schinterdorf and Barmish [4] to unveil necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute null controllability of a linear delay perturbed system with zero in the domain of null controllability. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 10 2006: pp. 549- ...

  9. Absolute Stability of Discrete-Time Systems with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Rigoberto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stability of nonlinear nonautonomous discrete-time systems with delaying arguments, whose linear part has slowly varying coefficients, and the nonlinear part has linear majorants. Based on the "freezing" technique to discrete-time systems, we derive explicit conditions for the absolute stability of the zero solution of such systems.

  10. DOES ABSOLUTE SYNONYMY EXIST IN OWERE-IGBO?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    or emotional overtones, etc. These are explained below: A. Contextual Differences: One of the implications of absolute synonymy is that it must be possible for synonyms to be used interchangeably in all sentence contexts. But our analyses of the sentences above as given by native speakers indicated that there are some ...

  11. The Absolute and the Relative Dimensions of Constitutional Rights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alexy, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2017), s. 31-47 ISSN 0143-6503 Keywords : constitutional rights * judicial review * proportionality Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law Impact factor: 1.242, year: 2016 https://academic.oup.com/ojls/article/37/1/31/2669583/The-Absolute-and-the-Relative-Dimensions-of

  12. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is considered.

  13. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is ...

  14. Absolute intensity calibration for ECE measurements on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Liu Xiang; Zhao Hailin

    2014-01-01

    In this proceeding, the results of the in-situ absolute intensity calibration for ECE measurements on EAST are presented. A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer system and a Michelson interferometer on EAST have been calibrated independently, and preliminary results from plasma operation indicate a good agreement between the electron temperature profiles obtained with different systems. (author)

  15. Fabricating the absolute fake: America in contemporary pop culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Onze wereld wordt gedomineerd door de Amerikaanse popcultuur. Fabricating the Absolute Fake onderzoekt de dynamiek van Amerikanisering aan de hand van hedendaagse films, televisieprogramma's en popsterren die reflecteren op de vraag wat het betekent om Amerikaan in een mondiale popcultuur te zijn.

  16. On quantum harmonic oscillator being subjected to absolute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On quantum harmonic oscillator being subjected to absolute potential state. SWAMI NITYAYOGANANDA. Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama, R.K. Beach, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India. E-mail: nityayogananda@gmail.com. MS received 1 May 2015; accepted 6 May 2016; published online 3 December 2016. Abstract.

  17. Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For an arithmetical function f with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the ∑ n ≤ N f(n)$ with explicit error term. As a corollary we obtain new results about sum-of-divisors functions and Jordan's totient functions.

  18. Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Chennai 600 113, India. E-mail: biswajyoti@imsc.res.in. MS received 9 May 2015; revised 9 July 2015. Abstract. For an arithmetical function f with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the sum. ∑.

  19. The PMA Catalogue: 420 million positions and absolute proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, V. S.; Fedorov, P. N.; Velichko, A. B.; Shulga, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a catalogue that contains about 420 million absolute proper motions of stars. It was derived from the combination of positions from Gaia DR1 and 2MASS, with a mean difference of epochs of about 15 yr. Most of the systematic zonal errors inherent in the 2MASS Catalogue were eliminated before deriving the absolute proper motions. The absolute calibration procedure (zero-pointing of the proper motions) was carried out using about 1.6 million positions of extragalactic sources. The mean formal error of the absolute calibration is less than 0.35 mas yr-1. The derived proper motions cover the whole celestial sphere without gaps for a range of stellar magnitudes from 8 to 21 mag. In the sky areas where the extragalactic sources are invisible (the avoidance zone), a dedicated procedure was used that transforms the relative proper motions into absolute ones. The rms error of proper motions depends on stellar magnitude and ranges from 2-5 mas yr-1 for stars with 10 mag < G < 17 mag to 5-10 mas yr-1 for faint ones. The present catalogue contains the Gaia DR1 positions of stars for the J2015 epoch. The system of the PMA proper motions does not depend on the systematic errors of the 2MASS positions, and in the range from 14 to 21 mag represents an independent realization of a quasi-inertial reference frame in the optical and near-infrared wavelength range. The Catalogue also contains stellar magnitudes taken from the Gaia DR1 and 2MASS catalogues. A comparison of the PMA proper motions of stars with similar data from certain recent catalogues has been undertaken.

  20. Standardization approaches in absolute quantitative proteomics with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Celis, Francisco; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2017-07-31

    Mass spectrometry-based approaches have enabled important breakthroughs in quantitative proteomics in the last decades. This development is reflected in the better quantitative assessment of protein levels as well as to understand post-translational modifications and protein complexes and networks. Nowadays, the focus of quantitative proteomics shifted from the relative determination of proteins (ie, differential expression between two or more cellular states) to absolute quantity determination, required for a more-thorough characterization of biological models and comprehension of the proteome dynamism, as well as for the search and validation of novel protein biomarkers. However, the physico-chemical environment of the analyte species affects strongly the ionization efficiency in most mass spectrometry (MS) types, which thereby require the use of specially designed standardization approaches to provide absolute quantifications. Most common of such approaches nowadays include (i) the use of stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, isotopologues to the target proteotypic peptides expected after tryptic digestion of the target protein; (ii) use of stable isotope-labeled protein standards to compensate for sample preparation, sample loss, and proteolysis steps; (iii) isobaric reagents, which after fragmentation in the MS/MS analysis provide a final detectable mass shift, can be used to tag both analyte and standard samples; (iv) label-free approaches in which the absolute quantitative data are not obtained through the use of any kind of labeling, but from computational normalization of the raw data and adequate standards; (v) elemental mass spectrometry-based workflows able to provide directly absolute quantification of peptides/proteins that contain an ICP-detectable element. A critical insight from the Analytical Chemistry perspective of the different standardization approaches and their combinations used so far for absolute quantitative MS-based (molecular and

  1. Towards absolute laser spectroscopic CO2 isotope ratio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of isotope composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is necessary to identify sources and sinks of this key greenhouse gas. In the last years, laser spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) have been shown to perform accurate isotope ratio measurements for CO2 and other gases like water vapour (H2O) [1,2]. Typically, isotope ratios are reported in literature referring to reference materials provided by e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). However, there could be some benefit if field deployable absolute isotope ratio measurement methods were developed to address issues such as exhausted reference material like the Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) standard. Absolute isotope ratio measurements would be particularly important for situations where reference materials do not even exist. Here, we present CRDS and TDLAS-based absolute isotope ratios (13C/12C ) in atmospheric CO2. We demonstrate the capabilities of the used methods by measuring CO2 isotope ratios in gas standards. We compare our results to values reported for the isotope certified gas standards. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant uncertainty budgets on the CRDS and TDLAS absolute isotope ratio measurements are presented, and traceability is addressed. We outline the current impediments in realizing high accuracy absolute isotope ratio measurements using laser spectroscopic methods, propose solutions and the way forward. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project-HIGHGAS. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. References [1] B. Kühnreich, S. Wagner, J. C. Habig,·O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, V. Ebert, Appl. Phys. B 119:177-187 (2015). [2] E. Kerstel, L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439-449 (2008).

  2. The HST Large Programme on ω Centauri. III. Absolute Proper Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libralato, Mattia; Bellini, Andrea; Bedin, Luigi R.; Moreno D., Edmundo; Fernández-Trincado, José G.; Pichardo, Barbara; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Anderson, Jay; Apai, Dániel; Burgasser, Adam J.; Fabiola Marino, Anna; Milone, Antonino P.; Rees, Jon M.; Watkins, Laura L.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we report a new estimate of the absolute proper motion (PM) of the globular cluster NGC 5139 (ω Cen) as part of the HST large program GO-14118+14662. We analyzed a field 17 arcmin southwest of the center of ω Cen and computed PMs with epoch spans of ∼15.1 years. We employed 45 background galaxies to link our relative PMs to an absolute reference-frame system. The absolute PM of the cluster in our field is ({μ }α \\cos δ ,{μ }δ )=(-3.341+/- 0.028,-6.557+/- 0.043) mas yr‑1. Upon correction for the effects of viewing perspective and the known cluster rotation, this implies that for the cluster center of mass ({μ }α \\cos δ ,{μ }δ )=(-3.238+/- 0.028,-6.716+/- 0.043) mas yr‑1. This measurement is direct and independent, has the highest random and systematic accuracy to date, and will provide an external verification for the upcoming Gaia Data Release 2. It also differs from most reported PMs for ω Cen in the literature by more than 5σ, but consistency checks compared to other recent catalogs yield excellent agreement. We computed the corresponding Galactocentric velocity, calculated the implied orbit of ω Cen in two different Galactic potentials, and compared these orbits to the orbits implied by one of the PM measurements available in the literature. We find a larger (by about 500 pc) perigalactic distance for ω Cen with our new PM measurement, suggesting a larger survival expectancy for the cluster in the Galaxy.

  3. Quantum yields of decomposition and homo-dimerization of solid L-alanine induced by 7.2 eV Vacuum ultraviolet light irradiation: an estimate of the half-life of L-alanine on the surface of space objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Yudai; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2011-08-01

    One of the leading hypotheses regarding the origin of prebiotic molecules on primitive Earth is that they formed from inorganic molecules in extraterrestrial environments and were delivered by meteorites, space dust and comets. To evaluate the availability of extraterrestrial amino acids, it is necessary to examine their decomposition and oligomerization rates as induced by extraterrestrial energy sources, such as vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and X-ray photons and high energy particles. This paper reports the quantum yields of decomposition ((8.2 ± 0.7) × 10(-2) photon(-1)) and homo-dimerization ((1.2 ± 0.3) × 10(-3) photon(-1)) and decomposition of the dimer (0.24 ± 0.06 photon(-1)) of solid L-alanine (Ala) induced by VUV light with an energy of 7.2 eV. Using these quantum yields, the half-life of L-Ala on the surface of a space object in the present earth orbit was estimated to be about 52 days, even when only photons with an energy of 7.2 eV emitted from the present Sun were considered. The actual half-life of solid L-Ala on the surface of a space object orbit around the present day Earth would certainly be much shorter than our estimate, because of the added effect of photons and particles of other energies. Thus, we propose that L-Ala needs to be shielded from solar VUV in protected environments, such as the interior of a meteorite, within a time scale of days after synthesis to ensure its arrival on the primitive Earth.

  4. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We are presenting so-called Wave-guided Optical Waveguides (WOWs) fabricated by two-photon polymerization and capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. By integrating optical waveguides into the structures we have created freestanding waveguides which can be positioned...... anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light...... propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation...

  5. The status of fission product yield data (FPND) in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuninghame, J.G.

    1977-05-01

    The topics covered is this paper are:- (a) cumulative yields in thermal neutron fission and in fast fission up to 14 MeV incident neutron energy; (b) dependence of the yields on incident neutron energy and spectrum; (c) independent yields; (d) charge dispersion and distribution, and (e) yields of light particles from ternary fission. The paper reviews information on these subjects for fission of actinides from 232 Th upwards, with special emphasis on data published since the 1973 Bologna FPND Panel, compares data sets and discusses the gaps still to be found in them. (author)

  6. Relationships between yield and some yield components in Pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... end of the study, positive and significant relationship were found among seed yield and pods per plant and biological yield in both years. The strongest and direct positive effects were the biological yield (p = 0.6500), numbers of ... Pea is an important plant in human and animal nutrition because of its high ...

  7. yield and yield component association of some capsicum genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-24

    Jul 24, 2015 ... The experiment was conducted in humid agro ecological zone of Calabar, Nigeria, to evaluate the yield performance and the association between yield and yield related components of some capsicum genotypes which include; Bird pepper(Capsicum annuumvar. aviculare), Habanero pepper(Capsicum ...

  8. Yield and yield components of six canola ( Brassica napus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiments were conducted in randomized complete block design arrangement in split factorial with four replications The results demonstrated that late planting date and interrupting of irrigation at flowering stage significantly decreased growth, yield and yield components the of canola cultivars. In addition, oil yield ...

  9. Relationships between yield and some yield components in Pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was designed randomized complete blocks design with four replications. At the end of the study, positive and significant relationship were found among seed yield and pods per plant and biological yield in both years. The strongest and direct positive effects were the biological yield (p = 0.6500), numbers of ...

  10. Absolute Dimensions of the Metallic-line Eclipsing Binary V501 Monocerotis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Guillermo; Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Pavlovski, Krešimir; Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.

    2015-11-01

    We report extensive high-resolution spectroscopic observations and V-band differential photometry of the slightly eccentric 7.02 day detached eclipsing binary V501 Mon (A6m+F0), which we use to determine its absolute dimensions to high precision (0.3% for the masses and 1.8% for the radii, or better). The absolute masses, radii, and temperatures are MA = 1.6455 ± 0.0043 M⊙, RA = 1.888 ± 0.029 R⊙, and {T}{{eff}}{{A}} = 7510 ± 100 K for the primary and MB = 1.4588 ± 0.0025 M⊙, RB = 1.592 ± 0.028 R⊙, and TeffB = 7000 ± 90 K for the secondary. Apsidal motion has been detected, to which General Relativity contributes approximately 70%. The primary star is found to be a metallic-line A star. A detailed chemical analysis of the disentangled spectra yields abundances for more than a dozen elements in each star. Based on the secondary, the system metallicity is near solar: [Fe/H] = +0.01 ± 0.06. Lithium is detected in the secondary but not in the primary. A comparison with current stellar evolution models shows a good match to the measured properties at an age of about 1.1 Gyr.

  11. Absolute and direct microRNA quantification using DNA-gold nanoparticle probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degliangeli, Federica; Kshirsagar, Prakash; Brunetti, Virgilio; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Fiammengo, Roberto

    2014-02-12

    DNA-gold nanoparticle probes are implemented in a simple strategy for direct microRNA (miRNA) quantification. Fluorescently labeled DNA-probe strands are immobilized on PEGylated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In the presence of target miRNA, DNA-RNA heteroduplexes are formed and become substrate for the endonuclease DSN (duplex-specific nuclease). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA strands yields a fluorescence signal due to diffusion of the fluorophores away from the gold surface. We show that the molecular design of our DNA-AuNP probes, with the DNA strands immobilized on top of the PEG-based passivation layer, results in nearly unaltered enzymatic activity toward immobilized heteroduplexes compared to substrates free in solution. The assay, developed in a real-time format, allows absolute quantification of as little as 0.2 fmol of miR-203. We also show the application of the assay for direct quantification of cancer-related miR-203 and miR-21 in samples of extracted total RNA from cell cultures. The possibility of direct and absolute quantification may significantly advance the use of microRNAs as biomarkers in the clinical praxis.

  12. Quantifying Discipline Practices Using Absolute vs. Relative Frequencies: Clinical and Research Implications for Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne; Kolko, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In the parent intervention outcome literatures, discipline practices are generally quantified as absolute frequencies or, less commonly, as relative frequencies. These differences in methodology warrant direct comparison as they have critical implications for study results and conclusions among treatments targeted at reducing parental aggression and harsh discipline. In this study, we directly compared the absolute frequency method and the relative frequency method for quantifying physically aggressive, psychologically aggressive, and nonaggressive discipline practices. Longitudinal data over a 3-year period came from an existing data set of a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a psychosocial treatment in reducing parental physical and psychological aggression and improving child behavior (N = 139; Kolko et al., 2009). Discipline practices (both aggressive and nonaggressive) were assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS; Straus et al., 1998). The two methods yielded different patterns of results, particularly for nonaggressive discipline strategies. We suggest that each method makes its own unique contribution to a more complete understanding of the association between parental aggression and intervention effects. PMID:24106146

  13. Realized volatility and absolute return volatility: a comparison indicating market risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Zheng

    Full Text Available Measuring volatility in financial markets is a primary challenge in the theory and practice of risk management and is essential when developing investment strategies. Although the vast literature on the topic describes many different models, two nonparametric measurements have emerged and received wide use over the past decade: realized volatility and absolute return volatility. The former is strongly favored in the financial sector and the latter by econophysicists. We examine the memory and clustering features of these two methods and find that both enable strong predictions. We compare the two in detail and find that although realized volatility has a better short-term effect that allows predictions of near-future market behavior, absolute return volatility is easier to calculate and, as a risk indicator, has approximately the same sensitivity as realized volatility. Our detailed empirical analysis yields valuable guidelines for both researchers and market participants because it provides a significantly clearer comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the two methods.

  14. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...

  15. Absolute Current Calibrations of 1$\\mu$A CW Electron Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Freyberger, A; Day, A R; Degtiarenko, P; Saha, A; Slachtouski, S

    2005-01-01

    The future experimental program at Jefferson Lab requires an absolute current calibration of a 1$\\mu\\A CW electron beam to better than 1% accuracy. This paper presents the mechanical and electrical design of a Tungsten calorimeter that is being constructed to provide an accurate measurement of the deposited energy. The energy is determined by measuring the change in temperature after beam exposure. Knowledge of the beam energy then yields number of electrons stopped by the calorimeter during the exposure. Simulations show that the energy losses due to electromagnetic and hadronic losses are the dominant uncertainty. Details of the precision thermometry and calibration, mechanical design, thermal simulations and GEANT simulations will be presented.

  16. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M Gatu; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Magoon, J; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M; Ulreich, J; Ashabranner, R C; Bionta, R M; Carpenter, A C; Felker, B; Khater, H Y; LePape, S; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Rygg, J R; Yeoman, M F; Zacharias, R; Leeper, R J; Fletcher, K; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Kilkenny, J; Paguio, R

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  17. Absolute Density Calibration Cell for Laser Induced Fluorescence Erosion Rate Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domonkos, Matthew T.; Stevens, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Flight qualification of ion thrusters typically requires testing on the order of 10,000 hours. Extensive knowledge of wear mechanisms and rates is necessary to establish design confidence prior to long duration tests. Consequently, real-time erosion rate measurements offer the potential both to reduce development costs and to enhance knowledge of the dependency of component wear on operating conditions. Several previous studies have used laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to measure real-time, in situ erosion rates of ion thruster accelerator grids. Those studies provided only relative measurements of the erosion rate. In the present investigation, a molybdenum tube was resistively heated such that the evaporation rate yielded densities within the tube on the order of those expected from accelerator grid erosion. This work examines the suitability of the density cell as an absolute calibration source for LIF measurements, and the intrinsic error was evaluated.

  18. Timing the total reflection of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvat, Dominique; Bonnet, Christophe; Dunseath, Kevin; Emile, Olivier; Le Floch, Albert

    2005-01-01

    We have identified for the first time the absolute delay at total reflection, envisioned by Newton. We show that there are in fact two divergent Wigner delays, depending on the polarisation of the incident light. These measurements give a new insight on the passage from total reflection to refraction

  19. SCHOOL LIGHTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965

    SEVERAL ARTICLES ON SCHOOL LIGHTING ARE CONTAINED IN THIS JOURNAL. THE TITLES AND AUTHORS INCLUDED ARE AS FOLLOWS--(1) "TODAY'S CONCEPTS IN SCHOOL LIGHTING" BY CHARLES D. GIBSON, (2) "CHALLENGE OF TOMMORROW'S LIGHTING" BY S.K. GUTH AND E.H. WITTE, (3) "PEEK PREVIEW OF THE WINDOWLESS SCHOOL" BY JAMES J. MORISSEAU, (4) "MAINTENANCE BEGINS BEFORE…

  20. Twisted light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Research at the Mathematical Optics Group uses "twisted" light to study new quatum-based information security systems. In order to understand the structure of "twisted" light, it is useful to start with an ordinary light beam with zero twist, namely...

  1. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  2. Simple method for absolute calibration of geophones, seismometers, and other inertial vibration sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kann, Frank van; Winterflood, John

    2005-01-01

    A simple but powerful method is presented for calibrating geophones, seismometers, and other inertial vibration sensors, including passive accelerometers. The method requires no cumbersome or expensive fixtures such as shaker platforms and can be performed using a standard instrument commonly available in the field. An absolute calibration is obtained using the reciprocity property of the device, based on the standard mathematical model for such inertial sensors. It requires only simple electrical measurement of the impedance of the sensor as a function of frequency to determine the parameters of the model and hence the sensitivity function. The method is particularly convenient if one of these parameters, namely the suspended mass is known. In this case, no additional mechanical apparatus is required and only a single set of impedance measurements yields the desired calibration function. Moreover, this measurement can be made with the device in situ. However, the novel and most powerful aspect of the method is its ability to accurately determine the effective suspended mass. For this, the impedance measurement is made with the device hanging from a simple spring or flexible cord (depending on the orientation of its sensitive axis). To complete the calibration, the device is weighed to determine its total mass. All the required calibration parameters, including the suspended mass, are then determined from a least-squares fit to the impedance as a function of frequency. A demonstration using both a 4.5 Hz geophone and a 1 Hz seismometer shows that the method can yield accurate absolute calibrations with an error of 0.1% or better, assuming no a priori knowledge of any parameters

  3. Henry More and the development of absolute time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emily

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the nature, development and influence of the first English account of absolute time, put forward in the mid-seventeenth century by the 'Cambridge Platonist' Henry More. Against claims in the literature that More does not have an account of time, this paper sets out More's evolving account and shows that it reveals the lasting influence of Plotinus. Further, this paper argues that More developed his views on time in response to his adoption of Descartes' vortex cosmology and cosmogony, providing new evidence of More's wider project to absorb Cartesian natural philosophy into his Platonic metaphysics. Finally, this paper argues that More should be added to the list of sources that later English thinkers - including Newton and Samuel Clarke - drew on in constructing their absolute accounts of time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Absolute gravimetry - for monitoring climate change and geodynamics in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil

    be detected in Greenland, resulting from the loading and unloading of ice during winter and summer. Besides this kind of elastic signal, there will also be a more general trend due to the development of the ice. As already indicated, the two geophysical signals under investigation give rise to a vertical...... with the GPS data, it is possible to separate the different signals. The method used in this study is absolute gravimetry. An absolute gravimeter of the A10 type has been purchased by DTU Space for this purpose. This instrument can measure gravity changes as small as 6µGal (= 60nm=s2), which provides...... investigated with different processing methods. These preliminary results of the gravity measurements in Greenland are interesting new data which suggest that as more measurements become available it will be possible, along with the GPS data, to separate the different geodynamical processes and thereby give...

  5. Synesthesia and rhythm. The road to absolute cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Roncero Palomar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Absolute cinema, developed during the historical avant-garde, con-tinued with a long artistic tradition that linked musical with visual experience. Due to cinema as médium of expression, this filmmakers were able to work with the moving image to develop concepts such as rhythm, also with more complex figures than the colored spots that other devices could create at those time. This study starts with the published texts in 1704 by Newton about color, and provides an overview of those artistic highlights that link image and sound, and which creates the origins of absolute cinema. The connections and equivalences between the visual and sound experiences used by these filmmakers are also studied in order to know if there was a continuous line with the origins of these studies or if there was a rupture and other later investigations were able to have more repercussion in their works.

  6. Absolute configuration assignment of (+)-fluralaner using vibrational circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, John; Joyce, Leo A; Liu, Jinchu; Jarrell, Tiffany M; Culberson, J Chris; Sherer, Edward C

    2017-12-01

    The absolute configurations of the separated enantiomers of fluralaner, a racemic animal health product used to prevent fleas and ticks, have been assigned using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The crystallographic structure of the active enantiomer (+)-fluralaner has previously been shown to have the (S) configuration using small molecule crystallography. We sought a faster analytical method to determine the absolute configuration of the separated enantiomers. When comparing the measured IR (infrared) and VCD spectra, it is apparent that the amide carbonyl groups appear in the IR but are nearly absent in the VCD. Computational work to calculate the VCD and IR using in vacuo models, implicit solvation, and explicitly solvated complexes has implicated conformational averaging of the carbonyl VCD intensities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Absolute efficiencies of X-ray screens for fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giakoumakis, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    The absolute X-ray efficiencies of phosphor screens made of various materials (ZnCdS:Ag, CsI:Na, Y 2 O 2 S:Tb, Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb, CaWO 4 and ZnS:Cu) are reported. The measurements have been carried out under fluoroscopic conditions for tube voltages ranging from 50 to 250 kV and for screen weights from 20 to 200 mg cm -2 . There is also, for comparison, a set of measurements concerning the behaviour of the screens under soft X-rays (20-50 kV) excitation. All the experimental results are discussed on the basis of an improved Hammaker-Ludwig model and analytical expressions are presented permitting the theoretical calculation of the absolute efficiency of the screens. (author)

  8. Absolute dating of the Aegean Late Bronze Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A recent argument for raising the absolute date of the beginning of the Aegean Late Bronze (LB) Age to about 1700 B.C. is critically examined. It is argued here that: (1) the alabaster lid from Knossos did have the stratigraphical context assigned to it by Evans, in all probability Middle Minoan IIIA, c. 1650 B.C.; (2) the attempt to date the alabastron found in an early Eighteenth Dynasty context at Aniba to Late Minoan IIIA:1 is open to objections; (3) radiocarbon dates from Aegean LB I contexts are too wide in their calibrated ranges and too inconsistent both within and between site sets to offer any reliable grounds at present for raising Aegean LB I absolute chronology to 1700 B.C. Other evidence, however, suggests this period began about 1600 B.C., i.e. some fifty years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 B.C. (author)

  9. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, N. K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  10. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  11. ABSOLUTE AND COMPARATIVE SUSTAINABILITY OF FARMING ENTERPRISES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating absolute and comparative sustainability of farming enterprises is among the most topical issues for researchers, farmers, investors, administrators, politicians, interests groups and public at large. Nevertheless, in Bulgaria and most East European countries there are no comprehensive assessments on sustainability level of Bulgarian farms of different juridical type. This article applies a holistic framework and assesses absolute and comparative sustainability major farming structures in Bulgaria - unregistered farms of Natural Persons, Sole Traders, Cooperatives, and Companies. First, method of the study is outlined, and overall characteristics of surveyed farming enterprises presented. After that an assessment is made of integral, governance, economic, social, environmental sustainability of farming structures of different juridical type. Next, structure of farming enterprises with different sustainability levels is analyzed. Finally, conclusion from the study and directions for further research and amelioration of sustainability assessments suggested.

  12. Transition from convective to absolute Raman instability via the longitudinal relativistic effect by using Vlasov-Maxwell simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Liu, Z. J.; Zheng, C. Y.; Xiao, C. Z.; Feng, Q. S.; Zhang, H. C.; He, X. T.

    2018-01-01

    The longitudinal relativistic effect on stimulated Raman backscattering (SRBS) is investigated by using one-dimensional (1D) Vlasov-Maxwell simulations. Using a short backscattered light seed pulse with a very small amplitude, the linear gain spectra of SRBS in the strongly convective regime is presented by combining the relativistic and non-relativistic 1D Vlasov-Maxwell simulations, which is in agreement with the steady-state linear theory. More interestingly, by considering transition from convective to absolute instability due to electron trapping, we successfully predict the critical duration of the seed which can just trigger the kinetic inflation of the excited SRBS after the seed leaves the simulation box. The critical duration in the relativistic case is much shorter than that in the nonrelativistic case, which indicates that the kinetic inflation more easily occurs in the relativistic case than in the nonrelativistic case. In the weakly convective regime, the transition from convective to absolute instability for SRBS can directly occur in the linear regime due to the longitudinal relativistic modification. For the same pump, our simulations first demonstrate that the SRBS excited by a short and small seed pulse is a convective instability in the nonrelativistic case but becomes an absolute instability due to the decrease of the linear Landau damping from the longitudinal relativistic modification in the relativistic case. In more detail, the growth rate of the backscattered light is also in excellent agreement with theoretical prediction.

  13. Implications of an absolute simultaneity theory for cosmology and universe acceleration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward T Kipreos

    Full Text Available An alternate Lorentz transformation, Absolute Lorentz Transformation (ALT, has similar kinematics to special relativity yet maintains absolute simultaneity in the context of a preferred reference frame. In this study, it is shown that ALT is compatible with current experiments to test Lorentz invariance only if the proposed preferred reference frame is locally equivalent to the Earth-centered non-rotating inertial reference frame, with the inference that in an ALT framework, preferred reference frames are associated with centers of gravitational mass. Applying this theoretical framework to cosmological data produces a scenario of universal time contraction in the past. In this scenario, past time contraction would be associated with increased levels of blueshifted light emissions from cosmological objects when viewed from our current perspective. The observation that distant Type Ia supernovae are dimmer than predicted by linear Hubble expansion currently provides the most direct evidence for an accelerating universe. Adjusting for the effects of time contraction on a redshift-distance modulus diagram produces a linear distribution of supernovae over the full redshift spectrum that is consistent with a non-accelerating universe.

  14. Implications of an absolute simultaneity theory for cosmology and universe acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipreos, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    An alternate Lorentz transformation, Absolute Lorentz Transformation (ALT), has similar kinematics to special relativity yet maintains absolute simultaneity in the context of a preferred reference frame. In this study, it is shown that ALT is compatible with current experiments to test Lorentz invariance only if the proposed preferred reference frame is locally equivalent to the Earth-centered non-rotating inertial reference frame, with the inference that in an ALT framework, preferred reference frames are associated with centers of gravitational mass. Applying this theoretical framework to cosmological data produces a scenario of universal time contraction in the past. In this scenario, past time contraction would be associated with increased levels of blueshifted light emissions from cosmological objects when viewed from our current perspective. The observation that distant Type Ia supernovae are dimmer than predicted by linear Hubble expansion currently provides the most direct evidence for an accelerating universe. Adjusting for the effects of time contraction on a redshift-distance modulus diagram produces a linear distribution of supernovae over the full redshift spectrum that is consistent with a non-accelerating universe.

  15. Intracortical myelination in musicians with absolute pitch: Quantitative morphometry using 7‐T MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösche, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Absolute pitch (AP) is known as the ability to recognize and label the pitch chroma of a given tone without external reference. Known brain structures and functions related to AP are mainly of macroscopic aspects. To shed light on the underlying neural mechanism of AP, we investigated the intracortical myeloarchitecture in musicians with and without AP using the quantitative mapping of the longitudinal relaxation rates with ultra‐high‐field magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T. We found greater intracortical myelination for AP musicians in the anterior region of the supratemporal plane, particularly the medial region of the right planum polare (PP). In the same region of the right PP, we also found a positive correlation with a behavioral index of AP performance. In addition, we found a positive correlation with a frequency discrimination threshold in the anterolateral Heschl's gyrus in the right hemisphere, demonstrating distinctive neural processes of absolute recognition and relative discrimination of pitch. Regarding possible effects of local myelination in the cortex and the known importance of the anterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus for the identification of auditory objects, we argue that pitch chroma may be processed as an identifiable object property in AP musicians. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3486–3501, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27160707

  16. Intracortical myelination in musicians with absolute pitch: Quantitative morphometry using 7-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2016-10-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is known as the ability to recognize and label the pitch chroma of a given tone without external reference. Known brain structures and functions related to AP are mainly of macroscopic aspects. To shed light on the underlying neural mechanism of AP, we investigated the intracortical myeloarchitecture in musicians with and without AP using the quantitative mapping of the longitudinal relaxation rates with ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T. We found greater intracortical myelination for AP musicians in the anterior region of the supratemporal plane, particularly the medial region of the right planum polare (PP). In the same region of the right PP, we also found a positive correlation with a behavioral index of AP performance. In addition, we found a positive correlation with a frequency discrimination threshold in the anterolateral Heschl's gyrus in the right hemisphere, demonstrating distinctive neural processes of absolute recognition and relative discrimination of pitch. Regarding possible effects of local myelination in the cortex and the known importance of the anterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus for the identification of auditory objects, we argue that pitch chroma may be processed as an identifiable object property in AP musicians. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3486-3501, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Implications of an Absolute Simultaneity Theory for Cosmology and Universe Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipreos, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    An alternate Lorentz transformation, Absolute Lorentz Transformation (ALT), has similar kinematics to special relativity yet maintains absolute simultaneity in the context of a preferred reference frame. In this study, it is shown that ALT is compatible with current experiments to test Lorentz invariance only if the proposed preferred reference frame is locally equivalent to the Earth-centered non-rotating inertial reference frame, with the inference that in an ALT framework, preferred reference frames are associated with centers of gravitational mass. Applying this theoretical framework to cosmological data produces a scenario of universal time contraction in the past. In this scenario, past time contraction would be associated with increased levels of blueshifted light emissions from cosmological objects when viewed from our current perspective. The observation that distant Type Ia supernovae are dimmer than predicted by linear Hubble expansion currently provides the most direct evidence for an accelerating universe. Adjusting for the effects of time contraction on a redshift–distance modulus diagram produces a linear distribution of supernovae over the full redshift spectrum that is consistent with a non-accelerating universe. PMID:25536116

  18. Mylar sources for the absolute determination of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenillas, Pablo A.

    1999-01-01

    Strong Mylar foils 2.5 μm thick are proposed as an alternative to the very fragile Vyns foils for the preparation of the radioactive sources for absolute counting. Several experiments have been carried out with β and X-ray emitters to demonstrate the suitability of this material. The results show that Mylar can replace Vyns foils even for low energy β emitters. (author)

  19. Purely absolutely continuous spectrum for almost Mathieu operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulaevsky, V.; Delyon, F.

    1989-01-01

    Using a recent result of Sinai, the authors prove that the almost Mathieu operators acting on l 2 (Z), (H αλ Psi)(n) = Ψ(n + 1) + Ψ(n - 1) + λ cos(ωn + α) Ψ(n), have a purely absolutely continuous spectrum for almost all α provided that ω is a good irrational and λ is sufficiently small. Furthermore, the generalized eigenfunctions are quasiperiodic

  20. Decreasing Absolute Risk Aversion and Option Pricing Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Basso; Paolo Pianca

    1997-01-01

    In this paper efficient bounds for the price of a call option are obtained using the decreasing absolute risk aversion (DARA) dominance rule. Such lower and upper bounds are obtained minimizing and maximizing, respectively, the objective function of a nonlinear optimization problem. An explicit formula (related to an exponential utility function) is given for the special case of three states of nature. A large number of experiments have been carried out and the numerical results support the c...

  1. On the Plane Geometry with Generalized Absolute Value Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bayar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metric spaces are among the most important widely studied topics in mathematics. In recent years, Mathematicians began to investigate using other metrics different from Euclidean metric. These metrics also find their place computer age in addition to their importance in geometry. In this paper, we consider the plane geometry with the generalized absolute value metric and define trigonometric functions and norm and then give a plane tiling example for engineers underlying Schwarz's inequality in this plane.

  2. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  3. Making Astrology Scientific with Negative Absolute Temperature and Holography

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article was written after reading Astronomy magazine's column "Strange Universe" by Bob Berman. Toeing the traditional line of his fellow astronomers, he claims astrology is just a bit of fun, and that it has no scientific support. If we only focus on today's science, he's spot on - it has no support. But I refer to some science involving holograms and negative absolute temperatures to show that astrology would have scientific support in a new science based on cosmic unification, it w...

  4. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzella, Patr?cia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP poss...

  5. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  6. Light signaling, root development and plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, Kasper; Kang, Chia-Kai; Pierik, Ronald

    Light is the energy source for plants as it drives photosynthesis to produce sugars. Given the obvious fact that light mostly occurs aboveground and not in the soil, most interactions of plants with light have been studied in shoot parts of the plant. Research over more than a century has yielded

  7. Yield gains in leafy vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield of all crops have increased during the past century through improved cultural practices and plant breeding. We reviewed gains in yield of lettuce and spinach in the U.S., principally California and Arizona. We proposed several genetic models for yield of lettuce based on the market type: whole...

  8. Absolute Stock Returns and Trading Volumes: Psychological Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kudryavtsev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the effect of anchoring on stock trading volumes. I hypothesize that if on the days when the market index rises (falls, a given stock's return is higher (lower than the market return, potentially perceived as a psychological "anchor", then investors may treat that as a salient event and subsequently increase their trading activity in the stock. Employing a large sample of daily price and trading volume data, I find support for this hypothesis, documenting that average abnormal daily stock trading volumes are significantly higher on the days when absolute daily stock returns are higher than the contemporaneous absolute market returns. This effect is found to be stronger on the days of negative stock and market returns, suggesting that on these days, investors are probably more inclined to treat the market returns as anchors when making their trading decisions. The effect remains significant after controlling for other potentially influential factors, including contemporaneous and lagged actual and absolute stock and market returns, historical stock returns and volatilities, and company-specific events, like earnings announcements and dividend payments.

  9. A vibration correction method for free-fall absolute gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J.; Wang, G.; Wu, K.; Wang, L. J.

    2018-02-01

    An accurate determination of gravitational acceleration, usually approximated as 9.8 m s-2, has been playing an important role in the areas of metrology, geophysics, and geodetics. Absolute gravimetry has been experiencing rapid developments in recent years. Most absolute gravimeters today employ a free-fall method to measure gravitational acceleration. Noise from ground vibration has become one of the most serious factors limiting measurement precision. Compared to vibration isolators, the vibration correction method is a simple and feasible way to reduce the influence of ground vibrations. A modified vibration correction method is proposed and demonstrated. A two-dimensional golden section search algorithm is used to search for the best parameters of the hypothetical transfer function. Experiments using a T-1 absolute gravimeter are performed. It is verified that for an identical group of drop data, the modified method proposed in this paper can achieve better correction effects with much less computation than previous methods. Compared to vibration isolators, the correction method applies to more hostile environments and even dynamic platforms, and is expected to be used in a wider range of applications.

  10. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-02

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  11. Absolutely minimal extensions of functions on metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, V A

    1999-01-01

    Extensions of a real-valued function from the boundary ∂X 0 of an open subset X 0 of a metric space (X,d) to X 0 are discussed. For the broad class of initial data coming under discussion (linearly bounded functions) locally Lipschitz extensions to X 0 that preserve localized moduli of continuity are constructed. In the set of these extensions an absolutely minimal extension is selected, which was considered before by Aronsson for Lipschitz initial functions in the case X 0 subset of R n . An absolutely minimal extension can be regarded as an ∞-harmonic function, that is, a limit of p-harmonic functions as p→+∞. The proof of the existence of absolutely minimal extensions in a metric space with intrinsic metric is carried out by the Perron method. To this end, ∞-subharmonic, ∞-superharmonic, and ∞-harmonic functions on a metric space are defined and their properties are established

  12. Absolute activity determination of I-125 in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelled, O.; German, U.; Kol, R.; Levinson, S.; Laichter, Y.

    1997-01-01

    I-125 has been widely used in nuclear medicine and as a tracer in different experiments. The dose equivalent to the thyroid Tom internal contamination of 1-125, can be estimated by in-vivo monitoring of the thyroid or through bioassay of urine . The in-vivo monitoring of the thyroid can be carried out by counting the photon emission from the decay of the 1-125 , by a Nal(Tl) detector calibrated with a thyroid phantom. This direct method is sensitive , but due to the low photon energy (27keV to 35keV), the counting efficiency depends strongly on the variations of the thyroid mass , thyroid depth below the surface , thyroid shape and detector position . It is estimated that the uncertainty of the activity determination can reach several hundred percents . A mewed for absolute determination of the activity of a '251 source based on the counting rate values of file 27 keV photons and the 54 keV coincidence photo peak, which diminishes the geometry dependence of the counting efficiency , was applied to determine the uptake of 125-I in human thyroid In this work we checked also the application of the absolute determination method wife high sensitivity phoswich detectors. We compare the results of calculations of interval exposure to 125-I for a real case, evaluated by the absolute determination method and by the direct method. (authors)

  13. 242Pu absolute neutron-capture cross section measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. During target fabrication, a small amount of 239Pu was added to the active target so that the absolute scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section could be set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section covers four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. The cross section reported in ENDF/B-VII.1 for the 242Pu(n,γ) En,R = 2.68 eV resonance was found to be 2.4% lower than the new absolute 242Pu(n,γ) cross section.

  14. 242Pu absolute neutron-capture cross section measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckner M.Q.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. During target fabrication, a small amount of 239Pu was added to the active target so that the absolute scale of the 242Pu(n,γ cross section could be set according to the known 239Pu(n,f resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n,γ cross section covers four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. The cross section reported in ENDF/B-VII.1 for the 242Pu(n,γ En,R = 2.68 eV resonance was found to be 2.4% lower than the new absolute 242Pu(n,γ cross section.

  15. Overspecification of colour, pattern, and size: Salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammie eTarenskeen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rates of overspecification of colour, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Colour and pattern are absolute attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency towards consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of colour and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a between-participants design, however, we find similar rates of pattern and size overspecification, which are both lower than the rate of colour overspecification. This indicates that although many speakers are more likely to include colour than pattern (probably because colour is more salient, they may also treat pattern like colour due to a tendency towards consistency. We find no increase in size overspecification when the salience of size is increased, suggesting that speakers are more likely to include absolute than relative attributes. However, we do find an increase in size overspecification when mentioning the attributes is triggered, which again shows that speakers tend refer in a consistent manner, and that there are circumstances in which even size overspecification is frequently produced.

  16. Disponibilidade de luz em macieiras 'Fuji' cobertas com telas antigranizo e seus efeitos sobre a fotossíntese, o rendimento e a qualidade dos frutos Light supply to 'Fuji' apple trees covered with hail protection nets and its effects on photosynthesys, yield and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em pomares de macieira, o dano de granizo pode ser evitado através da cobertura das plantas com telas. Todavia, as telas alteram a intensidade e a qualidade da luz solar e, assim, podem comprometer o rendimento e a qualidade dos frutos. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar estes aspectos em macieiras 'Fuji', cobertas com telas nas cores branca e preta. A tela preta ocasionou maiores reduções na densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos (DFFFA disponíveis às plantas (24,8% em relação à tela branca (21,2%. O interior do dossel das plantas sob tela, especialmente quando cobertas com tela preta, recebeu radiação com menores valores da relação vermelho:vermelho distante (V:Vd em relação às plantas descobertas. Somente sob tela preta, a magnitude das reduções na DFFFA e na relação V:Vd da luz foi capaz de aumentar a área média e a área específica das folhas e reduzir a taxa fotossintética potencial, reduzindo assim o rendimento (número e peso de frutos por cm² de seção transversal de tronco e a coloração vermelha dos frutos. As telas antigranizo branca e preta reduziram a incidência de queimadura de sol, porém não afetaram a severidade de "russeting" e o número de sementes por fruto.In apple orchards, hail damage can be avoided by covering the plants with nets. However, the nets might change light intensity and quality supplied to the plants and, therefore, affect yield and quality of the fruit. This research was carried out to assess these aspects on 'Fuji' apples trees uncovered and covered with white and black nets. The black net caused more substantial reduction of photosynthetic photons flux density (PPFD available to the plants during the day (24.8% than the white one (21.2%. The inner part of plants canopy covered by nets, especially under black net, received light with a lower red:far red ratio (R:FR, in comparison to uncovered plants. Only under black net, the reductions of PPFD and R:FR of the

  17. The absolute flux of protons and helium at the top of the atmosphere using IMAX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menn, W.; Hof, M.; Reimer, O.

    2000-01-01

    The cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra from 0.2 GeV nucleon(-1) to about 200 GeV nucleon(-1) have been measured with the balloon-borne experiment Isotope Matter-Antimatter Experiment (IMAX) launched from Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada, in 1992. IMAX was designed to search for antiprotons and light...... isotopes using a superconducting magnet spectrometer together with scintillators, a time-of-flight system, and Cherenkov detectors. Using redundant detectors, an extensive examination of the instrument efficiency was carried out. We present here the absolute spectra of protons and helium corrected.......15 +/- 1.03) x 10(3)R(-2.79+/-0.08) (m(2) GV s sr)(-1) for helium....

  18. Absolute gain calibration system for the 349-pixel imaging element of the tactic telescope array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickoo, A.K.; Dhar, V.K.; Venugopal, K.; Kaul, S.K.; Koul, R.; Bhatt, N.; Goyal, H.C.; Bhat, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    The imaging Element of the 4-element TACTIC telescope array has been in operation at Mt. Abu since 1997, for carrying detailed investigations of gamma-ray sources in the TeV energy range. In order to characterize the progenitor particle (Gamma-ray/cosmic-ray), a relative gain calibration system, based on a high intensity LED, has been in operation. However, for calorimetric purposes, an absolute gain calibration system is necessary and has been developed for an on-line calibration of 4 out of 349-pixels of its imaging camera, using 241 Am based light pulsers. The details of the experimental set-up and the results obtained so far are presented in this paper. (author)

  19. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - http://www.muquans.com/) with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network (http://www.resif.fr/) belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of

  20. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  1. Fast Light Optical Gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation space missions are currently constrained by existing spacecraft navigation systems which are not fully autonomous. These systems suffer from accumulated dead-reckoning errors and must therefore rely on periodic corrections provided by supplementary technologies that depend on line-of-sight signals from Earth, satellites, or other celestial bodies for absolute attitude and position determination, which can be spoofed, incorrectly identified, occluded, obscured, attenuated, or insufficiently available. These dead-reckoning errors originate in the ring laser gyros themselves, which constitute inertial measurement units. Increasing the time for standalone spacecraft navigation therefore requires fundamental improvements in gyroscope technologies. One promising solution to enhance gyro sensitivity is to place an anomalous dispersion or fast light material inside the gyro cavity. The fast light essentially provides a positive feedback to the gyro response, resulting in a larger measured beat frequency for a given rotation rate as shown in figure 1. Game Changing Development has been investing in this idea through the Fast Light Optical Gyros (FLOG) project, a collaborative effort which began in FY 2013 between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), and Northwestern University. MSFC and AMRDEC are working on the development of a passive FLOG (PFLOG), while Northwestern is developing an active FLOG (AFLOG). The project has demonstrated new benchmarks in the state of the art for scale factor sensitivity enhancement. Recent results show cavity scale factor enhancements of approx.100 for passive cavities.

  2. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  3. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed...

  4. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2012-10-01

    We are presenting so-called Wave-guided Optical Waveguides (WOWs) fabricated by two-photon polymerization and capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. By integrating optical waveguides into the structures we have created freestanding waveguides which can be positioned anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation. In a broader context, this research shows that optically trapped micro-fabricated structures can potentially help bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the sub-wavelength domain.

  5. Isotopic effects of fragment-yields in proton induced reactions on Sn isotopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balabekyan, A. R.; Danagulyan, A. S.; Drnoyan, J. R.; Demekhina, N. A.; Adam, Jindřich; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Musulmanbekov, G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 735, - (2004), s. 267-276 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 134 Keywords : absolute cross-section * isotopis yield * multifragmentation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.108, year: 2004

  6. Non-contact pumping of light emitters via non-radiative energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Victor I.; Achermann, Marc

    2010-01-05

    A light emitting device is disclosed including a primary light source having a defined emission photon energy output, and, a light emitting material situated near to said primary light source, said light emitting material having an absorption onset equal to or less in photon energy than the emission photon energy output of the primary light source whereby non-radiative energy transfer from said primary light source to said light emitting material can occur yielding light emission from said light emitting material.

  7. Absolute triple differential cross section for electron-impact ionization of helium at 40 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, J.; Ehrhardt, H.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D.V.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1995-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of ionization of the ground state of helium by 40 eV incident electrons is presented. Absolute in-plane and out-of-plane measurements are provided for the case of 4 eV slow electron energy. These are found to be in good agreement with the convergent close-coupling (CCC) calculations. Three calculations are presented, in order to demonstrate convergence, which couple a total of 87, 99 and 103 states. These also simultaneously yield results for the equal energy sharing kinematics which are found to be in good agreement with the available relative coplanar symmetric measurement. 30 refs., 8 figs

  8. Perovskite Quantum Dots with Near Unity Solution and Neat-Film Photoluminescent Quantum Yield by Novel Spray Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shu-Wen; Hsu, Bo-Wei; Chen, Chien-Yu; Lee, Chia-An; Liu, Hsiao-Yun; Wang, Hsiao-Fang; Huang, Yu-Ching; Wu, Tien-Lin; Manikandan, Arumugam; Ho, Rong-Ming; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Cheng, Chien-Hong; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Lin, Hao-Wu

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a novel perovskite quantum dot (QD) spray-synthesis method is developed by combining traditional perovskite QD synthesis with the technique of spray pyrolysis. By utilizing this new technique, the synthesis of cubic-shaped perovskite QDs with a homogeneous size of 14 nm is demonstrated, which shows an unprecedented stable absolute photoluminescence quantum yield ≈100% in the solution and even in the solid-state neat film. The highly emissive thin films are integrated with light emission devices (LEDs) and organic light emission displays (OLEDs). The color conversion type QD-LED (ccQD-LED) hybrid devices exhibit an extremely saturated green emission, excellent external quantum efficiency of 28.1%, power efficiency of 121 lm W -1 , and extraordinary forward-direction luminescence of 8 500 000 cd m -2 . The conceptual ccQD-OLED hybrid display also successfully demonstrates high-definition still images and moving pictures with a 119% National Television System Committee 1931 color gamut and 123% Digital Cinema Initiatives-P3 color gamut. These very-stable, ultra-bright perovskite QDs have the properties necessary for a variety of useful applications in optoelectronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Consequences count: against absolutism at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C

    2004-05-01

    There has been a considerable amount of debate in the nursing literature about euthanasia, and especially the distinctions between acts and omissions, and killing and letting die. These distinctions are required by opponents of euthanasia to justify allowing some cases of passive euthanasia while forbidding all cases of active euthanasia. This paper adds to the debate by arguing that the position that absolutely forbids euthanasia is theoretically inconsistent. The paper first considers the place of moral theory in analysing moral problems, within the framework of the principles of biomedical ethics. It is argued that despite a moral pluralism that operates in many areas, the legal status of euthanasia is based upon an absolute deontological position against deliberate killing, which cannot be overridden by appeals to favourable consequences. In order that certain forms of passive euthanasia can be allowed, this position allows distinctions within three pairs of concepts--acts and omissions, killing and letting die, and ordinary and extraordinary means. A further method of justifying certain actions near the end of life is the doctrine of double effect. These paired concepts and the doctrine of double effect are analysed with special reference to their consequences. The application of the doctrine of double effect and the three distinctions relies on consideration of their consequences, allowing in practice what in theory is denied. This is important because it weakens the absolute case against euthanasia, which disallows any direct consequentialist appeal. If consequences count in the application of the doctrine and the distinctions, then they should also count directly prior to their application. This strengthens the argument for active euthanasia in certain cases.

  10. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  11. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Irene; Brandimonte, Maria A; Bruno, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse) without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT). Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale' of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task), in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task). A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo.

  12. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg 252 Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17 O. Detection sensitivities of 239 Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  13. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference.

  14. Effect of density and planting pattern on yield and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza yadavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate competition ability of Grain maize (Zea mays L. against redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. a field experiment was conducted at Esfahan on 2003. In this research the effect of corn spatial arrangement on yield and yield components of corn (647 Three Way Cross hybrids under different levels of redroot pigweed infestation was investigated. Treatments were arranged in a factorial split experiment based on RCBD with three replications. Factorial arrangement of corn densities (74000 and 111000 plant ha-1 and planting patterns (single row, rectangular twin row and zigzag twin row formed the main plots. Split-plots referred to pigweed densities (0, 4, 8 and 12 plant m-1. Results showed that both grain and biological yield of corn increased as corn density rates increased but rows number per cob, number of grains per row of cob and 1000 grains weight decreased. The effects of planting arrangement on yield and yield components despite rows grain in cob, 1000 seeds weight and harvest index were statistically significant. Corn grain yield and yield components decreased significantly by increasing pigweed density. The effect of redroot pigweed density on corn grain and biological yield loss was predicted using Cousence hyperbolic yield equation. It showed that maximum grain yield loss and biological yield loss happened in single row arrangement and low corn density. Rows number per cob and grain numbers per row in higher corn density treatment showed lower reduction slopes under pigweed competition. In addition, grain rows numbers per cob and corn harvest index in twin arrangement treatments decreased lower than single row treatment under pigweed competition. The results of this research indicated that corn competition ability against redroot pigweed could be increased using dense population (1/5 fold of general density and zigzag twin row arrangement.

  15. Absolute dating methods for the Southern African Cainozoic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patridge, T.C. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Anatomy); Netterburg, F. (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Inst. for Transport and Road Research); Vogel, J.C. (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Physical Research Lab.); Sellschop, J.P.F. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Nuclear Physics Research Unit)

    1984-09-01

    Those absolute dating methods other than radiocarbon which appear most useful for the Southern African Cainozoic are uranium disequilibrium, amino acid racemization, thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance, potassium/argon, and accelerator mass spectrometry. Although they are comparative dating methods only, the palaeo- and archaeomagnetic techniques appear most promising. More than one method is necessary to cover the ages and types of Southern African materials. The need for local dating services justifies the establishment of further Cainozoic dating facilities in South Africa. The necessary equipment is already available, or could be developed by adapting existing apparatus, so that only additional staff and funding would be required.

  16. Absolute distance measurements using two-mode laser telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintz, Michel.; Courde, C.; Brillet, A.; Man, C. N.

    2017-11-01

    A novel laser ranging method is described that uses a two-mode laser source, and detection of the phase of the return beam. The design eliminates the cyclic error usually associated with phase measurements and provides unambiguous, absolute distance determination. Measurements of an ≍ 8m path are obtained at a beat frequency of 13 GHz. We analyse the ≍1 μm stability of the data obtained with this preliminary implementation, and expect that an improved version will allow accuracies well below 1 μm, for the kilometer-scale distances involved in satellite formation flight.

  17. Absolute nondestructive quantitative determination of uranium in special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragnev, T.; Damyanov, B.; Grozev, G.; Karamanova, J.

    1985-01-01

    An absolute nondestructive method for quantitative measurement of uranium concentration and enrichment in special nuclear materials is proposed. The method uses intrinsic calibration and portable instrumentation and the particularly suitable for IAEA safequards applications. The intrinsic calibration accumulates the positive experience of the previous measurements and the results will be continuously improving. It is possible to measure standards in laboratories and use the results for analysis at different time and places. The tests show a good agreement with known classical methods and better results in some cases

  18. Absolute gravimetry on the agulhas negras calibration line

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Mauro Andrade de; Santos, Alcides Antonio dos

    2010-01-01

    The Agulhas Negras Gravity Calibration Line was established in the mid 1980s using LaCoste & Romberg gravimeters model "G" only. Five gravity stations were irregularly positioned along its 200 km length, spanning a total range of 627 mGal. The new absolute gravimeter Micro-g Solutions A-10 #011 of Observatório Nacional was taken to each calibration station and new measurements were made. The local vertical gravity gradient was also measured at each calibration station. This report shows their...

  19. Absolute Mass Scale Calibration Using Z->mumu

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Detailed simulations have been performed, investigating the possibility of calibrating the absolute mass scale of the muon spectrometer by using Z->mumu A sample of 10000 events was processed through DICE/ATRECON applying different scale factors to the magnetic field as a function of phi and eta. It is shown that these scale factors could be retrieved with high accuracy together with the muon energy loss as a function of eta. It is shown that the energy loss in the barrel region could be found with an accuracy of 45 MeV while calibrating at the same time 2 magnetic field scale factors with an accuracy of 0.001.

  20. Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolář, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2012-08-31

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  1. Exponential bound in the quest for absolute zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanatos, Dionisis

    2017-10-01

    In most studies for the quantification of the third law of thermodynamics, the minimum temperature which can be achieved with a long but finite-time process scales as a negative power of the process duration. In this article, we use our recent complete solution for the optimal control problem of the quantum parametric oscillator to show that the minimum temperature which can be obtained in this system scales exponentially with the available time. The present work is expected to motivate further research in the active quest for absolute zero.

  2. An Algorithm for Solving the Absolute Value Equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2009), s. 589-599 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : absolute value equation * algorithm * regularity * singularity * theorem of the alternatives Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.892, year: 2009 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol18_pp589-599.pdf

  3. Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \

  4. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    In a study carried out to estimate the components of variation in 'egusi' melon populations indicated high proportion of genetic variation in the yield attributes ... of the improvement made in yield of watermelon may be attributed to its genetic ..... variability and correlation studies in “egusi” melon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) ...

  6. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... who reported maximum fruit yield in watermelon with an application of maleic hydrazide at 100 ppm. The yield increased from 7.22 tons/ha in the control to 13.1 tons/ha in the treatment with 100 ppm maleic hydrazide and 100 ppm ethephon, resulting in an additional return which increased the income from ...

  7. Studies on yield and yield component responses of Mucuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucuna flagellipes was subjected to field scale culture over 1999 and 2000 growth seasons. Yield and yield component responses were evaluated using 4 x 3 factorial treatment combinations of phosphorus at 0, 20, 40, and 60kg P ha-1 and lime at 0, 1 and 2 t CaCO3 ha-1. The experiment was laid out in a randomized ...

  8. Relationship between yield and some yield components in cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bean common mosaic virus–blackeye cowpea strain (BCMV-BlC) and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) belonging to the genus potyvirus are cosmopolitan and economically important pathogens of cowpea. This study analysed the linear relationship between yield and some yield related characters (numbers of ...

  9. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to determine the effect of plant population and nitrogen rates on yield and yield components in soybean under Bursa, Mustafakemalpaa ecological conditions. Trials were conducted during 2000 and 2001 at the experimental fields of the Mustafakemalpaa Vocational High School, University of ...

  10. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tef (Eragrostis tef) is one of most important food crops grown in Benishangul Gumuz region of Ethiopia and is ... Nitrogen by P interaction effect was significant on plant height, straw and grain yield. Grain yield increased .... indicating the possibility of Al toxicity and deficiency of certain plant nutrients. The exchangeable K of ...

  11. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  12. Baking Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    2005-01-01

    decisions. Display quality, comfortable navigation and realistic illumination are crucial ingredients here. Light is one of the principal elements in architectural design, so design reviews must enable the architect to judge the quality of his design in this respect. Realistic light simulations, e.g. via...... radiosity algorithms, are no longer the domain of high-end graphic workstations. Today’s off-the-shelf hardware and 3D-software provide the architect with high-quality tools to simulate physically correct light distributions. But the quality and impression of light is hard to judge by looking at still...... practical experiences with global-light-simulations. We share results which we think are helpful to others, and we highlight areas where further research is necessary....

  13. Absolute configuration of verticillane diterpenoids by vibrational circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; García-Gutiérrez, Hugo A; Hernandez-Hernandez, Juan D; Roman-Marín, Luisa U; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    Good agreement between theoretical and experimental vibrational circular dichroism curves of (1S,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3E,7E-dien-12-ol (1) established the absolute configuration of this natural diterpene isolated from Bursera suntui. Molecular modeling of 1 was carried out using the Monte Carlo protocol followed by geometry optimization at the B3LYP 6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The 12-membered ring of 1 was found in a single preferred chair-chair-chair-chair conformation. In the six-membered ring a chair prevails over a distorted boat, and the C-OH bond rotation generates three predominant rotamers. Validation of the minimum energy conformation for 1 was achieved by comparison of theoretical and experimental infrared frequencies, vicinal 1H NMR coupling constants, and X-ray diffraction data. This study confirms that (+)-verticillol 1 isolated from Bursera species has the 1S,11S,12S absolute configuration that corresponds to the same enantiomeric series as verticillanes from Sciadopitys and Taxus, while verticillanes from Jackiella and Jungermannia have antipodal structures.

  14. The Determination of Absolute Sea level Rise in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, J.; Denys, P. H.; Beavan, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Long term sea level trends at five New Zealand tide gauges with records > 60 yr in length have been determined through to the end of 2008. These gauges, with a wide spatial distribution, reveal an average relative sea level rise across of 1.7 ± 0.1 mm/yr. When a Glacial Isostatic adjustment (GIA) is applied using Peltier’s ICE 5G (v1.2) model, this estimated trend rises to 2.0 mm/yr. However, the absolute trends, when calculated using approximately 10 years of cGPS data at the four gauges with the longest records (Auckland, Wellington, Lyttelton and Dunedin), show a sea level rise of only 1.2 ± 0.4 mm/yr. If the Wellington gauge (located in the transitional plate boundary zone) is removed, this absolute trend rises to 1.4 mm/yr. This paper outlines how the above results were obtained and discusses proposed future research directions. It also includes previously unpublished data on relative sea level trends as determined at a further four New Zealand tide gauge sites.

  15. PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT – SYNTHETIC EXPRESSION OF ABSOLUTE RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRON VASILE CRISTIAN IOACHIM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has as main objective the presentation of the current state of knowledge regarding the profit and loss account as part of the financial statements which express in absolute value the profitability of companies and the empirical analysis of these concepts based on the information submitted by OMV Petrom between 2011 and 2015. Thus, in the first part we present several approaches from the specialized literature regarding the aspects mentioned above. The second part follows a vertical and horizontal analysis of key indicators used for measuring the absolute return. For the horizontal analysis we pursued the evolution in time of the following indicators: Gross Margin, Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT, Financial Result, Gross and Net Result. The vertical analysis aimed to explain the formation of the Gross Result via EBIT (which was also analyzed through the Gross Margin and other specific elements and of the Financial Result (which was also analyzed through the different types of financial income and expenses. The results of the study revealed problems of profitability in the years 2014 and 2015 which, in our opinion, can be attributed to poor management of the commercial activity, exploration activity (research and development, distribution and financial activity.

  16. Absolute values of neutrino masses: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.; Giunti, C.; Grifols, J.A.; Masso, E.

    2003-01-01

    Compelling evidences in favor of neutrino masses and mixing obtained in the last years in Super-Kamiokande, SNO, KamLAND and other neutrino experiments made the physics of massive and mixed neutrinos a frontier field of research in particle physics and astrophysics. There are many open problems in this new field. In this review we consider the problem of the absolute values of neutrino masses, which apparently is the most difficult one from the experimental point of view. We discuss the present limits and the future prospects of β-decay neutrino mass measurements and neutrinoless double-β decay. We consider the important problem of the calculation of nuclear matrix elements of neutrinoless double-β decay and discuss the possibility to check the results of different model calculations of the nuclear matrix elements through their comparison with the experimental data. We discuss the upper bound of the total mass of neutrinos that was obtained recently from the data of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and other cosmological data and we discuss future prospects of the cosmological measurements of the total mass of neutrinos. We discuss also the possibility to obtain information on neutrino masses from the observation of the ultra high-energy cosmic rays (beyond the GZK cutoff). Finally, we review the main aspects of the physics of core-collapse supernovae, the limits on the absolute values of neutrino masses from the observation of SN1987A neutrinos and the future prospects of supernova neutrino detection

  17. PLEIADES ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION : INFLIGHT CALIBRATION SITES AND METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lachérade

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In-flight calibration of space sensors once in orbit is a decisive step to be able to fulfil the mission objectives. This article presents the methods of the in-flight absolute calibration processed during the commissioning phase. Four In-flight calibration methods are used: absolute calibration, cross-calibration with reference sensors such as PARASOL or MERIS, multi-temporal monitoring and inter-bands calibration. These algorithms are based on acquisitions over natural targets such as African deserts, Antarctic sites, La Crau (Automatic calibration station and Oceans (Calibration over molecular scattering or also new extra-terrestrial sites such as the Moon and selected stars. After an overview of the instrument and a description of the calibration sites, it is pointed out how each method is able to address one or several aspects of the calibration. We focus on how these methods complete each other in their operational use, and how they help building a coherent set of information that addresses all aspects of in-orbit calibration. Finally, we present the perspectives that the high level of agility of PLEIADES offers for the improvement of its calibration and a better characterization of the calibration sites.

  18. Improved Strategies and Optimization of Calibration Models for Real-time PCR Absolute Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time PCR absolute quantification applications rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target concentrations in unknown samples. Traditional absolute quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, t...

  19. Yield gaps in oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  20. Permeability enhancers dramatically increase zanamivir absolute bioavailability in rats: implications for an orally bioavailable influenza treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Holmes

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that simple formulations composed of the parent drug in combination with generally regarded as safe (GRAS permeability enhancers are capable of dramatically increasing the absolute bioavailability of zanamivir. This has the advantage of not requiring modification of the drug structure to promote absorption, thus reducing the regulatory challenges involved in conversion of an inhaled to oral route of administration of an approved drug. Absolute bioavailability increases of up to 24-fold were observed when Capmul MCM L8 (composed of mono- and diglycerides of caprylic/capric acids in glycerol was mixed with 1.5 mg of zanamivir and administered intraduodenally to rats. Rapid uptake (t(max of 5 min and a C(max of over 7200 ng/mL was achieved. Variation of the drug load or amount of enhancer demonstrated a generally linear variation in absorption, indicating an ability to optimize a formulation for a desired outcome such as a targeted C(max for enzyme saturation. No absorption enhancement was observed when the enhancer was given 2 hr prior to drug administration, indicating, in combination with the observed tmax, that absorption enhancement is temporary. This property is significant and aligns well with therapeutic applications to limit undesirable drug-drug interactions, potentially due to the presence of other poorly absorbed polar drugs. These results suggest that optimal human oral dosage forms of zanamivir should be enteric-coated gelcaps or softgels for intraduodenal release. There continues to be a strong need and market for multiple neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza treatment. Creation of orally available formulations of inhibitor drugs that are currently administered intravenously or by inhalation would provide a significant improvement in treatment of influenza. The very simple GRAS formulation components and anticipated dosage forms would require low manufacturing costs and yield enhanced convenience. These results

  1. Regional absolute conductivity reconstruction using projected current density in MREIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je; Kwon, Oh In

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a non-invasive technique for imaging the internal conductivity distribution in tissue within an MRI scanner, utilizing the magnetic flux density, which is introduced when a current is injected into the tissue from external electrodes. This magnetic flux alters the MRI signal, so that appropriate reconstruction can provide a map of the additional z-component of the magnetic field (B z ) as well as the internal current density distribution that created it. To extract the internal electrical properties of the subject, including the conductivity and/or the current density distribution, MREIT techniques use the relationship between the external injection current and the z-component of the magnetic flux density B = (B x , B y , B z ). The tissue studied typically contains defective regions, regions with a low MRI signal and/or low MRI signal-to-noise-ratio, due to the low density of nuclear magnetic resonance spins, short T 2 or T* 2 relaxation times, as well as regions with very low electrical conductivity, through which very little current traverses. These defective regions provide noisy B z data, which can severely degrade the overall reconstructed conductivity distribution. Injecting two independent currents through surface electrodes, this paper proposes a new direct method to reconstruct a regional absolute isotropic conductivity distribution in a region of interest (ROI) while avoiding the defective regions. First, the proposed method reconstructs the contrast of conductivity using the transversal J-substitution algorithm, which blocks the propagation of severe accumulated noise from the defective region to the ROI. Second, the proposed method reconstructs the regional projected current density using the relationships between the internal current density, which stems from a current injection on the surface, and the measured B z data. Combining the contrast conductivity distribution in the entire imaging

  2. Convective blueshifts in the solar atmosphere. I. Absolute measurements with LARS of the spectral lines at 6302 Å

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhner-Böttcher, J.; Schmidt, W.; Stief, F.; Steinmetz, T.; Holzwarth, R.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The solar convection manifests as granulation and intergranulation at the solar surface. In the photosphere, convective motions induce differential Doppler shifts to spectral lines. The observed convective blueshift varies across the solar disk. Aim. We focus on the impact of solar convection on the atmosphere and aim to resolve its velocity stratification in the photosphere. Methods: We performed high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the solar spectrum in the 6302 Å range with the Laser Absolute Reference Spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope. A laser frequency comb enabled the calibration of the spectra to an absolute wavelength scale with an accuracy of 1 m s-1. We systematically scanned the quiet Sun from the disk center to the limb at ten selected heliocentric positions. The analysis included 99 time sequences of up to 20 min in length. By means of ephemeris and reference corrections, we translated wavelength shifts into absolute line-of-sight velocities. A bisector analysis on the line profiles yielded the shapes and convective shifts of seven photospheric lines. Results: At the disk center, the bisector profiles of the iron lines feature a pronounced C-shape with maximum convective blueshifts of up to -450 m s-1 in the spectral line wings. Toward the solar limb, the bisectors change into a "\\"-shape with a saturation in the line core at a redshift of +100 m s-1. The center-to-limb variation of the line core velocities shows a slight increase in blueshift when departing the disk center for larger heliocentric angles. This increase in blueshift is more pronounced for the magnetically less active meridian than for the equator. Toward the solar limb, the blueshift decreases and can turn into a redshift. In general, weaker lines exhibit stronger blueshifts. Conclusions: Best spectroscopic measurements enabled the accurate determination of absolute convective shifts in the solar photosphere. We convolved the results to lower spectral

  3. Circadian light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierman Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper reflects a work in progress toward a definition of circadian light, one that should be informed by the thoughtful, century-old evolution of our present definition of light as a stimulus for the human visual system. This work in progress is based upon the functional relationship between optical radiation and its effects on nocturnal melatonin suppression, in large part because the basic data are available in the literature. Discussed here are the fundamental differences between responses by the visual and circadian systems to optical radiation. Brief reviews of photometry, colorimetry, and brightness perception are presented as a foundation for the discussion of circadian light. Finally, circadian light (CLA and circadian stimulus (CS calculation procedures based on a published mathematical model of human circadian phototransduction are presented with an example.

  4. First TSI observations of the new Compact Lightweight Absolute Radiometer (CLARA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, B.; Finsterle, W.; Koller, S.; Levesque, P. L.; Pfiffner, D.; Schmutz, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous and precise Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) measurements are indispensable to evaluate the influence of short- and long-term solar radiative emission variations on the Earth's energy budget. The existence of a potentially long-term trend in the suns activity and whether or not such a trend could be climate effective is still a matter of debate. The Compact Lightweight Absolute Radiometer (CLARA) is one of PMOD/WRC's future contributions to the almost seamless series of space borne TSI measurements since 1978. CLARA is one of three payloads of the Norwegian micro satellite NORSAT-1, along with Langmuir probes for space plasma research and an Automatic Identification System (AIS) receiver to monitor maritime traffic in Norwegian waters. NORSAT-1 was launched July 14th 2017 and the nominal operation of CLARA will start after the instrument commissioning beginning August 21st2017. We present the design, calibration and first TSI observations of CLARA, a new generation of active cavity Electrical Substitution Radiometers (ESR) comprising the latest radiometer developments of PMOD/WRC: i) A three-cavity design for degradation tracking and redundancy, ii) a digital control loop with feed forward system allowing for measurement cadences of 30s, iii) an aperture arrangement to reduce internal scattered light and iv) a new cavity and heatsink design to minimize non-equivalence, size and weight of the instrument. CLARA was end-to-end calibrated against the SI traceable cryogenic radiometer of the TSI Radiometer Facility (TRF) in Boulder (Colorado). The absolute measurement uncertainties for the three SI-traceable TSI detectors of CLARA are 567, 576 and 912 ppm (k = 1).

  5. Photochirogenesis: photochemical models on the absolute asymmetric formation of amino acids in interstellar space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, Cornelia; de Marcellus, Pierre; d'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant; Nahon, Laurent; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2011-10-01

    Proteins of all living organisms including plants, animals, and humans are made up of amino acid monomers that show identical stereochemical L-configuration. Hypotheses for the origin of this symmetry breaking in biomolecules include the absolute asymmetric photochemistry model by which interstellar ultraviolet (UV) circularly polarized light (CPL) induces an enantiomeric excess in chiral organic molecules in the interstellar/circumstellar media. This scenario is supported by a) the detection of amino acids in the organic residues of UV-photo-processed interstellar ice analogues, b) the occurrence of L-enantiomer-enriched amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites, and c) the observation of CPL of the same helicity over large distance scales in the massive star-forming region of Orion. These topics are of high importance in topical biophysical research and will be discussed in this review. Further evidence that amino acids and other molecules of prebiotic interest are asymmetrically formed in space comes from studies on the enantioselective photolysis of amino acids by UV-CPL. Also, experiments have been performed on the absolute asymmetric photochemical synthesis of enantiomer-enriched amino acids from mixtures of astrophysically relevant achiral precursor molecules using UV-circularly polarized photons. Both approaches are based on circular dichroic transitions of amino acids that will be highlighted here as well. These results have strong implications on our current understanding of how life's precursor molecules were possibly built and how life selected the left-handed form of proteinogenic amino acids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of the Absolute Excitatory Level of the Retina by Flicker ERG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Seeliger, Mathias W

    2018-01-01

    Electroretinography (ERG) is important for functional diagnostics of the retina. Types of information about retinal function obtainable by ERG differ depending on recording conditions, e.g., a combination of light stimulus and adaptation. In terms of stimulation, single-flash and flicker stimuli are frequently used because response properties have been well investigated, allowing an assessment of fundamental retinal functionality; for example, how photoreceptors and bipolar cells, including signal transmission between them, are affected under pathological conditions. Usually, ERGs are recorded with a nonzero lower cutoff frequency of amplifiers to avoid certain artifacts, and additionally, responses are averaged over time so that non-event-related signals are cancelled out. However, the improved signal quality is associated with a loss of information. Especially in steady-state flicker ERG, information about the absolute baseline of recordings is missing because the prestimulus baseline is not included on the recording trace as well as because a zero response is obtained in all cases in which the signal baseline stays constant for a sufficient amount of time. In other words, it is impossible to tell from the conventional flicker ERG whether a zero signal is obtained under conditions of maximal or no excitation of the visual system. In this chapter, we describe a direct current ERG protocol (featuring a lower cutoff frequency of zero) with repetitive single flashes mimicking conventional flicker that contains a defined onset. Using this recording protocol, it is possible to assess not only the absolute excitatory level of the retina but also the development of steady-state responses from the single flash response.

  7. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and ...

  8. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and Coban had the ...

  9. Absolute Astrometry in the next 50 Years - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høg, E.

    2018-01-01

    With the Gaia astrometric satellite in orbit since December 2013 it is time to look at the future of fundamental astrometry and a time frame of 50 years is needed in this matter. A space mission with Gaia-like astrometric performance is required, but not necessarily a Gaia-like satellite. A dozen science issues for a Gaia successor mission in twenty years, with launch about 2035, are presented and in this context also other possibilities for absolute astrometry with milliarcsecond (mas) or sub-mas accuracies are discussed in my report at http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.2190. In brief, the two missions (2013 and 2035) would provide an astrometric foundation for all branches of astronomy from the solar system and stellar systems, including exo-planet systems with long periods, to compact galaxies, quasars and Dark Matter substructures by data which cannot be surpassed in the next 50 years.

  10. Absolute configuration of cembrane diterpenoids from Bursera multijuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Juan D; García-Gutiérrez, Hugo A; Román-Marín, Luisa U; Torres-Blanco, Yunuen I; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2014-09-01

    The stems of Bursera multijuga afforded (-)-(1S,3E,7R,8R,11E)-7,8-epoxycembra-3,11-dien-1-ol (1) and its acetate 2, together with cembrene A (3), nephthenol (4), and cembrenol (5). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and X-ray diffraction. The conformational preference of flexible 1 was studied by molecular modeling at the DFT B3LYP/DGDZVP level of theory. Good agreement between calculated and experimental vibrational circular dichroism curves established the absolute configuration of 1. This is the first time that cembrane derivatives have been isolated from the genus Bursera.

  11. Absolutism versus doceañista liberalism. The Visual Counterattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Reyero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify some dominants themes within absolutists discourses and to sketch out how they are translated to images, in order to persuade against and to denigrate liberalism. Descriptions of public ornaments in events honoring king Ferdinand VII in 1814 and 1823 are used as the main reference sources. Absolutism is recognized looking for associations between images and words, resemblances, metaphors, symbols and iconographic matches. Visual imagery to achieve absolutist goal emphasized the primacy of the king, the rhetoric of vassalage, a strong motherland, the uniqueness of religion, and the exclusion of the political enemy. In order to totally eliminate the constitutional risk, the tradition was presented as a paradise of peace and happiness.

  12. The absolute frequency of the 87Sr optical clock transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Gretchen K.; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    The absolute frequency of the 1S0–3P0 clock transition of 87Sr has been measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.65 (37) Hz using lattice-confined atoms, where the fractional uncertainty of 8.6 × 10-16 represents one of the most accurate measurements of an atomic transition frequency to date. After...... a detailed study of systematic effects, which reduced the total systematic uncertainty of the Sr lattice clock to 1.5 × 10-16, the clock frequency is measured against a hydrogen maser which is simultaneously calibrated to the US primary frequency standard, the NIST Cs fountain clock, NIST-F1. The comparison...... is made possible using a femtosecond laser based optical frequency comb to phase coherently connect the optical and microwave spectral regions and by a 3.5 km fibre transfer scheme to compare the remotely located clock signals....

  13. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent Bicep2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid of from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequencies...

  14. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil; Forsberg, René; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In glaciated areas, the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of the ice sheets, a response knownas glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GIA can be investigated through observations of gravity change.For the ongoing assessment of the ice sheets mass balance, where satellite data are used...... in Greenland. Theresult is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected GreenlandNetwork (GNET) sites.We find that observations are highly influenced by the direct attraction from the ice and ocean. Thisis especially evident in the measurements conducted at the GNET...... station near the Helheim Glacier.The effect of the direct attraction diminishes at sites that are more than one degree from the source.Here, the dominant signal is the effect of the elastic signal from present day ice mass changes. We findagreement between the measured and modelled gravity changes at all...

  15. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J. Emil; Forsberg, Rene; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In glaciated areas, the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of the ice sheets, a response known as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GIA can be investigated through observations of gravity change. For the ongoing assessment of the ice sheets mass balance, where satellite data are used, the study of GIA is important since it acts as an error source. GIA consists of three signals as seen by a gravimeter on the surface of the Earth. These signals are investigated in this study. The ICE-5G ice history and recently developed ice models of present day changes are used to model the gravity change in Greenland. The result is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected Greenland Network (GNET) sites.

  16. Absolute distance measurement by two-point-diffraction interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2002-01-01

    We present a point-diffraction interferometer that has been specially devised to perform absolute distance measurements in three dimensions. It is composed of two main parts: One is a target that moves in three dimensions, and the other is a stationary two-dimensional array of photodetectors. The target is made of point-diffraction sources that emit two spherical wave fronts, whose interference is monitored by the photodetectors. Application of a phase-shifting technique allows the phase values of the photodetectors to be precisely measured, which are then fitted to a geometric model of multilateration so as to determine the xyz location of the target by minimization of least-squares errors. Experimental results show that the proposed diffraction interferometer is capable of measuring the xyz coordinates of the target with a volumetric uncertainty of less than 1.0 μm over a working volume of a 100-mm side

  17. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  18. Absolute Measurement of Tilts via Fourier Analysis of Interferograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    The Fourier method of interferogram analysis requires the introduction of a constant tilt into the interferogram to serve as a carrier signal for information on the figure of the surface under test. This tilt is usually removed in the first steps of analysis and ignored thereafter. However, in the problem of aligning optical components and systems, knowledge of part orientation is crucial to proper instrument performance. This paper outlines an algorithm which uses the normally ignored carrier signal in Fourier analysis to compute an absolute tilt (orientation) of the test surface. We also provide a brief outline of how this technique, incorporated in a rotating Twyman-Green interferometer, can be used in alignment and metrology of optical systems.

  19. Early results from the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Eplee, R. E.; Isaacman, R. B.; Fixsen, D. J.; Read, S. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Weiss, R.; Wright, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mapped 98 percent of the sky, 60 percent of it twice, before the liquid helium coolant was exhausted. The FIRAS covers the frequency region from 1 to 100/cm with a 7 deg angular resolution. The spectral resolution is 0.2/cm for frequencies less than 20/cm and 0.8/cm for higher frequencies. Preliminary results include: a limit on the deviations from a Planck curve of 1 percent of the peak brightness from 1 to 20/cm, a temperature of 2.735 +/- 0.06 K, a limit on the Comptonization parameter y of 0.001, on the chemical potential parameter mu of 0.01, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy spectrum is that of a Doppler shifted blackbody.

  20. Absolute calibration of Doppler coherence imaging velocity images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuell, C. M.; Allen, S. L.; Meyer, W. H.; Howard, J.

    2017-08-01

    A new technique has been developed for absolutely calibrating a Doppler Coherence Imaging Spectroscopy interferometer for measuring plasma ion and neutral velocities. An optical model of the interferometer is used to generate zero-velocity reference images for the plasma spectral line of interest from a calibration source some spectral distance away. Validation of this technique using a tunable diode laser demonstrated an accuracy better than 0.2 km/s over an extrapolation range of 3.5 nm; a two order of magnitude improvement over linear approaches. While a well-characterized and very stable interferometer is required, this technique opens up the possibility of calibrated velocity measurements in difficult viewing geometries and for complex spectral line-shapes.

  1. The neurocognitive components of pitch processing: insights from absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Lusher, Dean; Wan, Catherine Y; Dudgeon, Paul; Reutens, David C

    2009-03-01

    The natural variability of pitch naming ability in the population (known as absolute pitch or AP) provides an ideal method for investigating individual differences in pitch processing and auditory knowledge formation and representation. We have demonstrated the involvement of different cognitive processes in AP ability that reflects varying skill expertise in the presence of similar early age of onset of music tuition. These processes were related to different regions of brain activity, including those involved in pitch working memory (right prefrontal cortex) and the long-term representation of pitch (superior temporal gyrus). They reflected expertise through the use of context dependent pitch cues and the level of automaticity of pitch naming. They impart functional significance to structural asymmetry differences in the planum temporale of musicians and establish a neurobiological basis for an AP template. More generally, they indicate variability of knowledge representation in the presence of environmental fostering of early cognitive development that translates to differences in cognitive ability.

  2. Development of the absolute standardization apparatus for radon-222 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juncheng; Yang, Zhijie; Wang, Liyuan; Li, Zexi; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Haoran; Yuan, Daqing

    2018-04-01

    A defined solid angle counting apparatus for radon-222 activity absolute measurement is presented. Two home-made vacuum sealed radium-226 sources with radioactivity of 500kBq and 3MBq are used to minimize the impact from gas impurities. The defined solid angle is calculated using precisely measured geometrical parameters by several algorithms. The result from Monte Carlo simulation agrees with results obtained by other methods within the estimated uncertainty limit. Alpha particle's scattering behavior in the measurement chamber and collimator is simulated by the geant4 code and a total scattering alpha particle ratio of 0.23% as well as a relative uncertainty contribution to activity measurement of 0.02% to 0.09% are estimated. A typical total combined standard uncertainty of 0.28% is evaluated for the radon activity primary measurement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Absolute luminosity measurement at LHCb with beam-gas imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Barschel, C

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique to measure the absolute luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using beam-gas interactions has been successfully used in the LHCb experiment. A gas injection device (SMOG) has been installed in the LHCb experiment to increase the pressure around the interaction point during dedicated fills. The Beam-Gas Imaging method (BGI) has now the potential to surpass the accuracy of the commonly used *van der Meer scan* method (VDM). The technique has been used in 10 LHC fills during 2012 including and also provided a first luminosity measurement for proton-lead collisions. This talk presents the principles of the gas injection and the improvements reached with the increased pressure. Furthermore the gas injection increased the accuracy measurement of the so-called ghost charges and also intensities per bunch. Those uncertainties are becoming the dominating factor because the uncertainty on the total beam current have been reduced.

  4. Gravitational Acceleration as a Cue for Absolute Size and Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Heiko; Kaiser, Mary K.; Banks, Martin S.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    When an object's motion is influenced by gravity, such as the rise and fall of a thrown ball, the vertical component of acceleration is roughly constant at 9.8 m/sec2. In principle, an observer could use this information to estimate the absolute size and distance of the object (Saxberg, 1987a; Watson, Banks, von Hofsten, & Royden, 1992). In three experiments, we examined the ability to utilize the size and distance information provided by gravitational acceleration. Observers viewed computer simulations of an object rising and falling on a trajectory parallel to the gravitational vector. The simulated objects were three balls of different diameters presented across a wide range of simulated distances. Observers were asked to identify which ball was presented and the distance at which it was presented. The results of Experiment 1 showed that size and distance judgments were significantly better than chance, but not as accurate as expected if the information contained in the dynamics of free fall were used fully utilized. The results of Experiment 2 showed that acceleration information is used, but that observers can also make use of velocity information. Finally, the results of Experiment 3 showed that observers can use projected size information, but that their size and distance judgments are much more accurate when motion information is present as well. These results show that observers can use the information in the dynamics of free fall to estimate absolute size and distance, but their estimates are not as accurate as they could be if the information were used effectively.

  5. Results of Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer and Infrared Integrating Sphere Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, Ibrahim M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dooraghi, Michael R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grobner, Julian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Thomann, Christian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; McComiskey, Allison [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Hall, Emiel [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Wacker, Stefan [Deutscher Wetterdienst

    2018-03-05

    Accurate and traceable atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements are required for understanding radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget. The standard to which pyrgeometers are traceable is the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), maintained in the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The WISG consists of four pyrgeometers that were calibrated using Rolf Philipona's Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer [1]. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility has recently adopted the WISG to maintain the traceability of the calibrations of all Eppley precision infrared radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometers. Subsequently, Julian Grobner [2] developed the infrared interferometer spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) radiometer, and Ibrahim Reda [3] developed the absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP). The ACP and IRIS were developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and they are traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The two instruments were compared directly to the WISG three times at PMOD and twice at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility to WISG-traceable pyrgeometers. The ACP and IRIS agreed within +/- 1 W/m2 to +/- 3 W/m2 in all comparisons, whereas the WISG references exhibit a 2-5 Wm2 low bias compared to the ACP/IRIS average, depending on the water vapor column, as noted in Grobner et al. [4]. Consequently, a case for changing the current WISG has been made by Grobner and Reda. However, during the five comparisons the column water vapor exceeded 8 mm. Therefore, it is recommended that more ACP and IRIS comparisons should be held under different environmental conditions and water vapor column content to better establish the traceability of these instruments to SI with established uncertainty.

  6. Cylindrical Taylor states conserving total absolute magnetic helicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, B. C.; Fang, F.

    2014-09-01

    The Taylor state of a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field in an upright cylindrical domain V is derived from first principles as an extremum of the total magnetic energy subject to a conserved, total absolute helicity Habs. This new helicity [Low, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052901 (2011)] is distinct from the well known classical total helicity and relative total helicity in common use to describe wholly-contained and anchored fields, respectively. A given field B, tangential along the cylindrical side of V, may be represented as a unique linear superposition of two flux systems, an axially extended system along V and a strictly transverse system carrying information on field-circulation. This specialized Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation defines Habs and permits a neat formulation of the boundary-value problem (BVP) for the Taylor state as a constant-α force-free field, treating 3D wholly-contained and anchored fields on the same conceptual basis. In this formulation, the governing equation is a scalar integro-partial differential equation (PDE). A family of series solutions for an anchored field is presented as an illustration of this class of BVPs. Past treatments of the constant-α field in 3D cylindrical geometry are based on a scalar Helmholtz PDE as the governing equation, with issues of inconsistency in the published field solutions discussed over time in the journal literature. The constant-α force-free equation reduces to a scalar Helmholtz PDE only as special cases of the 3D integro-PDE derived here. In contrast, the constant-α force-free equation and the scalar Helmholtz PDE are absolutely equivalent in the spherical domain as discussed in Appendix. This theoretical study is motivated by the investigation of the Sun's corona but the results are also relevant to laboratory plasmas.

  7. Comparison of prognostic impact of absolute lymphocyte count, absolute monocyte count, absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count prognostic score and ratio in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Olivera; Popovic, Lazar; Marisavljevic, Dragomir; Jovanovic, Darjana; Filipovic, Branka; Stanisavljevic, Dejana; Matovina-Brko, Gorana; Hajder, Jelena; Matkovic, Tatjana; Živkovic, Radmila; Stanisavljevic, Natasa; Todorović, Milena; Petrovic, Dragana; Mihaljevic, Biljana

    2014-03-01

    The combination of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis has prognostic relevance in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The present study was designed to investigate the prognostic significance of ALC and AMC and to determine whether ALC/AMC ratio or ALC/AMC prognostic score is better predictor of outcome in DLBCL. We retrospectively analyzed the prognostic significance of ALC and AMC, ALC/AMC ratio and ALC/AMC prognostic score at diagnosis in 222 DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. ROC analysis showed that optimal cut-off values of AMC and ALC/AMC ratio with the best sensitivity and specificity were 0.59×10(9)/L and 2.8, respectively. Cut-off of ALC was determined according to the literature data (1×10(9)/L). Low ALC, high AMC, low ALC/AMC ratio and high ALC/AMC prognostic score were in significant association with lower rate of therapy response and survival. In contrast, these parameters were not in significant correlation with relapse rate. The patients with low ALC, "high" AMC, low ALC/AMC ratio and high ALC/AMC prognostic score at diagnosis had significantly shorter EFS and OS. In multivariate analysis all tested parameters (ALC, AMC, ALC/AMC prognostic score and ALC/AMC ratio) are independent risk factors along with "bulky" disease and IPI. All tested parameters (ALC, AMC, ALC/AMC score and ALC/AMC ratio) may be useful prognostic factors in DLBCL patients. ALC/AMC score has a slight advantage as it allows the classification of patients into three prognostic groups. Further studies are needed to determine which of these parameters has the highest predictive value. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. New Reference Models for Pacific Absolute Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, P.

    2012-12-01

    Absolute plate motion (APM) models are commonly derived by assuming that age-progressive seamount chains represent the surface expressions of mantle plumes; the chain geometries thus record the relative motion between plumes and plates. Traditionally, plumes have been assigned zero motion (i.e., the fixed hotspot hypothesis), and with this assumption the trails directly reflect plate motion. However, since the early 1970s arguments from sedimentary facies and marine magnetics have been marshaled against the fixity of hotspots, perhaps culminating with more recent and direct inferences of anomalous paleolatitudes for several seamounts in both the Emperor and Louisville chains. These data can broadly be explained by drifting plumes, but paleomagnetic data remain scarce and may allow for some true polar wander; furthermore, several age progressions are incomplete or inconsistent and the present locations of some hotspots are uncertain. Finally, APM models with moving hotspots derive largely from mantle flow modeling whose predictions do not match observations directly. Here, I present new absolute plate motion models for the Pacific plate back to 150 Ma. The first model assumes fixed hotspots and is meant to serve as a reference model representing the classic fixed hotspot hypothesis. It is an updated version of the Wessel and Kroenke [2008] model but now including all available chains, recently published age data and processed using improved modeling techniques. The second model uses the same data but also attempts to honor available data on hotspot mobility. It is intended to be a "work in progress" model that will be updated as additional paleolatitude or age data become available. These models can serve as test beds for tectonic hypothesis and be used to identify seamount chain segments where additional paleomagnetic or age observations would have the most impact.

  9. Systematic determination of absolute absorption cross-section of individual carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Choi, Sangkook; Jin, Chenhao; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Kim, Jihoon; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Louie, Steven G; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

    2014-05-27

    Optical absorption is the most fundamental optical property characterizing light-matter interactions in materials and can be most readily compared with theoretical predictions. However, determination of optical absorption cross-section of individual nanostructures is experimentally challenging due to the small extinction signal using conventional transmission measurements. Recently, dramatic increase of optical contrast from individual carbon nanotubes has been successfully achieved with a polarization-based homodyne microscope, where the scattered light wave from the nanostructure interferes with the optimized reference signal (the reflected/transmitted light). Here we demonstrate high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by combining the polarization-based homodyne technique with broadband supercontinuum excitation in transmission configuration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-throughput and quantitative determination of nanotube absorption cross-section over broad spectral range at the single-tube level was performed for more than 50 individual chirality-defined single-walled nanotubes. Our data reveal chirality-dependent behaviors of exciton resonances in carbon nanotubes, where the exciton oscillator strength exhibits a universal scaling law with the nanotube diameter and the transition order. The exciton linewidth (characterizing the exciton lifetime) varies strongly in different nanotubes, and on average it increases linearly with the transition energy. In addition, we establish an empirical formula by extrapolating our data to predict the absorption cross-section spectrum for any given nanotube. The quantitative information of absorption cross-section in a broad spectral range and all nanotube species not only provides new insight into the unique photophysics in one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, but also enables absolute determination of optical quantum efficiencies in important

  10. EFFECT OF MAIZE INTERCROP PLANT DENSITIES ON YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    sweetpotato leaves, due to reduced solar radiation interception by shading from the taller pigeonpea plants. Similarly, in the potato-maize mixture, increase in maize plant population resulted in a decline in tuber yield (Ebwongu et al., 2001), due to reduced light interception by the potato hence the reduced photosynthetic.

  11. Paths of Influence Among Components of Yield in Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average grain weight was not import~nt in influencing yield of sorghum. Plant biomass had a negative direct effect (-1.2997) on average grain weight but was not important in influencing number of grains. Plant height and percent light intercepted directly influenced number of grains and average grain weight negatively.

  12. Photosynthetic Quantum Yield Dynamics: From Photosystems to Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, S.W.; Wientjes, E.; Douwstra, P.; Trouwborst, G.; Ieperen, van W.; Croce, R.; Harbinson, J.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the wavelength dependence of the quantum yield for CO2 fixation (a) and its acclimation to the growth-light spectrum are quantitatively addressed, combining in vivo physiological and in vitro molecular methods. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) was grown under an artificial

  13. Photosynthetic Quantum Yield Dynamics : From Photosystems to Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, Sander W.; Wientjes, Emilie; Douwstra, Peter; Trouwborst, Govert; van Ieperen, Wim; Croce, Roberta; Harbinson, Jeremy

    The mechanisms underlying the wavelength dependence of the quantum yield for CO2 fixation (alpha) and its acclimation to the growth-light spectrum are quantitatively addressed, combining in vivo physiological and in vitro molecular methods. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) was grown under an artificial

  14. Inter cropping and population density effects on yield component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population density and intercropping of sorghum {sorghum bicolour (L) and Soybean {Glycine max Merril (L)} may alter their growth and yield patterns through responses to light and physiological attributes as compared to their performance in standard densities and monocultures. There is limited field information on this ...

  15. Grass species composition, yield and quality under and outside tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-year study was conducted in lightly grazed areas of Matopos Research Station, Zimbabwe, to evaluate the impact of widely spaced trees on understorey grass composition, yield and quality. The study trees were Terminalia sericea and Acacia karroo. Ordination techniques using grass density and biomass as indices ...

  16. Regional and site-specific absolute humidity data for use in tritium dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Due to the potential variability in average absolute humidity over the continental U.S., and the dependence of atmospheric 3 H specific activity on absolute humidity, availability of regional absolute humidity data is of value in estimating the radiological significance of 3 H releases. Most climatological data are in the form of relative humidity, which must be converted to absolute humidity for dose calculations. Absolute humidity was calculated for 218 points across the U.S., using the 1977 annual summary of U.S. Climatological Data, and is given in a table. Mean regional values are shown on a map. (author)

  17. Effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Moshabaki Isfahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizer is defined as a substance which contains living organisms which, when applied to seed, plant surface, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or interior of the plant and promote growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Biofertilizers are well recognized as an important component of integrated plant nutrient management for sustainable agriculture and hold a great promise improve crop yield. The present study for the sake of evaluating the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produced by Pseudomonas sp. and phosphate bio fertilizers produced by Pseudomonas putida strain P13 and Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and chemical fertilizers in the separate treatments on yield and yield components of cucumber by using a factorial experiment in completely randomized block design with three repetition were performed in the field. The symbol of P represents chemical fertilizer by amount of respectively (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, B1 shows plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and B2 indicates bio fertilizer-2. The results showed that P1B0 has the most yield, and control treatments has the least yield. P100B1 has the most length of plant and P100B0 has the least length of plant, P25B1 has the most amount of chlorophyll and P75B2 has the least chlorophyll. P75B2 has the most shoots dry weight and P100B0 has the least shoots dry weight. B1P50 has the most shoots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least shoots fresh weight. B1P50 has the most roots dry weight and P100B0 has the least roots dry weight. B1P50 has the most roots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least roots fresh weight. So the results indicate that use of biological fertilizers have caused increase yield and components yield of cucumber.

  18. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwizdala, M.S.; Berera, R.; Kirilovsky, D.; van Grondelle, R.; Kruger, T.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within

  19. Lighting Computer Programs in Lighting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    EKREN, Nazmi; DURSUN, Bahtiyar; AYKUT, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the computer in lighting technology is a vital component for lighting designers. Lighting computer programs are preferred in preparing architectural projects in lighting techniques, especially in lighting calculations. Lighting computer programs, which arise with the aim of helping lighting designers, gain more interest day by day. The most important property of lighting computer programs is the ability to enable the simulation of lighting projects without requiring any ...

  20. Evaluation of neutron light output response functions in EJ-309 organic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norsworthy, Mark A., E-mail: marknors@umich.edu; Poitrasson-Rivière, Alexis, E-mail: alexispr@umich.edu; Ruch, Marc L., E-mail: mruch@umich.edu; Clarke, Shaun D., E-mail: clarkesd@umich.edu; Pozzi, Sara A., E-mail: pozzisa@umich.edu

    2017-01-11

    An accurate model of the nonlinear detector response of organic scintillators to neutrons is required to correctly simulate fast neutron detection, as well as interpret measured pulse height data. Several empirical and semi-empirical models are available to fit measured scintillator light output data. In this work, EJ-309 light output data from neutrons depositing 1.15–5.15 MeV on hydrogen were analyzed using empirical models as well as semi-empirical models based on the work of Birks and Voltz. Although all tested models fit the experimental light output data well in the measured range, the models were observed to diverge in low-energy extrapolation. The models were then tested by comparing a measurement and MCNPX-PoliMi simulation of an EJ-309 detector response to fast neutrons from a {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission source. The agreement between the measured and simulated pulse height distributions varied significantly depending on the light output model used. The best agreement between simulated and measured neutron pulse height distributions was achieved by using the Birks model. The bin-by-bin agreement was better than 5% over the range 0.08–2.18 MeVee, and better than 10% from 2.18 to 3.13 MeVee. The integral count rate over the range 0.08–3.14 MeVee differed by less than 1% in absolute units. - Highlights: • Various models exist for neutron light output in organic scintillators. • Models fit data well, but behave differently in extrapolation to low-energy. • The choice of light output model profoundly affects simulated detector response. • Birks' Law yields the best agreement of simulation and experiment.