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Sample records for absolute energy scale

  1. Quantitative atomic resolution elemental mapping via absolute-scale energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Weyland, M. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Sang, X.; Xu, W.; Dycus, J.H.; LeBeau, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); D' Alfonso, A.J.; Allen, L.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Findlay, S.D., E-mail: scott.findlay@monash.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative agreement on an absolute scale is demonstrated between experiment and simulation for two-dimensional, atomic-resolution elemental mapping via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This requires all experimental parameters to be carefully characterized. The agreement is good, but some discrepancies remain. The most likely contributing factors are identified and discussed. Previous predictions that increasing the probe forming aperture helps to suppress the channelling enhancement in the average signal are confirmed experimentally. It is emphasized that simple column-by-column analysis requires a choice of sample thickness that compromises between being thick enough to yield a good signal-to-noise ratio while being thin enough that the overwhelming majority of the EDX signal derives from the column on which the probe is placed, despite strong electron scattering effects. - Highlights: • Absolute scale quantification of 2D atomic-resolution EDX maps is demonstrated. • Factors contributing to remaining small quantitative discrepancies are identified. • Experiment confirms large probe-forming apertures suppress channelling enhancement. • The thickness range suitable for reliable column-by-column analysis is discussed.

  2. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized

  3. Determination of the absolute jet energy scale in the DOe calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G.A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E.W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M.M.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S.B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bhat, P.C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N.I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V.S.; Butler, J.M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B.C.; Christenson, J.H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.R.; Cobau, W.G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W.E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O.I.; Davis, K.; De, K.; Signore, K. Del; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Diesburg, M.; Loreto, G. Di; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L.V.; Dugad, S.R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V.D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H.E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G.E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K.C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A.N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T.L.; II, R.J. Genik; Genser, K.; Gerber, C.E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gomez, B.; Gomez, G.; Goncharov, P.I.; GonzalezSolis, J.L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L.T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P.D.; Green, D.R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Gruenendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J.A.; Guida, J.M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N.J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K.S.; Hall, R.E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J.M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A.P.; Heintz, U.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J.D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J.S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A.S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S.A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J.Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Joestlein, H.; Jun, S.Y.; Jung, C.K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J.S.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M.L.; Kim, C.L.; Kim, S.K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Kohli, J.M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A.V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A.V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A.V.; Kozlovsky, E.A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M.R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q.Z.; Lima, J.G.R.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S.L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S.C.; Loekoes, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A.L.; Maciel, A.K.A.; Madaras, R.J.; Madden, R.; Magan#=tilde#a-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H.S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M.I.; Mauritz, K.M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A.A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H.L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K.W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C.S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N.K.; Montgomery, H.E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V.S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H.A.; Negret, J.P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oliveira, E.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Park, Y.M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B.G.; Prosper, H.B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P.Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H.C.; Shivpuri, R.K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J.B.; Siroten ko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, E.; Smith, R.P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G.R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A.L.; Steinbrueck, G.; Stephens, R.W.; Stevenson, M.L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D.A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T.L.T.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T.G.; Tuts, P.M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E.W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A.A.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Wahl, H.D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J.T.; Wightman, J.A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S.J.; Wirjawan, J.V.D.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D.R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z.H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E.G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1999-01-01

    The DOe detector is used to study pp-bar collisions at the 1800 and 630 GeV center-of-mass energies available at the Fermilab Tevatron. To measure jets, the detector uses a sampling calorimeter composed of uranium and liquid argon as the passive and active media, respectively. Understanding the jet energy calibration is not only crucial for precision tests of QCD, but also for the measurement of particle masses and the determination of physics backgrounds associated with new phenomena. This paper describes the energy calibration of jets observed with the DOe detector at the two pp-bar center-of-mass energies in the transverse energy and pseudorapidity range E T >8 GeV and vertical bar η vertical bar <3

  4. Energy Decomposition Analysis Based on Absolutely Localized Molecular Orbitals for Large-Scale Density Functional Theory Calculations in Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, M J S; Fox, T; Tautermann, C S; Skylaris, C-K

    2016-07-12

    We report the development and implementation of an energy decomposition analysis (EDA) scheme in the ONETEP linear-scaling electronic structure package. Our approach is hybrid as it combines the localized molecular orbital EDA (Su, P.; Li, H. J. Chem. Phys., 2009, 131, 014102) and the absolutely localized molecular orbital EDA (Khaliullin, R. Z.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2007, 111, 8753-8765) to partition the intermolecular interaction energy into chemically distinct components (electrostatic, exchange, correlation, Pauli repulsion, polarization, and charge transfer). Limitations shared in EDA approaches such as the issue of basis set dependence in polarization and charge transfer are discussed, and a remedy to this problem is proposed that exploits the strictly localized property of the ONETEP orbitals. Our method is validated on a range of complexes with interactions relevant to drug design. We demonstrate the capabilities for large-scale calculations with our approach on complexes of thrombin with an inhibitor comprised of up to 4975 atoms. Given the capability of ONETEP for large-scale calculations, such as on entire proteins, we expect that our EDA scheme can be applied in a large range of biomolecular problems, especially in the context of drug design.

  5. DAQ Software Contributions, Absolute Scale Energy Calibration and Background Evaluation for the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, Eric Lewis [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The NOvA (NuMI Off-axis ve [nu_e] Appearance) Experiment is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment currently in its second year of operations. NOvA uses the Neutrinos from the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermilab, and there are two main off-axis detectors: a Near Detector at Fermilab and a Far Detector 810 km away at Ash River, MN. The work reported herein is in support of the NOvA Experiment, through contributions to the development of data acquisition software, providing an accurate, absolute-scale energy calibration for electromagnetic showers in NOvA detector elements, crucial to the primary electron neutrino search, and through an initial evaluation of the cosmic background rate in the NOvA Far Detector, which is situated on the surface without significant overburden. Additional support work for the NOvA Experiment is also detailed, including DAQ Server Administration duties and a study of NOvA’s sensitivity to neutrino oscillations into a “sterile” state.

  6. Absolute single-ion solvation free energy scale in methanol determined by the lithium cluster-continuum approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego, Josefredo R; Miguel, Elizabeth L M

    2013-05-02

    Absolute solvation free energy of the lithium cation in methanol was calculated by the cluster-continuum quasichemical theory of solvation. Clusters with up to five methanol molecules were investigated using X3LYP, MP2, and MP4 methods with DZVP, 6-311+G(2df,2p), TZVPP+diff, and QZVPP+diff basis sets and including the cluster solvation through the PCM and SMD continuum models. Our calculations have determined a value of -118.1 kcal mol(-1) for the solvation free energy of the lithium, in close agreement with a value of -116.6 kcal mol(-1) consistent with the TATB assumption. Using data of solvation and transfer free energy of a pair of ions, electrode potentials and pKa, we have obtained the solvation free energy of 25 ions in methanol. Our analysis leads to a value of -253.6 kcal mol(-1) for the solvation free energy of the proton, which can be compared with the value of -263.5 kcal mol(-1) obtained by Kelly et al. using the cluster pair approximation. Considering that this difference is due to the methanol surface potential, we have estimated that it corresponds to -0.429 V.

  7. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth, E-mail: kenneth.ruud@uit.no [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Gauss, Jürgen [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-07

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the {sup 17}O and {sup 33}S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin–rotation constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C{sup 17}O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H{sub 2}{sup 33}S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin–rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C{sup 17}O −59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H{sub 2}{sup 33}S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  8. Predicting accurate absolute binding energies in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2015-01-01

    Recent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic. In this paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal......-represented by continuum models. While I focus on binding free energies in aqueous solution the approach also applies (with minor adjustments) to any free energy difference such as conformational or reaction free energy differences or activation free energies in any solvent....

  9. An absolute scale for measuring the utility of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the utility of money is essential in the insurance industry, for prioritising public spending schemes and for the evaluation of decisions on protection systems in high-hazard industries. Up to this time, however, there has been no universally agreed measure for the utility of money, with many utility functions being in common use. In this paper, we shall derive a single family of utility functions, which have risk-aversion as the only free parameter. The fact that they return a utility of zero at their low, reference datum, either the utility of no money or of one unit of money, irrespective of the value of risk-aversion used, qualifies them to be regarded as absolute scales for the utility of money. Evidence of validation for the concept will be offered based on inferential measurements of risk-aversion, using diverse measurement data.

  10. Calibrating the absolute amplitude scale for air showers measured at LOFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, A.; Hörandel, J. R.; Karskens, T.; Krause, M.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Buitink, S.; Erdmann, M.; Krause, R.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Huege, T.; Link, K.; Schröder, F. G.; Norden, M. J.; Scholten, O.

    2015-01-01

    Air showers induced by cosmic rays create nanosecond pulses detectable at radio frequencies. These pulses have been measured successfully in the past few years at the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and are used to study the properties of cosmic rays. For a complete understanding of this phenomenon and the underlying physical processes, an absolute calibration of the detecting antenna system is needed. We present three approaches that were used to check and improve the antenna model of LOFAR and to provide an absolute calibration of the whole system for air shower measurements. Two methods are based on calibrated reference sources and one on a calibration approach using the diffuse radio emission of the Galaxy, optimized for short data-sets. An accuracy of 19% in amplitude is reached. The absolute calibration is also compared to predictions from air shower simulations. These results are used to set an absolute energy scale for air shower measurements and can be used as a basis for an absolute scale for the measurement of astronomical transients with LOFAR

  11. Surface energy loss processes in XPS studied by absolute reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, T.; Goto, K.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the inelastic interaction of 300-3000 eV electrons with the Ni and Au surfaces by the analysis of absolute reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectra were described. The present analysis enables the inelastic mean free path (IMFP), surface excitation parameter (SEP) and differential SEP (DSEP) to be obtained simultaneously from an absolute REELS spectrum. The obtained IMFPs for Ni and Au showed a good agreement with those calculated using the TPP-2M predictive equation. The present SEPs determined for Ni and Au were fitted to the Chen's formula describing the dependence of the SEP on the electron energy, and material parameters for Ni and Au in Chen's formula were proposed. The present DESPs were compared with the theoretical results, and a reasonable agreement between the experimentally determined DSEPs and theoretical results was confirmed. The MC modeling of calculating the REELS spectrum, in which energy loss processes due to surface excitations are taken into account, was also described. The IMFP, SEP and DSEP determined by the present absolute REELS analysis were employed to describe energy loss processes by inelastic scattering in the proposed MC simulation. The simulated REELS spectra were found to be in a good agreement with the experimental spectra for both Ni and Au.

  12. Conformational Transitions and Convergence of Absolute Binding Free Energy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapelosa, Mauro; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    The Binding Energy Distribution Analysis Method (BEDAM) is employed to compute the standard binding free energies of a series of ligands to a FK506 binding protein (FKBP12) with implicit solvation. Binding free energy estimates are in reasonably good agreement with experimental affinities. The conformations of the complexes identified by the simulations are in good agreement with crystallographic data, which was not used to restrain ligand orientations. The BEDAM method is based on λ -hopping Hamiltonian parallel Replica Exchange (HREM) molecular dynamics conformational sampling, the OPLS-AA/AGBNP2 effective potential, and multi-state free energy estimators (MBAR). Achieving converged and accurate results depends on all of these elements of the calculation. Convergence of the binding free energy is tied to the level of convergence of binding energy distributions at critical intermediate states where bound and unbound states are at equilibrium, and where the rate of binding/unbinding conformational transitions is maximal. This finding mirrors similar observations in the context of order/disorder transitions as for example in protein folding. Insights concerning the physical mechanism of ligand binding and unbinding are obtained. Convergence for the largest FK506 ligand is achieved only after imposing strict conformational restraints, which however require accurate prior structural knowledge of the structure of the complex. The analytical AGBNP2 model is found to underestimate the magnitude of the hydrophobic driving force towards binding in these systems characterized by loosely packed protein-ligand binding interfaces. Rescoring of the binding energies using a numerical surface area model corrects this deficiency. This study illustrates the complex interplay between energy models, exploration of conformational space, and free energy estimators needed to obtain robust estimates from binding free energy calculations. PMID:22368530

  13. Land Use in LCIA: an absolute scale proposal for Biotic Production Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo; Ibrom, Andreas; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    , the present study proposes a single absolute scale for the midpoint impact category (MIC) of Biotic Production Potential (BPP). It is hypothesized that, for an ecosystem in equilibrium (where NPP equals decay), such an ecosystem has reached the maximum biotic throughput subject to site-specific conditions...... and no externally added inputs. The original ecosystem (or Potential Natural Vegetation) of a certain land gives then the maximum BPP with no additional, downstream or upstream, impacts. This Natural BPP is proposed as the maximum BPP in a hypothetical Absolute Scale for LCA’s Land Use framework. It is argued...... that this maximum BPP is Nature’s optimal solution through evolution-adaptation mechanisms, which provides the maximum matter throughput subject to the rest of environmental constraints (without further impacts). As a consequence, this scale rises a Land Use Optimality Point that suggests the existence of a limit...

  14. Absolute fragmentation cross sections in atom-molecule collisions : Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Zhang, Y.; Rousseau, P.; Domaracka, A.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L.; Huber, B. A.; Schlathölter, T.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH+) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections

  15. Absolute Hydration Free Energy of Proton from First Principles Electronic Structure Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Chang-Guo; Dixon, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The absolute hydration free energy of the proton, DGhyd298(H+), is one of the fundamental quantities for the thermodynamics of aqueous systems. Its exact value remains unknown despite extensive experimental and computational efforts. We report a first-principles determination of DGhyd298(H+) by using the latest developments in electronic structure theory and massively parallel computers. DGhyd298(H+) is accurately predicted to be -262.4 kcal/mol based on high-level, first-principles solvation-included electronic structure calculations. The absolute hydration free energies of other cations can be obtained by using appropriate available thermodynamic data in combination with this value. The high accuracy of the predicted absolute hydration free energy of proton is confirmed by applying the same protocol to predict DGhyd298(Li+)

  16. Gaussian-3 theory using scaled energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, Larry A.; Raghavachari, Krishnan; Redfern, Paul C.; Pople, John A.

    2000-01-01

    A modification of Guassian-3 (G3) theory using multiplicative scale factors, instead of the additive higher level correction, is presented. In this method, referred to as G3S, the correlation energy is scaled by five parameters and the Hartree-Fock energy by one parameter. The six parameters are fitted to the G2/97 test set of 299 energies and the resulting mean absolute deviation from experiment is 0.99 kcal/mol compared to 1.01 kcal/mol for G3 theory. The G3S method has the advantage compared to G3 theory in that it can be used for studying potential energy surfaces where the products and reactants have a different number of paired electrons. In addition, versions of the computationally less intensive G3(MP3) and G3(MP2) methods that use scaled energies are also presented. These methods, referred to as G3S(MP3) and G3S(MP2), have mean absolute deviations of 1.16 and 1.35 kcal/mol, respectively. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  17. Superharp: A wire scanner with absolute position readout for beam energy measurement at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, C.

    1994-01-01

    Superharp is an upgrade CEBAF wire scanner with absolute position readout from shaft encoder. As high precision absolute beam position probe (Δx ∼ 10μm), three pairs of superharps are installed at the entrance, the mid-point, and the exit of Hall C arc beamline in beam switch yard, which will be tuned in dispersive mode as energy spectrometer performing 10 -3 beam energy measurement. With dual sensor system: the direct current pickup and the bremsstrahlung detection electronics, beam profile can be obtained by superharp at wide beam current range from 1 μA to 100 μA

  18. Absolute calibration of the mass scale in the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenichenko, V. V.

    1992-08-01

    A method of the absolute calibration of the mass scale is proposed for solving the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs. The method is based on data on the masses of fallen meteorites whose fireballs have been photographed in flight. The method can be applied to fireballs whose bodies have not experienced significant fragmentation during their flight in the atmosphere and have kept their shape relatively well. Data on the Lost City and Innisfree meteorites are used to calculate the calibration coefficients.

  19. Absolute mass scale calibration in the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenichenko, V. V.

    A method of the absolute mass scale calibration is suggested for solving the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs. The method is based on the data on the masses of the fallen meteorites whose fireballs have been photographed in their flight. The method may be applied to those fireballs whose bodies have not experienced considerable fragmentation during their destruction in the atmosphere and have kept their form well enough. Statistical analysis of the inverse problem solution for a sufficiently representative sample makes it possible to separate a subsample of such fireballs. The data on the Lost City and Innisfree meteorites are used to obtain calibration coefficients.

  20. Shave-off depth profiling: Depth profiling with an absolute depth scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, M.; Maekawa, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Tomiyasu, B.; Sakamoto, T.; Owari, M.; Nihei, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Shave-off depth profiling provides profiling with an absolute depth scale. This method uses a focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining process to provide the depth profile. We show that the shave-off depth profile of a particle reflected the spherical shape of the sample and signal intensities had no relationship to the depth. Through the introduction of FIB micro-sampling, the shave-off depth profiling of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) tip was carried out. The shave-off profile agreed with a blue print from the manufacturing process. Finally, shave-off depth profiling is discussed with respect to resolutions and future directions

  1. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young (< 200 Myr), nearby (< 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the tau^2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the M_V, V-J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are: 149+51-19 Myr for the AB Dor moving group, 24+/-3 Myr for the {\\beta} Pic moving group (BPMG), 45+11-7 Myr for the...

  2. Tinker-OpenMM: Absolute and relative alchemical free energies using AMOEBA on GPUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harger, Matthew; Li, Daniel; Wang, Zhi; Dalby, Kevin; Lagardère, Louis; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Ponder, Jay; Ren, Pengyu

    2017-09-05

    The capabilities of the polarizable force fields for alchemical free energy calculations have been limited by the high computational cost and complexity of the underlying potential energy functions. In this work, we present a GPU-based general alchemical free energy simulation platform for polarizable potential AMOEBA. Tinker-OpenMM, the OpenMM implementation of the AMOEBA simulation engine has been modified to enable both absolute and relative alchemical simulations on GPUs, which leads to a ∼200-fold improvement in simulation speed over a single CPU core. We show that free energy values calculated using this platform agree with the results of Tinker simulations for the hydration of organic compounds and binding of host-guest systems within the statistical errors. In addition to absolute binding, we designed a relative alchemical approach for computing relative binding affinities of ligands to the same host, where a special path was applied to avoid numerical instability due to polarization between the different ligands that bind to the same site. This scheme is general and does not require ligands to have similar scaffolds. We show that relative hydration and binding free energy calculated using this approach match those computed from the absolute free energy approach. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Profiting from negawatts: Reducing absolute consumption and emissions through a performance-based energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberger, Julia K.; Niel, Johan van; Bourg, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Current energy and GHG emissions policies either focus directly on emissions or promote renewable production and the implementation of specific efficiency measures. Meanwhile, the fundamental structure of the energy market based on profits through energy throughput remains largely unchallenged. This policy oversight prevents the transition to an energy economy in which profits are based on energy services delivered at the lowest energy cost: a performance-based energy economy (PBEE). The PBEE applies the combined concepts of the performance economy and energy services to the energy sector. Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are discussed as an example of PBEE practices. The implications for energy suppliers and consumers as well as the conditions for PBEE diffusion and consequences for technological change are also explored. The expected environmental, social and economic benefits are described. However, absolute consumption and emissions reductions may prove elusive due to the rebound effect. In order to forestall rebound-led increases, complementary policy measures likely to lead to absolute reductions are required

  4. Profiting from negawatts. Reducing absolute consumption and emissions through a performance-based energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Julia K. [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); Institute of Social Ecology, Klagenfurt University, Schottenfeldg. 29, A-1070 Vienna (Austria); van Niel, Johan [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); CREIDD, University of Technology of Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Bourg, Dominique [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Current energy and GHG emissions policies either focus directly on emissions or promote renewable production and the implementation of specific efficiency measures. Meanwhile, the fundamental structure of the energy market based on profits through energy throughput remains largely unchallenged. This policy oversight prevents the transition to an energy economy in which profits are based on energy services delivered at the lowest energy cost: a performance-based energy economy (PBEE). The PBEE applies the combined concepts of the performance economy and energy services to the energy sector. Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are discussed as an example of PBEE practices. The implications for energy suppliers and consumers as well as the conditions for PBEE diffusion and consequences for technological change are also explored. The expected environmental, social and economic benefits are described. However, absolute consumption and emissions reductions may prove elusive due to the rebound effect. In order to forestall rebound-led increases, complementary policy measures likely to lead to absolute reductions are required. (author)

  5. Profiting from negawatts: Reducing absolute consumption and emissions through a performance-based energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Julia K. [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); Institute of Social Ecology, Klagenfurt University, Schottenfeldg. 29, A-1070 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: julia.steinberger@uni-klu.ac.at; Niel, Johan van [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); CREIDD, University of Technology of Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Bourg, Dominique [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Current energy and GHG emissions policies either focus directly on emissions or promote renewable production and the implementation of specific efficiency measures. Meanwhile, the fundamental structure of the energy market based on profits through energy throughput remains largely unchallenged. This policy oversight prevents the transition to an energy economy in which profits are based on energy services delivered at the lowest energy cost: a performance-based energy economy (PBEE). The PBEE applies the combined concepts of the performance economy and energy services to the energy sector. Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are discussed as an example of PBEE practices. The implications for energy suppliers and consumers as well as the conditions for PBEE diffusion and consequences for technological change are also explored. The expected environmental, social and economic benefits are described. However, absolute consumption and emissions reductions may prove elusive due to the rebound effect. In order to forestall rebound-led increases, complementary policy measures likely to lead to absolute reductions are required.

  6. The Berg Balance Scale has high intra- and inter-rater reliability but absolute reliability varies across the scale: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Stephen; Marquez, Jodie; Chiarelli, Pauline

    2013-06-01

    What is the intra-rater and inter-rater relative reliability of the Berg Balance Scale? What is the absolute reliability of the Berg Balance Scale? Does the absolute reliability of the Berg Balance Scale vary across the scale? Systematic review with meta-analysis of reliability studies. Any clinical population that has undergone assessment with the Berg Balance Scale. Relative intra-rater reliability, relative inter-rater reliability, and absolute reliability. Eleven studies involving 668 participants were included in the review. The relative intrarater reliability of the Berg Balance Scale was high, with a pooled estimate of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). Relative inter-rater reliability was also high, with a pooled estimate of 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.98). A ceiling effect of the Berg Balance Scale was evident for some participants. In the analysis of absolute reliability, all of the relevant studies had an average score of 20 or above on the 0 to 56 point Berg Balance Scale. The absolute reliability across this part of the scale, as measured by the minimal detectable change with 95% confidence, varied between 2.8 points and 6.6 points. The Berg Balance Scale has a higher absolute reliability when close to 56 points due to the ceiling effect. We identified no data that estimated the absolute reliability of the Berg Balance Scale among participants with a mean score below 20 out of 56. The Berg Balance Scale has acceptable reliability, although it might not detect modest, clinically important changes in balance in individual subjects. The review was only able to comment on the absolute reliability of the Berg Balance Scale among people with moderately poor to normal balance. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  7. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  8. Absolute in situ energy calibration of luminosity calorimeters in the DELPHI experiment at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugge, L.; Dam, M.; Read, A.L.; Myrheim, J.; Skjevling, G.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to perform the absolute energy calibration of DELPHI's Small Angle Tagger luminosity calorimeters at LEP are presented and compared. The input was small angle Bhabha scattering events. A significant nonlinearity in the response of the calorimeters was observed. The conjugate gradient method was applied to solve the least squares problem. This method is particularly useful for least squares problems which are large, ill-behaved or even singular, and for cases with a sparse coefficient matrix. (orig.)

  9. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  10. Jet Energy Scale Uncertainties in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillari, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The first proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of √s = 7TeV have been used by the ATLAS experiment to achieve an accuracy of the jet energy measurement between 2% and 4% for jets transverse momenta between 20 GeV and 2TeV and in the absolute pseudorapidity range up to 4.5. The jet energy scale uncertainty is derived from measurements in situ of the calorimeter single response to hadrons together with systematic variations in the Monte Carlo simulation. The transverse momentum balance between a central and a forward jet in events with two high transverse momenta jets is used to set the jet energy uncertainty in the forward region. The obtained uncertainty is confirmed by in-situ measurements. Jets in the TeV energy range have been tested using a system of well calibrated jets at low transverse momenta against high transverse momenta jets. A further reduction of the jet energy scale uncertainty between 1% and 2% for jets transverse momenta above 30 GeV has been achieved using data from the 2011 run based on an integrated luminosity of 5 fb −1 .

  11. Assessing energy forecasting inaccuracy by simultaneously considering temporal and absolute errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frías-Paredes, Laura; Mallor, Fermín; Gastón-Romeo, Martín; León, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method to match time series is defined to assess energy forecasting accuracy. • This method relies in a new family of step patterns that optimizes the MAE. • A new definition of the Temporal Distortion Index between two series is provided. • A parametric extension controls both the temporal distortion index and the MAE. • Pareto optimal transformations of the forecast series are obtained for both indexes. - Abstract: Recent years have seen a growing trend in wind and solar energy generation globally and it is expected that an important percentage of total energy production comes from these energy sources. However, they present inherent variability that implies fluctuations in energy generation that are difficult to forecast. Thus, forecasting errors have a considerable role in the impacts and costs of renewable energy integration, management, and commercialization. This study presents an important advance in the task of analyzing prediction models, in particular, in the timing component of prediction error, which improves previous pioneering results. A new method to match time series is defined in order to assess energy forecasting accuracy. This method relies on a new family of step patterns, an essential component of the algorithm to evaluate the temporal distortion index (TDI). This family minimizes the mean absolute error (MAE) of the transformation with respect to the reference series (the real energy series) and also allows detailed control of the temporal distortion entailed in the prediction series. The simultaneous consideration of temporal and absolute errors allows the use of Pareto frontiers as characteristic error curves. Real examples of wind energy forecasts are used to illustrate the results.

  12. Noncircular features in Saturn's rings IV: Absolute radius scale and Saturn's pole direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Richard G.; McGhee-French, Colleen A.; Lonergan, Katherine; Sepersky, Talia; Jacobson, Robert A.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, Mathew M.; Marouf, Essam A.; Colwell, Joshua E.

    2017-07-01

    We present a comprehensive solution for the geometry of Saturn's ring system, based on orbital fits to an extensive set of occultation observations of 122 individual ring edges and gaps. We begin with a restricted set of very high quality Cassini VIMS, UVIS, and RSS measurements for quasi-circular features in the C and B rings and the Cassini Division, and then successively add suitably weighted additional Cassini and historical occultation measurements (from Voyager, HST and the widely-observed 28 Sgr occultation of 3 Jul 1989) for additional non-circular features, to derive an absolute radius scale applicable across the entire classical ring system. As part of our adopted solution, we determine first-order corrections to the spacecraft trajectories used to determine the geometry of individual occultation chords. We adopt a simple linear model for Saturn's precession, and our favored solution yields a precession rate on the sky n^˙P = 0.207 ± 0 .006‧‧yr-1 , equivalent to an angular rate of polar motion ΩP = 0.451 ± 0 .014‧‧yr-1 . The 3% formal uncertainty in the fitted precession rate is approaching the point where it can provide a useful constraint on models of Saturn's interior, although realistic errors are likely to be larger, given the linear approximation of the precession model and possible unmodeled systematic errors in the spacecraft ephemerides. Our results are largely consistent with independent estimates of the precession rate based on historical RPX times (Nicholson et al., 1999 AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #31 31, 44.01) and from theoretical expectations that account for Titan's 700-yr precession period (Vienne and Duriez 1992, Astronomy and Astrophysics 257, 331-352). The fitted precession rate based on Cassini data only is somewhat lower, which may be an indication of unmodeled shorter term contributions to Saturn's polar motion from other satellites, or perhaps the result of inconsistencies in the assumed

  13. Directly relating gas-phase cluster measurements to solution-phase hydrolysis, the absolute standard hydrogen electrode potential, and the absolute proton solvation energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, William A; Leib, Ryan D; O'Brien, Jeremy T; Williams, Evan R

    2009-06-08

    Solution-phase, half-cell potentials are measured relative to other half-cell potentials, resulting in a thermochemical ladder that is anchored to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is assigned an arbitrary value of 0 V. A new method for measuring the absolute SHE potential is demonstrated in which gaseous nanodrops containing divalent alkaline-earth or transition-metal ions are reduced by thermally generated electrons. Energies for the reactions 1) M(H(2)O)(24)(2+)(g) + e(-)(g)-->M(H(2)O)(24)(+)(g) and 2) M(H(2)O)(24)(2+)(g) + e(-)(g)-->MOH(H(2)O)(23)(+)(g) + H(g) and the hydrogen atom affinities of MOH(H(2)O)(23)(+)(g) are obtained from the number of water molecules lost through each pathway. From these measurements on clusters containing nine different metal ions and known thermochemical values that include solution hydrolysis energies, an average absolute SHE potential of +4.29 V vs. e(-)(g) (standard deviation of 0.02 V) and a real proton solvation free energy of -265 kcal mol(-1) are obtained. With this method, the absolute SHE potential can be obtained from a one-electron reduction of nanodrops containing divalent ions that are not observed to undergo one-electron reduction in aqueous solution.

  14. Real-Time and Meter-Scale Absolute Distance Measurement by Frequency-Comb-Referenced Multi-Wavelength Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guochao Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a frequency-comb-referenced absolute interferometer which instantly measures long distance by integrating multi-wavelength interferometry with direct synthetic wavelength interferometry. The reported interferometer utilizes four different wavelengths, simultaneously calibrated to the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser, to implement subwavelength distance measurement, while direct synthetic wavelength interferometry is elaborately introduced by launching a fifth wavelength to extend a non-ambiguous range for meter-scale measurement. A linearity test performed comparatively with a He–Ne laser interferometer shows a residual error of less than 70.8 nm in peak-to-valley over a 3 m distance, and a 10 h distance comparison is demonstrated to gain fractional deviations of ~3 × 10−8 versus 3 m distance. Test results reveal that the presented absolute interferometer enables precise, stable, and long-term distance measurements and facilitates absolute positioning applications such as large-scale manufacturing and space missions.

  15. Real-Time and Meter-Scale Absolute Distance Measurement by Frequency-Comb-Referenced Multi-Wavelength Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guochao; Tan, Lilong; Yan, Shuhua

    2018-02-07

    We report on a frequency-comb-referenced absolute interferometer which instantly measures long distance by integrating multi-wavelength interferometry with direct synthetic wavelength interferometry. The reported interferometer utilizes four different wavelengths, simultaneously calibrated to the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser, to implement subwavelength distance measurement, while direct synthetic wavelength interferometry is elaborately introduced by launching a fifth wavelength to extend a non-ambiguous range for meter-scale measurement. A linearity test performed comparatively with a He-Ne laser interferometer shows a residual error of less than 70.8 nm in peak-to-valley over a 3 m distance, and a 10 h distance comparison is demonstrated to gain fractional deviations of ~3 × 10 -8 versus 3 m distance. Test results reveal that the presented absolute interferometer enables precise, stable, and long-term distance measurements and facilitates absolute positioning applications such as large-scale manufacturing and space missions.

  16. Ideal Gas with a Varying (Negative Absolute) Temperature: an Alternative to Dark Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhajit; Mondal, Anindita; Corda, Christian

    2018-02-01

    The present work is an attempt to investigate whether the evolutionary history of the Universe from the offset of inflation can be described by assuming the cosmic fluid to be an ideal gas with a specific gas constant but a varying negative absolute temperature (NAT). The motivation of this work is to search for an alternative to the "exotic" and "supernatural" dark energy (DE). In fact, the NAT works as an "effective quintessence" and there is need to deal neither with exotic matter like DE nor with modified gravity theories. For the sake of completeness, we release some clarifications on NATs in Section 3 of the paper.

  17. Absolute in situ energy calibration of luminosity calorimeters in the DELPHI experiment at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugge, L.; Dam, M.; Read, A.L.; Myrheim, J.; Skjevling, G.

    1992-07-01

    Methods to perform the absolute energy calibration of DELPHI's Small Angle Tagger luminosity calorimeters at LEP are presented and compared. The input was small angle Bhabha scattering events. A significant non-linearity in the response of the calorimeters was observed. The conjugate gradient method was applied to solve the least square problem. This method is particularly useful for least squares problems which are large, ill-behaved or even singular, and for cases with a sparse coefficient matrix. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  18. A rediscussion of the atmospheric extinction and the absolute spectral-energy distribution of Vega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.S.; Latham, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    For both the Lick and the Palomar calibrations of the spectral-energy distribution of Vega, the atmospheric extinction was treated incorrectly. We present a model for extinction in the Earth's atmosphere and use this model to calculate corrections to the Lick and Palomar calibrations. We also describe a method that can be used to fabricate mean extinction coefficients for any mountain observatory. We combine selected portions of the corrected Lick and corrected Palomar calibrations with the new Mount Hopkins calibration to generate an absolute spectral-energy distibution of Vega over the wavelength range 3300--10,800 A. Until better measurements become available, we recommend the use of this calibration for all practical applications

  19. Absolute cross sections measurement for the 12C + 12C system at astrophysically relevant energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron-Palos, L.; Aguilera, E.F.; Aspiazu, J.; Huerta, A.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Monroy, R.; Moreno, E.; Murillo, G.; Ortiz, M.E.; Policroniades, R.; Varela, A.; Chavez, E.

    2006-01-01

    The 12 C + 12 C fusion reaction has been studied in the center-of-mass energy range of 2.25 to 6.01 MeV. Through the detection of gamma rays from the first excited states of the residual nuclei 20 Ne, 23 Na and 23 Mg, absolute cross sections for the 12 C( 12 C,-bar α), 12 C( 12 C,-bar p) and 12 C( 12 C,-bar n) reactions have been obtained. In this new measurement, the energy dependence of the S-factor is found to increase as the energy decreases below 3 MeV in the center of mass. This tendency was observed in previous measurements by Mazarakis et al., and has since then become a subject of controversy. In this work, where the cross sections are measured at even lower energies, we confirm the rise in the S-factor toward the energy region relevant for star evolution and nucleosynthesis calculations (E c.m. =1-3 MeV)

  20. BFEE: A User-Friendly Graphical Interface Facilitating Absolute Binding Free-Energy Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Haohao; Gumbart, James C; Chen, Haochuan; Shao, Xueguang; Cai, Wensheng; Chipot, Christophe

    2018-03-26

    Quantifying protein-ligand binding has attracted the attention of both theorists and experimentalists for decades. Many methods for estimating binding free energies in silico have been reported in recent years. Proper use of the proposed strategies requires, however, adequate knowledge of the protein-ligand complex, the mathematical background for deriving the underlying theory, and time for setting up the simulations, bookkeeping, and postprocessing. Here, to minimize human intervention, we propose a toolkit aimed at facilitating the accurate estimation of standard binding free energies using a geometrical route, coined the binding free-energy estimator (BFEE), and introduced it as a plug-in of the popular visualization program VMD. Benefitting from recent developments in new collective variables, BFEE can be used to generate the simulation input files, based solely on the structure of the complex. Once the simulations are completed, BFEE can also be utilized to perform the post-treatment of the free-energy calculations, allowing the absolute binding free energy to be estimated directly from the one-dimensional potentials of mean force in simulation outputs. The minimal amount of human intervention required during the whole process combined with the ergonomic graphical interface makes BFEE a very effective and practical tool for the end-user.

  1. IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on Recommended Zero Points for the Absolute and Apparent Bolometric Magnitude Scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamajek, E. E.; Torres, G.; Prsa, A.

    2015-01-01

    The XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu adopted IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on recommended zero points for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. The resolution was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division A-G Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy after...... consulting with a broad spectrum of researchers from the astronomical community. Resolution B2 resolves the long-standing absence of an internationally-adopted zero point for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. Resolution B2 defines the zero point of the absolute bolometric magnitude scale...... such that a radiation source with $M_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0 has luminosity L$_{\\circ}$ = 3.0128e28 W. The zero point of the apparent bolometric magnitude scale ($m_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0) corresponds to irradiance $f_{\\circ}$ = 2.518021002e-8 W/m$^2$. The zero points were chosen so that the nominal solar luminosity (3.828e26 W...

  2. An absolute measurement of 252Cf prompt fission neutron spectrum at low energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajtai, A.; Dyachenko, P.P.; Kutzaeva, L.S.; Kononov, V.N.; Androsenko, P.A.; Androsenko, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Prompt neutron energy spectrum at low energies (25 keV 252 Cf spontaneous fission has been measured with a time-of-flight technique on a 30 cm flight-path. Ionization chamber and lithium-glass were used as fission fragment and neutron detectors, respectively. Lithium glasses of NE-912 (containing 6 Li) and of NE-913 (containing 7 Li) 45 mm in diameter and 9.5 mm in thickness have been employed alternatively, for the registration of fission neutrons and gammas. For the correct determination of the multiscattering effects - the main difficulty of the low energy neutron spectrum measurements - a special geometry for the neutron detector was used. Special attention was paid also to the determination of the absolute efficiency of the neutron detector. The real response function of the spectrometer was determined by a Monte-Carlo calculation. The scattering material content of the ionization chamber containing a 252 Cf source was minimized. As a result of this measurement a prompt fission neutron spectrum of Maxwell type with a T=1.42 MeV parameter was obtained at this low energy range. We did not find any neutron excess or irregularities over the Maxwellian. (author)

  3. Absolute peak detection efficiencies of a Ge(Li) detector for high gamma-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Masaki

    1985-11-01

    Absolute peak detection efficiencies of a Ge(Li) detector for gamma-rays of 3.5 MeV to 12 MeV were measured using four (p,γ) reactions and a (n,γ) reaction. Two-line-method was used to obtaine peak detection efficiencies. The efficiencies with the both cases are agreed very well. Utilization of (n,γ) reaction is, therefore, effective for measuring these efficiencies, because high energy gamma-rays can be generated easily by using a neutron source. These results were applied to calibration of a gamma-ray standard source, emitting 6.13 MeV gamma-rays, and of intensities of 56 Co standard gamma-ray source. (author)

  4. Integrable covariant law of energy-momentum conservation for a gravitational field with the absolute parallelism structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown the description of gravitational field in the riemannian space-time by means of the absolute parallelism structure makes it possible to formulate an integrable covariant law of energy-momentum conservation for gravitational field, by imposing on the energy-momentum tensor the condition of vanishing of the covariant divergence (in the sense of the absolute parallelism). As a result of taking into account covariant constraints for the tetrads of the absolute parallelism, the Lagrangian density turns out to be not geometrised anymore and leads to the unambiguous conservation law of the type mentioned in the N-body problem. Covariant field equations imply the existence of the special euclidean coordinates outside of static neighbourhoods of gravitationing bodies. In these coordinates determined by the tetrads of the absolute parallelism, the linear approximation is not connected with any noncovariant assumptions

  5. Study on influences of experimental factors on energy and absolute activity measurements of alpha-emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terini, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This work presents firstly a review of the fundamental results and conclusions obtained through alpha-spectrometry and alpha-counting, and the influence of energy straggling, energy loss, self-absorption and backscattering, on the determination of the energy and the absolute activity of alpha samples. Is is shown that the techniques of source fabrication and the methods of measurements play a capital influence on the obtained results. Moreover, measurements made by us, with a silicon surface barrier detector, show that the peak-asymmetry and peak-shift of an alpha-spectrum increases with the angle of emission, and that the magnitude of this effect depends on the thickness and homogeneity of the sample, as well as on the geometry of the measuring system. Through an analysis of the angular distribution of the emitted particles, the degree of isotropy of some thin Am sup(241) sources was measured and the influence of source backing and the geometry was analysed. We can conclude that, in general, there is a larger precision in measurements made under very small solid angles around the normal to the sample, and we enphasize the necessary cares required on the production of the source and on the set up of the measuring system. (author)

  6. Note: An absolute X-Y-Θ position sensor using a two-dimensional phase-encoded binary scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Ahn; Kim, Jae Wan; Kang, Chu-Shik; Jin, Jonghan

    2018-04-01

    This Note presents a new absolute X-Y-Θ position sensor for measuring planar motion of a precision multi-axis stage system. By analyzing the rotated image of a two-dimensional phase-encoded binary scale (2D), the absolute 2D position values at two separated points were obtained and the absolute X-Y-Θ position could be calculated combining these values. The sensor head was constructed using a board-level camera, a light-emitting diode light source, an imaging lens, and a cube beam-splitter. To obtain the uniform intensity profiles from the vignette scale image, we selected the averaging directions deliberately, and higher resolution in the angle measurement could be achieved by increasing the allowable offset size. The performance of a prototype sensor was evaluated in respect of resolution, nonlinearity, and repeatability. The sensor could resolve 25 nm linear and 0.001° angular displacements clearly, and the standard deviations were less than 18 nm when 2D grid positions were measured repeatedly.

  7. A Java program for LRE-based real-time qPCR that enables large-scale absolute quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Robert G

    2011-03-02

    Linear regression of efficiency (LRE) introduced a new paradigm for real-time qPCR that enables large-scale absolute quantification by eliminating the need for standard curves. Developed through the application of sigmoidal mathematics to SYBR Green I-based assays, target quantity is derived directly from fluorescence readings within the central region of an amplification profile. However, a major challenge of implementing LRE quantification is the labor intensive nature of the analysis. Utilizing the extensive resources that are available for developing Java-based software, the LRE Analyzer was written using the NetBeans IDE, and is built on top of the modular architecture and windowing system provided by the NetBeans Platform. This fully featured desktop application determines the number of target molecules within a sample with little or no intervention by the user, in addition to providing extensive database capabilities. MS Excel is used to import data, allowing LRE quantification to be conducted with any real-time PCR instrument that provides access to the raw fluorescence readings. An extensive help set also provides an in-depth introduction to LRE, in addition to guidelines on how to implement LRE quantification. The LRE Analyzer provides the automated analysis and data storage capabilities required by large-scale qPCR projects wanting to exploit the many advantages of absolute quantification. Foremost is the universal perspective afforded by absolute quantification, which among other attributes, provides the ability to directly compare quantitative data produced by different assays and/or instruments. Furthermore, absolute quantification has important implications for gene expression profiling in that it provides the foundation for comparing transcript quantities produced by any gene with any other gene, within and between samples.

  8. A Java program for LRE-based real-time qPCR that enables large-scale absolute quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Rutledge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Linear regression of efficiency (LRE introduced a new paradigm for real-time qPCR that enables large-scale absolute quantification by eliminating the need for standard curves. Developed through the application of sigmoidal mathematics to SYBR Green I-based assays, target quantity is derived directly from fluorescence readings within the central region of an amplification profile. However, a major challenge of implementing LRE quantification is the labor intensive nature of the analysis. FINDINGS: Utilizing the extensive resources that are available for developing Java-based software, the LRE Analyzer was written using the NetBeans IDE, and is built on top of the modular architecture and windowing system provided by the NetBeans Platform. This fully featured desktop application determines the number of target molecules within a sample with little or no intervention by the user, in addition to providing extensive database capabilities. MS Excel is used to import data, allowing LRE quantification to be conducted with any real-time PCR instrument that provides access to the raw fluorescence readings. An extensive help set also provides an in-depth introduction to LRE, in addition to guidelines on how to implement LRE quantification. CONCLUSIONS: The LRE Analyzer provides the automated analysis and data storage capabilities required by large-scale qPCR projects wanting to exploit the many advantages of absolute quantification. Foremost is the universal perspective afforded by absolute quantification, which among other attributes, provides the ability to directly compare quantitative data produced by different assays and/or instruments. Furthermore, absolute quantification has important implications for gene expression profiling in that it provides the foundation for comparing transcript quantities produced by any gene with any other gene, within and between samples.

  9. Multiple binding modes of ibuprofen in human serum albumin identified by absolute binding free energy calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Evoli, Stefania

    2016-11-10

    Human serum albumin possesses multiple binding sites and transports a wide range of ligands that include the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen. A complete map of the binding sites of ibuprofen in albumin is difficult to obtain in traditional experiments, because of the structural adaptability of this protein in accommodating small ligands. In this work, we provide a set of predictions covering the geometry, affinity of binding and protonation state for the pharmaceutically most active form (S-isomer) of ibuprofen to albumin, by using absolute binding free energy calculations in combination with classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and molecular docking. The most favorable binding modes correctly reproduce several experimentally identified binding locations, which include the two Sudlow\\'s drug sites (DS2 and DS1) and the fatty acid binding sites 6 and 2 (FA6 and FA2). Previously unknown details of the binding conformations were revealed for some of them, and formerly undetected binding modes were found in other protein sites. The calculated binding affinities exhibit trends which seem to agree with the available experimental data, and drastically degrade when the ligand is modeled in a protonated (neutral) state, indicating that ibuprofen associates with albumin preferentially in its charged form. These findings provide a detailed description of the binding of ibuprofen, help to explain a wide range of results reported in the literature in the last decades, and demonstrate the possibility of using simulation methods to predict ligand binding to albumin.

  10. A determination of the absolute radiant energy of a Robertson-Berger meter sunburn unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuisi, John J.; Harris, Joyce M.

    Data from a Robertson-Berger (RB) sunburn meter were compared with concurrent measurements obtained with an ultraviolet double monochromator (DM), and the absolute energy of one sunburn unit measured by the RB-meter was determined. It was found that at a solar zenith angle of 30° one sunburn unit (SU) is equivalent to 35 ± 4 mJ cm -2, and at a solar zenith angle of 69°, one SU is equivalent to 20 ± 2 mJ cm -2 (relative to a wavelength of 297 nm), where the rate of change is non-linear. The deviation is due to the different response functions of the RB-meter and the DM system used to simulate the response of human skin to the incident u.v. solar spectrum. The average growth rate of the deviation with increasing solar zenith angle was found to be 1.2% per degree between solar zenith angles 30 and 50° and 2.3% per degree between solar zenith angles 50 and 70°. The deviations of response with solar zenith angle were found to be consistent with reported RB-meter characteristics.

  11. Absolute Calibration of Image Plate for electrons at energy between 100 keV and 4 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Back, N L; Eder, D C; Ping, Y; Song, P M; Throop, A

    2007-12-10

    The authors measured the absolute response of image plate (Fuji BAS SR2040) for electrons at energies between 100 keV to 4 MeV using an electron spectrometer. The electron source was produced from a short pulse laser irradiated on the solid density targets. This paper presents the calibration results of image plate Photon Stimulated Luminescence PSL per electrons at this energy range. The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX results are also presented for three representative incident angles onto the image plates and corresponding electron energies depositions at these angles. These provide a complete set of tools that allows extraction of the absolute calibration to other spectrometer setting at this electron energy range.

  12. Calculation of absolute protein-ligand binding free energy using distributed replica sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodinger, Tomas; Howell, P Lynne; Pomès, Régis

    2008-10-21

    Distributed replica sampling [T. Rodinger et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2, 725 (2006)] is a simple and general scheme for Boltzmann sampling of conformational space by computer simulation in which multiple replicas of the system undergo a random walk in reaction coordinate or temperature space. Individual replicas are linked through a generalized Hamiltonian containing an extra potential energy term or bias which depends on the distribution of all replicas, thus enforcing the desired sampling distribution along the coordinate or parameter of interest regardless of free energy barriers. In contrast to replica exchange methods, efficient implementation of the algorithm does not require synchronicity of the individual simulations. The algorithm is inherently suited for large-scale simulations using shared or heterogeneous computing platforms such as a distributed network. In this work, we build on our original algorithm by introducing Boltzmann-weighted jumping, which allows moves of a larger magnitude and thus enhances sampling efficiency along the reaction coordinate. The approach is demonstrated using a realistic and biologically relevant application; we calculate the standard binding free energy of benzene to the L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme. Distributed replica sampling is used in conjunction with thermodynamic integration to compute the potential of mean force for extracting the ligand from protein and solvent along a nonphysical spatial coordinate. Dynamic treatment of the reaction coordinate leads to faster statistical convergence of the potential of mean force than a conventional static coordinate, which suffers from slow transitions on a rugged potential energy surface.

  13. T2K off-axis near detector νμ flux measurement and absolute momentum scale calibration of the off-axis near detector tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaszczyk, F.

    2011-09-01

    In this thesis we present the results from the ν μ energy spectrum measurement at T2K's near detector and T2K's near detector tracker absolute momentum scale calibration. First we review the main historical steps and the current state of the art of neutrino physics as well as the theoretical framework required to understand the thesis physics analyses presented later on. In particular we focus on the neutrino oscillation parametrization and the neutrino-matter interaction models. We then describe T2K, an off-axis long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan which consists of a muon neutrino beam sent from J-PARC to Super- Kamiokande, with a magnetized near detector located at 280 m from the neutrino production site. T2K's main goals are measuring the last unknown angle of the PMNS matrix θ 13 through the search of ν e appearance in the ν μ beam and measuring precisely the atmospheric parameters through muon neutrino disappearance. We briefly describe the detectors, in particular the near detector tracker and its performance. We then present the analyses tools, such as the reconstruction techniques used and how the neutrino charged current interaction events needed for the energy spectrum measurement are selected. The main goal of the thesis, the muon neutrino energy spectrum measurement done with the first T2K data is explained next. We give the motivations for such measurement, the results obtained with the first T2K data sample, and the different systematic errors studied. Finally, the absolute momentum scale calibration of T2K's near detector tractor, done through the reconstruction of the neutral kaon invariant mass, is explained. (author)

  14. Absolute total and one and two electron transfer cross sections for Ar8+ on Ar as a function of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancura, J.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-01-01

    The absolute total and one and two electron transfer cross sections for Ar 8+ on Ar were measured as a function of projectile laboratory energy from 0.090 to 0.550 keV/amu. The effective one electron transfer cross section dominates above 0.32 keV/amu, while below this energy, the effective two electron transfer starts to become appreciable. The total cross section varies by a factor over the energy range explored. The overall error in the cross section measurement is estimated to be ± 15%

  15. Absolute fragmentation cross sections in atom-molecule collisions: Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H., E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Zhang, Y. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rousseau, P.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Esplanade de la Paix, F-14032 Caen (France); Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Schlathölter, T. [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-06-14

    We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH{sup +}) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections (including statistical fragmentation) for 110 eV PAH/PAH{sup +} + He collisions, and show that they compare well with experimental results. We demonstrate that non-statistical fragmentation becomes dominant for large PAHs and that it yields highly reactive fragments forming strong covalent bonds with atoms (H and N) and molecules (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}). Thus nonstatistical fragmentation may be an effective initial step in the formation of, e.g., Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs). This relates to recent discussions on the evolution of PAHNs in space and the reactivities of defect graphene structures.

  16. Absolute nuclear energy measurements using the γ-γ coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, P.; Philis, C.

    1967-01-01

    I n this report a summary is first given of the principle of the γ-γ calibration method, stress being laid on the corrections required. After a description of the equipment used, the choice of the experimental conditions required for various isotopes is discussed ( 22 Na, 46 Sc, 60 Co, 88 Y) and the agreement between these results and those obtained by other absolute measurement methods is considered. (authors) [fr

  17. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F.; Joergensen, P.F. [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  18. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F; Joergensen, P F [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  19. Scale and the acceptability of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A rather speculative exploration is presented of scale as it may affect the acceptability of nuclear energy. In our utilization of this energy option, how does large vs. small relate to attitudes toward it, and what can we learn from this about technology choices in the United States more generally. In order to address such a question, several stepping-stones are needed. First, scale is defined for the purposes of the paper. Second, recent experience with nuclear energy is reviewed: trends in the scale of use, the current status of nuclear energy as an option, and the social context for its acceptance problems. Third, conventional notions about the importance of scale in electricity generation are summarized. With these preliminaries out of the way, the paper then discusses apparent relationships between scale and the acceptance of nuclear energy and suggests some policy implications of these preliminary findings. Finally, some comments are offered about general relationships between scale and technology choice

  20. On absolute scaling in protein crystallography using sums of low-resolution intensities and Wilson statistics at low resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method of absolute scaling of diffraction data is proposed, based on the calculation of the sum of the intensity diffracted at low resolution (Bragg d spacing > 15 A). This sum is proportional to the mean-square deviation of the scattering-length density in the unit cell, and this property is used to determine the scale factor. The method is applied to the case of neutron diffraction using contrast variation experiments with biological molecules, and it is used to check the validity of some assumptions concerning the system under study, such as the global rate of H/D exchange or the uniformity of scattering-length density in the molecules. The use of this method requires an asymptotic correction of the sum of intensity. This correction is based on Porod's law, whose application to diffraction experiments is discussed, in particular for contrast variation experiments. An analysis of the spherical average of the diffracted intensity as a function of the scattering vector, compared to isotropic solution scattering, allows the conditions of applicability of Wilson statistics to be specified at low and medium resolution, i.e. the random statistical model underlying the Wilson statistics in this scattering range to be defined. (orig.)

  1. Designing the Nuclear Energy Attitude Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Lawrence; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a refined method for designing a valid and reliable Likert-type scale to test attitudes toward the generation of electricity from nuclear energy. Discusses various tests of validity that were used on the nuclear energy scale. Reports results of administration and concludes that the test is both reliable and valid. (CW)

  2. Minimizing the Levelized Cost of Energy in Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems with an Absolute Active Power Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Koutroulis, Eftichios; Sangwongwanich, Ariya

    2015-01-01

    . An increase of the inverter lifetime and a reduction of the energy yield can alter the cost of energy, demanding an optimization of the power limitation. Therefore, aiming at minimizing the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE), the power limit is optimized for the AAPC strategy in this paper. The optimization...... control strategy, the Absolute Active Power Control (AAPC) can effectively solve the overloading issues by limiting the maximum possible PV power to a certain level (i.e., the power limitation), and also benefit the inverter reliability. However, its feasibility is challenged by the energy loss......, compared to the conventional PV inverter operating only in the maximum power point tracking mode. In the presented case study, the minimum of LCOE is achieved for the system when the power limit is optimized to a certain level of the designed maximum feed-in power (i.e., 3 kW). In addition, the proposed...

  3. Economical scale of nuclear energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry is supported by two wheels of radiation and energy applications. When comparing both, they have some different sides, such as numbers of employees and researchers, numbers and scales of works, effect on society, affecting effects and regions of industrial actions, problems on safety, viewpoint on nuclear proliferation protection and safety guarantee, energy security, relationship to environmental problem, efforts on wastes disposal, and so on. Here described on economical scale of radiation application in fields of industry, agriculture, and medicine and medical treatment, and on economical scale of energy application in nuclear power generation and its instruments and apparatus. (G.K.)

  4. Dependence of absolute magnitudes (energies) of flares on the cluster age containing flare stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsamyan, Eh.S.

    1976-01-01

    Dependences between Δmsub(u) and msub(u) are given for the Orion, NGC 7000, Pleiades and Praesepe aggregations. Maximum absolute values of flares have been calculated for stars with different luminosities. It has been shown that the values of flares can be limited by a straight line which gives the representation on the distribution of maximum values of amplitudes for the stars with different luminosities in an aggregation. Presented are k and m 0 parameters characterizing the lines fot the Orion, NGC 7000, Pleiades and Praesepe aggregation and their age T dependence. From the dependence between k (angular coefficient of straight lines) and lgT for the aggregation with known T the age of those aggregation involving a great amount of flaring stars can be found. The age of flaring stars in the neighbourhood of the Sun has been determined. The age of UV Ceti has been shown by an order to exceed that of the rest stars

  5. Absolute pitch among students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music: a large-scale direct-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Diana; Li, Xiaonuo; Shen, Jing

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a large-scale direct-test study of absolute pitch (AP) in students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music. Overall note-naming scores were very high, with high scores correlating positively with early onset of musical training. Students who had begun training at age ≤5 yr scored 83% correct not allowing for semitone errors and 90% correct allowing for semitone errors. Performance levels were higher for white key pitches than for black key pitches. This effect was greater for orchestral performers than for pianists, indicating that it cannot be attributed to early training on the piano. Rather, accuracy in identifying notes of different names (C, C#, D, etc.) correlated with their frequency of occurrence in a large sample of music taken from the Western tonal repertoire. There was also an effect of pitch range, so that performance on tones in the two-octave range beginning on Middle C was higher than on tones in the octave below Middle C. In addition, semitone errors tended to be on the sharp side. The evidence also ran counter to the hypothesis, previously advanced by others, that the note A plays a special role in pitch identification judgments.

  6. Definition of the absolute energy of beam particles from tandem EGP-10K by means of gamma-spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Goryunov, O Y; Mozhzhukhyin, E M

    2003-01-01

    The attachment of absolute energy of proton beam from tandem EGP-10K to the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) frequency of field device put in rotated magnet-analyzer SP-88 has been made. The determination of beam energy was made with the aid of sup 8 sup 9 Y(p, n) sup 8 sup 9 Zr reaction, where the threshold is 3656 keV. 587 keV level from decay of sup 8 sup 9 Zr was used for identification of the reaction. It was determined that NMR frequency f = 16253,5 sup + sup 4 sup , sup 8 sub - sub 8 sub , sub 3 Kc/s corresponds to 4272 KeV proton energy.

  7. Absolute advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can

  8. Experimental determination of absolute-scale compton cross sections using the K X-ray escape and a comparison with three versions of the impulse approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasic, S.; Uroic, M.; Tocilj, Z.; Majer, M.; Gamulin, O.; Bokulic, T.; Ilakovac, K.

    2005-01-01

    Double-differential Compton cross sections at two incident photon energies of 68.9 and 70.8 keV (mercury Kα X-rays) at the scattering angle of about 172 deg were measured in germanium using the coincidence technique with a detector as the scatterer. The cross sections were determined by normalization of the Compton spectra to the peaks due to the escape of characteristic Kα and Kβ X-rays from the target detector. This new approach of determination of absolute-scale Compton cross sections can also be applied in widely used single-mode measurements (source-scatterer-detector assembly). Our analysis shows that the new method is especially convenient and accurate at lower incident photon energies above the K-edge in the target atoms. The experimental results are compared with the non-relativistic impulse approximation, the frequently used simplified version of the relativistic impulse approximation and the non-relativistic impulse approximation used with the relativistic expression for the atomic electron momentum in the direction of the photon momentum transfer. Contrary to our expectation, the non-relativistic impulse approximation clearly gives the best agreement with the experimental data in the region of the Compton peak

  9. TeV. The dream energy scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    In this talk, I'd like to explain why the TeV, 1,000,000,000,00 electron volt, is a particularly interesting energy scale in physics. I being recapitulating what particle physics is all about, citing two big questions: what the Universe is made of, and Einstein's dream of unification. TeV energy appears to be relevant to both questions, suggesting rich and complex physics at this energy. I outline how two facilities, LHC and ILC, will work together with reveal what is going on at this exciting energy scale. (author)

  10. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the work to date, the current situation and the future direction of a project carried out by Regenesys Technology Ltd. (RGN) to investigate the benefits of electrochemical energy storage for power generators using renewable energy sources focussing on wind energy. The background to the study is traced covering the progress of the Regenesys energy storage technology, and the milestones achieved and lessons learnt. Details are given of the planned renewable-store-market interface to allow renewable generators optimise revenue under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) and help in the connection of the renewable energy to the electric grid system. The four integrated work programmes of the project are described and involve a system study examining market penetration of renewable generators, a technical study into connection of renewable generators and energy storage, a small scale demonstration, and a pilot scale energy storage plant at Little Barton in Cambridgeshire. Problems leading to the closure of the project are discussed.

  11. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Project summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report summarises the work to date, the current situation and the future direction of a project carried out by Regenesys Technology Ltd. (RGN) to investigate the benefits of electrochemical energy storage for power generators using renewable energy sources focussing on wind energy. The background to the study is traced covering the progress of the Regenesys energy storage technology, and the milestones achieved and lessons learnt. Details are given of the planned renewable-store-market interface to allow renewable generators optimise revenue under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) and help in the connection of the renewable energy to the electric grid system. The four integrated work programmes of the project are described and involve a system study examining market penetration of renewable generators, a technical study into connection of renewable generators and energy storage, a small scale demonstration, and a pilot scale energy storage plant at Little Barton in Cambridgeshire. Problems leading to the closure of the project are discussed

  12. Review of Dark Energy: Hitchcock’s Absolute Camera and the Physics of Cinematic Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Collamati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Skerry’s Dark Energy draws from astrophysics’ most popular and intriguing concepts—from Eisenstein’s theories of relativity to questions surrounding the expanding universe—and trace them metaphorically through Hitchcock’s films.

  13. Scaling violations at ultra-high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the features of high energy lepton-hadron scattering, including the observed (Bjorken) scaling behavior. The cross-sections where all hadron final states are summed over, are examined and the general formulas for the differential cross-section are examined. The subjects of scaling, breaking and phenomenological consequences are studied, and a list of what ultra-high energy neutrino physics can teach QCD is given

  14. Geometrical scaling in high energy hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundrat, V.; Lokajicek, M.V.

    1984-06-01

    The concept of geometrical scaling for high energy elastic hadron scattering is analyzed and its basic equations are solved in a consistent way. It is shown that they are applicable to a rather small interval of momentum transfers, e.g. maximally for |t| 2 for pp scattering at the ISR energies. (author)

  15. Long-term temporal stability of the National Institute of Standards and Technology spectral irradiance scale determined with absolute filter radiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Howard W.; Gibson, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    The temporal stability of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) spectral irradiance scale as measured with broadband filter radiometers calibrated for absolute spectral irradiance responsivity is described. The working standard free-electron laser (FEL) lamps and the check standard FEL lamps have been monitored with radiometers in the ultraviolet and the visible wavelength regions. The measurements made with these two radiometers reveal that the NIST spectral irradiance scale as compared with an absolute thermodynamic scale has not changed by more than 1.5% in the visible from 1993 to 1999. Similar measurements in the ultraviolet reveal that the corresponding change is less than 1.5% from 1995 to 1999. Furthermore, a check of the spectral irradiance scale by six different filter radiometers calibrated for absolute spectral irradiance responsivity based on the high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer shows that the agreement between the present scale and the detector-based scale is better than 1.3% throughout the visible to the near-infrared wavelength region. These results validate the assigned spectral irradiance of the widely disseminated NIST or NIST-traceable standard sources

  16. Scale Dependence of Dark Energy Antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2002-09-01

    We investigate the effects of negative pressure induced by dark energy (cosmological constant or quintessence) on the dynamics at various astrophysical scales. Negative pressure induces a repulsive term (antigravity) in Newton's law which dominates on large scales. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data we determine the critical scale $r_c$ beyond which antigravity dominates the dynamics ($r_c \\sim 1Mpc $) and discuss some of the dynamical effects implied. We show that dynamically induced mass estimates on the scale of the Local Group and beyond are significantly modified due to negative pressure. We also briefly discuss possible dynamical tests (eg effects on local Hubble flow) that can be applied on relatively small scales (a few $Mpc$) to determine the density and equation of state of dark energy.

  17. The clinical determination of absolute density in bone utilizing single and dual energy compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddleston, A.L.; Weaver, J.

    1980-01-01

    Several methods important in the clinical diagnosis of skeletal diseases have been proposed for the determination of bone mass, such as photon absorptiometry, computed tomography, and neutron activation. None of these present methods provides for the determination of the physical density of bone. In the Radiological Physics Research Laboratory at the University of Virginia, the principles of Compton scattering are being investigated with the intent of determining the electron density and the physical density of human bone. A Compton-scatter densitometer has been constructed for the in vivo density determination of the femoral head. This technique utilizes of collimated low energy gamma source and detector system. The method has been tested in cadavers and in known density samples and has an accuracy of 2 %. A second densitometer has been designed for the in vivo determination of electron density of the vertebrae based upon a new technique which employs dual energy Compton scattering in the spinal column. These systems will be discussed; and the principles of dual energy Compton scatter densitometry will be presented. The importance of these isotope techniques and the feasibility of in vivo density determination in the vertebrae and femoral head will be discussed as they relate to clinical diagnosis and research. (author)

  18. Absolute binding free energy calculations of CBClip host–guest systems in the SAMPL5 blind challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofoleanu, Florentina; Pickard, Frank C.; König, Gerhard; Huang, Jing; Damjanović, Ana; Baek, Minkyung; Seok, Chaok; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report the absolute binding free energy calculations of CBClip complexes in the SAMPL5 blind challenge. Initial conformations of CBClip complexes were obtained using docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Free energy calculations were performed using thermodynamic integration (TI) with soft-core potentials and Bennett’s acceptance ratio (BAR) method based on a serial insertion scheme. We compared the results obtained with TI simulations with soft-core potentials and Hamiltonian replica exchange simulations with the serial insertion method combined with the BAR method. The results show that the difference between the two methods can be mainly attributed to the van der Waals free energies, suggesting that either the simulations used for TI or the simulations used for BAR, or both are not fully converged and the two sets of simulations may have sampled difference phase space regions. The penalty scores of force field parameters of the 10 guest molecules provided by CHARMM Generalized Force Field can be an indicator of the accuracy of binding free energy calculations. Among our submissions, the combination of docking and TI performed best, which yielded the root mean square deviation of 2.94 kcal/mol and an average unsigned error of 3.41 kcal/mol for the ten guest molecules. These values were best overall among all participants. However, our submissions had little correlation with experiments. PMID:27677749

  19. Systematic Testing of Belief-Propagation Estimates for Absolute Free Energies in Atomistic Peptides and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan-Maiye, Rory M; Langmead, Christopher J; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2018-01-09

    Motivated by the extremely high computing costs associated with estimates of free energies for biological systems using molecular simulations, we further the exploration of existing "belief propagation" (BP) algorithms for fixed-backbone peptide and protein systems. The precalculation of pairwise interactions among discretized libraries of side-chain conformations, along with representation of protein side chains as nodes in a graphical model, enables direct application of the BP approach, which requires only ∼1 s of single-processor run time after the precalculation stage. We use a "loopy BP" algorithm, which can be seen as an approximate generalization of the transfer-matrix approach to highly connected (i.e., loopy) graphs, and it has previously been applied to protein calculations. We examine the application of loopy BP to several peptides as well as the binding site of the T4 lysozyme L99A mutant. The present study reports on (i) the comparison of the approximate BP results with estimates from unbiased estimators based on the Amber99SB force field; (ii) investigation of the effects of varying library size on BP predictions; and (iii) a theoretical discussion of the discretization effects that can arise in BP calculations. The data suggest that, despite their approximate nature, BP free-energy estimates are highly accurate-indeed, they never fall outside confidence intervals from unbiased estimators for the systems where independent results could be obtained. Furthermore, we find that libraries of sufficiently fine discretization (which diminish library-size sensitivity) can be obtained with standard computing resources in most cases. Altogether, the extremely low computing times and accurate results suggest the BP approach warrants further study.

  20. Effective and absolute cross sections for low-energy (1-30 eV) electron interactions with condensed biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Sanche, Léon

    2018-06-01

    Ionizing radiation is intensively used for therapeutic [e.g., radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT)], as well as for diagnostic medical imaging purposes. In these applications, the radiation dose given to the patient should be known and controlled. In conventional cancer treatments, absorbed dose calculations rely essentially on scattering cross sections (CSs) of the primary high-energy radiation. In more sophisticated treatments, such as combined radio- and chemo-therapy, a description of the details of energy deposits at the micro- and nano-scopic level is preferred to relate dose to radiobiological effectiveness or to evaluate doses at the biomolecular level, when radiopharmaceuticals emitting short-range radiation are delivered to critical molecular components of cancer cells (e.g., TRT). These highly radiotoxic compounds emit large densities of low-energy electrons (LEEs). More generally, LEE (0-30 eV) are emitted in large numbers by any type of high-energy radiation; i.e., about 30 000 per MeV of deposited primary energy. Thus, to optimize the effectiveness of several types of radiation treatments, the energy deposited by LEEs must be known at the level of the cell, nucleus, chromosome, or DNA. Such local doses can be evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, which account event-by-event, for the slowing down of all generations of particles. In particular, these codes require as input parameters absolute LEE CSs for elastic scattering, energy losses, and direct damage to vital cellular molecules, particularly DNA, the main target of radiation therapy. In the last decade, such CSs have emerged in the literature. Furthermore, a method was developed to transform relative yields of damages into absolute CSs by measuring specific parameters in the experiments. In this review article, we first present a general description of dose calculations in biological media via MC simulation and give an overview of the CSs available from

  1. Monitoring of the energy scale in the KATRIN neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083282

    The question of the absolute mass scale of neutrinos is of particular interest for particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. The KATRIN experiment (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) aims to address the effective electron antineutrino mass from the shape of the tritium $\\beta$-spectrum with an unprecedented sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c$^2$. One of the major systematic effects concerns the experimental energy scale, which has to be stable at the level of only a few parts in a million. For its calibration and monitoring the monoenergetic electrons emitted in the internal conversion of $\\gamma$-transition of the metastable isotope $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr will be extensively applied. The aim of this thesis is to address the problem of KATRIN energy scale distortions and its monitoring in detail. The source of electrons based on $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr embedded in a solid as well as the source based on gaseous $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr are studied. Based on the experimental results an approach for the continuous stability m...

  2. Absolute determination of zero-energy phase shifts for multiparticle single-channel scattering: Generalized Levinson theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1996-01-01

    Levinson close-quote s theorem relates the zero-energy phase shift δ for potential scattering in a given partial wave l, by a spherically symmetric potential that falls off sufficiently rapidly, to the number of bound states of that l supported by the potential. An extension of this theorem is presented that applies to single-channel scattering by a compound system initially in its ground state. As suggested by Swan [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 228, 10 (1955)], the extended theorem differs from that derived for potential scattering; even in the absence of composite bound states δ may differ from zero as a consequence of the Pauli principle. The derivation given here is based on the introduction of a continuous auxiliary open-quote open-quote length phase close-quote close-quote η, defined modulo π for l=0 by expressing the scattering length as A=acotη, where a is a characteristic length of the target. Application of the minimum principle for the scattering length determines the branch of the cotangent curve on which η lies and, by relating η to δ, an absolute determination of δ is made. The theorem is applicable, in principle, to single-channel scattering in any partial wave for e ± -atom and nucleon-nucleus systems. In addition to a knowledge of the number of composite bound states, information (which can be rather incomplete) concerning the structure of the target ground-state wave function is required for an explicit, absolute, determination of the phase shift δ. As for Levinson close-quote s original theorem for potential scattering, no additional information concerning the scattering wave function or scattering dynamics is required. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Energy harvesting: small scale energy production from ambient sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Eric M.

    2009-03-01

    Energy harvesting - the collection of otherwise unexploited energy in the local environment - is attracting increasing attention for the powering of electronic devices. While the power levels that can be reached are typically modest (microwatts to milliwatts), the key motivation is to avoid the need for battery replacement or recharging in portable or inaccessible devices. Wireless sensor networks are a particularly important application: the availability of essentially maintenance free sensor nodes, as enabled by energy harvesting, will greatly increase the feasibility of large scale networks, in the paradigm often known as pervasive sensing. Such pervasive sensing networks, used to monitor buildings, structures, outdoor environments or the human body, offer significant benefits for large scale energy efficiency, health and safety, and many other areas. Sources of energy for harvesting include light, temperature differences, and ambient motion, and a wide range of miniature energy harvesters based on these sources have been proposed or demonstrated. This paper reviews the principles and practice in miniature energy harvesters, and discusses trends, suitable applications, and possible future developments.

  4. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine [KBB Underground Technologies GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, peak shaving, seasonal balancing, etc. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil fuels. This is one important reason why the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% related to natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind based electricity production this ''outsourcing'' of storage services to fossil fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage. The present discussion for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focuses primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) in addition to existing pumped hydro plants. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally not suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power or even seasonal fluctuations. Underground hydrogen storages, however, provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond - standard practice since many years. The first part of the article describes the present status and performance of grid scale energy storages in geological formations, mainly salt caverns. It is followed by a compilation of generally suitable locations in Europe and particularly Germany. The second part deals with first results of preliminary investigations in possibilities and limits of offshore CAES power stations. (orig.)

  5. Absolute measurement of subnanometer scale vibration of cochlear partition of an excised guinea pig cochlea using spectral-domain phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Choudhury, Niloy; Jacques, Steven L.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct measurement of absolute vibration parameters from different locations within the mammalian organ of Corti is crucial for understanding the hearing mechanics such as how sound propagates through the cochlea and how sound stimulates the vibration of various structures of the cochlea, namely, basilar membrane (BM), recticular lamina, outer hair cells and tectorial membrane (TM). In this study we demonstrate the feasibility a modified phase-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system to provide subnanometer scale vibration information from multiple angles within the imaging beam. The system has the potential to provide depth resolved absolute vibration measurement of tissue microstructures from each of the delay-encoded vibration images with a noise floor of ~0.3nm at 200Hz.

  6. Energy scale of the Big Bounce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Piechocki, Wlodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    We examine the nature of the cosmological Big Bounce transition within the loop geometry underlying loop quantum cosmology at classical and quantum levels. Our canonical quantization method is an alternative to the standard loop quantum cosmology. An evolution parameter we use has a clear interpretation. Our method opens the door for analyses of spectra of physical observables like the energy density and the volume operator. We find that one cannot determine the energy scale specific to the Big Bounce by making use of the loop geometry without an extra input from observational cosmology.

  7. Power law scaling for rotational energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, D.E.; Smith, N.; Driver, R.D.; Brunner, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    We have applied a new scaling law to several sets of rotational energy transfer cross sections. The new law asserts that the square of the T-matrix depends on the amount of energy transferred as a power law. Two different kinds of angular momentum statistics are assumed, one corresponding to m/sub j/ being conserved and the other corresponding to m/sub j/ being completely randomized. Numerical fits are presented which demonstrate that the data follow the power law better than the widely used exponential gap law

  8. Unparticles: Scales and high energy probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, Myron; Feng, Jonathan L.; Rajaraman, Arvind; Shirman, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    Unparticles from hidden conformal sectors provide qualitatively new possibilities for physics beyond the standard model. In the theoretical framework of minimal models, we clarify the relation between energy scales entering various phenomenological analyses. We show that these relations always counteract the effective field theory intuition that higher dimension operators are more highly suppressed, and that the requirement of a significant conformal window places strong constraints on possible unparticle signals. With these considerations in mind, we examine some of the most robust and sensitive probes and explore novel effects of unparticles on gauge coupling evolution and fermion production at high energy colliders. These constraints are presented both as bounds on four-fermion interaction scales and as constraints on the fundamental parameter space of minimal models

  9. The calibration of spectrometers for Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectrometers part I - an absolute traceable energy calibration for electron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Seah, M.P.; Anthony, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments have been made to provide calibrated kinetic energy values for AES peaks in order to calibrate Auger electron spectrometers of various resolving powers. The kinetic energies are measured using a VG Scientific ESCALAB 2 which has power supplies appropriate for AES measurements in both the constant ΔE and constant ΔE/E modes. The absolute calibration of the energy scale is obtained by the development of a new measurement chain which, in turn, is calibrated in terms of the post-1990 representation of electron volts using XPS peaks with a traceable kinetic energy accuracy of 0.02 eV. The effects of instrumental and operating parameters, including the spectrometer dispersion and stray magnetic fields, are all assessed and contribute errors for three peaks not exceeding 0.06 eV and for two peaks not exceeding 0.03 eV. Calibrated positions in the direct spectrum are given for the Cu M 2,3 VV, Au N 6,7 VV, Ag M 4 NN, Cu L 3 VV and Au M 5 N 6,7 N 6,7 transitions at 0.2 eV resolution, referred to both the Standard Vacuum Level and the Fermi level. For the derivative spectrum the positions of the negative excursions are derived numerically by computer from this data and are established with the same accuracy. Data are tabulated for the above peaks in both the direct and differentiated modes for the popular resolutions of 0.15%, 0.3% and 0.6% produced by Gaussian broadening of the high resolution spectra. Differentiations are effected by both sinusoidal modulation and Savitzky-Golay functions of 2 eV and 5 eV peak-to-peak

  10. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  11. Computing the universe: how large-scale simulations illuminate galaxies and dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Brian

    2015-04-01

    High-performance and large-scale computing is absolutely to understanding astronomical objects such as stars, galaxies, and the cosmic web. This is because these are structures that operate on physical, temporal, and energy scales that cannot be reasonably approximated in the laboratory, and whose complexity and nonlinearity often defies analytic modeling. In this talk, I show how the growth of computing platforms over time has facilitated our understanding of astrophysical and cosmological phenomena, focusing primarily on galaxies and large-scale structure in the Universe.

  12. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, F.; Donadei, S.

    2011-05-15

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, cold winter supply, peak shaving, seasonal swing, load management and energy trading. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil and nuclear fuels. This is one important reason why e.g. the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% compared to 20% for natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind-and to a lesser extent PV-based electricity production this 'outsourcing' of storage services to fossil and nuclear fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage in geological formations. The present discussion, research projects and plans for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focus primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) if the capacity of existing pumped hydro plants cannot be expanded, e.g. because of environmental issues or lack of suitable topography. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally less suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power, wind flaws or even seasonal fluctuations. One important way out are large underground hydrogen storages which provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond. Underground hydrogen storage is state of the art since many years in Great Britain and in the USA for the (petro-) chemical industry. (Author)

  13. Jet Energy Scale Uncertainties in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Barillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    About one year after the first proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of $sqrt(s) = 7,TeV$, the ATLAS experiment has achieved an accuracy of the jet energy measurement between $2-4%$ for jet transverse momenta from $20,GeV$ to $2,TeV$ in the pseudorapidity range up to $4.5$. The jet energy scale uncertainty is derived from in-situ single hadron response measurement along with systematic variations in the Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, the transverse momentum balance between a central and a forward jet in events with only two jets at high transverse momentum is used to set the jet energy uncertainty in the forward region. The obtained uncertainty is confirmed by in-situ measurements exploiting the transverse momentum balance between a jet and a well measured reference object like the photon transverse momentum in photon-jet events. Jets in the TeV-energy regime were tested using a system of well calibrated jets at low transverse momenta against a high-pt jet. Preliminary results from the 201...

  14. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  15. A novel setup for the determination of absolute cross sections for low-energy electron induced strand breaks in oligonucleotides - The effect of the radiosensitizer 5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, J.; Rankovic, M.L.; Milosavljevic, A.R.; Bald, I.

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy electrons (LEEs) play an important role in DNA radiation damage. Here we present a method to quantify LEE induced strand breakage in well-defined oligonucleotide single strands in terms of absolute cross sections. An LEE irradiation setup covering electron energies <500 eV is constructed and optimized to irradiate DNA origami triangles carrying well-defined oligonucleotide target strands. Measurements are presented for 10.0 and 5.5 eV for different oligonucleotide targets. The determination of absolute strand break cross sections is performed by atomic force microscopy analysis. An accurate fluence determination ensures small margins of error of the determined absolute single strand break cross sections σ SSB . In this way, the influence of sequence modification with the radiosensitive 5-Fluorouracil ( 5F U) is studied using an absolute and relative data analysis. We demonstrate an increase in the strand break yields of 5F U containing oligonucleotides by a factor of 1.5 to 1.6 compared with non-modified oligonucleotide sequences when irradiated with 10 eV electrons. (authors)

  16. Transformation of a wave energy spectrum from encounter to absolute domain when observing from an advancing ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2017-01-01

    directly in the encounter domain. The encounter domain is that observed from a ship when it advances in a seaway, whereas the absolute domain is that corresponding to making observations from a fixed point in the inertial frame. Spectrum transformation can be uniquely carried out if the ship sails ”against...

  17. The relative and absolute reliability of the Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale in community-dwelling frail elderly Japanese people using long-term care insurance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takashi; Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Shuichiro

    2017-06-01

    The newly developed Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale is a tool for assessing the performance of basic activities of daily living in terms of both independence and difficulty. The reliability of this new scale has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to examine the relative reliability and absolute reliability of the newly developed scale in community-dwelling frail elderly people in Japan. Participants were 47 community-dwelling elderly subjects (22 for assessing test-retest reliability and 25 for assessing inter-rater reliability). As relative reliability indices, intra-class correlation coefficients were used. From an absolute reliability perspective, we conducted Bland-Altman analysis and calculated the limit of agreement or minimal detectable change to determine the acceptable range of error. Intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest and inter-rater reliability were 0.90 (P reliability was -5.2 to 1.8, representing an increase of over six points for improvement and a decrease of over two points for decline of basic activities of daily living ability. The minimal detectable change for inter-rater reliability was 3.7, indicating that a three-point difference might be existed between difference raters. The results of this study demonstrated that the FIDS appeared to be a reliable instrument for use in Japanese community-dwelling frail elderly people. While further research using a large and more diverse sample of participants is needed, our findings support the use of FIDS in clinical practice or clinical research targeting frail elderly Japanese people.

  18. Absolute calibration of the Agfa Structurix series films at energies between 2.7 and 6.2 keV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, N E; Cowan, J S

    2014-11-01

    Although photo-emulsion technology is many decades old, x-ray film still remains a key asset for diagnosing hydrodynamic features in High-Energy Density (HED) experiments. For decades, the preferred option had been Kodak's direct exposure film. After its discontinuance in 2004, the push to find alternatives began. In many situations, the Agfa Structurix series offers the most favorable substitute, but being new to the HED community, its characterization was lacking. To remedy this, recent experiments, conducted at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source, provide absolute, monochromatic calibration data for the Agfa Structurix series films at K-shell backlighter energies between 2.7 and 6.2 keV. Absolute response curves are presented for Agfa D8, D7, D4, D4sc, D3, and D2. Moreover, the transmission of each film type is also measured.

  19. Absolute calibration of the Agfa Structurix series films at energies between 2.7 and 6.2 keVa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, N. E.; Cowan, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    Although photo-emulsion technology is many decades old, x-ray film still remains a key asset for diagnosing hydrodynamic features in High-Energy Density (HED) experiments. For decades, the preferred option had been Kodak's direct exposure film. After its discontinuance in 2004, the push to find alternatives began. In many situations, the Agfa Structurix series offers the most favorable substitute, but being new to the HED community, its characterization was lacking. To remedy this, recent experiments, conducted at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source, provide absolute, monochromatic calibration data for the Agfa Structurix series films at K-shell backlighter energies between 2.7 and 6.2 keV. Absolute response curves are presented for Agfa D8, D7, D4, D4sc, D3, and D2. Moreover, the transmission of each film type is also measured.

  20. Determination of the absolute efficiency of an organic scintillator for neutrons with energies between 0.5 and 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Lisowski, P.W.; Russell, G.J.; King, N.S.P.; Donnert, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    We have determined the absolute efficiency of an NE-213 scintillator for neutrons with energies from 0.5 to 800 MeV. The detector was 5.1 cm in diameter and 2.5 cm deep. The efficiencies were obtained for detector thresholds of 0.011, 0.48, 1.12, and 4.48 MeVee. Our results are compared to predictions of the STANTON computer code. (orig.)

  1. Absolute photoabsorption oscillator strengths by electron energy loss methods: the valence and S 2p and 2s inner shells of sulphur dioxide in the discrete and continuum regions (3.5-260 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, R.; Cooper, G.; Burton, G.R.; Brion, C.E.; Avaldi, L.

    1999-01-01

    Absolute photoabsorption oscillator strengths (cross-sections) for the valence shell discrete and continuum regions of sulphur dioxide from 3.5 to 51 eV have been measured using high resolution (∼0.05 eV FWHM) dipole (e,e) spectroscopy. A wide-range spectrum, covering both the valence shell and the S 2p and 2s inner shells, has also been obtained from 5 to 260 eV at low resolution (∼1 eV FWHM), and this has been used to determine the absolute oscillator strength scale using valence shell TRK (i.e., S(0)) sum-rule normalization. The present measurements have been undertaken in order to investigate the recently discovered significant quantitative errors in our previously published low resolution dipole (e,e) work on sulphur dioxide (Cooper et al., Chem. Phys. 150 (1991) 237; 150 (1991) 251). These earlier measurements were also in poor agreement with other previously published direct photoabsorption measurements. We now report new absolute photoabsorption oscillator strengths using both high and low resolution dipole (e,e) spectroscopies. These new measurements cover a wider energy range and are much more consistent with the previously published direct photoabsorption measurements. The accuracy of our new measurements is confirmed by an S(-2) dipole sum-rule analysis which gives a static dipole polarizability for sulphur dioxide in excellent agreement (within 3.5%) with previously reported polarizability values. Other dipole sums S(u) (u=-1,-3 to -6,-8,-10) and logarithmic dipole sums L(u) (u=-1 to -6) are also determined from the presently reported absolute oscillator strength distributions. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Absolute proton hydration free energy, surface potential of water, and redox potential of the hydrogen electrode from first principles: QM/MM MD free-energy simulations of sodium and potassium hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Thomas S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2018-06-01

    The absolute intrinsic hydration free energy GH+,w a t ◦ of the proton, the surface electric potential jump χwa t ◦ upon entering bulk water, and the absolute redox potential VH+,w a t ◦ of the reference hydrogen electrode are cornerstone quantities for formulating single-ion thermodynamics on absolute scales. They can be easily calculated from each other but remain fundamentally elusive, i.e., they cannot be determined experimentally without invoking some extra-thermodynamic assumption (ETA). The Born model provides a natural framework to formulate such an assumption (Born ETA), as it automatically factors out the contribution of crossing the water surface from the hydration free energy. However, this model describes the short-range solvation inaccurately and relies on the choice of arbitrary ion-size parameters. In the present study, both shortcomings are alleviated by performing first-principle calculations of the hydration free energies of the sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions. The calculations rely on thermodynamic integration based on quantum-mechanical molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations involving the ion and 2000 water molecules. The ion and its first hydration shell are described using a correlated ab initio method, namely resolution-of-identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (RIMP2). The next hydration shells are described using the extended simple point charge water model (SPC/E). The hydration free energy is first calculated at the MM level and subsequently increased by a quantization term accounting for the transformation to a QM/MM description. It is also corrected for finite-size, approximate-electrostatics, and potential-summation errors, as well as standard-state definition. These computationally intensive simulations provide accurate first-principle estimates for GH+,w a t ◦, χwa t ◦, and VH+,w a t ◦, reported with statistical errors based on a confidence interval of 99%. The values obtained

  3. Tetrahedral cluster and pseudo molecule: New approaches to Calculate Absolute Surface Energy of Zinc Blende (111)/(-1-1-1) Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiou; Zhang, Jingzhao; Tse, Kinfai; Wong, Lun; Chan, Chunkai; Deng, Bei; Zhu, Junyi

    Determining accurate absolute surface energies for polar surfaces of semiconductors has been a great challenge in decades. Here, we propose pseudo-hydrogen passivation to calculate them, using density functional theory approaches. By calculating the energy contribution from pseudo-hydrogen using either a pseudo molecule method or a tetrahedral cluster method, we obtained (111)/(-1-1-1) surfaces energies of Si, GaP, GaAs, and ZnS with high self-consistency. Our findings may greatly enhance the basic understandings of different surfaces and lead to novel strategies in the crystal growth. We would like to thank Su-huai Wei for helpful discussions. Computing resources were provided by the High Performance Cluster Computing Centre, Hong Kong Baptist University. This work was supported by the start-up funding and direct Grant with the Project.

  4. Sustainable, Full-Scope Nuclear Fission Energy at Planetary Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Petroski; Lowell Wood

    2012-01-01

    A nuclear fission-based energy system is described that is capable of supplying the energy needs of all of human civilization for a full range of human energy use scenarios, including both very high rates of energy use and strikingly-large amounts of total energy-utilized. To achieve such “planetary scale sustainability”, this nuclear energy system integrates three nascent technologies: uranium extraction from seawater, manifestly safe breeder reactors, and deep borehole d...

  5. Lorentz invariance with an invariant energy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, João; Smolin, Lee

    2002-05-13

    We propose a modification of special relativity in which a physical energy, which may be the Planck energy, joins the speed of light as an invariant, in spite of a complete relativity of inertial frames and agreement with Einstein's theory at low energies. This is accomplished by a nonlinear modification of the action of the Lorentz group on momentum space, generated by adding a dilatation to each boost in such a way that the Planck energy remains invariant. The associated algebra has unmodified structure constants. We also discuss the resulting modifications of field theory and suggest a modification of the equivalence principle which determines how the new theory is embedded in general relativity.

  6. Pharmacometric Analysis of the Relationship Between Absolute Lymphocyte Count and Expanded Disability Status Scale and Relapse Rate, Efficacy End Points, in Multiple Sclerosis Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, A M; Thorsted, A; Schindler, E; Jönsson, S; Munafo, A; Karlsson, M O

    2018-05-10

    The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), and disability (as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) and occurrence of relapses, 2 efficacy endpoints, respectively, in patients with remitting-relasping multiple sclerosis. Data for ALC, EDSS, and relapse rate were available from 1319 patients receiving placebo and/or cladribine tablets. Pharmacodynamic models were developed to characterize the time course of the endpoints. ALC-related measures were then evaluated as predictors of the efficacy endpoints. EDSS data were best fitted by a model where the logit-linear disease progression is affected by the dynamics of ALC change from baseline. Relapse rate data were best described by the Weibull hazard function, and the ALC change from baseline was also found to be a significant predictor of time to relapse. Presented models have shown that once cladribine exposure driven ALC-derived measures are included in the model, the need for drug effect components is of less importance (EDSS) or disappears (relapse rate). This simplifies the models and theoretically makes them mechanism specific rather than drug specific. Having a reliable mechanism-specific model would allow leveraging historical data across compounds, to support decision making in drug development and possibly shorten the time to market. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. Deconvolution of overlapping features in electron energy-loss spectra: the determination of absolute differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of electronic states of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.; Brunger, M.J.; Teubner, O.J.P.; Mojarrabi, B.

    1996-06-01

    A set of three computer programs is reported which allow for the deconvolution of overlapping molecular electronic state structure in electron energy-loss spectra, even in highly perturbed systems. This procedure enables extraction of absolute differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of electronic states of diatomic molecules from electron energy-loss spectra. The first code in the sequence uses the Rydberg-Klein-Rees procedure to generate potential energy curves from spectroscopic constants, while the second calculates Franck-Condon factors by numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation, given the potential energy curves. The third, given these Franck-Condon factors, the previously calculated relevant energies for the vibrational levels of the respective electronic states and the experimental energy-loss spectra, extracts the differential cross sections for each state. Each program can be run independently, or the three can run in sequence to determine these cross sections from the spectroscopic constants and the experimental energy-loss spectra. The application of these programs to the specific case of electron scattering from nitric oxide (NO) is demonstrated. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Energy transfers in large-scale and small-scale dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Kumar, Rohit; Verma, Mahendra

    2015-11-01

    We present the energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers in small-scale dynamo (SSD) and large-scale dynamo (LSD) using numerical simulations of MHD turbulence for Pm = 20 (SSD) and for Pm = 0.2 on 10243 grid. For SSD, we demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers move towards lower wavenumbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason for the growth of the magnetic fields at the large scales. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. For LSD, we show that the magnetic energy growth takes place via energy transfers from large-scale velocity field to large-scale magnetic field. We observe forward U2U and B2B energy flux, similar to SSD.

  9. Estimating returns to scale and scale efficiency for energy consuming appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Efficiency Standards Group; Okwelum, Edson O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Efficiency Standards Group

    2018-01-18

    Energy consuming appliances accounted for over 40% of the energy use and $17 billion in sales in the U.S. in 2014. Whether such amounts of money and energy were optimally combined to produce household energy services is not straightforwardly determined. The efficient allocation of capital and energy to provide an energy service has been previously approached, and solved with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) under constant returns to scale. That approach, however, lacks the scale dimension of the problem and may restrict the economic efficient models of an appliance available in the market when constant returns to scale does not hold. We expand on that approach to estimate returns to scale for energy using appliances. We further calculate DEA scale efficiency scores for the technically efficient models that comprise the economic efficient frontier of the energy service delivered, under different assumptions of returns to scale. We then apply this approach to evaluate dishwashers available in the market in the U.S. Our results show that (a) for the case of dishwashers scale matters, and (b) the dishwashing energy service is delivered under non-decreasing returns to scale. The results further demonstrate that this method contributes to increase consumers’ choice of appliances.

  10. Nuclear-Recoil Energy Scale in CDMS II Silicon Dark-Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; et al.

    2018-03-07

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment aims to detect dark matter particles that elastically scatter from nuclei in semiconductor detectors. The resulting nuclear-recoil energy depositions are detected by ionization and phonon sensors. Neutrons produce a similar spectrum of low-energy nuclear recoils in such detectors, while most other backgrounds produce electron recoils. The absolute energy scale for nuclear recoils is necessary to interpret results correctly. The energy scale can be determined in CDMS II silicon detectors using neutrons incident from a broad-spectrum $^{252}$Cf source, taking advantage of a prominent resonance in the neutron elastic scattering cross section of silicon at a recoil (neutron) energy near 20 (182) keV. Results indicate that the phonon collection efficiency for nuclear recoils is $4.8^{+0.7}_{-0.9}$% lower than for electron recoils of the same energy. Comparisons of the ionization signals for nuclear recoils to those measured previously by other groups at higher electric fields indicate that the ionization collection efficiency for CDMS II silicon detectors operated at $\\sim$4 V/cm is consistent with 100% for nuclear recoils below 20 keV and gradually decreases for larger energies to $\\sim$75% at 100 keV. The impact of these measurements on previously published CDMS II silicon results is small.

  11. Geometric scaling in ultrahigh energy neutrinos and nonlinear perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2011-01-01

    The ultrahigh energy neutrino cross section is a crucial ingredient in the calculation of the event rate in high energy neutrino telescopes. Currently there are several approaches which predict different behaviors for its magnitude for ultrahigh energies. In this contribution is presented a summary of current predictions based on the non-linear QCD evolution equations, the so-called perturbative saturation physics. In particular, predictions are shown based on the parton saturation approaches and the consequences of geometric scaling property at high energies are discussed. The scaling property allows an analytical computation of the neutrino scattering on nucleon/nucleus at high energies, providing a theoretical parameterization. (author)

  12. Energy Saving: Scaling Network Energy Efficiency Faster than Traffic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Blume, O.; Gati, A.; Capone, A.; Wu, C.-E.; Barth, U.; Marzetta, T.; Zhang, H.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    As the mobile traffic is expected to continue its exponential growth in the near future, energy efficiency has gradually become a must criterion for wireless network design. Three fundamental questions need to be answered before the detailed design could be carried out, namely what energy efficiency

  13. Wide-Scale Adoption of Photovoltaic Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Enjeti, Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Current grid standards largely require that low-power (e.g., several kilowatts) single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems operate at unity power factor (PF) with maximum power point tracking (MPPT), and disconnect from the grid under grid faults by means of islanding detection. However, in the case...... of wide-scale penetration of single-phase PV systems in the distributed grid, disconnection under grid faults can contribute to 1) voltage flickers, 2) power outages, and 3) system instability. This article explores grid code modifications for a wide-scale adoption of PV systems in the distribution grid....... In addition, based on the fact that Italy and Japan have recently undertaken a major review of standards for PV power conversion systems connected to low-voltage networks, the importance of low voltage ride-through (LVRT) for single-phase PV power systems under grid faults is considered, along with three...

  14. A measurement of the absolute energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays during the 1976-77 solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.; Austin, R. W.; Selig, W. J.; Gregory, J. C.

    An instrument designed to measure elemental cosmic ray abundances from boron to nickel in the energy region 0.5-2.0 GeV/nucl was flown on a high altitude balloon from Sioux Falls, South Dakota, on 30 September through 1 October 1976 at an average atmospheric depth of about 5 g/sq cm. Differential energy spectra of B, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe, extrapolated to the top of the atmosphere, were measured. The float altitude exposure of 17 h ended near Alpena, Michigan. The flight trajectory maintained a north easterly heading out of Sioux Falls traversing the upper midwest region between 84 and 97 deg west longitude while remaining between 43.5 and 45 deg north latitude. The maximum vertical cut-off for this flight path was 1.77 GV or 0.35 GeV/nucl.

  15. A measurement of the absolute energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays during the 1976-77 solar minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrickson, J.H.; Parnell, T.A.; Austin, R.W.; Selig, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    An instrument designed to measure elemental cosmic ray abundances from boron to nickel in the energy region 0.5-2.0 GeV nucl -1 was flown on a high altitude balloon from Sioux Falls, South Dakota, on 30 September through 1 October 1976 at an average atmospheric depth of ∼5 g cm -2 . Differential energy spectra of B, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe, extrapolated to the top of the atmosphere, were measured. The float altitude exposure of 17 h ended near Alpena, Michigan. The flight trajectory maintained a north easterly heading out of Sioux Falls traversing the upper mid-west region between 84 o and 97 o west longitude while remaining between 43.5 o and 45 o north latitude. The maximum vertical cut-off for this flight path was 1.77 GV or 0.35 GeV nucl -1 . (author)

  16. Absolute and relative dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film for high energy electron beams with different doses per pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiandra, Christian; Ragona, Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto; Anglesio, Silvia; Giglioli, Francesca Romana

    2008-01-01

    The authors have evaluated the accuracy, in absolute and relative dose measurements, of the Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film in pulsed high-energy electron beams. Typically, the electron beams used in radiotherapy have a dose-per-pulse value of less than 0.1 mGy/pulse. However, very high dose-per-pulse electron beams are employed in certain linear accelerators dedicated to intraoperatory radiation therapy (IORT). In this study, the absorbed dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in both low (less than 0.3 mGy per pulse) and high (30 and 70 mGy per pulse) dose-per-pulse electron beams were compared with ferrous sulfate chemical Fricke dosimetry (operated by the Italian Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory), a method independent of the dose per pulse. A summary of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in relative and absolute beam output determination is reported. This study demonstrates the independence of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT absorption as a function of dose per pulse at different dose levels. A good agreement (within 3%) was found with Fricke dosimeters for plane-base IORT applicators. Comparison with a diode detector is presented for relative dose measurements, showing acceptable agreement both in the steep dose falloff zone and in the homogeneous dose region. This work also provides experimental values for recombination correction factor (K sat ) of a Roos (plane parallel) ionization chamber calculated on the basis of theoretical models for charge recombination.

  17. Grid Scale Energy Storage (Symposium EE8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    any one of the areas 5 touched upon by speakers participated in symposium EE8, which could potentially change the energy storage landscape in an...Solid-State Supercapacitors Based on RuO2/PEDOT Hybrid Ultrathin Films Chuanfang (John) Zhang1, Thomas Higgins1, Jonathan Coleman1, Valeria...or capacitance) at the expense of electrodes transmittance. Therefore it’s very necessary to develop ultrathin films with highly pseudocapacitive

  18. Probing the TeV energy scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Despite its spectacular success, the Standard Model (SM) is widely believed to be incomplete. In fact there are good reasons to expect that new degrees of freedom, not present within the SM framework, will show up in particle collisions at TeV energies. Novel phenomena are, therefore, anticipated when this energy regime is explored at proton supercolliders such as the SSC or the LHC, and at the next generation of linear electron-positron colliders. Almost two hundred physicists, with roughly equal representation from North America, Europe and Asia, got together to discuss the physics possibilities of such colliders at the Second International Workshop on Physics and Experiments at Linear Electron-Positron Colliders, held during the last week of April in Waikoloa on the Big Island of Hawaii. It was the second in a series of international workshops which began in Saariselkä, Lapland, Finland in September 1991. The main theme of the workshop was the physics reach of, and the feasibility of experiments at, linear electron-positron colliders in the 300 GeV - 2 TeV collision energy region. Also discussed were the prospects for physics at electron-photon, photon-photon and electron-electron colliders

  19. Experimental and theoretical determinations of the absolute ionization cross section of alkali metals by electron impact in the energy range from 100 to 2000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalin, Rene

    1972-01-01

    The absolute electron impact ionization cross sections for the alkali metals in the energy range between 100 eV and 2000 eV were measured by the non-modulated crossed beam technique. The neutral beam of alkali atoms is produced by a Knudsen cell and crossed at right angles with the electron beam. The ions formed are collected on a plate and their intensity determined with a D.C. amplifier. The neutral beam is condensed on a cold trap cooled with liquid nitrogen, this temperature being much lower than that required to obtain total condensation. The amount of metal deposited is measured by the isotopic dilution technique and by atomic absorption, and the density of the atoms in the neutral beam is calculated. The total absolute ionization cross sections can then be determined. All possible errors have been carefully analyzed and their magnitudes estimated. The absolute ionization cross section for Li at an energy of 500 eV is: Q Li = 0,358 x 10 -16 cm 2 . This value is half of that obtained by Mac Farland and Kinney. The partial ionization cross sections for the singly and multiply charged ions is determined with a mass spectrometer attached to this apparatus. For the singly charged ions, the variation of the cross section with the energy of the ionizing electrons is in agreement with the optically allowed transition law: Q = A log BE/E. From the variation of Q with E, the squared matrix elements of the transition moment (|M i |) 2 are determined for all the elements studied. New calculations of the ionization cross section of Li and Na were performed in the framework of the Born-Bethe approximation as modified by Gaudin and Botter to take into account collisions with large momentum variation of the incident electron. Hartree-Fock type wave functions for the ground state atom (tabulated by Clementi) were used. The calculated values are in good agreement with our experimental results and with the former theoretical results calculated by various methods. This work also

  20. Scaling blockchain for the energy sector

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlquist, Olivia; Hagström, Louise

    2017-01-01

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 10.0px Helvetica} Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology enabling digital transactions without the need for central governance. Once transactions are added to the blockchain, they cannot be altered. One of the main challenges of blockchain implementation is how to create a scalable network meaning verifying many transactions per second. The goal of this thesis is to survey different approaches for scaling blockchain technologies. Scalability...

  1. Coulomb and Nuclear Breakup at Low Energies: Scaling Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a recent work on the low-energy behavior of the breakup cross section in so far as it has important role in the fusion of weakly bound and halo nuclei at near-barrier energies. We assess the way the nuclear component of this cross section scales with the target mass. In complete accord with previous finding at higher energies we verify that the low energy behavior of the breakup cross section for a given projectile and relative center of mass energy with respect to the Coulomb barrier height scales as the cubic root of the mass number of the target. Surprisingly we find that the Coulomb component of the breakup cross section at these low energies also obeys scaling, but with a linear dependence on the target charge. Our findings are important when planning for experiments involving these exotic nuclei.

  2. Energy transfers and magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit Raj

    2013-12-01

    In this letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo by studying energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers. We perform dynamo simulations for the magnetic Prandtl number Pm = 20 on 10243 grid using the pseudospectral method. We demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers moves towards lower wave numbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason why the integral scale of the magnetic field increases with time. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. Copyright © EPLA, 2013.

  3. Stored energy analysis in the scaled-down test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Chengcheng; Chang, Huajian; Qin, Benke; Wu, Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three methods are developed to evaluate stored energy in the scaled-down test facilities. • The mechanism behind stored energy distortion in the test facilities is revealed. • The application of stored energy analysis is demonstrated for the ACME facility of China. - Abstract: In the scaled-down test facilities that simulate the accident transient process of the prototype nuclear power plant, the stored energy release in the metal structures has an important influence on the accuracy and effectiveness of the experimental data. Three methods of stored energy analysis are developed, and the mechanism behind stored energy distortion in the test facilities is revealed. Moreover, the application of stored energy analysis is demonstrated for the ACME test facility newly built in China. The results show that the similarity requirements of three methods analyzing the stored energy release decrease gradually. The physical mechanism of stored energy release process can be characterized by the dimensionless numbers including Stanton number, Fourier number and Biot number. Under the premise of satisfying the overall similarity of natural circulation, the stored energy release process in the scale-down test facilities cannot maintain exact similarity. The results of the application of stored energy analysis illustrate that both the transient release process and integral total stored energy of the reactor pressure vessel wall of CAP1400 power plant can be well reproduced in the ACME test facility.

  4. A measurement of the absolute energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays during the 1976-77 solar minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrickson, J H; Parnell, T A; Austin, R W; Selig, W J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL (United States). George C. Marshall Space Flight Center; Gregory, J C [Alabama Univ., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    An instrument designed to measure elemental cosmic ray abundances from boron to nickel in the energy region 0.5-2.0 GeV nucl[sup -1] was flown on a high altitude balloon from Sioux Falls, South Dakota, on 30 September through 1 October 1976 at an average atmospheric depth of [approx]5 g cm[sup -2]. Differential energy spectra of B, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe, extrapolated to the top of the atmosphere, were measured. The float altitude exposure of 17 h ended near Alpena, Michigan. The flight trajectory maintained a north easterly heading out of Sioux Falls traversing the upper mid-west region between 84[sup o] and 97[sup o] west longitude while remaining between 43.5[sup o] and 45[sup o] north latitude. The maximum vertical cut-off for this flight path was 1.77 GV or 0.35 GeV nucl[sup -1]. (author).

  5. Absolute generalized oscillator strength for the Lyman--Birge--Hopfield band of N2 as determined by high energy electron impact spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.C.; Lee, J.S.; Wellenstein, H.F.; Bonham, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute generalized oscillator strength for the dipole forbidden quadrupole allowed Lyman--Birge--Hopfield band a 1 Pi/subg/ reverse arrow X 1 Σ + /subg/ in molecular nitrogen at an energy loss of 9.35 eV is observed by electron impact spectroscopy using 25 keV electrons over the momentum transfer range 0.04less than or equal toK 2 less than or equal to10 a.u. The results agree in the zero angle (zero momentum transfer) limit with the previous observations of Skerbele and Lassettre, but are in disagreement with previous theoretical and experimental results for K 2 >0.5. (auth)

  6. Financing small scale wind energy projects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Catherine

    1993-01-01

    This paper shows how wind energy projects in the UK have obtained finance. It attempts to list the financing options open to small scale developments and to note any likely problems which may occur. (UK)

  7. Calculation of radiative corrections to virtual compton scattering - absolute measurement of the energy of Jefferson Lab. electron beam (hall A) by a magnetic method: arc project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, D.

    1998-11-01

    This thesis presents the radiative corrections to the virtual compton scattering and the magnetic method adopted in the Hall A at Jefferson Laboratory, to measure the electrons beam energy with an accuracy of 10 4 . The virtual compton scattering experiments allow the access to the generalised polarizabilities of the protons. The extraction of these polarizabilities is obtained by the experimental and theoretical cross sections comparison. That's why the systematic errors and the radiative effects of the experiments have to be controlled very seriously. In this scope, a whole calculation of the internal radiative corrections has been realised in the framework of the quantum electrodynamic. The method of the dimensional regularisation has been used to the treatment of the ultraviolet and infra-red divergences. The absolute measure method of the energy, takes into account the magnetic deviation, made up of eight identical dipoles. The energy is determined from the deviation angle calculation of the beam and the measure of the magnetic field integral along the deviation

  8. Small scale renewable solar energy and the best result project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilbao, J.; Miguel, A.H.; Perez-Burgos, A.M. [Valladolid Univ. (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    The European Community has established programmes with different Projects in relation with the develop of an energy system according to de Kyoto objectives, improving energy efficiency, maintaining security supply and doubling the share of renewable energy use. The Best Result Project (Building and Energy Systems and Technology in Renewable Energy Sources Update and Linked Training), is financed by the European Commission, Intelligent Energy Agency (EIE) and the project objectives are to develop training and diffusion activities in the field of Renewable Energy Technology. The project aims to raise the renewable energy knowledge among suppliers and general public. The project activities are: basis and specialized training events, workshops, meetings, visits and e-learning common platform. The final objective is to extend the market of small scale RES applications in the building and energy sector through common and local activities addressing RES suppliers and consumers. (orig.)

  9. Energy transfers and magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit Raj; Verma, Mahendra K.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    In this letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo by studying energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers. We perform dynamo simulations for the magnetic Prandtl number Pm = 20

  10. X-ray amplifier energy deposition scaling with channeled propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.; Luk, T.S.; McPherson, A.

    1991-01-01

    The spatial control of the energy deposited for excitation of an x-ray amplifier plays an important role in the fundamental scaling relationship between the required energy, the gain and the wavelength. New results concerning the ability to establish confined modes of propagation of sort pulse radiation of sufficiently high intensity in plasmas lead to a sharply reduced need for the total energy deposited, since the concentration of deposited power can be very efficiently organized

  11. Model Scaling of Hydrokinetic Ocean Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ellenrieder, Karl; Valentine, William

    2013-11-01

    Numerical simulations are performed to validate a non-dimensional dynamic scaling procedure that can be applied to subsurface and deeply moored systems, such as hydrokinetic ocean renewable energy devices. The prototype systems are moored in water 400 m deep and include: subsurface spherical buoys moored in a shear current and excited by waves; an ocean current turbine excited by waves; and a deeply submerged spherical buoy in a shear current excited by strong current fluctuations. The corresponding model systems, which are scaled based on relative water depths of 10 m and 40 m, are also studied. For each case examined, the response of the model system closely matches the scaled response of the corresponding full-sized prototype system. The results suggest that laboratory-scale testing of complete ocean current renewable energy systems moored in a current is possible. This work was supported by the U.S. Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center (SNMREC).

  12. Campargue-type supersonic beam sources : absolute intensities, skimmer transmission and scaling laws for mono-atomic gases He, Ne and Ar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerinck, H.C.W.; van Gerwen, R.J.F.; Kerstel, E.R.T.; Martens, J.F.M.; van Vliembergen, E.J.W.; Smits, M.R.T.; Kaashoek, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    The process of beam formation in a supersonic expansion into a high pressure (10-2 -1 Torr) expansion chamber, a so-called Campargue-type beam source, has been investigated, using the theoretical frame work of an ideal undisturbed expansion as a reference. Absolute values of the centre-line

  13. Stored energy analysis in scale-down test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Chengcheng; Qin Benke; Fang Fangfang; Chang Huajian; Ye Zishen

    2013-01-01

    In the integral test facilities that simulate the accident transient process of the prototype nuclear power plant, the stored energy in the metal components has a direct influence on the simulation range and the test results of the facilities. Based on the heat transfer theory, three methods analyzing the stored energy were developed, and a thorough study on the stored energy problem in the scale-down test facilities was further carried out. The lumped parameter method and power integration method were applied to analyze the transient process of energy releasing and to evaluate the average total energy stored in the reactor pressure vessel of the ACME (advanced core-cooling mechanism experiment) facility, which is now being built in China. The results show that the similarity requirements for such three methods to analyze the stored energy in the test facilities are reduced gradually. Under the condition of satisfying the integral similarity of natural circulation, the stored energy releasing process in the scale-down test facilities can't maintain exact similarity. The stored energy in the reactor pressure vessel wall of ACME, which is released quickly during the early stage of rapid depressurization of system, will not make a major impact on the long-term behavior of system. And the scaling distortion of integral average total energy of the stored heat is acceptable. (authors)

  14. Economic Investigation of Community-Scale Versus Building Scale Net-Zero Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Reddy, T. A.

    2009-12-31

    The study presented in this report examines issues concerning whether achieving net-zero energy performance at the community scale provides economic and potentially overall efficiency advantages over strategies focused on individual buildings.

  15. Commercial mortgages: An underutilized channel for scaling energy efficiency investments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul; Wallace, Nancy; Alschuler, Elena; Kolstad, Leonard

    2016-02-01

    Commercial mortgages currently do not fully account for energy factors in underwriting and valuation, particularly as it relates to the impact of energy costs and volatility on an owner’s net operating income. As a consequence, energy efficiency is not properly valued and energy risks are not properly assessed and mitigated. Commercial mortgages are a large lever and could be a significant channel for scaling energy efficiency investments. A pilot analysis of loans with different mortgage contract structures and locations showed that when energy cost volatility was included in mortgage valuation, a 20% reduction in energy use resulted in a 1.3% average increase in mortgage value. This suggests that the explicit inclusion of energy use and volatility in mortgage valuation can send a strong price signal that financially rewards and values energy efficiency in commercial properties. This paper presents findings from a scoping study addressing energy factors in commercial mortgages. First, we present a review of current practices as it relates to incorporating energy factors into commercial mortgage underwriting and valuation. Next, we detail the impacts of energy factors on property values, net operating income and mortgage valuation. Building operational practices alone can result in energy use variations from -17% to 87%. Finally, we present a set of proposed interventions to properly address energy factors in commercial mortgages, based on extensive discussions with stakeholders including mortgage originators, underwriters, building owners and regulators.

  16. Energy reduction through voltage scaling and lightweight checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadric, Edin

    As the semiconductor roadmap reaches smaller feature sizes and the end of Dennard Scaling, design goals change, and managing the power envelope often dominates delay minimization. Voltage scaling remains a powerful tool to reduce energy. We find that it results in about 60% geomean energy reduction on top of other common low-energy optimizations with 22nm CMOS technology. However, when voltage is reduced, it becomes easier for noise and particle strikes to upset a node, potentially causing Silent Data Corruption (SDC). The 60% energy reduction, therefore, comes with a significant drop in reliability. Duplication with checking and triple-modular redundancy are traditional approaches used to combat transient errors, but spending 2--3x the energy for redundant computation can diminish or reverse the benefits of voltage scaling. As an alternative, we explore the opportunity to use checking operations that are cheaper than the base computation they are guarding. We devise a classification system for applications and their lightweight checking characteristics. In particular, we identify and evaluate the effectiveness of lightweight checks in a broad set of common tasks in scientific computing and signal processing. We find that the lightweight checks cost only a fraction of the base computation (0-25%) and allow us to recover the reliability losses from voltage scaling. Overall, we show about 50% net energy reduction without compromising reliability compared to operation at the nominal voltage. We use FPGAs (Field-Programmable Gate Arrays) in our work, although the same ideas can be applied to different systems. On top of voltage scaling, we explore other common low-energy techniques for FPGAs: transmission gates, gate boosting, power gating, low-leakage (high-Vth) processes, and dual-V dd architectures. We do not scale voltage for memories, so lower voltages help us reduce logic and interconnect energy, but not memory energy. At lower voltages, memories become dominant

  17. Regional Scale Modelling for Exploring Energy Strategies for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, M.

    2015-01-01

    KTH Royal Institute of Technology was founded in 1827 and it is the largest technical university in Sweden with five campuses and Around 15,000 students. KTH-dESA combines an outstanding knowledge in the field of energy systems analysis. This is demonstrated by the successful collaborations with many (UN) organizations. Regional Scale Modelling for Exploring Energy Strategies for Africa include Assessing renewable energy potentials; Analysing investment strategies; ) Assessing climate resilience; Comparing electrification options; Providing web-based decision support; and Quantifying energy access. It is conclude that Strategies required to ensure a robust and flexible energy system (-> no-regret choices); Capacity investments should be in line with national & regional strategies; Climate change important to consider, as it may strongly influence the energy flows in a region; Long-term models can help identify robust energy investment strategies and pathways that Can help assess future markets and profitability of individual projects

  18. Pelamis wave energy converter. Verification of full-scale control using a 7th scale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter is a new concept for converting wave energy for several applications including generation of electric power. The machine is flexibly moored and swings to meet the water waves head-on. The system is semi-submerged and consists of cylindrical sections linked by hinges. The mechanical operation is described in outline. A one-seventh scale model was built and tested and the outcome was sufficiently successful to warrant the building of a full-scale prototype. In addition, a one-twentieth scale model was built and has contributed much to the research programme. The work is supported financially by the DTI.

  19. Precocious scaling in antiproton-proton scattering at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, D.B.; Petrascu, C.; Topor Pop, V.; Popa, V.

    1993-08-01

    The scaling of the diffraction peak in antiproton-proton scattering has been investigated from nera threshold up to 3 GeV/c laboratory momenta. It was shown that the scaling of the differential cross sections are evidentiated with a surprising accuracy not only at high energies, but also at very low ones (e.g. p LAB = 0.1 - 0.5 GeV/c), beyond the resonance and exotic resonance regions. This precocious scaling strongly suggests that the s-channel helicity conservation (SCHC) can be a peculiar property that should be tested in antiproton-proton interaction not only at high energies but also at low energy even below p LAB = 1 GeV/c. (author). 36 refs, 9 figs

  20. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  1. Combining high-scale inflation with low-energy SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut; Dutta, Koushik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Halter, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut

    2011-12-15

    We propose a general scenario for moduli stabilization where low-energy supersymmetry can be accommodated with a high scale of inflation. The key ingredient is that the stabilization of the modulus field during and after inflation is not associated with a single, common scale, but relies on two different mechanisms. We illustrate this general scenario in a simple example, where during inflation the modulus is stabilized with a large mass by a Kaehler potential coupling to the field which provides the inflationary vacuum energy via its F-term. After inflation, the modulus is stabilized, for instance, by a KKLT superpotential. (orig.)

  2. Financing Energy Services for Small-scale Energy-users - project FINESSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annan, R.; Saunders, R.J.; Hassing, P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the FINESSE (Financing Energy Services for Small-scale Energy users) launched in 1989 by World Bank 's Energy Sector Assistance Program (ESMAP) in association with the US Department of Energy and the Netherlands Ministry for Development Cooperation, whose purpose is to address financial, institutional and policy issues related to enhancing energy services for residential and commercial energy consumers in the Developing World. It describes the related technology benefits of renewable energy and energy efficiency, as well as a technology overview and outlines the strategies for financing alternatives in the Developing World. It concludes with a description of successful experiences in small-scale energy services, especially in Asia. (TEC). 8 figs

  3. Some general scaling rules in high energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Idh, J.; Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.

    1988-09-01

    We show, using the Fritiof model scenario that the wide variation in the number of participating nucleons tend to drown other dynamical variations in the measurables of high energy ion collisions. We propose a set if general scaling laws for inclusive distributions in which it is the mean multiplicity and the mean transverse energy from each source which are the measurables in the interactions. (authors)

  4. Energy conserving, linear scaling Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkwell, M J; Niklasson, Anders M N

    2012-10-07

    Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations with long-term conservation of the total energy and a computational cost that scales linearly with system size have been obtained simultaneously. Linear scaling with a low pre-factor is achieved using density matrix purification with sparse matrix algebra and a numerical threshold on matrix elements. The extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics formalism [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] yields microcanonical trajectories with the approximate forces obtained from the linear scaling method that exhibit no systematic drift over hundreds of picoseconds and which are indistinguishable from trajectories computed using exact forces.

  5. Ignition in net for different energy confinement time scalings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.; Prevot, F.

    1988-06-01

    A zero-dimensional profile dependent model is used to assess the feasibility of ignition in the extended version of NET. Five recent scalings for the energy confinement time (Goldston, Kaye All, Kaye Big, Shimomura-Odajima, Rebut-Lallia) are compared in the frame of two different scenarii, i.e., H-mode with a flat density profile or L-mode with a peaked density profile. For the flat density H-mode case, ignition is accessible with none of the scalings except Rebut-Lallia's. For the peaked density L-mode case, ignition is accessible with none of the scalings except Rebut-Lallia's. For the two Kaye's scalings, ignition is forbidden in H-mode even with the peaked density profile. For the Rebut-Lallia scaling, ignition is allowed in L-mode even with the flat density profile

  6. Small-Scale Renewable Energy Converters for Battery Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nasir Ayob

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two wave energy concepts for small-scale electricity generation. In the presented case, these concepts are installed on the buoy of a heaving, point-absorbing wave energy converter (WEC for large scale electricity production. In the studied WEC, developed by Uppsala University, small-scale electricity generation in the buoy is needed to power a tidal compensating system designed to increase the performance of the WEC in areas with high tides. The two considered and modeled concepts are an oscillating water column (OWC and a heaving point absorber. The results indicate that the OWC is too small for the task and does not produce enough energy. On the other hand, the results show that a hybrid system composed of a small heaving point absorber combined with a solar energy system would be able to provide a requested minimum power of around 37.7 W on average year around. The WEC and solar panel complement each other, as the WEC produces enough energy by itself during wintertime (but not in the summer, while the solar panel produces enough energy in the summer (but not in the winter.

  7. Inflation in random landscapes with two energy scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Vilenkin, Alexander; Yamada, Masaki

    2018-02-01

    We investigate inflation in a multi-dimensional landscape with a hierarchy of energy scales, motivated by the string theory, where the energy scale of Kahler moduli is usually assumed to be much lower than that of complex structure moduli and dilaton field. We argue that in such a landscape, the dynamics of slow-roll inflation is governed by the low-energy potential, while the initial condition for inflation are determined by tunneling through high-energy barriers. We then use the scale factor cutoff measure to calculate the probability distribution for the number of inflationary e-folds and the amplitude of density fluctuations Q, assuming that the low-energy landscape is described by a random Gaussian potential with a correlation length much smaller than M pl. We find that the distribution for Q has a unique shape and a preferred domain, which depends on the parameters of the low-energy landscape. We discuss some observational implications of this distribution and the constraints it imposes on the landscape parameters.

  8. Parametric scaling from species relative abundances to absolute abundances in the computation of biological diversity: a first proposal using Shannon's entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Traditional diversity measures such as the Shannon entropy are generally computed from the species' relative abundance vector of a given community to the exclusion of species' absolute abundances. In this paper, I first mention some examples where the total information content associated with a given community may be more adequate than Shannon's average information content for a better understanding of ecosystem functioning. Next, I propose a parametric measure of statistical information that contains both Shannon's entropy and total information content as special cases of this more general function.

  9. Danish Towns during Absolutism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This anthology, No. 4 in the Danish Urban Studies Series, presents in English recent significant research on Denmark's urban development during the Age of Absolutism, 1660-1848, and features 13 articles written by leading Danish urban historians. The years of Absolutism were marked by a general...

  10. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  11. Density-scaling exponents and virial potential-energy correlation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates the relation between the density-scaling exponent γ and the virial potential energy correlation coefficient R at several thermodynamic state points in three dimensions for the generalized (2n, n) Lennard-Jones (LJ) system for n = 4, 9, 12, 18, as well as for the standard n = 6 LJ system in two,three, and ...

  12. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2014-01-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots

  13. Watershed Scale Optimization to Meet Sustainable Cellulosic Energy Crop Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cibin, Raj [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bowling, Laura [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Brouder, Sylvie [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cherkauer, Keith [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Engel, Bernard [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Frankenberger, Jane [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Goforth, Reuben [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Gramig, Benjamin [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Volenec, Jeffrey [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-03-24

    The overall goal of this project was to conduct a watershed-scale sustainability assessment of multiple species of energy crops and removal of crop residues within two watersheds (Wildcat Creek, and St. Joseph River) representative of conditions in the Upper Midwest. The sustainability assessment included bioenergy feedstock production impacts on environmental quality, economic costs of production, and ecosystem services.

  14. Sustainable, Full-Scope Nuclear Fission Energy at Planetary Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Petroski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A nuclear fission-based energy system is described that is capable of supplying the energy needs of all of human civilization for a full range of human energy use scenarios, including both very high rates of energy use and strikingly-large amounts of total energy-utilized. To achieve such “planetary scale sustainability”, this nuclear energy system integrates three nascent technologies: uranium extraction from seawater, manifestly safe breeder reactors, and deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste. In addition to these technological components, it also possesses the sociopolitical quality of manifest safety, which involves engineering to a very high degree of safety in a straightforward manner, while concurrently making the safety characteristics of the resulting nuclear systems continually manifest to society as a whole. Near-term aspects of this nuclear system are outlined, and representative parameters given for a system of global scale capable of supplying energy to a planetary population of 10 billion people at a per capita level enjoyed by contemporary Americans, i.e., of a type which might be seen a half-century hence. In addition to being sustainable from a resource standpoint, the described nuclear system is also sustainable with respect to environmental and human health impacts, including those resulting from severe accidents.

  15. Scaling of gain with energy spread and energy in the PEP FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Sag Harbor paper on the PEP FEL discusses the scaling of various FEL parameters with energy spread σ var-epsilon . I will repeat some of this material here and then examine the benefit of increasing the energy spread. How much energy spread can be achieved with damping wigglers is the next topic. Finally, I consider the dependence of gain and saturation length on beam energy and undulator field

  16. Green smartphone GPUs: Optimizing energy consumption using GPUFreq scaling governors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Enas M.

    2015-10-19

    Modern smartphones are limited by their short battery life. The advancement of the graphical performance is considered as one of the main reasons behind the massive battery drainage in smartphones. In this paper we present a novel implementation of the GPUFreq Scaling Governors, a Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) model implemented in the Android Linux kernel for dynamically scaling smartphone Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). The GPUFreq governors offer users multiple variations and alternatives in controlling the power consumption and performance of their GPUs. We implemented and evaluated our model on a smartphone GPU and measured the energy performance using an external power monitor. The results show that the energy consumption of smartphone GPUs can be significantly reduced with a minor effect on the GPU performance.

  17. Small scale wind energy harvesting with maximum power tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that energy harvesting from wind can be used to power remote monitoring systems. There are several studies that use wind energy in small-scale systems, mainly with wind turbine vertical axis. However, there are very few studies with actual implementations of small wind turbines. This paper compares the performance of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines for energy harvesting on wireless sensor network applications. The problem with the use of wind energy is that most of the time the wind speed is very low, especially at urban areas. Therefore, this work includes a study on the wind speed distribution in an urban environment and proposes a controller to maximize the energy transfer to the storage systems. The generated power is evaluated by simulation and experimentally for different load and wind conditions. The results demonstrate the increase in efficiency of wind generators that use maximum power transfer tracking, even at low wind speeds.

  18. Large Scale Cosmological Anomalies and Inhomogeneous Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros Perivolaropoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of large scale observations hint towards possible modifications on the standard cosmological model which is based on a homogeneous and isotropic universe with a small cosmological constant and matter. These observations, also known as “cosmic anomalies” include unexpected Cosmic Microwave Background perturbations on large angular scales, large dipolar peculiar velocity flows of galaxies (“bulk flows”, the measurement of inhomogenous values of the fine structure constant on cosmological scales (“alpha dipole” and other effects. The presence of the observational anomalies could either be a large statistical fluctuation in the context of ΛCDM or it could indicate a non-trivial departure from the cosmological principle on Hubble scales. Such a departure is very much constrained by cosmological observations for matter. For dark energy however there are no significant observational constraints for Hubble scale inhomogeneities. In this brief review I discuss some of the theoretical models that can naturally lead to inhomogeneous dark energy, their observational constraints and their potential to explain the large scale cosmic anomalies.

  19. Near threshold absolute TDCS: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, T.; Schlemmer, P.; Roeder, J.; Frost, L.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.

    1992-01-01

    A new method, and first results for an impact energy 2 eV above the threshold of ionisation of helium, are presented for the measurement of absolute triple differential cross sections (TDCS) in a crossed beam experiment. The method is based upon measurement of beam/target overlap densities using known absolute total ionisation cross sections and of detection efficiencies using known absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS). For the present work the necessary absolute DDCS for 1 eV electrons had also to be measured. Results are presented for several different coplanar kinematics and are compared with recent DWBA calculations. (orig.)

  20. Scales, strategies and actions for effective energy planning: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasimeni, Maria Rita; Petrosillo, Irene; Aretano, Roberta; Semeraro, Teodoro; De Marco, Antonella; Zaccarelli, Nicola; Zurlini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a review of the most recent literature on the interaction between climate change, land-use and energy, based on the analysis of papers collected through the most relevant scientific literature databases. A total of 114 papers published between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. The aims of this review are: in general (1) to identify the different research topics that have been developed related to the interaction between climate change, land-use and energy; more specifically, (2) to analyze what are the most suitable spatial and temporal scales of investigation to focus on for actions and strategies to reduce critical issues in the field of energy and environment; (3) to identify which actions and strategies are deemed as the most appropriate to mitigate critical issues in energy and environment; and given the research gaps found in the review, (4) to propose research recommendations in the context of effective climate-energy planning. We argue that there are certain gaps and needs for a “nested” environmental governance. It is necessary to understand how different environmental policies overlap and how they can be integrated in order to verify whether there are conflicting targets that may negate each other in the long term. - Highlights: • Energy production and consumption can directly or indirectly affect climate change. • Energy sector is influenced directly and indirectly by changes in climate conditions. • Energy sector and climate change affect and limit alternative uses of land, causing land-use changes. • The most suitable spatial scale for energy planning is the municipal level requiring short-term perspectives. • Several research recommendations to deal with the complexity of energy-land-use-climate change issue are proposed

  1. Protein homology model refinement by large-scale energy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hahnbeom; Ovchinnikov, Sergey; Kim, David E; DiMaio, Frank; Baker, David

    2018-03-20

    Proteins fold to their lowest free-energy structures, and hence the most straightforward way to increase the accuracy of a partially incorrect protein structure model is to search for the lowest-energy nearby structure. This direct approach has met with little success for two reasons: first, energy function inaccuracies can lead to false energy minima, resulting in model degradation rather than improvement; and second, even with an accurate energy function, the search problem is formidable because the energy only drops considerably in the immediate vicinity of the global minimum, and there are a very large number of degrees of freedom. Here we describe a large-scale energy optimization-based refinement method that incorporates advances in both search and energy function accuracy that can substantially improve the accuracy of low-resolution homology models. The method refined low-resolution homology models into correct folds for 50 of 84 diverse protein families and generated improved models in recent blind structure prediction experiments. Analyses of the basis for these improvements reveal contributions from both the improvements in conformational sampling techniques and the energy function.

  2. Sustainability of utility-scale solar energy: Critical environmental concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Moore-O'Leary, K. A.; Johnston, D. S.; Abella, S.; Tanner, K.; Swanson, A.; Kreitler, J.; Lovich, J.

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy development is an arena where ecological, political, and socioeconomic values collide. Advances in renewable energy will incur steep environmental costs to landscapes in which facilities are constructed and operated. Scientists - including those from academia, industry, and government agencies - have only recently begun to quantify trade-off in this arena, often using ground-mounted, utility-scale solar energy facilities (USSE, ≥ 1 megawatt) as a model. Here, we discuss five critical ecological concepts applicable to the development of more sustainable USSE with benefits over fossil-fuel-generated energy: (1) more sustainable USSE development requires careful evaluation of trade-offs between land, energy, and ecology; (2) species responses to habitat modification by USSE vary; (3) cumulative and large-scale ecological impacts are complex and challenging to mitigate; (4) USSE development affects different types of ecosystems and requires customized design and management strategies; and (5) long-term ecological consequences associated with USSE sites must be carefully considered. These critical concepts provide a framework for reducing adverse environmental impacts, informing policy to establish and address conservation priorities, and improving energy production sustainability.

  3. A multi-scale energy demand model suggests sharing market risks with intelligent energy cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we propose a multi-scale model of energy demand that is consistent with observations at a macro scale, in our use-case standard load profiles for (residential) electric loads. We employ the model to study incentives to assume the risk of volatile market prices for

  4. Relevant energy scale of color confinement from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Arata; Suganuma, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new lattice framework to extract the relevant gluonic energy scale of QCD phenomena which is based on a 'cut' on link variables in momentum space. This framework is expected to be broadly applicable to all lattice QCD calculations. Using this framework, we quantitatively determine the relevant energy scale of color confinement, through the analyses of the quark-antiquark potential and meson masses. The relevant energy scale of color confinement is found to be below 1.5 GeV in the Landau gauge. In fact, the string tension is almost unchanged even after cutting off the high-momentum gluon component above 1.5 GeV. When the relevant low-energy region is cut, the quark-antiquark potential is approximately reduced to a Coulomb-like potential, and each meson becomes a quasifree quark pair. As an analytical model calculation, we also investigate the dependence of the Richardson potential on the cut, and find the consistent behavior with the lattice result.

  5. Energy scales and magnetoresistance at a quantum critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)], E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru; Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Msezane, A.Z. [CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, 3a Chernova street, Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation); Stephanovich, V.A. [Opole University, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Opole, 45-052 (Poland)

    2009-03-02

    The magnetoresistance (MR) of CeCoIn{sub 5} is notably different from that in many conventional metals. We show that a pronounced crossover from negative to positive MR at elevated temperatures and fixed magnetic fields is determined by the scaling behavior of quasiparticle effective mass. At a quantum critical point (QCP) this dependence generates kinks (crossover points from fast to slow growth) in thermodynamic characteristics (like specific heat, magnetization, etc.) at some temperatures when a strongly correlated electron system transits from the magnetic field induced Landau-Fermi liquid (LFL) regime to the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) one taking place at rising temperatures. We show that the above kink-like peculiarity separates two distinct energy scales in QCP vicinity - low temperature LFL scale and high temperature one related to NFL regime. Our comprehensive theoretical analysis of experimental data permits to reveal for the first time new MR and kinks scaling behavior as well as to identify the physical reasons for above energy scales.

  6. Scaling of surface energy fluxes using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew Nichols

    Accurate estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) across multiple terrains would greatly ease challenges faced by hydrologists, climate modelers, and agronomists as they attempt to apply theoretical models to real-world situations. One ET estimation approach uses an energy balance model to interpret a combination of meteorological observations taken at the surface and data captured by remote sensors. However, results of this approach have not been accurate because of poor understanding of the relationship between surface energy flux and land cover heterogeneity, combined with limits in available resolution of remote sensors. The purpose of this study was to determine how land cover and image resolution affect ET estimates. Using remotely sensed data collected over El Reno, Oklahoma, during four days in June and July 1997, scale effects on the estimation of spatially distributed ET were investigated. Instantaneous estimates of latent and sensible heat flux were calculated using a two-source surface energy balance model driven by thermal infrared, visible-near infrared, and meteorological data. The heat flux estimates were verified by comparison to independent eddy-covariance observations. Outcomes of observations taken at coarser resolutions were simulated by aggregating remote sensor data and estimated surface energy balance components from the finest sensor resolution (12 meter) to hypothetical resolutions as coarse as one kilometer. Estimated surface energy flux components were found to be significantly dependent on observation scale. For example, average evaporative fraction varied from 0.79, using 12-m resolution data, to 0.93, using 1-km resolution data. Resolution effects upon flux estimates were related to a measure of landscape heterogeneity known as operational scale, reflecting the size of dominant landscape features. Energy flux estimates based on data at resolutions less than 100 m and much greater than 400 m showed a scale-dependent bias. But estimates

  7. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  8. Approach To Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    more and more difficult to remove heat as one approaches absolute zero. This is the ... A new and active branch of engineering ... This temperature is called the critical temperature, Te' For sulfur dioxide the critical ..... adsorbent charcoal.

  9. Uncertainty in Analyzed Water and Energy Budgets at Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Mocko, D.; Chen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Operational analyses and retrospective-analyses provide all the physical terms of mater and energy budgets, guided by the assimilation of atmospheric observations. However, there is significant reliance on the numerical models, and so, uncertainty in the budget terms is always present. Here, we use a recently developed data set consisting of a mix of 10 analyses (both operational and retrospective) to quantify the uncertainty of analyzed water and energy budget terms for GEWEX continental-scale regions, following the evaluation of Dr. John Roads using individual reanalyses data sets.

  10. Energy confinement scaling from the international stellarator database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, U [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Murakami, M; Dory, R A; Yamada, H; Okamura, S; Sano, F; Obiki, T

    1995-09-01

    An international stellarator database on global energy confinement is presented comprising data from the ATF, CHS and Heliotron E heliotron/torsatrons and the W7-A and W7-AS shearless stellarators. Regression expressions for the energy confinement time are given for the individual devices and the combined dataset. A comparison with tokamak L mode confinement is discussed on the basis of various scaling expressions. In order to make this database available to interested colleagues, the structure of the database and the parameter list are explained in detail. More recent confinement results incorporating data from enhanced confinement regimes such as H mode are reported elsewhere. (author).

  11. A tentative programme towards a full scale energy amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    1996-01-01

    We present a proposal of a full scale demonstration plant of the Energy Amplifier (EA), following the conceptual design of Ref. [1]. Unlike the presently on going CERN experiments, reaction rates will be sufficiently massive to permit demonstrating the practical feasibility of energy generation on an industrial scale and to tackle the complete family chains of [1] the breeding process in Thorium fuel, [2] the burning of the self-generated Actinides, [3] the Plutonium (higher Actinides) burning of spent fuel from ordinary Reactors and [4] Fuel reprocessing/regeneration. The accelerator must provide a beam power which is commensurate to the rate of transformations which are sought. No existing accelerator can meet such a performance and a dedicated facility must be built. We describe an alternative based on the superconducting cavities (SC) now in standard use at the LEP \\[e^+-e^-\\] collider which is scheduled to terminate its operation by year 200 After this time, with reasonable modifications, the fully opera...

  12. Encasing the Absolutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Martinčič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the issue of structure and case in English absolute constructions, whose subjects are deduced by several descriptive grammars as being in the nominative case due to its supposed neutrality in terms of register. This deduction is countered by systematic accounts presented within the framework of the Minimalist Program which relate the case of absolute constructions to specific grammatical factors. Each proposal is shown as an attempt of analysing absolute constructions as basic predication structures, either full clauses or small clauses. I argue in favour of the small clause approach due to its minimal reliance on transformations and unique stipulations. Furthermore, I propose that small clauses project a singular category, and show that the use of two cases in English absolute constructions can be accounted for if they are analysed as depictive phrases, possibly selected by prepositions. The case of the subject in absolutes is shown to be a result of syntactic and non-syntactic factors. I thus argue in accordance with Minimalist goals that syntactic case does not exist, attributing its role in absolutes to other mechanisms.

  13. Large-scale nuclear energy from the thorium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.; Duret, M.F.; Craig, D.S.; Veeder, J.I.; Bain, A.S.

    1973-02-01

    The thorium fuel cycle in CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactors challenges breeders and fusion as the simplest means of meeting the world's large-scale demands for energy for centuries. Thorium oxide fuel allows high power density with excellent neutron economy. The combination of thorium fuel with organic caloporteur promises easy maintenance and high availability of the whole plant. The total fuelling cost including charges on the inventory is estimated to be attractively low. (author) [fr

  14. Beam Energy Scan at RHIC and z-Scaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokarev, M. V.; Zborovský, Imrich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 245, DEC (2013), s. 231-238 ISSN 0920-5632. [7th Joint International Hadron Structure'13 Conference (HS 13). Tatranské Matliare, 30.06.2013-04.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : energy loss * nucleus-nucleus collisions * phase transition * scaling Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  15. Scaling of energy deposition in fast ignition targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Dale R.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Campbell, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    We examine the scaling to ignition of the energy deposition of laser generated electrons in compressed fast ignition cores. Relevant cores have densities of several hundred g/cm 3 , with a few keV initial temperature. As the laser intensities increase approaching ignition systems, on the order of a few 10 21 W/cm 2 , the hot electron energies expected to approach 100MeV. Most certainly anomalous processes must play a role in the energy transfer, but the exact nature of these processes, as well as a practical way to model them, remain open issues. Traditional PIC explicit methods are limited to low densities on current and anticipated computing platforms, so the study of relevant parameter ranges has received so far little attention. We use LSP to examine a relativistic electron beam (presumed generated from a laser plasma interaction) of legislated energy and angular distribution is injected into a 3D block of compressed DT. Collective effects will determine the stopping, most likely driven by magnetic field filamentation. The scaling of the stopping as a function of block density and temperature, as well as hot electron current and laser intensity is presented. Sub-grid models may be profitably used and degenerate effects included in the solution of this problem.

  16. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  17. Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.

    1993-12-31

    If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass.

  18. Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.

    1993-01-01

    If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level, the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in two multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass

  19. Ignition energy scaling of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.

    1998-01-01

    Scaling of the ignition energy threshold Ε ig with the implosion velocity v im and isentrope parameter α of imploding spherical deuterium-tritium shells is investigated by performing one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation dynamics. We find that the a and b exponents in the power-law approximation Ε ig ∝ α a v im -b depend crucially on the subset of initial configurations chosen to establish the scaling law. When we generate the initial states in the same way as in the Livermore study [W.K. Levedahl and J. D. Lindl, Nucl. Fusion 37 (1997) 165 ], we recover the same scaling, Ε ig ∝ α 1.7 v im -5.5 . If, however, the initial states are generated by rescaling the parent configuration according to the hydrodynamic similarity laws, we obtain a different scaling, Ε ig ∝ α 3 v im -9 , which is very close to the αv im -10 dependence predicted by the simple isobaric model for assembled fuel states. The latter is more favourable that the Livermore scaling when rescaling the fusion capsules to higher implosion velocities, but requires the peak drive pressure to be increased as P ∝ v im 5 . (authors)

  20. Energy partition, scale by scale, in magnetic Archimedes Coriolis weak wave turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, A; Baklouti, F S; Godeferd, F; Lehner, T; Cambon, C

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic Archimedes Coriolis (MAC) waves are omnipresent in several geophysical and astrophysical flows such as the solar tachocline. In the present study, we use linear spectral theory (LST) and investigate the energy partition, scale by scale, in MAC weak wave turbulence for a Boussinesq fluid. At the scale k^{-1}, the maximal frequencies of magnetic (Alfvén) waves, gravity (Archimedes) waves, and inertial (Coriolis) waves are, respectively, V_{A}k,N, and f. By using the induction potential scalar, which is a Lagrangian invariant for a diffusionless Boussinesq fluid [Salhi et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 026301 (2012)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.026301], we derive a dispersion relation for the three-dimensional MAC waves, generalizing previous ones including that of f-plane MHD "shallow water" waves [Schecter et al., Astrophys. J. 551, L185 (2001)AJLEEY0004-637X10.1086/320027]. A solution for the Fourier amplitude of perturbation fields (velocity, magnetic field, and density) is derived analytically considering a diffusive fluid for which both the magnetic and thermal Prandtl numbers are one. The radial spectrum of kinetic, S_{κ}(k,t), magnetic, S_{m}(k,t), and potential, S_{p}(k,t), energies is determined considering initial isotropic conditions. For magnetic Coriolis (MC) weak wave turbulence, it is shown that, at large scales such that V_{A}k/f≪1, the Alfvén ratio S_{κ}(k,t)/S_{m}(k,t) behaves like k^{-2} if the rotation axis is aligned with the magnetic field, in agreement with previous direct numerical simulations [Favier et al., Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. (2012)] and like k^{-1} if the rotation axis is perpendicular to the magnetic field. At small scales, such that V_{A}k/f≫1, there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and kinetic components. For magnetic Archimedes weak wave turbulence, it is demonstrated that, at large scales, such that (V_{A}k/N≪1), there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and potential components

  1. A comparison of the cosmic-ray energy scales of Tunka-133 and KASCADE-Grande via their radio extensions Tunka-Rex and LOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Apel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The radio technique is a promising method for detection of cosmic-ray air showers of energies around 100PeV and higher with an array of radio antennas. Since the amplitude of the radio signal can be measured absolutely and increases with the shower energy, radio measurements can be used to determine the air-shower energy on an absolute scale. We show that calibrated measurements of radio detectors operated in coincidence with host experiments measuring air showers based on other techniques can be used for comparing the energy scales of these host experiments. Using two approaches, first via direct amplitude measurements, and second via comparison of measurements with air shower simulations, we compare the energy scales of the air-shower experiments Tunka-133 and KASCADE-Grande, using their radio extensions, Tunka-Rex and LOPES, respectively. Due to the consistent amplitude calibration for Tunka-Rex and LOPES achieved by using the same reference source, this comparison reaches an accuracy of approximately 10% – limited by some shortcomings of LOPES, which was a prototype experiment for the digital radio technique for air showers. In particular we show that the energy scales of cosmic-ray measurements by the independently calibrated experiments KASCADE-Grande and Tunka-133 are consistent with each other on this level.

  2. Battery energy storage systems: Assessment for small-scale renewable energy integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar C.; Garimella, Niraj [Power Systems Group, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland, 38 Princes Street, Science Centre, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2010-11-15

    Concerns arising due to the variability and intermittency of renewable energy sources while integrating with the power grid can be mitigated to an extent by incorporating a storage element within the renewable energy harnessing system. Thus, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are likely to have a significant impact in the small-scale integration of renewable energy sources into commercial building and residential dwelling. These storage technologies not only enable improvements in consumption levels from renewable energy sources but also provide a range of technical and monetary benefits. This paper provides a modelling framework to be able to quantify the associated benefits of renewable resource integration followed by an overview of various small-scale energy storage technologies. A simple, practical and comprehensive assessment of battery energy storage technologies for small-scale renewable applications based on their technical merit and economic feasibility is presented. Software such as Simulink and HOMER provides the platforms for technical and economic assessments of the battery technologies respectively. (author)

  3. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R.; Arpesella, C.

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.)

  4. Approximate scaling properties of RNA free energy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, S.; Stadler, P. F.; Schuster, P.

    1996-01-01

    RNA free energy landscapes are analysed by means of "time-series" that are obtained from random walks restricted to excursion sets. The power spectra, the scaling of the jump size distribution, and the scaling of the curve length measured with different yard stick lengths are used to describe the structure of these "time series". Although they are stationary by construction, we find that their local behavior is consistent with both AR(1) and self-affine processes. Random walks confined to excursion sets (i.e., with the restriction that the fitness value exceeds a certain threshold at each step) exhibit essentially the same statistics as free random walks. We find that an AR(1) time series is in general approximately self-affine on timescales up to approximately the correlation length. We present an empirical relation between the correlation parameter rho of the AR(1) model and the exponents characterizing self-affinity.

  5. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; Arpesella, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique] [and others

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.) 50 refs.

  6. Does the effective Lagrangian for low-energy QCD scale?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birse, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is not an approximately scale-invariant theory. Hence a dilaton field is not expected to provide a good description of the low-energy dynamics associated with the gluon condensate. Even if such a field is introduced, it remains almost unchanged in hadronic matter at normal densities. This is because the large glueball mass together with the size of the phenomenological gluon condensate ensure that changes to that condensate are very small at such densities. Any changes in hadronic masses and decay constants in matter generated by that condensate will be much smaller than those produced directly by changes in the quark condensate. Hence, masses and decay constants are not expected to display a universal scaling. (author)

  7. The Impact of Process Scaling on Scratchpad Memory Energy Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennion Redd

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scratchpad memories have been shown to reduce power consumption, but the different characteristics of nanometer scale processes, such as increased leakage power, motivate an examination of how the benefits of these memories change with process scaling. Process and application characteristics affect the amount of energy saved by a scratchpad memory. Increases in leakage as a percentage of total power particularly impact applications that rarely access memory. This study examines how the benefits of scratchpad memories have changed in newer processes, based on the measured performance of the WIMS (Wireless Integrated MicroSystems microcontroller implemented in 180- and 65-nm processes and upon simulations of this microcontroller implemented in a 32-nm process. The results demonstrate that scratchpad memories will continue to improve the power dissipation of many applications, given the leakage anticipated in the foreseeable future.

  8. Resonant Wave Energy Converters: Small-scale field experiments and first full-scale prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Felice; Fiamma, Vincenzo; Iannolo, Roberto; Laface, Valentina; Malara, Giovanni; Romolo, Alessandra; Strati Federica Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Resonant Wave Energy Converter 3 (REWEC3) is a device belonging to the family of Oscillating Water Columns (OWCs), that can convert the energy of incident waves into electrical energy via turbines. In contrast to classical OWCs, it incorporates a small vertical U-shaped duct to connect the water column to the open wave field. This article shows the results of a small-scale field experiment involving a REWEC3 designed for working with a 2 kW turbine. Then, the next experimental activity on a REWEC3 installed in the NOEL laboratory with the collaboration of ENEA, is presented. Finally, the first prototype of ReWEC3 under construction in Civitavecchia (Rome, Italy) is shown. The crucial features of the construction stage are discussed and some initial performances are provided. [it

  9. Scaling of anisotropy flows in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Yan, T.Z.; Cai, X.Z.; Chen, J.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Guo, W.; Liu, G.H.; Ma, C.W.; Ma, E.J.; Shen, W.Q.; Shi, Y.; Su, Q.M.; Tian, W.D.; Wang, H.W.; Wang, K.

    2007-01-01

    Anisotropic flows (v 1 , v 2 and v 4 ) of light nuclear clusters are studied by a nucleonic transport model in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. The number-of-nucleon scalings of the directed flow (v 1 ) and elliptic flow (v 2 ) are demonstrated for light nuclear clusters. Moreover, the ratios of v 4 /v 2 2 of nuclear clusters show a constant value of 1/2 regardless of the transverse momentum. The above phenomena can be understood by the coalescence mechanism in nucleonic level and are worthy to be explored in experiments

  10. ENERGY DISSIPATION IN MAGNETIC NULL POINTS AT KINETIC SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Lapenta, Giovanni; Divin, Andrey; Eriksson, Elin; Markidis, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We use kinetic particle-in-cell and MHD simulations supported by an observational data set to investigate magnetic reconnection in clusters of null points in space plasma. The magnetic configuration under investigation is driven by fast adiabatic flux rope compression that dissipates almost half of the initial magnetic field energy. In this phase powerful currents are excited producing secondary instabilities, and the system is brought into a state of “intermittent turbulence” within a few ion gyro-periods. Reconnection events are distributed all over the simulation domain and energy dissipation is rather volume-filling. Numerous spiral null points interconnected via their spines form null lines embedded into magnetic flux ropes; null point pairs demonstrate the signatures of torsional spine reconnection. However, energy dissipation mainly happens in the shear layers formed by adjacent flux ropes with oppositely directed currents. In these regions radial null pairs are spontaneously emerging and vanishing, associated with electron streams and small-scale current sheets. The number of spiral nulls in the simulation outweighs the number of radial nulls by a factor of 5–10, in accordance with Cluster observations in the Earth's magnetosheath. Twisted magnetic fields with embedded spiral null points might indicate the regions of major energy dissipation for future space missions such as the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

  11. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...

  12. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  13. Generalized Scaling of Urban Heat Island Effect and Its Applications for Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-W. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous work from this laboratory, it has been found that the urban heat island intensity (UHI can be scaled with the urban length scale and the wind speed, through the time-dependent energy balance. The heating of the urban surfaces during the daytime sets the initial temperature, and this overheating is dissipated during the night-time through mean convection motion over the urban surface. This may appear to be in contrast to the classical work by Oke (1973. However, in this work, we show that if the population density is used in converting the population data into urbanized area, then a good agreement with the current theory is found. An additional parameter is the “urban flow parameter,” which depends on the urban building characteristics and affects the horizontal convection of heat due to wind. This scaling can be used to estimate the UHI intensity in any cities and therefore predict the required energy consumption during summer months. In addition, all urbanized surfaces are expected to exhibit this scaling, so that increase in the surface temperature in large energy-consumption or energy-producing facilities (e.g., solar electric or thermal power plants can be estimated.

  14. Electrostatic direct energy converter performance and cost scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1977-08-01

    This study is concerned with electrostatic type direct energy converters for direct recovery of a large fraction of the plasma ion energy from fusion reactors. Simplified equations are presented for each of the important loss mechanisms in both single-stage direct converters and multistage ''Venetian Blind'' type direct converters. These equations can be used to estimate the efficiency and electric power output of the direct converter subsystem. Scaling relations for the cost of each major component in the direct converter subsystem are also given; these include the vacuum tank, direct converter modules, the DC power conditioning equipment, cryogenic vacuum pumping system and the thermal bottoming plant. The performance and cost scaling laws have been developed primarily for use in overall fusion power plant systems codes. However, to illustrate their utility, cost-effectiveness studies of two specific reference direct converter designs are presented in terms of the specific capital costs (i.e., the capital cost per unit electric power produced) for the Direct Converter Subsystem alone. Some examples of design improvements which can significantly reduce the specific capital costs of the Direct Converter Subsystem are also given

  15. Absolute spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Smyth, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiometric photoelectric spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975 was carried out on 1975 August 31, September 2, 3. α Lyr was used as reference star and its absolute spectral energy distribution was used to reduce the spectrophotometry of the nova to absolute units. Emission strengths of Hα, Hβ, Hγ (in W cm -2 ) were derived. The Balmer decrement Hα:Hβ:Hγ was compared with theory, and found to deviate less than had been reported for an earlier nova. (author)

  16. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy – 33rd scale experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Prudell, Joseph H. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J.; Zhang, Zhe [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.

    2013-07-29

    Columbia Power Technologies (ColPwr) and Oregon State University (OSU) jointly conducted a series of tests in the Tsunami Wave Basin (TWB) at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (HWRL). These tests were run between November 2010 and February 2011. Models at 33rd scale representing Columbia Power’s Manta series Wave Energy Converter (WEC) were moored in configurations of one, three and five WEC arrays, with both regular waves and irregular seas generated. The primary research interest of ColPwr is the characterization of WEC response. The WEC response will be investigated with respect to power performance, range of motion and generator torque/speed statistics. The experimental results will be used to validate a numerical model. The primary research interests of OSU include an investigation into the effects of the WEC arrays on the near- and far-field wave propagation. This report focuses on the characterization of the response of a single WEC in isolation. To facilitate understanding of the commercial scale WEC, results will be presented as full scale equivalents.

  17. Absolute measurement of the cross sections of neutron radiative capture for 23Na, Cr, 55Mn, Fe, Ni, 103Rh, Ta, 197Au and 238U in the 10-600keV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Rigoleur, Claude; Arnaud, Andre; Taste, Jean.

    1976-10-01

    The total energy weighting technique has been applied to measuring absolute neutron capture cross sections for 23 Na, Cr, 55 Mn, Fe, Ni, 103 Rh, Ta, 197 Au, 238 U in the 10-600keV energy range. A non hydrogeneous liquid scintillator was used to detect the gamma from the cascade. The neutron flux was measured with a 10 B INa(Tl) detector or a 6 Li glass scintillator of well known efficiency. The fast time-of-flight technique was used with on line digital computer data processing [fr

  18. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  19. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator; Dufera, Hiz [Project Manager; Montagna, Deb [Business Point of Contact

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  20. Effekten af absolut kumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Britta; Klement, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Som led i finansloven for 2011 blev regeringen og forligspartierne enige om at undersøge reglerne om strafudmåling ved samtidig pådømmelse af flere kriminelle forhold og i forbindelse hermed vurdere konsekvenserne af at ændre de gældende regler i forhold til kapacitetsbehovet i Kriminalforsorgens...... samlet bødesum ved en absolut kumulation i forhold til en modereret kumulation, som nu er gældende....

  1. Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. However, the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  2. Absolute Salinity, "Density Salinity" and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-08-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. The Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  3. Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models.

    First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. However, the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies.

    Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol

  4. Design and Control of Full Scale Wave Energy Simulator System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2012-01-01

    For wave energy to become feasible it is a requirement that the efficiency and reliability of the power take-off (PTO) systems are significantly improved. The cost of installing and testing PTO-systems at sea are however very high, and the focus of the current paper is therefore on the design...... of a full scale wave simulator for testing PTO-systems for point absorbers. The main challenge is here to design a system, which mimics the behavior of a wave when interacting with a given PTO-system. The paper includes a description of the developed system, located at Aalborg University......, and the considerations behind the design. Based on the description a model of the system is presented, which, along with a description of the wave theory applied, makes the foundation for the control strategy. The objective of the control strategy is to emulate not only the wave behavior, but also the dynamic wave...

  5. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond J E

    2014-10-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots containing a high concentration of shear wave displacement, controlled by the frame region width at the edge of the resonator. We also demonstrate a novel methodology to arrive at an optimum frame region width for spurious mode suppression and shear wave confinement. This methodology makes use of dispersion curves obtained from finite-element method (FEM) eigenfrequency simulations for arriving at an optimum frame region width. The frame region optimization is demonstrated for solidly mounted resonators employing several shear wave optimized reflector stacks. Finally, the FEM simulation results are compared with measurements for resonators with Ta2O5/ SiO2 stacks showing suppression of the spurious modes.

  6. Risk Management Challenges in Large-scale Energy PSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegeltija, Miroslava; Oehmen, Josef; Kozin, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic risk management approaches have a long tradition in engineering. A large variety of tools and techniques based on the probabilistic view of risk is available and applied in PSS practice. However, uncertainties that arise due to lack of knowledge and information are still missing...... adequate representations. We focus on a large-scale energy company in Denmark as one case of current product/servicesystems risk management best practices. We analyze their risk management process and investigate the tools they use in order to support decision making processes within the company. First, we...... identify the following challenges in the current risk management practices that are in line with literature: (1) current methods are not appropriate for the situations dominated by weak knowledge and information; (2) quality of traditional models in such situations is open to debate; (3) quality of input...

  7. Energy scaling of focused discharges with enhanced reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolotti, A.; Broglio, L.; Brzosko, J.S.; Dechiara, P.; Kilic, H.; Mezzetti, F.; Montanari, T.; Nardi, V.; Powell, C.; Woo, H.

    1993-01-01

    The neutron yield per pulse (Y n ) from D + D reactions, the thickness (δ) and speed (v s ) of the leading plasma current sheath in the electrode gap and the multiplicity (υ) of current sheaths in one discharge are monitored in two plasma focus machines operating at different levels of the capacitor bank energy 5 kJ ≤ W ≤ 10 kJ and 12 kJ ≤ W ≤ 30 kJ, respectively .The time spacing (Δt) between leading (CS 1 ) and trailing (CS 2 ) current sheath is also recorded up to a CS distance r = 1.7 cm from the center electrode (anode) axis. The scaling of Y n ∼ A W 2 is tested for PF-Mather-geometry machines with a field distortion element (FDE) inserted at the breech side of the electrode gap which increases Y n (i.e. the constant A) by a factor ≥ 5, above the Y n value of the same machines, operating under identical conditions, but without FDE, Similar scaling tests on Y n = Y n (W, δ, V s , υ, Δt) confirm that Δt is one of the controlling parameters with strong effects on Y n . Spectra and intensities of ion and ion cluster emission from the pinch are also routinely observed in each discharge, in order to determine the relative weight of each controlling parameter for a variety of PF applications

  8. Energy Conservation Using Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling for Computational Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paulin Florence

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new technology which supports resource sharing on a “Pay as you go” basis around the world. It provides various services such as SaaS, IaaS, and PaaS. Computation is a part of IaaS and the entire computational requests are to be served efficiently with optimal power utilization in the cloud. Recently, various algorithms are developed to reduce power consumption and even Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS scheme is also used in this perspective. In this paper we have devised methodology which analyzes the behavior of the given cloud request and identifies the associated type of algorithm. Once the type of algorithm is identified, using their asymptotic notations, its time complexity is calculated. Using best fit strategy the appropriate host is identified and the incoming job is allocated to the victimized host. Using the measured time complexity the required clock frequency of the host is measured. According to that CPU frequency is scaled up or down using DVFS scheme, enabling energy to be saved up to 55% of total Watts consumption.

  9. Bench-scale magnetic separation of Department of Energy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegler, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    Criteria were developed for selection of candidate wastes for testing magnetic separation of uranium and/or other paramagnetic materials. A survey of Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous wastes was conducted to determine good candidates for bench-scale magnetic separation tests. Representatives of 21 DOE sites were contacted, and 11 materials were identified as potential candidates for magnetic separation. To date, seven samples have been obtained and tested for separability of uranium with a bench-scale magnetic assaying device. The samples tested have been obtained from the K-1401B and K-1401C ponds in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; from waste piles in Maywood, New Jersey; from North and South Ponds in Richland, Washington; and from magnesium fluoride drums in Fernald, Ohio. The magnetic device utilized in these tests can be used in an open-gradient mode with dry particulate or liquid-suspended materials. Uranium separation from magnesium fluoride has shown exceptionally good performance in both open- and high-gradient modes and could be an important application of the technology

  10. Photon energy scale determination and commissioning with radiative Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Bondu, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is composed of 75848 lead-tungstate scintillating crystals. It has been designed to be fast, compact, and radiation-hard, with fine granularity and excellent energy resolution. Obtaining the design resolution is a crucial challenge for the SM Higgs search in the two photon channel at the LHC, and more generally good photon calibration and knowledge of the photon energy scale is required for analyses with photons in the final state. The behavior of photons and electrons in the calorimeter is not identical, making the use of a dedicated standard candle for photons, complementary to the canonical high-yield $Z^0$ decay to electrons, highly desirable. The use of $Z^0$ decays to a pair of muons, where one of the muons emits a Bremstrahlung photon, can be such a standard candle. These events, which can be cleanly selected, are a source of high-purity, relatively high-pt photons. Their kinematics are well-constrained by the $Z^0$ boson mass and the precision on the muon ...

  11. Low energy probes of PeV scale sfermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Harnik, Roni; Zupan, Jure

    2013-11-27

    We derive bounds on squark and slepton masses in mini-split supersymmetry scenario using low energy experiments. In this setup gauginos are at the TeV scale, while sfermions are heavier by a loop factor. We cover the most sensitive low energy probes including electric dipole moments (EDMs), meson oscillations and charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) transitions. A leading log resummation of the large logs of gluino to sfermion mass ratio is performed. A sensitivity to PeV squark masses is obtained at present from kaon mixing measurements. A number of observables, including neutron EDMs, mu->e transitions and charmed meson mixing, will start probing sfermion masses in the 100 TeV-1000 TeV range with the projected improvements in the experimental sensitivities. We also discuss the implications of our results for a variety of models that address the flavor hierarchy of quarks and leptons. We find that EDM searches will be a robust probe of models in which fermion masses are generated radiatively, while LFV searches remain sensitive to simple-texture based flavor models.

  12. Dimensionless energy confinement scaling in W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, R.; Dose, V.

    2001-01-01

    Energy confinement in W7-AS has been analyzed in terms of dimensionally exact form free functions employing Bayesian probability theory. The confinement function was set up as a linear combination of dimensionally exact power law terms as already proposed very early by Connor and Taylor. Generation of this expansion basis is dictated by the basic plasma model which one assumes. Based upon data accumulated in W7-AS, which contains the energy content for a wide variety of variable settings, predictions for single variable scans are made. The scaling functions for density and power scans, respectively, are in quantitative agreement with data collected in W7-AS. The result of a single variable scan is therefore already hidden in the data obtained for arbitrary variable choices and can be extracted from the latter by a proper data analysis. Furthermore, the optimal model for the description of the global transport in W7-AS is identified as the collisional low beta kinetic model. (author)

  13. Dimensionless energy confinement scaling in W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, R.; Dose, V.; Linden, W. von der

    1999-01-01

    Energy confinement in W7-AS has been analyzed in terms of dimensionally exact form free functions employing Bayesian probability theory. The confinement function was set up as a linear combination of dimensionally exact power law terms as already proposed very early by Connor and Taylor. Generation of this expansion basis is dictated by the basic plasma model which one assumes. Based upon data accumulated in W7-AS, which contains the energy content for a wide variety of variable settings, predictions for single variable scans are made. The scaling functions for density and power scans, respectively, are in quantitative agreement with data collected in W7-AS. The result of a single variable scan is therefore already hidden in the data obtained for arbitrary variable choices and can be extracted from the latter by a proper data analysis. Furthermore, the optimal model for the description of the global transport in W7-AS is identified as the collisional low beta kinetic model. (author)

  14. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Overview report of combined energy storage and renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The first part of the paper briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of renewable energy sources with respect to the United Kingdom. It discusses the intermittent nature of wind and solar power and the less intermittent nature of hydro power and energy from biomass. The need to store energy generated, particularly from the intermittent sources, is discussed with special reference to electric batteries and pumped storage. If the energy cannot be stored and delivered when required, then the commercial viability of the source will be adversely affected - the economics and how this fits with NETA are discussed briefly. The second part of the paper is an overview of some relevant literature discussing (a) how the problems of fluctuating supplies may be managed, (b) an analytical assessment of the contribution from wind farms, (c) how fluctuations in wind power can be smoothed using sodium-sulfur batteries, (d) how small generators can get together and reduce trading costs and imbalance exposure under NETA, (e) the benefits of large-scale energy storage to network management and embedded generation, (f) distribution networks, (g) embedded generation and network management issues and (h) costs and benefits of embedded generation. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions.

  15. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Overview report of combined energy storage and renewable generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The first part of the paper briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of renewable energy sources with respect to the United Kingdom. It discusses the intermittent nature of wind and solar power and the less intermittent nature of hydro power and energy from biomass. The need to store energy generated, particularly from the intermittent sources, is discussed with special reference to electric batteries and pumped storage. If the energy cannot be stored and delivered when required, then the commercial viability of the source will be adversely affected - the economics and how this fits with NETA are discussed briefly. The second part of the paper is an overview of some relevant literature discussing (a) how the problems of fluctuating supplies may be managed, (b) an analytical assessment of the contribution from wind farms, (c) how fluctuations in wind power can be smoothed using sodium-sulfur batteries, (d) how small generators can get together and reduce trading costs and imbalance exposure under NETA, (e) the benefits of large-scale energy storage to network management and embedded generation, (f) distribution networks, (g) embedded generation and network management issues and (h) costs and benefits of embedded generation. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions

  16. Optimal Wind Energy Integration in Large-Scale Electric Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaijat, Mohammad H.

    The major concern in electric grid operation is operating under the most economical and reliable fashion to ensure affordability and continuity of electricity supply. This dissertation investigates the effects of such challenges, which affect electric grid reliability and economic operations. These challenges are: 1. Congestion of transmission lines, 2. Transmission lines expansion, 3. Large-scale wind energy integration, and 4. Phaser Measurement Units (PMUs) optimal placement for highest electric grid observability. Performing congestion analysis aids in evaluating the required increase of transmission line capacity in electric grids. However, it is necessary to evaluate expansion of transmission line capacity on methods to ensure optimal electric grid operation. Therefore, the expansion of transmission line capacity must enable grid operators to provide low-cost electricity while maintaining reliable operation of the electric grid. Because congestion affects the reliability of delivering power and increases its cost, the congestion analysis in electric grid networks is an important subject. Consequently, next-generation electric grids require novel methodologies for studying and managing congestion in electric grids. We suggest a novel method of long-term congestion management in large-scale electric grids. Owing to the complication and size of transmission line systems and the competitive nature of current grid operation, it is important for electric grid operators to determine how many transmission lines capacity to add. Traditional questions requiring answers are "Where" to add, "How much of transmission line capacity" to add, and "Which voltage level". Because of electric grid deregulation, transmission lines expansion is more complicated as it is now open to investors, whose main interest is to generate revenue, to build new transmission lines. Adding a new transmission capacity will help the system to relieve the transmission system congestion, create

  17. The market wants small scale plants for energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    1999-01-01

    The article deals with the development within energy conservation in Europe and describes some projects for energy recovery from wastes in Norway. A brief survey of Norwegian energy policy for and development of waste management and energy recovery is included

  18. Additional renewable energy growth through small-scale community orientated energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hain, J.J.; Ault, G.W.; Galloway, S.J.; Cruden, A.; McDonald, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises the energy policies that the UK Government has enacted in order to achieve its renewable targets by 2010. Current policies are designed primarily to support large-scale renewable projects through Renewable Obligation Certificates, Levy Exemption Certificates and capital grant schemes. Non-profit domestic and non-profit community renewable projects are also eligible for grant support. First-hand experience of privately owned renewable projects indicate that existing renewable policy is insufficient in its support of both small-scale and community-based profit oriented renewable energy (RE) schemes. Primary and secondary survey information suggests that people living in regions where RE will be situated may generally be inclined to support broader uses of renewables in these regions. Small-scale renewables can make a significant cumulative contribution to the RE mix. The results reported in this paper support the contention that the Government could go further towards approaching its targets through rural-focused changes to its energy incentive programmes

  19. Towards absolute neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory 106-38, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Various ways of determining the absolute neutrino masses are briefly reviewed and their sensitivities compared. The apparent tension between the announced but unconfirmed observation of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the neutrino mass upper limit based on observational cosmology is used as an example of what could happen eventually. The possibility of a 'nonstandard' mechanism of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is stressed and the ways of deciding which of the possible mechanisms is actually operational are described. The importance of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements is discussed and their uncertainty estimated.

  20. A multi-scale adaptive model of residential energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzan, Farbod; Jafari, Mohsen A.; Gong, Jie; Farzan, Farnaz; Stryker, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We extend an energy demand model to investigate changes in behavioral and usage patterns. • The model is capable of analyzing why demand behaves the way it does. • The model empowers decision makers to investigate DSM strategies and effectiveness. • The model provides means to measure the effect of energy prices on daily profile. • The model considers the coupling effects of adopting multiple new technologies. - Abstract: In this paper, we extend a previously developed bottom-up energy demand model such that the model can be used to determine changes in behavioral and energy usage patterns of a community when: (i) new load patterns from Plug-in Electrical Vehicles (PEV) or other devices are introduced; (ii) new technologies and smart devices are used within premises; and (iii) new Demand Side Management (DSM) strategies, such as price responsive demand are implemented. Unlike time series forecasting methods that solely rely on historical data, the model only uses a minimal amount of data at the atomic level for its basic constructs. These basic constructs can be integrated into a household unit or a community model using rules and connectors that are, in principle, flexible and can be altered according to the type of questions that need to be answered. Furthermore, the embedded dynamics of the model works on the basis of: (i) Markovian stochastic model for simulating human activities, (ii) Bayesian and logistic technology adoption models, and (iii) optimization, and rule-based models to respond to price signals without compromising users’ comfort. The proposed model is not intended to replace traditional forecasting models. Instead it provides an analytical framework that can be used at the design stage of new products and communities to evaluate design alternatives. The framework can also be used to answer questions such as why demand behaves the way it does by examining demands at different scales and by playing What-If games. These

  1. Large-Scale Cubic-Scaling Random Phase Approximation Correlation Energy Calculations Using a Gaussian Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jan; Seewald, Patrick; Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg

    2016-12-13

    We present an algorithm for computing the correlation energy in the random phase approximation (RPA) in a Gaussian basis requiring [Formula: see text] operations and [Formula: see text] memory. The method is based on the resolution of the identity (RI) with the overlap metric, a reformulation of RI-RPA in the Gaussian basis, imaginary time, and imaginary frequency integration techniques, and the use of sparse linear algebra. Additional memory reduction without extra computations can be achieved by an iterative scheme that overcomes the memory bottleneck of canonical RPA implementations. We report a massively parallel implementation that is the key for the application to large systems. Finally, cubic-scaling RPA is applied to a thousand water molecules using a correlation-consistent triple-ζ quality basis.

  2. Probing the Absolute Mass Scale of Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formaggio, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental efforts of the Neutrino Physics Group at MIT center primarily around the exploration of neutrino mass and its significance within the context of nuclear physics, particle physics, and cosmology. The group has played a prominent role in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a neutrino experiment dedicated to measure neutrino oscillations from 8B neutrinos created in the sun. The group is now focusing its efforts in the measurement of the neutrino mass directly via the use of tritium beta decay. The MIT group has primary responsibilities in the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino mass experiment, expected to begin data taking by 2013. Specifically, the MIT group is responsible for the design and development of the global Monte Carlo framework to be used by the KATRIN collaboration, as well as responsibilities directly associated with the construction of the focal plane detector. In addition, the MIT group is sponsoring a new research endeavor for neutrino mass measurements, known as Project 8, to push beyond the limitations of current neutrino mass experiments.

  3. Determination of the jet energy scale at the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, A.; Hatakeyama, K. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY 10021 (United States); Canelli, F. [Univ. of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)]. E-mail: canelli@fnal.gov; Heinemann, B. [Univ. of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Adelman, J.; Hoffman, D.; Kwang, S.; Malkus, A.; Shochet, M. [Enrico Fermi Inst., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ambrose, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Arguin, J.-F. [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5S 1A7 (Canada); Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Currat, C.; Gibson, A.; Movilla-Fernandez, P.A. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Budd, H.; Chung, Y.S.; Sakumoto, W.; Yun, G. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Chung, K. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Cooper, B. [Univ. College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); D' Onofrio, M. [Univ. of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Dorigo, T. [Univ. of Padova, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova-Trento, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Erbacher, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Field, R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Flanagan, G. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Happacher, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Introzzi, G. [Univ. of Pavia, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Kuhlmann, S.; Nodulman, L.; Proudfoot, J. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jun, S.; Paulini, M.; Tiwari, V. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Latino, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Pisa, Univ. of Pisa, Siena and Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)] [and others

    2006-10-15

    A precise determination of the energy scale of jets at the Collider Detector at Fermilab at the Tevatron pp-bar collider is described. Jets are used in many analyses to estimate the energies of partons resulting from the underlying physics process. Several correction factors are developed to estimate the original parton energy from the observed jet energy in the calorimeter. The jet energy response is compared between data and Monte Carlo simulation for various physics processes, and systematic uncertainties on the jet energy scale are determined. For jets with transverse momenta above 50GeV the jet energy scale is determined with a 3% systematic uncertainty.

  4. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  5. Coda-derived source spectra, moment magnitudes and energy-moment scaling in the western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasca, P.; Mayeda, K.; Malagnini, L.; Walter, William R.

    2005-01-01

    A stable estimate of the earthquake source spectra in the western Alps is obtained using an empirical method based on coda envelope amplitude measurements described by Mayeda et al. for events ranging between MW~ 1.0 and ~5.0. Path corrections for consecutive narrow frequency bands ranging between 0.3 and 25.0 Hz were included using a simple 1-D model for five three-component stations of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The 1-D assumption performs well, even though the region is characterized by a complex structural setting involving strong lateral variations in the Moho depth. For frequencies less than 1.0 Hz, we tied our dimensionless, distance-corrected coda amplitudes to an absolute scale in units of dyne cm by using independent moment magnitudes from long-period waveform modelling for three moderate magnitude events in the region. For the higher frequencies, we used small events as empirical Green's functions, with corner frequencies above 25.0 Hz. For each station, the procedure yields frequency-dependent corrections that account for site effects, including those related to fmax, as well as to S-to-coda transfer function effects. After the calibration was completed, the corrections were applied to the entire data set composed of 957 events. Our findings using the coda-derived source spectra are summarized as follows: (i) we derived stable estimates of seismic moment, M0, (and hence MW) as well as radiated S-wave energy, (ES), from waveforms recorded by as few as one station, for events that were too small to be waveform modelled (i.e. events less than MW~ 3.5); (ii) the source spectra were used to derive an equivalent local magnitude, ML(coda), that is in excellent agreement with the network averaged values using direct S waves; (iii) scaled energy, , where ER, the radiated seismic energy, is comparable to results from other tectonically active regions (e.g. western USA, Japan) and supports the idea that there is a fundamental

  6. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes

  7. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years

  8. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    The Fennoscandian postglacial uplift has been mapped geometrically using precise levelling, tide gauges, and networks of permanent GPS stations. The results identify major uplift rates at sites located around the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia. The vertical motions decay in all directions...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... time series of several years are now available. Along the coast there are nearby tide gauge stations, many of which have time series of several decades. We describe the observing network, procedures, auxiliary observations, and discuss results obtained for selected sites. We compare the gravity results...

  9. Synergies of scale - A vision of Mongolia and China's common energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgford-Parnell, Nathan

    2010-09-15

    Energy consumption in China is expected to double over the next 20 years. Addressing the enormous scale of China's energy need and attendant increases in greenhouse gas emissions requires dramatic and rapid rollout of renewable energy technologies. Mongolia has some of the world's best renewable energy resources but the scale of its market cannot tap them efficiently. Developing Mongolia into a significant exporter of renewable energy to China will create synergies of scale moving both countries towards their energy goals, creating jobs, and fostering growth while significantly reducing GHG emissions in the region.

  10. The green computing book tackling energy efficiency at large scale

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Wu-chun

    2014-01-01

    Low-Power, Massively Parallel, Energy-Efficient Supercomputers The Blue Gene TeamCompiler-Driven Energy Efficiency Mahmut Kandemir and Shekhar Srikantaiah An Adaptive Run-Time System for Improving Energy Efficiency Chung-Hsing Hsu, Wu-chun Feng, and Stephen W. PooleEnergy-Efficient Multithreading through Run-Time Adaptation Exploring Trade-Offs between Energy Savings and Reliability in Storage Systems Ali R. Butt, Puranjoy Bhattacharjee, Guanying Wang, and Chris GniadyCross-Layer Power Management Zhikui Wang and Parthasarathy Ranganathan Energy-Efficient Virtualized Systems Ripal Nathuji and K

  11. On the cooperativity of association and reference energy scales in thermodynamic perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bennett D.

    2016-11-01

    Equations of state for hydrogen bonding fluids are typically described by two energy scales. A short range highly directional hydrogen bonding energy scale as well as a reference energy scale which accounts for dispersion and orientationally averaged multi-pole attractions. These energy scales are always treated independently. In recent years, extensive first principles quantum mechanics calculations on small water clusters have shown that both hydrogen bond and reference energy scales depend on the number of incident hydrogen bonds of the water molecule. In this work, we propose a new methodology to couple the reference energy scale to the degree of hydrogen bonding in the fluid. We demonstrate the utility of the new approach by showing that it gives improved predictions of water-hydrocarbon mutual solubilities.

  12. Case Studies of Potential Facility-Scale and Utility-Scale Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Projects across Reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.; Burman, K.; Dahle, D.; Heimiller, D.; Jimenez, A.; Melius, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; VanGeet, O.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of an assessment and analysis of renewable energy opportunities conducted for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Tasks included assessing the suitability for wind and solar on both a utility and facility scale.

  13. Green smartphone GPUs: Optimizing energy consumption using GPUFreq scaling governors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Enas M.; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    and alternatives in controlling the power consumption and performance of their GPUs. We implemented and evaluated our model on a smartphone GPU and measured the energy performance using an external power monitor. The results show that the energy consumption

  14. Large-scale wind energy application. Transporting wind energy over long distances using an HVDC transmission line, in combination with hydro energy or biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelingh, J.P.; Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Betcke, J.W.H.; Geuzendam, C.; Gilijamse, W.; Westra, C.A.; Curvers, A.P.W.M.; Beurskens, H.J.M.

    1995-08-01

    The main objective of the study on the title subject is to assess the long-term prospects for large-scale application of wind energy, in combination with hydro energy in Norway and in combination with biomass energy in Scotland. These countries have high wind resource areas, however they are located far away from load centres. The development of new transmission technologies as High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, in combination with highly suitable places for wind energy in Norway and Scotland, forms the driving force behind this study. The following two cases are being considered: (1) a large-scale wind farm (1,000 MW) in Norway from which electricity is transmitted to The Netherlands by using an HVDC transmission line, in combination with hydro energy. Hydro energy already makes a large contribution to the energy supply of Norway. Wind farms can contribute to the electricity production and save hydro energy generated electricity and make the export of electricity profitable; and (2) a large-scale wind farm (1,000 MW) in Scotland from which electricity is transmitted to The Netherlands by using an HVDC transmission line, in combination with biomass energy. Scotland has a large potential for biomass production such as energy crops and forestry. Poplars and willows cultivated on set-aside land can be gasified and fed into modern combined-cycle plants to generate electricity. In Scotland the usable potential of wind energy may be limited in the short and medium term by the capacity of the grid. New connections can overcome this constraint and allow wind energy to be treated as a European Union resource rather than as a national resource. Thus, the concept of this study is to look at the possibilities of making a 1,000 MW link from The Netherlands to Norway or to Scotland, in order to supply electricity at competitive costs generated with renewable energy sources. 16 figs., 24 tabs., 80 refs

  15. Energy at the man service: typology and size scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combarnous, M.

    2005-01-01

    This analysis is made in an anthropic prospect way: all energy considerations are directed by the utilization of the energy forms used by human populations. This leads necessarily to favour fluxes or energy stocks which are not a priori the most important in the system. For instance, the energy stock represented by the Earth with respect to a body having the same mass at ambient temperature is not considered. On the contrary, the energy fluxes corresponding to terrestrial vegetal biomass, and in particular those mobilized for alimentary purposes, have to be considered. This document presents: the evolution and heterogeneity of human populations (demography, gross domestic product), the energy units and its equivalents, the Earth's surface - atmosphere system (solar radiation, hydric statuses, carbon cycle and fluxes), the world energy consumption and its trends, the main 'explicit' consumptions (fossil fuels, nuclear energy, hydroelectric power), the different energy forms used by men and the share of renewable energy sources, the 'implicit' solar energy consumptions (biomass), the complexity of energy chains and the savings that can be inferred from. (J.S.)

  16. Absolute photoabsorption cross-sections (oscillator strengths) for hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide and hydrogen iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brion, C.E.; Dyck, M.; Cooper, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Absolute photoabsorption cross-sections (oscillator strengths) for the free molecules HCl, HBr and HI have been measured in the valence and selected in- ner shell regions. The experimental technique used for these studies is dipole (e,e) spectroscopy [1-3] which is not affected by line saturation effects (i.e. bandwidth interactions) which can complicate direct photoabsorption methods using the Beer- Lambert law. The dipole (e,e) method is also not subject to the effects of higher order radiation. In the dipole (e,e) method relative intensities obtained in fast (3 keV) for- ward scattered electron energy loss spectra are converted to relative dipole oscillator strengths (i.e. photoabsorption spectra) using the known Bethe-Born factors for the instrument as a function of photon energy (i.e. energy loss). The target pressure is constant at 10 - 5 torr, but it is not necessary to know the absolute target density. The absolute oscillator strength scale for HCl is determined from Bethe-Born converted, wide range dipole (e,e) spectra using the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule. For HBr and HI the absolute oscillator strength scales have been established using the S(-2) Sum Rule and literature values of the static dipole polarizability

  17. Study on reasonable curtailment rate of large scale renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Yuan, Bo; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    Energy curtailment rate of renewable energy generation is an important indicator to measure renewable energy consumption, it is also an important parameters to determine the other power sources and grids arrangement in the planning stage. In general, to consume the spike power of the renewable energy which is just a small proportion, it is necessary to dispatch a large number of peaking resources, which will reduce the safety and stability of the system. In planning aspect, if it is allowed to give up a certain amount of renewable energy, overall peaking demand of the system will be reduced, the peak power supply construction can be put off to avoid the expensive cost of marginal absorption. In this paper, we introduce the reasonable energy curtailment rate into the power system planning, and use the GESP power planning software, conclude that the reasonable energy curtailment rate of the regional grids in China is 3% -10% in 2020.

  18. Potential of building-scale alternative energy to alleviate risk from the future price of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, David; Kennedy, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy used for building operations, the associated greenhouse gas emissions, and the uncertainties in future price of natural gas and electricity can be a cause of concern for building owners and policy makers. In this work we explore the potential of building-scale alternative energy technologies to reduce demand and emissions while also shielding building owners from the risks associated with fluctuations in the price of natural gas and grid electricity. We analyze the monetary costs and benefits over the life cycle of five technologies (photovoltaic and wind electricity generation, solar air and water heating, and ground source heat pumps) over three audience or building types (homeowners, small businesses, large commercial and institutional entities). The analysis includes a Monte Carlo analysis to measure risk that can be compared to other investment opportunities. The results indicate that under government incentives and climate of Toronto, Canada, the returns are relatively high for small degrees of risks for a number of technologies. Ground source heat pumps prove to be exceptionally good investments in terms of their energy savings, emission, reductions, and economics, while the bigger buildings tend also to be better economic choices for the use of these technologies.

  19. Marketing strategy for retailing small-scale wind energy turbines in Indian markets

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The study analyzes the small-scale wind energy markets in Mumbai, focusing on questions: How feasible is the wind energy for SME businesses in Mumbai, and what are the main challenges and opportunities of small-scale wind energy in Mumbai? The study is a qualitative case study, in which, the data has been collected through observing the markets by visiting wind energy sites and companies, interviewing and meeting potential customers and other stakeholders in the market. Theoretical frame...

  20. Scale transformations, the energy-momentum tensor, and the equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.

    1989-01-01

    The Equation of State (EOS) relates diagonal elements of the energy-momentum tensor θ μν . The first moment of the energy-momentum tensor generates scale transformations. The virial theorem, a consequence of the behavior of the energy density under scale transformations, allows one to eliminate the kinetic energy in terms of the potential terms. The trace theorem for the energy-momentum tensor expresses ε-3p in terms of ensemble averages of scale-breaking operators, allowing a new approach to the EOS. 10 refs

  1. Simultaneous nested modeling from the synoptic scale to the LES scale for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yubao; Warner, Tom; Liu, Yuewei

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an advanced multi-scale weather modeling system, WRF–RTFDDA–LES, designed to simulate synoptic scale (~2000 km) to small- and micro-scale (~100 m) circulations of real weather in wind farms on simultaneous nested grids. This modeling system is built upon the National Center f...

  2. Self-folding origami at any energy scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Matthew B.; Stern, Menachem; Carruthers Ferrero, Alexandra; Witten, Thomas A.; Chen, Elizabeth; Murugan, Arvind

    2017-05-01

    Programmable stiff sheets with a single low-energy folding motion have been sought in fields ranging from the ancient art of origami to modern meta-materials research. Despite such attention, only two extreme classes of crease patterns are usually studied; special Miura-Ori-based zero-energy patterns, in which crease folding requires no sheet bending, and random patterns with high-energy folding, in which the sheet bends as much as creases fold. We present a physical approach that allows systematic exploration of the entire space of crease patterns as a function of the folding energy. Consequently, we uncover statistical results in origami, finding the entropy of crease patterns of given folding energy. Notably, we identify three classes of Mountain-Valley choices that have widely varying `typical' folding energies. Our work opens up a wealth of experimentally relevant self-folding origami designs not reliant on Miura-Ori, the Kawasaki condition or any special symmetry in space.

  3. Magnetic energy storage devices for small scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers basic principles of magnetic energy storage, structure requirements and limitations, configurations of inductors, attributes of high-T c superconducting materials including thermal instabilities, a relative comparison with the state-of-the-art high energy density power sources, and refrigeration requirements. Based on these fundamental considerations, the design parameters of a micro superconducting magnetic energy unit for Air Force applications is presented and discussed

  4. Absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Andres Calvache

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the epidemiological concepts of absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk through a clinical example. In addition, it emphasizes the usefulness of these concepts in clinical practice, clinical research and health decision-making process.

  5. Electroville: Grid-Scale Batteries: High Amperage Energy Storage Device—Energy for the Neighborhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by MIT professor Donald Sadoway, the Electroville project team is creating a community-scale electricity storage device using new materials and a battery design inspired by the aluminum production process known as smelting. A conventional battery includes a liquid electrolyte and a solid separator between its 2 solid electrodes. MIT’s battery contains liquid metal electrodes and a molten salt electrolyte. Because metals and salt don’t mix, these 3 liquids of different densities naturally separate into layers, eliminating the need for a solid separator. This efficient design significantly reduces packaging materials, which reduces cost and allows more space for storing energy than conventional batteries offer. MIT’s battery also uses cheap, earth-abundant, domestically available materials and is more scalable. By using all liquids, the design can also easily be resized according to the changing needs of local communities.

  6. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M; Pimpinella, M; Quini, M; D'Arienzo, M; Astefanoaei, I; Loreti, S; Guerra, A S

    2016-02-21

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm(-2), and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min(-1), results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D(w), were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D(w) and D(wK) were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D(w) uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D(w), it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams.

  7. Multi-Scale Simulation of High Energy Density Ionic Liquids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voth, Gregory A

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this AFOSR project was the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of ionic liquid structure, dynamics, and interfacial properties, as well as multi-scale descriptions of these novel liquids (e.g...

  8. Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.E.

    1997-04-01

    An overview of desalination technologies is presented, focusing on those technologies appropriate for use in remote villages, and how they can be powered using renewable energy. Technologies are compared on the basis of capital cost, lifecycle cost, operations and maintenance complexity, and energy requirements. Conclusions on the appropriateness of different technologies are drawn, and recommendations for future research are given.

  9. Source Code Analysis Laboratory (SCALe) for Energy Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    technical competence for the type of tests and calibrations SCALe undertakes. Testing and calibration laboratories that comply with ISO / IEC 17025 ...and exec t [ ISO / IEC 2005]. f a software system indicates that the SCALe analysis di by a CERT secure coding standard. Successful conforma antees that...to be more secure than non- systems. However, no study has yet been performed to p t ssment in accordance with ISO / IEC 17000: “a demonstr g to a

  10. Assessing the relative and absolute reliability of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International questionnaire in elderly individuals with increased fall risk and the questionnaire's convergent validity in elderly women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvarsson, A; Franzén, E; Ståhle, A

    2013-06-01

    The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) is a highly reliable questionnaire for assessing fear of falling in elderly individuals with increased fall risk and has low or no convergent validity with balance performance tests and health-related quality of life (HRQL) among elderly women with osteoporosis, which indicates that both measurements should be included as they are measuring different components. Fear of falling is increased in elderly individuals with osteoporosis and FES-I is a widely used questionnaire to assess fear of falling. There is limited evidence of the reliability and convergent validity in elderly with increased risk of falling and osteoporosis. Reliability and validity study of the FES-I. Community-dwelling elderly with increased fall risk, 59 subjects, were recruited to the reliability assessment, and 81 women with osteoporosis, in the validity assessment. For the reliability assessment, two postal surveys were used. For the validity assessment, we used baseline data from an on-going study in women with osteoporosis. The FES-I was correlated to a single-item question regarding fear of falling, self-reported history of falls, balance performance tests and health-related quality of life. The FES-I had very good relative reliability (intra-class correlation 0.88) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.94). The value for absolute reliability was a standard error of measure 2.9 (10.6 %), smallest real difference 7.9 (29 %). There was "little if any" to "low" correlation between the FES-I and the single-item question regarding fear of falling and self-reported history of falls, HRQL and balance performance tests. The FES-I seems to be a highly reliable questionnaire for assessing fear of falling in elderly with increased fall risk but has low relation to/convergent validity with balance performance and HRQL among elderly women with osteoporosis.

  11. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for large scale and standalone applications in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Weesie, Peter D.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the contribution of renewable energy to large scale and standalone application in Ethiopia. The assessment starts by determining the present energy system and the available potentials. Subsequently, the contribution of the available potentials for large scale and

  12. Large scale computing in the Energy Research Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Energy Research Supercomputer Users Group (ERSUG) comprises all investigators using resources of the Department of Energy Office of Energy Research supercomputers. At the December 1989 meeting held at Florida State University (FSU), the ERSUG executive committee determined that the continuing rapid advances in computational sciences and computer technology demanded a reassessment of the role computational science should play in meeting DOE's commitments. Initial studies were to be performed for four subdivisions: (1) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) and Applied Mathematical Sciences (AMS), (2) Fusion Energy, (3) High Energy and Nuclear Physics, and (4) Health and Environmental Research. The first two subgroups produced formal subreports that provided a basis for several sections of this report. Additional information provided in the AMS/BES is included as Appendix C in an abridged form that eliminates most duplication. Additionally, each member of the executive committee was asked to contribute area-specific assessments; these assessments are included in the next section. In the following sections, brief assessments are given for specific areas, a conceptual model is proposed that the entire computational effort for energy research is best viewed as one giant nation-wide computer, and then specific recommendations are made for the appropriate evolution of the system

  13. Energy efficiency supervision strategy selection of Chinese large-scale public buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhenxing; Wu Yong; Li Baizhan; Gao Yafeng

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses energy consumption, building development and building energy consumption in China, and points that energy efficiency management and maintenance of large-scale public buildings is the breakthrough point of building energy saving in China. Three obstacles are lack of basic statistics data, lack of service market for building energy saving, and lack of effective management measures account for the necessity of energy efficiency supervision for large-scale public buildings. And then the paper introduces the supervision aims, the supervision system and the five basic systems' role in the supervision system, and analyzes the working mechanism of the five basic systems. The energy efficiency supervision system of large-scale public buildings takes energy consumption statistics as a data basis, Energy auditing as a technical support, energy consumption ration as a benchmark of energy saving and price increase beyond ration as a price lever, and energy efficiency public-noticing as an amplifier. The supervision system promotes energy efficiency operation and maintenance of large-scale public building, and drives a comprehensive building energy saving in China.

  14. Energy efficiency supervision strategy selection of Chinese large-scale public buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zhenxing; Li, Baizhan; Gao, Yafeng [The Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400045 (China); Wu, Yong [The Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Construction, Beijing 100835 (China)

    2009-06-15

    This paper discusses energy consumption, building development and building energy consumption in China, and points that energy efficiency management and maintenance of large-scale public buildings is the breakthrough point of building energy saving in China. Three obstacles are lack of basic statistics data, lack of service market for building energy saving, and lack of effective management measures account for the necessity of energy efficiency supervision for large-scale public buildings. And then the paper introduces the supervision aims, the supervision system and the five basic systems' role in the supervision system, and analyzes the working mechanism of the five basic systems. The energy efficiency supervision system of large-scale public buildings takes energy consumption statistics as a data basis, Energy auditing as a technical support, energy consumption ration as a benchmark of energy saving and price increase beyond ration as a price lever, and energy efficiency public-noticing as an amplifier. The supervision system promotes energy efficiency operation and maintenance of large-scale public building, and drives a comprehensive building energy saving in China. (author)

  15. Energy efficiency supervision strategy selection of Chinese large-scale public buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Zhenxing [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400045 (China)], E-mail: jinzhenxing33@sina.com; Wu Yong [Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Construction, Beijing 100835 (China); Li Baizhan; Gao Yafeng [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400045 (China)

    2009-06-15

    This paper discusses energy consumption, building development and building energy consumption in China, and points that energy efficiency management and maintenance of large-scale public buildings is the breakthrough point of building energy saving in China. Three obstacles are lack of basic statistics data, lack of service market for building energy saving, and lack of effective management measures account for the necessity of energy efficiency supervision for large-scale public buildings. And then the paper introduces the supervision aims, the supervision system and the five basic systems' role in the supervision system, and analyzes the working mechanism of the five basic systems. The energy efficiency supervision system of large-scale public buildings takes energy consumption statistics as a data basis, Energy auditing as a technical support, energy consumption ration as a benchmark of energy saving and price increase beyond ration as a price lever, and energy efficiency public-noticing as an amplifier. The supervision system promotes energy efficiency operation and maintenance of large-scale public building, and drives a comprehensive building energy saving in China.

  16. Impacts of Large Scale Wind Penetration on Energy Supply Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kabouris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Large penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES impacts Energy Supply Industry (ESI in many aspects leading to a fundamental change in electric power systems. It raises a number of technical challenges to the Transmission System Operators (TSOs, Distribution System Operators (DSOs and Wind Turbine Generators (WTG constructors. This paper aims to present in a thorough and coherent way the redrawn picture for Energy Systems under these conditions. Topics related to emergent technical challenges, technical solutions required and finally the impact on ESI due to large wind power penetration, are analyzed. Finally, general conclusions are extracted about the ESI current and future state and general directions are recommended.

  17. Projective absoluteness for Sacks forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2009-01-01

    We show that Sigma(1)(3)-absoluteness for Sacks forcing is equivalent to the nonexistence of a Delta(1)(2) Bernstein set. We also show that Sacks forcing is the weakest forcing notion among all of the preorders that add a new real with respect to Sigma(1)(3) forcing absoluteness.

  18. Regional Scale Assessment of the Gross Hydrokinetic Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the hydrokinetic energy potential of some selected rivers in the ... MWSWAT, an open source interface to SWAT using the GIS system ... the hydrological parameters of the sub-basins and other computations were done ...

  19. Calculating Free Energies Using Scaled-Force Molecular Dynamics Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darve, Eric; Wilson, Micahel A.; Pohorille, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    One common objective of molecular simulations in chemistry and biology is to calculate the free energy difference between different states of the system of interest. Examples of problems that have such an objective are calculations of receptor-ligand or protein-drug interactions, associations of molecules in response to hydrophobic, and electrostatic interactions or partition of molecules between immiscible liquids. Another common objective is to describe evolution of the system towards a low energy (possibly the global minimum energy), 'native' state. Perhaps the best example of such a problem is folding of proteins or short RNA molecules. Both types of problems share the same difficulty. Often, different states of the system are separated by high energy barriers, which implies that transitions between these states are rare events. This, in turn, can greatly impede exploration of phase space. In some instances this can lead to 'quasi non-ergodicity', whereby a part of phase space is inaccessible on timescales of the simulation. A host of strategies has been developed to improve efficiency of sampling the phase space. For example, some Monte Carlo techniques involve large steps which move the system between low-energy regions in phase space without the need for sampling the configurations corresponding to energy barriers (J-walking). Most strategies, however, rely on modifying probabilities of sampling low and high-energy regions in phase space such that transitions between states of interest are encouraged. Perhaps the simplest implementation of this strategy is to increase the temperature of the system. This approach was successfully used to identify denaturation pathways in several proteins, but it is clearly not applicable to protein folding. It is also not a successful method for determining free energy differences. Finally, the approach is likely to fail for systems with co-existing phases, such as water-membrane systems, because it may lead to spontaneous

  20. Low-energy limit of two-scale field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, J.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Sanchez, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    We present a full and self-contained discussion of the decoupling theorem applied to several general models in four-dimensional field theory. We compute in each case the low-energy effective action and show the explicit one-loop expressions for each of the effective parameters. We find that for suitable conditions one can always build an effective low-energy theory where the conditions of the decoupling theorem are satisfied

  1. Scalings of energy confinement and density limit in stellarator/heliotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, S.; Takeiri, Y.; Zushi, H.; Sano, F.; Itoh, K.; Kondo, K.; Iiyoshi, A.

    1989-04-01

    Empirical scaling of energy confinement observed experimentally in stellarator/heliotron (Heliotron E, Wendelstein 7A, L2, Heliotron DR) under the condition that plasmas are heated by ECH and/or NbI is proposed. Empirical scaling of density limit obtainable under the optimum condition is proposed. These scalings are compared with those of tokamaks. The energy confinement scaling has similar power dependence as 'L mode scaling' of tokamaks. The density limit scaling seems also to indicate the upper limit of achievable density in many tokamaks. Combining the energy confinement time and the density limit scaling a transport-limited beta value is also deduced. Thus, from the viewpoint of designing a machine, there should be some compromise in determing magnetic field strength on plasma axis, average minor radius and major radius, because their dependence on confinement time and transport-limited beta value is contradicting. (J.P.N.)

  2. ARRA-Multi-Level Energy Storage and Controls for Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Wenzhong Gao

    2012-09-30

    intelligent controller that increases battery life within hybrid energy storage systems for wind application was developed. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and simulation results are analyzed. A permanent magnet synchronous generator, coupled with a variable speed wind turbine, is connected to a power grid (14-bus system). A rectifier, a DC-DC converter and an inverter are used to provide a complete model of the wind system. An Energy Storage System (ESS) is connected to a DC-link through a DC-DC converter. An intelligent controller is applied to the DC-DC converter to help the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) to regulate output power and also to control the operation of the battery and supercapacitor. This ensures a longer life time for the batteries. The detailed model is simulated in PSCAD/EMTP. Additionally, economic analysis has been done for different methods that can reduce the wind power output fluctuation. These methods are, wind power curtailment, dumping loads, battery energy storage system and hybrid energy storage system. From the results, application of single advanced HESS can save more money for wind turbines owners. Generally the income would be the same for most of methods because the wind does not change and maximum power point tracking can be applied to most systems. On the other hand, the cost is the key point. For short term and small wind turbine, the BESS is the cheapest and applicable method while for large scale wind turbines and wind farms the application of advanced HESS would be the best method to reduce the power fluctuation. The key outcomes of this project include a new intelligent controller that can reduce energy exchanged between the battery and DC-link, reduce charging/discharging cycles, reduce depth of discharge and increase time interval between charge/discharge, and lower battery temperature. This improves the overall lifetime of battery energy storages. Additionally, a new design method based on probability help optimize the

  3. Scaling laws in high energy electron-nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemtob, M.

    1980-11-01

    We survey the parton model description of high momentum transfer electron scattering processes with nuclei. We discuss both nucleon and quark parton models and confront the patterns of scaling laws violations, induced by binding effects, in the former, and perturbative QCD effects, in the latter

  4. Scaling of the Coulomb Energy Due to Quantum Fluctuations in the Charge on a Quantum Dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molenkamp, L. W; Flensberg, Karsten; Kemerink, M.

    1995-01-01

    The charging energy of a quantum dot is measured through the effect of its potential on the conductance of a second dot. This technique allows a measurement of the scaling of the dot's charging energy with the conductance of the tunnel barriers leading to the dot. We find that the charging energy...... scales quadratically with the reflection probability of the barriers. The observed power law agrees with a recent theory....

  5. Technology scale and supply chains in a secure, affordable and low carbon energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoggett, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy systems need to decarbonise, provide security and remain affordable. • There is uncertainty over which technologies will best enable this to happen. • A strategy to deal with uncertainty is to assess a technologies ability to show resilience, flexibility and adaptability. • Scale is important and smaller scale technologies are like to display the above characteristics. • Smaller scale technologies are therefore more likely to enable a sustainable, secure, and affordable energy transition. - Abstract: This research explores the relationship between technology scale, energy security and decarbonisation within the UK energy system. There is considerable uncertainty about how best to deliver on these goals for energy policy, but a focus on supply chains and their resilience can provide useful insights into the problems uncertainty causes. Technology scale is central to this, and through an analysis of the supply chains of nuclear power and solar photovoltaics, it is suggested that smaller scale technologies are more likely to support and enable a secure, low carbon energy transition. This is because their supply chains are less complex, show more flexibility and adaptability, and can quickly respond to changes within an energy system, and as such they are more resilient than large scale technologies. These characteristics are likely to become increasingly important in a rapidly changing energy system, and prioritising those technologies that demonstrate resilience, flexibility and adaptability will better enable a transition that is rapid, sustainable, secure and affordable

  6. Expression en termes d'énergie pour la perméabilité absolue effective. Application au calcul numérique d'écoulements diphasiques en milieu poreux Expression in Energy Terms for Absolute Effective Permeability. Application to the Numerical Computing of Two-Phase Flows in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njifenjou A.

    2006-11-01

    different and varying diameters. The macroscopic scale corresponds to a scale in which the local petrophysical parameters are averagedfor volumes liable to contain several geologic structures, such as sand, limestone and clay. The average parameters considered are constants that can be used to make an overall (or macroscopic description of flow in the domain occupied by the porous medium. These are the average parameters that are called the effective petrophysical (or homogenized parameters. They are used to simulate petroleum reservoirs. After having chosen a flow model in a heterogeneous porous medium containing a periodic microstructure, we briefly review the major phases in the multiple-scale method for homogenizing this model. This leads us to a conventional formula giving the coefficients for absolute homogenized permeability (Eq. 26. Then we describe an original procedure for going from the conventional formula to a simpler formula (from the numerical standpoint expressed in terms of energy dissipated by local viscosity forces and characterizing the periodic medium being considered. In this part of the project, an essential phase is the formulating of so-called local equations in a form that better brings out their physical meaning by a judicious change in the unknown function. The integral transformation that results, in the equation for homogenized coefficients, opens up the way to obtaining the above-mentioned simple formula (Eq. 34. We then show, given various assumptions, the equality between the energies dissipated by viscosity forces associated respectively with local and macroscopic flows (Theorems 3 and 4. Theorem 3 is actually a specific case of Theorem 4, which in turn is used to interpret all the homogenized coefficients given by Eq. 34. This project ends with an application to the numerical analysis of an incompressible water/oil two-phase flow that is horizontal and twodimensional, in a heterogeneous porous medium with a periodic structure (Figs. 1a and

  7. Energy scaling of terahertz-wave parametric sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guanqi; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Wu, Dong; Li, Ning; Fu, Qiang; Lu, Qingming; Zhang, Shaojun

    2015-02-23

    Terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) have advantages of room temperature operation, wide tunable range, narrow line-width, good coherence. They have also disadvantage of small pulse energy. In this paper, several factors preventing TPOs from generating high-energy THz pulses and the corresponding solutions are analyzed. A scheme to generate high-energy THz pulses by using the combination of a TPO and a Stokes-pulse-injected terahertz-wave parametric generator (spi-TPG) is proposed and demonstrated. A TPO is used as a source to generate a seed pulse for the surface-emitted spi-TPG. The time delay between the pump and Stokes pulses is adjusted to guarantee they have good temporal overlap. The pump pulses have a large pulse energy and a large beam size. The Stokes beam is enlarged to make its size be larger than the pump beam size to have a large effective interaction volume. The experimental results show that the generated THz pulse energy from the spi-TPG is 1.8 times as large as that obtained from the TPO for the same pumping pulse energy density of 0.90 J/cm(2) and the same pumping beam size of 3.0 mm. When the pumping beam sizes are 5.0 and 7.0 mm, the enhancement times are 3.7 and 7.5, respectively. The spi-TPG here is similar to a difference frequency generator; it can also be used as a Stokes pulse amplifier.

  8. Parametric City Scale Energy Modeling Perspectives on using Termite in city scaled models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Toke Rammer

    Termite is a parametric tool using the Danish building performance simulation engine Be10 written for the Grasshopper3D/Rhino3D environment. The tool Be10 is originally intended for building energy frame calculations and is required by Danish law when constructing new buildings. Termite opens up...... requirements, placing solar energy production facilities etc....

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Bi2Te3-Based Chip-Scale Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Jane; Chen, Baoxing; Haidar, Samer; Berney, Helen; McGuinness, Pat; Lane, Bill; Gao, Yuan; He, Yifan; Sun, Nian; Dunham, Marc; Asheghi, Mehdi; Goodson, Ken; Yuan, Yi; Najafi, Khalil

    2017-05-01

    Thermoelectric energy harvesters convert otherwise wasted heat into electrical energy. As a result, they have the potential to play a critical role in the autonomous wireless sensor network signal chain. In this paper, we present work carried out on the development of Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric chip-scale energy harvesting devices. Process flow, device demonstration and characterization are highlighted.

  10. Nonlinear effects of dark energy clustering beyond the acoustic scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, Stefano; Nacir, Diana López; Sefusatti, Emiliano

    2014-01-01

    We extend the resummation method of Anselmi and Pietroni (2012) to compute the total density power spectrum in models of quintessence characterized by a vanishing speed of sound. For standard ΛCDM cosmologies, this resummation scheme allows predictions with an accuracy at the few percent level beyond the range of scales where acoustic oscillations are present, therefore comparable to other, common numerical tools. In addition, our theoretical approach indicates an approximate but valuable and simple relation between the power spectra for standard quintessence models and models where scalar field perturbations appear at all scales. This, in turn, provides an educated guess for the prediction of nonlinear growth in models with generic speed of sound, particularly valuable since no numerical results are yet available

  11. Nonlinear effects of dark energy clustering beyond the acoustic scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmi, Stefano [Department of Physics/CERCA/ISO, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7079 (United States); Nacir, Diana López [The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Sefusatti, Emiliano, E-mail: stefano.anselmi@case.edu, E-mail: dlopez_n@ictp.it, E-mail: emiliano.sefusatti@brera.inaf.it [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Saint Lucia) (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    We extend the resummation method of Anselmi and Pietroni (2012) to compute the total density power spectrum in models of quintessence characterized by a vanishing speed of sound. For standard ΛCDM cosmologies, this resummation scheme allows predictions with an accuracy at the few percent level beyond the range of scales where acoustic oscillations are present, therefore comparable to other, common numerical tools. In addition, our theoretical approach indicates an approximate but valuable and simple relation between the power spectra for standard quintessence models and models where scalar field perturbations appear at all scales. This, in turn, provides an educated guess for the prediction of nonlinear growth in models with generic speed of sound, particularly valuable since no numerical results are yet available.

  12. Large scale grid integration of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book presents comprehensive coverage of the means to integrate renewable power, namely wind and solar power. It looks at new approaches to meet the challenges, such as increasing interconnection capacity among geographical areas, hybridisation of different distributed energy resources and building up demand response capabilities.

  13. Energy loading effects in the scaling of atomic xenon lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwa, M.; Kushner, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The intrinsic power efficiency of the atomic xenon (5d → 6p) infrared (1.73--3.65 μm) laser is sensitive to the rate of pumping due to electron collision mixing of the laser levels. Long duration pumping at moderate power deposition may therefore result in higher energy efficiencies than pumping at higher powers. In this paper the authors examine the consequences of high energy deposition (100's J/1 atm) during long pumping pulses (100's μs) on the intrinsic power and energy efficiency and optimum power deposition of the atomic xenon laser. The dominant effect of high energy loading, gas heating, causes an increase in the electron density and therefore an increase in the electron collision mixing of the laser levels. The optimum power deposition for a given gas density therefore shifts to lower values with increasing gas temperature. For sufficiently long pumping pulses, nonuniform gas heating results in convection and rarification of highly pumped regions. The optimum power deposition therefore shifts to even lower values as the length of the pumping pulse increases. As a result, laser efficiency depends on the spatial distribution of power deposition as well as its magnitude

  14. Jet energy scale determination in the D0 experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 763, Nov (2014), s. 442-475 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12006 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Batavia TEVATRON Coll * liquid argon * uranium * jet * flavor * dijet * gluon * jet * DZERO * anti-p p * interaction Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.216, year: 2014

  15. Scaling Relations for Adsorption Energies on Doped Molybdenum Phosphide Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, Meredith; Tsai, Charlie; Chen, Leanne D.; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Nørskov, Jens K.; Chan, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Molybdenum phosphide (MoP), a well-documented catalyst for applications ranging from hydrotreating reactions to electrochemical hydrogen evolution, has yet to be mapped from a more fundamental perspective, particularly in the context of transition-metal scaling relations. In this work, we use periodic density functional theory to extend linear scaling arguments to doped MoP surfaces and understand the behavior of the phosphorus active site. The derived linear relationships for hydrogenated C, N, and O species on a variety of doped surfaces suggest that phosphorus experiences a shift in preferred bond order depending on the degree of hydrogen substitution on the adsorbate molecule. This shift in phosphorus hybridization, dependent on the bond order of the adsorbate to the surface, can result in selective bond weakening or strengthening of chemically similar species. As a result, we discuss how this behavior deviates from transition-metal, sulfide, carbide, and nitride scaling relations, and we discuss potential applications in the context of electrochemical reduction reactions.

  16. Large scale scenario analysis of future low carbon energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaleye, Olaitan; Baker, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we use a multi-model framework to examine a set of possible future energy scenarios resulting from R&D investments in Solar, Nuclear, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), Bio-fuels, Bio-electricity, and Batteries for Electric Transportation. Based on a global scenario analysis, we examine the impact on the economy of advancement in energy technologies, considering both individual technologies and the interactions between pairs of technologies, with a focus on the role of uncertainty. Nuclear and CCS have the most impact on abatement costs, with CCS mostly important at high levels of abatement. We show that CCS and Bio-electricity are complements, while most of the other energy technology pairs are substitutes. We also examine for stochastic dominance between R&D portfolios: given the uncertainty in R&D outcomes, we examine which portfolios would be preferred by all decision-makers, regardless of their attitude toward risk. We observe that portfolios with CCS tend to stochastically dominate those without CCS; and portfolios lacking CCS and Nuclear tend to be stochastically dominated by others. We find that the dominance of CCS becomes even stronger as uncertainty in climate damages increases. Finally, we show that there is significant value in carefully choosing a portfolio, as relatively small portfolios can dominate large portfolios. - Highlights: • We examine future energy scenarios in the face of R&D and climate uncertainty. • We examine the impact of advancement in energy technologies and pairs of technologies. • CCS complements Bio-electricity while most technology pairs are substitutes. • R&D portfolios without CCS are stochastically dominated by portfolios with CCS. • Higher damage uncertainty favors R&D development of CCS and Bio-electricity

  17. Absolute spectrophotometry of the β Lyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnashev, V.I.; Skul'skij, M.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    In 1974 an absolute spectrophotometry of β Lyr was performed with the scanning spectrophotometer in the 3300-7400 A range. The energy distribution in the β Lyr spectrum is obtained. The β Lyr model is proposed. It is shown, that the continuous spectrum of the β Lyr radiation can be presented by the total radiation of the B8 3 and A5 3 two stars and of the gaseous envelope with Te =20000 K

  18. Proposed Empirical Entropy and Gibbs Energy Based on Observations of Scale Invariance in Open Nonequilibrium Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Adrian F

    2017-09-07

    There is no widely agreed definition of entropy, and consequently Gibbs energy, in open systems far from equilibrium. One recent approach has sought to formulate an entropy and Gibbs energy based on observed scale invariances in geophysical variables, particularly in atmospheric quantities, including the molecules constituting stratospheric chemistry. The Hamiltonian flux dynamics of energy in macroscopic open nonequilibrium systems maps to energy in equilibrium statistical thermodynamics, and corresponding equivalences of scale invariant variables with other relevant statistical mechanical variables such as entropy, Gibbs energy, and 1/(k Boltzmann T), are not just formally analogous but are also mappings. Three proof-of-concept representative examples from available adequate stratospheric chemistry observations-temperature, wind speed and ozone-are calculated, with the aim of applying these mappings and equivalences. Potential applications of the approach to scale invariant observations from the literature, involving scales from molecular through laboratory to astronomical, are considered. Theoretical support for the approach from the literature is discussed.

  19. Energy partitioning constraints at kinetic scales in low-β turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; F.-Viñas, Adolfo; Dorelli, John C.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Shuster, Jason; Avanov, Levon A.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Stawarz, Julia E.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Schiff, Conrad; Lavraud, Benoit; Saito, Yoshifumi; Paterson, William R.; Giles, Barbara L.; Pollock, Craig J.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Russell, Christopher T.; Torbert, Roy B.; Moore, Thomas E.; Burch, James L.

    2018-02-01

    Turbulence is a fundamental physical process through which energy injected into a system at large scales cascades to smaller scales. In collisionless plasmas, turbulence provides a critical mechanism for dissipating electromagnetic energy. Here, we present observations of plasma fluctuations in low-β turbulence using data from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission in Earth's magnetosheath. We provide constraints on the partitioning of turbulent energy density in the fluid, ion-kinetic, and electron-kinetic ranges. Magnetic field fluctuations dominated the energy density spectrum throughout the fluid and ion-kinetic ranges, consistent with previous observations of turbulence in similar plasma regimes. However, at scales shorter than the electron inertial length, fluctuation power in electron kinetic energy significantly exceeded that of the magnetic field, resulting in an electron-motion-regulated cascade at small scales. This dominance is highly relevant for the study of turbulence in highly magnetized laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  20. VCSEL Scaling, Laser Integration on Silicon, and Bit Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    especially the laser. Highly compact directly modulated lasers ( DMLs ) have been researched to meet this goal. The most favored technology will likely be...question of which achieves lower bit energy, a DML or a continuous-wave (CW) laser coupled to an integrated modulator. Transceiver suppliers are also...development that can utilize high efficiency DMLs that reach very high modulation speed. Oxide-VCSELs [1] do not yet take full advantage of the

  1. Using Carbon Nanotubes for Nanometer-Scale Energy Transfer Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jessica; Shafran, Eyal; Mangum, Ben; Mu, Chun; Gerton, Jordan

    2009-10-01

    We investigate optical energy transfer between fluorophores and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs are grown on Si-oxide wafers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), lifted off substrates by atomic force microscope (AFM) tips via Van der Waals forces, then shortened by electrical pulses. The tip-attached CNTs are scanned over fluorescent CdSe-ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with sub-nm precision while recording the fluorescence rate. A novel photon counting technique enables us to produce 3D maps of the QD-CNT coupling, revealing nanoscale lateral and vertical features. All CNTs tested (>50) strongly quenched the QD fluorescence, apparently independent of chirality. In some data, a delay in the recovery of QD fluorescence following CNT-QD contact was observed, suggesting possible charge transfer in this system. In the future, we will perform time-resolved studies to quantify the rate of energy and charge transfer processes and study the possible differences in fluorescence quenching and nanotube-QD energy transfer when comparing single-walled (SW) versus multi-walled (MW) CNTs, attempting to grow substrates consisting primarily of SW or MWCNTs and characterizing the structure of tip-attached CNTs using optical spectroscopy.

  2. Prospects for mass unification at low energy scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    A simple Pati-Salam SU(4) model with a low symmetry breaking scale of about 1000 TeV is presented. The analysis concentrates on calculating radiative corrections to tree level mass relations for third generation fermions. The tree-level relation m b /m τ = 1 predicted by such models can receive large radiative corrections up to about 50% due to threshold effects at the mass unification scale. These corrections are thus of about the same importance as those that give rise to renormalisation group running. The high figure of 50% can be achieved because l-loop graphs involving the physical charged Higgs boson give corrections to m τ -m b that are proportional to the large top quark mass. These corrections can either increase or decrease m b /m τ depending on the value of an unknown parameter. They can also be made to vanish through a fine-tuning. A related model of tree-level t-b-τ unification which uses the identification of SU(2) R with custodial SU(2) is then discussed. A curious relation m b ∼ √2m τ is found to be satisfied at tree-level in this model. The overall conclusion of this work is that the tree-level relation m b =m τ at low scales such as 1000 TeV or somewhat higher can produce a successful value for m b /m τ after corrections, but one must be mindful that radiative corrections beyond those incorporated through the renormalisation group can be very important. 14 refs., 7 figs

  3. Prospects for mass unification at low energy scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkas, R.R.

    1995-12-31

    A simple Pati-Salam SU(4) model with a low symmetry breaking scale of about 1000 TeV is presented. The analysis concentrates on calculating radiative corrections to tree level mass relations for third generation fermions. The tree-level relation m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} = 1 predicted by such models can receive large radiative corrections up to about 50% due to threshold effects at the mass unification scale. These corrections are thus of about the same importance as those that give rise to renormalisation group running. The high figure of 50% can be achieved because l-loop graphs involving the physical charged Higgs boson give corrections to m{sub {tau}} -m{sub b} that are proportional to the large top quark mass. These corrections can either increase or decrease m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} depending on the value of an unknown parameter. They can also be made to vanish through a fine-tuning. A related model of tree-level t-b-{tau} unification which uses the identification of SU(2){sub R} with custodial SU(2) is then discussed. A curious relation m{sub b}{approx} {radical}2m{sub {tau}} is found to be satisfied at tree-level in this model. The overall conclusion of this work is that the tree-level relation m{sub b}=m{sub {tau}} at low scales such as 1000 TeV or somewhat higher can produce a successful value for m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} after corrections, but one must be mindful that radiative corrections beyond those incorporated through the renormalisation group can be very important. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  4. The energy scale of the 3-flavour Lambda parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    In lattice computations all dimensionful observables have to be expressed in units of a reference scale and its determination is often the first step before proceeding to other quantities. In this thesis we describe the scale setting strategy for a new set of large-volume ensembles generated within the CLS effort. The simulations have been carried out including up, down and strange quark fields, discretized a la Wilson and following the O(a)-improvement program. The gauge field dynamics is implemented with the improved Luescher-Weisz action. To overcome the freezing of topology in simulations at small lattice spacings, open boundary conditions in the time direction have been adopted, together with twisted-mass reweighting, a technique to regularize and stabilize the fermionic contributions in the infrared region. In this thesis we discuss their implications on mesonic spectral quantities. We compute the lattice spacings, for our four values of β, using the pseudo-scalar decay constants, extracted in the presence of open boundary conditions. In addition to that, we determine the observable t 0 and extrapolate it to the continuum.

  5. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  6. The development of new energy technologies on a national and international scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuester, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    This is a survey of the development of new energy technologies 1) for medium- and long-term energy supply in the FRG, with a partial substitution for natural oil and gas; 2) to reduce the coupling between gross national product and energy; 3) to improve the competitive strength of the economy on an international scale. Boundary conditions are, among others the consideration of environmental protection and long-term energy supply at a reasonable price for the national economy. (HP) [de

  7. Energy Constraints for Building Large-Scale Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    although most systems built to date do not consider these issues as primary constraints. Keywords: Neuromorphic Engineering; Cortical Operation...2Mbyte, 32bit input data, and 1Mbyte, 32bit output data, results in 3.1mW (Vdd = 2.5V) of power, even though one might find a DSP chip computing at...4MMAC(/s)/mW power efficiency [5], close to the power / energy efficiency wall [6]. A memory chip or data source further away requires even higher

  8. Thermal energy harvesting for application at MEMS scale

    CERN Document Server

    Percy, Steven; McGarry, Scott; Post, Alex; Moore, Tim; Cavanagh, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the history of thermal heat generators and focuses on the potential for these processes using micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) technology for this application. The main focus is on the capture of waste thermal energy for example from industrial processes, transport systems or the human body to generate useable electrical power.  A wide range of technologies is discussed, including external combustion heat cycles at MEMS ( Brayton, Stirling and Rankine), Thermoacoustic, Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs), Multiferroics, Thermionics, Pyroelectric, Seebeck, Alkali Metal Thermal, Hydride Heat Engine, Johnson Thermo Electrochemical Converters, and the Johnson Electric Heat Pipe.

  9. Is small beautiful? A multicriteria assessment of small-scale energy technology applications in local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, Jonathan; Hubacek, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    In its 2003 White Paper the UK government set ambitious renewable energy targets. Local governments and households have an increasing role in the overall energy system as consumers, suppliers of smaller-scale applications and citizens discussing energy projects. In this paper, we consider if small-scale or large-scale approaches to renewable energy provision can achieve energy targets in the most socially, economically and environmentally (SEE) effective way. We take a local case study of renewable energy provision in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in Yorkshire, UK, and apply a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology to compare the small-scale schemes implemented in Kirklees with large-scale alternatives. The results indicate that small-scale schemes are the most SEE effective, despite large-scale schemes being more financially viable. The selection of the criteria on which the alternatives are assessed and the assigned weights for each criterion are of crucial importance. It is thus very important to include the relevant stakeholders to elicit this information

  10. Public reactions to large-scale energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midden, C J; Daamen, D D; Verplanken, B

    1986-02-01

    In the first part of this article we discuss certain factors which are of influence upon the perception of risks connected to energy technologies. Several studies show that the catastrophic potential and the degree to which people consider negative consequences to be controllable are the main factors which influence this perception. In the next part differences between experts and lay people are discussed. Lay people are found to be bad at making numerical estimates of annual fatality frequencies of different causes of death. High frequencies appear to be underestimated and low frequencies overestimated. We conclude that differences between experts and lay people may be partly explained by the use of different concepts in talking about risks. In the third part attitudes on the use of nuclear energy and coal for the generation of electricity are discussed. Attitudes are determined by the observed probability of negative consequences rather than the expected probability of positive effects. It appears that the differences between the two groups are mostly not based on ideology but rather determined by a fairly rational trade-off of expected risks and advantages. The last part is concerned with the siting of nuclear power plants. The fact that people living near nuclear plants give a lower estimate of the risks than people living further away can be explained in a number of ways. Finally we discuss the problem of compensation for local residents and representatives in the choice of a site for a new plant. Our conclusion is that the usefulness of such strategies depends on the fact whether the perception of risks on a local level is based on feelings of insecurity or on an expert-like risk assessment. 4 figs., 35 refs.

  11. Converting Energy Subsidies to Investments: Scaling-Up Deep Energy Retrofit in Residential Sector of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denysenko, Artur

    After collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine inherited vast and inefficient infrastructure. Combination of historical lack of transparency, decades without reforms, chronical underinvestment and harmful cross-subsidization resulted in accumulation of energy problems, which possess significant threat to economic prosperity and national security. High energy intensity leads to excessive use of energy and heavy reliance on energy import to meet domestic demand. Energy import, in turn, results in high account balance deficit and heavy burden on the state finances. A residential sector, which accounts for one third of energy consumption and is the highest consumer of natural gas, is particularly challenging to reform. This thesis explores energy consumption of the residential sector of Ukraine. Using energy decomposition method, recent changes in energy use is analyzed. Energy intensity of space heating in the residential sector of Ukraine is compared with selected EU member states with similar climates. Energy efficiency potential is evaluated for whole residential sector in general and for multistory apartment buildings connected to the district heating in particular. Specifically, investments in thermal modernization of multistory residential buildings will result in almost 45TWh, or 3.81 Mtoe, of annual savings. Required investments for deep energy retrofit of multistory buildings is estimated as much as $19 billion in 2015 prices. Experience of energy subsidy reforms as well as lessons from energy retrofit policy from selected countries is analyzed. Policy recommendations to turn energy subsidies into investments in deep energy retrofit of residential sector of Ukraine are suggested. Regional dimension of existing energy subsidies and capital subsidies required for energy retrofit is presented.

  12. Electron beam absorption in solid and in water phantoms: depth scaling and energy-range relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosswendt, B.; Roos, M.

    1989-01-01

    In electron dosimetry energy parameters are used with values evaluated from ranges in water. The electron ranges in water may be deduced from ranges measured in solid phantoms. Several procedures recommended by national and international organisations differ both in the scaling of the ranges and in the energy-range relations for water. Using the Monte Carlo method the application of different procedures for electron energies below 10 MeV is studied for different phantom materials. It is shown that deviations in the range scaling and in the energy-range relations for water may accumulate to give energy errors of several per cent. In consequence energy-range relations are deduced for several solid phantom materials which enable a single-step energy determination. (author)

  13. Up-scaling, formative phases, and learning in the historical diffusion of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    The 20th century has witnessed wholesale transformation in the energy system marked by the pervasive diffusion of both energy supply and end-use technologies. Just as whole industries have grown, so too have unit sizes or capacities. Analysed in combination, these unit level and industry level growth patterns reveal some consistencies across very different energy technologies. First, the up-scaling or increase in unit size of an energy technology comes after an often prolonged period of experimentation with many smaller-scale units. Second, the peak growth phase of an industry can lag these increases in unit size by up to 20 years. Third, the rate and timing of up-scaling at the unit level is subject to countervailing influences of scale economies and heterogeneous market demand. These observed patterns have important implications for experience curve analyses based on time series data covering the up-scaling phases of energy technologies, as these are likely to conflate industry level learning effects with unit level scale effects. The historical diffusion of energy technologies also suggests that low carbon technology policies pushing for significant jumps in unit size before a ‘formative phase’ of experimentation with smaller-scale units are risky. - Highlights: ► Comparative analysis of energy technology diffusion. ► Consistent pattern of sequential formative, up-scaling, and growth phases. ► Evidence for conflation of industry level learning effects with unit level up-scaling. ► Implications for experience curve analyses and technology policy.

  14. Absolute measurement of undulator radiation in the extreme ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maezawa, H.; Kitamura, H.; Sasaki, T.; Mitani, S.; Osaka City Univ.; Suzuki, Y.; Kanamori, H.; Tamamushi, S.; Tokyo Univ.; Mikuni, A.; Tokyo Univ., Tanashi

    1983-01-01

    The spectral brightness of undulator radiation emitted by the model PMU-1 incorporated in the SOR-RING, the dedicated synchrotron radiation source in Tokyo, has been studied in the extreme ultraviolet region from 21.6 to 72.9 eV as a function of the electron energy #betta#, the field parameter K, and the angle of observation THETA in the absolute scale. A series of measurements covering the first and the second harmonic component of undulator radiation was compared with the fundamental formula lambdasub(n)=lambda 0 /2n#betta# 2 (1+K 2 /2+#betta# 2 THETA 2 ), and the effects of finite emittance were studied. The brightness at the first peak was smaller than the theoretical value, while an enhanced second harmonic component was observed. (orig.)

  15. Reconciliation of high energy scale models of inflation with Planck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.; Shiu, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The inflationary cosmology paradigm is very successful in explaining the CMB anisotropy to the percent level. Besides the dependence on the inflationary model, the power spectra, spectral tilt and non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations also depend on the initial state of inflation. Here, we examine to what extent these observables are affected by our ignorance in the initial condition for inflationary perturbations, due to unknown new physics at a high scale M. For initial states that satisfy constraints from backreaction, we find that the amplitude of the power spectra could still be significantly altered, while the modification in bispectrum remains small. For such initial states, M has an upper bound of a few tens of H, with H being the Hubble parameter during inflation. We show that for M ∼ 20H, such initial states always (substantially) suppress the tensor to scalar ratio. In particular we show that such a choice of initial conditions can satisfactorily reconcile the simple ½m 2 φ 2 chaotic model with the Planck data [1-3

  16. Urban energy consumption and related carbon emission estimation: a study at the sector scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weiwei; Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Cai, Yanpeng; Xing, Tao

    2013-12-01

    With rapid economic development and energy consumption growth, China has become the largest energy consumer in the world. Impelled by extensive international concern, there is an urgent need to analyze the characteristics of energy consumption and related carbon emission, with the objective of saving energy, reducing carbon emission, and lessening environmental impact. Focusing on urban ecosystems, the biggest energy consumer, a method for estimating energy consumption and related carbon emission was established at the urban sector scale in this paper. Based on data for 1996-2010, the proposed method was applied to Beijing in a case study to analyze the consumption of different energy resources (i.e., coal, oil, gas, and electricity) and related carbon emission in different sectors (i.e., agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, household, and service sectors). The results showed that coal and oil contributed most to energy consumption and carbon emission among different energy resources during the study period, while the industrial sector consumed the most energy and emitted the most carbon among different sectors. Suggestions were put forward for energy conservation and emission reduction in Beijing. The analysis of energy consumption and related carbon emission at the sector scale is helpful for practical energy saving and emission reduction in urban ecosystems.

  17. Online Speed Scaling Based on Active Job Count to Minimize Flow Plus Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei; To, Isaac K. K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with online scheduling algorithms that aim at minimizing the total flow time plus energy usage. The results are divided into two parts. First, we consider the well-studied “simple” speed scaling model and show how to analyze a speed scaling algorithm (called AJC) that chan...

  18. Revisiting the density scaling of the non-interacting kinetic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoo, Alex; Teale, Andrew M; Tozer, David J

    2014-07-28

    Scaling relations play an important role in the understanding and development of approximate functionals in density functional theory. Recently, a number of these relationships have been redefined in terms of the Kohn-Sham orbitals [Calderín, Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys., 2013, 86, 032510]. For density scaling the author proposed a procedure involving a multiplicative scaling of the Kohn-Sham orbitals whilst keeping their occupation numbers fixed. In the present work, the differences between this scaling with fixed occupation numbers and that of previous studies, where the particle number change implied by the scaling was accommodated through the use of the grand canonical ensemble, are examined. We introduce the terms orbital and ensemble density scaling for these approaches, respectively. The natural ambiguity of the density scaling of the non-interacting kinetic energy functional is examined and the ancillary definitions implicit in each approach are highlighted and compared. As a consequence of these differences, Calderín recovered a homogeneity of degree 1 for the non-interacting kinetic energy functional under orbital scaling, contrasting recent work by the present authors [J. Chem. Phys., 2012, 136, 034101] where the functional was found to be inhomogeneous under ensemble density scaling. Furthermore, we show that the orbital scaling result follows directly from the linearity and the single-particle nature of the kinetic energy operator. The inhomogeneity of the non-interacting kinetic energy functional under ensemble density scaling can be quantified by defining an effective homogeneity. This quantity is shown to recover the homogeneity values for important approximate forms that are exact for limiting cases such as the uniform electron gas and one-electron systems. We argue that the ensemble density scaling provides more insight into the development of new functional forms.

  19. Energy analysis for a sustainable future multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism

    CERN Document Server

    Giampietro, Mario; Sorman, Alevgül H

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of the countries of the world are now facing an imminent energy crisis, particularly the USA, China, India, Japan and EU countries, but also developing countries having to boost their economic growth precisely when more powerful economies will prevent them from using the limited supply of fossil energy. Despite this crisis, current protocols of energy accounting have been developed for dealing with fossil energy exclusively and are therefore not useful for the analysis of alternative energy sources. The first part of the book illustrates the weakness of existing analyses of energy problems: the science of energy was born and developed neglecting the issue of scale. The authors argue that it is necessary to adopt more complex protocols of accounting and analysis in order to generate robust energy scenarios and effective assessments of the quality of alternative energy sources. The second part of the book introduces the concept of energetic metabolism of modern societies and uses empirical res...

  20. Concurrent Application of ANC and THM to assess the 13C(α, n)16O Absolute Cross Section at Astrophysical Energies and Possible Consequences for Neutron Production in Low-mass AGB Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippella, O.; La Cognata, M.

    2017-03-01

    The {}13{{C}}{(α ,n)}16{{O}} reaction is considered to be the main neutron source responsible for the production of heavy nuclides (from {Sr} to {Bi}) through slow n-capture nucleosynthesis (s-process) at low temperatures during the asymptotic giant branch phase of low-mass stars (≲ 3{--}4 {M}⊙ , or LMSs). In recent years, several direct and indirect measurements have been carried out to determine the cross section at the energies of astrophysical interest (around 190+/- 40 {keV}). However, they yield inconsistent results that cause a highly uncertain reaction rate and affect the neutron release in LMSs. In this work we have combined two indirect approaches, the asymptotic normalization coefficient and the Trojan horse method, to unambiguously determine the absolute value of the {}13{{C}}{(α ,n)}16{{O}} astrophysical factor. With these, we have determined a very accurate reaction rate to be introduced into astrophysical models of s-process nucleosynthesis in LMSs. Calculations using this recommended rate have shown limited variations in the production of those neutron-rich nuclei (with 86≤slant A≤slant 209) that receive contribution only by slow neutron captures.

  1. How covalence breaks adsorption-energy scaling relations and solvation restores them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallejo, Federico Calle; Krabbe, Alexander; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2017-01-01

    It is known that breaking the scaling relations between the adsorption energies of *O, *OH, and *OOH is paramount in catalyzing more efficiently the reduction of O2 in fuel cells and its evolution in electrolyzers. Taking metalloporphyrins as a case study, we evaluate here the adsorption energies...

  2. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demissie, Taye B., E-mail: taye.b.demissie@uit.no; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Jaszuński, Michał [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44, 01 224 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  3. H2 at Scale: Benefitting our Future Energy System - Update for the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2016-12-06

    Hydrogen is a flexible, clean energy carrying intermediate that enables aggressive market penetration of renewables while deeply decarbonizing our energy system. H2 at Scale is a concept that supports the electricity grid by utilizing energy without other demands at any given time and also supports transportation and industry by providing low-priced hydrogen to them. This presentation is an update to the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC).

  4. Large-Scale Power Production Potential on U.S. Department of Energy Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillesheim, Michael B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walker, H. A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jeff [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Boak, Jeremy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Washington, Jeremy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Sharp, Cory [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-03

    This report summarizes the potential for independent power producers to generate large-scale power on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands and export that power into a larger power market, rather than serving on-site DOE loads. The report focuses primarily on the analysis of renewable energy (RE) technologies that are commercially viable at utility scale, including photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP), wind, biomass, landfill gas (LFG), waste to energy (WTE), and geothermal technologies. The report also summarizes the availability of fossil fuel, uranium, or thorium resources at 55 DOE sites.

  5. Geometric scaling in ultrahigh-energy neutrino scattering and nonlinear perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that in ultrahigh-energy inelastic neutrino-nucleon(nucleus) scattering the cross sections for the boson-hadron(nucleus) reactions should exhibit geometric scaling on the single variable τ A =Q 2 /Q sat,A 2 . The dependence on energy and atomic number of the charged/neutral current cross sections are encoded in the saturation momentum Q sat,A . This fact allows an analytical computation of the neutrino scattering on nucleon/nucleus at high energies, providing a theoretical parameterization based on the scaling property

  6. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  7. Developing A Renewable Energy Awareness Scale For Pre-service Chemistry Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner YAVUZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing A Renewable Energy Awareness Scale For Pre-service Chemistry Teachers Inci MORGIL Nilgün SECKEN A. Seda YUCEL Ozge OZYALCIN OSKAY Soner YAVUZ and Evrim URAL Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, Department of Chemistry Education, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara, TURKEY ABSTRACT In times when human beings used to live in a natural environment, their needs were also provided by natural resources. With the increases in population in time, human beings started to look for new resources willing to get “the more” and “the fastest”. Just like the invention of steam, firstly, they increased the density of the resources and produced “more” energy. However, instead of working on the density of water, which spreads with the solar energy, they chose an easier way, which was fuel that produced more energy when burnt. Unfortunately, the damages these fuel products create in the atmosphere and environment shaded their benefits. It did not take so long for the earth to run out of energy resources and to threaten environmental and human health. As a result of that, new energy resources were started to be sought and the studies enlightened the concepts of sustainable, renewable energy. Renewable energy is defined as “the energy source, which continues its existence for the following days within the evolution of nature”. Educators pointed out a need in students for gaining consciousness on renewable energy resources. In the light of the importance of renewable and sustainable energy, a “Renewable Energy Awareness Scale” that questioned to what extent the individuals were aware of renewable energy was developed. The Renewable Energy Awareness Scale, which consisted of 50 items, was administered as a pilot study. The factor analysis concluded with a scale of 39 items with a reliability coefficient of 0.944 was developed.

  8. A review on technology maturity of small scale energy storage technologies★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thu-Trang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status of energy storage technologies which have the higher potential to be applied in small scale energy systems. Small scale energy systems can be categorized as ones that are able to supply energy in various forms for a building, or a small area, or a limited community, or an enterprise; typically, they are end-user systems. Energy storage technologies are classified based on their form of energy stored. A two-step evaluation is proposed for selecting suitable storage technologies for small scale energy systems, including identifying possible technical options, and addressing techno-economic aspects. Firstly, a review on energy storage technologies at small scale level is carried out. Secondly, an assessment of technology readiness level (TRL is conducted. The TRLs are ranked according to information gathered from literature review. Levels of market maturity of the technologies are addressed by taking into account their market development stages through reviewing published materials. The TRLs and the levels of market maturity are then combined into a technology maturity curve. Additionally, market driving factors are identified by using different stages in product life cycle. The results indicate that lead-acid, micro pumped hydro storage, NaS battery, NiCd battery, flywheel, NaNiCl battery, Li-ion battery, and sensible thermal storage are the most mature technologies for small scale energy systems. In the near future, hydrogen fuel cells, thermal storages using phase change materials and thermochemical materials are expected to become more popular in the energy storage market.

  9. Application of wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation method to MOX fuel problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.

    2012-01-01

    More and more MOX fuels are used in all over the world in the past several decades. Compared with UO 2 fuel, it contains some new features. For example, the neutron spectrum is harder and more resonance interference effects within the resonance energy range are introduced because of more resonant nuclides contained in the MOX fuel. In this paper, the wavelets scaling function expansion method is applied to study the resonance behavior of plutonium isotopes within MOX fuel. Wavelets scaling function expansion continuous-energy self-shielding method is developed recently. It has been validated and verified by comparison to Monte Carlo calculations. In this method, the continuous-energy cross-sections are utilized within resonance energy, which means that it's capable to solve problems with serious resonance interference effects without iteration calculations. Therefore, this method adapts to treat the MOX fuel resonance calculation problem natively. Furthermore, plutonium isotopes have fierce oscillations of total cross-section within thermal energy range, especially for 240 Pu and 242 Pu. To take thermal resonance effect of plutonium isotopes into consideration the wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation code WAVERESON is enhanced by applying the free gas scattering kernel to obtain the continuous-energy scattering source within thermal energy range (2.1 eV to 4.0 eV) contrasting against the resonance energy range in which the elastic scattering kernel is utilized. Finally, all of the calculation results of WAVERESON are compared with MCNP calculation. (authors)

  10. Catchment scale water resource constraints on UK policies for low-carbon energy system transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konadu, D. D.; Fenner, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term low-carbon energy transition policy of the UK presents national scale propositions of different low-carbon energy system options that lead to meeting GHG emissions reduction target of 80% on 1990 levels by 2050. Whilst national-scale assessments suggests that water availability may not be a significant constrain on future thermal power generation systems in this pursuit, these analysis fail to capture the appropriate spatial scale where water resource decisions are made, i.e. at the catchment scale. Water is a local resource, which also has significant spatio-temporal regional and national variability, thus any policy-relevant water-energy nexus analysis must be reflective of these characteristics. This presents a critical challenge for policy relevant water-energy nexus analysis. This study seeks to overcome the above challenge by using a linear spatial-downscaling model to allocate nationally projected water-intensive energy system infrastructure/technologies to the catchment level, and estimating the water requirements for the deployment of these technologies. The model is applied to the UK Committee on Climate Change Carbon Budgets to 2030 as a case study. The paper concludes that whilst national-scale analyses show minimal long-term water related impacts, catchment level appraisal of water resource requirements reveal significant constraints in some locations. The approach and results presented in this study thus, highlights the importance of bringing together scientific understanding, data and analysis tools to provide better insights for water-energy nexus decisions at the appropriate spatial scale. This is particularly important for water stressed regions where the water-energy nexus must be analysed at appropriate spatial resolution to capture the full water resource impact of national energy policy.

  11. Challenges of Implementing Renewable Energy Policies at Community Scale: The Case of Strategic Energy Plans in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of national energy efficiency targets requires policies at the local scale. It is widely acknowledged that local communities play an important tole to implement these policies: as arena where renewable energy technologies can be combined with socio-economic interests of local...... stakeholders. Although a vast amount of demo projects are well-documented, insufficient attention has been given to the average performing municipalities and their challenges in linking technical energy scenarios with their socio-economic realities in practice. This paper analyses the Strategic Energy Plans...... (SEP) of 17 Danish municipalities on their development, inclusion of local communities, affected stakeholders, and on their impact on the municipalities’ working procedures. The main technical, physical, organisational and socio-economic challenges for local energy policy implementation are illustrated...

  12. Energy budget closure and field scale estimation of canopy energy storage with increased and sustained turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy Covariance (EC) is widely used for direct, non-invasive observations of land-atmosphere energy and mass fluxes. However, EC observations of available energy fluxes are usually less than fluxes inferred from radiometer and soil heat flux observations; thus introducing additional uncertainty in u...

  13. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  14. Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2010-01-01

    For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.

  15. Some absolutely effective product methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Dikshit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the product method A(C,1, where (C,1 is the Cesàro arithmetic mean matrix, is totally effective under certain conditions concerning the matrix A. This general result is applied to study absolute Nörlund summability of Fourier series and other related series.

  16. Comprehensive energy transport scalings derived from DIII-D similarity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Baity, F.W.

    1998-12-01

    The dependences of heat transport on the dimensionless plasma physics parameters has been measured for both L-mode and H-mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak. Heat transport in L-mode plasmas has a gyroradius scaling that is gyro-Bohm-like for electrons and worse than Bohm-like for ions, with no measurable beta or collisionality dependence; this corresponds to having an energy confinement time that scales like τ E ∝ n 0.5 P -0.5 . H-mode plasmas have gyro-Bohm-like scaling of heat transport for both electrons and ions, weak beta scaling, and moderate collisionality scaling. In addition, H-mode plasmas have a strong safety factor scaling (χ ∼ q 2 ) at all radii. Combining these four dimensionless parameter scalings together gives an energy confinement time scaling for H-mode plasmas like τ E ∝ B -1 ρ -3.15 β 0.03 v -0.42 q 95 -1.43 ∝ I 0.84 B 0.39 n 0.18 P -0.41 L 2.0 , which is similar to empirical scalings derived from global confinement databases

  17. Comprehensive energy transport scalings derived from DIII-D similarity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Baity, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    The dependences of heat transport on the dimensionless plasma physics parameters has been measured for both L-mode and H-mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak. Heat transport in L-mode plasmas has a gyroradius scaling that is gyro-Bohm-like for electrons and worse than Bohm-like for ions, with no measurable beta or collisionality dependence; this corresponds to having an energy confinement time that scales like τ E ∝ n 0.5 P -0.5 . H-mode plasmas have gyro-Bohm-like scaling of heat transport for both electrons and ions, weak beta scaling, and moderate collisionality scaling. In addition, H-mode plasmas have a strong safety factor scaling (χ ∼ q 2 ) at all radii. Combining these four dimensionless parameter scalings together gives an energy confinement time scaling for H-mode plasmas like τ E ∝ B -1 ρ -3.15 β 0.03 ν -0.42 q 95 -1.43 ∝ I 0.84 B 0.39 n 0.18 P -0.41 L 2.0 , which is similar to empirical scalings derived from global confinement databases. (author)

  18. Comprehensive energy transport scalings derived from DIII-D similarity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Baker, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    The dependences of heat transport on the dimensionless plasma physics parameters has been measured for both L-mode and H-mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak. Heat transport in L-mode plasmas has a gyroradius scaling that is gyro-Bohm-like for electrons and worse than Bohm-like for ions, with no measurable beta or collisionality dependence; this corresponds to having an energy confinement time that scales like τ E ∝n 0.5 P -0.5 . H-mode plasmas have gyro-Bohm-like scaling of heat transport for both electrons and ions, weak beta scaling, and moderate collisionality scaling. In addition, H-mode plasmas have a strong safety factor scaling (χ∼q 2 ) at all radii. Combining these four dimensionless parameter scalings together gives an energy confinement time scaling for H-mode plasmas like τ E ∝ B -1 ρ -3.15 β 0.03 ν -0.42 q 95 -1.43 ∝ I 0.84 B 0.39 n 0.18 P -0.41 L 2.0 , which is similar to empirical scalings derived from global confinement databases. (author)

  19. Large scale free energy calculations for blind predictions of protein-ligand binding: the D3R Grand Challenge 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Nanjie; Flynn, William F; Xia, Junchao; Vijayan, R S K; Zhang, Baofeng; He, Peng; Mentes, Ahmet; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M

    2016-09-01

    We describe binding free energy calculations in the D3R Grand Challenge 2015 for blind prediction of the binding affinities of 180 ligands to Hsp90. The present D3R challenge was built around experimental datasets involving Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90, an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone which is an important anticancer drug target. The Hsp90 ATP binding site is known to be a challenging target for accurate calculations of ligand binding affinities because of the ligand-dependent conformational changes in the binding site, the presence of ordered waters and the broad chemical diversity of ligands that can bind at this site. Our primary focus here is to distinguish binders from nonbinders. Large scale absolute binding free energy calculations that cover over 3000 protein-ligand complexes were performed using the BEDAM method starting from docked structures generated by Glide docking. Although the ligand dataset in this study resembles an intermediate to late stage lead optimization project while the BEDAM method is mainly developed for early stage virtual screening of hit molecules, the BEDAM binding free energy scoring has resulted in a moderate enrichment of ligand screening against this challenging drug target. Results show that, using a statistical mechanics based free energy method like BEDAM starting from docked poses offers better enrichment than classical docking scoring functions and rescoring methods like Prime MM-GBSA for the Hsp90 data set in this blind challenge. Importantly, among the three methods tested here, only the mean value of the BEDAM binding free energy scores is able to separate the large group of binders from the small group of nonbinders with a gap of 2.4 kcal/mol. None of the three methods that we have tested provided accurate ranking of the affinities of the 147 active compounds. We discuss the possible sources of errors in the binding free energy calculations. The study suggests that BEDAM can be used strategically to discriminate

  20. Software framework and jet energy scale calibration in the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binet, Sebastien

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the work achieved to instrument the ATLAS software framework, ATHENA, with a library of tools and utensils for the physics analysis as well as the extraction of the jet energy scale using physics events (in-situ calibration). The software part presents the various components of the ATHENA framework which handles the simulated and reconstructed data flow as well as the different stages of this process, before and during the data taking. The building of a library of tools easing the reconstruction of physics objects, their association with Monte-Carlo particles and their API is then explained. The need for common language and collaboration-wide utensils is emphasised as it allows to share the workload of validating these tools and to get reproducible physics results. The analysis part deals with the implementation of a light jet energy scale calibration algorithm within the C++ framework. This calibration algorithm makes use of W bosons decaying into light jets within semileptonic t t-bar events. From the processing of fast and full simulation data with this algorithm, it seems possible to reach a percent level knowledge of the light jet energy scale. Finally, the feasibility study of the b-jet energy scale calibration using γZ 0 → γb b-bar events is presented. It is shown that a purely sequential approach is not sufficient to extract the signal nor to collect a sufficient amount of Z 0 to calibrate the b-jet energy scale. (author)

  1. A regional-scale assessment of local renewable energy resources in Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormally, A.M.; Whyatt, J.D.; Timmis, R.J.; Pooley, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the role small-scale decentralised renewable energy developments could play in helping the UK meet its target of over 15% renewable energy by the year 2020 and alter energy behaviours through active community engagement. Upland areas are considered key areas where such community-based developments could occur due to their natural resources and range of community scales. This study uses GIS-based techniques to develop a methodology that assesses the regional-scale potential for community-based renewable electricity across Cumbria and whether a combination of these developments at the community-scale could make a significant contribution to local electricity consumption. This methodology looks at a range of technologies including hydro-power, wind-power, solar PV and bioenergy. The results suggest there is ample resource available for small communities by combining a mix of localised renewable electricity developments, which is highlighted through energy scenarios for a selected community. Further work will investigate whether this potential can be realised in reality by looking at resource resilience and community-level acceptability. - Highlights: ► A mix of wind, solar, bioenergy and hydro-power options are presented for Cumbria, UK. ► High resolution spatial analysis is conducted focussing on localised developments. ► Locations with sufficient renewable electricity potential were identified. ► Renewable options are explored further through a town case study. ► Scenarios consider different scales, mixes and contributions to local energy demand.

  2. Energy performance evaluation of ultrasonic pretreatment of organic solid waste in a pilot-scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasapoor, Mazdak; Adl, Mehrdad; Baroutian, Saeid; Iranshahi, Zeynab; Pazouki, Mohammad

    2018-04-30

    It has been proven that ultrasonic pretreatment (UP) has positive effect on biogas generation from previous lab-scale studies. However, that is not always the case in larger scale processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of UP to biogas generation in terms of anaerobic digestion process and energy efficiency. Parameters including total solids (TS) and ultrasonic treatment operational parameters of organic solid waste (OSW) resulted from our past lab scale UP studies were applied in this study. OSW with 6-10% TS was treated using a lab-scale ultrasonic processor using various power densities (0.2-0.6 W/mL) at different time periods up to 30 min. Results of lab scale confirmed that OSW with 6% TS sonicated with 0.2 W/mL power density in 30 min gave the best outcome for the pilot scale experiment. To simulate the condition of an actual scale, in addition to energy analysis, two different organic loading rates (OLR), namely 500 and 1500 gVS/m 3 day were examined. The pilot digester was fed with OSW with or without the pretreatment based on the aforementioned specifications. The results showed that UP effectively improves biogas generation in terms of quantity and quality (CH 4 /CO 2 ). Furthermore, it decreases the time to reach the maximum cumulative biogas volume comparing to the untreated feed. The key achievement of this research has confirmed that although the relative increase in the energy gain by the influence of UP was more remarkable under the 500 gVS/m 3 day OLR, energy analysis showed a better energy gain and energy benefit as well as jumping in biogas yield up to 80% for UP treated OSW under 1500 gVS/m 3 day OLR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Large temporal scale and capacity subsurface bulk energy storage with CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, M. O.; Fleming, M. R.; Adams, B. M.; Ogland-Hand, J.; Nelson, E. S.; Randolph, J.; Sioshansi, R.; Kuehn, T. H.; Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Decarbonizing energy systems by increasing the penetration of variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies requires efficient and short- to long-term energy storage. Very large amounts of energy can be stored in the subsurface as heat and/or pressure energy in order to provide both short- and long-term (seasonal) storage, depending on the implementation. This energy storage approach can be quite efficient, especially where geothermal energy is naturally added to the system. Here, we present subsurface heat and/or pressure energy storage with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) and discuss the system's efficiency, deployment options, as well as its advantages and disadvantages, compared to several other energy storage options. CO2-based subsurface bulk energy storage has the potential to be particularly efficient and large-scale, both temporally (i.e., seasonal) and spatially. The latter refers to the amount of energy that can be stored underground, using CO2, at a geologically conducive location, potentially enabling storing excess power from a substantial portion of the power grid. The implication is that it would be possible to employ centralized energy storage for (a substantial part of) the power grid, where the geology enables CO2-based bulk subsurface energy storage, whereas the VRE technologies (solar, wind) are located on that same power grid, where (solar, wind) conditions are ideal. However, this may require reinforcing the power grid's transmission lines in certain parts of the grid to enable high-load power transmission from/to a few locations.

  4. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Selby, Talitha M; Meloni, Giovanni; Fan, Haiyan; Pratt, Stephen T

    2008-10-02

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH3 photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; sigma(CH3)(10.2 eV) = (5.7 +/- 0.9) x 10(-18) cm(2) and sigma(CH3)(11.0 eV) = (6.0 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2). The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH3 and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.460 eV, (5.5 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  5. Femtoscopy: The way back in the energy scale from ALICE to the NICA energies

    CERN Document Server

    Batyuk, P; Rogachevsky, O; Karpenko, Iu; Malinina, L; Mikhailov, K; Wielanek, D

    2016-01-01

    The main features of femtoscopy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at high energies are understood as a manifestation of the strong collective flow and well-interpreted within hydrodynamic models with a crossover. In this work, we discuss possibilities for observing the change from a first order phase transition expected at the NICA energies ($\\sqrt s_{NN} = 4–11$ GeV) to a crossover one with the femtoscopy observables using the vHLLE+UrQMD model.

  6. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Community-Scale Energy Modeling - Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    Community-scale energy modeling and testing are useful for determining energy conservation measures that will effectively reduce energy use. To that end, IBACOS analyzed pre-retrofit daily utility data to sort homes by energy consumption, allowing for better targeting of homes for physical audits. Following ASHRAE Guideline 14 normalization procedures, electricity consumption of 1,166 all-electric, production-built homes was modeled. The homes were in two communities: one built in the 1970s and the other in the mid-2000s.

  7. Free energies of binding from large-scale first-principles quantum mechanical calculations: application to ligand hydration energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Stephen J; Pittock, Chris; Tautermann, Christofer S; Fox, Thomas; Christ, Clara; Malcolm, N O J; Essex, Jonathan W; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton

    2013-08-15

    Schemes of increasing sophistication for obtaining free energies of binding have been developed over the years, where configurational sampling is used to include the all-important entropic contributions to the free energies. However, the quality of the results will also depend on the accuracy with which the intermolecular interactions are computed at each molecular configuration. In this context, the energy change associated with the rearrangement of electrons (electronic polarization and charge transfer) upon binding is a very important effect. Classical molecular mechanics force fields do not take this effect into account explicitly, and polarizable force fields and semiempirical quantum or hybrid quantum-classical (QM/MM) calculations are increasingly employed (at higher computational cost) to compute intermolecular interactions in free-energy schemes. In this work, we investigate the use of large-scale quantum mechanical calculations from first-principles as a way of fully taking into account electronic effects in free-energy calculations. We employ a one-step free-energy perturbation (FEP) scheme from a molecular mechanical (MM) potential to a quantum mechanical (QM) potential as a correction to thermodynamic integration calculations within the MM potential. We use this approach to calculate relative free energies of hydration of small aromatic molecules. Our quantum calculations are performed on multiple configurations from classical molecular dynamics simulations. The quantum energy of each configuration is obtained from density functional theory calculations with a near-complete psinc basis set on over 600 atoms using the ONETEP program.

  8. The role of large‐scale heat pumps for short term integration of renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Blarke, Morten; Hansen, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    technologies is focusing on natural working fluid hydrocarbons, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Large-scale heat pumps are crucial for integrating 50% wind power as anticipated to be installed in Denmark in 2020, along with other measures. Also in the longer term heat pumps can contribute to the minimization...... savings with increased wind power and may additionally lead to economic savings in the range of 1,500-1,700 MDKK in total in the period until 2020. Furthermore, the energy system efficiency may be increased due to large heat pumps replacing boiler production. Finally data sheets for large-scale ammonium......In this report the role of large-scale heat pumps in a future energy system with increased renewable energy is presented. The main concepts for large heat pumps in district heating systems are outlined along with the development for heat pump refrigerants. The development of future heat pump...

  9. Experimental Study of a Small Scale Hydraulic System for Mechanical Wind Energy Conversion into Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Zdankus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant potential for reducing thermal energy consumption in buildings of moderate and cold climate countries lies within wind energy utilisation. Unlike solar irradiation, character of wind speeds in Central and Northern Europe correspond to the actual thermal energy demand in buildings. However, mechanical wind energy undergoes transformation into electrical energy before being actually used as thermal energy in most wind energy applications. The study presented in this paper deals with hydraulic systems, designed for small-scale applications to eliminate the intermediate energy transformation as it converts mechanical wind energy into heat directly. The prototype unit containing a pump, flow control valve, oil tank and piping was developed and tested under laboratory conditions. Results of the experiments showed that the prototype system is highly efficient and adjustable to a broad wind velocity range by modifying the definite hydraulic system resistance. Development of such small-scale replicable units has the potential to promote “bottom-up” solutions for the transition to a zero carbon society.

  10. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Developing Renewable Energy Mixes at the Community Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, Alexandra M.; Whyatt, James D.; Timmis, Roger J.; Pooley, Colin G.

    2013-04-01

    Renewable energy has risen on the global political agenda due to concerns over climate change and energy security. The European Union (EU) currently has a target of 20% renewable energy by the year 2020 and there is increasing focus on the ways in which these targets can be achieved. Here we focus on the UK context which could be considered to be lagging behind other EU countries in terms of targets and implementation. The UK has a lower overall target of 15% renewable energy by 2020 and in 2011 reached only 3.8 % (DUKES, 2012), one of the lowest progressions compared to other EU Member States (European Commission, 2012). The reticence of the UK to reach such targets could in part be due to their dependence on their current energy mix and a highly centralised electricity grid system, which does not lend itself easily to the adoption of renewable technologies. Additionally, increasing levels of demand and the need to raise energy awareness are key concerns in terms of achieving energy security in the UK. There is also growing concern from the public about increasing fuel and energy bills. One possible solution to some of these problems could be through the adoption of small-scale distributed renewable schemes implemented at the community-scale with local ownership or involvement, for example, through energy co-operatives. The notion of the energy co-operative is well understood elsewhere in Europe but unfamiliar to many UK residents due to its centralised approach to energy provision. There are many benefits associated with engaging in distributed renewable energy systems. In addition to financial benefits, participation may raise energy awareness and can lead to positive responses towards renewable technologies. Here we briefly explore how a mix of small-scale renewables, including wind, hydro-power and solar PV, have been implemented and managed by a small island community in the Scottish Hebrides to achieve over 90% of their electricity needs from renewable

  11. Measurement of definite integral of sinusoidal signal absolute value third power using digital stochastic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljić Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special case of digital stochastic measurement of the third power of definite integral of sinusoidal signal’s absolute value, using 2-bit AD converters is presented. This case of digital stochastic method had emerged from the need to measure power and energy of the wind. Power and energy are proportional to the third power of wind speed. Anemometer output signal is sinusoidal. Therefore an integral of the third power of sinusoidal signal is zero. Two approaches are proposed for the third power calculation of the wind speed signal. One approach is to use absolute value of sinusoidal signal (before AD conversion for which there is no need of multiplier hardware change. The second approach requires small multiplier hardware change, but input signal remains unchanged. For the second approach proposed minimal hardware change was made to calculate absolute value of the result after AD conversion. Simulations have confirmed theoretical analysis. Expected precision of wind energy measurement of proposed device is better than 0,00051% of full scale. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32019

  12. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  13. Absolute magnitudes by statistical parallaxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, A.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes an algorithm for stellar luminosity calibrations (based on the principle of maximum likelihood) which allows the calibration of relations of the type: Msub(i)=sup(N)sub(j=1)Σqsub(j)Csub(ij), i=1,...,n, where n is the size of the sample at hand, Msub(i) are the individual absolute magnitudes, Csub(ij) are observational quantities (j=1,...,N), and qsub(j) are the coefficients to be determined. If one puts N=1 and Csub(iN)=1, one has q 1 =M(mean), the mean absolute magnitude of the sample. As additional output, the algorithm provides one also with the dispersion in magnitude of the sample sigmasub(M), the mean solar motion (U,V,W) and the corresponding velocity ellipsoid (sigmasub(u), sigmasub(v), sigmasub(w). The use of this algorithm is illustrated. (Auth.)

  14. Scaling Relationships for Adsorption Energies of C2 Hydrocarbons on Transition Metal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G

    2011-08-18

    Using density functional theory calculations we show that the adsorption energies for C{sub 2}H{sub x}-type adsorbates on transition metal surfaces scale with each other according to a simple bond order conservation model. This observation generalizes some recently recognized adsorption energy scaling laws for AH{sub x}-type adsorbates to unsaturated hydrocarbons and establishes a coherent simplified description of saturated as well as unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on transition metal surfaces. A number of potential applications are discussed. We apply the model to the dehydrogenation of ethane over pure transition metal catalysts. Comparison with the corresponding full density functional theory calculations shows excellent agreement.

  15. Scaling of chaotic multiplicity: A new observation in high-energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, D.; Ghosh, P.; Roy, J.

    1990-01-01

    We analyze high-energy-interaction data to study the dependence of chaotic multiplicity on the pseudorapidity window and propose a new scaling function bar Ψ(bar z)=left-angle n 1 right-angle/left-angle n right-angle max where left-angle n 1 right-angle is the chaotic multiplicity and bar z=left-angle n right-angle/left-angle n right-angle max is the reduced multiplicity, following the quantum-optical concept of particle production. It has been observed that the proposed ''chaotic multiplicity scaling'' is obeyed by pp, p bar p, and AA collisions at different available energies

  16. Energy loss as the origin of a universal scaling law of the elliptic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, Carlota; Pajares, Carlos [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias IGFAE, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Braun, Mikhail [Saint Petersburg State University, Department of High-Energy Physics, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    It is shown that the excellent scaling of the elliptic flow found for all centralities, species and energies from RHIC to the LHC for p{sub T} less than the saturation momentum is a consequence of the energy lost by a parton interacting with the color field produced in a nucleus-nucleus collision. In particular, the deduced shape of the scaling curve describes correctly all the data. We discuss the possible extensions to higher p{sub T}, proton-nucleus and proton-proton collisions as well as higher harmonics. (orig.)

  17. Methodology to determine the technical performance and value proposition for grid-scale energy storage systems :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Loose, Verne William; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.

    2012-12-01

    As the amount of renewable generation increases, the inherent variability of wind and photovoltaic systems must be addressed in order to ensure the continued safe and reliable operation of the nation's electricity grid. Grid-scale energy storage systems are uniquely suited to address the variability of renewable generation and to provide other valuable grid services. The goal of this report is to quantify the technical performance required to provide di erent grid bene ts and to specify the proper techniques for estimating the value of grid-scale energy storage systems.

  18. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingguo Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV/energy storage (ES hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC, is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is employed to support the AC-linked bus voltage and improve low voltage ride through (LVRT capability of the proposed system. An overall power coordinated control strategy is designed to manage real-power and reactive-power flows among the different energy sources, the storage unit, and the STATCOM system in the hybrid system. A simulation case study carried out on Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC 3-machine 9-bus test system for the large scale hybrid energy conversion system has been developed using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software platform. The hybrid system performance under different scenarios has been verified by simulation studies using practical load demand profiles and real weather data.

  19. Energy loss of a high charge bunched electron beam in plasma: Simulations, scaling, and accelerating wakefields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Rosenzweig

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss and gain of a beam in the nonlinear, “blowout” regime of the plasma wakefield accelerator, which features ultrahigh accelerating fields, linear transverse focusing forces, and nonlinear plasma motion, has been asserted, through previous observations in simulations, to scale linearly with beam charge. Additionally, from a recent analysis by Barov et al., it has been concluded that for an infinitesimally short beam, the energy loss is indeed predicted to scale linearly with beam charge for arbitrarily large beam charge. This scaling is predicted to hold despite the onset of a relativistic, nonlinear response by the plasma, when the number of beam particles occupying a cubic plasma skin depth exceeds that of plasma electrons within the same volume. This paper is intended to explore the deviations from linear energy loss using 2D particle-in-cell simulations that arise in the case of experimentally relevant finite length beams. The peak accelerating field in the plasma wave excited behind the finite-length beam is also examined, with the artifact of wave spiking adding to the apparent persistence of linear scaling of the peak field amplitude into the nonlinear regime. At large enough normalized charge, the linear scaling of both decelerating and accelerating fields collapses, with serious consequences for plasma wave excitation efficiency. Using the results of parametric particle-in-cell studies, the implications of these results for observing severe deviations from linear scaling in present and planned experiments are discussed.

  20. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  1. The Absolute Immanence in Deleuze

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Daeseung

    2013-01-01

    The absolute immanence in Deleuze Daeseung Park Abstract The plane of immanence is not unique. Deleuze and Guattari suppose a multiplicity of planes. Each great philosopher draws new planes on his own way, and these planes constitute the "time of philosophy". We can, therefore, "present the entire history of philosophy from the viewpoint of the institution of a plane of immanence" or present the time of philosophy from the viewpoint of the superposition and of the coexistence of planes. Howev...

  2. Thermal System Analysis and Optimization of Large-Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongguang Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As an important solution to issues regarding peak load and renewable energy resources on grids, large-scale compressed air energy storage (CAES power generation technology has recently become a popular research topic in the area of large-scale industrial energy storage. At present, the combination of high-expansion ratio turbines with advanced gas turbine technology is an important breakthrough in energy storage technology. In this study, a new gas turbine power generation system is coupled with current CAES technology. Moreover, a thermodynamic cycle system is optimized by calculating for the parameters of a thermodynamic system. Results show that the thermal efficiency of the new system increases by at least 5% over that of the existing system.

  3. A novel iron-lead redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-04-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies for the massive utilization of intermittent renewables especially wind and solar energy. This work presents a novel redox flow battery that utilizes inexpensive and abundant Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples as redox materials. Experimental results show that both the Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples have fast electrochemical kinetics in methanesulfonic acid, and that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the battery are, respectively, as high as 96.2% and 86.2% at 40 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the battery exhibits stable performance in terms of efficiencies and discharge capacities during the cycle test. The inexpensive redox materials, fast electrochemical kinetics and stable cycle performance make the present battery a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage applications.

  4. Characterization and Scaling of Heave Plates for Ocean Wave Energy Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Brian; Mundon, Timothy

    2016-11-01

    Ocean waves present a tremendous, untapped source of renewable energy, capable of providing half of global electricity demand by 2040. Devices developed to extract this energy are known as wave energy converters (WECs) and encompass a wide range of designs. A somewhat common archetype is a two-body point-absorber, in which a surface float reacts against a submerged "heave" plate to extract energy. Newer WEC's are using increasingly complex geometries for the submerged plate and an emerging challenge in creating low-order models lies in accurately determining the hydrodynamic coefficients (added mass and drag) in the corresponding oscillatory flow regime. Here we present experiments in which a laboratory-scale heave plate is sinusoidally forced in translation (heave) and rotation (pitch) to characterize the hydrodynamic coefficients as functions of the two governing nondimensional parameters, Keulegan-Carpenter number (amplitude) and Reynolds number. Comparisons against CFD simulations are offered. As laboratory-scale physical model tests remain the standard for testing wave energy devices, effects and implications of scaling (with respect to a full-scale device) are also investigated.

  5. Traveling-wave reactors: A truly sustainable and full-scale resource for global energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, T.; Petroski, R.; Hejzlar, P.; Zimmerman, G.; McAlees, D.; Whitmer, C.; Touran, N.; Hejzlar, J.; Weave, K.; Walter, J. C.; McWhirter, J.; Ahlfeld, C.; Burke, T.; Odedra, A.; Hyde, R.; Gilleland, J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Wood, L.; Myhrvold, N.; Gates Iii, W. H.

    2010-01-01

    Rising environmental and economic concerns have signaled a desire to reduce dependence on hydrocarbon fuels. These concerns have brought the world to an inflection point and decisions made today will dictate what the global energy landscape will look like for the next half century or more. An optimal energy technology for the future must meet stricter standards than in the past; in addition to being economically attractive, it now must also be environmentally benign, sustainable and scalable to global use. For stationary energy, only one existing resource comes close to fitting all of the societal requirements for an optimal energy source: nuclear energy. Its demonstrated economic performance, power density, and emissions-free benefits significantly elevate nuclear electricity generation above other energy sources. However, the current nuclear fuel cycle has some attributes that make it challenging to expand on a global scale. Traveling-wave reactor (TWR) technology, being developed by TerraPower, LLC, represents a potential solution to these limitations by offering a nuclear energy resource which is truly sustainable at full global scale for the indefinite future and is deployable in the near-term. TWRs are capable of offering a ∼40-fold gain in fuel utilization efficiency compared to conventional light-water reactors burning enriched fuel. Such high fuel efficiency, combined with an ability to use uranium recovered from river water or sea-water (which has been recently demonstrated to be technically and economically feasible) suggests that enough fuel is readily available for TWRs to generate electricity for 10 billion people at United States per capita levels for million-year time-scales. Interestingly, the Earth's rivers carry into the ocean a flux of uranium several times greater than that required to replace the implied rate-of-consumption, so that the Earth's slowly-eroding crust will provide a readily-accessible flow of uranium sufficient for all of

  6. The environmental benefits of cellulosic energy crops at a landscape scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.; Liu, W.; English, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops--particularly the cellulosic energy crops current under development. For this discussion, the term energy crop refers to a crop grown primarily to create feedstock for either making biofuels such as ethanol or burning in a heat or electricity generation facility. Cellulosic energy crops are designed to be used in cellulose-based ethanol conversion processes (as opposed to starch or sugar-based ethanol conversion processes). As more cellulose can be produced per hectare of land than can sugar or starch, the cellulose-based ethanol conversion process is a more efficient sue of land for ethanol production. Assessing the environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing cellulosic energy crops especially at the landscape or regional scale. However, to set the stage for this discussion, the authors begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  7. Considerations for reducing food system energy demand while scaling up urban agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohareb, Eugene; Heller, Martin; Novak, Paige

    2017-01-01

    -income countries, considering UA classification, direct/indirect energy pressures, and interactions with other components of the food-energy-water nexus. This is followed by an exploration of ways in which these cities can plan for the exploitation of waste flows for resource-efficient UA...... with UA systems, highlighting that the literature is not yet sufficiently robust to make universal claims on benefits. This letter explores energy demand from conventional resource inputs, various production systems, water/energy trade-offs, alternative irrigation, packaging materials, and transportation...... of the proposed benefits of UA; however, explicit consideration of energy and resource requirements needs to be made in order to realize these anticipated environmental benefits. A literature review is undertaken here to provide new insight into the energy implications of scaling up UA in cities in high...

  8. Concept of large scale PV-WT-PSH energy sources coupled with the national power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent/non-dispatchable energy sources are characterized by a significant variation of their energy yield over time. In majority of cases their role in energy systems is marginalized. However, even in Poland which is strongly dedicated to its hard and brown coal fired power plants, the wind generation in terms of installed capacity starts to play a significant role. This paper briefly introduces a concept of wind (WT and solar (PV powered pumped storage hydroelectricity (PSH which seems to be a viable option for solving the problem of the variable nature of PV and WT generation. Additionally we summarize the results of our so far conducted research on the integration of variable renewable energy sources (VRES to the energy systems and present conclusions which strictly refer to the prospects of large scale PV-WT-PSH operating as a part of the polish energy system.

  9. Laboratory Testing and Energy Production of Scale 1:35 Sigma Energy WEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Ferri, Francesco

    This report describes some preliminary experiments carried out on the MD wave power converting device. The aim of the investigation have been to obtain a better understanding of the behavior and performance of the wave energy converters under different structural configurations, sea states and po...

  10. Wind energy basics a guide to home- and community-scale wind energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gipe, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The availability of clean, renewable power is without question going to be the defining challenge and goal of the 21st century, and wind will lead the way. Internationally acclaimed wind energy expert Paul Gipe is as soberly critical of past energy mistakes as he is convincingly optimistic about the future. The overwhelming challenge of transforming our world from one of fossil carbon to one of clean power seems daunting at best-and paralyzingly impractical at worst. "Wind Energy Basics" offers a solution. Wind power can realistically not only replace the lion's share of oil-, coal-, and natural gasndash; fired electrical plants in the U.S., but also can add enough extra power capacity to allow for most of the cars in the nation to run on electricity. Gipe explains why such a startlingly straightforward solution is eminently doable and can be accomplished much sooner than previously thought-and will have the capacity to resuscitate small and regional economies. "Wind Energy Basics" offers a how-to for home-ba...

  11. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of

  12. The use of logarithmic pulse height and energy scales in organic scintillator spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlestone, S.

    1980-01-01

    The use of logarithmic pulse height and energy scales is advantageous for organic for organic scintillator neutron spectroscopy, providing an expanded dynamic range and economy of computer usage. An experimental logarithmic pulse height analysis system is shown to be feasible. A pulse height spectrum from a neutron measurement has been analysed using linear and logarithmic scales; the latter reduced the computer storage requirements by a factor of 13 and analysis time by 8.7, and there was no degradation of the analysed spectrum. Most of the arguments favouring use of logarithmic scales apply equally well to other types of scintillation spectroscopy. (orig.)

  13. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  14. Territory and energy: policies, scales and tools for mobilization, knowledge and local action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanard, Camille

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is about French local authorities' energy policies, and more particularly about regional policies. In a context of reassessment of fossil fuel-based energy systems, local authorities have a key role to play. Indeed, energy systems are complex and require to act locally, in order to keep fair access for consumers and to adapt supply to needs and uses. In the same way, environmental constraints and sustainable exploitation of local resources involve to have a good knowledge of territory and of local energy potential. But, local authorities do not know much about boundaries and about components of territorial energy systems. The main purpose of the thesis is to determine structure and behaviour of these energy systems in order to identify public policy incentive levers at local scale. The first part of the thesis deals with the links between land uses, actors' behaviours, political choices and energy consumptions. Here, we point out the specific interest of geography and territorial approach to treat energy issue, both for land planning and for actors' mobilization. In the second part, we identify policy instruments which local authorities should dispose and actions they should implement in order to develop energy saving and renewables. Then, the third part is more specific to regional level. The analysis of two French planning instruments (Regional Plans for Climate, Air and Energy and Regional Energy Observatories), shows the interest of this scale which could, with its position between national and local levels, contribute to improve knowledge of territories, to coordinate local actions and to develop energy policies adapted to local specificities [fr

  15. Precise measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of nitrogen in air. Consequences on the detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays; Mesure precise du rendement absolu de la fluorescence de l'azote dans l'air. Consequences sur la detection des rayons cosmiques d'ultra-haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefeuvre, G

    2006-07-15

    The study of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (E > 10{sup 20} eV) requires to determine the energy with much more precision than what is currently achieved. The shower of particles created in the atmosphere can be detected either by sampling particle on the ground, or by detecting the fluorescence induced by the excitation of nitrogen by shower electrons. At present, the measurement of the fluorescence is the simplest and the most reliable method, since it does not call upon hadronic physics laws at extreme energies, a field still inaccessible to accelerators. The precise knowledge of the conversion factor between deposited energy and the number of fluorescence photons produced (the yield) is thus essential. Up to now, it has been determined with an accuracy of 15 % only. This main goal of this work is to measure this yield to better than 5 per cent. To do this, 1 MeV electrons from a radioactive source excite nitrogen of the air. The accuracy has been reached thanks to the implementation of a new method for the absolute calibration of the photomultipliers detecting the photons, to better than 2 per cent. The fluorescence yield, measured and normalized to 0.85 MeV, 760 mmHg and 15 Celsius degrees, is (4.23 {+-} 0.20) photons per meter, or (20.46 {+-} 0.98) photons per deposited MeV. In addition, and for the first time, the absolute fluorescence spectrum of nitrogen excited by a source has been measured with an optical grating spectrometer. (author)

  16. A manganese-hydrogen battery with potential for grid-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Guodong; Pei, Allen; Li, Yuzhang; Liao, Lei; Wang, Hongxia; Wan, Jiayu; Liang, Zheng; Chen, Guangxu; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Jiangyan; Cui, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Batteries including lithium-ion, lead-acid, redox-flow and liquid-metal batteries show promise for grid-scale storage, but they are still far from meeting the grid's storage needs such as low cost, long cycle life, reliable safety and reasonable energy density for cost and footprint reduction. Here, we report a rechargeable manganese-hydrogen battery, where the cathode is cycled between soluble Mn2+ and solid MnO2 with a two-electron reaction, and the anode is cycled between H2 gas and H2O through well-known catalytic reactions of hydrogen evolution and oxidation. This battery chemistry exhibits a discharge voltage of 1.3 V, a rate capability of 100 mA cm-2 (36 s of discharge) and a lifetime of more than 10,000 cycles without decay. We achieve a gravimetric energy density of 139 Wh kg-1 (volumetric energy density of 210 Wh l-1), with the theoretical gravimetric energy density of 174 Wh kg-1 (volumetric energy density of 263 Wh l-1) in a 4 M MnSO4 electrolyte. The manganese-hydrogen battery involves low-cost abundant materials and has the potential to be scaled up for large-scale energy storage.

  17. Uncertainties in scaling factors for ab initio vibrational zero-point energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irikura, Karl K.; Johnson, Russell D.; Kacker, Raghu N.; Kessel, Rüdiger

    2009-03-01

    Vibrational zero-point energies (ZPEs) determined from ab initio calculations are often scaled by empirical factors. An empirical scaling factor partially compensates for the effects arising from vibrational anharmonicity and incomplete treatment of electron correlation. These effects are not random but are systematic. We report scaling factors for 32 combinations of theory and basis set, intended for predicting ZPEs from computed harmonic frequencies. An empirical scaling factor carries uncertainty. We quantify and report, for the first time, the uncertainties associated with scaling factors for ZPE. The uncertainties are larger than generally acknowledged; the scaling factors have only two significant digits. For example, the scaling factor for B3LYP/6-31G(d) is 0.9757±0.0224 (standard uncertainty). The uncertainties in the scaling factors lead to corresponding uncertainties in predicted ZPEs. The proposed method for quantifying the uncertainties associated with scaling factors is based upon the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, published by the International Organization for Standardization. We also present a new reference set of 60 diatomic and 15 polyatomic "experimental" ZPEs that includes estimated uncertainties.

  18. Power Take-Off Simulation for Scale Model Testing of Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Beatty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Small scale testing in controlled environments is a key stage in the development of potential wave energy conversion technology. Furthermore, it is well known that the physical design and operational quality of the power-take off (PTO used on the small scale model can have vast effects on the tank testing results. Passive mechanical elements such as friction brakes and air dampers or oil filled dashpots are fraught with nonlinear behaviors such as static friction, temperature dependency, and backlash, the effects of which propagate into the wave energy converter (WEC power production data, causing very high uncertainty in the extrapolation of the tank test results to the meaningful full ocean scale. The lack of quality in PTO simulators is an identified barrier to the development of WECs worldwide. A solution to this problem is to use actively controlled actuators for PTO simulation on small scale model wave energy converters. This can be done using force (or torque-controlled feedback systems with suitable instrumentation, enabling the PTO to exert any desired time and/or state dependent reaction force. In this paper, two working experimental PTO simulators on two different wave energy converters are described. The first implementation is on a 1:25 scale self-reacting point absorber wave energy converter with optimum reactive control. The real-time control system, described in detail, is implemented in LabVIEW. The second implementation is on a 1:20 scale single body point absorber under model-predictive control, implemented with a real-time controller in MATLAB/Simulink. Details on the physical hardware, software, and feedback control methods, as well as results, are described for each PTO. Lastly, both sets of real-time control code are to be web-hosted, free for download, modified and used by other researchers and WEC developers.

  19. A Multi-Scale Energy Food Systems Modeling Framework For Climate Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, S.; Bakker, C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Hobbs, B. F.; Broaddus, E.; Neff, R.; Haskett, J.; Parker, C.

    2016-12-01

    Our goal is to understand coupled system dynamics across scales in a manner that allows us to quantify the sensitivity of critical human outcomes (nutritional satisfaction, household economic well-being) to development strategies and to climate or market induced shocks in sub-Saharan Africa. We adopt both bottom-up and top-down multi-scale modeling approaches focusing our efforts on food, energy, water (FEW) dynamics to define, parameterize, and evaluate modeled processes nationally as well as across climate zones and communities. Our framework comprises three complementary modeling techniques spanning local, sub-national and national scales to capture interdependencies between sectors, across time scales, and on multiple levels of geographic aggregation. At the center is a multi-player micro-economic (MME) partial equilibrium model for the production, consumption, storage, and transportation of food, energy, and fuels, which is the focus of this presentation. We show why such models can be very useful for linking and integrating across time and spatial scales, as well as a wide variety of models including an agent-based model applied to rural villages and larger population centers, an optimization-based electricity infrastructure model at a regional scale, and a computable general equilibrium model, which is applied to understand FEW resources and economic patterns at national scale. The MME is based on aggregating individual optimization problems for relevant players in an energy, electricity, or food market and captures important food supply chain components of trade and food distribution accounting for infrastructure and geography. Second, our model considers food access and utilization by modeling food waste and disaggregating consumption by income and age. Third, the model is set up to evaluate the effects of seasonality and system shocks on supply, demand, infrastructure, and transportation in both energy and food.

  20. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, F. A.; Whitley, T. A.; Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.

    1991-07-01

    Absolute partial photoionization cross sections for ionization out of the first four valence orbitals to the X 2B 3u, A 2B 3g, B 2A g and C 2B 2u states of the C 2H 4+ ion are presented as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 12 to 26 eV. The experimental results have been compared to previously published relative partial cross sections for the first two bands at 18, 21 and 24 eV. Comparison of the experimental data with continuum multiple scattering Xα calculations provides evidence for extensive autoionization to the X 2B 3u state and confirms the predicted shape resonances in ionization to the A 2B 3g and B 2A g states. Identification of possible transitions for the autoionizing resonances have been made using multiple scattering transition state calculations on Rydberg excited states.

  1. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Peter; Dahl, Carl Eric

    2011-01-01

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  2. Simple analytical approximation for rotationally inelastic rate constants based on the energy corrected sudden scaling law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N.; Pritchard, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the energy corrected sudden (ECS) scaling law of De Pristo et al. when conbined with the power law assumption for the basis rates k/sub l/→0proportional[l(l+1)]/sup -g/ can accurately fit a wide body of rotational energy transfer data. We develop a simple and accurate approximation to this fitting law, and in addition mathematically show the connection between it and our earlier proposed energy based law which also has been successful in describing both theoretical and experimental data on rotationally inelastic collisions

  3. Building energy retrofit index for policy making and decision support at regional and national scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayatian, Fazel; Sarto, Luca; Dall'O', Giuliano

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Machine learning is used for pre-processing, fine-tuning and post-processing data. •A new indicator is introduced to support building energy retrofit policies. •The presented indicator is evaluated by a case study of 4767 buildings. •Current energy indicators can misrepresent the building energy retrofit potential. -- Abstract: The vast data collected since the enforcement of building energy labelling in Italy has provided valuable information that is useful for planning the future of building energy efficiency. However, the indicators provided through energy certificates are not suitable to support decisions, which target building energy retrofit in a regional scale. Considering the bias of the energy performance index toward a building’s shape, decisions based on this index will favor buildings with a specific geometric characteristics. This study tends to overcome this issue by introducing a new indicator, tailored to rank buildings based on retrofitable characteristics. The proposed framework is validated by a case study, in which a large dataset of office buildings are assigned with the new index. Results indicate that the proposed indicator succeeds to extract a single index, which is representative of all building characteristics subject to energy retrofit. A new labeling procedure is also compared with the conventional classification of buildings. It is observed that the proposed labels properly partitions the dataset, according to buildings’ potential to undergo energy retrofit.

  4. Scale-up of organic reactions in ball mills: process intensification with regard to energy efficiency and economy of scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Achim; Schmidt, Robert; Jacob, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The scale-up of the Knoevenagel-condensation between vanillin and barbituric acid carried out in planetary ball mills is investigated from an engineering perspective. Generally, the reaction proceeded in the solid state without intermediate melting and afforded selectively only one product. The reaction has been used as a model to analyze the influence and relationship of different parameters related to operation in planetary ball mills. From the viewpoint of technological parameters the milling ball diameter, dMB, the filling degree with respect to the milling balls' packing, ΦMB,packing, and the filling degree of the substrates with respect to the void volume of the milling balls' packing, ΦGS, have been investigated at different reaction scales. It was found that milling balls with small dMB lead to higher yields within shorter reaction time, treaction, or lower rotation frequency, rpm. Thus, the lower limit is set considering the technology which is available for the separation of the milling balls from the product after the reaction. Regarding ΦMB,packing, results indicate that the optimal value is roughly 50% of the total milling beakers' volume, VB,total, independent of the reaction scale or reaction conditions. Thus, 30% of VB,total are taken by the milling balls. Increase of the initial batch sizes changes ΦGS significantly. However, within the investigated parameter range no negative influence on the yield was observed. Up to 50% of VB,total can be taken over by the substrates in addition to 30% for the total milling ball volume. Scale-up factors of 15 and 11 were realized considering the amount of substrates and the reactor volume, respectively. Beside technological parameters, variables which influence the process itself, treaction and rpm, were investigated also. Variation of those allowed to fine-tune the reaction conditions in order to maximize the yield and minimize the energy intensity.

  5. Scaling properties of adsorption energies for hydrogen-containing molecules on transition-metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Studt, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations are presented for CHx, x=0,1,2,3, NHx, x=0,1,2, OHx, x=0,1, and SHx, x=0,1 adsorption on a range of close-packed and stepped transition-metal surfaces. We find that the adsorption energy of any of the molecules considered scales approximately with the adsorp...

  6. Constraints on Dark Energy, Observable-mass Scaling Relations, Neutrino Properties and Gravity from Galaxy Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    Using a data set of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and/or ROSAT for 94 of those clusters we obtain tight constraints on dark energy, both luminosity-mass and temperature-mass scaling relations, neutrin...

  7. Finite-size scaling for quantum chains with an oscillatory energy gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeger, C.; Gehlen, G. von; Rittenberg, V.

    1984-07-01

    We show that the existence of zeroes of the energy gap for finite quantum chains is related to a nonvanishing wavevector. Finite-size scaling ansaetze are formulated for incommensurable and oscillatory structures. The ansaetze are verified in the one-dimensional XY model in a transverse field. (orig.)

  8. Combining offshore wind energy and large-scale mussel farming: background & technical, ecological and economic considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Rockmann, C.; Scholl, M.M.; Bartelings, H.; Burg, van den S.W.K.; Jak, R.G.; Jansen, H.M.; Klijnstra, J.; Leopold, M.F.; Poelman, M.; Smith, S.R.; Stavenuiter, J.; Veenstra, F.A.; Veltman, C.; Westra, C.

    2014-01-01

    This Blauwdruk project report presents background and technical, ecological and economic considerations of the potential combination of offshore wind energy production and large-scale mussel farming in offshore areas in the North Sea. The main objective of the Blauwdruk project was to study the

  9. Battery Energy Storage Market: Commercial Scale, Lithium-ion Projects in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce; Gagnon, Pieter; Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Fu, Ran; Remo, Tim

    2016-10-01

    This slide deck presents current market data on the commercial scale li-ion battery storage projects in the U.S. It includes existing project locations, cost data and project cost breakdown, a map of demand charges across the U.S. and information about how the ITC and MACRS apply to energy storage projects that are paired with solar PV technology.

  10. LIDAR-based urban metabolism approach to neighbourhood scale energy and carbon emissions modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Coops, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Canada Research Chairs, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kellet, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture

    2010-07-01

    A remote sensing technology was used to model neighbourhood scale energy and carbon emissions in a case study set in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC). The study was used to compile and aggregate atmospheric carbon flux, urban form, and energy and emissions data in a replicable neighbourhood-scale approach. The study illustrated methods of integrating diverse emission and uptake processes on a range of scales and resolutions, and benchmarked comparisons of modelled estimates with measured energy consumption data obtained over a 2-year period from a research tower located in the study area. The study evaluated carbon imports, carbon exports and sequestration, and relevant emissions processes. Fossil fuel emissions produced in the neighbourhood were also estimated. The study demonstrated that remote sensing technologies such as LIDAR and multispectral satellite imagery can be an effective means of generating and extracting urban form and land cover data at fine scales. Data from the study were used to develop several emissions reduction and energy conservation scenarios. 6 refs.

  11. Study on superhigh energy γ-ray family events with large-scale Fe emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Jingru; Lu Suiling; Su Shi

    1990-01-01

    Using a large-scale iron emulsion chamber, a big γ-ray family event with observed energy ΣE r = 7631 TeV was obtained. This paper described the advantages of iron emulsion chamber for studying big families and the characteristics of the event observed, together with a comparison with the Monte-Carlo simulation results

  12. Approaches to 30% Energy Savings at the Community Scale in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas-Rees, S.; Beal, D.; Martin, E.; Fonorow, K.

    2013-03-01

    BA-PIRC has worked with several community-scale builders within the hot humid climate zone to improve performance of production, or community scale, housing. Tommy Williams Homes (Gainesville, FL), Lifestyle Homes (Melbourne, FL), and Habitat for Humanity (various locations, FL) have all been continuous partners of the BA Program and are the subjects of this report to document achievement of the Building America goal of 30% whole house energy savings packages adopted at the community scale. The scope of this report is to demonstrate achievement of these goals though the documentation of production-scale homes built cost-effectively at the community scale, and modeled to reduce whole-house energy use by 30% in the Hot Humid climate region. Key aspects of this research include determining how to evolve existing energy efficiency packages to produce replicable target savings, identifying what builders' technical assistance needs are for implementation and working with them to create sustainable quality assurance mechanisms, and documenting the commercial viability through neutral cost analysis and market acceptance. This report documents certain barriers builders overcame and the approaches they implemented in order to accomplish Building America (BA) Program goals that have not already been documented in previous reports.

  13. Micro-scale energy valorization of grape marcs in winery production plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Andrea; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.serranti@uniroma1.it

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • BioMethane Potential of grape marcs was investigated. • Grape marcs were characterized to realize a micro-scale energy recovery. • Comparative BMP batch-tests utilizing lab-scale reactors were performed. • Biogas valorization by grape marcs anaerobic digestion at small scale is evaluated. - Abstract: The BiochemicalMethanePotential (BMP) of winery organic waste, with reference to two Italian red and white grapes (i.e. Nero Buono and Greco) by-products was investigated. The study was carried out to verify the possibility to reduce the production impact in a green-waste-management-chain-perspective. The possibility to efficiently utilize wine-related-by-products for energy production at a micro-scale (i.e. small-medium scale winery production plant) was also verified. Results showed as a good correlation can be established between the percentage of COD removal and the biogas production, as the winery can produce, from its waste methanization, about 7800 kW h year{sup −1} electrical and 8900 kW h year{sup −1} thermal. A critical evaluation was performed about the possibility to utilize the proposed approach to realize an optimal biomass waste management and an energetic valorization in a local-energy-production-perspective.

  14. Micro-scale energy valorization of grape marcs in winery production plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Andrea; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • BioMethane Potential of grape marcs was investigated. • Grape marcs were characterized to realize a micro-scale energy recovery. • Comparative BMP batch-tests utilizing lab-scale reactors were performed. • Biogas valorization by grape marcs anaerobic digestion at small scale is evaluated. - Abstract: The BiochemicalMethanePotential (BMP) of winery organic waste, with reference to two Italian red and white grapes (i.e. Nero Buono and Greco) by-products was investigated. The study was carried out to verify the possibility to reduce the production impact in a green-waste-management-chain-perspective. The possibility to efficiently utilize wine-related-by-products for energy production at a micro-scale (i.e. small-medium scale winery production plant) was also verified. Results showed as a good correlation can be established between the percentage of COD removal and the biogas production, as the winery can produce, from its waste methanization, about 7800 kW h year −1 electrical and 8900 kW h year −1 thermal. A critical evaluation was performed about the possibility to utilize the proposed approach to realize an optimal biomass waste management and an energetic valorization in a local-energy-production-perspective

  15. Next generation molten NaI batteries for grid scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leo J.; Eccleston, Alexis; Lamb, Joshua; Read, Andrew C.; Robins, Matthew; Meaders, Thomas; Ingersoll, David; Clem, Paul G.; Bhavaraju, Sai; Spoerke, Erik D.

    2017-08-01

    Robust, safe, and reliable grid-scale energy storage continues to be a priority for improved energy surety, expanded integration of renewable energy, and greater system agility required to meet modern dynamic and evolving electrical energy demands. We describe here a new sodium-based battery based on a molten sodium anode, a sodium iodide/aluminum chloride (NaI/AlCl3) cathode, and a high conductivity NaSICON (Na1+xZr2SixP3-xO12) ceramic separator. This NaI battery operates at intermediate temperatures (120-180 °C) and boasts an energy density of >150 Wh kg-1. The energy-dense NaI-AlCl3 ionic liquid catholyte avoids lifetime-limiting plating and intercalation reactions, and the use of earth-abundant elements minimizes materials costs and eliminates economic uncertainties associated with lithium metal. Moreover, the inherent safety of this system under internal mechanical failure is characterized by negligible heat or gas production and benign reaction products (Al, NaCl). Scalability in design is exemplified through evolution from 0.85 to 10 Ah (28 Wh) form factors, displaying lifetime average Coulombic efficiencies of 99.45% and energy efficiencies of 81.96% over dynamic testing lasting >3000 h. This demonstration promises a safe, cost-effective, and long-lifetime technology as an attractive candidate for grid scale storage.

  16. Numerical investigation on flow behavior and energy separation in a micro-scale vortex tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahbar Nader

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a few experimental and numerical studies on the behaviour of micro-scale vortex tubes. The intention of this work is to investigate the energy separation phenomenon in a micro-scale vortex tube by using the computational fluid dynamic. The flow is assumed as steady, turbulent, compressible ideal gas, and the shear-stress transport sst k-w is used for modeling of turbulence phenomenon. The results show that 3-D CFD simulation is more accurate than 2-D axisymmetric one. Moreover, optimum cold-mass ratios to maximize the refrigeration-power and isentropicefficiency are evaluated. The results of static temperature, velocity magnitude and pressure distributions show that the temperature-separation in the micro-scale vortex tube is a function of kinetic-energy variation and air-expansion in the radial direction.

  17. Approaches to 30 Percent Energy Savings at the Community Scale in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas-Rees, S. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Beal, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    BA-PIRC has worked with several community-scale builders within the hot humid climate zone to improve performance of production, or community scale, housing. Tommy Williams Homes (Gainesville, FL), Lifestyle Homes (Melbourne, FL), and Habitat for Humanity (various locations, FL) have all been continuous partners of the Building America program and are the subjects of this report to document achievement of the Building America goal of 30% whole house energy savings packages adopted at the community scale. Key aspects of this research include determining how to evolve existing energy efficiency packages to produce replicable target savings, identifying what builders' technical assistance needs are for implementation and working with them to create sustainable quality assurance mechanisms, and documenting the commercial viability through neutral cost analysis and market acceptance. This report documents certain barriers builders overcame and the approaches they implemented in order to accomplish Building America (BA) Program goals that have not already been documented in previous reports.

  18. What could we learn about high energy particle physics from cosmological observations at largest spatial scales ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The very well known example of cosmology testing particle physics is the number of relativistic particles (photons and three active neutrinos within the Standard Model at primordial nucleosynthesis. These days the earliest moment we can hope to probe with present cosmological data is the early time inflation. The particle physics conditions there and now are different because of different energy scales and different values of the scalar fields, that usually prohibits a reliable connection between the particle physics parameters at the two interesting epochs. The physics at the highest energy scales may be probed with observations at the largest spatial scales (just somewhat smaller than the size of the visible Universe. However, we are not (yet ready to make the tests realistic, because of lack of a self-consistent theoretical description of the presently favorite cosmological models to be valid right after inflation.

  19. Multi-scale Food Energy and Water Dynamics in the Blue Nile Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Simane, B.; Block, P. J.; Foltz, J.; Mueller-Mahn, D.; Gilioli, G.; Sciarretta, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Ethiopian highlands are often called the "water tower of Africa," giving rise to major transboundary rivers. Rapid hydropower development is quickly transforming these highlands into the "power plant of Africa" as well. For local people, however, they are first and foremost a land of small farms, devoted primarily to subsistence agriculture. Under changing climate, rapid national economic growth, and steadily increasing population and land pressures, these mountains and their inhabitants have become the focal point of a multi-scale food-energy-water nexus with significant implications across East Africa. Here we examine coupled natural-human system dynamics that emerge when basin and nation scale resource development strategies are superimposed on a local economy that is largely subsistence based. Sensitivity to local and remote climate shocks are considered, as is the role of Earth Observation in understanding and informing management of food-energy-water resources across scales.

  20. Linear-scaling evaluation of the local energy in quantum Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, Brian; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Lester, William A. Jr.

    2006-01-01

    For atomic and molecular quantum Monte Carlo calculations, most of the computational effort is spent in the evaluation of the local energy. We describe a scheme for reducing the computational cost of the evaluation of the Slater determinants and correlation function for the correlated molecular orbital (CMO) ansatz. A sparse representation of the Slater determinants makes possible efficient evaluation of molecular orbitals. A modification to the scaled distance function facilitates a linear scaling implementation of the Schmidt-Moskowitz-Boys-Handy (SMBH) correlation function that preserves the efficient matrix multiplication structure of the SMBH function. For the evaluation of the local energy, these two methods lead to asymptotic linear scaling with respect to the molecule size

  1. Advancements in Modelling of Land Surface Energy Fluxes with Remote Sensing at Different Spatial Scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzinski, Radoslaw

    uxes, such as sensible heat ux, ground heat ux and net radiation, are also necessary. While it is possible to measure those uxes with ground-based instruments at local scales, at region scales they usually need to be modelled or estimated with the help of satellite remote sensing data. Even though...... to increase the spatial resolution of the reliable DTD-modelled fluxes from 1 km to 30 m. Furthermore, synergies between remote sensing based models and distributed hydrological models were studied with the aim of improving spatial performance of the hydrological models through incorporation of remote sensing...... of this study was to look at, and improve, various approaches for modelling the land-surface energy uxes at different spatial scales. The work was done using physically-based Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) approach as well as semi-empirical \\Triangle" approach. The TSEB-based approach was the main focus...

  2. Economic Model Predictive Control for Large-Scale and Distributed Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura

    Sources (RESs) in the smart grids is increasing. These energy sources bring uncertainty to the production due to their fluctuations. Hence,smart grids need suitable control systems that are able to continuously balance power production and consumption.  We apply the Economic Model Predictive Control (EMPC......) strategy to optimise the economic performances of the energy systems and to balance the power production and consumption. In the case of large-scale energy systems, the electrical grid connects a high number of power units. Because of this, the related control problem involves a high number of variables......In this thesis, we consider control strategies for large and distributed energy systems that are important for the implementation of smart grid technologies.  An electrical grid has to ensure reliability and avoid long-term interruptions in the power supply. Moreover, the share of Renewable Energy...

  3. Renewable energies in Germany, a national commitment... at the local scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of renewable energies in Germany: share in the national energy mix, the central role of municipalities, economical fallouts and added-value at the local scale (example of a 2 MW wind farm), key-role of the citizen in the development of renewable energies, cooperative companies: an appreciated model, citizen's solar facilities: when municipalities and citizens work side by side, citizen's wind farms: a model supported by citizens, French-German comparison of wind farms development, wind energy and photovoltaic development in Germany, French-German comparison of employment in the renewable energies industry, German consumers' contribution and electricity prices

  4. Modeling the impact of large-scale energy conversion systems on global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.

    There are three energy options which could satisfy a projected energy requirement of about 30 TW and these are the solar, nuclear and (to a lesser extent) coal options. Climate models can be used to assess the impact of large scale deployment of these options. The impact of waste heat has been assessed using energy balance models and general circulation models (GCMs). Results suggest that the impacts are significant when the heat imput is very high and studies of more realistic scenarios are required. Energy balance models, radiative-convective models and a GCM have been used to study the impact of doubling the atmospheric CO 2 concentration. State-of-the-art models estimate a surface temperature increase of 1.5-3.0 0 C with large amplification near the poles, but much uncertainty remains. Very few model studies have been made of the impact of particles on global climate, more information on the characteristics of particle input are required. The impact of large-scale deployment of solar energy conversion systems has received little attention but model studies suggest that large scale changes in surface characteristics associated with such systems (surface heat balance, roughness and hydrological characteristics and ocean surface temperature) could have significant global climatic effects. (Auth.)

  5. Two-scale correlation and energy cascade in three-dimensional turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y X; Schmitt, F G; Gagne, Y

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a high-order harmonic-free methodology, namely arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis, to estimate the two-scale correlation (TSC). When applied to fully developed turbulent velocity, we find that the scale-dependent Hilbert energy satisfies a lognormal distribution on both the inertial and dissipation ranges. The maximum probability density function of the logarithm of the Hilbert energy obeys a power law with a scaling exponent γ ≃ 0.33 in the inertial range. For the measured TSC, we observe a logarithmic correlation law with an experimental exponent α ≃ 0.37 on both the inertial and dissipation ranges. The correlation itself is found to be self-similar with respect to the distance between the two considered scales and a central frequency ω c in the logarithm space. An empirical nonlinear and nonlocal triad-scale interaction formula is proposed to describe the observed TSC. This triadic interaction can be interpreted as experimental evidence of a small-scale nonlinear and nonlocal coupling inside the self-similarity of the Richardson–Kolmogorov phenomenological cascade picture. (paper)

  6. Z-scaling in proton-nucleus collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zborovsky, I.; Tokarev, M.V.; Panebrattsev, Yu.A.; Skoro, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    New scaling, z-scaling, in the inclusive particle production in pA collisions is studied. The scaling function H A (z) is expressed via the inclusive cross section of particle production Ed 3 σ/dq 3 and the particle multiplicity density dN/dη at pseudorapidity η=0 in the corresponding nucleon-nucleon (NN) center-of-mass (CMS) system. The dependence of H A (z) on scaling variable z, the center-of-mass energy √, and the detection angle θ is investigated. The available experimental data on inclusive particle production (π ± , K ± ) in pA interactions at high energies are used to verify the universality of z-scaling found in hadron-hadron collisions. The A-dependence of H A (z) for π + -meson production is studied. It is shown that the experimental data >from pd collisions confirm the scaling properties of the function H d (z). Some predictions for H au (z) concerning production of π + -mesons in pAu interaction using the HIJING Monte Carlo code have been made. The obtained results can be of interest for future experiments at RHI and LHC in searching the signals of quark-gluon plasma formation

  7. Large-Scale Fabrication of Silicon Nanowires for Solar Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingchang; Jie, Jiansheng; Zhang, Xiujuan; Ou, Xuemei; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2017-10-11

    The development of silicon (Si) materials during past decades has boosted up the prosperity of the modern semiconductor industry. In comparison with the bulk-Si materials, Si nanowires (SiNWs) possess superior structural, optical, and electrical properties and have attracted increasing attention in solar energy applications. To achieve the practical applications of SiNWs, both large-scale synthesis of SiNWs at low cost and rational design of energy conversion devices with high efficiency are the prerequisite. This review focuses on the recent progresses in large-scale production of SiNWs, as well as the construction of high-efficiency SiNW-based solar energy conversion devices, including photovoltaic devices and photo-electrochemical cells. Finally, the outlook and challenges in this emerging field are presented.

  8. Breaking the theoretical scaling limit for predicting quasiparticle energies: the stochastic GW approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Gao, Yi; Arntsen, Christopher; Karshenas, Cyrus; Rabani, Eran; Baer, Roi

    2014-08-15

    We develop a formalism to calculate the quasiparticle energy within the GW many-body perturbation correction to the density functional theory. The occupied and virtual orbitals of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian are replaced by stochastic orbitals used to evaluate the Green function G, the polarization potential W, and, thereby, the GW self-energy. The stochastic GW (sGW) formalism relies on novel theoretical concepts such as stochastic time-dependent Hartree propagation, stochastic matrix compression, and spatial or temporal stochastic decoupling techniques. Beyond the theoretical interest, the formalism enables linear scaling GW calculations breaking the theoretical scaling limit for GW as well as circumventing the need for energy cutoff approximations. We illustrate the method for silicon nanocrystals of varying sizes with N_{e}>3000 electrons.

  9. Scaling and charge ratio in the energy range 1-10 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradzej, L.T.; Kanevskaya, E.A.; Smorodin, Yu.A.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to study the spectra of generation of neutral and charged pions in the upper atmosphere in order to establish the scaling behaviour of the multiple birth of particles at primary particle energies above the acceleration energies. The study of the spectrum gamma-quanta in the atmosphere and the muon spectrum at the sea level made it possible to adjust the pion generation spectrum. In experiments with emulsion chambers the spectra of gamma-quanta and electrons at different zenith angles at two levels in the atmosphere (225 and 700 gxcm -2 ) and the muon spectrum at the sea level were determined. The obtained data on pion birth in the atmosphere pointed to the conservation of scale and charge invariance in pion birth at nucleon energies of 10 12 -10 14 eV

  10. Improved parametrization of K+ production in p-Be collisions at low energy using Feynman scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, C.; Cheng, G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Conrad, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an improved parametrization for proton-beryllium production of secondary K + mesons for experiments with primary proton beams from 8.89 to 24 GeV/c. The parametrization is based on Feynman scaling in which the invariant cross section is described as a function of x F and p T . This method is theoretically motivated and provides a better description of the energy dependence of kaon production at low beam energies than other parametrizations such as the commonly used modified Sanford-Wang model. This Feynman scaling parametrization has been used for the simulation of the neutrino flux from the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab and has been shown to agree with the neutrino interaction data from the SciBooNE experiment. This parametrization will also be useful for future neutrino experiments with low primary beam energies, such as those planned for the Project X accelerator.

  11. Android Apps for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl

  12. Minnesota wood energy scale-up project 1994 establishment cost data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pierce, R. [Champion International, Alexandria, MN (United States); Kroll, T. [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources-Forestry, St. Cloud, MN (United States)

    1996-03-18

    The Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project began in late 1993 with the first trees planted in the spring of 1994. The purpose of the project is to track and monitor economic costs of planting, maintaining and monitoring larger scale commercial plantings. For 15 years, smaller scale research plantings of hybrid poplar have been used to screen for promising, high-yielding poplar clones. In this project 1000 acres of hybrid poplar trees were planted on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land near Alexandria, Minnesota in 1994. The fourteen landowners involved re-contracted with the CRP for five-year extensions of their existing 10-year contracts. These extended contracts will expire in 2001, when the plantings are 7 years old. The end use for the trees planted in the Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project is undetermined. They will belong to the owner of the land on which they are planted. There are no current contracts in place for the wood these trees are projected to supply. The structure of the wood industry in the Minnesota has changed drastically over the past 5 years. Stumpage values for fiber have risen to more than $20 per cord in some areas raising the possibility that these trees could be used for fiber rather than energy. Several legislative mandates have forced the State of Minnesota to pursue renewable energy including biomass energy. These mandates, a potential need for an additional 1700 MW of power by 2008 by Northern States Power, and agricultural policies will all affect development of energy markets for wood produced much like agricultural crops. There has been a tremendous amount of local and international interest in the project. Contractual negotiations between area landowners, the CRP, a local Resource Conservation and Development District, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and others are currently underway for additional planting of 1000 acres in spring 1995.

  13. Absolute differential cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by helium, neon, argon and molecular nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, R.H.J.; De Heer, F.J.; Luyken, H.J.; Van Wingerden, B.

    1976-01-01

    An electron spectrometer has been constructed for the study of elastic and inelastic electron scattering processes. Up to now the apparatus has been used to measure differential cross sections of electrons elastically scattered by He, Ne, Ar and N 2 . Direct absolute cross section measurements were performed on N 2 at 500 eV impact energy and at scattering angles between 5 0 and 9 0 . Relative cross section measurements were done on He, Ne, Ar and N 2 at impact energies between 100 and 3000 eV and scattering angles between 5 0 and 55 0 . The relative cross sections were put on an absolute scale by means of the apparatus calibration factor derived from the absolute measurements on N 2 . The experimental apparatus and procedure are described in detail. The results are discussed and compared with those of other experimental and theoretical groups. Analysis of the exponential behaviour of the differential cross section as a function of momentum transfer yielded apparent polarizabilities of the target. (author)

  14. Experimental design of high energy electron gun by means of scaling rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of the design of a new family of electron guns by means of scaling theory of electron-optical devices (EOD) is presented. According to the theory, EOD with a relatively big space charge, as in high energy Pierce type electron guns used in technological equipment, generally cannot be scaled, because of their nonlinear space charge nature. Therefore, the scaling rules are applied here only to the anode zone of the gun, where the electron beam perveance is small, and the cathode lens of gun with considerable space charge remains unchanged. The procedure for scaling a 25 kV and 150 mA gun with cylindrical electron beam into a high voltage 75 kV and 150 mA electron system is given. An experimental investigation proved the high technological quality of a high voltage gun constructed according to the above conception. (author)

  15. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  16. Sustainability of utility-scale solar energy – critical ecological concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-O'Leary, Kara A.; Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Johnston, Dave S.; Abella, Scott R.; Tanner, Karen E.; Swanson, Amanda C.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy development is an arena where ecological, political, and socioeconomic values collide. Advances in renewable energy will incur steep environmental costs to landscapes in which facilities are constructed and operated. Scientists – including those from academia, industry, and government agencies – have only recently begun to quantify trade-offs in this arena, often using ground-mounted, utility-scale solar energy facilities (USSE, ≥1 megawatt) as a model. Here, we discuss five critical ecological concepts applicable to the development of more sustainable USSE with benefits over fossil-fuel-generated energy: (1) more sustainable USSE development requires careful evaluation of trade-offs between land, energy, and ecology; (2) species responses to habitat modification by USSE vary; (3) cumulative and large-scale ecological impacts are complex and challenging to mitigate; (4) USSE development affects different types of ecosystems and requires customized design and management strategies; and (5) long-term ecological consequences associated with USSE sites must be carefully considered. These critical concepts provide a framework for reducing adverse environmental impacts, informing policy to establish and address conservation priorities, and improving energy production sustainability.

  17. Absolute pitch: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, P E

    1977-11-01

    The auditory skill known as 'absolute pitch' is discussed, and it is shown that this differs greatly in accuracy of identification or reproduction of musical tones from ordinary discrimination of 'tonal height' which is to some extent trainable. The present writer possessed absolute pitch for almost any tone or chord over the normal musical range, from about the age of 17 to 52. He then started to hear all music one semitone too high, and now at the age of 71 it is heard a full tone above the true pitch. Tests were carried out under controlled conditions, in which 68 to 95 per cent of notes were identified as one semitone or one tone higher than they should be. Changes with ageing seem more likely to occur in the elasticity of the basilar membrane mechanisms than in the long-term memory which is used for aural analysis of complex sounds. Thus this experience supports the view that some resolution of complex sounds takes place at the peripheral sense organ, and this provides information which can be incorrect, for interpretation by the cortical centres.

  18. Absolute measurement of 152Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Hiroshi; Baba, Sumiko; Ichikawa, Shinichi; Sekine, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Isamu

    1981-08-01

    A new method of the absolute measurement for 152 Eu was established based on the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic anti-coincidence method. It is a coincidence counting method consisting of a 4πβ-counter and a Ge(Li) γ-ray detector, in which the effective counting efficiencies of the 4πβ-counter for β-rays, conversion electrons, and Auger electrons were obtained by taking the intensity ratios for certain γ-rays between the single spectrum and the spectrum coincident with the pulses from the 4πβ-counter. First, in order to verify the method, three different methods of the absolute measurement were performed with a prepared 60 Co source to find excellent agreement among the results deduced by them. Next, the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic coincidence measurement was applied to 152 Eu sources prepared by irradiating an enriched 151 Eu target in a reactor. The result was compared with that obtained by the γ-ray spectrometry using a 152 Eu standard source supplied by LMRI. They agreed with each other within the error of 2%. (author)

  19. Results of Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer and Infrared Integrating Sphere Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, Ibrahim M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dooraghi, Michael R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grobner, Julian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Thomann, Christian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; McComiskey, Allison [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Hall, Emiel [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Wacker, Stefan [Deutscher Wetterdienst

    2018-03-05

    Accurate and traceable atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements are required for understanding radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget. The standard to which pyrgeometers are traceable is the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), maintained in the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The WISG consists of four pyrgeometers that were calibrated using Rolf Philipona's Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer [1]. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility has recently adopted the WISG to maintain the traceability of the calibrations of all Eppley precision infrared radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometers. Subsequently, Julian Grobner [2] developed the infrared interferometer spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) radiometer, and Ibrahim Reda [3] developed the absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP). The ACP and IRIS were developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and they are traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The two instruments were compared directly to the WISG three times at PMOD and twice at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility to WISG-traceable pyrgeometers. The ACP and IRIS agreed within +/- 1 W/m2 to +/- 3 W/m2 in all comparisons, whereas the WISG references exhibit a 2-5 Wm2 low bias compared to the ACP/IRIS average, depending on the water vapor column, as noted in Grobner et al. [4]. Consequently, a case for changing the current WISG has been made by Grobner and Reda. However, during the five comparisons the column water vapor exceeded 8 mm. Therefore, it is recommended that more ACP and IRIS comparisons should be held under different environmental conditions and water vapor column content to better establish the traceability of these instruments to SI with established uncertainty.

  20. Energy System Analysis of Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-11-01

    The paper presents the results of two research projects conducted by Aalborg University and financed by the Danish Energy Research Programme. Both projects include the development of models and system analysis with focus on large-scale integration of wind power into different energy systems. Market reactions and ability to exploit exchange on the international market for electricity by locating exports in hours of high prices are included in the analyses. This paper focuses on results which are valid for energy systems in general. The paper presents the ability of different energy systems and regulation strategies to integrate wind power, The ability is expressed by three factors: One factor is the degree of electricity excess production caused by fluctuations in wind and CHP heat demands. The other factor is the ability to utilise wind power to reduce CO 2 emission in the system. And the third factor is the ability to benefit from exchange of electricity on the market. Energy systems and regulation strategies are analysed in the range of a wind power input from 0 to 100% of the electricity demand. Based on the Danish energy system, in which 50 per cent of the electricity demand is produced in CHP, a number of future energy systems with CO 2 reduction potentials are analysed, i.e. systems with more CHP, systems using electricity for transportation (battery or hydrogen vehicles) and systems with fuel-cell technologies. For the present and such potential future energy systems different regulation strategies have been analysed, i.e. the inclusion of small CHP plants into the regulation task of electricity balancing and grid stability and investments in electric heating, heat pumps and heat storage capacity. Also the potential of energy management has been analysed. The results of the analyses make it possible to compare short-term and long-term potentials of different strategies of large-scale integration of wind power

  1. Algorithm for removing the noise from γ energy spectrum by analyzing the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianduo; Xiao Gang; Di Yuming; Han Feng; Qiu Xiaoling

    1999-01-01

    The γ energy spectrum is expanded in allied energy-frequency space. By the different characterization of the evolution of wavelet transform modulus maxima across scales between energy spectrum and noise, the algorithm for removing the noise from γ energy spectrum by analyzing the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales is presented. The results show, in contrast to the methods in energy space or in frequency space, the method has the advantages that the peak of energy spectrum can be indicated accurately and the energy spectrum can be reconstructed with a good approximation

  2. The Transition to Large-scale Cosmic Homogeneity in the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Morag; Davis, T.; Blake, C.; James, B.; Poole, G. B.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Dark Energy Survey, WiggleZ

    2013-01-01

    The most fundamental assumption of the standard cosmological model (ΛCDM) is that the universe is homogeneous on large scales. This is clearly not true on small scales, where clusters and voids exist, and some studies seem to suggest that galaxies follow a fractal distribution up to very large scales 200 h-1 Mpc or more), whereas the ΛCDM model predicts transition to homogeneity at scales of ~100 h-1 Mpc. Any cosmological measurements made below the scale of homogeneity (such as the power spectrum) could be misleading, so it is crucial to measure the scale of homogeneity in the Universe. We have used the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey to make the largest volume measurement to date of the transition to homogeneity in the galaxy distribution. WiggleZ is a UV-selected spectroscopic survey of ~200,000 luminous blue galaxies up to z=1, made with the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We have corrected for survey incompleteness using random catalogues that account for the various survey selection criteria, and tested the robustness of our results using a suite of fractal mock catalogues. The large volume and depth of WiggleZ allows us to probe the transition of the galaxy distribution to homogeneity on large scales and over several epochs, and see if this is consistent with a ΛCDM prediction.

  3. Large-scale building energy efficiency retrofit: Concept, model and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhou; Wang, Bo; Xia, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    BEER (Building energy efficiency retrofit) projects are initiated in many nations and regions over the world. Existing studies of BEER focus on modeling and planning based on one building and one year period of retrofitting, which cannot be applied to certain large BEER projects with multiple buildings and multi-year retrofit. In this paper, the large-scale BEER problem is defined in a general TBT (time-building-technology) framework, which fits essential requirements of real-world projects. The large-scale BEER is newly studied in the control approach rather than the optimization approach commonly used before. Optimal control is proposed to design optimal retrofitting strategy in terms of maximal energy savings and maximal NPV (net present value). The designed strategy is dynamically changing on dimensions of time, building and technology. The TBT framework and the optimal control approach are verified in a large BEER project, and results indicate that promising performance of energy and cost savings can be achieved in the general TBT framework. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency retrofit of many buildings is studied. • A TBT (time-building-technology) framework is proposed. • The control system of the large-scale BEER is modeled. • The optimal retrofitting strategy is obtained.

  4. The application of liquid air energy storage for large scale long duration solutions to grid balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) provides large scale, long duration energy storage at the point of demand in the 5 MW/20 MWh to 100 MW/1,000 MWh range. LAES combines mature components from the industrial gas and electricity industries assembled in a novel process and is one of the few storage technologies that can be delivered at large scale, with no geographical constraints. The system uses no exotic materials or scarce resources and all major components have a proven lifetime of 25+ years. The system can also integrate low grade waste heat to increase power output. Founded in 2005, Highview Power Storage, is a UK based developer of LAES. The company has taken the concept from academic analysis, through laboratory testing, and in 2011 commissioned the world's first fully integrated system at pilot plant scale (300 kW/2.5 MWh) hosted at SSE's (Scottish & Southern Energy) 80 MW Biomass Plant in Greater London which was partly funded by a Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) grant. Highview is now working with commercial customers to deploy multi MW commercial reference plants in the UK and abroad.

  5. Ultralow-Energy Wireless Smart-Scales System with Micropower Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kazuma; Yano, Hironori; Mochizuki, Misako; Takano, Tomoaki; Yamauchi, Hironori; Douseki, Takakuni

    A wireless smart-scales system with a face recognition function has been developed as an application for wireless sensor networks. The face recognition employs a wireless camera; and the system automatically identifies a person and stores the weights of all the people that use the system on a server. Two key ultralow-energy circuit techniques were devised for the smart scales. One is a nearly-zero-standby-current circuit that combines a mechanical switch and an electrical CPU-controlled power switch; it reduces the standby power dissipation of the CPU from 1.5 mW to less than 0.1 μW. The other is a super-intermittently-operating circuit with a power-switch transistor and a small resistance; it suppresses the energy dissipation of the wireless camera to just 1/4 of the total energy dissipation. Furthermore, an electromechanical micropower generator with electromagnetic induction further reduces the energy dissipation. It is located under the scales and supplies a power of 75 mW during one second.

  6. Small-scale hybrid plant integrated with municipal energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, B.H.; Fossum, M.; Belsnes, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a research program started in 2001 to optimize environmental impact and cost of a small-scale hybrid plant based on candidate resources, transportation technologies and conversion efficiency, including integration with existing energy distribution systems. Special attention is given to a novel hybrid energy concept fuelled by municipal solid waste. The commercial interest for the model is expected to be more pronounced in remote communities and villages, including communities subject to growing prosperity. To enable optimization of complex energy distribution systems with multiple energy sources and carriers a flexible and robust methodology must be developed. This will enable energy companies and consultants to carry out comprehensive feasibility studies prior to investment, including technological, economic and environmental aspects. Governmental and municipal bodies will be able to pursue scenario studies involving energy systems and their impact on the environment, and measure the consequences of possible regulation regimes on environmental questions. This paper describes the hybrid concept for conversion of municipal solid waste in terms of energy supply, as well as the methodology for optimizing such integrated energy systems. (author)

  7. Low frequency energy scavenging using sub-wave length scale acousto-elastic metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz U. Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents the possibility of energy scavenging (ES utilizing the physics of acousto-elastic metamaterial (AEMM at low frequencies (<∼3KHz. It is proposed to use the AEMM in a dual mode (Acoustic Filter and Energy Harvester, simultaneously. AEMM’s are typically reported for filtering acoustic waves by trapping or guiding the acoustic energy, whereas this letter shows that the dynamic energy trapped inside the soft constituent (matrix of metamaterials can be significantly harvested by strategically embedding piezoelectric wafers in the matrix. With unit cell AEMM model, we experimentally asserted that at lower acoustic frequencies (< ∼3 KHz, maximum power in the micro Watts (∼35µW range can be generated, whereas, recently reported phononic crystal based metamaterials harvested only nano Watt (∼30nW power against 10KΩ resistive load. Efficient energy scavengers at low acoustic frequencies are almost absent due to large required size relevant to the acoustic wavelength. Here we report sub wave length scale energy scavengers utilizing the coupled physics of local, structural and matrix resonances. Upon validation of the argument through analytical, numerical and experimental studies, a multi-frequency energy scavenger (ES with multi-cell model is designed with varying geometrical properties capable of scavenging energy (power output from ∼10µW – ∼90µW between 0.2 KHz and 1.5 KHz acoustic frequencies.

  8. Financial analysis of utility scale photovoltaic plants with battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolf, Viktor; Papastergiou, Konstantinos D.

    2013-01-01

    Battery energy storage is a flexible and responsive form of storing electrical energy from Renewable generation. The need for energy storage mainly stems from the intermittent nature of solar and wind energy sources. System integrators are investigating ways to design plants that can provide more stable output power without compromising the financial performance that is vital for investors. Network operators on the other side set stringent requirements for the commissioning of new generation, including preferential terms for energy providers with a well-defined generation profile. The aim of this work is to highlight the market and technology drivers that impact the feasibility of battery energy storage in a Utility-scale solar PV project. A simulation tool combines a battery cycling and lifetime model with a solar generation profile and electricity market prices. The business cases of the present market conditions and a projected future scenario are analyzed. - Highlights: • Generation shifting with batteries allows PV projects to generate additional revenues. • Battery lifetime, lifecycles and price are less relevant than electricity market prices. • Installed battery capacity of up to 50% of the daily PV energy boosts project economy. • A 25% higher premium for energy storage could improve NPV by approximately 65%

  9. Energy-scales convergence for optimal and robust quantum transport in photosynthetic complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohseni, M. [Google Research, Venice, California 90291 (United States); Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shabani, A. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lloyd, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Rabitz, H. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Underlying physical principles for the high efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes are not fully understood. Notably, the degree of robustness of these systems for transporting energy is not known considering their realistic interactions with vibrational and radiative environments within the surrounding solvent and scaffold proteins. In this work, we employ an efficient technique to estimate energy transfer efficiency of such complex excitonic systems. We observe that the dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex leads to optimal and robust energy transport due to a convergence of energy scales among all important internal and external parameters. In particular, we show that the FMO energy transfer efficiency is optimum and stable with respect to important parameters of environmental interactions including reorganization energy λ, bath frequency cutoff γ, temperature T, and bath spatial correlations. We identify the ratio of k{sub B}λT/ℏγ⁢g as a single key parameter governing quantum transport efficiency, where g is the average excitonic energy gap.

  10. Feasibility Assessment of Using Power Plant Waste Heat in Large Scale Horticulture Facility Energy Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Korean government has been carrying out projects to construct several large scale horticulture facilities. However, it is difficult for an energy supply to operate stably and economically with only a conventional fossil fuel boiler system. For this reason, several unused energy sources have become attractive and it was found that power plant waste heat has the greatest potential for application in this scenario. In this study, we performed a feasibility assessment of power plant waste heat as an energy source for horticulture facilities. As a result, it was confirmed that there was a sufficient amount of energy potential for the use of waste heat to supply energy to the assumed area. In Dangjin, an horticultural area of 500 ha could be constructed by utilizing 20% of the energy reserves. In Hadong, a horticulture facility can be set up to be 260 ha with 7.4% of the energy reserves. In Youngdong, an assumed area of 65 ha could be built utilizing about 19% of the energy reserves. Furthermore, the payback period was calculated in order to evaluate the economic feasibility compared with a conventional system. The initial investment costs can be recovered by the approximately 83% reduction in the annual operating costs.

  11. Energy-scales convergence for optimal and robust quantum transport in photosynthetic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, M.; Shabani, A.; Lloyd, S.; Rabitz, H.

    2014-01-01

    Underlying physical principles for the high efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes are not fully understood. Notably, the degree of robustness of these systems for transporting energy is not known considering their realistic interactions with vibrational and radiative environments within the surrounding solvent and scaffold proteins. In this work, we employ an efficient technique to estimate energy transfer efficiency of such complex excitonic systems. We observe that the dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex leads to optimal and robust energy transport due to a convergence of energy scales among all important internal and external parameters. In particular, we show that the FMO energy transfer efficiency is optimum and stable with respect to important parameters of environmental interactions including reorganization energy λ, bath frequency cutoff γ, temperature T, and bath spatial correlations. We identify the ratio of k B λT/ℏγ⁢g as a single key parameter governing quantum transport efficiency, where g is the average excitonic energy gap

  12. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  13. Scaling the energy conversion rate from magnetic field reconnection to different bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozer, F. S.; Hull, A.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic field reconnection is often invoked to explain electromagnetic energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres, stellar coronae, and other astrophysical objects. Because of the huge dynamic range of magnetic fields in these bodies, it is important to understand energy conversion as a function of magnetic field strength and related parameters. It is conjectured theoretically and shown experimentally that the energy conversion rate per unit area in reconnection scales as the cube of an appropriately weighted magnetic field strength divided by the square root of an appropriately weighted density. With this functional dependence, the energy release in flares on the Sun, the large and rapid variation of the magnetic flux in the tail of Mercury, and the apparent absence of reconnection on Jupiter and Saturn, may be understood. Electric fields at the perihelion of the Solar Probe Plus mission may be tens of V/m.

  14. Recovery Act - CAREER: Sustainable Silicon -- Energy-Efficient VLSI Interconnect for Extreme-Scale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Patrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The research goal of this CAREER proposal is to develop energy-efficient, VLSI interconnect circuits and systems that will facilitate future massively-parallel, high-performance computing. Extreme-scale computing will exhibit massive parallelism on multiple vertical levels, from thou­ sands of computational units on a single processor to thousands of processors in a single data center. Unfortunately, the energy required to communicate between these units at every level (on­ chip, off-chip, off-rack) will be the critical limitation to energy efficiency. Therefore, the PI's career goal is to become a leading researcher in the design of energy-efficient VLSI interconnect for future computing systems.

  15. Multi-time scale energy management of wind farms based on comprehensive evaluation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. P.; Huang, Y. H.; Liu, Z. J.; Wang, Y. F.; Li, Z. Y.; Guo, L.

    2017-11-01

    A novel energy management of wind farms is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a novel comprehensive evaluation system is proposed to quantify economic properties of each wind farm to make the energy management more economical and reasonable. Then, a combination of multi time-scale schedule method is proposed to develop a novel energy management. The day-ahead schedule optimizes unit commitment of thermal power generators. The intraday schedule is established to optimize power generation plan for all thermal power generating units, hydroelectric generating sets and wind power plants. At last, the power generation plan can be timely revised in the process of on-line schedule. The paper concludes with simulations conducted on a real provincial integrated energy system in northeast China. Simulation results have validated the proposed model and corresponding solving algorithms.

  16. Revitalization of Energy Supply Systems in the Scale of a Town, a District and an Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juchimiuk Justyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Model actions undertaken in HafenCity and Wilhelmsburg during IBA Hamburg 2006- 13 as well as energy transformation of Danish island of Samsø towards self-sufficiency are examples of the use of energy as one of the key factors in the design of revitalization process in various scales. An important issue is to determine the impact of renewable energy systems on design process, architecture and urbanism of revitalized structures. Article examines the programs and projects related to the processes: renewal of degraded inner-industrial areas (brownfields, ecological restoration of degraded land, the revitalization of port and underdeveloped areas in the aspects of climate protection, the use of energy from renewable sources and improvement of technical conditions of building substance while maintaining the principles of sustainable development.

  17. Considerations for reducing food system energy demand while scaling up urban agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohareb, Eugene; Heller, Martin; Novak, Paige; Goldstein, Benjamin; Fonoll, Xavier; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing global interest in scaling up urban agriculture (UA) in its various forms, from private gardens to sophisticated commercial operations. Much of this interest is in the spirit of environmental protection, with reduced waste and transportation energy highlighted as some of the proposed benefits of UA; however, explicit consideration of energy and resource requirements needs to be made in order to realize these anticipated environmental benefits. A literature review is undertaken here to provide new insight into the energy implications of scaling up UA in cities in high-income countries, considering UA classification, direct/indirect energy pressures, and interactions with other components of the food-energy-water nexus. This is followed by an exploration of ways in which these cities can plan for the exploitation of waste flows for resource-efficient UA. Given that it is estimated that the food system contributes nearly 15% of total US energy demand, optimization of resource use in food production, distribution, consumption, and waste systems may have a significant energy impact. There are limited data available that quantify resource demand implications directly associated with UA systems, highlighting that the literature is not yet sufficiently robust to make universal claims on benefits. This letter explores energy demand from conventional resource inputs, various production systems, water/energy trade-offs, alternative irrigation, packaging materials, and transportation/supply chains to shed light on UA-focused research needs. By analyzing data and cases from the existing literature, we propose that gains in energy efficiency could be realized through the co-location of UA operations with waste streams (e.g. heat, CO2, greywater, wastewater, compost), potentially increasing yields and offsetting life cycle energy demands relative to conventional approaches. This begs a number of energy-focused UA research questions that explore the

  18. Comments on the theory of absolute and convective instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarsson, T.E.; Roennmark, K.

    1986-10-01

    The theory of absolute and convective instabilities is discussed and we argue that the basis of the theory is questionable, since it describes the linear development of instabilities by their behaviour in the time asymptotic limit. In order to make sensible predictions on the linear development of instabilities, the problem should be studied on the finite time scale implied by the linear approximation. (authors)

  19. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  20. Scales of Marine Turbulence in Cook Strait (New Zealand) in the Context of Tidal Energy Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Cook Strait, the channel separating New Zealand's North and South Islands, is at it's narrowest around 22 km across with flows driven by a semidiurnal tide, wind and a baroclinic pressure gradient. Water depths are around 250-300 m in the main part of the channel, with shoals to the south and the submerged Fishermans Rock (aka pinnacle) in the centre northwest of the Strait. The substantial tidal flow speed is due to the tide being nearly out of phase comparing the ends of the strait and further enhanced by a narrowing of the strait. It has significant potential for a tidal energy resource suitable for extraction due to both its significant energy levels but also its proximity to electricity infrastructure and nationally high uptake of renewable energy in general. Here we describe recent flow and turbulence data and contextualise them in terms of scales relevant to marine energy extraction. With flow speeds reaching 3 m s-1 in a water column of > 200 m depth the setting is heuristically known to be highly turbulent. Turbulent energy dissipation rates are modest but high for oceans, around 5x10-5 W kg-1. Thorpe scales, the observed quantity representing the energy-bearing scale, are often as much as one quarter of the water depth. This means eddy sizes can potentially be larger than blade length. A boundary-layer structure was apparent but highly variable. This has implications for both operation of tidal turbines, as well as modulating their effect on the environment. Fishermans Rock itself is interesting as if can be considered a proxy for a larger array of turbines.

  1. The viability of balancing wind generation with large scale energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamdash, Batsaikhan; Denny, Eleanor; O'Malley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of combining wind generation and dedicated large scale energy storage on the conventional thermal plant mix and the CO 2 emissions of a power system. Different strategies are proposed here in order to explore the best operational strategy for the wind and storage system in terms of its effect on the net load. Furthermore, the economic viability of combining wind and large scale storage is studied. The empirical application, using data for the Irish power system, shows that combined wind and storage reduces the participation of mid-merit plants and increases the participation of base-load plants. Moreover, storage negates some of the CO 2 emissions reduction of the wind generation. It was also found that the wind and storage output can significantly reduce the variability of the net load under certain operational strategies and the optimal strategy depends on the installed wind capacity. However, in the absence of any supporting mechanism none of the storage devices were economically viable when they were combined with the wind generation on the Irish power system. - Research Highlights: → Energy storage would displace the peaking and mid-merit plants generations by the base-load plants generations. Energy storage may negate the CO 2 emissions reduction that is due to the increased wind generations. →Energy storage reduces the variation of the net load. →Under certain market conditions, merchant type energy storage is not viable.

  2. Simulation of electron energy loss spectra of nanomaterials with linear-scaling density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, E W; Payne, M C; Ratcliff, L E; Haynes, P D; Hine, N D M

    2016-01-01

    Experimental techniques for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) combine high energy resolution with high spatial resolution. They are therefore powerful tools for investigating the local electronic structure of complex systems such as nanostructures, interfaces and even individual defects. Interpretation of experimental electron energy loss spectra is often challenging and can require theoretical modelling of candidate structures, which themselves may be large and complex, beyond the capabilities of traditional cubic-scaling density functional theory. In this work, we present functionality to compute electron energy loss spectra within the onetep linear-scaling density functional theory code. We first demonstrate that simulated spectra agree with those computed using conventional plane wave pseudopotential methods to a high degree of precision. The ability of onetep to tackle large problems is then exploited to investigate convergence of spectra with respect to supercell size. Finally, we apply the novel functionality to a study of the electron energy loss spectra of defects on the (1 0 1) surface of an anatase slab and determine concentrations of defects which might be experimentally detectable. (paper)

  3. Design and analysis of tubular permanent magnet linear generator for small-scale wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Man; Koo, Min-Mo; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Hong, Keyyong; Cho, Il-Hyoung; Choi, Jang-Young

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports the design and analysis of a tubular permanent magnet linear generator (TPMLG) for a small-scale wave-energy converter. The analytical field computation is performed by applying a magnetic vector potential and a 2-D analytical model to determine design parameters. Based on analytical solutions, parametric analysis is performed to meet the design specifications of a wave-energy converter (WEC). Then, 2-D FEA is employed to validate the analytical method. Finally, the experimental result confirms the predictions of the analytical and finite element analysis (FEA) methods under regular and irregular wave conditions.

  4. High-energy pp and p-barp scattering and the model of geometric scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Jakes, P.; Novak, M.

    1982-10-01

    The model of geometric scaling is used to predict the evolution of the diffractive dip-peak structure of pp and p-barp differential cross-sections with increasing energy. Previous calculation for pp scattering made by Dias de Deus and Kroll is carried out with new data and their predictions confirmed. Recent data on p-barp scattering are used to make an analogous analysis for this process as well. It turns out that the p-barp differential cross-section behaves analogously, the main difference being that, in the p-barp case, the dip-peak structure should not completely disappear with increasing energy. (author)

  5. Fundamental Challenges for Modeling Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems at the Atomic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Axel

    2018-04-23

    There is a strong need to improve the efficiency of electrochemical energy storage, but progress is hampered by significant technological and scientific challenges. This review describes the potential contribution of atomic-scale modeling to the development of more efficient batteries, with a particular focus on first-principles electronic structure calculations. Numerical and theoretical obstacles are discussed, along with ways to overcome them, and some recent examples are presented illustrating the insights into electrochemical energy storage that can be gained from quantum chemical studies.

  6. Transport coefficients for the plasma thermal energy and empirical scaling ''laws''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.

    1989-01-01

    A set of transport coefficients has been identified for the electron and nuclei thermal energy of plasmas with temperatures in the multi-keV range, taking into account the available experimental information including the temperature spatial profiles and the inferred scaling ''laws'' for the measured energy replacement times. The specific form of these coefficients is suggested by the theory of a mode, so-called ''ubiquitous,'' that can be excited when a significant fraction of the electron population has magnetically trapped orbits. (author)

  7. Electricity network limitations on large-scale deployment of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    This report sought to identify limitation on large scale deployment of wind energy in the UK. A description of the existing electricity supply system in England, Scotland and Wales is given, and operational aspects of the integrated electricity networks, licence conditions, types of wind turbine generators, and the scope for deployment of wind energy in the UK are addressed. A review of technical limitations and technical criteria stipulated by the Distribution and Grid Codes, the effects of system losses, and commercial issues are examined. Potential solutions to technical limitations are proposed, and recommendations are outlined.

  8. Limiting fragmentation, scaling and substructual dependence of multiparticle production in high energy heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterlund, I; Garpman, S; Persson, S; Soderstrom, K; Stenlund, E [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Adamovich, M I; Alexandrov, Y A; Chernyavsky, M M; Gerassimov, S G; Kharlamov, S P; Larionova, V G; Maslennikova, N V; Orlova, G I; Peresadko, N G; Salmanova, N A; Tretyakova, M I [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR); Aggarwal, M M; Friedlander, E M; Heckman, H H; Lindstrom, P J [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Andreeva, N P; Anson, Z V; Ameeva, Z V; Bubnov, V I; Chasnicov, I Y; Eremenko, L E; Eligbaeva, G Z; Gaitinov, A S; Kalyachkina, G S; Kanygina, E K; Shakhova, T I [AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij (USSR); Arora, R; Bhatia, V S; Kaur, M; Mittra, I S [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India); Azimov, S A; Chernova, L P; Gadzhieva, S I; Gulamov, K G; Kadyrov, F G; Lukicheva, N S; Navotny, V S; Svechnikova, L N [AN Uzbekskoj SSR, Tashkent. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR); Basova, E; Bondarenko, R A; Gulyamov, U G; EMUO1 Collaboration

    1990-01-01

    We report on recent results obtained by the EMUO1 collaboration from studies of {sup 16}O + emulsion, at 14.6, 60 and 200 A GeV, and {sup 32}S + emulsion and {sup 32}S+Au interactions at 200 A GeV. Shower-particle production in oxygen-induced interactions are studied over the energy range 2.1-200 A GeV. Scaling and limiting fragmentation are observed. Multiplicity and angular distributions of low energy target-associated particles are presented and compared with distributions obtained using the Ranft and the Fritiof simulation codes. (orig.).

  9. Behavioral responses of birds of prey to large scale energy development in southcentral Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.

    1985-02-01

    The types of raptorial and semi-raptorial birds that use the Hanford environs are discussed along with the impacts of past operations and the recent WPPSS project on their populations. These findings add to our understanding of the population dynamics of the birds of prey community at the Hanford Site and the expected impacts of the WPPSS energy facilities. The results may have implications toward other large scale energy facilities, and may aid us in management of bird of prey communities throughout the grasslands of the western United States. 110 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Absolute measurement of 85Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1978-01-01

    An extension of 4πe.x-γ coincidence technique is described to measure the absolute disintegration rate of 85 Sr. This nuclide shows electron capture-gamma decay, and 514keV level of 85 Rb is a meta-stable state with half life of 0.958 μsec. Therefore, the conventional 4 πe.x-γ coincidence technique with about 1 μsec of resolution time can not be applied to this nuclide. To measure the absolute disintegration rate of this, the delayed 4 πe.x-γ coincidence technique with two different resolution time has been used. The disintegration rate was determined from four counting rates of electron-x ray, gamma ray and two coincidences, and the true disintegration rate could be obtained by extraporation of the electron-x ray detection efficiency to 1. Two resolution time appearing in the calculation formulas were determined from the chance coincidence between electron-x ray and delayed gamma ray signals. When the coincidence countings with three different resolution time were carried out by one coincidence circuit, the results calculated from all combinations did not agree each other. However, when the two coincidence circuits of the same type were used to fix the resolution time, a good coincidence absorption function was obtained and the disintegration rate was determined with accuracy of +- 0.5%. To evaluate the validity of the results the disintegration rates were measured by two NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors whose gamma-ray detection efficiency was previously determined and both results were agreed within accuracy of +- 0.5%. This method can be applied with nearly same accuracy for the beta-gamma decay nuclide possessing a meta-stable state of the half life below about 10 μsec. (auth.)

  11. A Policymaker's Guide to Scaling Home Energy Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBaron, Robin [Home Performance Coalition, Moon, PA (United States); Saul-Rinaldi, Kara [Home Performance Coalition, Moon, PA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    There has never been a better time to launch initiatives to promote residential energy efficiency savings. Over the past several decades, residential retrofit programs have demonstrated that energy efficiency measures contribute to achieving multiple benefits, including but not limited to reductions in home energy consumption, stabilization improvements for the grid by shaving peak loads, saving consumers millions on utility bills, and significantly reducing carbon emissions. Although a number of barriers to widespread uptake of home energy upgrades persist, the lessons learned as a result of the 2009 stimulus funding1 have resulted in a set of policy approaches that create new strategies for taking residential energy efficiency to scale.2 The identification of these approaches is well timed; energy efficiency is often the least expensive and most cost effective way to comply with a variety of federal, state and local policies. This Guide is designed to help state and local policymakers to take full advantage of new policy developments by providing them with a comprehensive set of tools to support launching or accelerating residential energy efficiency programs. It is written primarily for state and local policymakers, including state and local executives, legislators, public utility commissioners, and the staff who advise them.

  12. Robust scaling laws for energy confinement time, including radiated fraction, in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the limitations of scalings in power-law form that are obtained from traditional log regression have become increasingly evident in many fields of research. Given the wide gap in operational space between present-day and next-generation devices, robustness of the obtained models in guaranteeing reasonable extrapolability is a major issue. In this paper, a new technique, called symbolic regression, is reviewed, refined, and applied to the ITPA database for extracting scaling laws of the energy-confinement time at different radiated fraction levels. The main advantage of this new methodology is its ability to determine the most appropriate mathematical form of the scaling laws to model the available databases without the restriction of their having to be power laws. In a completely new development, this technique is combined with the concept of geodesic distance on Gaussian manifolds so as to take into account the error bars in the measurements and provide more reliable models. Robust scaling laws, including radiated fractions as regressor, have been found; they are not in power-law form, and are significantly better than the traditional scalings. These scaling laws, including radiated fractions, extrapolate quite differently to ITER, and therefore they require serious consideration. On the other hand, given the limitations of the existing databases, dedicated experimental investigations will have to be carried out to fully understand the impact of radiated fractions on the confinement in metallic machines and in the next generation of devices.

  13. The role of the concentration scale in the definition of transfer free energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeser, Beate; Horinek, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The Gibbs free energy of transferring a solute at infinite dilution between two solvents quantifies differences in solute-solvent interactions - if the transfer takes place at constant molarity of the solute. Yet, many calculation formulae and measuring instructions that are commonly used to quantify solute-solvent interactions correspond to transfer processes in which not the molarity of the solute but its concentration measured in another concentration scale is constant. Here, we demonstrate that in this case, not only the change in solute-solvent interactions is quantified but also the entropic effect of a volume change during the transfer. Consequently, the "phenomenon" which is known as "concentration-scale dependence" of transfer free energies is simply explained by a volume-entropy effect. Our explanations are of high importance for the study of cosolvent effects on protein stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bending of marble with intrinsic length scales: a gradient theory with surface energy and size effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardoulakis, I.; Kourkoulis, S.K.; Exadaktylos, G.

    1998-01-01

    A gradient bending theory is developed based on a strain energy function that includes the classical Bernoulli-Euler term, the shape correction term (microstructural length scale) introduced by Timoshenko, and a term associated with surface energy (micromaterial length scale) accounting for the bending moment gradient effect. It is shown that the last term is capable to interpret the size effect in three-point bending (3PB), namely the decrease of the failure load with decreasing beam length for the same aspect ratio. This theory is used to describe the mechanical behaviour of Dionysos-Pentelikon marble in 3PB. Series of tests with prismatic marble beams of the same aperture but with different lengths were conducted and it was concluded that the present theory predicts well the size effect. (orig.)

  15. The low-energy electron accelerator LEA for pilot scale operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnert, R.; Klenert, P.

    1990-01-01

    An electron processor equipped with a linear cathode has been developed for use in pilot scale radiation processing. It can provide electron beam powers up to 6 kW at energies between 150 and 200 keV. The design of some components of the processor system and first results of its operation as part of a pilot unit for curing of furniture elements will be discussed. (author)

  16. Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi scale Models of Human Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    resolved by the recognition that cities are first and foremost self- organizing social networks embedded in space and enabled by urban infrastructure and...AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b. ABSTRACT 2. REPORT TYPE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 5d...Report: Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi-scale Models of Human Social Behavior The views, opinions and/or findings

  17. Exponential-Six Potential Scaling for the Calculation of Tree Energies in Molecular Simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sellers, M.S.; Lísal, Martin; Brennan, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2015), s. 45-54 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12020 Grant - others:US ARL(US) W911NF-10-2-0039 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : exponential-six potential * free energy * potential scaling Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.837, year: 2015

  18. Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical

  19. Simulation of water-energy fluxes through small-scale reservoir systems under limited data availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulakos, Konstantinos; Pollakis, Giorgos; Moustakis, Yiannis; Markopoulos, Apostolis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Small islands are regarded as promising areas for developing hybrid water-energy systems that combine multiple sources of renewable energy with pumped-storage facilities. Essential element of such systems is the water storage component (reservoir), which implements both flow and energy regulations. Apparently, the representation of the overall water-energy management problem requires the simulation of the operation of the reservoir system, which in turn requires a faithful estimation of water inflows and demands of water and energy. Yet, in small-scale reservoir systems, this task in far from straightforward, since both the availability and accuracy of associated information is generally very poor. For, in contrast to large-scale reservoir systems, for which it is quite easy to find systematic and reliable hydrological data, in the case of small systems such data may be minor or even totally missing. The stochastic approach is the unique means to account for input data uncertainties within the combined water-energy management problem. Using as example the Livadi reservoir, which is the pumped storage component of the small Aegean island of Astypalaia, Greece, we provide a simulation framework, comprising: (a) a stochastic model for generating synthetic rainfall and temperature time series; (b) a stochastic rainfall-runoff model, whose parameters cannot be inferred through calibration and, thus, they are represented as correlated random variables; (c) a stochastic model for estimating water supply and irrigation demands, based on simulated temperature and soil moisture, and (d) a daily operation model of the reservoir system, providing stochastic forecasts of water and energy outflows. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students

  20. Computational issues in complex water-energy optimization problems: Time scales, parameterizations, objectives and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Kossieris, Panayiotis; Karavokiros, George; Christofides, Antonis; Siskos, Alexandros; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2015-04-01

    Modelling of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) is a challenging task, for which several open computational issues exist. HRES comprise typical components of hydrosystems (reservoirs, boreholes, conveyance networks, hydropower stations, pumps, water demand nodes, etc.), which are dynamically linked with renewables (e.g., wind turbines, solar parks) and energy demand nodes. In such systems, apart from the well-known shortcomings of water resources modelling (nonlinear dynamics, unknown future inflows, large number of variables and constraints, conflicting criteria, etc.), additional complexities and uncertainties arise due to the introduction of energy components and associated fluxes. A major difficulty is the need for coupling two different temporal scales, given that in hydrosystem modeling, monthly simulation steps are typically adopted, yet for a faithful representation of the energy balance (i.e. energy production vs. demand) a much finer resolution (e.g. hourly) is required. Another drawback is the increase of control variables, constraints and objectives, due to the simultaneous modelling of the two parallel fluxes (i.e. water and energy) and their interactions. Finally, since the driving hydrometeorological processes of the integrated system are inherently uncertain, it is often essential to use synthetically generated input time series of large length, in order to assess the system performance in terms of reliability and risk, with satisfactory accuracy. To address these issues, we propose an effective and efficient modeling framework, key objectives of which are: (a) the substantial reduction of control variables, through parsimonious yet consistent parameterizations; (b) the substantial decrease of computational burden of simulation, by linearizing the combined water and energy allocation problem of each individual time step, and solve each local sub-problem through very fast linear network programming algorithms, and (c) the substantial

  1. Low-energy consequences of superstring-inspired models with intermediate-mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbiani, F.

    1987-01-01

    The phenomenological consequences of implementing intermediate-mass scales in E 6 superstring-inspired models are discussed. Starting from a suitable Calabi-Yau compactification with b 1,1 >1, one gets, after Hosotani breaking, the rank r=5 gauge group SU(3) C x SU(2) L x U(1) Y x U(1) E , that is broken at an intermediate-mass scale down to the standard-model group. The analysis of both the intermediate and the electroweak breaking is performed in the two cases Λ c = M x and Λ c x , where Λ c is the scale at which the hidden sector gauginos condensate. It is performed quantitatively the minimization of the low-energy effective potential and the renormalization group analysis, yielding a viable set of mass spectra and confirming the reliability of the intermediate-breaking scheme

  2. Modelling Energy Loss Mechanisms and a Determination of the Electron Energy Scale for the CDF Run II W Mass Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddick, Thomas [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    The calibration of the calorimeter energy scale is vital to measuring the mass of the W boson at CDF Run II. For the second measurement of the W boson mass at CDF Run II, two independent simulations were developed. This thesis presents a detailed description of the modification and validation of Bremsstrahlung and pair production modelling in one of these simulations, UCL Fast Simulation, comparing to both geant4 and real data where appropriate. The total systematic uncertainty on the measurement of the W boson mass in the W → eve channel from residual inaccuracies in Bremsstrahlung modelling is estimated as 6.2 ±3.2 MeV/c2 and the total systematic uncertainty from residual inaccuracies in pair production modelling is estimated as 2.8± 2.7 MeV=c2. Two independent methods are used to calibrate the calorimeter energy scale in UCL Fast Simulation; the results of these two methods are compared to produce a measurement of the Z boson mass as a cross-check on the accuracy of the simulation.

  3. Down-scaling wind energy resource from mesoscale to local scale by nesting and data assimilation with a CFD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraisamy Jothiprakasam, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    The development of wind energy generation requires precise and well-established methods for wind resource assessment, which is the initial step in every wind farm project. During the last two decades linear flow models were widely used in the wind industry for wind resource assessment and micro-siting. But the linear models inaccuracies in predicting the wind speeds in very complex terrain are well known and led to use of CFD, capable of modeling the complex flow in details around specific geographic features. Mesoscale models (NWP) are able to predict the wind regime at resolutions of several kilometers, but are not well suited to resolve the wind speed and turbulence induced by the topography features on the scale of a few hundred meters. CFD has proven successful in capturing flow details at smaller scales, but needs an accurate specification of the inlet conditions. Thus coupling NWP and CFD models is a better modeling approach for wind energy applications. A one-year field measurement campaign carried out in a complex terrain in southern France during 2007-2008 provides a well-documented data set both for input and validation data. The proposed new methodology aims to address two problems: the high spatial variation of the topography on the domain lateral boundaries, and the prediction errors of the mesoscale model. It is applied in this work using the open source CFD code Code-Saturne, coupled with the mesoscale forecast model of Meteo-France (ALADIN). The improvement is obtained by combining the mesoscale data as inlet condition and field measurement data assimilation into the CFD model. Newtonian relaxation (nudging) data assimilation technique is used to incorporate the measurement data into the CFD simulations. The methodology to reconstruct long term averages uses a clustering process to group the similar meteorological conditions and to reduce the number of CFD simulations needed to reproduce 1 year of atmospheric flow over the site. The assimilation

  4. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E; Nelson, David M; Braham, Melissa A; Doyle, Jacqueline M; Fernandez, Nadia B; Duerr, Adam E; Bloom, Peter H; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Miller, Tricia A; Culver, Renee C E; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ 2 H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ 2 H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Dark energy and modified gravity in the Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusin, Giulia; Lewandowski, Matthew; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2018-04-01

    We develop an approach to compute observables beyond the linear regime of dark matter perturbations for general dark energy and modified gravity models. We do so by combining the Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy and Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure approaches. In particular, we parametrize the linear and nonlinear effects of dark energy on dark matter clustering in terms of the Lagrangian terms introduced in a companion paper [1], focusing on Horndeski theories and assuming the quasi-static approximation. The Euler equation for dark matter is sourced, via the Newtonian potential, by new nonlinear vertices due to modified gravity and, as in the pure dark matter case, by the effects of short-scale physics in the form of the divergence of an effective stress tensor. The effective fluid introduces a counterterm in the solution to the matter continuity and Euler equations, which allows a controlled expansion of clustering statistics on mildly nonlinear scales. We use this setup to compute the one-loop dark-matter power spectrum.

  6. Generalized z-scaling in proton-proton collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zborovsky, I.; Tokarev, M.

    2006-01-01

    New generalization of z-scaling in inclusive particle production is proposed. The scaling variable z is a fractal measure which depends on kinematical characteristics of the underlying subprocess expressed in terms of the momentum fractions x 1 and x 2 of the incoming protons. In the generalized approach, the x 1 and x 2 are functions of the momentum fractions y a and y b of the scattered and recoil constituents carried out by the inclusive particle and recoil object, respectively. The scaling function ψ(z) for charged and identified hadrons produced in proton-proton collisions is constructed. The fractal dimensions and heat capacity of the produced medium entering definition of the z are established to obtain energy, angular and multiplicity independence of the ψ(z). The scheme allows unique description of data on inclusive cross sections of charged particles, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and lambdas at high energies. The obtained results are of interest to use z-scaling as a tool for searching for new physics phenomena of particle production in high transverse momentum and high multiplicity region at the proton-proton colliders RHIC and LHC

  7. Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll-to-roll m...

  8. Absolute transition probabilities for 559 strong lines of neutral cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J J, E-mail: jjcurry@nist.go [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States)

    2009-07-07

    Absolute radiative transition probabilities are reported for 559 strong lines of neutral cerium covering the wavelength range 340-880 nm. These transition probabilities are obtained by scaling published relative line intensities (Meggers et al 1975 Tables of Spectral Line Intensities (National Bureau of Standards Monograph 145)) with a smaller set of published absolute transition probabilities (Bisson et al 1991 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8 1545). All 559 new values are for lines for which transition probabilities have not previously been available. The estimated relative random uncertainty of the new data is +-35% for nearly all lines.

  9. Near-surface energy transfers from internal tide beams to smaller vertical scale motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, S.; Staquet, C.; Carter, G. S.; Luther, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mechanical energy capable of causing diapycnal mixing in the ocean is transferred to the internal wave field when barotropic tides pass over underwater topography and generate internal tides. The resulting internal tide energy is confined in vertically limited structures, or beams. As internal tide beams (ITBs) propagate through regions of non-uniform stratification in the upper ocean, wave energy can be scattered through multiple reflections and refractions, be vertically trapped, or transferred to non-tidal frequencies through different nonlinear processes. Various observations have shown that ITBs are no longer detectable in horizontal kinetic energy beyond the first surface reflection. Importantly, this implies that some of the internal tide energy no longer propagates in to the abyssal ocean and consequently will not be available to maintain the density stratification. Using the NHM, a nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model based on the MITgcm, simulations of an ITB propagating up to the sea surface are examined in order to quantify the transformation of ITB energy to other motions. We compare and contrast the transformations enabled by idealized, smoothly-varying stratification with transformations enabled by realistic stratification containing a broad-band vertical wavenumber spectrum of variations. Preliminary two-dimensional results show that scattering due to small-scale structure in realistic stratification profiles from Hawaii can lead to energy being vertically trapped near the surface. Idealized simulations of "locally" generated internal solitary waves are analyzed in terms of energy flux transfers from the ITB to solitary waves, higher harmonics, and mean flow. The amount of internal tide energy which propagates back down after near-surface reflection of the ITB in different environments is quantified.

  10. A generalized scaling law for the ignition energy of inertial confinement fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The minimum energy needed to ignite an inertial confinement fusion capsule is of considerable interest in the optimization of an inertial fusion driver. Recent computational work investigating this minimum energy has found that it depends on the capsule implosion history, in particular, on the capsule drive pressure. This dependence is examined using a series of LASNEX simulations to find ignited capsules which have different values of the implosion velocity, fuel adiabat and drive pressure. It is found that the main effect of varying the drive pressure is to alter the stagnation of the capsule, changing its stagnation adiabat, which, in turn, affects the energy required for ignition. To account for this effect a generalized scaling law has been devised for the ignition energy, E ign ∝α if 1.88±0.05 υ -5.89±0.12 P -0.77±0.03 . This generalized scaling law agrees with the results of previous work in the appropriate limits. (author)

  11. High-pT Jet Energy Scale Uncertainty from single hadron response with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00534683; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The jet energy scale (JES) uncertainty is estimated using different methods at different p$_\\text{T}$ ranges. In-situ techniques exploiting the p$_\\text{T}$ balance between a jet and a reference object (e.g. Z or gamma) are used at lower p$_\\text{T}$, but at very high p$_\\text{T}$ (> 2.5 TeV) there is not enough statistics for such in-situ techniques. A low JES uncertainty at high-p$_\\text{T}$ is important in several searches for new phenomena, e.g. the dijet resonance and angular searches. In the highest p$_\\text{T}$ range, the JES uncertainty is estimated using the calorimeter response to single hadrons. In this method, jets are treated as a superposition of energy depositions of single particles. An uncertainty is applied to each energy deposition belonging to the particles within the jet, and propagated to the final jet energy scale. This poster presents the JES uncertainty found with this method at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV and its developments.

  12. Energy and variance budgets of a diffusive staircase with implications for heat flux scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronymus, M.; Carpenter, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Diffusive convection, the mode of double-diffusive convection that occur when both temperature and salinity increase with increasing depth, is commonplace throughout the high latitude oceans and diffusive staircases constitute an important heat transport process in the Arctic Ocean. Heat and buoyancy fluxes through these staircases are often estimated using flux laws deduced either from laboratory experiments, or from simplified energy or variance budgets. We have done direct numerical simulations of double-diffusive convection at a range of Rayleigh numbers and quantified the energy and variance budgets in detail. This allows us to compare the fluxes in our simulations to those derived using known flux laws and to quantify how well the simplified energy and variance budgets approximate the full budgets. The fluxes are found to agree well with earlier estimates at high Rayleigh numbers, but we find large deviations at low Rayleigh numbers. The close ties between the heat and buoyancy fluxes and the budgets of thermal variance and energy have been utilized to derive heat flux scaling laws in the field of thermal convection. The result is the so called GL-theory, which has been found to give accurate heat flux scaling laws in a very wide parameter range. Diffusive convection has many similarities to thermal convection and an extension of the GL-theory to diffusive convection is also presented and its predictions are compared to the results from our numerical simulations.

  13. Large-scale instability in interacting dark energy and dark matter fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Väliviita, Jussi; Majerotto, Elisabetta; Maartens, Roy

    2008-01-01

    If dark energy interacts with dark matter, this gives a new approach to the coincidence problem. But interacting dark energy models can suffer from pathologies. We consider the case where the dark energy is modelled as a fluid with constant equation of state parameter w. Non-interacting constant-w models are well behaved in the background and in the perturbed universe. But the combination of constant w and a simple interaction with dark matter leads to an instability in the dark sector perturbations at early times: the curvature perturbation blows up on super-Hubble scales. Our results underline how important it is to carefully analyse the relativistic perturbations when considering models of coupled dark energy. The instability that we find has been missed in some previous work where the perturbations were not consistently treated. The unstable mode dominates even if adiabatic initial conditions are used. The instability also arises regardless of how weak the coupling is. This non-adiabatic instability is different from previously discovered adiabatic instabilities on small scales in the strong-coupling regime

  14. LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHULTZ, K.R.; BROWN, L.C.; BESENBRUCH, G.E.; HAMILTON, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-splitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen and to select one for further detailed consideration. The authors selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle, In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this paper

  15. Operation Modeling of Power Systems Integrated with Large-Scale New Energy Power Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the most current methods of probabilistic power system production simulation, the output characteristics of new energy power generation (NEPG has not been comprehensively considered. In this paper, the power output characteristics of wind power generation and photovoltaic power generation are firstly analyzed based on statistical methods according to their historical operating data. Then the characteristic indexes and the filtering principle of the NEPG historical output scenarios are introduced with the confidence level, and the calculation model of NEPG’s credible capacity is proposed. Based on this, taking the minimum production costs or the best energy-saving and emission-reduction effect as the optimization objective, the power system operation model with large-scale integration of new energy power generation (NEPG is established considering the power balance, the electricity balance and the peak balance. Besides, the constraints of the operating characteristics of different power generation types, the maintenance schedule, the load reservation, the emergency reservation, the water abandonment and the transmitting capacity between different areas are also considered. With the proposed power system operation model, the operation simulations are carried out based on the actual Northwest power grid of China, which resolves the new energy power accommodations considering different system operating conditions. The simulation results well verify the validity of the proposed power system operation model in the accommodation analysis for the power system which is penetrated with large scale NEPG.

  16. A low-cost iron-cadmium redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies that offer a potential solution to the intermittency of renewable sources such as wind and solar. The prerequisite for widespread utilization of RFBs is low capital cost. In this work, an iron-cadmium redox flow battery (Fe/Cd RFB) with a premixed iron and cadmium solution is developed and tested. It is demonstrated that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the Fe/Cd RFB reach 98.7% and 80.2% at 120 mA cm-2, respectively. The Fe/Cd RFB exhibits stable efficiencies with capacity retention of 99.87% per cycle during the cycle test. Moreover, the Fe/Cd RFB is estimated to have a low capital cost of 108 kWh-1 for 8-h energy storage. Intrinsically low-cost active materials, high cell performance and excellent capacity retention equip the Fe/Cd RFB to be a promising solution for large-scale energy storage systems.

  17. Gyrokinetic statistical absolute equilibrium and turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jianzhou; Hammett, Gregory W.

    2010-01-01

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: a finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N+1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  18. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jian-Zhou; Hammett, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence (T.-D. Lee, 'On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields,' Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)) is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  19. First Joint Workshop on Energy Management for Large-Scale Research Infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

      CERN, ERF (European Association of National Research Facilities) and ESS (European Spallation Source) announce the first Joint Workshop on Energy Management for Large-Scale Research Infrastructures. The event will take place on 13-14 October 2011 at the ESS office in Sparta - Lund, Sweden.   The workshop will bring together international experts on energy and representatives from laboratories and future projects all over the world in order to identify the challenges and best practice in respect of energy efficiency and optimization, solutions and implementation as well as to review the challenges represented by potential future technical solutions and the tools for effective collaboration. Further information at: http://ess-scandinavia.eu/general-information

  20. A multi-scale integrated analysis of the energy use in Romania, Bulgaria, Poland and Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorgulescu, Raluca I.; Polimeni, John M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses energy use in the case of four countries, Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary, and Romania, which changed the economic system from command economy to open-market. The analysis provided uses the multi-scale integrated analysis of societal metabolism (MSIASM) approach and contrasts it with the use of the traditional indicators approach (GDP growth rates and energy intensity). These traditional indicators have been widely criticized for being inadequate reflections of how energy policies work. Furthermore, the one-size-fits-all policies that result from analyzing these indicators are inaccurate, particularly for transitional economies. The alternative indicators, economic labor productivity, saturation index of human activity, and exosomatic metabolic rates are used to investigate the four case studies considering the complexity of the transition process

  1. Cost and primary energy efficiency of small-scale district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Nguyen Le; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed minimum-cost options for small-scale DHSs under different contexts. • District heat production cost increases with reduced DHS scales. • Fewer technical options are suitable for small-scale DHSs. • Systems with combined technologies are less sensitive to changes in fuel prices. - Abstract: Efficient district heat production systems (DHSs) can contribute to achieving environmental targets and energy security for countries that have demands for space and water heating. The optimal options for a DHS vary with the environmental and social-political contexts and the scale of district heat production, which further depends on the size of the community served and the local climatic conditions. In this study, we design a small-scale, minimum-cost DHS that produces approximately 100 GWh heat per year and estimate the yearly production cost and primary energy use of this system. We consider conventional technologies, such as heat-only boilers, electric heat pumps and combined heat and power (CHP) units, as well as emerging technologies, such as biomass-based organic Rankine cycle (BORC) and solar water heating (SWH). We explore how different environmental and social-political situations influence the design of a minimum-cost DHS and consider both proven and potential technologies for small-scale applications. Our calculations are based on the real heat load duration curve for a town in southern Sweden. We find that the district heat production cost increases and that the potential for cogeneration decreases with smaller district heat production systems. Although the selection of technologies for a minimum-cost DHS depends on environmental and social-political contexts, fewer technical options are suitable for small-scale systems. Emerging technologies such as CHP-BORC and SWH improve the efficiency of primary energy use for heat production, but these technologies are more costly than conventional heat-only boilers. However, systems with

  2. Experimental determination of the dimensionless scaling parameter of energy transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Petty, C.C.

    1995-07-01

    Controlled fusion experiments have focused on the variation of the plasma characteristics as the engineering or control parameters are systematically changed. This has led to the development of extrapolation formulae for prediction of future device performance using these same variables as a basis. Recently, it was noticed that present-day tokamaks can operate with all of the dimensionless variables which appear in the Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations at values projected for a fusion powerplant with the exception of the parameter ρ * , the gyroradius normalized to the machine size. The scaling with this parameter is related to the benefit of increasing the size of the machine either directly or effectively by increasing the magnetic field. It is exactly this scaling which is subject to systematic error in the inter-machine databases and the cost driver for any future machine. If this scaling can be fixed by a series of single machine experiments, much as the current and power scalings have been, the confidence in the prediction of future device performance would be greatly enhanced. While carrying out experiments of this type, it was also found that the ρ * scaling can illuminate the underlying physics of energy transport. Conclusions drawn from experiments on the DIII-D tokamak in these two areas are the subject of this paper

  3. Small Scale Irrigation within Water, Energy and Food Nexus Framework in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerik, T.; Worqlul, A. W.; Yihun, D.; Bizimana, J. C.; Jeong, J.; Schmitter, P.; Srinivasan, R.; Richardson, J. W.; Clark, N.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents the nexus of food, energy and water framework in the context of small scale irrigation for vegetable production during the dry season in an irrigated agriculture system in Ethiopia. The study is based on detailed data collected in three sites of the Innovation Lab for Small Scale Irrigation (ILSSI) project in Ethiopia. The sites were Robit, Dangishta and Lemo and detailed field data was collected in 18 households in each site. The field data collected includes crop management (such as irrigation amount and dates, fertilizer rates, tillage practices, irrigation technologies, etc.) and agricultural production (crop yield, biomass, etc.) on tomato, onion and cabbage during the dry season. Four different water lifting technologies - namely rope with pulley and bucket, rope and washer pump, solar pump and motor pump - were used for water withdrawal from shallow groundwater wells. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) models were used in an integrated manner to assess water resource potential and develop water use efficiency of vegetables, which is a relationship between amount of water applied and vegetable yield. The water use efficiency for each vegetable crops were translated into energy requirement as pumping hours and potential irrigable areas for the water lifting technologies. This integrated approach was found useful to optimize water and energy use for sustainable food production using small scale irrigation. The holistic approach will not only provide a significant contribution to achieving food self-sufficiency, but will also be effective for optimizing agricultural input. Keyword: small scale irrigation, integrated modeling, water lifting technology, East Africa

  4. Commissioning of the Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Sune; Hansen, Peter; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    The startup of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) has initialized a new era in particle physics. The standard model of particle physics has for the last 40 years with tremendous success described all measurements with phenomenal precision. The experiments at the LHC are testing the standard model in a new energy regime. To normalize the measurements and understand the potential discoveries of the LHC experiments it is often crucial to know the interaction rate - the absolute luminosity. The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) detector will measure luminosity by numerous methods. But for most of the methods only the relative luminosity is measured with good precision. The absolute scale has to be provided from elsewhere. ATLAS is like the other LHC experiments mainly relying of absolute luminosity calibration from van der Meer scans (beam separation scans). To cross check and maybe even improve the precision; ATLAS has built a sub-detector to measure the flux of protons scattered under very small angles as this flux...

  5. The need for an established allocation method when assessing absolute sustainability on a product level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of absolute sustainability within life cycle assessment (LCA) framework is operational on the country scale. However, it is difficult to apply the existing approaches to products, which are typically the scope of LCAs. How should we assess whether a chair is (absolutely) sustainable? I...... allocation keys specific to each product group, e.g. mass for furniture, or economic revenue for IT. The proposed method facilitates assessment of absolute sustainability of products within the LCA framework....

  6. The impacts of household retrofit and domestic energy efficiency schemes: A large scale, ex post evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Phil; Gouldson, Andy; Kerr, Niall

    2015-01-01

    There is widespread interest in the ability of retrofit schemes to shape domestic energy use in order to tackle fuel poverty and reduce carbon emissions. Although much has been written on the topic, there have been few large-scale ex post evaluations of the actual impacts of such schemes. We address this by assessing domestic energy use before and after the Kirklees Warm Zone (KWZ) scheme, which by fitting insulation in 51,000 homes in the 2007–2010 period is one of the largest retrofit schemes completed in the UK to date. To do this, we develop and apply a new methodology that isolates the impacts of retrofit activity from broader background trends in energy use. The results suggest that the actual impacts of the KWZ scheme have been higher than predicted, and that the scale of any performance gaps or rebound effects have been lower than has often been assumed. They also suggest that impacts on energy use in lower income areas are consistent with predictions, but that impacts in middle and higher income areas are higher than predicted. These findings support the case for the wider and/or accelerated adoption of domestic retrofit schemes in other contexts. -- Highlights: •A large scale, ex post evaluation of the impacts of a household retrofit scheme. •A new methodology to separate retrofit impacts from background trends. •Shows impacts of retrofit have been 1.2–1.7 times higher than predicted. •Impacts as predicted in lower income areas, higher in middle and upper income areas. •Findings support the case for the wider and faster adoption of domestic retrofit

  7. Fabrication and analysis of small-scale thermal energy storage with conductivity enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thapa, Suvhashis; Chukwu, Sam; Khaliq, Abdul; Weiss, Leland

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Useful thermal conductivity envelope established for small scale TES. • Paraffin conductivity enhanced from .5 to 3.8 W/m K via low-cost copper insert. • Conductivity increase beyond 5 W/m K shows diminished returns. • Storage with increased conductivity lengthened thermoelectric output up to 247 s. - Abstract: The operation and useful operating parameters of a small-scale Thermal Energy Storage (TES) device that collects and stores heat in a Phase Change Material (PCM) is explored. The PCM utilized is an icosane wax. A physical device is constructed on the millimeter scale to examine specific effects of low-cost thermal conductivity enhancements that include copper foams and other metallic inserts. Numerical methods are utilized to establish useful operating range of small-scale TES devices in general, and the limits of thermal conductivity enhancement on thermoelectric operation specifically. Specific attention is paid to the manufacturability of the various constructs as well as the resulting thermal conductivity enhancement. A maximum thermal conductivity of 3.8 W/m K is achieved in experimental testing via copper foam enhancement. A simplified copper matrix achieves conductivity of 3.7 W/m K and allows significantly reduced fabrication effort. These results compare favorably to baseline wax conductivity of .5 W/m K. Power absorption is recorded of about 900 W/m 2 . Modeling reveals diminishing returns beyond 4–6 W/m K for devices on this scale. Results show the system capable of extending thermoelectric operation several minutes through the use of thermal energy storage techniques within the effective conductivity ranges

  8. Assembler absolute forward thick-target bremsstrahlung spectra program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculescu, V.I.R.; Baciu, G.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.

    1981-12-01

    The program is intended to compute the absolute forward thick-target bremsstrahlung spectrum for electrons in the energy range 1-24 MeV. The program takes into account the following phenomena: multiple scattering, energy loss and the attenuation of the emitted gamma rays. The computer program is written in Assembler having a higher degree of generality and is more performant than the FORTRAN version. (authors)

  9. Squeezing out hydrated protons: low-frictional-energy triboelectric insulator charging on a microscopic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Knorr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Though triboelectric charging of insulators is common, neither its mechanism nor the nature of the charge is well known. Most research has focused on the integral amount of charge transferred between two materials upon contact, establishing, e.g., a triboelectric series. Here, the charge distribution of tracks on insulating polymer films rubbed by polymer-covered pointed swabs is investigated in high resolution by Kelvin probe force microscopy. Pronounced bipolar charging was observed for all nine rubbing combinations of three different polymers, with absolute surface potentials of up to several volts distributed in streaks along the rubbing direction and varying in polarity on μm-length scales perpendicular to the rubbing direction. Charge densities increased considerably for rubbing in higher relative humidity, for higher rubbing loads, and for more hydrophilic polymers. The ends of rubbed tracks had positively charged rims. Surface potential decay with time was strongly accelerated in increased humidity, particularly for polymers with high water permeability. Based on these observations, a mechanism is proposed of triboelectrification by extrusions of prevalently hydrated protons, stemming from adsorbed and dissociated water, along pressure gradients on the surface by the mechanical action of the swab. The validity of this mechanism is supported by explanations given recently in the literature for positive streaming currents of water at polymer surfaces and by reports of negative charging of insulators tapped by accelerated water droplets and of potential built up between the front and the back of a rubbing piece, observations already made in the 19th century. For more brittle polymers, strongly negatively charged microscopic abrasive particles were frequently observed on the rubbed tracks. The negative charge of those particles is presumably due in part to triboemission of electrons by polymer chain scission, forming radicals and negatively

  10. Identification of small-scale discontinuities based on dip-oriented gradient energy entropy coherence estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Da; Yin, Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Locating small-scale discontinuities is one of the most challenging geophysical tasks; these subtle geological features are significant since they are often associated with subsurface petroleum traps. Subtle faults, fractures, unconformities, reef textures, channel boundaries, thin-bed boundaries and other structural and stratigraphic discontinuities have subtle geological edges which may provide lateral variation in seismic expression. Among the different geophysical techniques available, 3D seismic discontinuity attributes are particularly useful for highlighting discontinuities in the seismic data. Traditional seismic discontinuity attributes are sensitive to noise and are not very appropriate for detecting small-scale discontinuities. Thus, we present a dip-oriented gradient energy entropy (DOGEE) coherence estimation method to detect subtle faults and structural features. The DOGEE coherence estimation method uses the gradient structure tensor (GST) algorithm to obtain local dip information and construct a gradient correlation matrix to calculate gradient energy entropy. The proposed DOGEE coherence estimation method is robust to noise, and also improves the clarity of fault edges. It is effective for small-scale discontinuity characterisation and interpretation.

  11. Condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces: the role of local energy barriers and structure length scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad; Al-Obeidi, Ahmed; Thompson, Carl V; Wang, Evelyn N

    2012-10-09

    Water condensation on surfaces is a ubiquitous phase-change process that plays a crucial role in nature and across a range of industrial applications, including energy production, desalination, and environmental control. Nanotechnology has created opportunities to manipulate this process through the precise control of surface structure and chemistry, thus enabling the biomimicry of natural surfaces, such as the leaves of certain plant species, to realize superhydrophobic condensation. However, this "bottom-up" wetting process is inadequately described using typical global thermodynamic analyses and remains poorly understood. In this work, we elucidate, through imaging experiments on surfaces with structure length scales ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm and wetting physics, how local energy barriers are essential to understand non-equilibrium condensed droplet morphologies and demonstrate that overcoming these barriers via nucleation-mediated droplet-droplet interactions leads to the emergence of wetting states not predicted by scale-invariant global thermodynamic analysis. This mechanistic understanding offers insight into the role of surface-structure length scale, provides a quantitative basis for designing surfaces optimized for condensation in engineered systems, and promises insight into ice formation on surfaces that initiates with the condensation of subcooled water.

  12. A nonlinear structural subgrid-scale closure for compressible MHD. I. Derivation and energy dissipation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlaykov, Dimitar G., E-mail: Dimitar.Vlaykov@ds.mpg.de [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Dynamik und Selbstorganisation, Am Faßberg 17, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Grete, Philipp [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Schmidt, Wolfram [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Schleicher, Dominik R. G. [Departamento de Astronomía, Facultad Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Av. Esteban Iturra s/n Barrio Universitario, Casilla 160-C (Chile)

    2016-06-15

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysical phenomena ranging from the intergalactic to the stellar scales. In studying them, numerical simulations are nearly inescapable, due to the large degree of nonlinearity involved. However, the dynamical ranges of these phenomena are much larger than what is computationally accessible. In large eddy simulations (LESs), the resulting limited resolution effects are addressed explicitly by introducing to the equations of motion additional terms associated with the unresolved, subgrid-scale dynamics. This renders the system unclosed. We derive a set of nonlinear structural closures for the ideal MHD LES equations with particular emphasis on the effects of compressibility. The closures are based on a gradient expansion of the finite-resolution operator [W. K. Yeo (CUP, 1993)] and require no assumptions about the nature of the flow or magnetic field. Thus, the scope of their applicability ranges from the sub- to the hyper-sonic and -Alfvénic regimes. The closures support spectral energy cascades both up and down-scale, as well as direct transfer between kinetic and magnetic resolved and unresolved energy budgets. They implicitly take into account the local geometry, and in particular, the anisotropy of the flow. Their properties are a priori validated in Paper II [P. Grete et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 062317 (2016)] against alternative closures available in the literature with respect to a wide range of simulation data of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence.

  13. H2@Scale: Technical and Economic Potential of Hydrogen as an Energy Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pivovar, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The H2@Scale concept is focused on developing hydrogen as an energy carrier and using hydrogen's properties to improve the national energy system. Specifically hydrogen has the abilities to (1) supply a clean energy source for industry and transportation and (2) increase the profitability of variable renewable electricity generators such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic (PV) farms by providing value for otherwise potentially-curtailed electricity. Thus the concept also has the potential to reduce oil dependency by providing a low-carbon fuel for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and pollutants such as NOx, and support domestic energy production, manufacturing, and U.S. economic competitiveness. The analysis reported here focuses on the potential market size and value proposition for the H2@Scale concept. It involves three analysis phases: 1. Initial phase estimating the technical potential for hydrogen markets and the resources required to meet them; 2. National-scale analysis of the economic potential for hydrogen and the interactions between willingness to pay by hydrogen users and the cost to produce hydrogen from various sources; and 3. In-depth analysis of spatial and economic issues impacting hydrogen production and utilization and the markets. Preliminary analysis of the technical potential indicates that the technical potential for hydrogen use is approximately 60 million metric tons (MMT) annually for light duty FCEVs, heavy duty vehicles, ammonia production, oil refining, biofuel hydrotreating, metals refining, and injection into the natural gas system. The technical potential of utility-scale PV and wind generation independently are much greater than that necessary to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen. Uranium, natural gas, and coal reserves are each sufficient to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen in addition to their current uses for decades to centuries. National estimates of the economic potential of

  14. Compressor-less Hydrogen Transmission Pipelines Deliver Large-scale Stranded Renewable Energy at Competitive Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W Leighty; J Holloway; R Merer; B Somerday; C San Marchi; G Keith; D White

    2006-01-01

    We assume a transmission-constrained world, where large new wind plants and other renewable energies must pay all transmission costs for delivering their energy to distant markets. We modeled a 1,000 MW (1 GW) (name plate) wind plant in the large wind resource of the North America Great Plains, delivering exclusively hydrogen fuel, via a new gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline, to an urban market at least 300 km distant. All renewable electric energy output would be converted, at the source, to hydrogen, via 100 bar output electrolyzers, directly feeding the GH2 transmission pipeline without costly compressor stations at inlet or at midline. The new GH2 pipeline is an alternative to new electric transmission lines. We investigate whether the pipeline would provide valuable energy storage. We present a simple model by which we estimate the cost of wind-source hydrogen fuel delivered to the distant city gate in year 2010, at GW scale. Ammonia, synthetic hydrocarbons, and other substances may also be attractive renewable-source energy carriers, storage media, and fuels; they are not considered in this paper. (authors)

  15. Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling Simulator for Real Workflows Energy-Aware Management in Green Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes-Ruiz, Iván Tomás; Prado, Rocío P; García-Galán, Sebastián; Muñoz-Expósito, José Enrique; Ruiz-Reyes, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the growing computational capabilities of Cloud systems rely on the reduction of the consumed power of their data centers to make them sustainable and economically profitable. The efficient management of computing resources is at the heart of any energy-aware data center and of special relevance is the adaptation of its performance to workload. Intensive computing applications in diverse areas of science generate complex workload called workflows, whose successful management in terms of energy saving is still at its beginning. WorkflowSim is currently one of the most advanced simulators for research on workflows processing, offering advanced features such as task clustering and failure policies. In this work, an expected power-aware extension of WorkflowSim is presented. This new tool integrates a power model based on a computing-plus-communication design to allow the optimization of new management strategies in energy saving considering computing, reconfiguration and networks costs as well as quality of service, and it incorporates the preeminent strategy for on host energy saving: Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling (DVFS). The simulator is designed to be consistent in different real scenarios and to include a wide repertory of DVFS governors. Results showing the validity of the simulator in terms of resources utilization, frequency and voltage scaling, power, energy and time saving are presented. Also, results achieved by the intra-host DVFS strategy with different governors are compared to those of the data center using a recent and successful DVFS-based inter-host scheduling strategy as overlapped mechanism to the DVFS intra-host technique.

  16. Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling Simulator for Real Workflows Energy-Aware Management in Green Cloud Computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Tomás Cotes-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the growing computational capabilities of Cloud systems rely on the reduction of the consumed power of their data centers to make them sustainable and economically profitable. The efficient management of computing resources is at the heart of any energy-aware data center and of special relevance is the adaptation of its performance to workload. Intensive computing applications in diverse areas of science generate complex workload called workflows, whose successful management in terms of energy saving is still at its beginning. WorkflowSim is currently one of the most advanced simulators for research on workflows processing, offering advanced features such as task clustering and failure policies. In this work, an expected power-aware extension of WorkflowSim is presented. This new tool integrates a power model based on a computing-plus-communication design to allow the optimization of new management strategies in energy saving considering computing, reconfiguration and networks costs as well as quality of service, and it incorporates the preeminent strategy for on host energy saving: Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling (DVFS. The simulator is designed to be consistent in different real scenarios and to include a wide repertory of DVFS governors. Results showing the validity of the simulator in terms of resources utilization, frequency and voltage scaling, power, energy and time saving are presented. Also, results achieved by the intra-host DVFS strategy with different governors are compared to those of the data center using a recent and successful DVFS-based inter-host scheduling strategy as overlapped mechanism to the DVFS intra-host technique.

  17. Mass hierarchy and energy scaling of the Tsallis - Pareto parameters in hadron productions at RHIC and LHC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Gábor; Barnaföldi, Gergely Gábor; Biró, Tamás Sándor; Shen, Keming

    2018-02-01

    The latest, high-accuracy identified hadron spectra measurements in highenergy nuclear collisions led us to the investigation of the strongly interacting particles and collective effects in small systems. Since microscopical processes result in a statistical Tsallis - Pareto distribution, the fit parameters q and T are well suited for identifying system size scalings and initial conditions. Moreover, parameter values provide information on the deviation from the extensive, Boltzmann - Gibbs statistics in finite-volumes. We apply here the fit procedure developed in our earlier study for proton-proton collisions [1, 2]. The observed mass and center-of-mass energy trends in the hadron production are compared to RHIC dAu and LHC pPb data in different centrality/multiplicity classes. Here we present new results on mass hierarchy in pp and pA from light to heavy hadrons.

  18. Carbon Absolute Electrical Substitution Radiometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The long-term balance between Earth’s absorption of solar radiative energy and emission of radiation to space is a fundamental climate measurement required in the...

  19. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Tack

    Full Text Available Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  20. Introduction of an energy efficiency tool for small scale biomass gasifiers – A thermodynamic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakalis, S.; Patuzzi, F.; Baratieri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of plants for electricity, heat and materials production. • Thermodynamic analysis by using exergy, entransy and statistical entropy. • Extrapolation of a single efficiency index by combining the thermodynamic parameters. • Application of methodology for two monitored small scale gasifiers. - Abstract: Modern gasification plants, should be treated as poly-generation facilities because, alongside the production of electricity and heat, valuable or waste materials streams are generated. Thus, integrated methods should be introduced in order to account for the full range and the nature of the products. Application of conventional hybrid indicators that convert the output into monetary units or CO_2 equivalents are a source of bias because of the inconsistency of the conversion factors and unreliability of the available data. Therefore, this study introduces a novel thermodynamic-based method for assessing gasification plants performance by means of exergy, entransy and statistical entropy. A monitoring campaign has been implemented on two small scale gasifiers and the results have been applied on the proposed method. The energy plants are compared in respect to their individual thermodynamic parameters for energy production and materials distribution. In addition, the method returns one single value which is a resultant of all the investigated parameters and is a characteristic value of the overall performance of an energy plant.

  1. An analysis of Australia's large scale renewable energy target: Restoring market confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Tim; Nelson, James; Ariyaratnam, Jude; Camroux, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, Australia introduced legislation requiring investment in new renewable electricity generating capacity. The legislation was significantly expanded in 2009 to give effect to a 20% Renewable Energy Target (RET). Importantly, the policy was introduced with bipartisan support and is consistent with global policy trends. In this article, we examine the history of the policy and establish that the ‘stop/start’ nature of renewable policy development has resulted in investors withholding new capital until greater certainty is provided. We utilise the methodology from Simshauser and Nelson (2012) to examine whether capital market efficiency losses would occur under certain policy scenarios. The results show that electricity costs would increase by between $51 million and $119 million if the large-scale RET is abandoned even after accounting for avoided renewable costs. Our conclusions are clear: we find that policymakers should be guided by a high level public policy principle in relation to large-scale renewable energy policy: constant review is not reform. -- Highlights: •We examine the history of Australian renewable energy policy. •We examine whether capital market efficiency losses occur under certain policy scenarios. •We find electricity prices increase by up to $119 million due to renewable policy uncertainty. •We conclude that constant review of policy is not reform and should be avoided

  2. Assessment of clean development mechanism potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in heavy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Krey, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses clean development mechanism (CDM) potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in selected heavy industries (iron and steel, cement, aluminium, pulp and paper, and ammonia) taking India and Brazil as examples of CDM project host countries. We have chosen two criteria for identification of the CDM potential of each energy efficiency measure: (i) emission reductions volume (in CO 2 e) that can be expected from the measure and (ii) likelihood of the measure passing the additionality test of the CDM Executive Board (EB) when submitted as a proposed CDM project activity. The paper shows that the CDM potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures strongly depends on the project-specific and country-specific context. In particular, technologies for the iron and steel industry (coke dry quenching (CDQ), top pressure recovery turbine (TRT), and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) gas recovery), the aluminium industry (point feeder prebake (PFPB) smelter), and the pulp and paper industry (continuous digester technology) offer promising CDM potential

  3. Wind energy potential in Chile: Assessment of a small scale wind farm for residential clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, Miguel; Morán, José; Jerez, Alejandro; Cepeda, Francisco; Valenzuela, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An assessment of a small scale wind farm was carried out. • Two Chilean locations were selected, which are geographically dissimilar. • The software tool selected for the project’s evaluation was HOMER. • All the project’s financial evaluations were negative. • Government policy tools and their applications were discussed. - Abstract: This work presents a techno-financial evaluation of two Chilean locations with promising wind potential: Laguna Verde placed in the central region of the country, and Porvenir in the southern region. A small scale wind farm was studied, considering a nominal electrical production capacity of 90 kW. This facility is comprised of three wind turbine models, all available in the national market. Currently, the tariff method used in Chile is the net billing scheme, where the energy bought and sold to the grid has different prices. The study is based on 300 hypothetical residential households. The software tool used to perform the assessment was the Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER). For all the scenarios the results showed a Net Present Cost (NPC), instead of a financial profit from the proposed projects. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out. From the group of variables studied, the NPC exhibited itself as more sensitive to the price of buying energy from the grid and to the annual average wind speed. Finally, a few government policies and their applications are discussed.

  4. Ignition dynamics and activation energies of metallic thermites: From nano- to micron-scale particulate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Emily M.; Pantoya, Michelle L.

    2005-08-01

    Ignition behaviors associated with nano- and micron-scale particulate composite thermites were studied experimentally and modeled theoretically. The experimental analysis utilized a CO2 laser ignition apparatus to ignite the front surface of compacted nickel (Ni) and aluminum (Al) pellets at varying heating rates. Ignition delay time and ignition temperature as a function of both Ni and Al particle size were measured using high-speed imaging and microthermocouples. The apparent activation energy was determined from this data using a Kissinger isoconversion method. This study shows that the activation energy is significantly lower for nano- compared with micron-scale particulate media (i.e., as low as 17.4 compared with 162.5kJ /mol, respectively). Two separate Arrhenius-type mathematical models were developed that describe ignition in the nano- and the micron-composite thermites. The micron-composite model is based on a heat balance while the nanocomposite model incorporates the energy of phase transformation in the alumina shell theorized to be an initiating step in the solid-solid diffusion reaction and uniquely appreciable in nanoparticle media. These models were found to describe the ignition of the Ni /Al alloy for a wide range of heating rates.

  5. Development of large scale wind energy conservation system. Development of large scale wind energy conversion system; Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no kaihatsu. Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for development of large scale wind energy conversion system. The study on technological development of key components evaluates performance of, and confirms reliability and applicability of, hydraulic systems centered by those equipped with variable pitch mechanisms and electrohydraulic servo valves that control them. The study on blade conducts fatigue and crack-propagation tests, which show that the blades developed have high strength. The study on speed-increasing gear conducts load tests, confirming the effects of reducing vibration and noise by modification of the gear teeth. The study on NACELLE cover conducts vibration tests to confirm its vibration characteristics, and analyzes three-dimensional vibration by the finite element method. Some components for a 500kW commercial wind mill are fabricated, including rotor heads, variable pitch mechanisms, speed-increasing gears, YAW systems, and hydraulic control systems. The others fabricated include a remote supervisory control system for maintenance, system to integrate the wind mill into a power system, and electrical control devices in which site conditions, such as atmospheric temperature and lightening, are taken into consideration.

  6. Mineral and water content of A. gigas scales determine local micromechanical properties and energy dissipation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Omar P.; Gigos, Florian; Torres, Fernando G.

    2017-11-01

    Arapaima gigas scales are natural laminated composite materials made of individual layers with different degrees of mineralization, accompanied of varying mechanical properties. This natural design provides scales with hardness and flexibility, and can serve as a source of inspiration for the development of new layered composites with a hard surface and flexible base. In this paper, we have carried out cyclic micro-indentation tests on both; the internal and the highly mineralized external surface of air dried and wet scales, in order to assess the variation of their local micromechanical properties with regard to the mineral and water content. The load-penetration (P-h) curves showed that creep takes place throughout the application of a constant force during the micro-indentation tests, confirming the time dependent response of A. gigas scales. A model that accounted for the elastic, plastic and viscous responses of the samples was used to fit the experimental results. The penetration depth during loading and creep, as well as the energy dissipated are dependent on the water content. The used model suggests that the viscous response of the internal layer increases with the water content.

  7. Asymptotic energy scale factors for pseudoscalar meson scattering and charmed meson couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thews, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Energy scale factors ν 0 for PP → PP scattering amplitudes are related via absence of exotic resonances of ratios of tensor to vector coupling strengths. These same ratios are extracted from FESR's for non-exotic reactions. The scale factors obtained are all of the order of 1.0 GeV 2 or less, indepedent of quantum numbers. This contradicts the expectations of dual amplitudes in which ν 0 =1/α', and trajectory slopes are smaller for charmed mesons. Decay widths for tensor mesons are predicted. An observed SU(3) violation for the ratio A 2 → KantiK/K** → Kπ is shown to be consistent with the FESR results. Charmed meson decays are predicted to be factors of 2 to 3 larger than those predicted by SU(4). (author)

  8. Scaling Universality between Band Gap and Exciton Binding Energy of Two-Dimensional Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zeyu; Liu, Zhirong; Li, Yuanchang; Duan, Wenhui

    2017-06-01

    Using first-principles G W Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations and the k .p theory, we unambiguously show that for two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, there exists a robust linear scaling law between the quasiparticle band gap (Eg) and the exciton binding energy (Eb), namely, Eb≈Eg/4 , regardless of their lattice configuration, bonding characteristic, as well as the topological property. Such a parameter-free universality is never observed in their three-dimensional counterparts. By deriving a simple expression for the 2D polarizability merely with respect to Eg, and adopting the screened hydrogen model for Eb, the linear scaling law can be deduced analytically. This work provides an opportunity to better understand the fantastic consequence of the 2D nature for materials, and thus offers valuable guidance for their property modulation and performance control.

  9. Scaling laws in high-energy inverse compton scattering. II. Effect of bulk motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Satoshi; Kohyama, Yasuharu; Itoh, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    We study the inverse Compton scattering of the CMB photons off high-energy nonthermal electrons. We extend the formalism obtained by the previous paper to the case where the electrons have nonzero bulk motions with respect to the CMB frame. Assuming the power-law electron distribution, we find the same scaling law for the probability distribution function P 1,K (s) as P 1 (s) which corresponds to the zero bulk motions, where the peak height and peak position depend only on the power-index parameter. We solved the rate equation analytically. It is found that the spectral intensity function also has the same scaling law. The effect of the bulk motions to the spectral intensity function is found to be small. The present study will be applicable to the analysis of the x-ray and gamma-ray emission models from various astrophysical objects with nonzero bulk motions such as radio galaxies and astrophysical jets.

  10. Absolute entropy of ions in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakshin, V.A.; Kobenin, V.A.; Krestov, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    By measuring the initial thermoelectromotive forces of chains with bromo-silver electrodes in tetraalkylammonium bromide solutions the absolute entropy of bromide-ion in methanol is determined in the 298.15-318.15 K range. The anti Ssub(Brsup(-))sup(0) = 9.8 entropy units value is used for calculation of the absolute partial molar entropy of alkali metal ions and halogenide ions. It has been found that, absolute entropy of Cs + =12.0 entropy units, I - =14.0 entropy units. The obtained ion absolute entropies in methanol at 298.15 K within 1-2 entropy units is in an agreement with published data

  11. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  12. Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in Earth's plasma sheet. From more than 80 Cluster plasma sheet crossings (660 h data at the altitude of about 15–20 RE in the summer and fall of 2001, we have identified 116 Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and 35 Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have estimated typical values of the scale size and life time of the CLRs and the CGRs. We find that a majority of the observed ECRs are rather stationary in space, but varying in time. Assuming that the ECRs are cylindrically shaped and equal in size, we conclude that the typical scale size of the ECRs is 2 RE≲ΔSECR≲5 RE. The ECRs hence occupy a significant portion of the mid altitude plasma sheet. Moreover, the CLRs appear to be somewhat larger than the CGRs. The life time of the ECRs are of the order of 1–10 min, consistent with the large scale magnetotail MHD simulations of Birn and Hesse (2005. The life time of the CGRs is somewhat shorter than for the CLRs. On time scales of 1–10 min, we believe that ECRs rise and vanish in significant regions of the plasma sheet, possibly oscillating between load and generator character. It is probable that at least some of the observed ECRs oscillate energy back and forth in the plasma sheet instead of channeling it to the ionosphere.

  13. City-scale analysis of water-related energy identifies more cost-effective solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This

  14. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  15. Progress in heavy ion driven inertial fusion energy: From scaled experiments to the integrated research experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Ahle, L.E.; Baca, D.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Franks, R.M.; Grote, D.P.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; Hoon, M.J.L. de; Kaganovich, I.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kishek, R.A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.; Prost, L.R.; Qin, H.; Rose, D.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Sangster, T.C.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Shuman, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.; Yu, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents (∼100's Amperes/beam) and ion energies (∼1-10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tune depressions, and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now being constructed at LBNL. The mission of the HCX will be to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned. The step which bridges the gap between the IBX and an engineering test facility for fusion has been designated the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE (like the IBX) will provide an

  16. Scaling experiments on plasma opening switches for inductive energy storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boller, J.R.; Commisso, R.J.; Cooperstein, G.

    1983-01-01

    A new type of fast opening switch for use with pulsed power accelerators is examined. This Plasma Opening Switch (POS) utilizes an injected carbon plasma to conduct large currents (circa 1 MA) for up to 100 ns while a vacuum inductor (circa 100 nH) is charged. The switch is then capable of opening on a short (circa 10 ns) timescale and depositing the stored energy into a load impedance. Output pulse widths and power levels are determined by the storage inductance and the load impedance. The switch operation is studied in detail both analytically and experimentally. Experiments are performed at the 5 kJ stored energy level on the Gamble I generator and at the 50 kJ level on the Gamble II generator. Results of both experiments are reported and the scaling of switch operation is discussed

  17. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  18. Golden Eagle mortality at a utility-scale wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) mortality associated with wind energy turbines and infrastructure is under-reported and weakly substantiated in the published literature. I report two cases of mortality at a utility-scale renewable energy facility near Palm Springs, California. The facility has been in operation since 1984 and included 460 65KW turbines mounted on 24.4 m or 42.7 m lattice-style towers with 8 m rotor diameters. One mortality event involved a juvenile eagle that was struck and killed by a spinning turbine blade on 31 August, 1995. The tower was 24.4 m high. The other involved an immature female that was struck by a spinning blade on another 24.4 m tower on 17 April, 1997 and was later euthanized due to the extent of internal injuries. Other raptor mortalities incidentally observed at the site, and likely attributable to turbines, included three Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found near turbines.

  19. Power management circuits for self-powered systems based on micro-scale solar energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun-Jung; Yu, Chong-Gun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, two types of power management circuits for self-powered systems based on micro-scale solar energy harvesting are proposed. First, if a solar cell outputs a very low voltage, less than 0.5 V, as in miniature solar cells or monolithic integrated solar cells, such that it cannot directly power the load, a voltage booster is employed to step up the solar cell's output voltage, and then a power management unit (PMU) delivers the boosted voltage to the load. Second, if the output voltage of a solar cell is enough to drive the load, the PMU directly supplies the load with solar energy. The proposed power management systems are designed and fabricated in a 0.18-μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process, and their performances are compared and analysed through measurements.

  20. Absolute elastic cross sections for electron scattering from SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, R.J.; Uhlmann, L.J.; Dedman, C.J.; Buckman, S.J.; Cho, H.; Trantham, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Absolute differential cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of electrons from sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) have been measured at fixed angles of 60 deg, 90 deg and 120 deg over the energy range of 5 to 15 eV, and also at 11 fixed energies between 2.7 and 75 eV for scattering angles between 10 deg and 180 deg. These measurements employ the magnetic angle-changing technique of Read and Channing in combination with the relative flow technique to obtain absolute elastic scattering cross sections at backward angles (135 deg to 180 deg) for incident energies below 15 eV. The results reveal some substantial differences with several previous determinations and a reasonably good level of agreement with a recent close coupling calculation