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Sample records for abruptio placentae

  1. INCIDENCE OF ABRUPTIO PLACENTAE IN PREECLAMPSIA IN A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Bulusu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Preeclampsia is a pregnancy specific disorder commonly defined as de novo hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestational age. It occurs in 3-5% of pregnancies and is still a major cause of both foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. One of the most serious and dreaded complication of preeclampsia is abruptio placentae. Placental separation from its implantation site before delivery of the foetus has been called abruption placentae or accidental haemorrhage. Various studies have shown that there is 2-2.5 fold increase in incidence of abruption in hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. The aim of the study is to study the incidence of abruptio placentae in women with preeclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 pregnant women with preeclampsia attending the antenatal OPD as well as admitted to the antenatal ward and labour room fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. The incidence of abruption placenta among these 100 women was studied. RESULTS Among the 100 women with preeclampsia enrolled in the study, abruptio placentae was noted in 14 women (14%. Maternal complications were seen in the form of anaemia (78.57%, need for blood transfusion (57.14%, shock (28.57%, postpartum haemorrhage (14.28% and puerperal sepsis (7.14%. Perinatal complications were seen in the form of low birth weight (57.14%, prematurity (35.71%, NICU admission (71.43% and intrauterine death (28.57%. CONCLUSION Abruptio placentae affects approximately 1% of all deliveries. However, the incidence significantly increases in cases of preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Association of abruptio placentae in cases of preeclampsia varies from 10-50%. In our study, incidence of abruption placenta in preeclampsia is 14%.

  2. The role of prenatal alcohol exposure in abruptio placentae | du Toit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The same questionnaire was administered to a control group of high-risk women who had no antepartum haemorrhage. Outcome. Women who drank alcohol 12 months before conception were more than 4 times more likely to develop abruptio placentae than the control group (odds ratio (OR) 4.49, p=0.00009). Women ...

  3. The role of prenatal alcohol exposure in abruptio placentae | du Toit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy carried a more than 3 times greater risk of developing abruptio placentae (OR 3.52, p=0.0006). In the study group, women consumed a mean of 13.6, 12.0 and 11.2 standard drinks in a typical week at 12 and 3 months before and during pregnancy, respectively. The study ...

  4. MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE OUTCOME OF ABRUPTIO PLACENTA IN A TERTIARY REFERRAL CENTRE

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    Vijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM To analyze the outcome of 135 patients admitted with Abruptio Placenta during a period of 9 months managed at Tertiary Referral Centre, Modern Govt. Maternity Hospital, Petalburz, Hyderabad, Telangana State. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study of 135 cases of Abruptio Placenta over a period of 9 months at a tertiary level referral centre. They were analyzed regarding age, parity, socio economic status, period of gestation, antenatal care, management of Abruption and maternal and fetal outcome, and the measures to improve the condition were analyzed. RESULTS Abruptio placenta is a dreadful threat to maternal and fetal life. In our study unbooked cases were 110(81.48%, Hypertension is the main risk factor almost in 90(66.66% cases, 65% of them were between 28-36 weeks of GA, and 6 were grandmultis, 6 cases ended up with HELLP syndrome with DIC. All these 6 cases were near misses, 5 unbooked cases had eclampsia. One case of unbooked eclampsia had abruption DIC and could not be saved as it was the late referral. Total number of vaginal deliveries were 66(48.88% and total no. of abdominal deliveries were 67(49.62% in this LSCS 66 and one hysterotomy. IUD at the time of admission total were 100(74%. CONCLUSION To improve the outcome in Abruptio Placentae Good antenatal care, Educating the patient, Strengthening the Primary Health Centers in identifying the risk factors like Pre-eclampsia thereby avoiding eclampsia. Regular antenatal checkups timely delivery and availability of blood and blood products with good Neonatal care unit will help in improving the outcome of Abruptio.

  5. Placenta abruptio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure in the past Heart disease Diabetes Smoking Alcohol or cocaine use Placental abruption in an earlier ... by: Keeping high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes under control Not using tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, or amphetamines Following your provider's recommendations about ...

  6. [Abruptio placentae. Diagnosis, management and maternal-fetal prognosis: a retrospective study of 100 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisramé, T; Sananès, N; Fritz, G; Boudier, E; Viville, B; Aissi, G; Favre, R; Langer, B

    2014-02-01

    To update knowledge on placental abruption because there are few recent series published although the perinatal care has progressed. A retrospective observational study has been conducted on 100 consecutive cases of abruptio placentae, occurring from January 2008 to June 2011, in the two maternity units of the University Hospital of Strasbourg (France). One hundred and five births among which five twin pregnancies were included. Clinical context was evident in 91% of cases, but the classic clinical triad was present in only 4% of cases. Clots were found at immediate placenta examination in 77% of cases. Pathological diagnosis was directly in accordance with clinical diagnosis in half the cases. Mean date of childbirth was 33 weeks of amenorrhea and 6 days. Sixty-seven patients gave birth prematurely. Among them, 50 patients delivered before 34 weeks. Sixty caesareans were performed in emergency before labor, including 47 with general anesthesia. Twelve patients had post-partum haemorrhage and ten coagulation disorders. There was no maternal death. Perinatal mortality was 19% with 13 fetal deaths in utero (12.4%), four children born in an apparent death state with resuscitation failure (3.8%) and three neonatal deaths (2.8%). Placental abruption is a serious and unpredictable situation. Joint medical care of obstetricians and intensivists is often required. Perinatal mortality mainly occurs in utero. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Cesárea prévia como fator de risco para o descolamento prematuro da placenta Previous cesarean section as a risk factor for abruptio placentae

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    Fábio Roberto Cabar

    2004-10-01

    relationship between previous cesarean section and abruptio placentae. METHODS: a retrospective study reviewed 6495 deliveries between April 2001 and January 2004. The adopted inclusion criteria were: clinical diagnosis of abruptio placentae confirmed by placental examination after delivery, single pregnancy, birth weight >500 g, gestational age >22 weeks and no history of abdominal trauma. Five controls were selected for each abruptio placentae case and were matched for the following parameters: parity, gestational age ( 30 weeks, maternal arterial hypertension during pregnancy, presence of nonobstetrical uterine scar, premature rupture of membranes and polyhydramnios. Statistical analysis of continuous variables was perfomed by Student's t test. Statistical significance of the comparisons of categorical variables was evaluated by the chi2 test or by the Fisher exact test. p values <0.05 were considered to be significant. RESULTS: thirty-four cases of abruptio placentae were included (incidence 0.52%. The control group included 170 cases that fulfilled the matching criteria. The incidence of previous cesarean section in the abruptio placentae group was 26.5% (9 cases and in the control group it was 21.2% (36 cases. No significant difference was found between the groups (p=0.65, OR=1.34, CI 95%=0.53-3.34. CONCLUSION: the present study was not able to demonstrate association between abruptio placentae and previous cesarean section.

  8. minal pregnancy misdiagnosed as abruptio placenta.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sip. Arch. Celok. Lek. 2002; 130(9- l0):320-2. ' Jazayeri A, Davis TA, Contreras DN. Diagnosis and management of abdominal pregnancy; a case report. J. Reprod. Med. 2002;. 47(l2); 1047 - 9. Ozdemi I, Demirci F, Yncel (), Alper M. Primary omental pregnancy presenting with l1aemon'ha.gic shock; a case report. Gynecol.

  9. Maternal and Fetal Prognosis in Abruptio Placentae at Korle-Bu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    79.0. Abnormal uterine contractions(hyperton ia). 156. 78.0. Idiopathic premature labour. 95. 47.5. PROM alone. 6. 3.0. PROM +. Chorioamnionitis. 4. 2.0. Abruption- Revealed. 166. 83.0. Abruption-. Concealed. 34. 17.0. *HPT: Hypertension. *PROM: Premature rupture of the membranes. Table 4: Major maternal outcome.

  10. Maternal and Fetal Prognosis in Abruptio Placentae at Korle-Bu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deux cents femmes avec le diagnostic de décollement placentaire ont été étudiées en utilisant un questionnaire structuré pré-testé et normalisé. Le Paquet Statistique pour les sciences économiques (PSPSE) la version 17 a été utilisé pour analyser les données. Quinze mille cinq cent dix (15510) accouchements ont été ...

  11. Pregnancy Complications: Placenta Previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care ... Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Placenta previa Placenta previa E-mail to a ...

  12. The Placenta Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte; Dickinson, Elizabeth; Foss, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the human placenta not only as a scientific, medical and biological entity but as a consumer bio-product. In the emergent placenta economy, the human placenta is exchanged and gains potentiality as food, medicine and cosmetics. Drawing on empirical research from the United......, in the emergent bio-economy, the dichotomy between the inner and the outer body is deconstructed, while the placenta gains clinical and industrial as well as affective value....

  13. Pollutant concentrations in placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, O.; Kiviranta, H.; Karjalainen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    congeners of persistent organic pollutants, seven organotin compounds, five heavy metals, and methylmercury in 130 randomly selected placentas. Additionally, we examined similarities between pollutant concentrations by analyzing correlations between their placental concentrations. Our results yield new...... information for conducting contaminant risk assessments for the prenatal period. Out of the 117 individual persistent organic pollutants or metals assayed, 46 could be detected in more than half of the placentas. Moreover, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was found in all placentas. The data......Unborn children are exposed to environmental pollutants via the placenta, and there is a causal relationship between maternal intake of pollutants and fetal exposure. Placental examination is an effective way for acquiring data for estimating fetal exposure. We analyzed the concentrations of 104...

  14. Management of placenta percreta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Caroline; Lönn, Lars; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2014-01-01

    in the management of the conditions. A PubMed search was performed in April 2013 and the final review included 119 published placenta percreta cases. Conservative management, where the placenta is left in situ for resorption, seems to be associated with severe long-term complications of hemorrhage and infections...... cases for the local resection technique might in part explain the lower complication rates with that approach. Future prospective data collection activities should include intended as well as actual management, and long-term follow-up of all cases is of vital importance....

  15. Placenta associated pregnancy complications in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yael Baumfeld; Reli Herskovitz; Zehavi Bar Niv; Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia; Adi Y. Weintraub

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that pregnancies complicated with placenta previa have an increased risk of placental insufficiency associated pregnancy complications...

  16. Placenta associated pregnancy complications in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa

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    Yael Baumfeld

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrated an increased rate of placental insufficiency associated complications in women with placenta previa. This is of clinical relevance and suggests that a careful surveillance for women with placenta previa may help in minimizing maternal, fetal and neonatal complications.

  17. Placenta: How It Works, What's Normal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week The placenta plays a crucial role during pregnancy. Find out what the placenta does, ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/placenta/art-20044425 . ...

  18. Placenta accreta: adherent placenta due to Asherman syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Kjer, Jens Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    It is important to be aware of the risk of abnormally invasive placenta in patients with a history of Asherman syndrome and uterine scarring. A prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is useful when planning of mode of delivery....

  19. Placenta accreta: adherent placenta due to Asherman syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Kjer, Jens Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    It is important to be aware of the risk of abnormally invasive placenta in patients with a history of Asherman syndrome and uterine scarring. A prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is useful when planning of mode of delivery.......It is important to be aware of the risk of abnormally invasive placenta in patients with a history of Asherman syndrome and uterine scarring. A prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is useful when planning of mode of delivery....

  20. Placenta Praevia: Incidence, Risk Factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transfusion, maternal sepsis, placenta accreta and. 11,16,21 increased perinatal mortality . It contributes significantly to the perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to antepartum haemorrhage and prematurity. Over half (51.9%) of the patients were anaemic at presentation and. 51.1% were transfused with blood.

  1. PLACENTA PRAEVIA- TIMELY DECISION MANDATORY!

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    Kshama Kedar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Antepartum Haemorrhage (APH is still a grave obstetric emergency contributing to a significant amount of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in our country. Placenta Praevia (PP complicates 0.33%1 to 0.55%2 of all pregnancies. This study is to evaluate how far we have come and the effect of treatment on the perinatal and maternal outcome and study the maternal and foetal outcome in placenta praevia and its prevalence in tertiary care hospital. The aim of the study is to study the maternal and foetal outcome in placenta praevia and assess the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Objective of the study was to determine the cause of placenta praevia and assess the value of current obstetric practice in managing placenta praevia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital on 60 patients who presented with PP in the ANC OPD and in emergency over a period of 2 years with gestational age >28 weeks and no blood dyscrasias or bleeding source other than the uterus. RESULTS Maximum cases (69.11% were unbooked, more in multiparous (41.67% and commonly associated with previous caesarean section (41.6%. 41.46% belonged to 25-29 years of age. 56.67% were more than 36 weeks of gestation at the time of admission. Out of 60, 9 (15% had absent foetal heart sound and 6 (10% had foetal distress at time of admission. 56 (93.3 cases delivered by caesarean section, 29 (48.3% cases were elective, while 27 (45% were done in emergency. 1 (1.6% underwent caesarean hysterectomy. 16 (26.6% had PPH postoperatively managed by medical methods. 2 (3.3% had scar dehiscence and 3 (5% patients went in sepsis. Commonest complication (26.67% was anaemia. 5 (8.3% babies of placenta praevia were premature. CONCLUSION Placenta praevia constitutes 35% of the causes of placental bleeding leading to antepartum haemorrhage, which is a leading cause of maternal morbidity. Hence, timely diagnosis and intervention is of

  2. MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME IN PLACENTA PREVIA

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    Basa Akkamamba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to study the-  Risk factors for placenta previa.  Signs of placenta previa.  Modes of delivery.  Maternal and foetal outcome.  Incidence of placenta previa. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a longitudinal prospective study group consisting of 75 cases of pregnancies with placenta previa. Analysis of maternal and neonatal outcome in cases of placenta previa occurring over a period of 2 years from November 2013 to October 2016. This study was carried out at Government General Hospital, Kakinada, attached to Rangaraya Medical College. RESULTS Maternal morbidity in placenta previa is due to antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum complications. Maternal mortality due to placenta previa was nil. Perinatal death with minor placenta previa was 5.12% with major placenta previa was 47.22%. The general perinatal mortality was 28 per 1000 live births and that due to placenta previa 280 per 1000 live births, i.e. approximately 4 times higher than general perinatal mortality rate. The maternal mortality rate due to placenta previa in this study was nil. CONCLUSIONS In the present study, incidence of antepartum haemorrhage was 0.87% and placenta previa contributed to 37.12% of cases. The general perinatal mortality was 28 per 1000 live births and that due to placenta previa 280 per 1000 live births, i.e. approximately 4 times higher than general perinatal mortality rate. The maternal mortality rate due to placenta previa in this study was nil. But, maternal morbidity was high that is more than 60% of cases had antenatal, intranatal and postnatal complications and anaemia worsened the clinical state of patient.

  3. Microvascularization on collared peccary placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Tatiana Carlesso; Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Dantzer, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    The microvascularization of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) placenta was studied by vascular casts and immunolocalization of a-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, to identify the three dimensional organization and vascular flow interrelation in the microvasculature between the maternal...... and fetal compartments of the placentae. The immunolocalization of vimentin in the vascular endothelium and in the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels showed indented capillaries along the uterine epithelium and the trophoblast at the sides of complementary maternal and fetal microfolds, or rugae...... into a microvascular network wall in a basket-like fashion. At the base of these baskets venules were formed. On the fetal side, arterioles branched centrally in the fetal rugae into a capillary network in a bulbous form, complementary to the opposite maternal depressions forming the baskets. At the base...

  4. Postpartum MR diagnosis of retained placenta accreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Itai, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8575, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shigemitsu, Sadahiko [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ryugasaki Saiseikai General Hospital, Ryagasaki (Japan); Ichikawa, Yoshihito; Sohda, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8575, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-06-01

    Retained placenta accreta can cause catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage. This study aims to determine whether MR imaging can differentiate retained placenta accreta from postpartum hemorrhage caused by other conditions. Fourteen cases suspicious for retained placenta were examined with MR imaging. Signal intensity, the enhancing pattern of uterine contents, and flow voids within the myometrium were retrospectively studied. As hysterectomy was performed in only two cases, final diagnosis was based on clinical outcome and analysis of uterine contents. Final diagnoses were retained placenta accreta in seven cases, retained normally attached placenta in four, hematoma in two, and placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) in one. All seven cases with placenta accreta had a very hyperintense area on T2-weighted images, showing transient early enhancement. None demonstrated delayed strong enhancement around the hyperintense area. In two cases with retained normally attached placenta and in both with hematomas, there were no hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images. Of these, only one showed transient early enhancement. Flow voids were observed in four cases with placenta accreta, one with normally attached placenta, and the case with PSTT. A markedly hyperintense area on T2-weighted images and transient early enhancement without delayed strong enhancement between the mass and the myometrium can indicate retained placenta accreta. (orig.)

  5. Morbidly adherent placenta treatments and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Jennifer L; Grobman, William A; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Leveno, Kenneth J; Iams, Jay D; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C

    2015-03-01

    To describe recent maternal and neonatal delivery outcomes among women with a morbidly adherent placenta in major centers across the United States. This study reviewed a cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals in the United States between March 2008 and February 2011 from the Assessment of Perinatal EXcellence data set. All cases of morbidly adherent placenta were identified. Maternal demographics, procedures undertaken, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. There were 158 women with a morbidly adherent placenta (1/731 births, 95% confidence interval 1/632-866). Eighteen percent of women with a morbidly adherent placenta were nulliparous and 37% had no prior cesarean delivery. Only 53% (84/158) were suspected to have a morbidly adherent placenta before delivery. Women with a prenatally suspected morbidly adherent placenta experienced large blood loss (33%), hysterectomy (92%), and intensive care unit admission (39%) compared with 19%, 45%, and 22%, respectively, in those not suspected prenatally to have a morbidly adherent placenta (P<.05 for all). Eighteen percent of women with a morbidly adherent placenta were nulliparous. Half of the morbidly adherent placenta cases were suspected before delivery and outcomes were poorer in this group, probably because the more clinically significant morbidly adherent placentas are more likely to be suspected before delivery. : II.

  6. Iron transportation across the placenta

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    Claudia M. de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the classification of placental types among animals, the transfer of iron through the placenta can occur via: absorption connected to transferin through the outer surface of the trophoblast in direct contact with circulating maternal blood; absorption of the erythrocytes by the chorionic epithelium in direct contact with accumulation of blood extravased from haemotophagous areas; absorption by the chorionic epithelium in direct contact with iron enriched secretions from the endometrial glands and absorption by extravasations of the blood in the maternal-fetal surface and the subsequent phagocytosis of the erythrocytes by trophoblast cells described in bovine, small ruminants, canine and feline. The function of erythrophagocytosis observed after the extravasation of blood in the maternal-fetal interface is undefined in several species. Possibly, the iron is transferred to the fetus through the trophoblastic erythrophagocytosis in the hemophogous area of the placenta and also in the endometrial glands. In this literature survey, new methods of studies regarding placental transfer involving iron and other nutrients necessary for survival and maintenance of embryonic fetus to birth are proposed.De acordo com a classificação dos tipos de placenta existentes entre os animais e em relação com a passagem de substâncias pela barreira inter-hemática, a transferência de ferro pode ser realizada através da: absorção de ferro ligado a transferrina através da superfície externa do trofoblasto em contato direto com o sangue materno circulante; absorção de eritrócitos pelo epitélio coriônico em contato direto com acúmulos de sangue materno extravasado em áreas hematófagas, absorção de ferro pelo epitélio coriônico em contato direto com secreções ricas em ferro provenientes de glândulas endometriais e fagocitose dos eritrócitos pelas células trofoblásticas, a qual foi descrita em bovinos, pequenos ruminantes, caninos e

  7. Abdomen agudo y embarazo: placenta percreta

    OpenAIRE

    Horacio Massotto Chaves; Roy Wong Mc Clure

    2001-01-01

    La ruptura uterina espontánea por placenta percreta, sin historia de trauma o infección, es una patología extremadamente rara y responsable de una alta morbimortalidad materna. El diagnóstico prenatal de placenta percreta es importante para evitar resultados catastróficos debido a este desorden obstétrico, y diversos procedimientos son utilizados para lograr esta meta. Se presenta un caso de placenta percreta, con búsqueda de expedientes clínicos por esta patología, en el Hospital Monseñor Sa...

  8. Placenta previa percreta with bladder invasion

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    Siniša Šijanović

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A 43- year old woman, with ten previous deliveries and history of two cesarean sections was admitted to our Department at 32 weeks of gestation with massive vaginal hemorrhage from an ultrasound diagnosed placenta previa. An emergency cesarean section with vertical abdominal incision was performed. A healthy 2300 g female infant was delivered. Attempts to manually remove the placenta caused massive hemorrhage. The lower uterine segment was widened due to placenta previa with suspicious placental invasion of the posterior wall of the bladder. Persistent hemorrhage demanded bilateral anterior internal iliac artery ligation and suture ligation of the bleeding vessels with supracervical hysterectomy done.

  9. Obstetric complications of placenta previa percreta

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    Sparić Radmila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Placenta previa is related to severe maternal and fetal morbidity. The increasing incidence of cesarean delivery rate causes a marked increase in abnormally invasive placenta over the past decades. The abnormally invasive placenta is becoming the foremost cause of obstetric hemorrhage and postpartum hysterectomy, causing a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and even mortality. Maternal morbidity in such cases also comprise politransfusion, development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, uterine rupture, cystostomy, fistula formation, ureteral stricture, intensive care unit admission, infection, and prolonged hospitalization, adult respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, septicemia and even death. Case report. A 38-year-old gravida 3, para 2, was admitted to our hospital at 27 weeks of gestation as an emergency due to vaginal bleeding, previously diagnosed with an anterior placenta previa. Following tocolytic therapy, bleeding stopped. The patient was informed on the diagnosis and the possibility of lifethreatening hemorrhage necessitating preterm delivery. She was given corticosteroids to enhance fetal lung maturity. At 28 weeks of gestation, she experienced massive vaginal bleeding, and a decision was made to perform emergency cesarean section. We made a corporeal transverse uterine incision well above the uterovesical fold and tortuous vessels, at the same time avoiding the superior edge of the placenta. The placenta was found to be densely adherent to the lower uterine segment, penetrating through it and infiltrating the posterior wall of the urinary bladder. An attempt to remove the placenta resulted in injury to the bladder wall and the uterine rupture at a previous cesarean scar. The decision was made to perform total abdominal hysterectomy with placenta left in situ. At present, both mother and the baby are well. Conclusion. Anticipation and the surgeon's judgment are leading factors for surgery, from the

  10. Reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta and manual removal of the placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    Because the incidence of retained placenta in Friesian mares is estimated to be high, and no reports have been published on the reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta, we studied postpartum reproductive performance in Friesian brood mares with (n = 54) and without (n =

  11. The placenta in toxicology. Part IV : Battery of toxicological test systems based on human placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göhner, Claudia; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Pfarrer, Christiane; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Faas, Marijke; Ernerudh, Jan; Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Buse, Eberhard; Markert, Udo R

    This review summarizes the potential and also some limitations of using human placentas, or placental cells and structures for toxicology testing. The placenta contains a wide spectrum of cell types and tissues, such as trophoblast cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, endothelial cells,

  12. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Placenta expresses various lipase activities. However, a detailed characterization of the involved genes and proteins is lacking. In this study, we compared the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and LPL in human term placenta. When placental protein extracts were separated by heparin...... protein associated with both cell types. In mouse placentas, lack of LPL expression resulted in increased EL mRNA expression. These results suggest that the cellular expression of EL and LPL in human placenta is different. Nevertheless, the two lipases might have overlapping functions in the mouse...... placenta. Our data also suggest that the major portions of both proteins are stored in an inactive form in human term placenta....

  13. [Placenta percreta with bladder and rectum invasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tórrez-Morales, Froilán; Briones-Garduño, Jesús Carlos

    Placenta percreta may lead to massive obstetric haemorrhage, haemodynamic decompensation, and ultimately death. Total obstetric hysterectomy is universally accepted as treatment; however, the emergence of new techniques such as the uterine artery angioembolisation approach, and the use of chemotherapy agents such as methotrexate, are alternatives also described in the literature. A 28 year-old patient, in her fourth gestation, with a previous history of 2 vaginal and 1 caesarean birth 4, in her 28.4 week of pregnancy, by second trimester ultrasound, was diagnosed with placenta percreta with bladder and rectal invasion using magnetic resonance imaging. Multidisciplinary and sequential treatment included: Caesarean with placenta in situ, uterine artery embolisation immediately after caesarean, chemotherapy with methotrexate weekly for 4 doses, and finally obstetric hysterectomy after bilateral hypogastric artery ligation. The outcome was favourable and the patient was discharged in good general condition. The protocoled and sequential management including selective embolization immediately after caesarean section with placenta in situ, weekly chemotherapy with methotrexate and obstetric hysterectomy, preceded by bilateral ligation of the hypogastric arteries, is a therapeutic alternative to be considered in cases of placenta percreta. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidative Stress in Placenta: Health and Diseases

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    Fan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, development of the placenta is interrelated with the oxygen concentration. Embryo development takes place in a low oxygen environment until the beginning of the second trimester when large amounts of oxygen are conveyed to meet the growth requirements. High metabolism and oxidative stress are common in the placenta. Reactive oxidative species sometimes harm placental development, but they are also reported to regulate gene transcription and downstream activities such as trophoblast proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Autophagy and apoptosis are two crucial, interconnected processes in the placenta that are often influenced by oxidative stress. The proper interactions between them play an important role in placental homeostasis. However, an imbalance between the protective and destructive mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis seems to be linked with pregnancy-related disorders such as miscarriage, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. Thus, potential therapies to hold oxidative stress in leash, promote placentation, and avoid unwanted apoptosis are discussed.

  15. RUPTURA UTERINA ESPONTANEA POR PLACENTA PERCRETA

    OpenAIRE

    Bustos,Paola; Delgado, Jorge; Greibe,Daniella

    2003-01-01

    La rotura uterina en un útero sin cicatriz previa, y temprano en el tercer trimestre, es un evento raro. Se expone el caso clínico de una paciente que se presenta con abdomen agudo, cursando embarazo de aproximadamente 25 semanas, se realiza laparotomía exploradora encontrando hemoperitoneo, feto y placenta libres en la cavidad peritoneal y útero roto en el fondo invadido por la placenta, que compromete epiplón mayor. Se realiza histerectomía y se confirma el diagnóstico con biopsia

  16. Risk Factors for Placenta Praevia in Jos, North Central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About half (44.8%) of the cases had no known risk factor. Conclusion: Uterine scaring following abortion management is an important risk factor for placenta praevia. However, majority of patients with placenta praevia in this work have no identifiable risk factor. Key Words: placenta praevia, antepartum haemorrhage, risk ...

  17. Human placenta secretes apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Eva; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Andersen, Claus B

    2004-01-01

    genes were expressed in placenta and microsomal extracts from human placenta contained triglyceride transfer activity, indicating expression of bioactive MTP. To detect lipoprotein secretion, biopsies from term placentas were placed in medium with [(35)S]methionine and [(35)S]cysteine for 3-24 h. Upon...

  18. Correlation between placenta and umbilical cord morphplogy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The ability of the fetus to grow and thrive in-utero depends on a number of factors of which the placenta is a contributor. The umbilical cord is an essential organ connecting the fetus to the placenta and a healthy placenta is essential for good perinatal outcome. Objectives: The study aims at determining the ...

  19. Per operative discovery of Placenta Praevia Percreta: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Placenta percreta is a rare pathological entity with challenging diagnostic and therapeutic requirements especially for resource limited settings. We present here the case of a 40 year old woman with a per operative diagnosis of placenta accreta during a caesarian section indicated for placenta praevia. We highlight the ...

  20. The retained placenta | Weeks | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injection of oxytocin into the umbilical vein has been suggested as an alternative. This method relies on the injected oxytocin passing through the placenta to contract the retro-placental myometrium and cause its detachment. Despite several placebo controlled trials of this technique, no firm conclusion have been reached ...

  1. gross morphological study of placenta in preeclampsia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... 5. Kishwara S, Ara S, Rayhan KA, Begum M. 2009. Morphological changes of placenta in preeclampsia. Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy, 7: 49-54. 6. Navbir P. 2012. Placental morphology and its co-relation with foetal outcome in pregnancy- induced hypertension. International Journal of Basic and Applied ...

  2. Hematometra following caesarean section for placenta previa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-08

    Dec 8, 2017 ... 76. CASE REPORT. Hematometra following caesarean section is rare. We present here a case of 23-year-old woman who had undergone caesarean section for placenta previa. She presented with cryptomenorrhoea and hematometra after 5 months of caesarean delivery owing to adhesions in the vagina.

  3. Modeling Oxygen Transport in the Human Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Alexander; Filoche, Marcel; Salafia, Carolyn; Grebenkov, Denis

    Efficient functioning of the human placenta is crucial for the favorable pregnancy outcome. We construct a 3D model of oxygen transport in the placenta based on its histological cross-sections. The model accounts for both diffusion and convention of oxygen in the intervillous space and allows one to estimate oxygen uptake of a placentone. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal villi density maximizing the uptake and explain it as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villous surface. Calculations performed for arbitrary shapes of fetal villi show that only two geometrical characteristics - villi density and the effective villi radius - are required to predict fetal oxygen uptake. Two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake are also identified: maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone and the Damköhler number. An automatic image analysis method is developed and applied to 22 healthy placental cross-sections demonstrating that villi density of a healthy human placenta lies within 10% of the optimal value, while overall geometry efficiency is rather low (around 30-40%). In a perspective, the model can constitute the base of a reliable tool of post partum oxygen exchange efficiency assessment in the human placenta. Also affiliated with Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

  4. Evolution of the Placenta in Eutherian Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A

    2007-01-01

    of eutherian mammals had an endotheliochorial placenta or a haemochorial one. Research has been stimulated by improved understanding of the relations between the orders of mammals provided by molecular phylogenetics. In part, the uncertainties arise from doubt about how to root the mammalian tree. Resolution...

  5. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Matsuzaki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta, the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM. Study Design - Case report and review of the literature. Results - A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion - Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options.

  6. Autophagy in the human placenta throughout gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tai-Ho; Hsieh, T'sang-T'ang; Chen, Szu-Fu; Li, Meng-Jen; Yeh, Yi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy has been reported to be essential for pre-implantation development and embryo survival. However, its role in placental development and regulation of autophagy during pregnancy remain unclear. The aims of this study were to (1) study autophagy by characterizing changes in levels of beclin-1, DRAM, and LC3B in human placenta throughout gestation; (2) determine whether autophagy is involved in regulation of trophoblast invasion in JEG-3 cells (a choriocarcinoma cell line); (3) examine the effects of reduced oxygen and glucose on the autophagic changes; and (4) investigate the effect of reoxygenation and supplementation of glucose after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) on the autophagic changes in primary cytotrophoblasts obtained from normal term pregnancy. An analysis of 40 placental samples representing different gestational stages showed (1) no significant differences in beclin-1, DRAM, and LC3B-II levels in placentas between early and mid-gestation, and late gestation with vaginal delivery; (2) placentas from late gestation with cesarean section had lower levels of LC3B-II compared to early and mid-gestation, and late gestation with vaginal delivery; levels of DRAM were also lower compared to placentas from early and mid-gestation; and (3) using explant cultures, villous tissues from early and late gestation had similar rates of autophagic flux under physiological oxygen concentrations. Knockdown of BECN1, DRAM, and LC3B had no effects on viability and invasion activity of JEG-3 cells. On the other hand, OGD caused a significant increase in the levels of LC3B-II in primary cytotrophoblasts, while re-supplementation of oxygen and glucose reduced these changes. Furthermore, there were differential changes in levels of beclin-1, DRAM, and LC3B-II in response to changes in oxygen and glucose levels. Our results indicate that autophagy is involved in development of the human placenta and that changes in oxygen and glucose levels participate in regulation of

  7. A STUDY ON MACROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF HUMAN PLACENTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is only the eutherian mammals that have evolved a complex organ - “ The Placenta ” which not only protect but also gives nutrition to the embryo till its birth. We should see that the placenta is more than just some messy after birth to be discarded and ignored in the excitement and joy over the birth of a beautiful new child. So, this study aims to evaluate the macroscopic study of placenta and to explore the morphological variation of placenta with respect to preterm, term and post term pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHOD: It’s a hospital based Prospective Nonrandomized Observational stud y of 90 placentae, conducted in the Department of Anatomy and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, FAAMCH, Barpeta. RESULTS: The macroscopic study of placenta revealed that most of the placentae were discoidal in shape, only a few oval. The weight of the term and post term placentae were more than preterm placentae. Comparison of weight between preterm and term categories were found to be significant (p<0.01 whereas comparison of weight between term and post - term were found to be just significant (p<0.05. A difference in diameter between preterm and term cases were seen whereas the difference was less in respect to term and post - term cases, statistically just significant (p<0.05. Thickness showed no major difference, the number of cotyledons foun d were 15 – 20 and the arrangement of chorionic vessels were similar in all the three categories of placentae. O ut of 90 placentae two placentae had marginal attachment and seven had velamentous insertion of cord, rest of them were eccentric in position. CON CLUSION: Therefore, it is obvious that the various parameters of placenta are subjected to slight variations in preterm, term and post - term placentae. Direct examination and assessment of placental parameters contribute to the assessment of the neonate; he lp to explain certain antenatal events and aid in the management of the puerpera.

  8. Complement activation and regulation in preeclamptic placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Inkeri eLokki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a common disorder of pregnancy originating in the placenta. We examined whether excessive activation or poor regulation of the complement system at the maternal-fetal interface could contribute to the development of PE. Location and occurrence of complement components and regulators in placentae were analyzed. Cryostat sections of placentae were processed from 7 early-onset PE (diagnosis <34 weeks of gestation, 5 late-onset PE and 10 control pregnancies and immunostained for 6 complement activators and 6 inhibitors. Fluorescence was quantified and compared between PE and control placentae. Gene copy numbers of complement components C4A and C4B were assessed by a quantitative PCR method. Maternal C4 deficiencies (≥1 missing or non-functional C4 were most common in the early-onset PE group (71%, and more frequent in late-onset PE compared to healthy controls (60% vs. 38%. Complement C1q deposition differed significantly between control and patient groups: controls and early-onset PE patients had more C1q than late-onset PE patients (mean p=0.01 and p=0.005, respectively. C3 activation was analyzed by staining for C3b/iC3b and C3d. C3d was mostly specific to the basal syncytium and C3b/iC3b diffuse in other structures, but there were no clear differences between the study groups. Activated C4 and membrane-bound regulators CD55, CD46 and CD59 were observed abundantly in the syncytiotrophoblast. Syncytial knots, structures enriched in PE, stained specifically for the classical pathway inhibitor C4bp, whereas the key regulator alternative pathway, Factor H showed a wider distribution in the placenta. Differences in C1q deposition between late- and early-onset PE groups may be indicative of the different aetiology of PE symptoms in these patients. Irregular distribution of the complement regulators C4bp and FH in the PE placenta and a higher frequency of C4A deficiencies suggest a disturbed balance between complement activation

  9. Escalating placenta invasiveness: repeated placenta accreta at the limit of viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenbaum S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Shirley Greenbaum,1 Alla Khashper,2 Elad Leron,1 Eric Ohana,1 Mihai Meirovitz,1 Reli Hershkovitz,1 Offer Erez1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Radiology, Soroka University Medical Center, School of Medicine, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be’er Sheva, Israel Abstract: Placenta percreta is an obstetric condition in which the placenta invades through the myometrium. This is the most severe form of placenta accreta and may result in spontaneous uterine rupture, a rare complication that threatens the life of both mother and fetus. In this case report, we describe a 32-year-old woman in her fourth pregnancy, diagnosed with repeated placenta accreta, which was eventually complicated by spontaneous uterine rupture at 24 weeks’ gestation. This patient had a history of abnormal placentation in prior pregnancies and previous uterine injuries. This case demonstrates a pattern of escalating placental invasiveness, and raises questions regarding the process of abnormal placentation and the manifestation of uterine rupture in scarred uteri. Keywords: placenta percreta, uterine injury, laparoscopy, dilatation and curettage, residua, cesarean section scar, spontaneous uterine rupture

  10. Failed manual removal of the placenta after vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjurström, Johanna; Collins, Sally; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Sundberg, Karin; Jørgensen, Annemette; Duvekot, Johannes J; Groenbeck, Lene

    2018-02-01

    A retained placenta after vaginal delivery where manual removal of placenta fails is a clinical challenge. We present six cases that illustrate the heterogeneity of the condition and discuss the etiology and terminology as well as the clinical management. Members of the European Working group on Abnormally Invasive Placenta (EW-AIP) were invited to report all recent cases of retained placenta that were not antenatally suspected to be abnormally adherent or invasive, but could not be removed manually despite several attempts. The six cases from Denmark, The Netherlands and the UK provide examples of various treatment strategies such as ultrasound-guided vaginal removal, removal of the placenta through a hysterotomy and just leaving the placenta in situ. The placentas were all retained, but it was only possible to diagnose abnormal invasion in the one case, which had a histopathological diagnosis of increta. Based on these cases we present a flow chart to aid clinical management for future cases. We need properly defined stringent terminology for the different types of retained placenta, as well as improved tools to predict and diagnose both abnormally invasive and abnormally adherent placenta. Clinicians need to be aware of the options available to them when confronted by the rare case of a retained placenta that cannot be removed manually in a hemodynamically stable patient.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaicher, Wibke [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: wibke.blaicher@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Schwindt, Jens [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Deutinger, Josef [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Bernaschek, Gerhard [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  12. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Siwetz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in placental fractalkine at term, compared to first trimester. Fractalkine expression and release were detected in the trophoblast cell line BeWo, in primary term trophoblasts and placental explants. Incubation of BeWo cells and placental explants with metalloprotease inhibitor Batimastat inhibited the release of soluble fractalkine and at the same time increased the membrane-bound form. These results demonstrate that human placenta is a source for fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and can be released into the maternal circulation by constitutive metalloprotease dependent shedding. Increased expression and release of placental fractalkine may contribute to low grade systemic inflammatory responses in third trimester of normal pregnancy. Aberrant placental metalloprotease activity may not only affect the release of placenta derived fractalkine but may at the same time affect the abundance of the membrane-bound form of the chemokine.

  13. Natural killer cells and HLA-G expression in the basal decidua of human placenta adhesiva.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, H.J. van; Joosten, I.; Lotgering, F.K.; Bulten, J.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van

    2010-01-01

    Retained placenta is caused by abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall, leading to delayed expulsion of the placenta and causing postpartum haemorrhage. The mildest form of retained placenta is the placenta adhesiva (PA), of which the cause is unknown. The aim of our study was to

  14. Effect of placenta previa on fetal growth restriction and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, A Ozgur; Ergenoglu, A Mete; Itil, Ismail Mete; Askar, Niyazi; Meseri, Reci

    2012-08-01

    To examine the association between placenta previa and adverse perinatal outcomes such as low birth weight, preterm delivery, stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR). This retrospective cohort study includes 12,034 delivered pregnant women who were recruited for the study between 2004 and 2010 in Ege University Hospital. Data were collected by browsing the clinic's archives. The association between placenta previa and adverse perinatal outcomes was determined via Chi-square tests and Student's t test. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounding factors in evaluating the association between placenta previa and the adverse perinatal outcomes. There was no significant relationship between placenta previa and FGR or stillbirth. Low birth weight and preterm delivery were significantly higher in the placenta previa group. According to logistic regression analysis, low birth weight was associated with an OR of 3.01 (95 % CI 2.05-4.52) and preterm delivery was associated with an OR of 8.14 (95 % CI 5.60-11.83); while, placenta previa did not affect FGR and stillbirth significantly. Although there is no consensus on the association between placenta previa and FGR in previous studies, we suggest that placenta previa is not a reason for placental insufficiency. Management of placenta previa especially depends on maternal hemodynamic parameters such as heavy hemorrhage and hypotensive shock rather than fetal well-being protocols based on serial growth ultrasound and fetal Doppler investigation.

  15. TOTAL PLACENTA PREVIA AND PERIPARTUM HYSTERECTOMY – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Weber

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postpartum haemorrhage usually occurs due to uterus atonia, adherent placenta, placenta accreta, coagulopathy or uterus rupture. In total placenta previa haemorrhage occurs more often and usually is more severe. Case report. We presented the example of severe postpartum haemorrhage with parturient woman after scheduled Caesarean section, due to total placenta previa, which was ended by performing hysterectomy. Conclusions. In postpartum haemorrhage, the treatment is conservative and if there is no improvement timely surgery is required. Abdominal hysterectomy is the final option and in case of severe haemorrhage it proved to be life saving for parturient woman.

  16. Placenta-on-a-chip: a novel platform to study the biology of the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Soo; Romero, Roberto; Han, Yu Mi; Kim, Hee Chan; Kim, Chong Jai; Hong, Joon-Seok; Huh, Dongeun

    2016-01-01

    Studying the biology of the human placenta represents a major experimental challenge. Although conventional cell culture techniques have been used to study different types of placenta-derived cells, current in vitro models have limitations in recapitulating organ-specific structure and key physiological functions of the placenta. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to leverage microfluidic and microfabrication technologies to develop a microengineered biomimetic model that replicates the architecture and function of the placenta. A "Placenta-on-a-Chip" microdevice was created by using a set of soft elastomer-based microfabrication techniques known as soft lithography. This microsystem consisted of two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels separated by a thin extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. To reproduce the placental barrier in this model, human trophoblasts (JEG-3) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded onto the opposite sides of the ECM membrane and cultured under dynamic flow conditions to form confluent epithelial and endothelial layers in close apposition. We tested the physiological function of the microengineered placental barrier by measuring glucose transport across the trophoblast-endothelial interface over time. The permeability of the barrier study was analyzed and compared to that obtained from acellular devices and additional control groups that contained epithelial or endothelial layers alone. Our microfluidic cell culture system provided a tightly controlled fluidic environment conducive to the proliferation and maintenance of JEG-3 trophoblasts and HUVECs on the ECM scaffold. Prolonged culture in this model produced confluent cellular monolayers on the intervening membrane that together formed the placental barrier. This in vivo-like microarchitecture was also critical for creating a physiologically relevant effective barrier to glucose transport. Quantitative investigation of barrier function was

  17. The Programming Power of the Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Camm, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimize substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development. This flow of nutrients will ultimately program physiological systems at the gene, cell, tissue, organ, and system levels, and inadequacies can cause permanent structural and functional changes that lead to overt disease, particularly with increasing age. This review examines the environmental regulation of the placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the impact of maternal nutritional challenges and oxygen scarcity in mice, rats and guinea pigs. It also focuses on the effects of such conditions on fetal growth and the developmental programming of disease postnatally. A challenge for future research is to link placental structure and function with clinical phenotypes in the offspring. PMID:27014074

  18. Placenta retention in the cow: Report of three cases | Raheem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Episiotomy was done to deliver the dead calf and was associated with placenta retention. The case was successfully treated by applying gentle traction on the little stump of the placenta hanging out of the vulva. The third case was observed in a cattle market in which parturition was induced by stress of transporting the cow ...

  19. Kinetics of silica nanoparticles in the human placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Mose, Tina; Maroun, Lisa Leth

    2015-01-01

    The potential medical applications of nanoparticles (NPs) warrant their investigation in terms of biodistribution and safety during pregnancy. The transport of silica NPs across the placenta was investigated using two models of maternal-foetal transfer in human placenta, namely, the BeWo b30 chor...... NPs in biomedical imaging or therapy....

  20. Proposal for standardised ultrasound descriptors of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Sally L; Ashcroft, Anna; Braun, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) is a clinical term used to describe a placenta that does not separate spontaneous during normal delivery and cannot be removed without causing high blood loss. Maternal outcome in cases with AIP is improved by antenatal diagnosis that currently relies on subject...

  1. Gene expression profiling of placentas affected by pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Anne Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2010-01-01

    Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA...

  2. Delivery of placenta before baby in ruptured uterus | Ameh | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An unusual case of ruptured uterus characterized by spontaneous delivery of the placenta while the foetus is retained in the abdomen is presented. The management and prevention of ruptured uterus in Sub- Saharan Africa is discussed. Key Words: Delivery of placenta, ruptured uterus. Annals of African Medicine Vol.3(3) ...

  3. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L S; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Placenta expresses various lipase activities. However, a detailed characterization of the involved genes and proteins is lacking. In this study, we compared the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and LPL in human term placenta. When placental protein extracts were separated by heparin-Sepharos...

  4. Retained Placenta Aspect of Clinical Management in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Retained placenta is a significant cause of postpartum haemorrhage, maternal morbidity and occasionally mortality. This study assessed the clinical presentation, management and outcomes of retained placenta at the Ebonyi State University teaching Hospital. Method: Analysis of records relating to retained ...

  5. Human placenta secretes apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Eva; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Andersen, Claus B

    2004-01-01

    early during pregnancy in the placenta. To examine whether the human placenta produces lipoproteins, we examined apoB and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression in placental biopsies. ApoB and MTP are mandatory for assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins. Both...

  6. Gross morphological study of placenta in preeclampsia | Wubale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Placenta is a fetomaternal organ that structurally and functionally connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall during pregnancy. Pregnancy is usually complicated by preeclampsia, which in turn will alter the macroarchitecture and functions of the placenta as well as health of the pregnant mothers. Hence, this study was ...

  7. Fibrin degradation products blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen in the blood Infections Leukemia Liver disease Problem during pregnancy such as preeclampsia, placenta abruptio , miscarriage Recent blood transfusion Recent surgery that involved a heart and lung ...

  8. Telomere homeostasis in IUGR placentas - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron-Shental, Tal; Sadeh-Mestechkin, Dana; Amiel, Aliza

    2016-03-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures located at the termini of chromosomes. They are essential for chromosome stability. Telomeres become shorter due to mitotic cycles and environmental factors. When telomeres are shortened and therefore dysfunctional, cellular senescence occurs and organ dysfunction might develop. During pregnancy, fetal growth restriction secondary to placental insufficiency has been linked to impaired telomere homeostasis in which telomeres are shorter, telomerase is decreased, and compensatory mechanisms of telomere capture are enhanced. These characteristics, along with increased signs of senescence, indicate telomere dysfunction in trophoblasts from placentas affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This review summarizes the information currently available regarding telomere homeostasis in trophoblasts from human pregnancies affected by IUGR. Improved understanding of placental physiology might help in the development of treatment options for fetuses with IUGR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal Morbidity in Women with Placenta Previa Managed with Prediction of Morbidly Adherent Placenta by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Fujisaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine maternal morbidity in women with placenta previa managed with prediction of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP by ultrasonography. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken comprising forty-one women who had placenta previa with or without risk factors for MAP. Women who had all three findings (bladder line interruption, placental lacunae, and absence of the retroplacental clear zone were regarded as high suspicion for MAP and underwent cesarean section followed by hysterectomy. We attempted placental removal for women having two findings or less. Results. Among 28 women with risk, nine with high suspicion underwent hysterectomy and were diagnosed with MAP. Three of 19 women with two findings or less eventually underwent hysterectomy and were diagnosed with MAP. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for the detection of MAP were 64% and 100%. The pathological severity of MAP was significantly correlated with the cumulative number of findings. There were no cases of MAP among 13 women without risk. There was no difference of blood loss between women with high suspicion and those without risk (2186±1438 ml versus 1656±848 ml, resp.; p=0.34. Conclusion. Management with prediction of MAP by ultrasonography is useful for obtaining permissible morbidity.

  10. Prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Song; Wang, Wen; Xin, Lihong; Tian, Guo; Liu, Li; Feng, Jinping; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. Objectives: We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. Methods: The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched and included hospital-based studies that reported placenta previa prevalence in Mainland China. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool prevalence estimates of placenta previa. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. For exploring the geographical distributions of placenta previa, the ArcGIS software (Esri) was used to construct the map of prevalence. Results: A total of 80 articles and 86 datasets (including 1,298,548 subjects and 14,199 placenta previa cases) from 1965 through 2015 were included. The pooled overall prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries was 1.24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.36) in Mainland China during 1965 to 2015. And, the trend in the prevalence of placenta previa was steady. The occurrence rate of placenta previa in the region groups Northeast, North, Northwest, Central China, East, South, and Southwest was 1.20%, 1.01%, 1.10%, 1.15%, 0.93%, 1.42%, and 2.01%, respectively. The prevalence map based on a geographic information system showed an unequal geographic distribution. Conclusions: The results showed that placenta previa is currently a high-burden disease in Mainland China. This review would be useful for the design of placenta previa

  11. File list: ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta mm9 All antigens Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SR...SRX878733,SRX871502,SRX112969,SRX112967,SRX871500,SRX112966,SRX185854,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  12. File list: NoD.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta hg19 No description Placenta Placenta SRX252721,SRX300951...,SRX252732,SRX300962,SRX300957,SRX252729 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Histone Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SRX1129...70,SRX185855,SRX871505,SRX871504,SRX871501,SRX185854,SRX112967,SRX871500 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta mm9 All antigens Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SR...SRX871506,SRX871502,SRX112969,SRX185854,SRX112967,SRX871500,SRX112966,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Input control Placenta Placenta SRX185885,SRX112971,S...RX143854,SRX878733,SRX871503,SRX871502,SRX871506,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta mm9 All antigens Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SR...SRX185885,SRX112971,SRX143854,SRX878733,SRX871503,SRX871502,SRX871506,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Input control Placenta Placenta SRX112971,SRX185885,S...RX143854,SRX878733,SRX871503,SRX871506,SRX871502,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Histone Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SRX1129...67,SRX185854,SRX112970,SRX185855,SRX871505,SRX871501,SRX871504,SRX871500 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Histone Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SRX1129...70,SRX185855,SRX871505,SRX871504,SRX871501,SRX112967,SRX871500,SRX185854 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  20. File list: DNS.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta hg19 DNase-seq Placenta Placenta SRX089258,SRX121285,SRX0...89254,SRX201830,SRX201819,SRX101015,SRX214046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta hg19 DNase-seq Placenta Placenta SRX089258,SRX089254,SRX1...21285,SRX101015,SRX201830,SRX201819,SRX214046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  2. File list: NoD.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta hg19 No description Placenta Placenta SRX252721,SRX300951...,SRX252729,SRX252732,SRX300962,SRX300957 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Histone Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SRX1129...67,SRX185854,SRX112970,SRX185855,SRX871504,SRX871505,SRX871500,SRX871501 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta hg19 No description Placenta Placenta SRX252721,SRX300962...,SRX252732,SRX300957,SRX300951,SRX252729 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta hg19 DNase-seq Placenta Placenta SRX089258,SRX089254,SRX1...21285,SRX201830,SRX101015,SRX201819,SRX214046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Input control Placenta Placenta SRX185885,SRX878733,S...RX112971,SRX143854,SRX871502,SRX871503,SRX871506,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta mm9 All antigens Placenta Placenta SRX185885,SRX112968,SR...SRX871501,SRX878733,SRX112971,SRX143854,SRX871502,SRX871503,SRX871506,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  8. File list: NoD.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta hg19 No description Placenta Placenta SRX252721,SRX300962...,SRX252732,SRX300957,SRX300951,SRX252729 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  9. Oxygen diffusive conductance in placentae from control and diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayhew, T M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G

    1993-01-01

    Random tissue sections of placentae from control and diabetic deliveries were analysed stereologically. The aim was to test whether or not adaptations in oxygen diffusive conductances occur to help compensate for fetal hypoxic stress in utero. Organs were from 34 control and 55 diabetic deliveries......, F/R). However, both the ABC and DFR groups of diabetic placentae had higher total diffusive conductances than control organs. The increase was in the order of 7-25% and persisted even when adjustments were made for apparent differences in birthweights. The principal contributors to these changes....... maternal erythrocytes and plasma, villous trophoblast, villous stroma, fetal plasma and fetal erythrocytes. From partial conductances and birthweights, total and specific conductances for each placenta were determined. No differences were detected between diabetic placentae in different classes (A, B, C, D...

  10. Morbidly Adherent Placenta: Interprofessional Management Strategies for the Intrapartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Suzanne McMurtry; Troiano, Nan H; Kennedy, Margaret Betsy Babb

    "Morbidly adherent placenta" is a term that describes the continuum of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta. The incidence of this type of abnormal placentation has increased significantly over recent decades. The reason is probably multifactorial but, partly, because of factors such as the increasing number of cesarean births. Women at greatest risk are those who have myometrial damage caused by a previous cesarean birth, with either anterior or posterior placenta previa overlying the uterine scar. This condition poses significant risks of morbidity and/or mortality to the pregnant woman and her fetus. A multidisciplinary approach to care throughout pregnancy is essential. This article describes the classification of morbidly adherent placenta, risk factors, methods of diagnosis, potential maternal and fetal complications, and intrapartum clinical management strategies to optimize outcomes.

  11. Septic Shock after Conservative Management for Placenta Accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Cheng Chiang

    2006-03-01

    Conclusion: At present, there is no consensus about the optimal treatment for placenta accreta. Conservative treatment appears to be an alternative in selected patients, but the complications such as sepsis should be carefully identified and appropriately managed.

  12. Peripartal leukogram in cows with and without retained placenta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lužajić Tijana; Danilović Jelena; Katić Marko; Božić Tatjana; Kovačević-Filipović Milica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prepartal leukogram in cows with retained placenta could indicate the presence of subclinical systemic inflammatory response before the onset of disease...

  13. Mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and related proteins in placenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eclampsia (PE).This study aimed at evaluating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in placenta of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and correlate it with severity and pregnancy outcome . Apoptosis was assessed by measuring DNA ...

  14. Placenta Percreta Resulting in Incomplete Spontaneous Abortion in First Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Genc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Placenta percreta is a rare complication potentially fatal to fetus and the mother. We present here a 41-year-old female patient who underwent curettage for incomplete abortion at 6th week of pregnancy. She had persistent vaginal bleeding for 2 months after the curettage, for which she was treated with hysterectomy. Preoperative ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI made the diagnosis of placenta percreta. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed this diagnosis.

  15. Peripartal leukogram in cows with and without retained placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Lužajić Tijana; Danilović Jelena; Katić Marko; Božić Tatjana; Kovačević-Filipović Milica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prepartal leukogram in cows with retained placenta could indicate the presence of subclinical systemic inflammatory response before the onset of disease. After calving, sixteen highly pregnant Holstein cows, aged 3 to 9 years, without clinical signs of the disease prior to calving were divided into two groups: the first group (n=9) were animals without retained placenta, or any visible inflammation after birt...

  16. Prediction of placenta accreta by ultrasonography and color Doppler imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodring, T Casey; Klauser, Chad K; Bofill, James A; Martin, Rick W; Morrison, John C

    2011-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of ultrasound and color flow Doppler to diagnose placenta accreta. Respectively, ultrasound images consistent with signs of placenta accreta (concomitant previa, numerous vascular lacunae, absent lower uterine segment between bladder-placenta, turbulent or complicated blood flow at the uteroplacental interface) were correlated with findings at the time of surgery and pathologic examination. Over 64 months, 12 cases with suspected placenta accreta by ultrasound were studied. The median gestational age at first diagnosis was 25 weeks and 92% had a previa while all had at least one previous cesarean delivery. At surgery, 83% (10/12) had an adherent placenta requiring hysterectomy (eight accreta, one increta, and one percreta). There were two false positives (one complete previa, one low-lying placenta with vasa previa). Nine of 12 women (75%) required blood transfusions due to a mean hematocrit nadir of 22.7 ± 4.6%. The mean number of packed red blood cell units transfused was 4.9 ± 4.7 units (range 2-17 units). Sonography coupled with color-flow Doppler appears helpful in allowing antenatal diagnosis of accreta.

  17. Global DNA hypermethylation in down syndrome placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Jin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS, commonly caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (chr21, occurs in approximately one out of 700 live births. Precisely how an extra chr21 causes over 80 clinically defined phenotypes is not yet clear. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS analysis at single base resolution revealed DNA hypermethylation in all autosomes in DS samples. We hypothesize that such global hypermethylation may be mediated by down-regulation of TET family genes involved in DNA demethylation, and down-regulation of REST/NRSF involved in transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. Genes located on chr21 were up-regulated by an average of 53% in DS compared to normal villi, while genes with promoter hypermethylation were modestly down-regulated. DNA methylation perturbation was conserved in DS placenta villi and in adult DS peripheral blood leukocytes, and enriched for genes known to be causally associated with DS phenotypes. Our data suggest that global epigenetic changes may occur early in development and contribute to DS phenotypes.

  18. Gene expression in first trimester preeclampsia placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, Sandra A; Terhorst, Lauren A; Conrad, Kirk P; Hogge, W Allen; Jeyabalan, Arun; Conley, Yvette P

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this study was to further validate eight candidate genes identified in a microarray analysis of first trimester placentas in preeclampsia. Surplus chorionic villus sampling (CVS) specimens of 4 women subsequently diagnosed with preeclampsia (PE) and 8 control women (C) without preeclampsia analyzed previously by microarray and 24 independent additional control samples (AS) were submitted for confirmatory studies by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Downregulation was significant in FSTL3 in PE as compared to C and AS (p = .04). PAEP was downregulated, but the difference was only significant between C and AS (p = .002) rather than between PE and either of the control groups. Expression levels for CFH, EPAS1, IGFBP1, MMP12, and SEMA3C were not statistically different among groups, but trends were consistent with microarray results; there was no anti-correlation. S100A8 was not measurable in all samples, probably because different probes and primers were needed. This study corroborates reduced FSTL3 expression in the first trimester of preeclampsia. Nonsignificant trends in the other genes may require follow-up in studies powered for medium or medium/large effect sizes. qRT-PCR verification of the prior microarray of CVS may support the placental origins of preeclampsia hypothesis. Replication is needed for the candidate genes as potential biomarkers of susceptibility, early detection, and/or individualized care of maternal-infant preeclampsia.

  19. Peripartal leukogram in cows with and without retained placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lužajić Tijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether prepartal leukogram in cows with retained placenta could indicate the presence of subclinical systemic inflammatory response before the onset of disease. After calving, sixteen highly pregnant Holstein cows, aged 3 to 9 years, without clinical signs of the disease prior to calving were divided into two groups: the first group (n=9 were animals without retained placenta, or any visible inflammation after birth; the second group (n=7 were cows with retained placenta. Blood was sampled three times before parturition, at intervals of one week, and once 24 hours after birth. The number of total leukocytes, segmented and non segmented neutrophilic granulocytes (NG, lymphocytes and monocytes were determined by standard laboratory techniques. The results have shown that in the group of cows with retained placenta the number of mature neutrophils was slightly elevated in the third, second and last week before calving, and equal number of non segmented neutrophils in regard to the group with no retention. The results have also shown that, in both groups of cows, 24 hours after calving, the number of total leukocytes and the number of segmented neutrophils decreased, but the number of the non segmented neutrophils increased. Based on this, we can conclude that cows with retained placenta had no systemic inflammatory response during three weeks prepartal period, but 24 hours after calving, systemic inflammatory response was documented in all the cows. Moreover, the intensity of inflammatory response in cows with retained placenta was not more pronounced in comparison to cows without retained placenta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  20. Placenta previa after prior abortion: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy regarding the role of prior abortion on placenta previa in subsequent pregnancies. We conducted an updated, comprehensive meta-analysis of placenta previa after prior abortion. The search was conducted from PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases from the database inception to January 31, 2017. The heterogeneity across studies was evaluated by Q-test and I2 statistical test. Publication bias was assessed by Begg's test and Egger's test. Results of odds ratio (OR estimates with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were pooled using random-effects modeling. The literature search included 872 articles up until January 2017 with 2,134,529 participants. Based on OR estimates obtained from case-control and cohort studies, we found a significant association between prior spontaneous abortions and placenta previa (1.77; 95% CI: 1.60, 1.94 and between prior induced abortions and placenta previa (1.36; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.69. The meta-analysis study herein showed that prior abortion is a risk factor for placenta previa.

  1. Smoking and placenta previa: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Jenabi, Ensiyeh

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies found a positive association between placenta previa and smoking during pregnancy. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent. The aim was to perform meta-analysis of the association between smoking during pregnancy and placenta previa. Major electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched until June 2015. The heterogeneity across studies was explored by Q-test and I2 statistic. The possibility of publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests. The results were reported using odds ratio (OR) estimate with its 95% confidence intervals using a random-effects model. The literature search yielded 991 publications until October 2015 with 9,094,443 participants. Based on the random effect model, compared to nonsmoker women, the estimated OR and RR of placenta previa was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.54) and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.35), respectively. There is sufficient documents based on the observational studies that smoking during pregnancy is significantly associated with an increased risk of placenta previa. Therefore, smoking during pregnancy can be considered as a predictor of placenta previa.

  2. Nitroglycerin for Management of Retained Placenta: A Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bullarbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim was to determine if sequential administration of oxytocin and nitroglycerin is effective for management of retained placenta when performed by obstetricians with no experience of the method. Secondary aims were to examine possible adverse effects of nitroglycerin. One hundred and five women with retained placenta were randomly selected to receive either 1 mg nitroglycerin or placebo tablets sublingually if intravenous oxytocin had failed to expel the placenta. At two of the hospitals some of the midwives were familiar with the use of nitroglycerin. The other midwives and all the participating obstetricians had no clinical experience of the method. In the treatment group, detachment of placenta following nitroglycerin occurred in 37.3% of the women compared to 20.4% in the placebo group (P=0.056. In the two hospitals with some experience of the method, placenta was removed in 9 of 19 (47.4% women in the nitroglycerin group compared to 3 of 17 (15.0% women in the placebo group. No adverse effects of clinical importance were registered. Although the difference between the two groups did not reach statistical significance, the higher success rate in the two hospitals with some experience could indicate that clinical experience is of importance in order to achieve placental detachment.

  3. Induced abortion and placenta complications in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Larsen, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Background. To study the risk of placenta complications following an induced abortion as a function of the interpregnancy interval. Methods. This study is based on three Danish national registries; the Medical Birth Registry, the Hospital Discharge Registry, and the Induced Abortion Registry. All...... primigravida women from 1980 to 1982 were identified in these three registries. A total of 15,727 women who terminated the pregnancy with a first trimester induced abortion were selected to the abortion cohort, and 46,026 women who did not terminate the pregnancy with an induced abortion constituted...... or the Medical Birth Registry records. Results. A slightly higher risk of placenta complications following an abortion was found. Retained placenta occurred more frequently in women with one, two or more previous abortions, compared with women without any previous abortion of similar gravidity. Adjusting...

  4. A Case of Placenta Increta Mimicking Submucous Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ekiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years with the increase in cesarean section rates, the frequency of placenta accreta cases rises. It causes 33–50% of all emergency peripartum hysterectomies. We present a 42-year-old case who was caught with early postpartum hemorrhage due to retained placental products. The ultrasonography showed a 65 × 84 mm mass in the uterine cavity after the delivery. Due to presence of early postpartum hemorrhage which needs transfusion, an intervention decision was made. The patient underwent curettage but the mass could not be removed so that placental retention was ruled out. Submucous leiomyoma was made as first-prediagnosis. Hysterectomy operation was performed as a curative treatment. Placenta increta diagnosis was made as a final diagnosis with pathological examination. As a result, placental attachment disorders may be overlooked if it is not a placenta previa case.

  5. Pregnant noncommunicating rudimentary uterine horn with placenta percreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, Emmanuelle; Roman, Horace; Zanati, Joel; Lebreton, Bernard; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Loic, Marpeau

    2008-01-01

    To report a placenta percreta in a 7-week gestational rudimentary noncommunicating uterine horn pregnancy. A 28-year-old woman with no complaints presented with a rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy at 7-weeks gestation. The diagnosis was suspected by ultrasonography and diagnosed by laparoscopy. Laparoscopic excision of the rudimentary uterine horn and ipsilateral salpingectomy were performed, as well as biopsy of several peritoneal endometriosis lesions. A 7-week gestation pregnancy with placenta percreta was identified in the rudimentary uterine horn. No communication was found with the right unicornuate uterus. Endometriosis was confirmed. Clinical outcome was favorable. Placenta percreta may occur in rudimentary uterine horn pregnancies, but accidents may be avoided by an early diagnosis and surgical management. However, in young women who desire pregnancy, planned laparoscopic resection of a rudimentary uterine horn revealed accidentally should be discussed.

  6. Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyman, A [Physical Dosimetry Department, Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Gabriel, C [MCL-P, Newbury RG14 5PY, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Benedickter, H R; Froehlich, J, E-mail: Azadeh.peyman@hpa.org.uk [Electromagnetic Fields and Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-04-07

    The dielectric properties of freshly delivered human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid have been acquired at 37 deg. C and in the frequency range of 200 MHz-10 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a Cole-Cole expression. The results show that dielectric properties of the umbilical cord are significantly higher than placenta due to the presence of high water content Wharton's jelly. The results also demonstrate large differences in the dielectric properties of amniotic and cerebrospinal fluids. The data presented can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of pregnant women to electromagnetic fields. (note)

  7. CORIAOANGIOMA GIGANTE DE LA PLACENTA: REPORTE DE DOS CASOS

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Malagón,Genaro; Hernández-Lomelí,Adrián; García-Flores,Jorge; Vega-Malagón,Jesús; Leo-Amador,Guillermo; Luengas-Muñoz,Javier; Hernández-Montiel,Hebert

    2007-01-01

    Antecedentes: El corioangioma placentario es el tumor no trofoblástico más frecuente de la placenta, su incidencia real es desconocida, frecuentemente pasan desapercibidos, los tumores grandes causan complicaciones materno fetales importantes. Objetivos: Reportar dos casos de corioangioma gigante de placenta, el método diagnóstico y la evolución del embarazo. Resultados: En ambos casos el resultado fue fatal para el feto, con un producto inmaduro de 670 gramos y un óbito de 1300 gramos, obten...

  8. Scaling of the surface vasculature on the human placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A. S.; Lee, J.; Schubert, D.; Croen, L. A.; Fallin, M. D.; Newschaffer, C. J.; Walker, C. K.; Salafia, C. M.; Morgan, S. P.; Vvedensky, D. D.

    2017-10-01

    The networks of veins and arteries on the chorionic plate of the human placenta are analyzed in terms of Voronoi cells derived from these networks. Two groups of placentas from the United States are studied: a population cohort with no prescreening, and a cohort from newborns with an elevated risk of developing autistic spectrum disorder. Scaled distributions of the Voronoi cell areas in the two cohorts collapse onto a single distribution, indicating common mechanisms for the formation of the complete vasculatures, but which have different levels of activity in the two cohorts.

  9. Ectopic Pregnancy after Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kuang Yang

    2004-09-01

    Conclusion: There are few reports of successful pregnancy following conservative treatment for placenta accreta. Conservative treatment may increase the risk of secondary infertility, recurrent placenta accreta, and probably ectopic pregnancy.

  10. The evolving placenta: Convergent evolution of variations in the endotheliochorial relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enders, A C; Carter, Anthony Michael

    2012-01-01

    features produces many morphological variants. In addition to endotheliochorial as a definitive condition, a transitory endotheliochorial condition may appear in the course of forming a hemochorial placenta. In some emballonurid bats the early endotheliochorial placenta has two layers of trophoblast...

  11. More Than Clinical Waste? Placenta Rituals Among Australian Home-Birthing Women

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The discursive construction of the human placenta varies greatly between hospital and home-birthing contexts. The former, driven by medicolegal discourse, defines the placenta as clinical waste. Within this framework, the placenta is as much of an afterthought as it is considered the “afterbirth.” In home-birth practices, the placenta is constructed as a “special” and meaningful element of the childbirth experience. I demonstrate this using 51 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant ...

  12. Retained placenta in Friesian mares : incidence, risk factors, therapy, and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns incidence, risk factors, therapy and consequences of retained placenta after normal foalings in Friesian mares. Retained placenta was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 hours after the delivery of the foal. Incidence of retained placenta was studied in 495

  13. Deep-hidden anastomoses in monochorionic twin placentae are harmless

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; Schaap, Arty H. P.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.; Deruiter, Marco C.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to identify the clinical consequences of deep-hidden anastomoses that occur underneath the placental surface. METHODS: Twelve placentae that underwent intrauterine laser ablation of placental anastomoses for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and 14 non-TTTS controls

  14. PLACENTA ACCRETA AND THE DEVELOPING WORLD – A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-12

    Dec 12, 2010 ... and Haematologists to this emerging but challenging trend. DEFINITIONS AND PATHOLOGICAL BASIS .... 23-24). The advantages of colour Doppler compared to gray-scale ultrasonography are improved ... Cell saver technology should be considered if available. Treatment options for placenta accreta ...

  15. Function of survivin in trophoblastic cells of the placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Muschol-Steinmetz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide and its pathogenesis is not totally understood. As a member of the chromosomal passenger complex and an inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin is a well-characterized oncoprotein. Its roles in trophoblastic cells remain to be defined. METHODS: The placental samples from 16 preeclampsia patients and 16 well-matched controls were included in this study. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were carried out with placental tissues. Primary trophoblastic cells from term placentas were isolated for Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation, cell cycle analysis and immunofluorescence staining were performed in trophoblastic cell lines BeWo, JAR and HTR-8/SVneo. RESULTS: The survivin gene is reduced but the protein amount is hardly changed in preeclamptic placentas, compared to control placentas. Upon stress, survivin in trophoblastic cells is phosphorylated on its residue serine 20 by protein kinase A and becomes stabilized, accompanied by increased heat shock protein 90. Depletion of survivin induces chromosome misalignment, abnormal centrosome integrity, and reduced localization and activity of Aurora B at the centromeres/kinetochores in trophoblastic metaphase cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that survivin plays pivotal roles in cell survival and proliferation of trophoblastic cells. Further investigations are required to define the function of survivin in each cell type of the placenta in the context of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration and invasion.

  16. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G.; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A.; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F.; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  17. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanny G. Aldana-Iuit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chili pepper’s pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs, the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq. were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium’s nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod’s placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis.

  18. Link between the early calcium deposition in placenta and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present investigation, we have tested the hypothesis that the molecular basis of PPC development consists of nanobacteria-induced calcification in infected female placenta. Electron microscopy findings support this hypothesis. The initial stage of micro-calcification may originate from the external surface of individual ...

  19. Chorangioma of Placenta with High Risk Pregnancy: A Case Series ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chorangioma is the most common benign tumor of placenta, with an incidence of approximately 1%. Tumors larger than 5 cm are associated with maternal and fetal complications. We report four cases of chorangioma that were identified in mostly primigravida (75%) with a mean gestational age of 33 wks (Range 28-33 ...

  20. Association of placenta praevia with repeat cesarean section in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of placenta praevia with repeat cesarean section in Omdurman Maternity Hospital, Sudan 2010- 2012. ... This association has been investigated long time ago, however in this hospital there is no documented evidence. This study was ... All women operated were followed till discharge from hospital. Results: ...

  1. Microvascular Imaging of Thick Placenta with Fetal Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Toshiyuki; Kanenishi, Kenji; Yamamoto, Kenta; AboEllail, Mohamed Ahmed Mostafa; Mashima, Masato; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2017-08-18

    Seven normal pregnancies at 11-34 weeks and three cases of a thick placenta with fetal growth restriction (FGR) at 19, 31, and 33 weeks were studied to assess placental vascularity using two-dimensional (2D)/three-dimensional (3D)-SMI (Aplio 800 or i900, Toshiba Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Chorangioma of Placenta with High Risk Pregnancy: A Case Series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chorangioma of Placenta with High Risk Pregnancy: A Case Series. Uma S Andola, Shabnam Karangadan1, Sainath K Andola1, Rajashekhar Jewargikar1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1Resident, Professor and Head of Department, Professor, Department of Pathology, Mahadevappa. Rampure Medical ...

  3. Research on human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR) technology, amplified hVEGF165 gene fragments from human leukemia cells HL-60. hVEGF165 gene was reconstructed in pIRES2-EGFP and transferred into the human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HPMSCs) by ...

  4. INTRODUCTION The incidence of retained placenta varies greatly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    balance between the post-partum haemorrhage risk of leaving the placenta in situ, the likelihood of spontaneous ... patient were unbooked for antenatal care in UCH with booked patients accounting for 27.8 per cent of the cases. ... reported 0.2 per cent in Maharashtra, India. Of the several complications of the third stage of.

  5. Major Placenta Previa with Assisted Vaginal Delivery and Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An unbooked 20 year-old primigravida presented at 36 weeks gestation with severe antepartum hemorrhage due to major placenta previa in shock. She fell into labour during resuscitation prior to emergency caesarian section. She had outlet forceps delivery of a fresh still birth and developed primary postpartum ...

  6. Analytical theory of oxygen transport in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, A S; Salafia, C M; Filoche, M; Grebenkov, D S

    2015-03-07

    We propose an analytical approach to solving the diffusion-convection equations governing oxygen transport in the human placenta. We show that only two geometrical characteristics of a placental cross-section, villi density and the effective villi radius, are needed to predict fetal oxygen uptake. We also identify two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake in a given placenta: (i) the maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone if there were no tissue blocking the flow and (ii) the ratio of transit time of maternal blood through the intervillous space to oxygen extraction time. We derive analytical formulas for fast and simple calculation of oxygen uptake and provide two diagrams of efficiency of oxygen transport in an arbitrary placental cross-section. We finally show that artificial perfusion experiments with no-hemoglobin blood tend to give a two-orders-of-magnitude underestimation of the in vivo oxygen uptake and that the optimal geometry for such setup alters significantly. The theory allows one to adjust the results of artificial placenta perfusion experiments to account for oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation. Combined with image analysis techniques, the presented model can give an easy-to-use tool for prediction of the human placenta efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bladder Saving Hysterectomy for Placenta Praevia Percreta | Dahiya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall 7 units of blood and 7 units of FFP given to patient preoperatively. Postoperatively methotrexate was given to the patient and followed with HCG levels. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach for preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative management of placenta previa percreta optimizes maternal outcome.

  8. Myomectomy for Retained Placenta Due to Incarcerated Fibroid Mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects on the woman's reproductive life. Fibroid mass as a cause of retained placenta is extremely .... oxytocin administered during or after delivery has not been shown to increase the incidence of PPH as a result of ... effects of surgery on her reproductive function made her to decline myomectomy which was offered to her ...

  9. Placenta retention in the cow: Report of three cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-06-17

    Jun 17, 2016 ... clinical phenomenon in cattle and can be successfully treated with gentle traction and oxytocin administration. Keywords: Cow, Fertility, Oestrogen, ... glove' to produce placentome, a functional unit of the placenta (Senger, 2005). ... welfare, milk productivity and reproduction of affected animals in the ...

  10. Placenta as a source of hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine); C. Robin (Catherine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe placenta is a large, highly vascularised hematopoietic tissue that functions during the embryonic and foetal development of eutherian mammals. Although recognised as the interface tissue important in the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the foetus and mother,

  11. Placenta praevia: Review of clinical presentation and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Placenta praevia: Review of clinical presentation and management in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. ... The commonest mode of presentation was antepartum haemorrhage (34;77.3%) followed by abnormal lie and malpresentation (4 each; 9.1%). The average admission delivery interval was one week in 33 (75.0%) cases ...

  12. Placenta Praevia: Incidence, Risk Factors, Maternal and Fetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Placenta praevia is a major cause of antepartum haemorrhage and is potentially life threatening to both the mother and the fetus. This study sought to determine the magnitude of the condition, its risk factors, maternal and fetal outcomes in a tertiary health centre in Jos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A ...

  13. An unusual presentation: placenta percreta with uterine conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, J; Nagey, D A

    1990-06-01

    Placenta acreta is a rare complication of pregnancy characterized by abnormal placental adherence. In its extreme form, percreta, rupture of the uterus, and profound hemorrhage may occur. Aggressive resuscitation and early surgery provide the most favorable outcome. Conservative management plays an important role in individual cases where fertility must be preserved or the operative time needs to be reduced to a minimum.

  14. Myomectomy for Retained Placenta Due to Incarcerated Fibroid Mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Her blood group was A Rhesus D positive and her haemoglobin genotype was AA. Haematocrit was. 27.8%, (Haemoglobin level – 9.3 mg/dl). She received iron and ..... Grupo Argentino de Estudio de Placenta Retenida. Br J. Obstet Gynaecol 1998;105:179‑85. 13. Chedraui PA, Insuasti DF. Intravenous nitroglycerin in the.

  15. Placenta accreta and the developing world - A review | Umezurike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The rising Caesarean section rate in the developing world implies that the incidence of placenta accreta might be on the increase and this might worsen the maternal mortality burden. Objective: To draw the attention of Obstetricians and other relevant professionals to this emerging but challenging trend.

  16. Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Placenta Protect Placenta and Fetus in Inherited Thrombophilia from Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Bogdanovic Pristov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the activities of antioxidative defense enzymes in the placenta, fetal blood and amnion fluid in inherited thrombophilia. Thrombophilia was associated with nearly threefold increase of activity (p < 0.001 of the placental catalase (81.1 ± 20.6 U/mg of proteins in controls and 270.0 ± 69.9 U/mg in thrombophilic subjects, glutathione (GSH peroxidase (C: 20.2 ± 10.1 U/mg; T: 60.0 ± 15.5 U/mg, and GSH reductase (C: 28.9 ± 5.6 U/mg; T: 72.7 ± 23.0 U/mg. The placental activities of superoxide dismutating enzymes—MnSOD and CuZnSOD, did not differ in controls and thrombophilia. Likewise, the activities of catalase and SOD in the fetal blood, and the level of ascorbyl radical which represents a marker of oxidative status of amniotic fluid, were similar in controls and thrombophilic subjects. From this we concluded that in thrombophilia, placental tissue is exposed to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress, which could be initiated by pro-thrombic conditions in maternal blood. Increased activity of placental H2O2-removing enzymes protects fetus and mother during pregnancy, but may increase the risk of postpartum thrombosis.

  17. From Placenta to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Role of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Sartori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence. It is well known now that their serum concentrations during pregnancy and lactation have long-term effects beyond the fetus and newborn. With regard to puberty, adipokines are involved in the regulation of the relationship between nutritional status and normal physiology or disorders of puberty and altered gonadal function, as, for example, premature pubarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Cytokines are involved in the maturation of oocytes and in the regular progression of puberty and pregnancy.

  18. The placenta and neurodevelopment: sex differences in prenatal vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L

    2016-12-01

    Prenatal insults, such as maternal stress, are associated with an increased neurodevelopmental disease risk and impact males significantly more than females, including increased rates of autism, mental retardation, stuttering, dyslexia, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sex differences in the placenta, which begin with sex chromosomes, are likely to produce sex-specific transplacental signals to the developing brain. Our studies and others have identified X-linked genes that are expressed at higher levels in the female placenta. Through a genome-wide screen after maternal stress in mice, we identified the X-linked gene O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and demonstrated its causality in neurodevelopmental programming producing a male-specific stress phenotype. Elucidating the sex-specific molecular mechanisms involved in transplacental signals that impact brain development is key to understanding the sex bias in neurodevelopmental disorders and is expected to yield novel insight into disease risk and resilience.

  19. From placenta to podocyte: vascular and podocyte pathophysiology in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Steven J; Craici, Iasmina M; Grande, Joseph P; Garovic, Vesna D

    2012-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a disorder of hypertension and proteinuria that affects 6 - 8% of normal pregnancies. Recent research has revealed many molecular mechanisms that may contribute to systemic endothelial dysfunction, glomerular capillary endotheliosis, dysregulation of the glomerular filtration apparatus, and podocyte loss. An ischemic placenta elaborates soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), a soluble receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). A variety of mediators, including nitric oxide, Angiotensin II receptor autoantibodies (AT1AA), and endothelin-1 may serve to maintain placental ischemia and systemic endothelial dysfunction. Endothelin-1 and decreased vascular endothelial growth factor may adversely affect overall expression and distribution of podocyte foot process proteins, leading to proteinuria. Podocyte derangements may lead to podocyte apoptosis and loss, as evidenced by the detection of live podocytes and podocyte products in the urine of preeclamptic women. In this review, we explore recent research elucidating the interactions of placenta, endothelium, and podocyte leading to the clinical syndrome of preeclampsia.

  20. Infectious lesions of placenta as cause of miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kolobov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the literature demonstratesimportant role played of infections in causes of miscarriage. The paper is based upon retrospective analysis of 12371 screening results of histological and selective immunohistochemical studies of placentas in 2009-12. Preterm births were in 706 cases (5.71%. Infection of the placenta was noted in early preterm labor in all cases (100%, and in premature labor at 28-36 weeks of gestation – in 97.35% of natural delivery cases and in 92.09% when cesarean delivery. Are described the typical structural changes that allow to suspect infections caused by Treponema pallidum, herpes viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus with following verification by immunohistochemical study. 

  1. Oxygen diffusive conductance in placentae from control and diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayhew, T M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G

    1993-01-01

    Random tissue sections of placentae from control and diabetic deliveries were analysed stereologically. The aim was to test whether or not adaptations in oxygen diffusive conductances occur to help compensate for fetal hypoxic stress in utero. Organs were from 34 control and 55 diabetic deliveries......, F/R). However, both the ABC and DFR groups of diabetic placentae had higher total diffusive conductances than control organs. The increase was in the order of 7-25% and persisted even when adjustments were made for apparent differences in birthweights. The principal contributors to these changes...... (39 from White's classes A, B, C and 16 from classes D, F/R) arranged in two major groups (ABC and DFR). Tissue samples were fixed in formalin and processed for wax histology. Stereological and physicochemical quantities were used to calculate the partial conductances of six tissue layers, viz...

  2. Lead levels in human placentae from normal and malformed births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibberley, D G; Khera, A K; Edwards, J H; Rushton, D I

    1977-10-01

    Placental lead levels were studied in a series of Birmingham births classified by stillbirth, neonatal death, or survival beyond one week. There was an appreciable range of lead levels even in normal births (0.15-3.56 microgram/g) but nevertheless average results showed a pronounced excess of lead in those who failed to survive both birth and the neonatal period. There was no association of placental lead with impaired birthweight among survivors but, in common with other authors, we noted a seasonal variation. The placentae from Indian women had similar lead levels to those from European women and lower values were found in the normal sibs of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. The possibility is discussed that under conditions of impaired fetal health in late pregnancy the placenta may concentrate lead.

  3. Gene expression profiling of placentas affected by pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Anne Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2010-01-01

    Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA...... expression from pooled samples was analysed by microarrays. Verification of the expression of selected genes was performed using real-time PCR. A surprisingly low number of genes (21 out of 15,000) were identified as differentially expressed. Among these were genes not previously associated with pre-eclampsia...... as bradykinin B1 receptor and a 14-3-3 protein, but also genes that have already been connected with pre-eclampsia, for example, inhibin beta A subunit and leptin. A low number of genes were repeatedly identified as differentially expressed, because they may represent the endpoint of a cascade of events...

  4. Expression of the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) tumor antigen in human abort placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D U; Jeschke, U; Bergemann, C; Makovitzky, J; Lüthen, F; Karsten, U; Briese, V

    2005-01-01

    The Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF), or more precisely epitope, has been known as a pancarcinoma antigen. It consists of galactose-beta1-3-N-acetylgalactose. We have already described the expression of TF in the normal placenta. TF is expressed by the syncytium and by extravillous trophoblast cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of TF in the abort placenta. Frozen samples of human abort placentas (12 placentas), obtained from the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and, for comparison, samples of normal placentas (17 placentas) from the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy, were used. Expression of TF was investigated by immunohistochemical methods. For identification of TF-positive cells in abort placentas, immunofluorescence methods were used. Evaluation of simple and double immunofluorescence was performed on a laser scanning microscope. Furthermore, we isolated trophoblast cells from first and third trimester placentas and evaluated cytokeratin 7 and Muc1 expression by immunofluorescence methods. We observed expression of TF antigen in the syncytiotrophoblasts layer of the placenta in all three trimesters of pregnancy in normal and abort placentas evaluated by immunohistochemical methods. There was no expression of TF antigen in the decidua of abort placentas. Immunofluorescence double staining of TF antigen and cytokeratin 7 showed reduced expression of both antigens in the abort decidua and co-expression of both antigens in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of normal and abort placentas. TF expression in the syncytiotrophoblast was reduced in abort placentas. In the isolated trophoblast cells, no TF expression was found, however, Muc1 expression was visualized. Expression of TF antigen was reduced in the first and second trimester abort decidua compared to the normal decidua during the same time of pregnancy. TF antigen was restricted to the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast cells in the decidua. Abort placentas

  5. The placenta and neurodevelopment: sex differences in prenatal vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Bale, Tracy L.

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal insults, such as maternal stress, are associated with an increased neurodevelopmental disease risk and impact males significantly more than females, including increased rates of autism, mental retardation, stuttering, dyslexia, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sex differences in the placenta, which begin with sex chromosomes, are likely to produce sex-specific transplacental signals to the developing brain. Our studies and others have identified X-linked genes tha...

  6. [Comparative study of the placenta from HIV+ mothers. Ultrastructural analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Castrejon, H; Paredes-Vivas, Y; Flores-Rivera, E; Gorbea-Robles, M C; Arredondo-Garcia, J L

    1996-04-01

    Perinatal vertical transmission has increased in all the world; it is considered that at the present time there are about one million of children with HIV. Variation goes from 12 to 40%, at different countries. During the last years antiretroviral drugs as AZT, ddI and others have been used to diminish the virus passage via transplacentary. Eighteen placentaes from HIV seropositive women, three corresponded to first trimester, and 15 to the third trimester of gestation; in four cases they were treated with AZT in weeks fourteen (two patients), 26 and 35 of gestation; and one patient received AZT and ddI at week 28. Control group was with ten normal placentaes. Ultraestructural analysis and immuno-peroxidase and immuno-oro with antibody anti gp 41, were done. Ultraestructurally there were different localizations of HIV virus, at sincitiotrophoblast, decidual cells and umbilical vessels (six cases). In 13 cases there was hyperplasia and hypertrophy of macrophages containing a great amount of lysosomes. In one case, where a girl was seropositive many viriones HIV, were identified in macrophages. With immuno-oro viral proteins were seen in cytoplasm an plasmatic membrane, in endothelium of fetal capillars and trophoblast. With immunoperoxidase, four cases were positive. Placentaes with antiretroviral treatment since week 14, trophoblast was more dense by philaments increment. Placentaes with treatment during the third trimester, showed normal morphology with slight increase of philaments. In the cases treated with AZT and ddI, there were not macrophages hyperplasia and hypertrophy, nor viral particles. It is concluded that in seropositive mothers without treatment, the virus may be present in any part of chorionic villi, and in patients with treatment, virus is not identified, but a viral proteins synthesis.

  7. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Jeong-hun; Yook Tea-han; Song Beom-yong

    2000-01-01

    This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. I...

  8. Pregnancy Complicated with Maternal Pulmonary Hypertension and Placenta Accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Hsiu Hung

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is contraindicated in cases of maternal pulmonary hypertension, a highly morbid disease affecting young women of childbearing age. The rate of heart failure increases gradually with the severity of pulmonary hypertension. In certain instances, the severity of maternal pulmonary hypertension in rheumatic heart diseases can be higher than in congenital heart diseases. Placenta accreta is an important cause of bleeding in the second half of pregnancy and in labor. In severe cases, hysterectomy is the only way to manage the bleeding during cesarean section. A 33-year-old gravida, G2P0AA1, suffering from rheumatic heart disease with mitral valve stenosis and pulmonary hypertension, was referred to our high-risk pregnancy center at 10+3 weeks of gestation due to lower abdominal pain and brownish vaginal bleeding. She had received 2 mitral valve replacements in Shenzhen, China, at the ages of 22 and 26, respectively. Ultrasound scan of the abdomen at 12+2 gestational weeks showed that the internal cervix was completely covered with the placenta, and a retroplacental hypoechoic space measuring 35 × 13 mm was observed at the upper posterior margin of the placenta. On color Doppler scan, an area of lacunar lake flow was observed in the hypoechoic space of the placenta and a spiral artery with low blood flow resistance was detected. The pulsation of the placental flow was synchronized with the maternal pulse rate. Team specialists, including neonatologists, pulmonary physicians, pediatric cardiologists, hema-tologists, anesthesiologists, psychiatrists and social workers, as well as high-risk obstetricians were consulted in an effort to minimize fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. At 29+2 weeks, the patient developed preeclampsia and delivered a healthy newborn by cesarean section, the uterus being preserved by square compression sutures. The gravida tolerated the procedures and was discharged in stable condition.

  9. Pregnancy complicated by morbidly adherent placenta in a patient with bilateral ovarian agenesis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong HS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hong Soo WongAustralian Women's Ultrasound Centre, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: The author presents a case of in vitro fertilization pregnancy complicated by morbidly adherent placenta in a patient with congenital bilateral ovarian agenesis. A 31-year-old woman with congenital bilateral ovarian agenesis who had undergone two previous dilatation and curettage procedures conceived following in vitro fertilization with a donor egg. Spontaneous labor occurred at 38 weeks and 5 days' gestation. The labor was augmented in the active phase and resulted in instrumental vaginal delivery. The third stage was complicated by hemorrhage and retained placenta. Morbidly adherent placenta was diagnosed on attempt at manual removal of the placenta, and the adherent part of the placenta was left in situ. This was removed uneventfully at 5 weeks following childbirth when there was no blood flow observed between the placenta and the myometrium on Doppler ultrasound examination. In conclusion, successful parturition is possible in patients with congenital bilateral ovarian agenesis. When morbidly adherent placenta is managed conservatively, the placenta may be safely removed if there is no vascularity between the placenta and the myometrium.Keywords: IVF, placenta accreta, parturition, myometrium

  10. Placenta Maps: In Utero Placental Health Assessment of the Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haichao; Mistelbauer, Gabriel; Karimov, Alexey; Alansary, Amir; Davidson, Alice; Lloyd, David F A; Damodaram, Mellisa; Story, Lisa; Hutter, Jana; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rutherford, Mary; Preim, Bernhard; Kainz, Bernhard; Groller, M Eduard

    2017-06-01

    The human placenta is essential for the supply of the fetus. To monitor the fetal development, imaging data is acquired using (US). Although it is currently the gold-standard in fetal imaging, it might not capture certain abnormalities of the placenta. (MRI) is a safe alternative for the in utero examination while acquiring the fetus data in higher detail. Nevertheless, there is currently no established procedure for assessing the condition of the placenta and consequently the fetal health. Due to maternal respiration and inherent movements of the fetus during examination, a quantitative assessment of the placenta requires fetal motion compensation, precise placenta segmentation and a standardized visualization, which are challenging tasks. Utilizing advanced motion compensation and automatic segmentation methods to extract the highly versatile shape of the placenta, we introduce a novel visualization technique that presents the fetal and maternal side of the placenta in a standardized way. Our approach enables physicians to explore the placenta even in utero. This establishes the basis for a comparative assessment of multiple placentas to analyze possible pathologic arrangements and to support the research and understanding of this vital organ. Additionally, we propose a three-dimensional structure-aware surface slicing technique in order to explore relevant regions inside the placenta. Finally, to survey the applicability of our approach, we consulted clinical experts in prenatal diagnostics and imaging. We received mainly positive feedback, especially the applicability of our technique for research purposes was appreciated.

  11. Vascular dysfunction in the diabetic placenta: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Lopa; Taylor, Alice; Sciota, Flavia

    2009-07-01

    The development and functioning of the human fetoplacental vascular system are vulnerable to the maternal diabetic milieu. These vessels are in direct continuum with the fetal vascular system and are therefore also vulnerable to fetal endocrine derangements. Increased angiogenesis, altered junctional maturity and molecular occupancy, together with increased leakiness, constitute a well-described phenotype of vessels in the Type 1 diabetic human placenta and can be related to increased levels of placental vascular endothelial growth factor. The causes of these observed changes, whether maternal hyperglycaemia or fetal hyperinsulinaemia, still remain to be shown in the human placenta. Mechanistic studies using different vascular systems have shown high glucose and insulin to have profound vascular effects, with elevations in vascular endothelial growth factor, nitric oxide and protein kinase C being behind alterations in junctional adhesion molecules such as occludin and vascular endothelial-cadherin and vascular leakage of albumin. The role of advanced glycation products and oxidative stress in this vascular pathology is also discussed. The altered molecular mechanisms underlying the vascular changes in the diabetic human placenta may reflect similar consequences of high glucose and hyperinsulinaemia.

  12. Trophoblast apoptosis in placentas from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, S Z; Prusac, I K; Roje, D; Tadin, I

    2011-01-01

    To assess trophoblast apoptosis separately in the cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, total villous trophoblast, syncytial knots and syncytial knot formation, and to investigate the expression of apoptotic factors Fas ligand (FasL), Bcl-2 and proliferation marker Ki-67 in the trophoblast of placentas from preeclamptic patients. The study included placental samples from 25 preeclamptic and 25 normal pregnancies. For the detection of apoptosis and proliferation, antibody M30 and antibody against Ki-67 antigen were used. Expression of FasL and Bcl-2 was assessed using semi-quantitative HSCORE method. Syncytial knots were expressed as the number of syncytial knots per individual villus and as the total number of syncytial knots in each placental sample. Trophoblast apoptosis, number of syncytial knots per individual villus and the total number of syncytial knots in each placental sample were significantly higher in preeclamptic placentas than in control group placentas. FasL expression was significantly less, and Bcl-2 expression significantly greater in the villus trophoblast among the study subjects compared with controls. There was no difference in the trophoblast proliferation between groups. Our findings might suggest that increased apoptosis and syncytial knot formation combined with reduced FasL expression could be involved in pathophysiological mechanisms of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Bacterial communities in neonatal feces are similar to mothers’ placentae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xu-Dong; Li, Xiao-Ran; Luan, Jian-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Peng, Juan; Luo, Yi-Yong; Liu, Chen-Jian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays an important role in human health. It is essential to understand how the composition of the gut microbiota in neonates is established. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the nature of the microbial community in the first feces of newborn infants compared with the mothers’ placentae and vaginas. METHODS: One infant who was delivered via Cesarean section was compared with an infant who was delivered vaginally. Bar-coded pyro-sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes was used to investigate the bacterial community composition and structure of each site. RESULTS: Neonatal feces of both infants had similar bacterial communities, and they were similar to the mother’s placenta regardless of the method of delivery. The vaginal bacterial community differed between the two mothers, but not different sites within the vagina. The bacteria in the neonatal feces and the mothers’ placentae demonstrated considerably higher diversity compared with the vaginas. The family Lactobacillaceae dominated in the vaginal samples, while the most abundant family in the fecal and placental samples was Micrococcineae. CONCLUSIONS: These results may provide new directions for the study of infant gut microbial formation. PMID:26015791

  14. Stress state and strain rate dependence of the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Benjamin C; Borazjani, Ali; Patnaik, Sourav S; Prabhu, R; Horstemeyer, M F; Ryan, Peter L; Franz, Thomas; Williams, Lakiesha N; Liao, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Maternal trauma (MT) in automotive collisions is a source of injury, morbidity, and mortality for both mothers and fetuses. The primary associated pathology is placental abruption in which the placenta detaches from the uterus leading to hemorrhaging and termination of pregnancy. In this study, we focused on the differences in placental tissue response to different stress states (tension, compression, and shear) and different strain rates. Human placentas were obtained (n = 11) for mechanical testing and microstructure analysis. Specimens (n = 4+) were tested in compression, tension, and shear, each at three strain rates (nine testing protocols). Microstructure analysis included scanning electron microscopy, histology, and interrupted mechanical tests to observe tissue response to various loading states. Our data showed the greatest stiffness in tension, followed by compression, and then by shear. The study concludes that mechanical behavior of human placenta tissue (i) has a strong stress state dependence and (ii) behaves in a rate dependent manner in all three stress states, which had previously only been shown in tension. Interrupted mechanical tests revealed differences in the morphological microstructure evolution that was driven by the kinematic constraints from the different loading states. Furthermore, these structure-property data can be used to develop high fidelity constitutive models for MT simulations.

  15. Management of Amniotic Sheet with a Hammock-like Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangcheng Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An amniotic sheet is a septation in the amniotic cavity with a perforation that allows amniotic fluid to pass through. Although the incidence of abnormal placental implantation is higher in such cases, the management recommendations remain unclear. We report a case of an amniotic sheet with a hammock-like placenta located in the center of the uterine cavity. A 25-year-old woman with a history of two dilation and curettage procedures was found to have an amniotic cavity separated by a septum that contained part of the placenta. At gestational Week 32, magnetic resonance images revealed that the placenta was attached from the anterior to posterior uterine walls and resembled a hammock hanging in the center of the uterus. Subsequently, continuous intravenous administration of ritodrine hydrochloride and magnesium sulfate were given. The pregnancy was extended to Week 36. Elective cesarean section was performed, and a 3212-g female infant was delivered. Thus, owing to the risk of umbilical cord complications and placental injury secondary to premature rupture of membranes, aggressive and careful perinatal management is required in such cases.

  16. Cytomegalovirus infection of the human placenta: an immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlemann, K; Miller, R K; Metlay, L; Menegus, M A

    1992-11-01

    In congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection histologic evaluation of the placenta is often unrevealing. In the present study immunocytochemistry to CMV immediate early and early nuclear antigens was used to characterize placental involvement in six cases of symptomatic intrauterine CMV infection. Histologic examination had demonstrated diagnostic viral inclusions in one placenta and non-specific villitis in another. However, immunocytochemistry revealed CMV infection in five of the six placentas, including three with no pathologic changes on routine histologic evaluation. Infected cells were located primarily in the villous stroma. In one case immunoperoxidase staining showed infection in the syncytiotrophoblast. Infected endothelial cells were demonstrated by double staining for CMV and factor VIII antigen. No double-stained cells were seen in tissue sections stained for CMV immediate early nuclear antigen or the human macrophage-associated CD68 antigen, which is expressed in Hofbauer cells. In conclusion, specific immunoperoxidase staining was more sensitive for demonstrating placental CMV infection than was histologic examination and it aided in the characterization of infected cells.

  17. Phthalate monoesters in perfusate from a dual placenta perfusion system, the placenta tissue and umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Mortensen, Gerda K; Hedegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Fetal exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse reproductive effects, including cryptorchidism and decreased semen quality. Information about human placental transfer is needed to qualify the hypotheses. A dual recirculating placenta perfusion system to monitor concentrations of eight...... of the compounds. Results from the present study of compounds residing in the tissue are essential before studying human transplacental transfer, storage, and metabolism of selected phthalate monoesters....

  18. Human placenta is a potent hematopoietic niche containing hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells throughout development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Catherine; Bollerot, Karine; Mendes, Sandra; Haak, Esther; Crisan, Mihaela; Cerisoli, Francesco; Lauw, Ivoune; Kaimakis, Polynikis; Jorna, Ruud; Vermeulen, Mark; Kayser, Manfred; van der Linden, Reinier; Imanirad, Parisa; Verstegen, Monique; Nawaz-Yousaf, Humaira; Papazian, Natalie; Steegers, Eric; Cupedo, Tom; Dzierzak, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are responsible for the life-long production of the blood system and are pivotal cells in hematologic transplantation therapies. During mouse and human development, the first HSCs are produced in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. Subsequent to this emergence, HSCs are found in other anatomical sites of the mouse conceptus. While the mouse placenta contains abundant HSCs at midgestation, little is known concerning whether HSCs or hematopoietic progenitors are present and supported in the human placenta during development. In this study we show, over a range of developmental times including term, that the human placenta contains hematopoietic progenitors and HSCs. Moreover, stromal cell lines generated from human placenta at several developmental time points are pericyte-like cells and support human hematopoiesis. Immunostaining of placenta sections during development localizes hematopoietic cells in close contact with pericytes/perivascular cells. Thus, the human placenta is a potent hematopoietic niche throughout development. PMID:19796619

  19. Real increasing incidence of hysterectomy for placenta accreta following previous caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, Mary F

    2013-11-01

    Placenta accreta, morbid adherence to the uterus to the myometrium, is commonest in association with placenta previa in women previously delivered by caesarean section (CS). It has become proportionally a greater cause of major maternal morbidity and mortality as the frequency of other serious obstetric complications has declined. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of placenta accreta in the context of a rising caesarean delivery rate.

  20. The Clinical report of Asthmatic Patients with CVA by treatment of Homins Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture

    OpenAIRE

    Eun­Gon Kim; Sung-Kyun Kim; Jong-Hyun Han; Shim Yun­Sueb; Lee Jung­Hee

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays Asthma is considered to be an inflamatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia. Hominis Placenta is the dried placenta of a healthy women. It has correspondence to the meridians of lung and kindey. Hominis Placenta acupuncture therapy has effect on invigoration of vital energy nourishing blood and tonifying the essence. It can be applied to the disease as Asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, degenerative change ...

  1. Syncytiotrophoblast Extracellular Vesicles from Pre-Eclampsia Placentas Differentially Affect Platelet Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tannetta, Dionne S; Hunt, Kathryn; Jones, Chris I; Davidson, Naomi; Coxon, Carmen H; Ferguson, David; Redman, Christopher W; Gibbins, Jonathan M; Sargent, Ian L; Tucker, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    .... In PE, the failing endoplasmic reticulum, oxidative and inflammatory stressed syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta sheds increased numbers of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV...

  2. Antecedents of Abnormally Invasive Placenta in Primiparous Women: Risk Associated With Gynecologic Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Heather J; Patterson, Jillian A; Nippita, Tanya A; Torvaldsen, Siranda; Ibiebele, Ibinabo; Simpson, Judy M; Ford, Jane B

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the association between prior invasive gynecologic procedures and the risk of subsequent abnormally invasive placenta (ie, placenta accreta, increta, and percreta). We conducted a population-based data linkage study including all primiparous women who delivered in New South Wales, Australia, between 2003 and 2012. Data were obtained from linked birth and hospital admissions with a minimum lookback period of 2 years. Prior procedures invasive of the uterus were considered including gynecologic laparoscopy with instrumentation of the uterus; hysteroscopy, including operative hysteroscopy; curettage, including suction curettage and surgical termination; and endometrial ablation. Modified Poisson regression was used to determine the association between the number of prior gynecologic procedures and risk of abnormally invasive placenta. Eight hundred fifty-four cases of abnormally invasive placenta were identified among 380,775 deliveries included in the study (22.4/10,000). In total, 33,296 primiparous women had at least one prior procedure (8.7%). Among women with abnormally invasive placenta, 152 (17.8%) had undergone at least one procedure compared with 33,144 (8.7%) among women without abnormally invasive placenta (Pinvasive placenta was also positively associated with maternal age, socioeconomic advantage, mother being Australia-born, placenta previa, hypertension, multiple births, use of assisted reproductive technology, and female fetal sex. Women with a history of prior invasive gynecologic procedures were more likely to develop abnormally invasive placenta. These insights may be used to inform management of pregnancies in women with a history of gynecologic procedures.

  3. Expression of Glucose Transporter Proteins in Human Diabetic Placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanirowski, Paweł Jan; Szukiewicz, Dariusz; Pazura-Turowska, Monika; Sawicki, Włodzimierz; Cendrowski, Krzysztof

    2017-06-02

    Gestational diabetes mellitus and pregestational diabetes mellitus constitute carbohydrate metabolism disorders, which, if not diagnosed and adequately treated, lead to serious and often life-threatening pregnancy complications. According to a recently formulated hypothesis, some diabetes-related complications, such as fetal macrosomia, may be the result of disturbances in the transplacental transport of nutrients-in particular, excessive maternal-fetal glucose transfer. Throughout pregnancy, glucose flux across the placenta is mediated by the group of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT), the expression of which in different placental compartments is the precondition for effective glucose uptake from maternal blood and its subsequent transfer to the fetal circulation. In diabetes-complicated pregnancies, the location, expression and activity of glucose transporters are modified to an extent that results in alterations in the maternal-fetal glucose exchange, potentially leading to an excessive supply of energy substrates to the fetus. This paper reviews the literature on the expression and activity of glucose transporter proteins-GLUT-1, GLUT-3, GLUT-4, GLUT-8, GLUT-9 and GLUT-12-in the human placenta, with a special focus on diabetes-complicated pregnancy. The characteristics of transporters in conditions of maternal normoglycemia and modifications occurring in the diabetic placenta are summarized, and the factors responsible for the regulation of the expression of selected isoforms are described. Finally, the impact of alterations in the placental expression of the aforementioned members of the GLUT family on intrauterine fetal development in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sheetal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood serum concentrations of macro and micro minerals and development of retention of placenta (ROP in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Instructional Livestock Farm, Bihar Veterinary College and local Khatals in and around Patna. A total of 20 crossbred cattle (n=10 with normal expulsion of the placenta as control and n=10 with ROP were selected in the present study. Blood samples were collected from these animals and serum was separated and stored in the deep freezer at −20°C till further analysis. The estimation of serum macro-minerals (Ca, P, Ca/P ratio was done by Span diagnostic Kits (Surat, India and trace minerals or micro-minerals (Zn, Cu, and Fe were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer AAS 220. Mean values were compared between both the groups at 0 h (at parturition and 12 h after parturition. Results: The mean values of serum calcium and zinc were found significantly lower in cattle having ROP than control at both 0 h and 12 h after parturition. The mean values of serum Ca and P ratio obtained at 0 hour were significantly lower in ROP groups as compared to control groups and non-significant at 12 h. The mean values of serum inorganic phosphorus, copper and iron was found non-significantly lower in ROP cases as compared to control. Conclusions: Macro and micro mineral deficiency such as calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood serum may be predisposing factor for the occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred cattle.

  5. Androgen receptor and histone lysine demethylases in ovine placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellane R Cleys

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR. Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders.

  6. Developmental peculiarities in placentae of ovine uniparental conceptuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Arena

    Full Text Available Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon regulating mono-allelic expression of genes depending on their parental origin. Defective genomic imprinting is involved in several placental disorders, such as intrauterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia. Uniparental embryos, having maternal-only or paternal-only genomes (parthenogenotes [PAR] and androgenotes [AND], respectively, are useful models to study placentation. The aim of this work was to reveal the effect of parental genome (maternal and paternal on placentation. To do this, uniparental (AND and PAR and biparental (CTR in vitro produced sheep embryos transferred to recipient females were collected at day 20 of pregnancy and their placentae were analyzed. qPCR analysis showed that imprinted genes (H19, IGF2R and DLK1 were expressed accordingly to their parental origin while the expression f DNA methyltransferases ( was disregulated, especially in PAR (P < 0.05. AND placentae were significantly hypomethylated compared to both PAR and CTR (P = 0.023. Chorion-allantoid of AND showed impaired development of vessels and reduced mRNA expression of vasculogenetic factors (ANG2 P = 0.05; VEGFR2 P< 0.001; TIE2 P < 0.001. Morphologically, PAR placentae were characterized by abnormal structure of the trophoectodermal epithelium and reduced total number (P<0.03 of Trophoblastic Binucleate Cells. A reduced implantation rate of both classes of uniparental embryos (P<0.03 was also noted. Our results provide new insights into the characterization of uniparental embryos and demonstrate the complementary role of parental genomes for the correct establishment of pregnancy. Thus, our findings may suggest new targets to improve our understanding of the origin of imprinting-related placental dysfunction.

  7. Determination of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, C F; Wibberley, D G

    1977-02-21

    A simple method has been devised for the analysis of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in human placenta which relies entirely on three rapid partition steps prior to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The use of adsorption chromatography with all its attendant disadvantages for sample clean-up is eliminated in this procedure. Placental samples taken from women who had given birth to a normal baby contained 0.06 +/- 0.02 ppm of DEHP. The principal limitation of this method, and of any others, is the high blanks given by laboratory equipment and solvents. The reduction of contamination to workable levels is described.

  8. The placenta as a compensatory iodine storage organ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The production of iodine-containing thyroid hormones necessary for brain development in the fetus depends not only on maternal dietary intake but also on placental iodine transport. The optimum level of iodine nutrition during pregnancy and the proportion of the pregnant population reaching this level have previously been evaluated. Little information exists on the ability of the placenta to either accumulate or store iodine. This study aims to investigate iodine uptake and tissue iodine content within placental tissue obtained from women delivering at term.

  9. Anatomy and physiology of the embryo, fetus and placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegst, A.V. (Diagnostic Technology Consultants, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)); Davis, J.M. (Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (United States). Medical Center)

    1992-01-01

    Complexities of fetal and placental development introduce unique problems in quantitating a fetal radiation dose from internal radionuclide contamination. The paper briefly describes the many transitory stages in the development of the fetal organs and placenta from the time of the union of the egg and sperm. Descriptions of migration, differentiation and functional changes of cell lines will illustrate the difficulties in establishing a radiation history. The development of the cells responsible for hematopoiesis are reviewed, along with the thyroid gland and blood brain barrier, because of the importance of these tissues in radiation protection. (author).

  10. Purification and characterization of a soluble calnexin from human placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorthe T; Peng, Li; Træholt, Sofie D

    2013-01-01

    (sCnx) was consistently identified in a separate ion exchange chromatography peak. The sCnx was further purified and characterised. This showed that the protein had been cleaved after residue 472 (between Gln and Met), thus liberating it from the transmembrane and cytoplasmic parts of Cnx......Calreticulin (Crt) and calnexin (Cnx) are homologous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones involved in protein folding and quality control. Crt is a soluble ER luminal Mr 46 kDa protein and Cnx is a Mr 67kDa ER membrane protein. During purification of Crt from human placenta a soluble form of Cnx...

  11. Thrombophilia prevalence among women with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Charlotte; Nybo, Mads

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of thrombophilia in patients with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPC). METHODS: Patients referred for thrombophilia testing at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, owing to PMPC between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014, were included...... prevalence in the general population. CONCLUSION: The incidence of thrombophilia was higher in patients with PMPC than in the general population. A positive thrombophilia diagnosis in a patient with PMPC can have significant clinical consequences for future pregnancies. It can also instigate thrombophilia...... testing among a patient's family members if necessary. Owing to these advantages, continued thrombophilia testing in these patients seems appropriate....

  12. Gestational diabetes insipidus: a morphological study of the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, F; Buccoliero, A M; Garbini, F; Gheri, C F; Moncini, D; Poggi, G; Saladino, V; Rossi Degl'Innocenti, D; Gheri, R G; Taddei, G L

    2009-12-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) refers to the state of excessive water intake and hypotonic polyuria. Those cases manifesting in pregnancy and referred to as GDI may persist thereafter or may be a transient latent form that resolves after delivery. Microscopic examination of affected subjects has not been previously reported. In the literature, there are various case reports and case series on diabetes insipidus in pregnancy. In this study, we present a case that had transient diabetes insipidus during pregnancy in which the placenta was examined.

  13. Monochorionic placentas with proximate umbilical cord insertions: definition, prevalence and angio-architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D P; Peeters, S H P; Middeldorp, J M; Klumper, F J; Duan, T; Oepkes, D; Lopriore, E

    2015-02-01

    Not much is known on the definition, occurrence and characteristics of proximate umbilical cord insertions (PCI) in monochorionic (MC) placentas. The purpose of this study was to establish a reference range for the distance between cord insertions and to evaluate the prevalence and angio-architecture of MC placentas with PCI. All MC placentas not treated with laser surgery were included in this study. The reference range of distance between cord insertions was created using the standard methodology proposed by Royston and Wright. We defined PCI as a cord insertion distance below the 5th centile. A total of 369 MC placentas were analyzed during this study period. The 5th centile was calculated by the equation: 0.027 × gestational age (weeks) +2.91 (cm), and ranged from 3.3 to 4 cm throughout gestation. Accordingly, 18 of the 369 (5%) MC placentas fulfilled the definition criteria for PCI. PCI occurred frequently in MC monoamniotic placentas (53%, 9/17) but were rare in MC diamniotic placentas (3%, 9/352). The prevalence of arterio-arterial and veno-venous anastomoses in MC placentas with and without PCI was respectively 100% versus 80% (P = .12) and 56% versus 26% (P = .01). PCI may be representative of later splitting of inner cell mass. The threshold for PCI (5th centile) is approximately 4 cm throughout gestation. PCI are rare in MC diamniotic placentas, but are quite common in MC monoamniotic placentas. MC placentas with PCI are characterized by higher rates of superficial AA and/or VV anastomoses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrastructure of the placentae of the natricine snake, Virginia striatula (Reptilia: Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James R; Brasch, Klaus R

    2003-02-01

    Virginia striatula is a viviparous snake with a complex pattern of embryonic nutrition. Nutrients for embryonic development are provided by large, yolked eggs, supplemented by placental transfer. Placentation in this species is surprisingly elaborate for a predominantly lecithotrophic squamate reptile. The embryonic-maternal interface consists of three structurally distinct areas, an omphalallantoic placenta and a regionally diversified chorioallantoic placenta. The chorioallantoic placenta over the embryonic hemisphere (paramesometrial region) of the egg, features close apposition of embryonic and uterine blood vessels because of the attenuate form of the interceding epithelial cells. The periphery of the chorioallantoic placenta, which is adjacent to the omphalallantoic placenta, is characterized by a simple cuboidal uterine epithelium apposed to a stratified cuboidal chorionic epithelium. There are no sites with attenuate epithelial cells and close vascular apposition. The morphology of the omphalallantoic placenta is similar to that of the peripheral chorioallantoic placenta, except that the height of uterine epithelial cells is greater and allantoic blood vessels are not associated with the embryonic epithelium. The functional capabilities of the three placental regions are not known, but structural characteristics suggest that the omphalallantoic placenta and peripheral zone of the chorioallantoic placenta are sites of nutritional provision via histotrophy. The paramesometrial region of the chorioallantoic placenta is also nutritive, in addition to functioning as the primary embryonic respiratory system. The structure of the chorioallantoic placenta of V. striatula is a new placental morphotype for squamate reptiles that is not represented by a classic model for the evolution of reptilian placentation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. DNA flow cytometric analysis in variable types of hydropic placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Atabaki pasdar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differential diagnosis between complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and hydropic abortion, known as hydropic placentas is still a challenge for pathologists but it is very important for patient management. Objective: We analyzed the nuclear DNA content of various types of hydropic placentas by flowcytometry. Materials and Methods: DNA ploidy analysis was performed in 20 non-molar (hydropic and non-hydropic spontaneous abortions and 20 molar (complete and partial moles, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by flow cytometry. The criteria for selection were based on the histopathologic diagnosis. Results: Of 10 cases histologically diagnosed as complete hydatiform mole, 9 cases yielded diploid histograms, and 1 case was tetraploid. Of 10 partial hydatidiform moles, 8 were triploid and 2 were diploid. All of 20 cases diagnosed as spontaneous abortions (hydropic and non-hydropic yielded diploid histograms. Conclusion: These findings signify the importance of the combined use of conventional histology and ploidy analysis in the differential diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and hydropic abortion.

  16. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jeong-hun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. In herbal acupuncture group, 100% motor recovery was 7 case, 75% was 1 case, and 25% motor recovery term was 7.38±5.21 days, 50% was 11.00±6.16 days, 75% was 15.13±9.55 days, 100% was 23.14±7.97 days. In control group, 100% motor recovery was 4 case, 75% was 2 case, 25% below was 2 case and 25% motor recovery term was 11.17±4.96days, 50% was 18.17±6.82 days, 75% was 29.50±6.95 days, 100% was 44.00±11.49 days. The above results indicate that Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture is a useful effect on Bell's palsy. thus, continuous herbal acupunture study will be needed for more clinical application on Bell' palsy.

  17. Functional amino acids in the development of the pig placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Herring, Cassandra; Seo, Heewon; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Wang, Xiaolong

    2017-09-01

    The mammalian placenta is essential for supplying nutrients (e.g., amino acids and water) and oxygen from the mother to fetus and for removing fetal metabolites (e.g., ammonia and CO2 ) from fetus to mother. Thus, placental growth and development are determinants of fetal survival, growth, and development. Indeed, low birth weight is closely associated with reduced placental growth. Providing gestating gilts or sows with dietary supplementation of arginine and glutamine, increases placental growth (including vascular growth), improves embryonic/fetal growth and survival, and reduces the large variation in birth weight among litters. These two amino acids serve as building blocks for tissue protein as well as substrates for the production of polyamines and nitric oxide, which stimulate DNA and protein synthesis and angiogenesis and vascular growth in the placenta. These recent findings not only greatly advance the field of mammalian amino acid metabolism and nutrition, but also provide practical, mechanism-based methods to enhance reproductive efficiency in swine. These results may also help improve embryonic/fetal survival and growth in other livestock species (e.g., sheep and cattle) and in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Placenta accreta and the developing world--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezurike, C C; Feyi-Waboso, P A

    2010-12-01

    The rising Caesarean section rate in the developing world implies that the incidence of placenta accreta might be on the increase and this might worsen the maternal mortality burden. To draw the attention of Obstetricians and other relevant professionals to this emerging but challenging trend. Original research findings and reviews published in the English literature. Additional information was obtained from texts and electronic books such as CD ROMS. Online searches of electronic database (Medline, Pubmed and Embase), requests for reprints from corresponding authors and institutional/private subscriptions. Information obtained was categorised accordingly. Optimal treatment of women with placenta accreta requires recognition of the clinical risk factors, accurate pre-operative diagnosis and meticulous planning to ensure safety at the time of delivery. In view of the rising incidence of this condition, and the absence of a highly reliable antenatal diagnostic method especially in developing countries, a high index of suspicion and advanced preparation is required to reduce its associated maternal morbidity and mortality.

  19. The omniscient placenta: Metabolic and epigenetic regulation of fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Bridget M; Bale, Tracy L

    2015-10-01

    Fetal development could be considered a sensitive period wherein exogenous insults and changes to the maternal milieu can have long-term impacts on developmental programming. The placenta provides the fetus with protection and necessary nutrients for growth, and responds to maternal cues and changes in nutrient signaling through multiple epigenetic mechanisms. The X-linked enzyme O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) acts as a nutrient sensor that modifies numerous proteins to alter various cellular signals, including major epigenetic processes. This review describes epigenetic alterations in the placenta in response to insults during pregnancy, the potential links of OGT as a nutrient sensor to placental epigenetics, and the implications of placental epigenetics in long-term neurodevelopmental programming. We describe the role of placental OGT in the sex-specific programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis programming deficits by early prenatal stress as an example of how placental signaling can have long-term effects on neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene Expression Profiling of Placentas Affected by Pre-Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mette Hoegh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA expression from pooled samples was analysed by microarrays. Verification of the expression of selected genes was performed using real-time PCR. A surprisingly low number of genes (21 out of 15,000 were identified as differentially expressed. Among these were genes not previously associated with pre-eclampsia as bradykinin B1 receptor and a 14-3-3 protein, but also genes that have already been connected with pre-eclampsia, for example, inhibin beta A subunit and leptin. A low number of genes were repeatedly identified as differentially expressed, because they may represent the endpoint of a cascade of events effectuated throughout gestation. They were associated with transcriptional regulation and vasoregulative pathways, along with a number of hypothetical proteins and gene sequences with unknown functions.

  1. Drug interactions at the human placenta: what is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eRubinchik-Stern

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women (and their fetuses are treated with a significant number of prescription and nonprescription medications. Interactions among those drugs may affect their efficacy and toxicity in both mother and fetus. Whereas interactions that result in altered drug concentrations in maternal plasma are detectable, those involving modulation of placental transfer mechanisms are rarely reflected by altered drug concentrations in maternal plasma. Therefore, they are often overlooked. Placental-mediated interactions are possible because the placenta is not only a passive diffusional barrier, but also expresses a variety of influx and efflux transporters and drug metabolizing enzymes. Current data on placental-mediated drug interactions are limited. In rodents, pharmacological or genetic manipulations of placental transporters significantly affect fetal drug exposure. In contrast, studies in human placentae suggest that the magnitude of such interactions is modest in most cases. Nevertheless, under certain circumstances, such interactions may be of clinical significance. This review describes currently known mechanisms of placental-mediated drug interactions and the potential implications of such interactions in humans. Better understanding of those mechanisms is important for minimizing fetal toxicity from drugs while improving their efficacy when directed to treat the fetus.

  2. The role of the placenta in feto-neonatal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Iacobone, Anna D; Calvino, Isabel G; Alberi, Irene; Gardella, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    The placenta and membranes may be infected by ascending bacteria from the maternal birth canal or by bacteria, virus and protozoa via haematogenous spread. The maternal and fetal inflammatory reactions, elicited by these microorganisms, are often associated with precise anatomo-pathological findings. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated a strong relationship between placental inflammation and important perinatal adverse outcomes, including neurologic impairment and chronic lung disease. For this reason, placenta examination is an important approach for understanding infection and/or inflammation leading to fetal inflammatory response syndrome. For instance, chorioamnionitis caused by ascending infections are characterized mainly by polymorphonuclear leucocytic infiltration of the extraplacental membranes, firstly involving the lower-pole of the amniotic sac, then the intervillous space and later the chorionic plate. In fact, there is an initial "maternal inflammatory response" (MIR) to the infection and leucocytes migrate from the maternal blood stream. Subsequently, the chorionic plate is infiltrated by leucocytes derived from the fetal vessels, and this event characterizes the "fetal inflammatory response" (FIR). The release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines within the gestational sac is the leading cause of fetal and neonatal damage. In conclusion, certain placental reaction patterns may identify and estimate the risk for specific perinatal complications in infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Morphological characteristics of placenta and hormonal balance in hyperthyroidism of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshchenko, I E; Milovanov, A P; Vial'tseva, Iu Iu

    2001-01-01

    Hyperthyroidosis in pregnancy (16 cases) severely alters positive and negative correlations between maternal and neonatal thyroid hormones, as well as the morphofunctional state of the placenta. Chronic placenta failure (degrees I-II) and activation of the structures responsible for additional synthesis of placental lactogen results in transplacental passage of thyroxin to the fetus and newborn.

  4. Maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy and placenta weight: evidence from a national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Tegethoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To study in a large-scale cohort with prospective data the associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and placenta weight at birth. Animal data suggest that the placenta is involved in stress-related fetal programming. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We defined a priori two types of psychosocial stress during pregnancy, life stress (perceived burdens in major areas of life and emotional symptoms (e.g. anxiety. We estimated the associations of maternal stress during pregnancy with placenta weight at birth, controlled for length of gestation, by predicting gestational age- and sex-specific z-scores of placenta weight through multiple regression analysis, adjusted for potential confounders (N = 78,017 singleton pregnancies. Life stress (per increase in stress score by 1, range: 0-18 during pregnancy was associated with increased placenta weight at birth (z-score, reported in 10(-3; B, 14.33; CI, 10.12-18.54. In contrast, emotional symptoms during pregnancy were not associated with placenta weight at birth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Maternal life stress but not emotional symptoms during pregnancy was associated with increased placenta weight at birth; yet, the association-estimate was rather small. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the role of the placenta in the regulation of intrauterine processes in response to maternal stress.

  5. Another look at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budorick, Nancy E; Figueroa, Reinaldo; Vizcarra, Michael; Shin, James

    2017-10-01

    To compare the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) in the diagnosis of placenta accreta, to examine the success of various sonographic and MRI features to correctly predict invasive placenta, and to define a specific role for MRI in placenta accreta. After Institutional Review Board approval, a blinded retrospective review was undertaken of US and MRI findings from 45 patients who had an obstetrical US and placental MRI between August 2006 and January 2012. Correlation with clinical history and pathologic findings was performed. US and MRI had similar sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for placenta accreta. The best predictors of invasion by US were loss of the myometrial mantle, increased intraplacental vascularity and loss of the bladder wall echogenicity. The best predictors of invasion by MRI were loss of retroplacental myometrial mantle, a heterogeneous placenta, and intraplacental hemorrhage. Body mass index (BMI) did not affect the ability to make a diagnosis by either US or MRI. MRI proved effective in better evaluation of a posterior placenta with suspicion of placenta accreta. There was modality disagreement in 11 of 45 cases and MRI was correct in 9 of these 11 cases, all true negative (TN) cases. MRI should be considered in any case with posterior placenta previa and suspicion of accreta, in any case with clinical suspicion for accreta and discordant US findings, and in any case in which percreta is suspected.

  6. Heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta in Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedictus, L.; Koets, A.P.; Kuijpers, F.H.J.; Joosten, I.; Eldik, van P.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Failure of the timely expulsion of the fetal membranes, called retained placenta, leads to reduced fertility, increased veterinary costs and reduced milk yields. The objectives of this study were to concurrently look at the heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta and test

  7. Evolution of the placenta during the early radiation of placental mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mess, Andrea; Carter, Anthony M

    2007-01-01

    The chorioallantoic placenta is an organ of gaseous exchange that exhibits a high degree of structural diversity. One factor determining oxygen transfer across the placenta, the diffusion distance, is in part dependent on the number of cell layers separating maternal from fetal blood...... important to placental gas exchange and point to physiological variables that might become amenable to phylogenetic analysis....

  8. GLUT12 expression in human placenta in first trimester and term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gude, NM; Stevenson, JL; Rogers, S; Best, JD; Kalionis, B; Erwich, JJHM; Timmer, A; King, RG

    The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of a novel glucose transporter protein GLUT12 in human placenta. GLUT12 mRNA expression was identified by RT-PCR in extracts from five normal term placentae and in extracts from cultured cells of the JAR, JEG-3 and HTR-8Svneo cell lines. In

  9. An Appraisal of Retained Placenta in Sokoto: a five-year review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Retained placenta is one of the major causes of primary and secondary postpartum haemorrhage associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine the incidence, method of treatment and maternal outcome of patients with retained placenta. Methodology: This is a ...

  10. The Mystery and Miracle of the Placenta | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Pregnancy The Mystery and Miracle of the Placenta Past Issues / Fall 2016 Table of Contents Understanding its role in health and disease The Human Placenta Project is a long-term research ...

  11. More than clinical waste? Placenta rituals among Australian home-birthing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The discursive construction of the human placenta varies greatly between hospital and home-birthing contexts. The former, driven by medicolegal discourse, defines the placenta as clinical waste. Within this framework, the placenta is as much of an afterthought as it is considered the "afterbirth." In home-birth practices, the placenta is constructed as a "special" and meaningful element of the childbirth experience. I demonstrate this using 51 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant and planning home births in Australia or had recently had home births in Australia. Analysis of these interviews indicates that the discursive shift taking place in home-birth practices from the medicalized model translates into a richer understanding and appreciation of the placenta as a spiritual component of the childbirth experience. The practices discussed in this article include the burial of the placenta beneath a specifically chosen plant, consuming the placenta, and having a lotus birth, which refers to not cutting the umbilical cord after the birth of the child but allowing it to dry naturally and break of its own accord. By shifting focus away from the medicalized frames of reference in relation to the third stage of labor, the home-birthing women in this study have used the placenta in various rituals and ceremonies to spiritualize an aspect of birth that is usually overlooked.

  12. Utility of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Satija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Placenta accreta is the abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall and the most common cause for emergency postpartum hysterectomy. Accurate prenatal diagnosis of affected pregnancies allows optimal obstetric management. Aims: To summarize our experience in the antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta on imaging in a tertiary care setup. To compare the accuracy of ultrasound (USG with color Doppler (CDUS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Settings and Design: Prospective study in a tertiary care setup. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on pregnant females with high clinical risk of placenta accreta. Antenatal diagnosis was established based on CDUS and MRI. The imaging findings were compared with final diagnosis at the time of delivery and/or pathologic examination. Statistical Analysis Used: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated for both CDUS and MRI. The sensitivity and specificity values of USG and MRI were compared by the McNemar test. Results: Thirty patients at risk of placenta accreta underwent both CDUS and MRI. Eight cases of placenta accreta were identified (3 vera, 4 increta, and 1 percreta. All patients had history of previous cesarean section. Placenta previa was present in seven out of eight patients. USG correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in seven out of eight patients (87.5% sensitivity and the absence of placenta accreta in 19 out of 22 patients (86.4% specificity. MRI correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in 6 out of 8 patients (75.0% sensitivity and absence of placenta accreta in 17 out of 22 patients (77.3% specificity. There were no statistical differences in sensitivity (P = 1.00 and specificity (P = 0.687 between USG and MRI. Conclusions: Both USG and MRI have fairly good sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta

  13. The Case Report of Trigger Finger Improved with Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Won Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The Purpose of this study is to investigate and report the effectiveness of Hominis Placenta using Pharmacopuncture treatment for trigger finger. Methods : 3 Patients are admitted at Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation, Bu-Chun Jaseng Oriental Medicine Hospital, diagnosed as Trigger finger and treated with Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture. Each cases are measured and assessed by Quinnell's classification of triggering and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale scores. Results : 3 Patients of trigger finger have a different kind of cause and fingers lesion they have, but nodules are not significantly found up, so we could classify all of 3 patients to diffuse type. After treatment of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture, spontaneous pain and tenderness, grades of triggering are decreased significantly. We would expect that Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture has a effect on degenerative diseases of diffuse type's tendon sheath. Conclusions : Trigger finger is generally divided into two stages, inflammatory and degenerative stage, and when degenerative stage, Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture appears to be effective.

  14. The Clinical report of Asthmatic Patients with CVA by treatment of Homins Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun­Gon Kim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Asthma is considered to be an inflamatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia. Hominis Placenta is the dried placenta of a healthy women. It has correspondence to the meridians of lung and kindey. Hominis Placenta acupuncture therapy has effect on invigoration of vital energy nourishing blood and tonifying the essence. It can be applied to the disease as Asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, degenerative change and cerebrovascular disease. We treated two patients of Asthma with CVA by Homins Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture. The effect of Homins Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture was assessed by analyzing the pulmonary function test(PFT and Quality of Life Questionnaire for adult Korean Asthmatics(QLQAKA in patients before and after treatment. Total score was increased. The patients are satisfied our treatment. But further research concerning this is still necessary.

  15. OBSERVAÇÃO SOBRE O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PLACENTA EM ALGUNS ROEDORES

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Sincai; Adrian Marcu

    1994-01-01

    RESUMO A placenta do cobaio, rato, camundongo e ratão do banhado (Myocastor coypus) foram estudadas e revelaram aspectos interessantes. A placenta nestas espécies é do tipo discoidal no início da gestação e após a união entre a mucosa uterina com as vilosidades coriônicas passa a ser do tipo hemocorial. O exame microscópico da placenta da cobaia e do ratão do banhado era do tipo multilobular, enquanto que a placenta do rato e do camundongo parece a metade de um lóbulo da placenta de cobaia e ...

  16. A Case of Vaginal Stillbirth in the Presence of Placenta Previa at 33 Weeks of Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Yukiko; Kinjo, Tadatsugu; Nitta, Hayase; Kinjo, Yui; Masamoto, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    It was demonstrated that second- and third-trimester therapeutic termination of pregnancy (TOP) is feasible in cases with placenta previa. We report a 34-year-old woman with complex fetal malformations associated with placenta previa. An ultrasound examination at 21 weeks of gestation revealed fetal growth restriction (FGR) and complex fetal malformations associated with a placenta previa. After extensive information, the parents opted for careful observation. Thereafter, FGR gradually progressed and we observed arrest of end-diastolic velocity of the umbilical artery. Finally, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was confirmed at 33 weeks of gestation. Two days after IUFD, the patient experienced labor pain. The placenta and dead fetus weighing 961 g were vaginally delivered, and total bleeding was 270 mL. Although further studies to confirm the dynamic change of the uteroplacental blood flow are necessary to avoid the risk of maternal hemorrhage, vaginal TOP with placenta previa after feticide or IUFD would be feasible.

  17. Morphological changes in the placenta and decidua after induction of abortion by extra-amniotic prostaglandin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, H; Herd, M E; Harilal, K R

    1978-03-01

    Seventeen placentae from second trimester abortions induced by the injection of extra-amniotic prostaglandin have been examined. The extraplacental membranes, the chorionic plate of the placenta, the placental intervillous space and the placental villi were normal in all cases. In all but one specimen lesions were, however, noted in the decidua, these including focal decidual necrosis, intradecidual haemorrhage, thrombosis of maternal vessels and dilatation and congestion of the maternal vasculature. Similar decidual lesions were also seen in placentae from spontaneous and surgical second trimester abortions and it is concluded that prostaglandins do not produce any specific lesions in the placenta or decidua. It is suggested that the negative findings of this study indicate that prostaglandins do not induce abortion by either direct injury to the placenta or by provoking utero-placental ischaemia.

  18. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane I Schroeder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs and highly methylated domains (HMDs with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo.

  19. Sonographic assessment of placental migration in second trimester low lying placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Tuladhar, A; Shrestha, A; Amatya, N B; Pradhan, P

    2012-12-01

    To assess the migration of low lying placenta diagnosed in the second trimester ultrasonogram (USG). All the women attending antenatal OPD clinic had undergone routine obstetric USG in the second trimester (14 weeks onwards). Those cases who had low lying placenta lower edge of placenta within 3.0 cms from the cervical internal os were included in the study. These cases were subjected to be followed up at 4 weekly interval to repeated serial ultrasonogram by Transabdominal and/or Transvaginal USG well through 3rd trimester of pregnancy or delivery which ever was earlier. Of the total 1229 second trimester USG, 312 (25.3%) women had low lying placenta in the second trimester. Follow up of this 312 cases indicated that in 288 (92.4%) cases it had migrated to upper segment by 3rd trimester. The migration of placenta was 92.4% and 68.0 % where the distance between the leading edge of placenta and cervical internal os was more than 2.0 cm or less than 2 cm respectively. Migration was not observed in women where the distance was less than 1.5 cm. Placental migration was 94.5% in anteriorly situated placenta and 90.2% in posteriorly situated placenta. The rate of placental migration was 95.1%, 77.7%, 55.5% in women who had previous normal delivery, previous caesarean delivery and prior history of dilatation and curettage (D & C) or manual removal of placenta (MRP), respectively. The prevalence of low lying placenta in 2nd trimester is 25.3%, which reduces to 7.3% at term. The rate of placental migration was over 90.0%. Factor like initial distance between the lower edge of the placental and cervical internal os. placental position and previous birth by caesarean section influence the placental migration.

  20. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Diane I; Jayashankar, Kartika; Douglas, Kory C; Thirkill, Twanda L; York, Daniel; Dickinson, Pete J; Williams, Lawrence E; Samollow, Paul B; Ross, Pablo J; Bannasch, Danika L; Douglas, Gordon C; LaSalle, Janine M

    2015-08-01

    Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs) and highly methylated domains (HMDs) with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq) analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo.

  1. Treatment of retained placenta with misoprostol: A randomised controlled trial in a low-resource setting (Tanzania)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. van Beekhuizen (Heleen); A.B. Pembe (Andrea); H. Fauteck (Heiner); F.K. Lotgering (Fred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Retained placenta is one of the common causes of maternal mortality in developing countries where access to appropriate obstetrical care is limited. Current treatment of retained placenta is manual removal of the placenta under anaesthesia, which can only take place in larger

  2. Treatment of retained placenta with misoprostol: a randomised controlled trial in a low-resource setting (Tanzania).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, H.J. van; Pembe, A.B.; Fauteck, H.; Lotgering, F.K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Retained placenta is one of the common causes of maternal mortality in developing countries where access to appropriate obstetrical care is limited. Current treatment of retained placenta is manual removal of the placenta under anaesthesia, which can only take place in larger health care

  3. Retained placenta in Friesian mares : reproductive performance after foal heat breeding versus breeding in a subsequent heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    Postpartum reproductive performance was studied in 54 Friesian brood mares with and 50 without retained placenta. Retained placenta was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 hours after the delivery of the foal. The group of mares with retained placenta was subdivided into mares

  4. [Identification of Placenta hominis and its adulterants using COI barcode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Jia, Jing; Xu, Xiao-Lan; Xin, Tian-Yi; Zhang, Hong-Yin; Shi, Lin-Chun; Yao, Hui; Liu, Dong; Wu, Zhen-Hong

    2014-06-01

    In order to provide a new method for the identification of Placenta hominis, the COI barcode has been employed to identify the P. hominis medicinal materials and its adulterants. Genomic DNA was extracted from the experimental samples. The COI sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner. NJ tree was constructed by MEGA6.0 software. COI sequences can be successfully obtained from all experimental samples. The intra-specific variation and inter-specific divergence were calculated. The average intra-specific K2P distance of P. hominis was 0.001 and the maximum intra-specific distance was 0.008. The cluster dendrogram constructed can be seen that the same genus is together, and distinguished from its adulterants. It is concluded that P. hominis and its adulterants can be correctly identified by DNA barcoding method.

  5. Epigenetic mechanisms in the placenta related to infant neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M; Marsit, Carmen J

    2018-01-30

    As the 'third brain' the placenta links the developing fetal brain and the maternal brain enabling study of epigenetic process in placental genes that affect infant neurodevelopment. We described the characteristics and findings of the 17 studies on epigenetic processes in placental genes and human infant neurobehavior. Studies showed consistent findings in the same cohort of term healthy infants across epigenetic processes (DNA methylation, genome wide, gene and miRNA expression) genomic region (single and multiple genes, imprinted genes and miRNAs) using candidate gene and genome wide approaches and across biobehavioral systems (neurobehavior, cry acoustics and neuroendocrine). Despite limitations, studies support future work on molecular processes in placental genes related to neurodevelopmental trajectories including implications for intervention.

  6. Risk Factors and Consequent Outcomes of Placenta Previa: Report From a Referral Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Saleh Gargari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available  Because of an unknown factor, the frequency of complicated pregnancy with placenta previa has been raised during past decade. This study was designed to deepen our understanding of risk factors and outcomes of placenta previa in our country. This study investigated 694 cases of placenta previa comparing with 600 healthy pregnant women with not overlie placenta in two referral and tertiary Obstetrics and Gynecological Hospital in Iran on the basis of the clinical and para-clinical analysis, in order to find the probable risk factors for occurrence of placenta previa and its effect on maternal and neonatal complications. The most important risk factor for the occurrence of placenta previa was advanced maternal age (P<0.001 and history of stillbirth (OR=117.2, CI=58.3-236.0. In the other hand, the most substantial outcome of this disorder was a reduction of gestational age (P<0.001 and low birth weight neonatally (P<0.001. The conservative follow-up should be programmed for women with placenta previa based on the type of risk factors which can provide the best possible management to decrease the morbidity and mortality of their related complications.

  7. Manual Removal of the Placenta after Vaginal Delivery: An Unsolved Problem in Obstetrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Urner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The third stage of labor is associated with considerable maternal morbidity and mortality. The major complication is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH, which is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Whereas in the event of PPH due to atony of the uterus there exist numerous treatment guidelines; for the management of retained placenta the general consensus is more difficult to establish. Active management of the third stage of labour is generally accepted as standard of care as already its duration is contributing to the risk of PPH. Despite scant evidence it is commonly advised that if the placenta has not been expelled 30 minutes after delivery, manual removal of the placenta should be carried out under anaesthesia. Pathologic adhesion of the placenta in the low risk situation usually is diagnosed at the time of delivery; therefore a pre- or intrapartum screening opportunity for placenta accreta would be desirable. But diagnosis of abnormalities of placentation other than placenta previa remains a challenge. Nevertheless the use of ultrasound and doppler sonography might be helpful in the third stage of labor. An improvement might be the implementation of standardized operating procedures for retained placenta which could contribute to a reduction of maternal morbidity.

  8. Expression of human placental lactogen and variant growth hormone genes in placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Rodriguez, H G; Guerra-Rodriguez, N E; Iturbe-Cantu, M A; Martinez-Torres, A; Barrera-Saldaña, H A

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies comparing the expression levels of human placental lactogen (hPL) genes have shown varying results, due to, perhaps, the fact that in all of them only one placenta was being analyzed. Here, the expression of hPL and growth hormone variant (hGH-V) genes in fifteen term placentas was comparatively analyzed at the RNA level, using reverse transcription coupled to polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The abundance of the combined RNA transcripts derived from these genes varied from one placenta to another. The authors found that hPL-4 transcripts were more abundant than those of hPL-3 in most samples (ratios from 1:1 to 6:1), transcripts from the putative hPL-1 pseudogene were more abundant at the unprocessed stage while those of the hGH-V gene were mostly processed. Again, the authors of this study observed wide variation from placenta to placenta in the abundance of both of these types of transcripts. The same was observed when a group of six placentas from abortuses and nine from pregnancies complicated by preclampsia, diabetes and hypertension was studied. The authors conclude that the disagreeing results reported in the literature which are not in agreement concerning the expression levels of hPL genes could be explained by normal variations of their expression levels among the different placentas analyzed.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides in placenta in Kyrgyzstan and the effect on pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toichuev, Rakhmanbek Mamatkadyrovich; Zhilova, Liudmila Victorovna; Paizildaev, Timur Rashidinovich; Khametova, Madina Shavkatovna; Rakhmatillaev, Abdygapar; Sakibaev, Kyialbek Sherikbaevich; Madykova, Zhanyl Akhmedovna; Toichueva, Asel Uezbekovna; Schlumpf, Margret; Weber, Roland; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2017-12-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined by gas chromatography in 241 placentas from cotton-growing regions, 121 placentas from an urban area (city of Osh), and 146 placentas from unpolluted mountain regions of Kyrgyzstan. Manifestations of disease were recorded in the mothers during pregnancy and parturition and in their newborns during the first 6 days of life. OCPs were detected in 240 out of 508 placentas (47.2%), with increased incidence in the two polluted regions (65%), particularly in placentas from women living near former pesticide storehouses and agro air-strips (99%), but only in 2.7% of placentas from the unpolluted region. α-, β-, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH); DDT; DDE; aldrin; and heptachlor were detected. The sum of concentrations of all OCPs (total OCPs) was calculated for each of the 240 placentas with detectable OCPs (median 9.5 μg/kg placenta, mean 88.3 μg/kg, range 0.1-3070 μg/kg). The incidence of health problems in four subgroups of this data set, with increasing levels of total OCPs, was compared with the incidence of health problems in the group of 268 placentas, where OCPs were undetectable. Relative risk of health problems in both, mothers and newborns, increased significantly, in a concentration-dependent manner, with increasing levels of total OCPs (p < 0.0001). Health complications with increased incidence in OCP-exposed newborns included, i.a., low birth weight, congenital malformations, infections, and stillbirths, in OCP-exposed mothers preterm delivery, (pre-)eclampsia/gestosis, and frequency of hospitalizations after delivery (infections). Women living near former pesticide storehouses and agro airstrips should be considered as being at risk. Reduction of exposure is urgently needed.

  10. Excretion of fetal biliverdin by the rat placenta-maternal liver tandem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz, Oscar; Macias, Rocio I R; Perez, Maria J; Serrano, Maria A; Marin, Jose J G

    2006-03-01

    Fetal liver immaturity is accompanied by active heme catabolism. Thus fetal biliary pigments must be excreted toward the mother by the placenta. To investigate biliverdin handling by the placenta-maternal liver tandem, biliverdin-IXalpha was administered to 21-day pregnant rats through the jugular vein or the umbilical artery of an in situ perfused placenta. Jugular administration resulted in the secretion into maternal bile of both bilirubin and biliverdin (3:1). However, when biliverdin was administered to the placenta, most of it was transformed into bilirubin before being transferred to the maternal blood. Injecting Xenopus laevis oocytes with mRNA from rat liver or placenta enhanced their ability to take up biliverdin, which was inhibited by estradiol 17beta-d-glucuronide. The expression of three OATP isoforms in this system revealed that they have a varying degrees of ability to transport biliverdin (Oatp1/1a1 > Oatp2/1a4 > Oatp4/1b2). The abundance of their mRNA in rat trophoblast was Oatp1/1a1 > Oatp4/1b2 > Oatp2/1a4. The expression of biliverdin-IXalpha reductase in rat placenta was detected by RT-PCR/sequencing and Western blot analysis. The relative abundance of biliverdin-IXalpha reductase mRNA (determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR) was fetal liver > placenta > maternal liver. Common bile duct ligation in the last week of pregnancy induced an upregulation of biliverdin-IXalpha reductase in maternal liver but had no effect on fetal liver and placenta. In conclusion, several members of the OATP family may contribute to the uptake of fetal biliverdin by the rat placenta. Before being transferred to the mother, biliverdin is extensively converted into bilirubin by biliverdin-IXalpha reductase, whose expression is maintained even though bilirubin excretion into maternal bile is impaired.

  11. Participation in environmental health research by placenta donation - a perception study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Uffe; Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much environmental health research depends on human volunteers participating with biological samples. The perception study explores why and how people participate in a placenta perfusion study in Copenhagen. The participation implies donation of the placenta after birth and some...... of medical research. They participated in the placenta perfusion study due to a belief that societal progress follows medical research. They also felt that participating was a way of giving something back to the Danish health care system. The participants have trust in medical science and scientists...

  12. Fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF) na placenta de gestantes com hiperglicemia leve.

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Pietro

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença da proteínas - fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF) e seus receptores R1 (Flt-1) e R2 (Flk-1) em placentas a termo de gestantes com hipergliccemia leve, comparando estes resultados com o observado em placentas de gestantes normoglicêmicas e diabéticas gestacional e clínica, através de reações de imunohistoquímica e Western Blotting. Resultados: em geral, placentas de gestantes normoglicêmicas apresentam reatividade bastante expressiv...

  13. COMPARISON OF ULTRASONOGRAPHIC PLACENTA EXAMINATION WITH PATHOHISTOLOGIC VERIFICATION OF FETAL ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Loncar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonographic diagnostics is a sovereign diagnostic method of discovering disorders in growth and development of embryo. The main aim of this research is The Comparison of Ultrasonographic Placenta Examination with Pathohistologic Treatment of Placenta considering those pregnancies previously verified to have embryo anomalies and which were ended by the procedure of feticide. During the period of 2001 – 2004, 15 pregnant women, with gestation between the 24th and 28th week, were hospitalized in our clinic. Ultrasonographic placenta examination was carried out during the expertise sonography immediately before deciding to commit feticide. The descriptive medical findings were divided into the clinical entities estimating the continuity of basal body, insertion, volume, and echo-structure of placenta substance. The procedure of feticide was carried out in regular treatments using intracardial application of 7,4 % KCl or transabdominal, intra-amnial instillation of 20 % NaCl under the control of ultrasound.The patients with the embryo anomalies were divided into three groups:I – the group with the diagnosis of embryo hydrocephalusII – the group with the diagnosis of other anomalies of growth of embryo's CNSIII – the group of patients with other embryo anomaliesPathohistologic placenta examinations were carried out in the Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine in CC Kragujevac.The ultrasonographic placenta finding of the patients with the different embryo anomalies was not statistically very different (x2 – test; p=0,073. However, besides the lack of significant difference, what is reasonable considering the size of the sample, we notice quite different ultrasonographic findings of the placenta examination of the patients having the embryo with hydrocephalus in comparison to those patients having the other embryo anomalies of CNS. The ultrasonographic placenta examination of the patients having the other embryo anomalies was

  14. Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Complicating Uteroplacental Apoplexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-U Cheang

    2007-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute pancreatitis is difficult to diagnose during pregnancy. It presents as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting in hemodynamic changes and may lead to abruptio placentae. Nonsurgical conservative treatment may be useful in such patients.

  15. Growth and maturation of villi in placentae from well-controlled diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayhew, T M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G

    1994-01-01

    Placentae from controls and two groups of diabetic women (one White classes A, B, C and the other classes D, F/R) were collected at 37-42 weeks of gestation. Tissue sections were analysed using stereological methods in order to quantify the growth and maturational status of villi. Birth...... with group, mode of delivery and sex of newborn as the principal effects. Mean weights were similar in controls and diabetic groups. Diabetic placentae had a more voluminous fetal capillary bed of greater length, diameter and surface area. In addition, the diffusion distances across fetal plasma (erythrocyte...... on the fetal side of the diabetic placenta. They show that changes can affect the placentae of appropriate-for-age as well as large-for-age babies and provide no evidence that they increase with the severity and duration of diabetes....

  16. The Triple‐P procedure as a conservative surgical alternative to peripartum hysterectomy for placenta percreta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Rao, Sridevi; Belli, Anna‐Maria; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam

    2012-01-01

    .... The present article describes the Triple-P procedure-which involves perioperative placental localization and delivery of the fetus via transverse uterine incision above the upper border of the placenta...

  17. Effect of Human Placenta Extract on Potassium Oxonate-Induced Elevation of Blood Uric Acid Concentration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Kimura, Yumi; Shindo, Kaoru; Fukui, Tetsuya

    2006-01-01

    Although anti-inflammatory effect of human placenta extract (HPE) was observed in rheumatoid arthritis and carrageenin-induced edema, effect of HPE on the arthritis of hyperuricemia and gout patients had never been examined...

  18. The placenta and foetal membranes of the lesser yellow house bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A discoidal hemodichorial placenta is present in Scotophilus borbonicus. Evidence is presented which suggests that histotrophic nutrition, in addition to hemotrophic nutrition, occurs. The foetal trophospongium phagocytoses cell debris and glandular secretions derived from the maternal endometrium (decidua basalis).

  19. Pathologic examination of the placenta: recommended versus observed practice in a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Amber Sills,1 Carmen Steigman,2 Songthip T Ounpraseuth,3 Imelda Odibo,1 Adam T Sandlin,1 Everett F Magann11Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for the Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 2Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for the Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 3Department of Biostatistics, University of Arkansas for the Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USAIntroduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of appropriate placental examinations in a university hospital.Methods: A retrospective review of all deliveries and all placentas submitted for pathologic examination from live births. Placentas were reviewed by a perinatal pathologist to determine whether they met the College of American Pathologists (CAP-recommended guidelines for examination.Results: We used 1346 deliveries between July 1, 2010 and December 31, 2010 as the basis of this review. According to CAP guidelines, 703 placentas (52.2% should have been sent for pathologic examination; 575/703 (81.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 78.9–84.7 were actually sent for examination. Of the 643 placentas that did not need to be examined per CAP guidelines, 568 (88.3%; 95% CI = 85.9–90.8 were appropriately not sent. In comparing the three categories of indications for examination (maternal, fetal/neonatal, placental, the only significant association was that women with fetal/neonatal indications were more likely to have their placenta sent than women with maternal indications (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% CI = 1.81–3.80.Conclusion: In this university hospital, more than 80% of the time, placentas were appropriately sent to pathology, and more than 85% of the time, placentas that should not have been sent for evaluation were not sent.Keywords: placenta, pathologic examination, clinical guidelines, birth

  20. Cord Blood Oxidative Stress Markers Correlate With Birth and Placenta Weight

    OpenAIRE

    OPARINDE, Dolapo Pius; Daniel Adebode Adekanle; ATIBA, Adeniran Samuel; Abolape Ayobola Iyanda; Patric Temi Adegun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress injury has been linked with some clinical conditions in newborn. This cannot be readily measured. Measuring placenta and birth weight along with other features may help in predicting likelihood of oxidative stress injury babies have suffered. Aim : to measure birth and placenta weight of new born babies as well as determining cord blood total antioxidant status and malondialdehyde (product of oxidant injury) Methods: Study site was labour ward of Ladoke Akintola U...

  1. Detection of measles virus by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in a placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Shikma; Ochshorn, Yifat; Halutz, Ora; Aboudy, Yair; Many, Ariel

    2010-08-01

    Measles virus (MV) during pregnancy is associated with maternal morbidity and mortality and can put the fetus and newborn at risk of a wide range of complications. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting MV in the placenta has not been reported. A case of RT-PCR detection of MV in the placenta of a 38-year-old woman who presented with premature rupture of membranes at 16 weeks' gestation is presented.

  2. Paradoxical scalloped placenta with polyhydramnios in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmait, Ramen H; Rossi, A Cristina; Quintero, Rubén A

    2007-01-01

    To describe the paradoxical occurrence of a scalloped placenta in the presence of polyhydramnios and assess its clinical significance in pregnancies complicated by twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) treated with laser therapy. All patients who underwent laser therapy for TTTS between January 2003 and April 2004 were studied. TTTS was diagnosed and staged using the Quintero staging system. Normally the placenta is characterized by undulations of the fetal-placental surface visible by ultrasound (scalloped placenta). Patients with polyhydramnios will typically have a flattened, smooth, non-scalloped placenta. Operative tapes were reviewed and placental type assigned. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative characteristics of each study patient were obtained. Fifteen of 120 patients (12.5%) were noted to have a scalloped placenta despite having polyhydramnios. There was no difference in mean gestational age at laser treatment (20.3+/-0.5 vs. 19.6+/-0.6 weeks, p=0.66) or in stage (p=0.07) between the two groups. The median and range preoperative maximum vertical pocket (MVP) in the recipient gestational sac differed significantly between the scalloped and non-scalloped patients (8.3 (8-12) vs. 10.5 (8-17), p=0.001). All 15 patients (100%) with a scalloped placenta required an amnioinfusion to expose all vascular anastomoses, while amnioinfusion was necessary in only 28 of the 105 patients (26.7%, por=8 cm in the recipient sac. Most patients will have a flattened placenta as a result of polyhydramnios in this sac. Our data show that a paradoxical scalloped placenta may still be present in approximately 12.5% of patients. This preoperative sonographic finding alerts to the potential need for amnioinfusion during laser therapy for TTTS to disclose all vessels to avoid missing placental vascular anastomoses. Amniocenteses should be avoided if possible in patients considering laser therapy to minimize the likelihood of iatrogenic placental scalloping.

  3. Paraoxonase 2 protein is spatially expressed in the human placenta and selectively reduced in labour

    OpenAIRE

    Alwarfaly, Samy; Abdulsid, Akrem; Hanretty, Kevin; Lyall, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Humans parturition involves interaction of hormonal, neurological, mechanical stretch and inflammatory pathways and the placenta plays a crucial role. The paraoxonases (PONs 1-3) protect against oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and regulation of apoptosis. Nothing is known about the role of PON2 in the placenta and labour. Since PON2 plays a role in oxidative stress and inflammation, both features of labour, we hypothesised that placental PON...

  4. The incidence and risk factors for retained placenta after vaginal delivery - a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, Eran; Melamed, Nir; Hiersch, Liran; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv; Peled, Yoav

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors for retained placenta immediately after vaginal delivery in a single, university-affiliated tertiary center. A case-control study. Women who delivered vaginally and diagnosed with suspected retained placenta were compared to control group of women with spontaneous vaginal delivery with spontaneous non-complicated placental separation between the years 2007 and 2012. Eligibility was limited to singleton fetuses in vertex presentation with no history of more than one cesarean section, stillbirth or major fetal anomaly. Overall, 33,925 women delivered vaginally, of them, 491 (1.4%) underwent revision of uterine cavity due to suspected retained placenta. Women with retained placenta were characterized by a higher rate of previous cesarean section (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.23-2.36), previous abortions, lower parity (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.91), lower gestational age at delivery. Hypertensive disorders, oligohydramnios and labor and delivery interventions as induction of labor (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.30-2.59), neuro-axial analgesia (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.27-2.00) and vacuum delivery (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.48-2.41) were independently associated with uterine revision for retained placenta. Risk factors for manual revision due to retained placenta can be recognized. This data should be taken into consideration in the assessment of women immediately after delivery.

  5. Kiss1 mutant placentas show normal structure and function in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreboudt, A.M.; Kyle, V.R.L.; Lawrence, J.; Doran, J.; Colledge, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kisspeptins, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, are a set of related neuropeptides that are required for activation of the mammalian reproductive axis at puberty and to maintain fertility. In addition, kisspeptin signaling via the G-protein coupled receptor GPR54 (KISS1R) has been suggested to regulate human placental formation and correlations have been found between altered kisspeptin levels in the maternal blood and the development of pre-eclampsia. Methods We have used Kiss1 and Gpr54 mutant mice to investigate the role of kisspeptin signaling in the structure and function of the mouse placenta. Results Expression of Kiss1 and Gpr54 was confirmed in the mouse placenta but no differences in birth weight were found in mice that had been supported by a mutant placenta during fetal development. Stereological measurements found no differences between Kiss1 mutant and wild-type placentas. Measurement of amino-acid and glucose transport across the Kiss1 mutant placentas at E15.5 days did not reveal any functional defects. Discussion These data indicate that mouse placentas can develop a normal structure and function without kisspeptin signaling and can support normal fetal development and growth. PMID:25468546

  6. Low levels of anti-secretory factor in placenta are associated with preterm birth and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Anna M; Fransson, Emma; Dubicke, Aurelija; Hjelmstedt, Anna K; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Lange, Stefan; Jennische, Eva; Bohlin, Kajsa

    2018-03-01

    Anti-secretory factor is a protein that regulates secretory and inflammatory processes and preterm birth is associated with inflammation. Therefore, our hypothesis was that anti-secretory factor might play a role in immune reactivity and homeostasis during pregnancy. Following spontaneous onset of labor and preterm or term delivery, placenta biopsies were collected. The levels of anti-secretory factor and markers of inflammation (CD68, CD163) and vascularization (CD34, smooth muscle actin) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The 61 placental biopsies included 31 preterm (preterm placentas exhibited lower levels of anti-secretory factor (p = 0.008) and larger numbers of CD68-positive cells (p Preterm placentas had blood vessel of smaller diameter (p = 0.036) indicative of immaturity. The level of interleukin-6 in cord blood was higher after very preterm than term birth, suggesting a fetal inflammatory response. The placenta level of anti-secretory factor was positively correlated to the length of gestation (p = 0.025) and negatively correlated to the levels of the inflammatory markers CD68 (p = 0.015) and CD163 (p = 0.028). Preterm delivery is associated with low levels of anti-secretory factor in placenta. Inflammation, a potential trigger of preterm birth, is more pronounced in the preterm placenta and inversely related to the placental level of anti-secretory factor, suggesting both a link and a potential target for intervention. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Vasculogenesis, angiogenesis and the molecular organisation of endothelial junctions in the early human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Lopa; Babawale, Michael O; Anderson, Mark; Lammiman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are regulated by the capacity of endothelial cells to adhere to each other and form new tubes. The presence and role of junctional adhesion molecules during physiological vasculogenesis is unknown. Using ultrastructural and immunocytochemical approaches, we compared the junctional phenotype of developing vessels of the first-trimester human placenta with vessels in the last trimester; the latter include newly formed terminal capillaries and the quiescent vascular bed. First-trimester placental vessels contained the adherens junctional molecules, vascular endothelial cadherin and alpha- and beta-catenin but lacked plakoglobin, the component of fully differentiated adherens junctions. Furthermore, these vessels did not contain the transmembrane tight junctional molecules occludin and claudin-1 and -2. This profile reflects the phenotype of terminal capillaries but differs from large vessels of the full-term placenta. Electron microscopic studies revealed that endothelial tight junctions are present in the first-trimester placenta. Thus, occludin and claudin-1 appear to play no part in the formation of endothelial tight junctions, but are a later requirement. In the early placenta, the predominant growth factor appears to be vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), whilst at term, angiopoietin-1 was present in large vessels, with intense angiopoietin-2 immunofluorescence (and VEGF) located in terminal villous capillaries. Thus, endothelial junctions in the human placenta possess two distinct molecular phenotypes, i.e. stable or dynamic, dependent on maturity and plasticity. These distinct phenotypes may be influenced by the angiopoietins/VEGF present in the placenta. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Uterine Artery Embolization in Pregnancy Termination with Placenta Previa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Renguang, E-mail: mediprg@bjmu.edu.cn; Wang, Guoxiang; Wang, Heping; Huang, Xinyu; Yan, Xiaoxing; Yang, Xiaohua [Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Department of Interventional Therapy (China)

    2017-03-15

    PurposeTo appraise the efficacy and safety of prophylactic uterine artery embolization in pregnancy termination with placenta previa.MethodsA cohort of 54 consecutive patients with placenta previa underwent prophylactic uterine artery embolization before vaginal delivery from February 2012 to March 2015. Vaginal delivery was attempted in all patients. Cesarean section or hysterectomy was introduced when vaginal delivery failed.ResultsVaginal delivery succeeded in 50 patients (93.6%) and failed in 4 patients (6.4%), thereupon converted to cesarean delivery. No patients resorted to hysterectomy. Six patients (11.1%) underwent blood transfusion. None of clinical characteristics, including maternal age, gestational age, history of abortion, history of cesarean delivery, and volume of vaginal bleeding, was significantly associated with complete placenta previa (P > 0.05). However, patients with complete placenta previa had a significantly lower successful rate of vaginal delivery than did patients without complete placenta previa (81 vs 100%, P = 0.038). The rate of complications was 3.7%. No major complications were observed.ConclusionUterine artery embolization is an effective and safe technique to assist pregnancy termination with placenta previa, which may lower the risk of cesarean section, hysterectomy, and blood transfusion.

  9. Syncytiotrophoblast Extracellular Vesicles from Pre-Eclampsia Placentas Differentially Affect Platelet Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionne S Tannetta

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia (PE complicates around 3% of all pregnancies and is one of the most common causes of maternal mortality worldwide. The pathophysiology of PE remains unclear however its underlying cause originates from the placenta and manifests as raised blood pressure, proteinuria, vascular or systemic inflammation and hypercoagulation in the mother. Women who develop PE are also at significantly higher risk of subsequently developing cardiovascular (CV disease. In PE, the failing endoplasmic reticulum, oxidative and inflammatory stressed syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta sheds increased numbers of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV into the maternal circulation. Platelet reactivity, size and concentration are also known to be altered in some women who develop PE, although the underlying reasons for this have not been determined. In this study we show that STBEV from disease free placenta isolated ex vivo by dual placental perfusion associate rapidly with platelets. We provide evidence that STBEV isolated from normal placentas cause platelet activation and that this is increased with STBEV from PE pregnancies. Furthermore, treatment of platelets with aspirin, currently prescribed for women at high risk of PE to reduce platelet aggregation, also inhibits STBEV-induced reversible aggregation of washed platelets. Increased platelet reactivity as a result of exposure to PE placenta derived STBEVs correlates with increased thrombotic risk associated with PE. These observations establish a possible direct link between the clotting disturbances of PE and dysfunction of the placenta, as well as the known increased risk of thromboembolism associated with this condition.

  10. Syncytiotrophoblast Extracellular Vesicles from Pre-Eclampsia Placentas Differentially Affect Platelet Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannetta, Dionne S; Hunt, Kathryn; Jones, Chris I; Davidson, Naomi; Coxon, Carmen H; Ferguson, David; Redman, Christopher W; Gibbins, Jonathan M; Sargent, Ian L; Tucker, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) complicates around 3% of all pregnancies and is one of the most common causes of maternal mortality worldwide. The pathophysiology of PE remains unclear however its underlying cause originates from the placenta and manifests as raised blood pressure, proteinuria, vascular or systemic inflammation and hypercoagulation in the mother. Women who develop PE are also at significantly higher risk of subsequently developing cardiovascular (CV) disease. In PE, the failing endoplasmic reticulum, oxidative and inflammatory stressed syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta sheds increased numbers of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV) into the maternal circulation. Platelet reactivity, size and concentration are also known to be altered in some women who develop PE, although the underlying reasons for this have not been determined. In this study we show that STBEV from disease free placenta isolated ex vivo by dual placental perfusion associate rapidly with platelets. We provide evidence that STBEV isolated from normal placentas cause platelet activation and that this is increased with STBEV from PE pregnancies. Furthermore, treatment of platelets with aspirin, currently prescribed for women at high risk of PE to reduce platelet aggregation, also inhibits STBEV-induced reversible aggregation of washed platelets. Increased platelet reactivity as a result of exposure to PE placenta derived STBEVs correlates with increased thrombotic risk associated with PE. These observations establish a possible direct link between the clotting disturbances of PE and dysfunction of the placenta, as well as the known increased risk of thromboembolism associated with this condition.

  11. OBSERVAÇÃO SOBRE O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PLACENTA EM ALGUNS ROEDORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sincai

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A placenta do cobaio, rato, camundongo e ratão do banhado (Myocastor coypus foram estudadas e revelaram aspectos interessantes. A placenta nestas espécies é do tipo discoidal no início da gestação e após a união entre a mucosa uterina com as vilosidades coriônicas passa a ser do tipo hemocorial. O exame microscópico da placenta da cobaia e do ratão do banhado era do tipo multilobular, enquanto que a placenta do rato e do camundongo parece a metade de um lóbulo da placenta de cobaia e do ratão do banhado. Esta observação poderia ser uma prova para a evolução filogenética dos roedores. O exame microscópico da placenta dos roedores revelou passagem de linfócitos através dos trofoblastos embrionários para o feto, o qual precisa de imunidade placentária.

  12. Expression and protein localisation of IGF2 in the marsupial placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Geoff

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eutherian mammals, genomic imprinting is critical for normal placentation and embryo survival. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2 is imprinted in the placenta of both eutherians and marsupials, but its function, or that of any imprinted gene, has not been investigated in any marsupial. This study examines the role of IGF2 in the yolk sac placenta of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Results IGF2 mRNA and protein were produced in the marsupial placenta. Both IGF2 receptors were present in the placenta, and presumably mediate IGF2 mitogenic actions. IGF2 mRNA levels were highest in the vascular region of the yolk sac placenta. IGF2 increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression in placental explant cultures, suggesting that IGF2 promotes vascularisation of the yolk sac. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of a physiological role for any imprinted gene in marsupial placentation. The conserved imprinting of IGF2 in this marsupial and in all eutherian species so far investigated, but not in monotremes, suggests that imprinting of this gene may have originated in the placenta of the therian ancestor.

  13. Prototype and Chimera-Type Galectins in Placentas with Spontaneous and Recurrent Miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Unverdorben

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Galectins are galactose binding proteins and, in addition, factors for a wide range of pathologies in pregnancy. We have analyzed the expression of prototype (gal-1, -2, -7, -10 and chimera-type (gal-3 galectins in the placenta in cases of spontaneous abortions (SPA and recurrent abortions (RA in the first trimester. Fifteen placental samples from healthy pregnancies were used as a control group. Nine placentas were examined for spontaneous abortions, and 12 placentas for recurrent abortions. For differentiation and evaluation of different cell types of galectin-expression in the decidua, immunofluorescence was used. For all investigated prototype galectins (gal-1, -2, -7, -10 in SPA and RA placenta trophoblast cells the expression is significantly decreased. In the decidua/extravillous trophoblast only gal-2 expression was significantly lowered, which could be connected to its role in angiogenesis. In trophoblasts in first-trimester placentas and in cases of SPA and RA, prototype galectins are altered in the same way. We suspect prototype galectins have a similar function in placental tissue because of their common biochemical structure. Expression of galectin 3 as a chimera type galectin was not found to be significantly altered in abortive placentas.

  14. Mathematical modeling of folate-related processes in human placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotsenko V. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Description the folate-related processes in the human placenta using the stoichiometric model and investigation the system’s behavior under various conditions. Methods. The model is based on the stoichiometry of the reactions of the folate-related processes at steady state conditions and constructed using CellNetAnalyzer. Behavior of the system is described by elementary flux modes and control-effective fluxes depending on the activity of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase and input methionine flux. Results. Change in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase activity causes a decrease in fluxes through the main routes of homocysteine elimination and increases the need for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Methionine synthase inactivation reduces 5-methyltetrahydrofolate consumption and increases the flux through the taurine syn-thesis. Lack of methionine leads to increased 5-methyltetrahydrofolate consumption, reduced homocysteine concentration and reduces the fluxes through the methionine cycle. Conclusions. Analysis of model functioning has shown the compliance of system’s functioning changes with the clinic parameters. There is evidence that the homocysteine level as a marker of folate-related processes functioning of is not sufficient to justify the therapy.

  15. Poor agreement between operators on grading of the placenta.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, M

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal placental grading is associated with poor pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to measure intra- and interobserver variability in placental grading. Five expert sonographers independently graded 90 images on two occasions, each viewing separated by 1 week. A number of measures were employed to standardise assessment and minimise potential for variation: prior agreement was established between observers on the classifications for placental grading; a controlled viewing laboratory was used for all viewings; ambient lighting was optimal and monitors were calibrated to the GSDF standard. Kappa (κ) analysis was used to measure observer agreement. Substantial variations between individuals\\' scores were observed. A mean κ-value of 0.34 (range from 0.19 to 0.50) indicated fair interobserver agreement over the two occasions and only nine of the 90 images were graded the same by all five observers. Intraobserver agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.52, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.45 to 0.66. This study demonstrates that, despite standardised viewing conditions, Grannum grading of the placenta is not a reliable technique even among expert observers. The need for new methods to assess placental health is required and work is ongoing to develop 2D and 3D software-based methods.

  16. Placenta-derived extracellular vesicles: their cargo and possible functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familari, Mary; Cronqvist, Tina; Masoumi, Zahra; Hansson, Stefan R

    2017-03-01

    The literature on extracellular vesicles consists of rapidly expanding and often contradictory information. In this paper we attempt to review what is currently known regarding extracellular vesicles released specifically from human placental syncytiotrophoblast cells with a focus on the common but complex pregnancy-associated syndrome pre-eclampsia, where the level of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicle release is significantly increased. We review common methods for syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicle derivation and isolation and we discuss the cargo of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles including proteins, RNA and lipids and their possible functions. A meta-analysis of available trophoblast-derived extracellular vesicle proteomic datasets revealed only three proteins in common: albumin, fibronectin-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, suggesting some variability in vesicle cargo, most likely reflecting stage and cell type of origin. We discuss the possible sources of variability that may have led to the low number of common markers, which has led us to speculate that markers and density in common use may not be strict criteria for identifying and isolating placenta-derived exosomes.

  17. [Immunofluorescence study of the extracellular matrix of the human placenta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukosuev, V S; Fokin, E I; Milovanov, A P

    1989-01-01

    Distribution of collagen types I, III, IV, V and fibronectin in human placental villi has been studied by indirect immunofluorescence. During 9-12 weeks of pregnancy the extracellular matrix of villi represents a network of filaments organized in bundles and aggregates that contain collagen types I and III and finer filaments of collagen types IV and V. Collagen type IV is regularly detected in basal membrane of capillaries and particularly in villous epithelium, collagen type V and fibronectin are occasionally detected there. Marked immunofluorescent reaction on collagen types IV and V and fibronectin, and weak reaction on collagen type III is observed in cellular islets around cytotrophoblasts. In the fetus born in term placental villi have uniform immunofluorescence in thick basal membranes of fetal capillaries and of chorionic epithelium. The immunofluorescent reaction specific for all collagen types is uniform in villous stroma. Distribution of different collagen types and fibronectin, including the unusual localization of membrane collagen type IV, in villous stroma and cellular islets of early and mature placenta is discussed.

  18. Thrombophilia prevalence among women with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gils, Charlotte; Nybo, Mads

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of thrombophilia in patients with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPC). Patients referred for thrombophilia testing at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, owing to PMPC between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014, were included in the present retrospective study. Data collected from patient medical records included the type of PMPC, history of previous thrombosis, and arterial thrombosis risk factors. A total of 103 patients were included in the study; 25 (24.3%) were diagnosed with thrombophilia. Among the study population, factor V Leiden was the most dominant thrombophilia and was diagnosed in 11 (10.7%) patients (compared with 7% prevalence in the general population). The prevalence of all thrombophilias (except prothrombin mutation) was significantly higher in patients with PMPC in comparison with the reported prevalence in the general population. The incidence of thrombophilia was higher in patients with PMPC than in the general population. A positive thrombophilia diagnosis in a patient with PMPC can have significant clinical consequences for future pregnancies. It can also instigate thrombophilia testing among a patient's family members if necessary. Owing to these advantages, continued thrombophilia testing in these patients seems appropriate. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Human endogenous retrovirus-FRD envelope protein (syncytin 2 expression in normal and trisomy 21-affected placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handschuh Karen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human trophoblast expresses two fusogenic retroviral envelope proteins, the widely studied syncytin 1, encoded by HERV-W and the recently characterized syncytin 2 encoded by HERV-FRD. Here we studied syncytin 2 in normal and Trisomy 21-affected placenta associated with abnormal trophoblast differentiation. Syncytin 2 immunolocalization was restricted throughout normal pregnancy to some villous cytotrophoblastic cells (CT. During the second trimester of pregnancy, syncytin 2 was immunolocalized in some cuboidal CT in T21 placentas, whereas in normal placentas it was observed in flat CT, extending into their cytoplasmic processes. In vitro, CT isolated from normal placenta fuse and differentiate into syncytiotrophoblast. At the same time, syncytin 2 transcript levels decreased significantly with syncytiotrophoblast formation. In contrast, CT isolated from T21-affected placentas fused and differentiated poorly and no variation in syncytin 2 transcript levels was observed. Syncytin 2 expression illustrates the abnormal trophoblast differentiation observed in placenta of fetal T21-affected pregnancies.

  20. The bovine placenta as a source and target of steroid hormones : aspects on the role of androgens and sulfonated steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri, Pershotam

    2011-01-01

    As a temporary endocrine organ, the placenta is capable of synthesizing and secreting a broad range of hormones and other bioactive molecules. Like in many other mammalian species, also in cattle the placenta exhibits a considerable steroidogenic activity with estrone sulfate (E1S) and progesterone being the main products from a quantitative point of view. However, the biological role of placental steroidogenesis in cattle is widely unclear as the placenta contributes only negligibly and temp...

  1. Measurement of elasticity of normal placenta using the Virtual Touch quantification technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Size Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of normal placentas using the Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ technique. Methods: This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Fifty randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their second trimester and 50 randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their third trimester with a single fetus were included, and their placentas underwent VTQ through shear wave velocity (SWV measurements. The measurements were performed at different locations to sample different areas of the placenta. Measurements were performed 3-4 times in each location, the mean shear wave velocities were calculated without the highest and lowest values of measurements in each region, and the results were compared. Results: The SWV of the placenta was 0.983±0.260 m/sec, and the minimal and maximal speed was 0.63 m/sec and 1.84 m/sec, respectively. There was no significant difference between the second and third trimester of VTQ of the placenta in terms of SWV (0.978±0.255 m/sec vs. 0.987±0.266 m/sec, P=0.711. The maternal age between second and third trimester was 27.9±4.3 years and 29.2±4.4 years, respectively; there was no significant difference between them (P=0.159. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the SWV of normal placenta tissue is 0.983±0.260 m/sec, it has little variation between the second and third trimesters, and the VTQ technique may potentially play an additional role in placenta evaluation.

  2. Measurement of elasticity of normal placenta using the Virtual Touch quantification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Size; Nan, Ruixia; Cui, Xiao Jing; Liang, Xian; Zhao, Yanan [Dept. of Ultrasound, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China); Li, Yueping [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of normal placentas using the Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ) technique. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Fifty randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their second trimester and 50 randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their third trimester with a single fetus were included, and their placentas underwent VTQ through shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements. The measurements were performed at different locations to sample different areas of the placenta. Measurements were performed 3-4 times in each location, the mean shear wave velocities were calculated without the highest and lowest values of measurements in each region, and the results were compared. The SWV of the placenta was 0.983±0.260 m/sec, and the minimal and maximal speed was 0.63 m/sec and 1.84 m/sec, respectively. There was no significant difference between the second and third trimester of VTQ of the placenta in terms of SWV (0.978±0.255 m/sec vs. 0.987±0.266 m/sec, P=0.711). The maternal age between second and third trimester was 27.9±4.3 years and 29.2±4.4 years, respectively; there was no significant difference between them (P=0.159). The results of this study show that the SWV of normal placenta tissue is 0.983±0.260 m/sec, it has little variation between the second and third trimesters, and the VTQ technique may potentially play an additional role in placenta evaluation.

  3. A 5-year review of pattern of placenta previa in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokanye, L O; Olatinwo, A W O; Salaudeen, A G; Ajiboye, A D; Durowade, K A

    2017-01-01

    Placenta previa, a major cause of obstetric hemorrhage, is potentially life-threatening to the mother and frequently results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. This is a retrospective study of all cases of placenta previa managed at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 5-year from January 2011 to December 2015. A pro forma template was used to harvest information from case notes of patients involved in the study. There were a total of 10,250 deliveries over the 5-year study and 164 cases of placenta previa were managed during this period; giving an incidence of 1.6% of the total deliveries. Of these patients, 65.9% were unbooked while 34.1% were booked. 110 (67%) were above 30 years of age and 51.2% were grand multiparous women. The majority (81.7%) of the patients belonged to the low socioeconomic class. Painless vaginal bleeding (62.2%), intrapartum hemorrhage (22.6%), and abnormal lie presentation (8.5%) were the most common mode of presentation. Vaginal delivery occurred in (29.3%) of patients while 70. 7% were delivered through cesarean section. There was a significant association between patients' age, parity, booking status, and types of placenta previa ( P < 0.05). Similarly, there was a significant association between gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, intraoperative blood loss, and birth weight at delivery and types of placenta previa ( P < 0.05). Perinatal mortality was 12.2%, 15.6% of babies had severe birth asphyxia, and there was no maternal mortality. From this study, the risk factors for placenta previa are advanced maternal age above 35 years, grand multiparity, and booking status. Early recognition, appropriate referral of these patients and availability of ultrasound facilities, blood transfusion facilities, improvement in neonatal facilities and trained personnel will go a long way in reducing the perinatal mortality from placenta previa.

  4. Differences in gene expression between first and third trimester human placenta: a microarray study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Sitras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human placenta is a rapidly developing organ that undergoes structural and functional changes throughout the pregnancy. Our objectives were to investigate the differences in global gene expression profile, the expression of imprinted genes and the effect of smoking in first and third trimester normal human placentas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Placental samples were collected from 21 women with uncomplicated pregnancies delivered at term and 16 healthy women undergoing termination of pregnancy at 9-12 weeks gestation. Placental gene expression profile was evaluated by Human Genome Survey Microarray v.2.0 (Applied Biosystems and real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Almost 25% of the genes spotted on the array (n = 7519 were differentially expressed between first and third trimester placentas. Genes regulating biological processes involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation and angiogenesis were up-regulated in the first trimester; whereas cell surface receptor mediated signal transduction, G-protein mediated signalling, ion transport, neuronal activities and chemosensory perception were up-regulated in the third trimester. Pathway analysis showed that brain and placenta might share common developmental routes. Principal component analysis based on the expression of 17 imprinted genes showed a clear separation of first and third trimester placentas, indicating that epigenetic modifications occur throughout pregnancy. In smokers, a set of genes encoding oxidoreductases were differentially expressed in both trimesters. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in global gene expression profile between first and third trimester human placenta reflect temporal changes in placental structure and function. Epigenetic rearrangements in the human placenta seem to occur across gestation, indicating the importance of environmental influence in the developing feto-placental unit.

  5. Evaluation of glycosaminoglycans and heparanase in placentas of women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famá, Eduardo Augusto Brosco; Souza, Renan Salvioni; Melo, Carina Mucciolo; Melo Pompei, Luciano; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder whose etiology remains unclear. It is already known that circulation of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) is directly involved in pre-eclampsia development. However, the molecular mechanisms involved with sFlt-1 shedding are still unidentified. We identified, quantified glycosaminoglycans and determined the enzymatic activity of heparanase in placentas of women with preeclampsia, in order to possibly explain if these compounds could be related to cellular processes involved with preeclampsia. A total of 45 samples collected from placentas, 15 samples from placentas of preeclampsia women and 30 samples from non-affected women. Heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate were identified and quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis, whilst hyaluronic acid was quantified by an ELISA like assay. Heparanase activity was determined using biotynilated heparan sulfate as substrate. The results showed that dermatan sulfate (P=0.019), heparan sulfate levels (P=0.015) and heparanase activity (P=0.006) in preeclampsia were significantly higher than in the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups for hyaluronic acid expression in placentas (P=0.110). The present study is the first to demonstrate directly the increase of heparan sulfate in human placentas from patients with preeclampsia, suggesting that endogenous heparan sulfate could be involved in the release of sFlt-1 from placenta, increasing the level of circulating sFlt-1. Alterations of extracellular matrix components in placentas with preeclampsia raise the possibility that heparan sulfate released by heparanase is involved in mechanisms of preeclampsia development. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Human placenta-derived adherent cells induce tolerogenic immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Morschauser, Andrew; Zhang, Xin; Lu, Xiaohua; Gleason, Joseph; He, Shuyang; Chen, Hong-Jung; Jankovic, Vladimir; Ye, Qian; Labazzo, Kristen; Herzberg, Uri; Albert, Vivian R; Abbot, Stewart E; Liang, Bitao; Hariri, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Human placenta-derived adherent cells (PDAC cells) are a culture expanded, undifferentiated mesenchymal-like population derived from full-term placental tissue, with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. PDA-001 (cenplacel-L), an intravenous formulation of PDAC cells, is in clinical development for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the immunoregulatory properties of PDAC cells, we investigated their effects on immune cell populations, including T cells and dendritic cells (DC) in vitro and in vivo. PDAC cells suppressed T-cell proliferation in an OT-II T-cell adoptive transfer model, reduced the severity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ameliorated inflammation in a delayed type hypersensitivity response model. In vitro, PDAC cells suppressed T-cell proliferation and inhibited Th1 and Th17 differentiation. Analysis of tissues derived from PDAC cell-treated animals revealed diminished CD86 expression on splenic DC, suggesting that they can also modulate DC populations. Furthermore, PDAC cells modulate the differentiation and maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived DC. Similarly, human DC differentiated from CD14+ monocytes in the presence of PDAC cells acquired a tolerogenic phenotype. These tolerogenic DC failed to induce allogeneic T-cell proliferation and differentiation toward Th1, but skewed T-cell differentiation toward Th2. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity resulted in a significant, but not complete, abrogation of PDAC cells' effects on DC phenotype and function, implying a role for prostaglandin E2 in PDAC-mediated immunomodulation. This study identifies modulation of DC differentiation toward immune tolerance as a key mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory activities of PDAC cells. PMID:25505962

  7. Placenta Increta after First-Trimester Dilatation and Curettage Manifesting as an Unusual Uterine Mass: Magnetic Resonance Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, W.; Kim, S.C. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Medical Research Inst., School of Medicine, Ewha Womens Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2007-10-15

    Placenta increta during the first trimester of pregnancy is extremely rare. Only a few cases of placenta accreta during the latter half of pregnancy manifesting as a uterine mass have been published. This report describes a case of placenta increta that caused prolonged bleeding after a first-trimester abortion, and was identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a heterogeneous mass in the myometrium. This is the first report of a placenta increta detected as a uterine mass after first-trimester dilatation and curettage, and its MRI findings.

  8. Recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor 121 decreases vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in murine pre-eclampsia model placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sulistyowati

    2016-11-01

    Mean VCAM-1 expression in normal (0.97 ± 0.54% murine placentas, compared with placentas (2.94 ± 0.96% of murine preeclampsia models (p=0.000, while mean VCAM-1 expression in placentas of murine preeclampsia models with VEGF intervention was 2.14 ± 0.68% (p=0.030. Conclusion Recombinant VEGF-121 can reduce VCAM-1 expression in placentas of murine preeclampsia models. The present study has shown the potential benefits of VEGF therapy, justifying serious consideration of this therapeutic approach for use in women with preeclampsia.

  9. The Improvement Two Cases Coughing and Sputum sign Sequela of Pneumonia by Homins Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun-Gon; Park, Young-Yeob; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Han-Bae; Jang, Sung-Ik; Kim, Sung-Kyun; Shim, Yun-Sueb; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2003-01-01

    Coughing and sputum are symptoms of sequela of Pneumonia. Oriental medicine call it Hae su. Hae su is common sign of lung disease. Hominis Placenta is the dried placenta of a healthy women. The nature of Hominis Placenta is warm and its taste sweet-salty. It has correspondence to the meridians of lung and kindey. Hominis Placenta acupuncture therapy has effect on invigoration of vital energy nourishing blood and tonifying the essence. It can be applied to the disease as Asthma, pulmonary t...

  10. [Pathomorphological features of placentas with the single umbilical artery and a study of follow-ups of these babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozhin, D V; Milovanov, A P

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of pathomorphological and morphometrical changes in placenta with the single umbilical artery (SUA). The histological data on 52 placentas with SUA (group 1) were analyzed. A control group included 30 placentas from females with an uncomplicated obstetrical history. The significance of group differences was determined Student's test. In the placentas with SUA, their pathohistology shows a significantly marked isolated placental form of chronic placental insufficiency. In SUA, chorionic villous maturation and differentiation are impaired. Chorionic villous immaturity hampers the development of adequate compensatory adaptive changes that appear as compensatory angiomatosis of terminal villi and more pronounced cytotrophoblastic microcystic changes.

  11. Aspectos morfológicos da placenta da preguiça, Bradypus variegatus Shinz, 1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleyne José Afonso Accyoli Lins Amorin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os aspectos morfológicos da placenta e das membranas fetais de 03 placentas de bichos-preguiça (Bradypus variegatus, adultas e prenhes, originárias da Zona da Mata do Estado de Pernambuco. Essas estruturas foram obtidas de 03 fêmeas doadas pela Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, das quais duas encontravam-se congeladas e a terceira foi colhida mediante realização de cirurgia cesariana, onde mãe e feto foram preservados. Depois de descongeladas, as placentas foram fixadas em solução aquosa de formol 10,00%. Da placenta obtida da cesariana colheram-se pequenos fragmentos da região placentária e do funículo umbilical, os quais foram fixados em paraformoldeido 4,00%, tampão fosfato pH 7,4. Os fragmentos passaram pela rotina histológica, onde foram coradas em Hematoxilina e Eosina e Tricrômio de Masson. A placenta da preguiça é corioamniótica, com o cório viloso constituindo os lobos placentários, que se localizam na região fúndica do útero, e o cório liso relacionando-se com a face interna do útero. Nas placentas de final de prenhez os lobos aglomeram-se e fundem-se aumentando de tamanho, formando uma massa principal discóide, caracterizando uma placenta zonária discoidal, que se une ao feto pelo funículo umbilical, constituído por duas artérias e uma veia umbilical. Os resultados histológicos demonstraram que a placenta desses animais é labiríntica e endoteliocorial. Assim, a placenta da preguiça pode ser classificada como labiríntica, endoteliocorial, múltipla, discóide (a termo e corioamniótica.

  12. Learning brain aneurysm microsurgical skills in a human placenta model: predictive validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Magaldi Ribeiro; Ferrarez, Carlos Eduardo; Ramos, Taise Mosso; Malheiros, Jose Augusto; Nicolato, Arthur; Machado, Carla Jorge; Ferreira, Mauro Tostes; de Oliveira, Fellype Borges; de Sousa, Cecília Félix Penido Mendes; Costa, Pollyana Helena Vieira; Gusmao, Sebastiao; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Maestro, Rolando Del

    2017-03-24

    OBJECTIVE Surgery for brain aneurysms is technically demanding. In recent years, the process to learn the technical skills necessary for these challenging procedures has been affected by a decrease in the number of surgical cases available and progressive restrictions on resident training hours. To overcome these limitations, surgical simulators such as cadaver heads and human placenta models have been developed. However, the effectiveness of these models in improving technical skills is unknown. This study assessed concurrent and predictive validity of brain aneurysm surgery simulation in a human placenta model compared with a "live" human brain cadaveric model. METHODS Two human cadaver heads and 30 human placentas were used. Twelve neurosurgeons participated in the concurrent validity part of this study, each operating on 1 human cadaver head aneurysm model and 1 human placenta model. Simulators were evaluated regarding their ability to simulate different surgical steps encountered during real surgery. The time to complete the entire aneurysm task in each simulator was analyzed. The predictive validity component of the study involved 9 neurosurgical residents divided into 3 groups to perform simulation exercises, each lasting 6 weeks. The training for the 3 groups consisted of educational video only (3 residents), human cadaver only (3 residents), and human placenta only (3 residents). All residents had equivalent microsurgical experience with superficial brain tumor surgery. After completing their practice training, residents in each of the 3 simulation groups performed surgery for an unruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm, and their performance was assessed by an experienced vascular neurosurgeon who watched the operative videos. RESULTS All human cadaver heads and human placentas were suitable to simulate brain aneurysm surgery. In the concurrent validity portion of the experiment, the placenta model required a longer time (p model was considered

  13. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of human placentae at term and preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Alison G; Brockway, Heather M; Price, Nathan D; Muglia, Louis J

    2018-01-01

    Preterm birth affects 1 out of every 10 infants in the United States, resulting in substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are few predictive markers and few treatment options to prevent preterm birth. A healthy, functioning placenta is essential to positive pregnancy outcomes. Previous studies have suggested that placental pathology may play a role in preterm birth etiology. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that preterm placentae may exhibit unique transcriptomic signatures compared to term samples reflective of their abnormal biology leading to this adverse outcome. We aggregated publicly available placental villous microarray data to generate a preterm and term sample dataset (n = 133, 55 preterm placentae and 78 normal term placentae). We identified differentially expressed genes using the linear regression for microarray (LIMMA) package and identified perturbations in known biological networks using Differential Rank Conservation (DIRAC). We identified 129 significantly differentially expressed genes between term and preterm placenta with 96 genes upregulated and 33 genes downregulated (P-value preterm birth pathology. These analyses provide a community resource to integrate with other high-dimensional datasets for additional insights in normal placental development and its disruption. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction.

  14. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of human placentae at term and preterm delivery†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Alison G; Brockway, Heather M; Price, Nathan D

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Preterm birth affects 1 out of every 10 infants in the United States, resulting in substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are few predictive markers and few treatment options to prevent preterm birth. A healthy, functioning placenta is essential to positive pregnancy outcomes. Previous studies have suggested that placental pathology may play a role in preterm birth etiology. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that preterm placentae may exhibit unique transcriptomic signatures compared to term samples reflective of their abnormal biology leading to this adverse outcome. We aggregated publicly available placental villous microarray data to generate a preterm and term sample dataset (n = 133, 55 preterm placentae and 78 normal term placentae). We identified differentially expressed genes using the linear regression for microarray (LIMMA) package and identified perturbations in known biological networks using Differential Rank Conservation (DIRAC). We identified 129 significantly differentially expressed genes between term and preterm placenta with 96 genes upregulated and 33 genes downregulated (P-value preterm birth pathology. These analyses provide a community resource to integrate with other high-dimensional datasets for additional insights in normal placental development and its disruption. PMID:29228154

  15. XIAP protein is induced by placenta growth factor (PLGF) and decreased during preeclampsia in trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Juan; Price, Mathew; Straszewski-Chavez, Shawn; Torry, Ronald J; Mor, Gil; Torry, Donald S

    2014-10-01

    Increased trophoblast apoptosis has been implicated in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia (EC). We investigated placenta growth factor (PLGF) signaling during trophoblast apoptosis in culture and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and apoptosis inducible factor (AIF) in the preeclamptic placenta at term was determined. Primary trophoblasts were isolated and serum starved to induce apoptosis. Placenta growth factor was added and apoptosis markers were determined. Term preeclamptic placentae were homogenized and the levels of XIAP and XAF1 protein were assessed. In the absence of serum, primary cultures of term trophoblast showed a 5-fold increase in apoptosis as determined by annexin V binding. The increase in apoptosis induced by serum deprivation was caspase-independent and could be significantly reduced (p apoptosis in culture by increasing XIAP production and deceasing AIF. Also, our data suggests that decreased activation of XIAP and increased XAF1 could be factors associated with the increased placental apoptosis observed in the preeclamptic placenta at term.

  16. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk and placenta in Tohoku, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, K.; Suzuki, K.; Oka, T.; Sugawara, N.; Ohba, T.; Kameo, S.; Satoh, H. [Environmental Heath Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Saitoh, Y. [Miyagi Prefectural Inst. of Piblic Health and Environment (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Recently, we have started a birth cohort study to examine the effects of exposure to persistent organochemical pollutants and heavy metals on neurodevelopment in Japanese children, The Tohoku Study of Child Development. In this cohort study, biological samples, including maternal peripheral blood, cord blood, placenta, cord tissue, and breast milk have been collected from more than six hundred mother-infant pairs for chemical determinations. The growth of infants has been monitored using neurodevelopmental tests, including the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development, and others. Exposures to dioxin and related compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and several heavy metals were assessed. Additionally, since perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides may affect the neurodevelopment of children, we examined the effects of those pesticides in the cohort study. In the present study, several organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in human breast milk and placenta from 20 mothers to identify the major pesticide compounds found in the cohort subjects. The relationship between pesticides in breast milk and the placenta was analyzed to examine the utilization of the placenta as the material for exposure assessment. Some information regarding the factors affecting the contamination of breast milk and the placenta with organochlorine pesticides are also discussed.

  17. Iron overload in Plasmodium-infected placenta as a pathogenesis mechanism of fetal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos ePenha-Gonçalves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium infection during gestation may lead to severe clinical manifestations including abortion, stillbirth, intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight. Mechanisms underlying such poor pregnancy outcomes are still unclear. In the animal model of severe placental malaria (PM, in utero fetal death frequently occurs and mothers often succumb to infection before or immediately after delivery. P.berghei infected erythrocytes (IEs continuously accumulate in the placenta, where they are then phagocytosed by fetal-derived placental cells, namely trophoblasts. Inside the phagosomes, disruption of IEs leads to the release of non-hemoglobin bound heme, which is subsequently catabolized by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 into carbon monoxide, biliverdin and labile iron. Fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms operate to maintain iron homeostasis, preventing the deleterious effect of iron-induced oxidative stress. Our preliminary results demonstrate that iron overload in trophoblasts of P. berghei-infected placenta is associated with fetal death. Placentas which supported normally developing embryos showed no iron accumulation within the trophoblasts. Placentas from dead fetuses showed massive iron accumulation, which was associated with parasitic burden. Here we present preliminary data suggesting that disruption of iron homeostasis in trophoblasts during the course of placental malaria is a consequence of heme accumulation after intense IE engulfment. We propose that iron overload in placenta is a pathogenic component of PM, contributing to fetal death. The mechanism through which it operates still needs to be elucidated.

  18. Proteomic Profile of Mabuya sp. (Squamata: Scincidae) Ovary and Placenta During Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Nathaly; Torres, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2017-06-01

    Reptiles are one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, providing an integrated system for comparative studies on metabolic, animal physiology, and developmental biology. However, the molecular data available are limited and only recently have started to call attention in the "omics" sciences. Mabuya sp. is a viviparous placentrotrophic skink with particular reproductive features, including microlecithal eggs, early luteolysis, prolonged gestation, and development of a highly specialized placenta. This placenta is responsible for respiratory exchange and the transference of all nutrients necessary for embryonic development. Our aim was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the ovary and placenta of Mabuya sp. during early, mid, and late gestation; their possible metabolic pathways; and biological processes. We carried out a comparative proteomic analysis during gestation in both tissues by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. Differential protein expression in both tissues (Student's t-test P < 0.05) was related to several processes such as cell structure, cell movement, and energy. Proteins found in ovary are mainly associated with follicular development and its regulation. In the placenta, particularly during mid and late gestation, protein expression is involved in nutrient metabolism, transport, protein synthesis, and embryonic development. This work provides new insights about the proteins expressed and their physiological mechanisms in Mabuya sp. placenta and ovary during gestation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparative Proteomic Profile of the Human Placenta in Normal and Fetal Growth Restriction Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Miao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR is the main cause of intrauterine fetal death and the second leading cause of death in the neonatal period. A large body of evidence suggests that FGR may be associated with the placenta, although its etiology and pathogenesis remain to be fully elucidated. Methods and Results: To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathological development of the placenta in FGR, we used tandem mass tags (TMTs to construct a large-scale comparative proteomic profile of human placentas from normal and FGR pregnancies. A total of 1,198 kinds of proteins were identified in the control and FGR placentas, of which 95 were differentially expressed between two groups. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA was used to organize these differentially expressed proteins into networks of interacting proteins and to identify the modules of functionally related proteins. Western blotting was used to verify the expression patterns of several randomly selected proteins. Conclusion: The placentas of women with FGR displayed significant proteome differences compared with normal pregnancy. The results indicate that a variety of mechanisms and proteins may contribute to the development of FGR. Further studies and validations are required to elucidate the exact roles of these proteins in FGR pathogenesis.

  20. Histological features of the placenta and their relation to the gross and data from Thoroughbred mares

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    Fernanda M. Pazinato

    Full Text Available Abstract: The placenta is a transitory organ that originates from maternal and fetal tissues, the function of which is transporting nutrients from the mother to the fetus. The aim of this study was describe the histological features of placentas in healthy Thoroughbred mares at foaling and evaluate their relation with the gross placental and data of these mares. For this study 188 Thoroughbred mares were used. It was performed clinical observation for signs of placentitis during daily health checks and ultrasonic examination monthly to assess the fetus and placenta. All of the mares that exhibited clinical signs of placentitis were treated during gestation. The parturition was assisted, the placentas were grossly evaluated and samples were collected immediately after expulsion. The following data were considered for each mare: age, gestational age, number of parturition, time for placental expulsion, umbilical-cord length, placental weight and clinical signs of placentitis. Histological evaluation of the placentas revealed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial areolar cells, presence of inflammatory infiltrates and hypoplasia-atrophy of the microcotyledons. Most of the gross placental findings were consistent with the histological results. In conclusion the mares with a vacuolated placental chorionic epithelium were older and had experienced a larger number of births. Great part of the mares with inflammatory infiltrates did not showed any clinical signs of placentitis during gestation.

  1. Breech presentation and the cornual-fundal location of the placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulić, Slobodan; Ilinčić, Marko; Radeka, Gordana; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Simić, Svetlana; Podgorac, Jelena; Keković, Goran

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association of cornual-fundal location of the placenta and breech presentation at term delivery. Methods This study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Novi Sad, in 2011. The inclusion criteria were delivery at ≥37 weeks of gestation, singleton gestation, and cornual-fundal location of the placenta determined by ultrasonography at ≥37 weeks of gestation when 3/4 or more of the placenta was in the cornual-fundal region. Results Out of 2750 ultrasound examinations performed, 143 showed cornual-fundal location of the placenta (frequency 5.2%). Eighty six cases had cephalic presentation (60.14%) and 57 (39.86%) had breech presentation. Of the remaining cases with non- cornual-fundal location, 2585 had cephalic presentation and 22 (0.84%) had breech presentation. The difference in the frequency of breech presentation between the cornual-fundal and non-cornual-fundal groups was significant (χ2 = 77.78, P < 0.001). Conclusion Cornual-fundal location of the placenta may be an important clue in resolving the etiology of a number of cases of breech presentation at term delivery. PMID:23630148

  2. A Case of Vaginal Stillbirth in the Presence of Placenta Previa at 33 Weeks of Gestation

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    Yukiko Chinen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It was demonstrated that second- and third-trimester therapeutic termination of pregnancy (TOP is feasible in cases with placenta previa. We report a 34-year-old woman with complex fetal malformations associated with placenta previa. An ultrasound examination at 21 weeks of gestation revealed fetal growth restriction (FGR and complex fetal malformations associated with a placenta previa. After extensive information, the parents opted for careful observation. Thereafter, FGR gradually progressed and we observed arrest of end-diastolic velocity of the umbilical artery. Finally, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD was confirmed at 33 weeks of gestation. Two days after IUFD, the patient experienced labor pain. The placenta and dead fetus weighing 961 g were vaginally delivered, and total bleeding was 270 mL. Although further studies to confirm the dynamic change of the uteroplacental blood flow are necessary to avoid the risk of maternal hemorrhage, vaginal TOP with placenta previa after feticide or IUFD would be feasible.

  3. Serum Non-Esterified Fatty Acids and Beta-Hydroxybutyrate in Dairy Cows with Retained Placenta

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    Turan Civelek*, Ibrahim Aydin1, C. Cagri Cingi, Oktay Yilmaz2 and Mustafa Kabu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA in postpartum retained placenta in cattle. Moreover, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, cholesterol (CHOL, triglycerides (TG, total proteins (TP, albumin (ALB, glucose (GLU and blood urea nitrogen (BUN levels were evaluated. Blood samples were obtained from multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n=38 with retained placenta between 12 to 24 hours after calving (Group 2. Clinically healthy multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n=6 calved approximately 7 days prior to the study served as control (Group 1. Concentration of TG, LDL, VLDL, ALB, BUN, CHOL and GLU did not vary between groups. Cows with retained placenta (Group 2 had higher level of BHBA (P=0.041 and NEFA (P=0.05 than control group. HDL and TP serum levels in cows with retained placenta were significantly lower than control cows. It was concluded that retained placenta could be associated with energy metabolism imbalance and postpartum negative-energy balance.

  4. Fate of the teratogenic and carcinogenic ochratoxin A in human perfused placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Chit Shing Jackson; Partanen, Heidi; Myllynen, Päivi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; El-Nezami, Hani

    2012-01-05

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most frequent mycotoxins detected in human blood worldwide. Apart from its well known nephrotoxicity, OTA-induced teratogenicity and carcinogenicity proven in animals are potential effects also in humans. Pregnant women have been exposed to this food contaminant via dietary exposure in a continuous and widespread manner. Although the transplacental transfer of OTA has been demonstrated in laboratory animals and the presence of OTA in human fetal samples has been reported, little is known about the role of human placenta in OTA toxicokinetics. In this study, human perfused placenta was used to reveal the actual placental toxicokinetics of OTA using concentrations found in serum of pregnant women. Moreover, the effect of protein concentration and biological significance of placental transporters on the OTA transfer in human placenta were also determined. Our study is the first to pursue the transfer of OTA through perfused human placenta. The transfer of OTA through term human placenta was barely detectable in all perfusions. Inhibitors of neither ABCG2 nor ABCC2 increased the transport of OTA to fetal circulation in placental perfusion, and thus these transporters apparently do not have biological significance in inhibiting transplacental transfer of OTA. Human albumin has inhibited OTA transfer through a tight monolayer of BeWo b30 cells. Finding from this study clearly contradict the existing epidemiological studies reporting higher OTA levels in fetal than in maternal circulation in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth and maturation of villi in placentae from well-controlled diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayhew, T M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G

    1994-01-01

    Placentae from controls and two groups of diabetic women (one White classes A, B, C and the other classes D, F/R) were collected at 37-42 weeks of gestation. Tissue sections were analysed using stereological methods in order to quantify the growth and maturational status of villi. Birth and place......Placentae from controls and two groups of diabetic women (one White classes A, B, C and the other classes D, F/R) were collected at 37-42 weeks of gestation. Tissue sections were analysed using stereological methods in order to quantify the growth and maturational status of villi. Birth...... with group, mode of delivery and sex of newborn as the principal effects. Mean weights were similar in controls and diabetic groups. Diabetic placentae had a more voluminous fetal capillary bed of greater length, diameter and surface area. In addition, the diffusion distances across fetal plasma (erythrocyte...... on the fetal side of the diabetic placenta. They show that changes can affect the placentae of appropriate-for-age as well as large-for-age babies and provide no evidence that they increase with the severity and duration of diabetes....

  6. Impact of maternal diabetes type 1 on proliferative potential, differentiation and apoptotic activity in villous capillaries of term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkovská, Marie; Kučera, Tomáš; Dvořáková, Veronika; Jadrníček, Martin; Moravcová, Milena; Žižka, Zdeněk; Krejčí, Vratislav

    2016-04-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus changes morphology and impairs function of placental capillaries. Here, quantitative parameters characterizing cell proliferation using detection of Ki67, differentiation reflected by nestin expression and apoptosis in placental capillary bed with active caspase 3 as a marker were compared in normal term placentas and placentas from pregnancies complicated by Type 1 maternal diabetes mellitus. Specimens of sixteen diabetic placentas and eight control placentas were collected by systematic uniform random sampling. Immunohistochemical detections of Ki67, nestin, and active caspase 3 were performed in histological sections of five haphazardly chosen blocks per placenta. Twenty fields of view per section, i.e. one hundred fields of view per placenta, were used for analysis of proliferation as well as of apoptosis, and in approximately 70 capillary cross-sections per placenta the nestin-positive segments of their circumference were measured. The percentage of Ki67-positive cells counted in the capillary wall was significantly lower in diabetic group. The counts of Ki67-labelled nuclei per villous area unit were significantly lower in cytotrophoblast and capillary wall of terminal villi in diabetic placenta. The proportion of nestin-labeled segments of capillary circumference was significantly higher in placentas of diabetic group. No differences in the numbers of apoptotic cells were found between studied groups. The results show that the term placenta in Type 1 diabetes has lower potential to enlarge the surface area of structures involved in maternofetal transport, and that the villous capillary bed displays delayed differentiation. Those factors may participate in decreased ability of diabetic placenta to comply with fetal requirements in the final stage of pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Windmill technique avoids manual removal of the retained placenta-A new solution for an old problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkson, Larry; Suermann, Mia Amelie; Hinkson, Susan; Henrich, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    The primary objective is to assess the reduction in manual removal of placenta with the Windmill technique of placenta delivery in patients with retained placenta. The Windmill technique involves the application of continuous 360° umbilical cord traction and rotation in such a manner as to be perpendicular to the direction of the birth canal at the level of the introitus. This rotation through 360° is repeated slowly with movement akin to the motion of the blades of a windmill. We performed a 3-year retrospective case-control study at the Charité University Hospital in Berlin. Patients with a retained placenta more than 30min following failed traditional interventions were consented and offered the Windmill technique of placenta delivery. Study cases were compared to controls where an operative manual removal of placenta was performed. Patients with suspected placenta implantation problems, uterine atony, bleeding due to vaginal tract injury and coagulation disturbances were excluded. Over the study period 14 patients were recruited to the study arm and 17 patients were in the control group. With the Windmill technique for retained placenta, 86% (12/14, pWindmill technique for the delivery of the retained placenta is a simple, safe, effective and easy to teach technique that reduces invasive operative manual removal of the placenta, postpartum blood loss and delay in the placenta delivery. This innovative technique can also be a lifesaving intervention especially in areas with limited or no access to operative facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Flame retardants in placenta and breast milk and cryptorchidism in newborn boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina Maria; Kiviranta, Hannu; Virtanen, Helena Eeva

    2007-01-01

    , 1997-2001, all boys were examined for cryptorchidism. We analyzed whole placentas (for 95 cryptorchid/185 healthy boys) and individual breast milk samples (62/68) for 14 PBDEs and infant serum samples for gonadotropins, sex-hormone binding globulin, testosterone, and inhibin B. RESULTS: In 86 placenta...... of PBDEs in breast milk was significantly higher in boys with cryptorchidism than in controls (sum of BDEs 47, 153, 99, 100, 28, 66, and 154: median, 4.16 vs. 3.16 ng/g fat; p hormone (p ...-milk pairs, placenta PBDE concentrations in fat were lower than in breast milk, and a larger number of congeners were nondetectable. There was no significant difference between boys with and without cryptorchidism for individual congeners, the sum of 5 most prevalent, or all 14 congeners. The concentration...

  9. Uterine Rupture with Massive Late Postpartum Hemorrhage due to Placenta Percreta Left Partially In Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Coskun Salman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental adhesive disorders involve the growth of placental tissue into or through the uterine wall. Among these disorders, placenta percreta is the rarest one. However, it may cause significant complications. This report aimed to report a neglected patient with placenta percreta who developed uterine rupture with life-threatening late postpartum intra-abdominal hemorrhage. On admission, the patient had acute abdomen with moderate abdominal distention and was subjected to emergency laparotomy. A full-thickness defect of the anterior uterine wall involving the hysterotomy site was seen. Placental tissues occupied both sides of the incision and posterior bladder wall was also invaded by placenta. Total abdominal hysterectomy with partial resection of the posterior bladder wall was performed.

  10. Expression and tissue localization of collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1, SRCL) in human tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellman, Lana; Skjødt, Karsten; Nielsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Collectin placenta-1 (CL-P1), also known as scavenger receptor with C-type lectin (SRCL), is a type II membrane glycoprotein that shares structural features with both collectins and type A scavenger receptors. CL-P1 was originally cloned from the placenta and found to be associated with endothelial...... proposed that CL-P1 plays a role in the host defense system and in the clearance of glycoproteins from the blood. With the aims of determining the detailed tissue expression of human CL-P1 we expressed CL-P1 recombinantly in both E. coli and CHO cells, and raised monoclonal antibodies against human CL-P1....... Three monoclonal antibodies were characterized and used in immunohistochemical analyses of a panel of cryo- and formalin-fixed sections. We find that CL-P1 mainly associates with cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts of the placenta, alveolar macrophages and to a less degree with macrophage...

  11. Functional studies of the placenta of the lizard Mabuya sp. (Scincidae) using immunocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, F B P; Ramirez-Pinilla, M P; Forhead, A S

    2010-08-01

    Most lizards lay eggs. However viviparity has evolved in the Squamata on many separate occasions by the process of extended retention of the egg coincident with gradual loss of the eggshell. This process is linked to reduction of the amount of yolk which is coupled with development of placental nutrient transfer. The family Scincidae currently show a range of multiple independent origins of viviparity and placentation along this pathway, and the genus Mabuya shows one of the most structurally complex placentas. This study investigates the transport potential of the different areas of the Mabuya placenta using immunocytochemistry to localize the systems in place for calcium, glucose and water transfer. The localization of these transporters demonstrated restricted distributions in the specialized areas of this morphologically complex placenta.

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is induced in the human placenta during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, J H W; Tissot Van Patot, M C; Burton, G J; Yung, H W

    2015-01-01

    Placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been postulated in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), but its activation remains elusive. Oxidative stress induced by ischaemia/hypoxia-reoxygenation activates ER stress in vitro. Here, we explored whether exposure to labour represents an in vivo model for the study of acute placental ER stress. ER stress markers, GRP78, P-eIF2α and XBP-1, were significantly higher in laboured placentas than in Caesarean-delivered controls localised mainly in the syncytiotrophoblast. The similarities to changes observed in PE/IUGR placentas suggest exposure to labour can be used to investigate induction of ER stress in pathological placentas. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. A case-control review of placentas from patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shivani; Pinheiro, Meaghan; Felix, Juan C; Opper, Neisha; Ouzounian, Joseph G; Lee, Richard H

    2014-08-01

    To compare the incidence of histopathological features in placentas from women with cholestasis of pregnancy to healthy individuals without ICP. Placentas from mothers with and without cholestasis of pregnancy were reviewed by a pathologist masked to the study group. Subjects were excluded if they had medical problems already associated with placental histopathology. Twenty-four cases and 30 controls placentas were reviewed. Seventeen placental histopathological features were found. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Amongst patients with cholestasis, there was a decrease in villitis of unknown etiology in those treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. There is no difference in the placental histopathology in cholestasis of pregnancy compared to normal pregnancies, but treatment of patients with cholestasis of pregnancy with ursodeoxycholic acid may decrease findings of villitis of unknown etiology.

  14. Shear wave elastography of the placenta in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Mehmet Aytac; Kilic, Fahrettin; Kayadibi, Yasemin; Alici Davutoglu, Ebru; Imamoglu, Metehan; Bakan, Selim; Mihmanli, Ismail; Kantarci, Fatih; Madazli, Riza

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate placental elasticty in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and non-diabetic controls. Thirty-three pregnant women with GDM according to the current criteria of the American Diabetes Association and 43 healthy pregnant women who were admitted to the antenatal clinic were recruited for this case-control study. Elasticity values of both the peripheral and the central parts of the placentas of the patients in both groups were determined by shear wave elastography (SWE) imaging. Mean elasticity values of both the central and the peripheral part of the placentas were significantly higher in GDM pregnancies (p  0.05). SWE imaging technology might provide a quantitative assessment of the morphological pathologies of placentas in pregnant women with GDM.

  15. La sombra de la vida: la placenta en el mundo andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available L'article suivant propose une explication sociale au traitement qui est donné au placenta, une fois l'enfant né. Comme on peut le voir plus loin, mis à part tout ce qui touche au traitement préventif ou médicinal de la femme qui accouche, ou du nouveau-né, les rituels liés au placenta ont lieu pour des raisons psychosociales qui font de celui-ci l'expression (ou 'l'ombre' des aspects liminaires ('alter ego' de la vie de l'enfant. L'équilibre biologique et social de la mère -et de la communauté- ayant été altéré par la grossesse et l'accouchement, il est nécessaire de conjurer les possibilités de désordre par la désapparition rituelle (l'enterrement, le feu du placenta. El artículo que sigue ensaya una explicación social al tratamiento de la placenta, una vez nacido el infante. Como se verá a continuación, aparte de cualquier relación con el tratamiento preventivo o medicinal de la parturienta, o del recién nacido, los rituales de la placenta toman lugar en razón de consideraciones psicosociales que sitúan a dicho tejido como expresión (o 'sombra' de los aspectos liminares ('alter ego' de la vida del niño. Habiendo sido alterado el equilibrio biológico y social de la madre -y de la comunidad- por el embarazo y el parto, es necesario conjurar las posibilidades de desorden a través de la desaparición ritual (entierro, fuego de la placenta.

  16. Genome-wide microRNA expression profiling in placentas of fetuses with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J H; Kim, D J; Lee, D E; Han, J Y; Chung, J H; Ahn, H K; Lee, S W; Lim, D H; Lee, Y S; Park, S Y; Ryu, H M

    2015-03-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common aneuploidy, caused by an extra copy of all or part of chromosome 21 (chr21). Differential microRNA (miRNA) expression is involved in many human diseases including DS. However, the genome-wide changes in miRNA expression in DS fetal placentas have yet to be determined, and the function of these changes is also unclear. We profiled genome-wide miRNA expression in placenta samples from euploid or DS fetuses by using microarray technology and predicted the functions of differentially expressed miRNAs using bioinformatics tools. Thirty-four miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in the DS placenta compared with the normal placenta (16 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated). However, expression of chr21-derived miRNAs did not change. Predicted target genes included 7434 genes targeted by up-regulated miRNAs and 6071 genes targeted by down-regulated miRNAs. Seventy-six of these target genes were located on chr21 (10 genes controlled by down-regulated miRNAs and 34 genes by up-regulated miRNAs, and 32 genes by both). Target genes on chr21 were significantly associated with DS and DS-related disorders, such as mental retardation, neurobehavioral manifestations, and congenital abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide study to comprehensively survey placental miRNAs in DS fetuses. Our results provide new insight into miRNA expression in placentas of fetuses with DS. Additionally, our findings indicate that the differentially expressed miRNAs in the DS placenta may potentially affect various pathways related to DS pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Review: The placenta and developmental programming: balancing fetal nutrient demands with maternal resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G J; Fowden, A L

    2012-02-01

    The placenta evolved to support development of the fetus, and so potentially plays a key role in the aetiology of developmental programming through its impact on nutrient transfer. Placental transport efficiency depends on a variety of parameters, including surface area for exchange, thickness of the interhaemal membrane and density of transporter proteins inserted into the trophoblast membranes. Here, we review recent studies that tested whether adaptations of placental efficiency are induced in the mouse placenta when maternal nutrient supply and fetal demand are manipulated experimentally. Naturally small placentas, and those exposed to maternal undernutrition, displayed structural changes indicative of accelerated maturation at E16, with enlargement of the labyrinth exchange zone at the expense of the endocrine junctional zone. These changes were associated with increased transport of a non-metabolisable amino acid analogue per gram of placenta, and expression of genes encoding specific System A transporters. Up-regulation of transporters was also observed when a mismatch between placental size and fetal demand was generated through genetic manipulation of the Igf2/H19 axis. Conversely, overgrowth of the placenta induced by deletion of H19 resulted in reduced transport capacity and expression of transporter genes. We conclude that under conditions when the maternal nutrient supply or placental size may be limiting for normal fetal growth, the placenta adapts so as to increase its transport capacity. Hence, it ameliorates the effects of environmental cues that would otherwise lead to more extensive developmental programming. The P0 transcript of Igf2 appears to be a strong candidate as a mediator of these adaptations in the mouse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of the placenta in fetal programming: underlying mechanisms and potential interventional approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2007-07-01

    Adverse influences during fetal life alter the structure and function of distinct cells, organ systems or homoeostatic pathways, thereby 'programming' the individual for an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes in adult life. Fetal programming can be caused by a number of different perturbations in the maternal compartment, such as altered maternal nutrition and reduced utero-placental blood flow; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully established. Perturbations in the maternal environment must be transmitted across the placenta in order to affect the fetus. Here, we review recent insights into how the placenta responds to changes in the maternal environment and discuss possible mechanisms by which the placenta mediates fetal programming. In IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction) pregnancies, the increased placental vascular resistance subjects the fetal heart to increased work load, representing a possible direct link between altered placental structure and fetal programming of cardiovascular disease. A decreased activity of placental 11beta-HSD-2 (type 2 isoform of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) activity can increase fetal exposure to maternal cortisol, which programmes the fetus for later hypertension and metabolic disease. The placenta appears to function as a nutrient sensor regulating nutrient transport according to the ability of the maternal supply line to deliver nutrients. By directly regulating fetal nutrient supply and fetal growth, the placenta plays a central role in fetal programming. Furthermore, perturbations in the maternal compartment may affect the methylation status of placental genes and increase placental oxidative/nitrative stress, resulting in changes in placental function. Intervention strategies targeting the placenta in order to prevent or alleviate altered fetal growth and/or fetal programming include altering placental growth and nutrient transport by maternally administered IGFs (insulin

  19. Structure and Steroidogenesis of the Placenta in the Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SASAKI, Motoki; AMANO, Yoko; HAYAKAWA, Daisuke; TSUBOTA, Toshio; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; TETSUKA, Masafumi; MIYAMOTO, Akio; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. In the macro- and microscopic observations, the placenta of the Antarctic minke whale was a diffuse and epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion was interdigitated to the endometrium by primary, secondary and tertiary villi, which contained no specialized trophoblast cells such as binucleate cells, and the interdigitation became complicated with the progress of gestation. Furthermore, fetal and maternal blood vessels indented deeply into the trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelium respectively with fetal growth. The minke whale placenta showed a fold-like shape as opposed to a finger-like shape. In both nonpregnant and pregnant uteri, many uterine glands were distributed. The uterine glands in the superficial layer of the pregnant endometrium had a wide lumen and large epithelial cells as compared with those in the deep layer. On the other hand, in the nonpregnant endometrium, the uterine glands had a narrower lumen and smaller epithelial cells than in the pregnant endometrium. In immunohistochemical detection, immunoreactivity for P450scc was detected in most trophoblast cells, but not in nonpregnant uteri, suggesting that trophoblast epithelial cells synthesized and secreted the sex steroid hormones and/or their precursors to maintain the pregnancy in the Antarctic minke whale. PMID:23269486

  20. Differential expression of laminin, nidogen and collagen IV genes in the midgestation mouse placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T; Dziadek, M

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of laminin A, B1, B2, nidogen and collagen alpha 1(IV) mRNA was studied in the 12.5-day mouse placenta and uterus. This was compared to the pattern of laminin, nidogen and collagen IV immunoreactivity in the placenta at this time. High levels of B2 mRNA were distributed throughout the decidual layer, compared to lower levels of laminin B1, nidogen and collagen IV. In contrast, laminin B1 and nidogen mRNA were found at very high levels in the trophoblast giant cells and cytotrophoblast. Laminin B2 was much lower in trophoblast cells than in the decidua. Nidogen mRNA levels were low in the decidual cells, but high in endothelial cells lining the placental blood spaces in the decidual layer. Immunofluorescence staining of the placenta showed colocalization of laminin, nidogen and collagen IV in fetal and maternal layers of the placenta. In the antimesometrial area where the uterine epithelium was reforming laminin B1 and B2 mRNA were uniformly distributed between the epithelium and stroma, whereas nidogen and collagen alpha 1(IV) mRNA were only produced by the stromal cells. In all cell types, apart from parietal endoderm cells forming Reichert's membrane, laminin A chain mRNA was very low or absent. These results demonstrate that laminin and nidogen genes are not coordinately expressed in the midgestation mouse placenta. Comparison of the distribution of these mRNAs with collagen alpha 1(IV) mRNA suggests that different regions of the placenta produce specialized extracellular matrices which may contain different ratios of these polypeptides.

  1. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Young Cho

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation.We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL.Sixty-four patients (46.7% required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1% had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64 for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all p<0.05. The drainage amount over 1 hour was 500 mL (20-1200 mL in the balloon failure group and 60 mL (5-500 mL in the balloon success group (p<0.01.Intrauterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon is an adequate adjunct management for postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance.

  2. Marcadores de estrés oxidativo en placentas de gestantes añosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Suárez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Un factor de riesgo alto ginecoobstétrico que contribuye a la morbimortalidad materna perinatal es la edad materna mayor de 35 años. Es posible que el estado oxidativo en la placenta de la gestante añosa sea mayor a la de la gestante no añosa. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado oxidativo de la placenta en gestantes mayores de 35 años. Diseño: Estudio observacional y transversal. Lugar: Hospital Nacional Docente Materno Infantil San Bartolomé y Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Material biológico: 28 placentas de gestantes de 35 años o más y 28 placentas de gestantes de menos de 35 años, obtenidas de partos vaginales a término. Intervenciones: La muestra de placenta se homogenizó al 10% con buffer fosfato 10 mM, pH 7,4, se centrifugó a 2000 rpm por 5’. Parte del sobrenadante se usó para analizar lipoperoxidación y glutatión (GSH; el sobrenadante restante fue centrifugado a 42 000 rpm por 1 hora, para medir actividad de superóxido dismutasa (SOD. Principales medidas de resultados: Estado oxidativo de placentas obtenidas de mujeres añosas y no añosas. Resultados: La actividad de la SOD y el contenido de GSH placentarios en añosas fue 43,52 U/g de tejido y 4,67 µmol/mL x 10-²; para el grupo control fueron 54,13 U/g de tejido y 6,02 µmol/mL x 10-², respectivamente; en ambos hubo significancia estadística (p < 0,05. La medición de TBARS (lipoperoxidación no mostró diferencias significativas. Conclusiones: Las placentas obtenidas de mujeres añosas muestran menor capacidad de defensa antioxidante frente a las placentas obtenidas de mujeres no añosas.

  3. Noninvasive monitoring of placenta-specific transgene expression by bioluminescence imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placental dysfunction underlies numerous complications of pregnancy. A major obstacle to understanding the roles of potential mediators of placental pathology has been the absence of suitable methods for tissue-specific gene manipulation and sensitive assays for studying gene functions in the placentas of intact animals. We describe a sensitive and noninvasive method of repetitively tracking placenta-specific gene expression throughout pregnancy using lentivirus-mediated transduction of optical reporter genes in mouse blastocysts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zona-free blastocysts were incubated with lentivirus expressing firefly luciferase (Fluc and Tomato fluorescent fusion protein for trophectoderm-specific infection and transplanted into day 3 pseudopregnant recipients (GD3. Animals were examined for Fluc expression by live bioluminescence imaging (BLI at different points during pregnancy, and the placentas were examined for tomato expression in different cell types on GD18. In another set of experiments, blastocysts with maximum photon fluxes in the range of 2.0E+4 to 6.0E+4 p/s/cm(2/sr were transferred. Fluc expression was detectable in all surrogate dams by day 5 of pregnancy by live imaging, and the signal increased dramatically thereafter each day until GD12, reaching a peak at GD16 and maintaining that level through GD18. All of the placentas, but none of the fetuses, analyzed on GD18 by BLI showed different degrees of Fluc expression. However, only placentas of dams transferred with selected blastocysts showed uniform photon distribution with no significant variability of photon intensity among placentas of the same litter. Tomato expression in the placentas was limited to only trophoblast cell lineages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results, for the first time, demonstrate the feasibility of selecting lentivirally-transduced blastocysts for uniform gene expression in all placentas of the same litter and early

  4. Stem villous arteries from the placentas of heavy smokers: functional and mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Helle Vibeke; Jorgensen, J C; Ottesen, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the mechanical and functional properties of isolated small stem villous arteries from the placentas of women who smoked heavily (>/=15 cigarettes/d) during pregnancy with those from the placentas of nonsmokers. STUDY DESIGN: Isolated stem villous...... arteries were mounted in small-vessel myographs. Circumference-tension relationships were established with 124 mmol/L potassium chloride. Concentration-response curves were obtained for endothelin 1, prostaglandin F2alpha, vasoactive intestinal peptide, corticotropin-releasing hormone, sodium nitroprusside....... These changes may compromise fetal placental blood flow and thereby contribute to the lower birth weights seen among infants born to heavy smokers....

  5. Placenta percreta with spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus in the second trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaire, W J; Louisy, C; Dalessandri, K; Muschenheim, F

    2001-11-01

    Rupture of a pregnant uterus occurs most often in a scarred uterus, and spontaneous rupture of a non-scarred uterus in the early second trimester is rare. A woman with two previous normal vaginal deliveries and no prior trauma to the uterus presented at 16 weeks' gestation with an acute abdomen due to intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A large rupture of the fundus of the uterus was found. A supracervical hysterectomy was carried out, with subsequent good recovery. The specimen showed placenta percreta. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus, due to placenta percreta, should be considered in cases of acute intraperitoneal hemorrhage, even in early pregnancy.

  6. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND GROSS ANATOMICAL STUDY OF HUMAN PLACENTA IN PATIENTS WITH PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimla Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The beginning reason for preeclampsia is the placenta. Preeclampsia starts to lessen with the conveyance of the placenta and can happen without a baby, however, with the nearness of trophoblast tissue with hydatidiform moles. In perspective of this, investigation of the placenta ought to give knowledge into the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. In this presentation, we look at placental pathological and anatomical changes with preeclampsia and Foetal Development Limitation (FGR. No doubt, this examination ought to enlighten as both conditions are associated with comparably unusual placentation yet just in preeclampsia is there a maternal pathophysiological disorder. Comparative bits of knowledge about ahead of schedule and late onset preeclampsia ought to likewise be given by such information. METHODS A prospective study was led in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College, Bettiah. 250 instances of pregnancy actuated hypertension were concentrated on. The cases with systolic circulatory strain more prominent than 130 mmHg, diastolic pulse more noteworthy than 90 mmHg on two estimations dismantled 6 hours in relationship with histological finding were incorporated into the study. These cases were further separated as mild preeclampsia if the diastolic circulatory strain was ≤100 mmHg and as moderate preeclampsia if the diastolic pulse was 110 mmHg. Extreme cases were characterised if the systolic pulse - ≥160 mmHg, diastolic circulatory strain ≥110 mmHg. Maternal and foetal result was considered and post conveyance placenta was sent for histopathologic examination. Gross anatomical and microscopic examination was done and discoveries were connected with the seriousness of PIH. RESULTS Out of 250 cases, there were 156 instances of mild PIH, 53 moderate and 41 were of severe PIH. On gross examination (Table 1, the mean weight of placenta was 429.9 gm in gentle instances of PIH, 364 gm in moderate

  7. Balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries in the multidisciplinary management of placenta percreta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Caroline; Stensballe, Jakob; Albrechtsen, Charlotte K

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate our experience with prophylactic balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries as a part of a multidisciplinary algorithm for the management of placenta percreta. Design. Consecutive case series. Setting. Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. Sample....... Prophylactic balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries as part of a multidisciplinary algorithm allowed for a safe management of all cases in our consecutive series of 17 women with placenta percreta. However, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements were significant. We have therefore...... decided to modify our multidisciplinary algorithm to include balloon occlusion of the common iliac arteries rather than the internal iliac arteries....

  8. Fas and FasL expression in placentas complicated with intrauterine growth retardation with and without preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rešić Karara, Jasminka; Zekić Tomas, Sandra; Marušić, Jelena; Roje, Damir; Kuzmić Prusac, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    To compare the level of Fas and FasL immunohistochemical expression in villous trophoblast (VT), extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells, decidual cells (DC), endothelial cells (EC) of villous blood vessels and spiral arteries between the study groups of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) placentas with and without preeclampsia (PE). The study included 17 placentas from pregnancies complicated by IUGR + PE and 17 placentas from pregnancies complicated by idiopathic IUGR (I-IUGR). Seventeen placentas from normal pregnancies served as a control group. CD31 was used to detect endothelial cells (EC). Immunohistochemical expression of Fas and FasL was assessed in all examined parts of placenta using the semi-quantitative HSCORE method. FasL expression was significantly higher in all examined parts of placenta in I-IUGR as compared to IUGR + PE and control group. Placentas with IUGR + PE had the significantly lowest expression of FasL in VT and EC of villi vessels. Expression of Fas did not differ significantly between the study groups. Different expression of FasL in placentas from I-IUGR and IUGR + PE suggests that FasL probably has a different role in the etiology of these two syndromes.

  9. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus Postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Martinez; Jean Challacombe; Ingo Morgenstern; David Hibbett; Monika Schmoll; Christian P. Kubicek; Patricia Ferreira; Francisco J. Ruiz-Duenas; Angel T. Martinez; Philip J. Kersten; Kenneth E. Hammel; Jill A. Gaskell; Daniel Cullen

    2009-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome,...

  10. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of Environment... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ...

  11. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the dead fetus; macerated fetal material; or cells, tissue, or organs excised from a dead fetus, shall be...

  12. Parturition in gilts: duration of farrowing, birth intervals and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal, piglet and placental traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Lende, van der T.

    2004-01-01

    Large White×Meishan F2 crossbred gilts (n=57) were observed continuously during farrowing while the placentae of their offspring were labeled in order to examine the duration of farrowing and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal-, piglet- and placental traits and the duration of birth interval

  13. Physiology: Capacity for Hormone Production of Cultured Trophoblast Cells Obtained from Placentae at Term and in Early Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Malek, Antoine; Willi, Amara; Müller, Jürg; Sager, Ruth; Hänggi, Willy; Bersinger, Nick

    2001-01-01

    Problem: There is an increased doubt about the identity of isolated cytotrophoblast cells at term. Therefore, we compared pregnancy serum levels of three hormones [human placental lactogen (hPL), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and leptin] with the capacity for hormone production of early placentae [EP; 8–13 weeks of gestation (WG)] and term placentae (TP; 38–42 WG).

  14. What should we do to optimise outcome in twin pregnancy complicated with placenta percreta? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Mehmet Aral; Oz Atalay, Fatma; Cetinkaya Demir, Bilge

    2015-11-05

    Patients with morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) are under risk of massive bleeding. It readily necessitates very complicated surgery and massive blood transfusion, and even leads to mortality. Cesarean hysterectomy (CH) is the procedure that is acknowledged worldwide, since it helps to minimize complications. A patient with dichorionic twin pregnancy underwent to cesarean section (CS) due to preliminary diagnosis of placenta percreta at her 35(th) week of pregnancy. Both of the placentas were left in situ. The patient admitted with signs of infection. Emergency total abdominal hysterectomy was performed 7 weeks after CS. In the course of hysterectomy, 3 units of erythrocyte suspension and 2 units of fresh frozen plasma were transferred, whereas none was required during CS. Abandoning placenta in situ seems to be a logical alternative to the CH in patients with placenta percreta in order to minimize complications related to massive blood transfusion and surgical technique. However, it appears to increase maternal morbidity due to maternal infection in twin pregnancy.

  15. The Improvement Two Cases Coughing and Sputum sign Sequela of Pneumonia by Homins Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Eun-Gon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Coughing and sputum are symptoms of sequela of Pneumonia. Oriental medicine call it Hae su. Hae su is common sign of lung disease. Hominis Placenta is the dried placenta of a healthy women. The nature of Hominis Placenta is warm and its taste sweet-salty. It has correspondence to the meridians of lung and kindey. Hominis Placenta acupuncture therapy has effect on invigoration of vital energy nourishing blood and tonifying the essence. It can be applied to the disease as Asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, degenerative change and cerebrovascular disease. We treated two cases coughing and sputum sign Sequela of Pneumonia by Hominis Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture. The symptoms was improved and the patients satisfied

  16. Anticoagulants to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications: Is it time to put the needles away?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeith, Leslie; Rodger, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Placenta-mediated pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, birth of a small-for-gestational age infant and late pregnancy loss, are common and carry significant morbidity and mortality. The etiology of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications is likely multifactorial and may include abnormal coagulation activation of the maternal-fetal interface. The use of antepartum low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications has become common practice despite limited and conflicting evidence to support its use. This paper reviews the evidence, including recently published data from an individual patient level meta-analysis, which challenges the role of LMWH in preventing recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. Incorporating this recent evidence, we recommend against the use of LMWH to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications in women with and without inherited thrombophilia. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Análise morfológica e imunohistoquímica de placentas caninas provenientes de eutocia e distocia

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Isadora Frazon [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Placentation and the development of fetal membranes in dogs are currently studied extensively, since the knowledge of morphology of the placenta enables properly recognize pathological changes and its correlation with neonatal viability. We aimed to characterize morphologically and immunohistochemically placentas of bitches from eutocia and dystocia. For that 80 placentas were collected and classified according to the type of delivery into three experimental groups,GN (n = 40) placentas obtai...

  18. Treatment of retained placenta with misoprostol: a randomised controlled trial in a low-resource setting (Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauteck Heiner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retained placenta is one of the common causes of maternal mortality in developing countries where access to appropriate obstetrical care is limited. Current treatment of retained placenta is manual removal of the placenta under anaesthesia, which can only take place in larger health care facilities. Medical treatment of retained placenta with prostaglandins E1 (misoprostol could be cost-effective and easy-to-use and could be a life-saving option in many low-resource settings. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of sublingually administered misoprostol in women with retained placenta in a low resource setting. Methods Design: Multicentered randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, to be conducted in 5 hospitals in Tanzania, Africa. Inclusion criteria: Women with retained placenta, at a gestational age of 28 weeks or more and blood loss less than 750 ml, 30 minutes after delivery of the newborn despite active management of third stage of labour. Trial Entry & Randomisation & Study Medication: After obtaining informed consent, eligible women will be allocated randomly to the treatment groups using numbered envelopes that will be randomized in variable blocks containing identical capsules with either 800 microgram of misoprostol or placebo. The drugs will be given sublingually. The women, maternal care providers and researchers will be blinded to treatment allocation. Sample Size: 117 women, to show a 40% reduction in manual removals of the placenta (p = 0.05, 80% power. The randomization will be misoprostol: placebo = 2:1 Primary Study Outcome: Expulsion of the placenta without manual removal. Secondary outcome is the number of blood transfusions. Discussion This is a protocol for a randomized trial in a low resource setting to assess if medical treatment of women with retained placenta with misoprostol reduces the incidence of manual removal of the placenta. Clinical Trial Registration Current

  19. Uterine and placenta characteristics during early vascular development in the pig from day 22 to 42 of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Elane C; Miles, Jeremy R; Lents, Clay A; Rempel, Lea A

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient placenta development is one of the primary causes of fetal death and reduced fetal growth after 35 days of gestation. Between day 22 and 42 the placenta consists of a central highly vascular placenta (HVP), adjacent to the fetus, a less vascular placenta (LVP), on either side of the fetus, and necrotic tips (NT). The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate uterine-placenta characteristics during early gestation in the gilt and determine time points and physiological changes. Gilts (n=25) were artificially inseminated at first detection of estrus (day 0) and 24h later, and harvested at 22, 27, 32, 37 or 42 days of gestation. Litter size, 12.1±3.4, was similar for all days of gestation. Fetal and placenta weight increased with day of gestation. The greatest increase in placenta weight occurred between 37 and 42 days of gestation. The LVP zones had no measurable fold formation until day 27. Necrotic tips became apparent after 27 days of gestation. Unoccupied areas of the uterus developed folds with changes in endometrial cell size and morphology from day 32 to 42 of gestation. Limited changes occurred in either fetal growth or placenta weight from day 27 through 32 of gestation; however, significant morphological changes occur at the maternal-fetal interface, demonstrating the dynamic architecture of the developing porcine placenta during early gestation. This work establishes fundamental time points in placenta development corresponding to fetal growth and microfold formation that may influence fetal growth and impact fetal survival. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Accurate and Simple Evaluation of Vascular Anastomoses in Monochorionic Placenta using Colored Dye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopriore, Enrico; Slaghekke, Femke; Middeldorp, Johanna M.; Klumper, Frans J.; van Lith, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.; Oepkes, Dick

    2011-01-01

    The presence of placental vascular anastomoses is a conditio sine qua non for the development of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin anemia polycythemia sequence (TAPS)(1,2). Injection studies of twin placentas have shown that such anastomoses are almost invariably present in

  1. The association of placenta previa and assisted reproductive techniques: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Manoochehr; Jenabi, Ensiyeh; Fereidooni, Bita

    2017-06-06

    Several epidemiological studies have determined that assisted reproductive techniques (ART) can increase the risk of placenta previa. To date, only a meta-analysis has been performed for assessing the relationship between placenta previa and ART. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the association between placenta previa and ART in singleton and twin pregnancies. A literature search was performed in major databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from the earliest possible year to April 2017. The heterogeneity across studies was explored by Q-test and I 2 statistic. The publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests. The results were reported using odds ratio (OR) and relative risk (RR) estimates with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. The literature search yielded 1529 publications until September 2016 with 1,388,592 participants. The overall estimate of OR was 2.67 (95%CI: 2.01, 3.34) and RR was 3.62 (95%CI: 0.21, 7.03) based on singleton pregnancies. The overall estimate of OR was 1.50 (95%CI: 1.26, 1.74) based on twin pregnancies. We showed based on odds ratio reports in observational studies that ART procedures are a risk factor for placenta previa.

  2. Enantiomeric ratios as an indicator of exposure processes for persistent pollutants in human placentas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Heqing; Virtanen, H E; Main, Katharina M

    2006-01-01

    The enantiomeric ratios (ER) of alpha-HCH and o,p'-DDT ((+)-isomer concentration/(-)-isomer concentration) and o,p'-DDD (first eluting enantiomer/second enantiomer) were investigated in 112 human placentas from Finnish boys collected 1997-2001. Both o,p'-DDD and alpha-HCH showed changes in their ER...

  3. The placenta and foetal membranes of the lesser yellow house bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-06-05

    Jun 5, 1988 ... A discoidal hemodichorial placenta is present in $cotophilus borbonicus. Evidence is presented which suggests that histotrophic nutrition, in addition to hemotrophic nutrition, occurs. The foetal trophospongium phagocytoses cell debris and glandular secretions derived from the maternal endometrium ...

  4. Cow placenta extract promotes murine hair growth through enhancing the insulin - like growth factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE, water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss.

  5. Velamentous and Furcate Cord Insertion with Placenta Accreta in an IVF Pregnancy with Unicornuate Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tunç Canda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Velamentous and furcate cord insertion with concomitant placenta accreta is a very rare and life-threatening event of pregnancy for both the mother and the fetus. Obstetricians should be cautious about umbilical cord insertion and placental adherence abnormalities in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART particularly in women with Müllerian anomalies.

  6. Velamentous and Furcate Cord Insertion with Placenta Accreta in an IVF Pregnancy with Unicornuate Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, Mehmet Tunç; Demir, Namık; Doganay, Latife

    2013-01-01

    Velamentous and furcate cord insertion with concomitant placenta accreta is a very rare and life-threatening event of pregnancy for both the mother and the fetus. Obstetricians should be cautious about umbilical cord insertion and placental adherence abnormalities in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART) particularly in women with Müllerian anomalies.

  7. Role of Doppler US and MRI in diagnosis of placenta accreta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of Doppler US and MRI in the diagnosis of placenta accreta. Patients and methods: During period between 2012 to 2013, 120 pregnant patients with previous cesarean section were investigated by ultrasound and Doppler and then in suspected cases MRI was obtained (10 cases).

  8. Role of Doppler US and MRI in diagnosis of placenta accreta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Hamisa

    2014-10-19

    Oct 19, 2014 ... Abstract The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of Doppler US and MRI in the diagnosis of placenta accreta. Patients and methods: During period between 2012 to 2013, 120 pregnant patients with previous cesarean section were investigated by ultrasound and Doppler and then in suspected cases MRI.

  9. La placenta previa : una hemorragia obstétrica a estudio

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Pascual, Eva María

    2013-01-01

    Se analizan las hemorragias durante el embarazo, centrándose en la placenta previa, una de las hemorragias de segundo trimestre de las más importantes. Por último se realiza un estudio sobre las urgencias obstétricas en la ciudad de Salamanca

  10. Regenerative efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells from human placenta in sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Kicheol; Choi, Mi Young; Kong, Ji Sun; Kim, Woo Jin; Park, Kyoung Ho

    2016-12-01

    Hearing loss is a common chronic disorder characterized by decline of auditory function. The global population have suffered from deafness and the transplantation of stem cells is regarded as a therapeutic strategy for this disease. We collected placenta from a total of 13 samples of full term pregnant women and isolated MSCs derived from human placenta and transplanted MSCs on deaf animal model. The normal group and the sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) group and the experimental (transplanted MSCs) group were compared and estimated hearing level using auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings and the otoacoustic emission (OAE) test. ABR threshold value and DPOAE level showed that MSCs transplantation groups was improved than the SNHL group. And the number of spiral ganglion neurons were increased in all turn of the cochlea. And there was no evidence of acute immunological rejection and inflammation response was not observed. This study is to evaluate regenerative efficacy of hearing loss by transplanting mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from human placenta (amnion and chorion) in deaf animal model. We identified that MSCs transplantation restored auditory impairment and promoted cell regeneration. We hope to overcome sensorineural hearing loss by transplanting stem cells such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from easily accessible adult stem cell source in placenta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gestation Related Gene Expression of the Endocannabinoid Pathway in Rat Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Vaswani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian placentation is a vital facet of the development of a healthy and viable offspring. Throughout gestation the placenta changes to accommodate, provide for, and meet the demands of a growing fetus. Gestational gene expression is a crucial part of placenta development. The endocannabinoid pathway is activated in the placenta and decidual tissues throughout pregnancy and aberrant endocannabinoid signaling during the period of placental development has been associated with pregnancy disorders. In this study, the gene expression of eight endocannabinoid system enzymes was investigated throughout gestation. Rat placentae were obtained at E14.25, E15.25, E17.25, and E20, RNA was extracted, and microarray was performed. Gene expression of enzymes Faah, Mgll, Plcd4, Pld1, Nat1, Daglα, and Ptgs2 was studied (cohort 1, microarray. Biological replication of the results was performed by qPCR (cohort 2. Four genes showed differential expression (Mgll, Plcd4, Ptgs2, and Pld1, from mid to late gestation. Genes positively associated with gestational age were Ptgs2, Mgll, and Pld1, while Plcd4 was downregulated. This is the first comprehensive study that has investigated endocannabinoid pathway gene expression during rat pregnancy. This study provides the framework for future studies that investigate the role of endocannabinoid system during pregnancy.

  12. Influence of hepatitis c in the development of histological and morfological changes in the placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Filipovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose: detection of morphological changes of fetoplacental complex in pregnant women with chronic hepatitis C.Methods: The study involved 48 pregnant women , 38 of them with chronic hepatitis C and 10 – healthy pregnant women without complicated obstetric – gynecological history. Do all women was conducted morphological and histological study of their placentas. Placental tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin solution. After fixation in 10% neutral formalin, the samples were subjected to histological wiring placentas by incubation in isopropyl alcohol and paraffin imbibition using the apparatus for automatic wiring histological samples gated Exelsior (Thermo, Germany .Immunogistohimicheskie (IHC studies were performed using a mouse monoclonal antibody NS3-antigen to hepatitis C virus (at a dilution of 1/80, Novocastra Lab., UK.Results: chronic ( sub compensated placental insufficiency often revealed by the presence of NS3-HCV in the placenta. In the presence of placental infection with hepatitis C virus ( HCV NS3 , the presence of more common detsiduita placenta.Conclusions: Hepatitis C virus is one of the most important factors in the development of chronic placental insufficiency.

  13. Imprinting and Promoter Usage of Insulin-Like Growth Factor II in Twin Discordant Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Min Luo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Case reports from infant twins suggest that abnormal genomic imprinting may be one of the important causes of twin discordance, but it is unknown whether abnormal genomic imprinting occurs in the placenta. Therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between the imprinting of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II in placenta and twin discordance. We analyzed the imprinting and promoter usage of IGF-II in placenta of normal twins (T0 group, weight discordance (T1 group, and phenotype discordance (T2 group. We found the incidence of loss of imprinting (LOI for IGF-II was higher in the T2 group than that in the T0 and T1 groups, while there was no difference between T0 and T1 groups. The transcripts of promoter 3 were lower in the T2 group than in the T0 and T1 groups, and lower in the twin placenta with LOI than in those with normal imprinting. Our findings indicate that the promoter 3 specific LOI of the IGF-II gene may be closely related with phenotype discordance, not weight discordance.

  14. Comparative transcriptome and secretome analysis of wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber J. Vanden Wymelenberg; Jill Gaskell; Michael Mozuch; Grzegorz Sabat; John Ralph; Oleksandr Skyba; Shawn D Mansfield; Robert A. Blanchette; Diego Martinez; Igor Grigoriev; Philip J Kersten; Daniel Cullen

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by brown rot fungi, such as Postia placenta, is poorly understood relative to the phylogenetically related white rot basidiomycete, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. To elucidate the number, structure, and regulation of genes involved in lignocellulosic cell wall attack, secretome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both wood decay fungi...

  15. Draft genome sequence of a monokaryotic model brown-rot fungus Postia (Rhodonia) placenta SB12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Gaskell; Phil Kersten; Luis F. Larrondo; Paulo Canessa; Diego Martinez; David Hibbett; Monika Schmoll; Christian P. Kubicek; Angel T. Martinez; Jagjit Yadav; Emma Master; Jon Karl Magnuson; Debbie Yaver; Randy Berka; Kathleen Lail; Cindy Chen; Kurt LaButti; Matt Nolan; Anna Lipzen; Andrea Aerts; Robert Riley; Kerrie Barry; Bernard Henrissat; Robert Blanchette; Igor V. Grigoriev; Dan Cullen

    2017-01-01

    We report the genome of Postia (Rhodonia) placenta MAD-SB12, a homokaryotic wood decay fungus (Basidiomycota, Polyporales). Intensively studied as a representative brown rot decayer, the gene complement is consistent with the rapid depolymerization of cellulose but not lignin.

  16. The Effects of the Hominis Placenta Herbal acupuncture on Sleep pattern disturbance

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    Youn Hyoun-min

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study has been designed and performed to identify the effects of Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture which is usually used in reducing sleep pattern disturbances. Methods : The study subjects studied included 48 patients who were admitted in hospital located in Pusan, and they were classified into 2 groups : 25 patients in the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture and 23 patients in the control group who were treated by acupuncture. The both group injected on GB20, GB12 and HT7 for 5 days without medicine. The sleep pattern disturbance score was measured by using 15 questions according to Korean Sleep Scale A(Oh, Jin Joo. Song, Mi Soon. Kim, Shin Mi. 1998. Results & conclusions : The sleep pattern disturbance score of the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture was significantly lower than that of the control group. (t= 7.00 p= .00 These results provided that Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture of GB20, GB12 and HT7 was effective for relieving sleep pattern disturbances, it is need more sample's number and more treatmentt's duration.

  17. How Prenatal Depression, Anxiety, and Stress May Affect Child Outcome: The Placenta and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, T. G.; O'Donnell, K.; Capron, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    There is good evidence that if a woman is depressed, anxious, or stressed while she is pregnant, then there is an increased risk that her child will have emotional, behavioral, or cognitive problems. Her own biology must cause these effects, but it is not known how. One important line of research suggests that the function of the placenta changes…

  18. Macroscopic and microscopic aspects of collared peccary and white-lipped peccary placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, T.C.; Dantzer, Vibeke; Jones, C.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines middle and late gestational placentae from 13 Tayassu tajacu (collared peccary) and 3 Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), which are Artiodactyla belonging to the Family Tayassuidae. The chorionic sac of Tayassu species is diffuse and chorioallantoic. These epitheliochorial ...

  19. Insulin Treatment May Alter Fatty Acid Carriers in Placentas from Gestational Diabetes Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Palacios, Maria; Prieto-Sánchez, Maria Teresa; Ruiz-Alcaraz, Antonio José; Blanco-Carnero, José Eliseo; Sanchez-Campillo, Maria; Parrilla, Juan José; Larqué, Elvira

    2017-06-06

    There is little information available on the effect of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) treatment (diet or insulin) on placental lipid carriers, which may influence fetal fat accretion. Insulin may activate placental insulin receptors protein kinase (AKT) and extracellular signal regulated kinase ERK mediators, which might affect lipid metabolism. Placenta was collected from 25 control women, 23 GDM-Diet and 20 GDM-Insulin. Western blotting of insulin signaling mediators and lipid carriers was performed. The human choricarcinoma-derived cell line BeWo was preincubated with insulin inhibitors protein kinase (AKT) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and ERK inhibitors to evaluate insulin regulation of lipid carriers. Maternal serum insulin at recruitment correlated to ultrasound fetal abdominal circumference in offspring of GDM and placental endothelial lipase (EL). Lipoprotein lipase in placenta was significantly reduced in both GDM, while most of the other lipid carriers tended to higher values, although not significantly. There was a significant increase in both phosphorylated-Akt and ERK in placentas from GDM-Insulin patients; both were associated to placental fatty acid translocase (FAT), fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP), and EL. BeWo cells treated with insulin pathway inhibitors significantly reduced A-FABP, fatty acid transport protein (FATP-1), and EL levels, confirming the role of insulin on these carriers. We conclude that insulin promotes the phosphorylation of placental insulin mediators contributing to higher levels of some specific fatty acid carriers in the placenta and fetal adiposity in GDM.

  20. The human placenta from heavy smokers: evaluation of vasoactive peptides by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, H V; Larsen, L Grupe; Jørgensen, A

    2007-01-01

    from pregnancies from otherwise healthy women smoking 15 or more cigarettes per day (heavy smokers) and term placentas from a matching group of non-smokers were included. The antibodies for Et-1 and e-NOS are recommended for cryostat sections. We evaluated the antibodies on paraffin-embedded tissue...

  1. A danish national cohort study on neonatal outcome in singleton pregnancies with placenta previa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lone N; Pinborg, Anja; Lidegaard, Ojvind

    2012-01-01

    . Main outcome measures. Gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score after 5min, stillbirth, neonatal mortality and admittance to neonatal intensive care unit. Results. The incidence of placenta previa in Denmark was 0.54% in 2006. Neonates born after pregnancies with placenta previa had a higher risk...... of being born at a gestational age below 37 weeks (OR 8.6; 95% CI 7.5-9.9), having Apgar score =7 at 5 min (OR 2.7; 95% CI 2.0-3.7), being transferred to neonatal intensive care unit (OR 4.3; 95% CI 3.8-4.9) and for stillbirth and neonatal mortality combined (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0), compared to neonates...... born in pregnancies without placenta previa. No increased risk of being small-for-gestational age was found (OR 1.0; 95% CI 1.0-1.2). Conclusion. When adjusting for confounders neonates born after pregnancies with placenta previa had a significantly higher risk of being born preterm, having a low Apgar...

  2. Placenta Increta Complicating Persistent Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy following Failed Excision with Subsequent Preterm Cesarean Hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs) are one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy. Given their rarity, there is lack of consensus regarding the management and natural course of CSPs. Case. A 37-year-old G10 P3063 female with a history of two prior cesarean deliveries was diagnosed with her second CSP at 6 weeks and 5 days in her tenth pregnancy. The patient underwent vertical hysterotomy, excision of a gestational sac implanted in the cesarean sac, and bilateral salpingectomy via a laparotomy incision. The histopathology report confirmed immature chorionic villi. The patient returned 10 weeks later and was found to be still pregnant. Obstetric ultrasound confirmed a viable fetus of 19 weeks and 4 days of gestational age with a thin endometrium and an anteroposterior and right lateral placenta with multiple placental lakes. The patient ruptured her membranes at 31 weeks of gestation and pelvic MRI revealed an anterior placenta invading the myometrium and extending to the external serosal surface consistent with placenta increta. Following obstetric interventions, a live female infant was delivered by cesarean hysterectomy (because of placenta increta) at 32 weeks of gestation. Conclusion. Development of standardized guidelines for management of CSPs, as well as heightened vigilance for possible complications, is required for proper care and avoidance of potential morbidity and mortality. PMID:27375911

  3. A clinicopathological study of episomal papillomavirus infection of the human placenta and pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatter, Tania L; Hung, Natalie Gly; Clow, William M; Royds, Janice A; Devenish, Celia J; Hung, Noelyn A

    2015-10-01

    Viral infections are known to adversely affect pregnancy, but scant attention has been given to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. We aimed to determine the molecular and histopathological features of placental HPV infection, in association with pregnancy complications including fetal growth restriction, pre-maturity, pre-eclampsia, and diabetes. Three hundred and thirty-nine placentae were selected based on the presence or absence of pregnancy complications. Five independent methods were used to identify HPV in the placenta, namely, immunohistochemistry for L1 viral capsid, in situ hybridization to high-risk HPV DNA, PCR, western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy. Pregnancy complications and uterine cervical smear screening results were correlated with placental HPV histopathology. In this study, which was deliberately biased towards complications, HPV was found in the decidua of 75% of placentae (253/339) and was statistically associated with histological acute chorioamnionitis (Ppregnancy compared with (9.4% 8/85) of women with HPV-negative placentae (P=0.0001). Our findings support further investigations to determine if vaccination of women and men will improve pregnancy outcomes.

  4. Parental factors affecting the weights of the placenta and the offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Vrieze, Ingrid; Kluck, Tom; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    Aim: To determine parental, especially paternal factors associated with the weight of the placenta and offspring. Methods: This population-based birth-cohort study includes 2947 singleton children born from April 2006 to 2007 and living in Drenthe, The Netherlands. Placental weight and birth weight

  5. Prostasin and matriptase (ST14) in placenta from preeclamptic and healthy pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen-Møller, Britta; Jørgensen, Jan S; Hansen, Mie R

    2016-01-01

    activates the renal epithelial sodium channel. We hypothesized that preeclampsia is associated with low prostasin expression in placenta and spillover of prostasin into urine across the defect glomerular barrier. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 20 healthy pregnant women and 20 patients suspected...

  6. Effects of cadmium exposure on glycogen phosphorylase activity in rat placenta as demonstrated by histochemical means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelhoff Roelfzema, W.; Hacker, H. J.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase (PHO) activity was demonstrated histochemically in unfixed cryostat sections of placentae from cadmium-treated and control rats with the use of the semipermeable membrane technique. Staining of the newly synthesized glycogen was performed by lugol. A high activity was present

  7. Behandling af placenta percreta kræver involvering af flere specialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Caroline; Lönn, Lars; Albrechtsen, Charlotte Krebs

    2011-01-01

    Placenta percreta is a rare life-threatening obstetrical condition, often resulting in severe haemorrhage and hysterectomy. The incidence seems to be increasing, probably secondary to the increase in caesarean section rates. We present a protocol for an elective multidisciplinary approach...

  8. Effect of inbreeding on the incidence of retained placenta in Friesian horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M.; Vrijenhoek, T.; Hesselink, J.W.; Barkema, H.W.; Groen, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    This study was motivated by the hypothesis that the incidence of retained placenta (RP) in Friesian horses is associated with inbreeding. The objectives were to 1) calculate the inbreeding rate in the total registered Friesian horse population; 2) study the association of the inbreeding coefficient

  9. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstedt, Sara; Kippler, Maria; Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy; Mie, Axel; Alm, Johan; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (plifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Scheduled hysterectomy vs. urgent hysterectomy in patients with placenta accreta in a high specialty medical unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumano-Ziga, Erika; Veloz-Martínez, María Guadalupe; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Juan Gustavo; Becerra-Alcántara, Geomar; Jimenez Vieyra, Carlos Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Patients with placenta accreta have a high frequency of complications and death risk. The aim of this study was to compare the results of scheduled hysterectomy vs. urgent hysterectomy in patients with placenta accreta in a high specialty medical unit. An observational, comparative, cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing patient records with confirmed diagnostic of placenta accreta, who attended in a one year period. They were divided into 2 groups based on the type of surgery, scheduled or urgent. Descriptive statistics were applied, with comparisons using Student t-test and chi squared tests. A value of Pplacenta accreta. The mean maternal age was 32 years, with a mean of 5 hours operating time, total bleeding 3135 ml, and 3.5 units of packed cells transfused. There was no statistical difference when comparing these variables with re-interventions, hypovolaemic shock, and intensive care unit admission. Caesarean-hysterectomy with hypogastric artery ligation was the most frequent surgery performed. In this hospital, scheduled and urgent surgical treatment of patients with placenta accreta show similar results, probably because the constant availability of resources and the experience obtained by the multidisciplinary team in all shifts. Nevertheless, make absolutely sure to perform elective surgery while having all the necessary resources. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. The evolution of the placenta drives a shift in sexual selection in livebearing fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; Meredith, R.W.; Springer, M.S.; Garland, T.; Reznick, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the placenta from a non-placental ancestor causes a shift of maternal investment from pre- to post-fertilization, creating a venue for parent–offspring conflicts during pregnancy1, 2, 3, 4. Theory predicts that the rise of these conflicts should drive a shift from a reliance on

  12. Human Oocyte-Derived Methylation Differences Persist in the Placenta Revealing Widespread Transient Imprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sanchez-Delgado

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of regions in gametes have opposing methylation profiles that are largely resolved during the post-fertilization epigenetic reprogramming. However some specific sequences associated with imprinted loci survive this demethylation process. Here we present the data describing the fate of germline-derived methylation in humans. With the exception of a few known paternally methylated germline differentially methylated regions (DMRs associated with known imprinted domains, we demonstrate that sperm-derived methylation is reprogrammed by the blastocyst stage of development. In contrast a large number of oocyte-derived methylation differences survive to the blastocyst stage and uniquely persist as transiently methylated DMRs only in the placenta. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is exclusive to primates, since no placenta-specific maternal methylation was observed in mouse. Utilizing single cell RNA-seq datasets from human preimplantation embryos we show that following embryonic genome activation the maternally methylated transient DMRs can orchestrate imprinted expression. However despite showing widespread imprinted expression of genes in placenta, allele-specific transcriptional profiling revealed that not all placenta-specific DMRs coordinate imprinted expression and that this maternal methylation may be absent in a minority of samples, suggestive of polymorphic imprinted methylation.

  13. Attenuation of VEGFR-2 expression by sFlt-1 and low oxygen in human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Ori; Lee, Dennis K; Caniggia, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), the primary receptor for VEGF, is crucial for normal endothelial function. sFlt-1, a truncated and soluble form of VEGFR-1 which binds and inhibits VEGF, is increased in preeclampsia and is positively regulated by low oxygen. Here, we investigated the effects of sFlt-1 and hypoxia on VEGFR-2 expression and signaling in the human placenta. VEGFR-2 transcript and protein levels were significantly decreased in preeclamptic placentae compared to controls (1.82 and 1.85 fold, respectively). An inverse correlation was observed for VEGFR-2 and sFlt-1 levels in both singleton and twin placentae from patients with preeclampsia. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed co-localization of VEGFR-2 and sFlt-1 in placental vasculature and co-immunoprecipitation analyses confirmed VEGFR-2 and sFlt-1 interaction only in preeclamptic placentae compared to age-matched controls. VEGFR-2 transcript and protein levels from explants cultured in 3% O2 were significantly decreased compared to those incubated at 20% O2 (5.9 and 12.47 fold, respectively). Also, VEGFR-2 transcript levels were significantly decreased in early first trimester placentae (low oxygen environment) compared to late first trimester placentae (2.05 fold). We next explored whether sFlt-1 directly affects VEGFR-2 expression. Treatment of first trimester placental explants with sFlt-1 resulted in significantly decreased levels of VEGFR-2 (2.03 fold) and downstream signaling proteins phospho-ERK (1.60 fold) and phospho-Akt (1.64 fold). Our findings show a novel hypoxia-induced and PE-related down-regulation of VEGFR-2 in the human placenta. sFlt-1, which is known to be increased in hypoxic conditions and PE, directly attenuates VEGFR-2 expression and signaling. A direct interaction between sFlt-1 and VEGFR-2 may represent an important mechanism in VEGFR-2 regulation, inhibition of VEGFR-2-mediated processes in placentation and a novel platform to examine the onset of

  14. Paraoxonase 2 protein is spatially expressed in the human placenta and selectively reduced in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwarfaly, Samy; Abdulsid, Akrem; Hanretty, Kevin; Lyall, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Humans parturition involves interaction of hormonal, neurological, mechanical stretch and inflammatory pathways and the placenta plays a crucial role. The paraoxonases (PONs 1-3) protect against oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and regulation of apoptosis. Nothing is known about the role of PON2 in the placenta and labour. Since PON2 plays a role in oxidative stress and inflammation, both features of labour, we hypothesised that placental PON2 expression would alter during labour. PON2 was examined in placentas obtained from women who delivered by cesarean section and were not in labour and compared to the equivalent zone of placentas obtained from women who delivered vaginally following an uncomplicated labour. Samples were obtained from 12 sites within each placenta: 4 equally spaced apart pieces were sampled from the inner, middle and outer placental regions. PON2 expression was investigated by Western blotting and real time PCR. Two PON2 forms, one at 62 kDa and one at 43 kDa were found in all samples. No difference in protein expression of either isoform was found between the three sites in either the labour or non-labour group. At the middle site there was a highly significant decrease in PON2 expression in the labour group when compared to the non-labour group for both the 62 kDa form (p = 0.02) and the 43 kDa form (p = 0.006). No spatial differences were found within placentas at the mRNA level in either labour or non-labour. There was, paradoxically, an increase in PON2 mRNA in the labour group at the middle site only. This is the first report to describe changes in PON2 in the placenta in labour. The physiological and pathological significance of these remains to be elucidated but since PON2 is anti-inflammatory further studies are warranted to understand its role.

  15. Retained placenta of dairy cows associated with managemental factors in Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Mozaffor Hossain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The incidence of retained placenta of dairy cows in relation to individual animal level and farm management factors such as farm type, farm size, housing system, floor type, feed quality, time of parturition, farming experience of farmer and delivery pattern of cows was determined. Materials and Methods: A total 1205 parturated dairy cows conducted in nine upazilas and four Metro Thana of Rajshahi district during July 2010 to June 2011for attainment of the result. Individual animal and farm management factors associated with retained placenta were recorded in a structured questionnaire through face-to-face farmer's interview and reviewing farm records. The raw data were compiled and statistical SPSS program to analyze to obtained result. Results: The overall incidence of retained placenta was 13.4%. The incidence was significantly higher in Local × Sahiwal genotype (4.6% and late delivery (longer gestation period (80% than their counter groups (p<0.05. The large farm (6.0% had higher incidence and had no significant effect than medium and individual household. Similarly animals housed in Tin shed building with poor ventilation facilities (6.6%, animal housed in unscientific concrete floor (6.8%, animals mostly grassed along with small amount of straw supplied (5.4% and a farmer had less than one year farming experience (5.3% had not significant statistically show higher incidence of retained placenta. Conclusion: The local genotype; mini farm; supplied better feed quality; vast farming experience of farmer and normal delivery with eutocia had less chance of retained placenta of dairy cows. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 180-184

  16. In vivo quantification of {sup 18}F-Fdg uptake in human placenta during early pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti-Fregonara, P.; Jan, S.; Trebossen, R.; Maroy, R. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, SHFJ, F-91401 Orsay (France); Champion, C. [Univ Paul Verlaine Metz, Lab Phys Mol et Collis, Inst Phys, Metz (France); Hindie, E. [Hop St Antoine, AP-HP, F-75571 Paris (France); Hindie, E. [Univ Paris 07, IMDCT, IUH, Ecole Doctorale B2T, F-75221 Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    {sup 18}F-FDG is the most widely used PET radiopharmaceutical. Nevertheless, no data for {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the human placenta have been reported. We recently reported on embryo dosimetry in a woman who underwent an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan during early pregnancy. In the present work we attempt an in vivo quantification of the {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by the placenta. The 27-y-old woman received 320 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG for a follow-up study for Hodgkin's lymphoma and was later discovered to be pregnant (embryo age 8 wk). Imaging started 1 h after injection. The maximum placental tissue uptake (SUVmax) was 2.5. This value was conservatively attributed to the entire placental volume, i.e., 45 mL, a value representative of the average dimensions of a normal placenta at 8 wk. On the basis of these measurements, placenta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in our patient was 0.19% of the injected activity. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to derive the photon dose to the embryo from the placenta (0.022 * 10{sup -2} mGy per MBq of injected {sup 18}F-FDG) and from the surrounding amniotic fluid (0.017 * 10{sup -2} mGy MBq{sup -1}). This increases our previously calculated dose (3.3 * 10{sup -2} mGy MBq{sup -1}) by only a small fraction (1.18%), which does not justify modifying the previous estimate given the overall uncertainties. (authors)

  17. Detection of placenta elasticity modulus by quantitative real-time shear wave imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W J; Wei, Z T; Yan, R L; Zhang, Y L

    2012-01-01

    To explore the clinical values in detecting the placental elastic modulus using real-time quantitative shear wave elasticity imaging. A total of 30 women in the late pregnancy stage without complications and having normal, single pregnancies, as well as normal fetal growth, amniotic fluid index, and anterior placenta were selected. A real-time elasticity imaging shear wave ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus was used to randomly select regions of interest at the central and edge of the placenta. The elastography imaging mode was launched to measure the elasticity of the elastic modulus of these placental parts. A total of 15 measured values were obtained at the placental center and edge for each pregnancy case. Umbilical artery and uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) values for 18 cases were also randomly measured. The average value of 30 placental edges of the elastic modulus (n = 15) was (7.60 +/- 1.71) kPa. The average value of the 30 placental central elastic modulus (n = 15 ) was (7.84 +/- 1.68) kPa. No significant difference was observed between placenta central and edge elastic modulus. The PI mean value of umbilical artery in 18 cases was 0.94, whereas the average PI values of the uterine artery was 0.83. No linear correlation was found among the elastic modulus, the placental uterine artery PI values, and the umbilical artery PI values (p > 0.05). No difference between the placental center of normal pregnancies and the edge of the elastic modulus was detected. The elastic modulus of the placenta could be obtained in the best position. The placenta varied greatly between elastic modulus. No correlation was found between the placental elastic modulus, the uterine artery, and umbilical artery PI values. Real-time shear wave elasticity imaging technology can provide morphological evidence of placental function, which may emerge as a new clinical assessment approach.

  18. Maternal ethanol consumption reduces Se antioxidant function in placenta and liver of embryos and breastfeeding pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Fátima; Ojeda, M Luisa; Jotty, Karick; Murillo, M Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia

    2017-12-01

    The fetal alcohol exposition during pregnancy leads to different disorders in offspring, related to the oxidative stress generated by alcohol. It is well-documented that there is an impairment of the antioxidant selenoprotein Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in ethanol offspring during the embryo period, although no-one has described Selenium (Se) status. The aim is to analyze for the first time Se deposits in vivo and Se's biological implication in embryos and placenta after alcohol exposure and in offspring whose mothers continued to drink ethanol during lactation. Se deposits, GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) activity, lipid and protein oxidation and the expression of GPx1 were measured in placenta and liver of both embryos (E-19) and breastfeeding pups (L-21) in control and ethanol groups (20% v/v). Ethanol consumption decreased Se deposits, GPx activity and GPx1 expression, while increasing biomolecular oxidation in placenta and in the liver of E-19 and L-21. The GR/GPx ratio decreased in placenta and in E-19, together with an increase in lipid oxidation, while increased in the liver of L-21 pups with protein oxidation. Ethanol also decreased the GPx1 expression/GPx activity ratio in the liver of E-19 and L-21, indicating that alcohol decreases GPx activity by both depleting Se deposits and promoting GPx inactivation. In placenta GPx activity is proportional to the GPx1 expression found, so the ethanol affects GPx activity in offspring more than in dams. Therefore, Se supplementation therapy in dams could contribute as an interesting antioxidant that prevents fetal alcohol syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Efeitos da betametasona sobre os fetos e placentas da rata albina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Eduardo de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: analisar os efeitos da betametasona sobre o binômio materno-fetal da rata albina. Métodos: utilizamos 60 ratas albinas prenhes divididas ao acaso em três grupos numericamente iguais. As ratas do grupo I foram tratadas com betametasona na dose de 1 mg/kg de peso em 0,5 ml de água destilada, por via intramuscular no 11º, 12º, 18º e 19º dia de prenhez; as do grupo II receberam 0,5 ml de água destilada, por via intramuscular no 11º, 12º, 18º e 19º dia de prenhez, e as do grupo III não receberam qualquer fármaco ou veículo. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado nos dias 0, 7, 14 e 20 de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados por decapitação. Foram quantificados o número de implantações, de reabsorções, de fetos, de placentas, de malformações maiores, de mortalidade materna e fetal, assim como o peso dos fetos e das placentas. Resultados: nossos resultados revelaram que as matrizes tratadas com betametasona apresentaram menor ganho de peso. Quanto aos fetos e as placentas do grupo tratado, observamos que os pesos foram inferiores aos dos outros grupos. A média de peso dos fetos foi de 3,20 g contra 3,75 g no grupo controle. A média de peso das placentas foi de 0,36 g no grupo tratado com betametasona contra 0,48 g no grupo controle. Todas estas diferenças foram estatisticamente significantes. Conclusões: a betametasona apresenta efeito negativo sobre o ganho de peso das matrizes, fetos e placentas, quando administrada de forma repetitiva a partir da segunda metade da prenhez.

  20. Morphology and development of the placentae in Eulamprus quoyii group skinks (Squamata: Scincidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Bridget F; Brandley, Matthew C; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2012-01-01

    Frequent evolutionary changes in reproductive mode have produced a wide range of placental structures in viviparous squamate reptiles. Closely related species with different placental structures and resolved phylogenetic relationships are particularly useful for reconstructing how placentae might have transformed during the evolutionary process. We used light microscopy to study placental morphology in mid- to late stage embryos of four closely related species of Eulamprus, a genus of viviparous scincid lizards that we had reason to suspect may display significant interspecific variation in placental morphology. Embryos from all four species possess a chorioallantoic placenta, an omphaloplacenta and an interomphalopleuric membrane, characteristics present in other viviparous skinks. However, unlike other viviparous skinks but characteristic of oviparous skinks, the allantois expands to surround the yolk sac in each species, supplanting the omphalopleure with a larger area of chorioallantois until a chorioallantoic placenta surrounds the entire egg in one specimen that is only a few days from birth. All four Eulamprus species share the same extraembryonic membrane morphology, but the cellular morphology of the uterine epithelium in the chorioallantoic placenta and omphaloplacenta varies between species. We determined that the interomphalopleuric membrane is a shared derived character of the Eulamprus quoyii species group. New phylogenetic information indicates that variation in the chorioallantoic placenta is a result of two independent transitions, but that variation in the omphaloplacenta can be explained using a single change within the species studied. Our results indicate that E. quoyii group skinks are a valuable model for investigating the evolution of viviparity, as extraembryonic membrane development in these species shows features characteristic of both oviparous and viviparous skinks. PMID:22420511

  1. Wound Healing Effects of Rose Placenta in a Mouse Model of Full-Thickness Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Woo Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRosa damascena, a type of herb, has been used for wound healing in Eastern folk medicine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of rose placenta from R. damascena in a full-thickness wound model in mice.MethodsSixty six-week-old C57BL/6N mice were used. Full-thickness wounds were made with an 8-mm diameter punch. Two wounds were made on each side of the back, and wounds were assigned randomly to the control and experimental groups. Rose placenta (250 µg was injected in the experimental group, and normal saline was injected in the control group. Wound sizes were measured with digital photography, and specimens were harvested. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to assess the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and CD31. Vessel density was measured. Quantitative analysis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for EGF was performed. All evaluations were performed on postoperative days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Statistical analyses were performed using the paired t-test.Results On days 4, 7, and 10, the wounds treated with rose placenta were significantly smaller. On day 2, VEGF and EGF expression increased in the experimental group. On days 7 and 10, TGF-β1 expression decreased in the experimental group. On day 10, vessel density increased in the experimental group. The increase in EGF on day 2 was confirmed with ELISA.ConclusionsRose placenta was found to be associated with improved wound healing in a mouse full-thickness wound model via increased EGF release. Rose placenta may potentially be a novel drug candidate for enhancing wound healing.

  2. Morphology and development of the placentae in Eulamprus quoyii group skinks (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Bridget F; Brandley, Matthew C; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2012-05-01

    Frequent evolutionary changes in reproductive mode have produced a wide range of placental structures in viviparous squamate reptiles. Closely related species with different placental structures and resolved phylogenetic relationships are particularly useful for reconstructing how placentae might have transformed during the evolutionary process. We used light microscopy to study placental morphology in mid- to late stage embryos of four closely related species of Eulamprus, a genus of viviparous scincid lizards that we had reason to suspect may display significant interspecific variation in placental morphology. Embryos from all four species possess a chorioallantoic placenta, an omphaloplacenta and an interomphalopleuric membrane, characteristics present in other viviparous skinks. However, unlike other viviparous skinks but characteristic of oviparous skinks, the allantois expands to surround the yolk sac in each species, supplanting the omphalopleure with a larger area of chorioallantois until a chorioallantoic placenta surrounds the entire egg in one specimen that is only a few days from birth. All four Eulamprus species share the same extraembryonic membrane morphology, but the cellular morphology of the uterine epithelium in the chorioallantoic placenta and omphaloplacenta varies between species. We determined that the interomphalopleuric membrane is a shared derived character of the Eulamprus quoyii species group. New phylogenetic information indicates that variation in the chorioallantoic placenta is a result of two independent transitions, but that variation in the omphaloplacenta can be explained using a single change within the species studied. Our results indicate that E. quoyii group skinks are a valuable model for investigating the evolution of viviparity, as extraembryonic membrane development in these species shows features characteristic of both oviparous and viviparous skinks. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  3. [Expression of aquaporin 8 in human fetal membrane and placenta of idiopathic polyhydramnios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Qi, Hong-bo

    2009-01-01

    To determine the expression of Aquaporin 8(AQP8) in the fetal membrane and placenta of idiopathic polyhydramnios. The amnion, chorion and placenta were collected from 12 term pregnancies with idiopathic polyhydramnios( polyhydramnios group) and 12 term pregnancies who were normal (control group). The expression of AQP8 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of AQP8 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of AQP8 mRNA in amnion, chorion and placenta of polyhydramnios group was (0.78 +/- 0.13), (0.58 +/- 0.10), and (0.86 +/- 0.15) respectively, and that of control group was (0. 39 0.07), (0.45 +/- 0.09), and (0.34 +/- 0.09) respectively. The expression of AQP8 protein in amnion, chorion and placenta of polyhydramnios group was (0.195 +/- 0.024), (0.170 +/- 0.028), and (0.193 +/- 0.024) respectively, and that of control group was (0.151 +/- 0.018), (0.156 +/- 0.024), and (0.152 +/- 0.023) respectively. In all 3 types of tissues the expression of AQP8 mRNA of polyhydramnios group was higher than that of control group (P polyhydramnios group was also increased compared to that of control group (P 0.05). The expression of AQP8 mRNA and protein is significantly increased in the amnion and placenta of polyhydramnios, suggesting that AQP8 may play an important role in the regulation of amniotic fluid volume.

  4. Mid-Gestational Gene Expression Profile in Placenta and Link to Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, Liis; Männik, Jaana; Rull, Kristiina; Minajeva, Ave; Kõks, Sulev; Vaas, Pille; Teesalu, Pille; Reimand, Jüri; Laan, Maris

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of placenta in mediating rapid physiological changes in pregnancy, data on temporal dynamics of placental gene expression are limited. We completed the first transcriptome profiling of human placental gene expression dynamics (GeneChips, Affymetrix®; ∼47,000 transcripts) from early to mid-gestation (n = 10; gestational weeks 5–18) and report 154 genes with significant transcriptional changes (ANOVA, FDR Pgestational weeks 5–41) confirmed a significant (ANOVA and t-test, FDR Pgestational peak of placental gene expression for BMP5, CCNG2, CDH11, FST, GATM, GPR183, ITGBL1, PLAGL1, SLC16A10 and STC1, followed by sharp decrease in mRNA levels at term (t-test, FDR Pgestation placenta remain highly expressed until term, and analyzed their expression in term placentas from normal and complicated pregnancies [preeclampsia (PE), n = 12; gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), n = 12; small- and large-for-gestational-age newborns (SGA, LGA), n = 12+12]. STC1 (stanniocalcin 1) exhibited increased mRNA levels in all studied complications, with the most significant effect in PE- and SGA-groups (t-test, FDR Pgestation. Interestingly, many genes with high expression in mid-gestation placenta have also been implicated in adult complex disease, promoting the discussion on the role of placenta in developmental programming. The discovery of elevated maternal plasma STC1 in pregnancy complications warrants further investigations of its potential as a biomarker. PMID:23145134

  5. Augmentation of leptin and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha mRNAs in the pre-eclamptic placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagaki, S; Yokoyama, Y; Tang, L; Takahashi, Y; Nakagawa, Y; Tamaya, T

    2004-05-01

    The placenta is a major source of leptin in the fetomaternal circulation, although its physiological role remains to be clarified. Leptin in the fetomaternal circulation is proposed to be a marker of acute stress in the fetus, and the fetus suffering from pre-eclampsia would be under chronic stress. In 16 pre-eclamptic placentas, the expressions of leptin, hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha) and leptin receptor mRNAs were analyzed by semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and compared with clinical data. The co-expressions of leptin and the isoforms of the leptin receptor were observed in all the pre-eclamptic placentas. Leptin mRNA was significantly augmented in the pre-eclamptic placentas, although the level in fetal plasma was not high. The level of the expression of leptin mRNA was correlated with the placental HIF1alpha mRNA level and fetal body weight, but not with the levels of the leptin receptor isoforms in the pre-eclamptic placentas. This observation may suggest that autocrine/paracrine regulation of leptin exists in the human placenta and is upregulated in the pre-eclamptic placenta.

  6. Predictors of foeto-maternal outcome of patients with abruptio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhimbili, AP has been associated with about a quarter of all stillbirths and neonatal deaths. (Kidanto et al. .... Frequency. Percentages. Maternal outcome. Prolonged hospital stay. 82. 86.3. Maternal death. 3. 3.2. Acute kidney injury. 20. 21.6. ICU admission. 13. 13.7. Hysterectomy. 2 .... Early detection and management of.

  7. term abdominal pregnancy misdiagnosed as abruptio placent a.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 37 year old multiparous woman at 37'" week gestation presented with an undiagnosed abdominal pregnancy and acute abdomen following forceful reduction of an associated Mere-vaginal prolapse. She had an urgent laparotomy with ... incision was made on the lower half of this sac and the amniotic sac yninctured to ...

  8. Placenta accreta is associated with decreased decidual natural killer (dNK) cells population: a comparative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Eman Abdel-Salam; Elsafty, Mohammed Saeed Eldin; Hassanin, Alaa Sayed

    2014-10-01

    Placenta accreta is a general term describes abnormal adherent placenta to the uterine wall. When the chorionic villi invade the myometrium, the term placenta increta is appropriate. Nowadays, it is one of the increasing causes of materno-fetal morbidities and mortality. The aim of this research was to evaluate density of decidual natural killer cells (dNK, CD56+(bright)) in decidua basalis in patients with placenta accreta. We recruited 76 patients from Ain Shams Maternity Hospital between June 2012 to August 2013, they were divided into study subgroup (A) which included 10 patients who underwent cesarean hysterectomy due to unseparated placenta accreta, study subgroup (B) included 16 patients with separated placenta accreta, a comparison group included 25 patients with placenta previa and a control group included 25 patients with normally situated placenta. All patients underwent elective cesarean delivery. Decidual biopsies were taken during the operation. An immunohistochemical staining for (dNK, CD56+(bright)) and a semi quantitative scoring were done. One-way ANOVA and Fisher Exact tests were used for statistical correlation. The mean dNK cells scores were (0.4±0.5, 1.9±1, 3.3±0.5 and 3.5±0.5) for study subgroups (A), (B) comparison and control groups respectively) with a highly significant statistical difference (P<0.001). There was a significant statistical difference between study subgroups (A) and (B) P=0.002 .There was an insignificant statistical correlation between dNK scores and number of previous uterine scars (P=0.46). These findings suggest that low dNK score was associated with cases of morbidly adherent placenta accreta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Leptin is differentially expressed and epigenetically regulated across monochorionic twin placenta with discordant fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, S; Kingdom, J; Baczyk, D; Fitzgerald, B; Keating, S; Ryan, G; Drewlo, S

    2013-11-01

    Severely growth-discordant monochorionic (MC) twins offer a unique opportunity to study fetal and placental growth based on a similar genetic background and maternal host environment where the healthy twin serves as an ideal control. Differences in development of MC twins may therefore be due to differential epigenetic regulation of genes involved in placental development and function. Growth-discordant twins are known for abnormal angio-architecture in the placenta of the smaller twin. Since the reasons for this phenotype are mostly unknown this study was aimed to investigate the expression and regulation of genes known to be involved in angiogenesis. We studied 10 severely growth-discordant MC twin placentas (birthweight difference ≥20%) without twin-twin-transfusion syndrome and 5 growth-concordant MC twin placentas. Growth-discordant twin placentas were phenotyped by histology. Placental mRNA expression of 88 angiogenesis-related genes was measured by PCR array. ELISA assay and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm PCR results. EpiTYPTER for DNA methylation was used to determine if methylation ratios were responsible for differential gene expression. The PCR array analysis showed significant mRNA up-regulation in the placental share of the smaller twin for several genes. These included leptin (24.6-fold, P = 0.017), fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1, 2.4-fold, P = 0.016) and Endoglin (Eng, 1.86-fold, P = 0.078). None of the other 84 angiogenesis-related genes showed significant differences. ELISA confirmed significantly increased leptin protein expression (49.22 versus 11.03 pg/ml, P = 0.049) in the smaller twin of the discordant growth cohort. Leptin expression in smaller twins' placentas was associated with elevated DNA methylation of the leptin promotor region suggesting the inhibition of binding of a transcriptional activator/inhibitor in that region. We attempted to overcome the limitation of sample size by careful patient selection. We minimized any

  10. Cross Talk between Adipose Tissue and Placenta in Obese and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Pregnancies via Exosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthini Jayabalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important public health issue worldwide, where it is commonly associated with the development of metabolic disorders, especially insulin resistance (IR. Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications, especially gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Metabolism is a vital process for energy production and the maintenance of essential cellular functions. Excess energy storage is predominantly regulated by the adipose tissue. Primarily made up of adipocytes, adipose tissue acts as the body’s major energy reservoir. The role of adipose tissue, however, is not restricted to a “bag of fat.” The adipose tissue is an endocrine organ, secreting various adipokines, enzymes, growth factors, and hormones that take part in glucose and lipid metabolism. In obesity, the greater portion of the adipose tissue comprises fat, and there is increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, macrophage infiltration, and reduced insulin sensitivity. Obesity contributes to systemic IR and its associated metabolic complications. Similar to adipose tissue, the placenta is also an endocrine organ. During pregnancy, the placenta secretes various molecules to maintain pregnancy physiology. In addition, the placenta plays an important role in metabolism and exchange of nutrients between mother and fetus. Inflammation at the placenta may contribute to the severity of maternal IR and her likelihood of developing GDM and may also mediate the adverse consequences of obesity and GDM on the fetus. Interestingly, studies on maternal insulin sensitivity and secretion of placental hormones have not shown a positive correlation between these phenomena. Recently, a great interest in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs has been observed in the literature. EVs are produced by a wide range of cells and are present in all biological fluids. EVs are involved in cell-to-cell communication. Recent evidence points to an association between

  11. Aberrant Expression of TIMP-2 and PBEF Genes in the Placentae of Cloned Mice Due to Epigenetic Reprogramming Error

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Hong Rye; Lee, Jae Eun; Oqani, Reza Kheirkhahi; Kim, So Yeon; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Li, Chong; Sa, Su Jin; Woo, Je Seok; Jin, Dong Il

    2016-01-01

    .... Cloned placentae showed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), which is involved in extracellular matrix degradation and tissue remodeling, and downregulation of pre-B cell colony enhancing factor 1...

  12. Temporary balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries to prevent massive hemorrhage during cesarean delivery among patients with placenta previa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, Evelien A.; Versteeg, Henneke; Vos, Louwerens D.; Dijksterhuis, Marja G.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of temporary balloon occlusion of the internal iliac artery before uterine incision to prevent massive obstetric hemorrhage during cesarean delivery among patients with anterior placenta previa. Methods In a retrospective cohort study conducted at Amphia

  13. Microarray expression profile of lncRNAs and mRNAs in the placenta of non-diabetic macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G Y; Na, Q; Wang, D; Qiao, C

    2017-11-16

    Macrosomia, not only is closely associated with short-term, birth-related problems, but also has long-term consequences for the offspring. We investigated the expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the placenta of macrosomia births using a microarray profile. The data showed that 2929 lncRNAs and 4574 mRNAs were upregulated in the placenta of macrosomia births compared with the normal birth weight group (fold change ⩾2.0, Pmacrosomia placenta. Four lncRNAs were randomly chosen from the differentially expressed lncRNAs to validate the microarray data by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The qPCR results were consistent with the microarray data. In conclusion, lncRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in the placenta of macrosomia patients, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of macrosomia.

  14. Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell-induced neural stem cells to treat spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Ye; Jia, Jingqiao; Yang, Lifeng

    2014-12-15

    Because of their strong proliferative capacity and multi-potency, placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells have gained interest as a cell source in the field of nerve damage repair. In the present study, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural stem cells, which were then transplanted into the spinal cord after local spinal cord injury in rats. The motor functional recovery and pathological changes in the injured spinal cord were observed for 3 successive weeks. The results showed that human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neuron-like cells and that induced neural stem cells contribute to the restoration of injured spinal cord without causing transplant rejection. Thus, these cells promote the recovery of motor and sensory functions in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Therefore, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells may be useful as seed cells during the repair of spinal cord injury.

  15. Micro- and Nano-vesicles from First Trimester Human Placentae Carry Flt-1 and Levels Are Increased in Severe Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancy Tong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectivesPreeclampsia is a life-threatening hypertensive disease affecting 3–5% of pregnancies. While the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains unclear, it is known that placenta-derived factors trigger the disease by activating maternal endothelial cells prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Extracellular vesicles (EVs of different sizes extruded by the placenta may be one factor. The truncated/secreted form of Flt-1 (sFlt-1 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. We investigated whether placental EV production is altered in preeclampsia such that they induce endothelial cell activation, and whether (sFlt-1 is involved.MethodsMacro-, micro-, and nano-vesicles were collected from normal and preeclamptic (PE placental explants, and separated by differential centrifugation. The number and size of micro- and nano-vesicles was measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis and their ability to activate endothelial cells was quantified by endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression and monocyte adhesion. The levels of Flt-1 were measured by western blots and ELISA.ResultsPE placentae extruded significantly more micro- and nano-vesicles than control placentae and the extruded micro-vesicles were larger than those from control placentae. Micro- and nano-vesicles from both first trimester and term human placentae carried Flt-1 and levels were significantly increased in EVs from severe, but not mild, PE compared to normotensive placentae. All fractions of EVs from PE placentae activated endothelial cells, and for micro- and nano-vesicles, activation was reduced in the presence of exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, a Flt-1 neutralizing antibody, or by pre-treatment with VEGF. While EV-bound VEGF constituted over 20% of the total detected VEGF secreted by PE and normotensive placentae, EV-bound Flt-1 did not significantly contribute to the total level of sFlt-1/Flt-1 released by human

  16. Aberrant Expression of TIMP-2 and PBEF Genes in the Placentae of Cloned Mice Due to Epigenetic Reprogramming Error.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Rye Kim

    Full Text Available Cloned mice derived from somatic or ES cells show placental overgrowth (placentomegaly at term. We had previously analyzed cloned and normal mouse placentae by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify differential protein expression patterns. Cloned placentae showed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2, which is involved in extracellular matrix degradation and tissue remodeling, and downregulation of pre-B cell colony enhancing factor 1 (PBEF, which inhibits apoptosis and induces spontaneous labor. Here, we used Western blotting to further analyze the protein expression levels of TIMP-2 and PBEF in cloned placentae derived from cumulus cells, TSA-treated cumulus cells, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, and natural mating (NM control. Cloned and TSA-treated cloned placentae had higher expression levels of TIMP-2 compared with NM control and ICSI-derived placentae, and there was a positive association between TIMP-2 expression and the placental weight of cloned mouse concepti. Conversely, PBEF protein expression was significantly lower in cloned and ICSI placentae compared to NM controls. To examine whether the observed differences were due to abnormal gene expression caused by faulty epigenetic reprogramming in clones, we investigated DNA methylation and histone modification in the promoter regions of the genes encoding TIMP-2 and PBEF. Sodium bisulfite sequencing did not reveal any difference in DNA methylation between cloned and NM control placentae. However, ChIP assays revealed that the level of H3-K9/K14 acetylation at the TIMP-2 locus was higher in cloned placentae than in NM controls, whereas acetylation of the PBEF promoter was lower in cloned and ICSI placenta versus NM controls. These results suggest that cloned placentae appear to suffer from failure of histone modification-based reprogramming in these (and potentially other developmentally important genes, leading to

  17. Concentration of perfluorinated compounds and cotinine in human foetal organs, placenta, and maternal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.

    2017-01-01

    levels. Foetal exposure has previously been estimated from umbilical cord plasma, but the actual concentration in foetal organs has never been measured. Objectives The concentrations of 5 PFASs and cotinine – the primary metabolite of nicotine – were measured in human foetuses, placentas, and maternal...... ratio for all five PFASs and cotinine. Smokers presented 99 ng/g cotinine in plasma, 108 ng/g in placenta, and 61 ng/g in foetal organs. No correlation between the maternal cotinine concentrations and PFAS concentrations was found. Conclusions PFASs were transferred from mother to foetus, however......AbstractBackground Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are bio-accumulative pollutants, and prenatal exposure to PFASs is believed to impact human foetal development and may have long-term adverse health effects later in life. Additionally, maternal cigarette smoking may be associated with PFAS...

  18. Stem villous arteries from the placentas of heavy smokers: functional and mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Helle Vibeke; Jorgensen, J C; Ottesen, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the mechanical and functional properties of isolated small stem villous arteries from the placentas of women who smoked heavily (>/=15 cigarettes/d) during pregnancy with those from the placentas of nonsmokers. STUDY DESIGN: Isolated stem villous......, and cadmium chloride. The effect of nitric oxide was examined with N omega-nitro-l -arginine. RESULTS: Stem villous arteries from the heavy smoking group developed a significantly lower tension than did those from nonsmokers at 6 of 9 steps of the circumference-tension experiment (P ... a significantly greater maximum vasoconstrictive response in stem villous arteries from heavy smokers than in those from nonsmokers (P Stem villous arteries of heavy smokers have altered mechanical properties and a greater vasoconstrictive response to endothelin 1 than do those from nonsmokers...

  19. The Signature of Maternal Social Rank in Placenta Deoxyribonucleic Acid Methylation Profiles in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, Renaud; Suderman, Matthew J; Nemoda, Zsofia; Sutti, Sheila; Ruggiero, Angela M; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Szyf, Moshe

    2017-05-01

    The effects of social status on human health can be modeled in captive cohorts of nonhuman primates. This study shows that maternal social rank is associated with broad changes in DNA methylation in placentae of rhesus monkeys (N = 10). Differentially methylated genes between social ranks are enriched in signaling pathways playing major roles in placenta physiology. Moreover, the authors found significant overlaps with genes whose expression was previously associated with social rank in adult rhesus monkeys (Tung et al., 2012) and whose methylation was associated with perinatal stress in newborn humans and rhesus monkeys (Nieratschker et al., 2014). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that system-wide epigenetic changes in multiple tissues are involved in long-term adaptations to the social environment. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Wang, Taiji; Feng, Cuiping; Lin, Gang; Zhu, Yuhua; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory; Wang, Junjun

    2015-01-01

    Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation). Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals. PMID:26554841

  1. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals.

  2. HLA-G expression in placenta in relation to HLA-G genotype and polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F; Larsen, Lise Grupe; Hoegh, Anne Mette

    2004-01-01

    PROBLEM: The expression of the non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib gene, HLA-G, seems to be important at the feto-maternal interface. The HLA-G molecule is almost monomorphic and expressed in both membrane-bound and soluble isoforms. It has been shown to inhibit natural killer cell...... -mediated lysis and influence cytokine expression. HLA-G gene polymorphism has been linked to differences in gene expression profile of alternatively spliced HLA-G transcripts and levels of specific HLA-G messenger RNA (mRNA) isoforms. Furthermore, aberrant HLA-G expression has been reported in preeclamptic...... placentas. On this background it is of general interest to further elucidate any associations between HLA-G polymorphism and protein expression. METHODS: We have investigated HLA-G protein expression by immunohistochemistry in HLA-G genotyped placentas from term. HLA-G mRNA expression in preeclamptic...

  3. Delayed villous maturation in term placentas exposed to opioid maintenance therapy: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Allison E; Lemon, Lara S; Mokhtari, Neggin B; Parks, W Tony; Catov, Janet M; Venkataramanan, Raman; Caritis, Steve N

    2017-04-01

    Opioid use disorder among pregnant women is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and is increasing in the United States. The standard of care for pregnant women with opioid use disorder is opioid maintenance therapy including either methadone or buprenorphine, which can be initiated at any time during pregnancy. These medications are known to cross the placenta but their placental and fetal effects have not been well characterized. Delayed villous maturation, a placental finding associated with stillbirth, was observed in placentas exposed to opioid maintenance therapy. Given the association of delayed villous maturation with stillbirth, and the possible relationship between opioid maintenance therapy and delayed villous maturation, this study was undertaken to explore the association between opioid maintenance therapy and this placental finding. Delayed villous maturation was not previously reported in placentas exposed to opioids or opioid maintenance therapy. This study sought to compare risk of delayed villous maturation in term placentas exposed and unexposed to opioid maintenance therapy with buprenorphine or methadone. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted between 2010 through 2012 at Magee-Womens Hospital comparing delayed villous maturation in placentas of women with opioid use disorder exposed to either buprenorphine (n = 86) or methadone (n = 268) versus women without opioid use disorder (n = 978). Potential covariates were assessed in univariate analyses with none significantly associated with delayed villous maturation. The final model used conditional logistic regression adjusting for smoking status alone. Among women without opioid use disorder (and therefore not exposed to opioid maintenance therapy), delayed villous maturation was identified in 5.7% of placentas while the prevalence among women treated with buprenorphine or methadone was 8.1% and 10.8%. Overall, the crude odds of being diagnosed with delayed villous maturation

  4. Morphology, histochemistry and glycosylation of the placenta and associated tissues in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Carter, A M; Allen, W R

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are few descriptions of the placenta and associated tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and here we present findings on a near-term pregnant specimen. METHODS: Tissues were examined grossly and then formalin fixed and wax-embedded for histology...... acid and various other glycans. Glycogen was present in large cells situated between the spongy zone and the endometrium. Trophoblast cells in the placental disc and under Reichert's membrane, as well as yolk sac endoderm and mesothelium, were cytokeratin positive. Reichert's membrane was heavily...... glycosylated. Yolk sac inner and outer endoderm expressed similar glycans except for N-acetylgalactosamine residues in endodermal acini. DISCUSSION: New features of near-term hedgehog placenta and associated tissues are presented, including their glycosylation, and novel yolk sac acinar structures...

  5. [Imbalance of system of glutamin - glutamic acid in the placenta and amniotic fluid at placental insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelova, T N; Gunko, V O; Linde, V A

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism of glutamine and glutamic acid has been investigated in the placenta and amniotic fluid under conditions of placental insufficiency. The development of placental insufficiency is characterized by the increased content of glutamic acid and a decrease of glutamine in both placenta and amniotic fluid. These changes changes were accompanied by changes in the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these amino acids. There was a decrease in glutamate dehydrogenase activity and an increase in glutaminase activity with the simultaneous decrease of glutamine synthetase activity. The compensatory decrease in the activity of glutamine keto acid aminotransferase did not prevent a decrease in the glutamine level. The impairments in the system glutamic acid-glutamine were more pronounced during the development of premature labor.

  6. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridisation for demonstration of Coxiella burnetti in placentas from ruminant abortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Montgomery, Donald L.; Jaeger, Paula T.

    2007-01-01

    A fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) assay targeting 16S ribosomal RNA was developed for detection of the zoonotic bacterium Coxiella burnetii in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, and applied on placentas from ruminant abortions. The applicability of the FISH assay was compared...... to immunohistochemistry (IHC) using human positive control serum in 12 cases of C burnetii-associated placentitis as well as 7 negative control tissue samples. In all 12 cases the bacterium was detected within trophoblasts as well as free in the placental debris by both FISH and IHC. Extensive and significant infection...... by C. burnetii was revealed in 10 of the cases, whereas a slighter and focal distribution of the bacterium was observed in two cases. 90 aborted placentas from Danish ruminants were investigated by FISH. C burnetii was detected in one bovine case only, representing the first confirmation of C burnetii...

  7. Placenta with Old, Diffuse Infarction that Was Difficult to Differentiate from a Placental Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hidehiko; Miyazaki-Igarashi, Miwa; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-01-01

    Placental lesions, including placental infarction, are associated with fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. We present a case of fetal growth restriction associated with an old, diffuse placental infarction. Because the placenta had only a single viable cotyledon, the others being atrophic, the lesion appeared to be a placental tumor on prenatal ultrasonography. The patient did not have pregnancy-induced hypertension. At 31 weeks of gestation, a cesarean delivery was performed because of fetal growth arrest and breech presentation. A small-for-gestational age infant was delivered with Apgar scores of 8 at both 1 and 5 minutes, and the infant had cleft palate and cleft lips. Pathological examination of the placenta revealed an old, diffuse infarction without neoplastic change. In cases in which a placental tumor causing fetal growth restriction is strongly suspected, diffuse placental infarction should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis, because placental tumors are associated with poor maternal prognosis.

  8. Conservative Management of Invasive Placenta Using Combined Prophylactic Internal Iliac Artery Balloon Occlusion and Immediate Postoperative Uterine Artery Embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Donna L; Kingdom, John C; Amsalem, Hagai; Beecroft, John R; Windrim, Rory C; Kachura, John R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined prophylactic intraoperative internal iliac artery balloon occlusion and postoperative uterine artery embolization in the conservative management (uterine preservation) of women with invasive placenta undergoing scheduled caesarean delivery. Ten women (mean age 35 years) with invasive placenta choosing caesarean delivery without hysterectomy had preoperative insertion of internal iliac artery occlusion balloons, intraoperative inflation of the balloons, and immediate postoperative uterine artery embolization with absorbable gelatin sponge. A retrospective review was performed with institutional review board approval. Outcome measures were intraoperative blood loss, transfusion requirement, hysterectomy rate, endovascular complications, surgical complications, and postoperative morbidity. All women had placenta increta or percreta, and concomitant complete placenta previa. Mean gestational age at delivery was 36 weeks. In 6 women the placenta was left undisturbed in the uterus, 2 had partial removal of the placenta, and 2 had piecemeal removal of the whole placenta. Mean estimated blood loss during caesarean delivery was 1.2 L. Only 2 patients (20%) required blood transfusion. There were no intraoperative surgical complications, endovascular complications, maternal deaths, or perinatal deaths. Three women developed postpartum complications necessitating postpartum hysterectomy; the hysterectomy rate was therefore 30% and uterine preservation was successful in 70%. Combined bilateral internal iliac artery balloon occlusion and uterine artery embolization may be an effective strategy to control intraoperative blood loss and preserve the uterus in patients with invasive placenta undergoing caesarean delivery. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. LncRNAs Expression in Preeclampsia Placenta Reveals the Potential Role of LncRNAs Contributing to Preeclampsia Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xiaoju; He, Yinyan; Xi, Binrong; Zheng, Jiusheng; Zeng, Xiaoming; Cai, Qinhua; OuYang, Yu; Wang, Chen; Zhou, Xiaofei; Huang, Huiying; Deng, Wei; Xin, Siming; Huang, Qixiang; Liu, Huai

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an important class of pervasive genes involved in a variety of biological functions. They are aberrantly expressed in many types of diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the lncRNA profiles in preeclampsia. Preeclampsia has been observed in patients with molar pregnancy where a fetus is absent, which demonstrate that the placenta is sufficient to cause this condition. Thus, we analyzed the lncRNA profiles in preeclampsia placentas. MET...

  10. Changes of Proteoglycan Expression and Glycosaminoglycan Constituents in the Intervillous Space of the Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension Placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Matsukura, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Tanaka, Kanji; Ozaki, Takashi; Mizunuma, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    The changes in proteoglycan (PG) expression and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) constituents in theintervillous space of the pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIR) placenta were investigated. PGs and GAGs werepurified from the extract of the placental intervillous space by the DEAE-Sephacel column and salt-concentrationgradient method. and the GAG sugar chains were released by the actinase and cellulase treatments. Thesugar chains from the placentas of normal pregnancy and PIR were compared by cellulos...

  11. The effect of maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption on the placenta-to-birth weight ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; Tikellis, G; Sun, C; Pezic, A; Wang, L; Wells, J C K; Cochrane, J; Ponsonby, A-L; Dwyer, T

    2014-07-01

    Maternal influence on fetal growth is mediated through the placenta and this influence may have an implication for the offspring's long-term health. The placenta-to-birth weight ratio has been regarded as an indicator of placental function. However, few studies have examined the effect of maternal lifestyle exposures on the placenta-to-birth weight ratio. This study aims to examine the associations of maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption with the placenta-to-birth weight ratio. Data for 7945 term singletons, gestation≥37 weeks, were selected from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey; a 1988-1995 Australian cohort study. Placenta and birth weight were extracted from birth notification records. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was strongly associated with a 6.77 g/kg higher (95% CI 4.83-8.71) placenta-to-birth weight ratio when compared to non-smoking mothers. Maternal prenatal smoking was associated with lower placental (β = -15.37 g; 95% CI -23.43 to -7.31) and birth weights (β = -205.49 g; 95% CI -232.91 to -178.08). Mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy had a lower placenta-to-birth weight ratio (β = -2.07 g/kg; 95% CI -4.01 to -0.12) than mothers who did not consume alcohol. The associations of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy with placental and birth weight did not reach statistical significance. Maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption may influence fetal growth by either directly or indirectly altering the function of the placenta. The alteration of the in utero environment induced by smoking and alcohol consumption appears to affect placental and fetal growth in differing ways. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Proteomic Analysis of Human Placenta with Pre-eclampsia and Normal Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong In; Kong, Tae Wook; Kim, Haeng Soo; Kim, Ho Yeon

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most important and complexed disorders for women's health. Searching for novel proteins as biomarkers to reveal pathogenesis, proteomic approaches using 2DE has become a valuable tool to understanding of preeclampsia. To analyze the proteomic profiling of preclamptic placenta compared to that of normal pregnancy for better understanding of pathogenesis in preeclampsia, placentas from each group were handled by use of proteomics approach using 2DE combined with MALDI-TOF-MS. The 20 spots of showing differences were analysed and identified. Among differentially expressed protein spots Hsp 27 and Hsp 70 were selected for validation using Western blot analysis. In preeclamptic placenta 9 differentially expressed proteins were down-regulated with Hsp 70, serum albumin crystal structure chain A, lamin B2, cytokeratin 18, actin cytoplasmic, alpha fibrinogen precursor, septin 2, dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2 and firbrinogen beta chain. The 11 up-regulated proteins were fibrinogen gamma, cardiac muscle alpha actin proprotein, cytokeratin 8, calumenin, fibrinogen fragment D, F-actin capping protein alpha-1 subunit, Hsp 27, Hsp 40, annexin A4, enoyl-CoA delta isomerase and programmed cell death protein 6. The western blot analysis for validation also showed significant up-regulation of Hsp 27 and down-regulation of Hsp 70 in the placental tissues with preeclmaptic pregnancies. This proteomic profiling of placenta using 2DE in preeclampsia successfully identifies various proteins involved in apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as three Hsps with altered expression, which might play a important role for the understanding of pathogenesis in preeclampsia.

  13. Morphology, histochemistry and glycosylation of the placenta and associated tissues in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Carter, A M; Allen, W R; Wilsher, Sandra A

    2016-12-01

    There are few descriptions of the placenta and associated tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and here we present findings on a near-term pregnant specimen. Tissues were examined grossly and then formalin fixed and wax-embedded for histology and immunocytochemistry (cytokeratin) and resin embedded for lectin histochemistry. Each of four well-developed and near term hoglets displayed a discoid, haemochorial placenta with typical labyrinth and spongy zones. In addition there was a paraplacenta incorporating Reichert's membrane and a largely detached yolk sac. The trophoblast of the placenta contained diverse populations of granule which expressed most classes of glycan. Intercellular membranes were also glycosylated and this tended to be heavier in the labyrinth zone. Fetal capillary endothelium had glycosylated apical surfaces expressing sialic acid and various other glycans. Glycogen was present in large cells situated between the spongy zone and the endometrium. Trophoblast cells in the placental disc and under Reichert's membrane, as well as yolk sac endoderm and mesothelium, were cytokeratin positive. Reichert's membrane was heavily glycosylated. Yolk sac inner and outer endoderm expressed similar glycans except for N-acetylgalactosamine residues in endodermal acini. New features of near-term hedgehog placenta and associated tissues are presented, including their glycosylation, and novel yolk sac acinar structures are described. The trophoblast of the placental disc showed significant differences from that underlying Reichert's membrane while the glycan composition of the membrane itself showed some similarity to that of rat thereby implying a degree of biochemical conservation of this structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerstedt, Sara [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy [Department of Medicine Solna, Translational Immunology Unit, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Mie, Axel [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Alm, Johan [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Sachs' Children and Youth Hospital, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: marie.vahter@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-01-15

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A diet rich

  15. Safe spinal anesthesia in a woman with chronic renal failure and placenta previa

    OpenAIRE

    Beyazit Zencirci

    2010-01-01

    Beyazit ZencirciKahramanmaras, TurkeyBackground: Chronic renal failure is strongly associated with poor pregnancy outcome. Women dependent on hemodialysis before conception rarely achieve a successful live birth.Case presentation: A 31-year-old multiparous Turkish woman was scheduled for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia at 37 weeks and five days’ gestation because of hemorrhage due to secondary placenta previa. Spinal anesthesia with 8 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine was succes...

  16. Comparative study of transperineal and transvaginal sonography for localization of placenta in antepartum haermorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Pushpa Dahiya; Shaveta Jain; Neelam Gupta; Jyotsna sen; Nitin Jain

    2016-01-01

    Background: Haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in world in pregnant patients.Patients with antepartum haemorrhage confirmation of location of placenta by sonography is must for management. Transvaginal sonography(TVS) has main disadvantage of need of penetration of vagina and provoking vaginal haemorrhage It can also result in uterine contraction and requirement of special transducer. Transperineal sonography(TPS) is more convenient and safer means...

  17. Tabaquismo materno: impacto sobre el neonato, placenta y reactividad de la arteria umbilical

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Silvina; Iveli, María Florencia; Rimorini, Laura; Roldán Palomo, Rocío; Enrique, Nicolás; Salemme, Silvia; Cecotti, Norma; Rebolledo,Alejandro; Apezteguia, María; Milesi, Verónica

    2008-01-01

    Introducción: el fumar tabaco durante el embarazo aumenta los riesgos en la salud materno-infanto juvenil provocando múltiples alteraciones atribuidas a la nicotina y al monóxido de carbono producidos por el cigarrillo. Objetivos: estudiar las consecuencias del tabaquismo materno sobre el recién nacido (RN), la placenta y la respuesta contráctil a la nicotina de la arteria umbilical (AU) "in vitro". Metodología: dos grupo...

  18. Specific hypermethylation of LINE-1 elements during abnormal overgrowth and differentiation of human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, D; Ballestar, E; Fraga, M F; Frappart, L; Esteller, M; Guerin, J-F; Dante, R

    2007-04-12

    In human post-natal somatic cells, low global levels of DNA methylation have been associated with the hypomethylation of several repetitive elements, a feature that has been proposed to be a surrogate epigenetic marker. These data, mainly derived from the analysis of cancer cells, suggest a potential association between loss of cell-growth control and altered differentiation with hypomethylation of repetitive sequences. Partial hydatidiform moles (PHMs) can be used as an alternative model for investigating this association in a non-tumorigenic context. This gestational disease is characterized by abnormal overgrowth and differentiation of the placenta and spontaneous abortion. Here, we comprehensively analyse the DNA methylation of these trophoblastic tissues in both PHM and normal placenta at global and sequence-specific levels. Analysis of the global 5-methylcytosine content and immunohistochemistry indicate that PHM and normal placenta have identical global levels of DNA methylation. In contrast, bisulfite genomic sequencing shows that, whereas Alu, NBL2 and satellite 2 repetitive elements are equally methylated, LINE-1 sequences are hypermethylated in PHM tissues ( approximately 2-fold relative to normal placenta). Interestingly, altered demethylation is also found in triploid diandric embryos that originate from dispermic fertilization of an oocyte, a common event responsible for most PHMs. In conclusion, alterations of DNA methylation do not seem to be randomly distributed in PHM, as several repeated elements remain unaltered, whereas LINE-1 sequences are hypermethylated. In addition, our findings suggest that the hypomethylation of repetitive elements in cancer is directly linked to the neoplasic process and not a simple consequence of loss of growth control observed in most of the cancer cells.

  19. Permissiveness of bovine epithelial cells from lung, intestine, placenta and udder for infection with Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotta, Katharina; Bonkowski, Katharina; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Germon, Pierre; Rainard, Pascal; Hambruch, Nina; Pfarrer, Christiane; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Menge, Christian

    2017-04-12

    Ruminants are the main source of human infections with the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella (C.) burnetii. Infected animals shed high numbers of C. burnetii by milk, feces, and birth products. In goats, shedding by the latter route coincides with C. burnetii replication in epithelial (trophoblast) cells of the placenta, which led us to hypothesize that epithelial cells are generally implicated in replication and shedding of C. burnetii. We therefore aimed at analyzing the interactions of C. burnetii with epithelial cells of the bovine host (1) at the entry site (lung epithelium) which govern host immune responses and (2) in epithelial cells of gut, udder and placenta decisive for the quantity of pathogen excretion. Epithelial cell lines [PS (udder), FKD-R 971 (small intestine), BCEC (maternal placenta), F3 (fetal placenta), BEL-26 (lung)] were inoculated with C. burnetii strains Nine Mile I (NMI) and NMII at different cultivation conditions. The cell lines exhibited different permissiveness for C. burnetii. While maintaining cell viability, udder cells allowed the highest replication rates with formation of large cell-filling Coxiella containing vacuoles. Intestinal cells showed an enhanced susceptibility to invasion but supported C. burnetii replication only at intermediate levels. Lung and placental cells also internalized the bacteria but in strikingly smaller numbers. In any of the epithelial cells, both Coxiella strains failed to trigger a substantial IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α response. Epithelial cells, with mammary epithelial cells in particular, may therefore serve as a niche for C. burnetii replication in vivo without alerting the host's immune response.

  20. Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Triclosan on the Placenta in Pregnant Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixing Feng

    Full Text Available Triclosan (TCS is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Reports have shown that TCS is a potential endocrine disruptor; however, the potential effects of TCS on placental endocrine function are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of TCS on the placenta in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats from gestational day (GD 6 to GD 20 were treated with 0, 30, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d TCS followed by analysis of various biochemical parameters. Of the seven tissues examined, the greatest bioaccumulation of TCS was observed in the placenta. Reduction of gravid uterine weight and the occurrence of abortion were observed in the 600 mg/kg/d TCS-exposed group. Moreover, hormone detection demonstrated that the serum levels of progesterone (P, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and prolactin (PRL were decreased in groups exposed to higher doses of TCS. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in mRNA levels for placental steroid metabolism enzymes, including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1, estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1, steroid 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1 and steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5A2. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression levels of progesterone receptor (PR, estrogen receptor (ERα and androgen receptor (AR were up-regulated. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the placenta was a target tissue of TCS and that TCS induced inhibition of circulating steroid hormone production might be related to the altered expression of hormone metabolism enzyme genes in the placenta. This hormone disruption might subsequently affect fetal development and growth.

  1. Alcohol, Methamphetamine, and Marijuana Exposure Have Distinct Effects on the Human Placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R Colin; Wainwright, Helen; Molteno, Christopher D; Georgieff, Michael K; Dodge, Neil C; Warton, Fleur; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2016-04-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on placental development, but few studies have examined these effects in humans. Little is known about effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine, marijuana, and cigarette smoking on placental development. Placentas were collected from 103 Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) pregnant women recruited at their first antenatal clinic visit in Cape Town, South Africa. Sixty-six heavy drinkers and 37 nondrinkers were interviewed about their alcohol, cigarette smoking, and drug use at 3 antenatal visits. A senior pathologist, blinded to exposure status, performed comprehensive pathology examinations on each placenta using a standardized protocol. In multivariable regression models, effects of prenatal exposure were examined on placental size, structure, and presence of infections and meconium. Drinkers reported a binge pattern of heavy drinking, averaging 8.0 drinks/occasion across pregnancy on 1.4 d/wk. 79.6% smoked cigarettes; 22.3% used marijuana; and 17.5% used methamphetamine. Alcohol exposure was related to decreased placental weight and a smaller placenta-to-birthweight ratio. By contrast, methamphetamine was associated with larger placental weight and a larger placenta-to-birthweight ratio. Marijuana was also associated with larger placental weight. Alcohol exposure was associated with increased risk of placental hemorrhage. Prenatal alcohol, drug, and cigarette use were not associated with chorioamnionitis, villitis, deciduitis, or maternal vascular underperfusion. Alcohol and cigarette smoking were associated with a decreased risk of intrauterine passing of meconium, a sign of acute fetal stress and/or hypoxia; methamphetamine, with an increased risk. This is the first human study to show that alcohol, methamphetamine, and marijuana were associated with distinct patterns of pathology, suggesting different mechanisms mediating their effects on placental development. Given the growing

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging for abnormally invasive placenta: the added value of intravenous gadolinium injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millischer, A-E; Salomon, L J; Porcher, R; Brasseur-Daudruy, M; Gourdier, A-L; Hornoy, P; Silvera, S; Loisel, D; Tsatsaris, V; Delorme, B; Boddaert, N; Ville, Y; Sentilhes, L

    2017-01-01

    To assess the added value of intravenous gadolinium injection to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) -based diagnosis of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) and to examine this in relation to the radiologist's experience. Retrospective study. Between March 2009 and October 2012, 31 pregnant women who had previous caesarean delivery together with a placenta praevia and suspected placenta accreta on ultrasound in the third trimester of pregnancy. All were offered MRI examination, and made aware of the limited (but so far reassuring) data regarding fetal safety of gadolinium. Twenty pregnant women agreed to undergo prenatal MRI (1.5 T), with and without gadolinium injection. Two sets of MRI examinations without and with gadolinium were reviewed independently 2 months apart by two senior and two junior radiologists; all were blinded to the outcome (known in all cases). Histopathological findings and clinical signs of AIP were considered as the defining criteria of diagnosis. accuracy of MRI with and without gadolinium was assessed. Eight of the 20 women had confirmed abnormal placental invasion. The overall performance of both sets of readers in detecting AIP increased with gadolinium-sensitivity and specificity of 75.0% (42.0-100%) and 47.9% (19.9-75.9%) increasing to 87.5% (57.1-100%) and 60.4% (33.9-86.9%), respectively (P = 0.04). The added value of gadolinium remained irrespective of radiologist's experience, although senior radiologists performed better overall (sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and 62.5% versus 62.5% and 33.3%, respectively, increasing with injection to 93.8% and 70.8% versus 81.3% and 50%, respectively; P improvement in MRI-based diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of AIP, for both junior and senior radiologists. Gadolinium injection improves MRI performance of radiologists for the diagnosis of placenta accreta. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Hemangioblastic foci in human first trimester placenta: Distribution and gestational profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, John D; Whittaker, Hannah; Jana Lim, Yu Ting; Swietlik, Stefanie; Charnock, Jayne; Jones, Carolyn J P

    2015-10-01

    The human placenta is a site of both hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis. There are reports of hemangioblastic foci (HAF) in the first trimester placenta, but little published information about their spatiotemporal incidence. We have used semi-thin sections and whole mount staining techniques on archival early pregnancy hysterectomy material as well as freshly-collected termination tissue. We report a description of the distribution of HAF, their gestational profile, and some characteristics of the constituent cells. We show crypt-shaped HAF are present in villi at different levels from 4 to 11 weeks and in the chorionic plate from 4 to 9 weeks. In the villous placenta, the foci often approach closely at one end to the trophoblast basement membrane. Morphologically they show remarkable similarity to those found in the yolk sac at similar stages. In some crypts, all cells are CD34+, but CD34 and nestin progressively segregate into the endothelial lineage. Brachyury is present in less differentiated cells. The erythroid lineage is dominant, as shown by the widespread expression of CD235a/glycophorin and characteristic erythroid morphologies, indicating various degrees of differentiation. However, CD41 is also present in non-endothelial cells. Initially a discontinuous UEA-1/CD31-positive endothelium forms at the periphery of the foci. These cells appear to become integrated into the developing vasculogenic/angiogenic vessel network. We also demonstrate that, independent of HAF, vasculogenesis occurs near the tips of growing villi during the first trimester. We suggest HAF interface with the developing vascular network, producing communication channels that allow erythrocytes to enter the placental-embryonic circulation. We speculate that the erythroid cells act as oxygen reservoirs during the period before flow of maternal blood through the intervillous space of the placenta, allowing a slow feed of oxygen-rich cells to the developing embryo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  4. High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of placenta accreta after vaginal delivery: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y; Luo, X; Li, Q; Yin, N; Fu, X; Zhang, H; Qi, H

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficiency of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of placenta accreta after vaginal delivery. Enrolled into this study between September 2011 and September 2013 were 12 patients who had been diagnosed with placenta accreta following vaginal delivery and who had stable vital signs. All patients were treated using an ultrasound-guided HIFU treatment system. As indication of the effectiveness of the treatment we considered decreased vascular index on color Doppler imaging, decrease in size of residual placenta compared with pretreatment size on assessment by three-dimensional ultrasound with Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis, reduced signal intensity and degree of enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging and avoidance of hysterectomy following treatment. To assess the safety of HIFU treatment, we recorded side effects, hemorrhage, infection, sex steroid levels, return of menses and subsequent pregnancy. Patients were followed up in this preliminary study until December 2013. The 12 patients receiving HIFU treatment had an average postpartum hospital stay of 6.8 days and an average period of residual placental involution of 36.9 days. HIFU treatment did not apparently increase the risk of infection or hemorrhage and no patient required hysterectomy. In all patients menstruation recommenced after an average of 80.2 days, and sex steroid levels during the middle luteal phase of the second menstrual cycle were normal. Two patients became pregnant again during the follow-up period. This preliminary study suggests that ultrasound-guided HIFU is a safe and effective non-invasive method to treat placenta accreta patients after vaginal delivery who have stable vital signs and desire to preserve fertility. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Human placenta-derived neurospheres are susceptible to transformation after extensive in vitro expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Amendola, Donatella; Nardella, Marta; Guglielmi, Loredana; Cerquetti, Lidia; Carico, Elisabetta; Alesi, Viola; Porru, Manuela; Leonetti, Carlo; Bearzi, Claudia; Rizzi, Roberto; D’Agnano, Igea; Stigliano, Antonio; Novelli, Giuseppe; Bucci, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The cancer stem cell model links neoplastic cells with normal stem cell biology, but little is known on how normal stem cells are transformed into cancer stem cells. Methods To investigate the processes underlying the transformation of normal stem cells we developed in vitro a cancer stem cell model from human amniotic and chorionic placenta membranes. In this model we studied the expression of specific stem cell molecules by flow cytometry, and genes, by real time RT-PCR. Micros...

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is induced in the human placenta during labour

    OpenAIRE

    Veerbeek, J.H.W.; Tissot Van Patot, M.C.; Burton, G.J.; Yung, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been postulated in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), but its activation remains elusive. Oxidative stress induced by ischaemia/hypoxia-reoxygenation activates ER stress in?vitro. Here, we explored whether exposure to labour represents an in?vivo model for the study of acute placental ER stress. ER stress markers, GRP78, P-eIF2? and XBP-1, were significantly higher in laboured placentas than in ...

  7. Transfer of meropenem in the ex vivo human placenta perfusion model.

    OpenAIRE

    Roger E. Bawdon; Michael Hnat

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine maternal-fetal transplacental passage of meropenem in the ex vivo human perfusion model. STUDY DESIGN: Term placentae (n = 6) were collected immediately after delivery. A single cotyledon was localized, perfused and stabilized with physiologic Eagles minimal essential medium containing 3% bovine albumin and heparin as described by Chalier (Chalier JC. Criteria for evaluating perfusion experiments and presentation results. Contrib Gynecol Obstet 1985; 13:32 - 39). Mero...

  8. Transfer of Meropenem in the ex Vivo Human Placenta perfusion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Hnat; Roger E. Bawdon

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. To determine maternal-fetal transplacental passage of meropenem in the ex vivo human perfusion model.Study design. Term placentae (n = 6) were collected immediately after delivery. A single cotyledon was localized, perfused and stabilized with physiologic Eagles minimal essential medium containing 3% bovine albumin and heparin as described by Chalier (Chalier JC. Criteria for evaluating perfusion experiments and presentation results. Contrib Gynecol Obstet 1985; 13:32–39). Meropen...

  9. Is thrombophilia a risk factor for placenta-mediated pregnancy complications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Elise; Hedlund, Elisabeth; Perin, Trine

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if thrombophilia is a risk factor for placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPC) (i.e., preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), placental abruption, intrauterine fetal death and recurrent pregnancy loss). METHODS: A 5-year retrospective cohort study...... either: -7.2 versus -3.0 %, respectively. LMWH, as could be expected, was used more often in thrombophilia patients (39/43 vs. 10/41, P prevented by LMWH....

  10. Accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of placenta accreta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Riteau

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the diagnosis of placenta accreta and to define the most relevant specific ultrasound and MRI features that may predict placental invasion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was approved by the institutional review board of the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients referred for suspected placenta accreta to two university hospitals from 01/2001 to 05/2012. Our study population included 42 pregnant women who had been investigated by both ultrasonography and MRI. Ultrasound images and MRI were blindly reassessed for each case by 2 raters in order to score features that predict abnormal placental invasion. RESULTS: Sensitivity in the diagnosis of placenta accreta was 100% with ultrasound and 76.9% for MRI (P = 0.03. Specificity was 37.5% with ultrasonography and 50% for MRI (P = 0.6. The features of greatest sensitivity on ultrasonography were intraplacental lacunae and loss of the normal retroplacental clear space. Increased vascularization in the uterine serosa-bladder wall interface and vascularization perpendicular to the uterine wall had the best positive predictive value (92%. At MRI, uterine bulging had the best positive predictive value (85% and its combination with the presence of dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images improved the predictive value to 90%. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound imaging is the mainstay of screening for placenta accreta. MRI appears to be complementary to ultrasonography, especially when there are few ultrasound signs.

  11. Necrotic feature of the trophoblasts lacking HLA-G expression in normal and pre-eclamptic placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sageshima, Noriko; Ishitani, Akiko; Omura, Motoko; Akasaki, Masayoshi; Umekage, Hideshi; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Okamura, Hitoshi; Hatake, Katsuhiko

    2003-03-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is thought to be expressed in all placental extravillous trophoblasts (EXTs). In pre-eclamptic placentas, a lack of HLA-G expression on EXTs had been found, and deduced as a possible cause of pre-eclampsia. However, a subset of EXTs lacking expression of HLA-G can also be found in normal placenta. Therefore, we sought to compare these cells in normal and pre-eclamptic placentas. Frozen sections of normal and pre-eclamptic placentas were examined by immunohistochemical staining using HLA-G monoclonal antibody 87G, histochemical enzymatic analysis of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ultrastructural analysis. A subset of EXTs lacking HLA-G expression was found in both normal and pre-eclamptic placentas. These cells showed necrotic features such as the swelling of cells, eosin-achromatophilia, the loss of SDH activity and swelling mitochondria. Cells from both tissues were identical with regard to these features. The features of the EXTs lacking HLA-G expression indicated they had undergone necrosis and thus could not express HLA-G protein. Therefore, an alternative interpretation to the lack of HLA-G expression in pre-eclamptic placentas is that it is the result of cell death and not the cause.

  12. Coincidence the Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease With Placenta Membranacea (A Probably Genetic Relation with PKHD1 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Hosseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Placenta membranacea is one of the most barley anomalies happens in pregnancy defined by chorionic villi (partially or completely covered the fetus membrane. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease in fetus is also a rare case with an incidence of 1: 20,000 live births resulting in a 30% death rate in neonates. In this case for the first time, we reported a placenta membranacea and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease occurred with together. A 25-year-old woman was admitted at 16 weeks of gestation for inducing abortion with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease in fetus diagnosed in routine sonography fellowship. Post-delivery examination revealed a placenta totally enveloped the fetus, oligohydramnious and bilateral enlarged polycystic kidneys of fetus. Histological study indicated umbilicus has only one artery and one vein as well as autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and directly attachment of chorionic villi to fetal membrane eventually diagnosed as complete placenta membranacea. The etiology of placenta membranacea is not completely clarified. As autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is a result of mutation in PKHD1 gene, so our finding may be initiates a new investigation about genetic relation between placenta membranacea and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

  13. Artificial placenta--lung assist devices for term and preterm newborns with respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochow, Niels; Chan, Emily C; Wu, Wen-I; Selvaganapathy, Ponnambalam R; Fusch, Gerhard; Berry, Leslie; Brash, John; Chan, Anthony K; Fusch, Christoph

    2013-06-25

    Respiratory insufficiency is a major cause of neonatal mortality and long-term morbidity, especially in very low birth weight infants. Today, non-invasive and mechanical ventilation are commonly accepted procedures to provide respiratory support to newborns, but they can reach their limit of efficacy. To overcome this technological plateau and further reduce mortality rates, the technology of an "artificial placenta", which is a pumpless lung assist device connected to the umbilical vessels, would serve to expand the therapeutic spectrum when mechanical ventilation becomes inadequate to treat neonates with severe respiratory insufficiency.
The first attempts to create such an artificial placenta took place more than 60 years ago. However, there has been a recent renaissance of this concept, including developments of its major components like the oxygenator, vascular access via umbilical vessels, flow control, as well as methods to achieve hemocompatibility in extracorporeal circuits. This paper gives a review of past and current development, animal experiments and human case studies of artificial placenta technology.

  14. Analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress in placentas of HIV-infected women treated with protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Ansgar; Kimmich, Tanja; Brem, German J; Buchholtz, Marie L; Mylonas, Ioannis; Kost, Bernd; Weizsäcker, Katharina; Gingelmaier, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Combined antiretroviral therapy has proven efficacy in decreasing vertical HIV transmission. However, endoplasmic reticulum stress is a known side effect of HIV protease inhibitors. We investigated endoplasmic reticulum stress in placentas of HIV-infected and uninfected mothers by PCR-based splicing analysis of the specific endoplasmic reticulum stress marker XBP1 in post-delivery placental samples of uninfected mothers and in HIV-infected mothers taking antiretroviral therapy. No elevated XBP1 splicing could be detected in placentas of uninfected mothers and most of the mothers receiving combined anti-retroviral therapy. However, markedly elevated XBP1 splicing was found in the placentas of three individuals on combined antiviral therapy, all receiving lopinavir or atazanavir. In vitro experiments confirmed induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress by lopinavir and atazanavir in trophoblast-derived cell lines. Since endoplasmic reticulum stress occurred in selective patients only, individual differences in susceptibility of HIV-infected mothers to protease inhibitor induced endoplasmic reticulum stress can be postulated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence as a fast multielemental technique for human placenta sample analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguí, E.; Ricketts, P.; Fletcher, H.; Karydas, A. G.; Migliori, A.; Leani, J. J.; Hidalgo, M.; Queralt, I.; Voutchkov, M.

    2017-04-01

    In the present contribution, benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been evaluated as a cost-effective multielemental analytical technique for human placenta analysis. An easy and rapid sample preparation consisting of suspending 50 mg of sample in 1 mL of a Triton 1% solution in deionized water showed to be the most suitable for this kind of samples. However, for comparison purposes, an acidic microwave acidic digestion procedure was also applied. For both sample treatment methodologies, limits of detection for most elements were in the low mg/kg level. Accurate and precise results were obtained using internal standardization as quantification approach and applying a correction factor to compensate for absorption effects. The correction factor was based on the proportional ratio between the slurry preparation results and those obtained for the analysis of a set of human placenta samples analysed by microwave acidic digestion and ICP-AES analysis. As a study case, the developed TXRF methodology was applied for multielemental analysis (K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr) of several healthy women's placenta samples from two regions in Jamaica.

  16. Feed-forward Control Nursing Model in Expectant Treatment of Placenta Previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanfei; Zhang, Shuxuan; Shan, Wenxian; Hu, Ming

    2017-02-01

    We studied the possible advantages of feed-forward control nursing model in the treatment of placenta previa. We enrolled 60 pregnant women who were receiving treatment for expectant placenta previa between January 2010 and January 2016 and randomly divided them into the control group and the observation group with 30 cases in each group. In the control group, we offered specialist nursing which included examination, body positioning, vaginal bleeding record, psychological consultation and medication observation. Feed-forward control nursing was applied in the observation group which included establishing feed-forward control nursing improvement team, conducting quality control of nursing defects and putting forward ideas for improvements and verifying improvement outcomes. The observation group got significantly higher success rate and lower complication rate compared with control group. Gestational age and fetal weights improved apparently in the observation group. When we compared the amount of postpartum bleeding and pregnancy bleeding in two groups we did not find any statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Patients' satisfaction rate toward our nursing services was much higher in the observation group and the rate of nursing errors was significantly lower in this group. All differences were statistically significant (Pfeed-forward control nursing model in the expectant treatment of placenta previa can improve treatment success rate, decrease complications and upgrade nursing quality.

  17. Expression of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 in cattle placenta during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Liu, R; Liang, X; Zhao, Q; Qu, P; Yao, K; Jiang, M; Luo, Y; Zhang, W; Qing, S

    2017-12-01

    Interferon-tau (IFNT), a type I interferon, is an antiluteolytic factor secreted by trophoderm during pregnancy. IFNT transmitted signals or stimulated the expression of some factors to build maternal recognition and keep pregnancy by binding its receptors, IFNT receptor 1(IFNAR1) and IFNT receptor 2 (IFNAR2). Up to now, the expression model and roles of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 in placenta have not been investigated in cattle. In this study, the localization and expression of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 in the cattle placenta at days 18-50 of pregnancy were detected by histological examination, immunofluorescence staining and real-time qPCR. The results showed that IFNAR1 mainly distributed in chorioallantoic membrane, endometrial epithelium, cotyledon and caruncle during the early pregnancy of cattle with change in time- and position-dependent. IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 mRNA expression were mainly detected in chorioallantoic membrane and cotyledon, and markedly increased along with pregnancy process. Moreover, the mRNA expression level of IFNAR1 in chorioallantoic membrane and cotyledon was higher than that of IFNAR2. IFNAR mRNA was also expressed in caruncle tissues, which experienced a tendency of decrease from days 21 to 36, followed by increase after days 36. These results provide morphological basis and quantitative data for investigating the roles of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 on development of cattle placenta and pregnancy maintenance. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Placenta Previa Percreta: A Case Report of Successful Management via Conservative Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Canonico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Placenta percreta is one of the most serious complications of placenta previa and is frequently associated with severe obstetric hemorrhage usually necessitating hysterectomy. We present a case of placenta previa percreta diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques, in which we accomplished conservative management of postpartum hemorrhage. The management we propose includes the following steps: preventive catheterization of the descending aorta via transhumeral access; Stark cesarean delivery; uterotonics drugs; Affronti endouterine square hemostatic sutures; intrauterine application of Bakri balloon and partial filling with 100 mL of normal saline; B Lynch suture, hysterorrhaphy, and filling a Bakri balloon with up to 500 mL of normal saline; reversible radiological embolization; and/or surgical ligation of the uterine arteries. The bleeding stopped following placement of Affronti sutures combined with external (B-Lynch suture and internal (Bakri balloon uterine compression. Our experience indicates that this conservative method can be considered an option in the management of selected cases of pregnancy at high risk for intrapartum hemorrhage.

  19. Sheep Placenta Cotyledons: A Noninvasive Source of Ovine Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribitsch, Iris; Chang-Rodriguez, Souyet; Egerbacher, Monika; Gabner, Simone; Gueltekin, Sinan; Huber, Johann; Schuster, Therese; Jenner, Florien

    2017-05-01

    Sheep are one of the most frequently used large animal models in stem cell research. However, minimal invasive or noninvasive sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in sheep are scarce. In the light of the principles of the 3Rs (reduce, refine, replace), it would therefore be desirable to identify a minimally invasive or noninvasive ovine MSC source. In humans, the chorionic villi of the placenta, which can be noninvasively harvested as part of the afterbirth, have been identified as a rich source of MSCs. Therefore, in the present study, ovine placenta cotyledons, which have similar function and structure to human chorionic villi, were tested for their potential use as a noninvasive source of ovine MSCs. Through mincing of the placental cotyledons, collagenase digestion, and Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, combined with plastic adherence selection, MSCs were successfully isolated. Their morphological, immunophenotypical, and cellular growth characteristics, as well as their proliferation, differentiation, and migration potential, were evaluated and compared to the currently best-researched MSC source, bone marrow-derived stem cells. Ovine cotyledons were shown to be a reliable, abundant source for the noninvasive, pain- and risk-free harvest of MSCs. The collection procedure does not interfere with partum or the initial bonding phase between ewes and lambs and is therefore exempt from ethical debate. Ovine placenta cotyledon-derived MSCs exhibit multipotential characteristics and can be cryopreserved for later use.

  20. Differential Proteome Analysis of the Preeclamptic Placenta Using Optimized Protein Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Centlow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The human placenta is a difficult tissue to work with using proteomic technology since it contains large amounts of lipids and glycogen. Both lipids and glycogen are known to interfere with the first step in the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE, the isoelectric focusing. In order to gain the best possible protein separation on 2D-PAGE, an optimized sample preparation protocol for placental proteins was developed. Two different buffers, urea/CHAPS and Hepes, were used for solubilization in combination with six different precipitation methods. The removal of glycogen from the samples by centrifugation was crucial for the final proteome maps. Solubilization with urea/CHAPS in combination with dichloromethane/methanol or acidified acetone proved to be the best precipitation procedures. When applied to clinical placenta samples apolipoprotein A1 was found to be accumulated in the preeclamptic placenta, where it may either have a nutritional effect or act as a modifier of signal transduction.

  1. Research on Possible Effects of Acrylamide and Vitamin E Administered to Pregnant Rats on Placenta Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Erman Erdemli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigate the changes that occur in the placenta tissues of pregnant rats that were administered acrylamide (AA and vitamin E as a protective agent during pregnancy. Thirty rats that were proven positive for pregnancy with vaginal smear test were randomly distributed into control, corn oil, vitamin E, acrylamide and vitamin E + acrylamide groups. Pregnant rats were decapitated on the 20th day of the experiment. Malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total antioxidant capacity (TAS, total oxidant capacity (TOS and Xanthine oxidase (XO levels were measured in placenta tissues. It was determined that acrylamide application during pregnancy statistically significantly increased MDA, TOS and XO levels and reduced GSH and TAS levels in the placenta tissue of pregnant rats when compared to all other groups, and GAS and TAS levels statistically significantly increased in vitamin E administered group when compared to all other groups and TOS and XO levels were decreased to control group levels. It was observed that orally administered AA changed the antioxidant / oxidant equilibrium favoring the oxidants by increasing MDA, XO and TOS levels in pregnant rats and caused oxidative stress, while vitamin E administration returned the antioxidant / oxidant equilibrium back to normal levels, preventing oxidative stress induced toxicity.

  2. The Clinical Study about Honilirls Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chae-Woo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study has been designed and performed to identify the effect on Bell's palsy according to the injection of herbal medicine induced from the Hominis Placenta. Methods : We measured the facial palsy changes of the patients who were admitted for Bell's palsy in the Oriental Medical hospital of Dongeui medical center from 03-01-2004 to 07-31-2004. Bell's palsy patients were divided into two groups. One group(A group was injected with Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture. The other group(B group was injected with normal saline. Then effects of these treatment was evaluated by Yanagihara's unweighted grading system. Results : A group was marked more higher than B group in treatment outcome. we discovered that it is significant differences between two groups after 4 week. Conclusions : These results provided that A group is more effective than B group. For clearly proving the effect of Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy, it is need more sample's number and more treatment's duration.

  3. Decreased binding of epidermal growth factor in placentas from streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissom, J F; Stenzel, W K; Warshaw, J B

    1987-07-01

    Placentas from streptozotocin-diabetic rats have previously been shown to be morphologically and biochemically immature when compared with those of control rats. The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to plasma membranes prepared from placentas of control and streptozotocin-diabetic fetuses has been characterized on days 17 and 21 of gestation. Results from competitive binding data analyzed by Scatchard analysis indicate the presence of a single class of receptors on day 17 (KD = 5.4 X 10(-10)) and the appearance of a second class of binding sites for 125I-EGF by day 21 (Kd = 3.5 X 10(-9)) in membranes from control fetuses. Placental membranes from diabetic fetuses show decreased specific binding (approximately 30%) on both days and the absence of a second class of binding sites on day 21 of gestation. Results from a radioreceptor assay indicate that the quantity of EGF in the serum of fetuses removed from control rats on day 21 is twofold greater than the quantity in serum of fetuses from diabetic rats. These data reveal a developmental increase in EGF-binding sites in the placenta of normal, near-term fetal rats, largely because of the appearance of a second class of binding sites with a lower affinity for EGF. The failure (or delay) of this second class to develop in the diabetic may be important for the control of maturation and growth of this tissue.

  4. Spontaneous rupture of a primigravid uterus secondary to placenta percreta. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imseis, H M; Murtha, A P; Alexander, K A; Barnett, B D

    1998-03-01

    Uterine rupture secondary to placenta percreta has been observed in multiparous patients. These cases are typically associated with a prior history of uterine trauma or infection: hysterotomy, myomectomy, cornual resection, dilatation and curettage, manual removal of the placenta or endometritis. Spontaneous rupture of the primigravid uterus without a history of trauma or infection is an exceedingly rare occurrence. This case represents the second reported in the medical literature and the first to result in a live-born infant. A 23-year-old, African American primigravida at 26 weeks' gestation presented with acute-onset abdominal pain, severe hypotension, tachycardia and fetal heart rate decelerations. Blood product replacement was initiated, and an emergency laparotomy was performed for a presumptive diagnosis of intraabdominal hemorrhage. A significant hemoperitoneum was encountered, with the fetus floating freely in the peritoneal cavity. The uterus had a fundal rupture with a clinically apparent placenta percreta that necessitated performing a total abdominal hysterectomy. The patient recovered uneventfully, and the infant survived without significant morbidity. Spontaneous rupture of the primigravid uterus can occur in the absence of a history of uterine trauma or infection. If a gravid woman presents with hypotension, abdominal pain and fetal distress, the differential diagnosis should include rupture of the uterus, regardless of parity or gynecologic history. Rapid diagnosis, blood product replacement and emergency laparotomy are the key steps in successful management.

  5. Differential transferrin expression in placentae from normal and abnormal pregnancies: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukovsky Antonin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The placenta is an important site for iron metabolism in humans. It transfers iron from the mother to the fetus. One of the major iron transport proteins is transferrin, which is a blood plasma protein crucial for iron uptake. Its localization and expression may be one of the markers to distinguish placental dysfunction. Methods In the experimental study we used antibody preparation, mass spectrometric analysis, biochemical and immunocytochemical methods for characterization of transferrin expression on the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR (JAR cells, placental lysates, and cryostat sections. Newly designed monoclonal antibody TRO-tf-01 to human transferrin was applied on human placentae from normal (n = 3 and abnormal (n = 9 pregnancies. Results Variations of transferrin expression were detected in villous syncytiotrophoblast, which is in direct contact with maternal blood. In placentae from normal pregnancies, the expression of transferrin in the syncytium was significantly lower (p Conclusion These observations suggest that in the case of abnormal pregnancies, the fetus may require higher levels of transferrin in order to prevent iron depletion due to the stress from the placental dysfunction.

  6. High Expression of Endogenous Retroviral Envelope Gene in the Equine Fetal Part of the Placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Stefanetti

    Full Text Available Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs are proviral phases of exogenous retroviruses that have co-evolved with vertebrate genomes for millions of years. Previous studies have identified the envelope (env protein genes of retroviral origin preferentially expressed in the placenta which suggests a role in placentation based on their membrane fusogenic capacity and therefore they have been named syncytins. Until now, all the characterized syncytins have been associated with three invasive placentation types: the endotheliochorial (Carnivora, the synepitheliochorial (Ruminantia, and the hemochorial placentation (human, mouse where they play a role in the syncytiotrophoblast formation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether EqERV env RNA is expressed in horse tissues as well and investigate if the horse, possessing an epitheliochorial placenta, has "captured" a common retroviral env gene with syncytin-like properties in placental tissues. Interestingly, although in the equine placenta there is no syncytiotrophoblast layer at the maternal-fetal interface, our results showed that EqERV env RNA is highly expressed at that level, as expected for a candidate syncytin-like gene but with reduced abundance in the other somatic tissues (nearly 30-fold lower thus suggesting a possible role in the placental tissue. Although the horse is one of the few domestic animals with a sequenced genome, few studies have been conducted about the EqERV and their expression in placental tissue has never been investigated.

  7. Maternal exercise during pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm birth through the mediating role of placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihua; Fan, Lijun; Ding, Peng; He, Yan-Hui; Xie, Chuanbo; Niu, Zhongzheng; Tian, Fu-Ying; Yuan, Shi-Xin; Jia, De-Qin; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2017-09-07

    The extent of research on maternal exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth (PTB) have grown substantially, but conclusions still remained controversial. Thus, this study aims to examine the relationship of maternal exercise during pregnancy and PTB and explore whether placenta mediates their relationship. We investigated 849 pregnant women delivering PTB newborns (cases) and 1306 delivering full-term appropriate for gestational age newborns (controls) in this case-control study. Information concerning maternal exercise during pregnancy, sociodemographics and obstetric characteristics were collected at Women and Children's Hospitals of Shenzhen and Foshan in Guangdong, China. A series of logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the relationships of maternal exercise during pregnancy, placenta, and PTB. After adjusting for the potential confounders, maternal exercise frequency and duration during pregnancy were negatively associated with PTB. Moreover, compared with mother taking no exercise during pregnancy, those taking exercise lowered the risk of PTB except those taking low/medium frequency and short duration exercise, and their adjusted ORs ranged from 0.43 to 0.65. Furthermore, mediation analysis illustrated that placental weight partially mediated 65.20% of the effects of maternal exercise frequency on PTB, as well as 41.98% of the association between maternal exercise duration and PTB. Maternal exercise during pregnancy is beneficial for lowering the risk of PTB, especially when taking appropriate and enough exercise. Placenta weight may partially mediate the association between maternal exercise during pregnancy and PTB.

  8. Evidence for clock genes circadian rhythms in human full-term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Silvia; Murias, Lucía; Fernández-Plaza, Catalina; Díaz, Irene; González, Celestino; Otero, Jesús; Díaz, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Biological rhythms are driven by endogenous biological clocks; in mammals, the master clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. This master pacemaker can synchronize other peripheral oscillators in several tissues such as some involved in endocrine or reproductive functions. The presence of an endogenous placental clock has received little attention. In fact, there are no studies in human full-term placentas. To test the existence of an endogenous pacemaker in this tissue we have studied the expression of circadian locomoter output cycles kaput (Clock), brain and muscle arnt-like (Bmal)1, period (Per)2, and cryptochrome (Cry)1 mRNAs at 00, 04, 08, 12, 16, and 20 hours by qPCR. The four clock genes studied are expressed in full-term human placenta. The results obtained allow us to suggest that a peripheral oscillator exists in human placenta. Data were analyzed using Fourier series where only the Clock and Bmal1 expression shows a circadian rhythm.

  9. An experience from a tertiary institution in North Western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors associated with excessive blood loss include grand multiparity, abruptio placentae, abnormal implantation of the placenta, prolonged labor, chorioamnionitis, multiple pregnancies, classical CS, obesity, and general anesthesia as observed in this study. In this study, there was significant relationship between.

  10. Misoprostol in obstetrics and gynaecology — benefits and risks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    normally situated placenta. A tablet of misoprostol (200. µg) was found in the vagina. The patient had inserted the tablet herself (obtained from a neighbour). Emergency caesarean section was performed for suspected abruptio placentae and fetal heart rate decelerations, detected by electronic fetal heart rate monitoring.

  11. Review: Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and deaths ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other factors placing women at risk of PPH include increased parity, increased maternal age, obesity, polyhydramnios, multiple pregnancy, known placenta praevia and abruptio placenta. Women identified with such factors should be delivered in hospitals with 24 hour caesarean section services. Their labours should have ...

  12. An increase in rates of obstetric haemorrhage in a setting of high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases of OH (including abruptio placentae, placenta praevia, unspecified antepartum haemorrhage (APH), and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH)) were identified from maternity delivery records, and the relevant data extracted. Results. We analysed the records of 448 women diagnosed with OH. Even though the incidence ...

  13. Gross Morphological Variation in Preterm Placenta in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

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    Roxana Ferdousi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm birth is the primary cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Recently, it has become a significant issue in public health policies of developing countries. Among the various causes, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are two important high-risk factors for preterm birth. Again, placenta is a mirror that reflects the well-being of the fetus and continuously undergoes a change in weight, structure, shape and function in order to support the well-being of the fetus. Objective: To make an in-depth analysis on the possible gross morphological changes in preterm placenta in respect of GDM and PIH. Materials and Methods: The study was observational, analytical and cross sectional. The patients under this study were selected from the Obstetric ward of BSMMU and BIRDEM Hospital, from June 2005 to October 2005. A total of sixty-six samples were collected from women during 28 weeks to 36 completed weeks of gestation. Among them, twenty-two samples were from mothers having GDM, twenty-two having PIH and twenty-two belonged to normal pregnancy (control group. The placentas were examined to measure their diameter, thickness, cotyledons number, weight, and volume. Results: In this study, the GDM group showed significantly higher values for the variables of diameter, weight, volume and number of cotyledons as compared to PIH group. On the other hand, the thickness of the placenta showed lower values in GDM group, but the result did not reach a significant level. Conclusion: From the findings of this study, it is difficult to establish a clear-cut correlation about placental changes in diabetic and hypertensive mothers during pregnancy. However, the changes in placental weight, volume and diameter found in gestational diabetic mother may be a long term compensatory mechanism, aiming to secure a sufficient nutrient supply to support the growth of the foetus. So, postnatal examination of the placenta

  14. Growth and development of the placenta in the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris

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    Kanashiro Claudia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The guinea pig is an attractive model for human pregnancy and placentation, mainly because of its haemomonochorial placental type, but is rather small in size. Therefore, to better understand the impact of body mass, we studied placental development in the capybara which has a body mass around 50 kg and a gestation period of around 150 days. We paid attention to the development of the lobulated arrangement of the placenta, the growth of the labyrinth in the course of gestation, the differentiation of the subplacenta, and the pattern of invasion by extraplacental trophoblast. Methods Material was collected from six animals at pregnancy stages ranging from the late limb bud stage to mid gestation. Methods included latex casts, standard histology, immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin, vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen as well as transmission electron microscopy. Results At the limb bud stage, the placenta was a pad of trophoblast covered by a layer of mesoderm from which fetal vessels were beginning to penetrate at folds in the surface. By 70 days, the placenta comprised areas of labyrinth (lobes separated by interlobular areas. Placental growth resulted predominantly from proliferation of cellular trophoblast situated in nests at the fetal side of the placenta and along internally directed projections on fetal mesenchyme. Additional proliferation was demonstrated for cellular trophoblast within the labyrinth. Already at the limb bud stage, there was a prominent subplacenta comprising cellular and syncytial trophoblast with mesenchyme and associated blood vessels. At 90 days, differentiation was complete and similar to that seen in other hystricognath rodents. Overlap of fetal vessels and maternal blood lacunae was confirmed by latex injection of the vessels. At all stages extraplacental trophoblast was associated with the maternal arterial supply and consisted of cellular trophoblast

  15. Cadmium-induced teratogenicity: Association with ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in placenta

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    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhong Mei; Ji, Yan-Li; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Zhao, Mei; Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail: xudex@126.com

    2012-03-01

    The placenta is essential for sustaining the growth of the fetus. An increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with the impaired placental and fetal development. Cadmium (Cd) is a potent teratogen that caused fetal malformation and growth restriction. The present study investigated the effects of maternal Cd exposure on placental and fetal development. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl{sub 2} (4.5 mg/kg) on gestational day 9. As expected, maternal Cd exposure during early limb development significantly increased the incidences of forelimb ectrodactyly in fetuses. An obvious impairment in the labyrinth, a highly developed tissue of blood vessels, was observed in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. In addition, maternal Cd exposure markedly repressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in placenta. An additional experiment showed that maternal Cd exposure significantly upregulated the expression of GRP78, an ER chaperone. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure induced the phosphorylation of placental eIF2α, a downstream molecule of PERK signaling. In addition, maternal Cd exposure significantly increased the level of placental CHOP, another target of PERK signaling, indicating that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. Interestingly, alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, significantly alleviated Cd-induced placental ER stress and UPR. Taken together, these results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced impairment on placental and fetal development. Antioxidants may be used as pharmacological agents to protect against Cd-induced fetal malformation and growth restriction. -- Highlights: ► Cd induces fetal malformation and growth restriction. ► Cd induced placental ER stress and UPR. ► PBN alleviates Cd-induced ER stress and UPR in placenta. ► ROS-mediated ER

  16. LncRNAs expression in preeclampsia placenta reveals the potential role of LncRNAs contributing to preeclampsia pathogenesis.

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    Xiaoju He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are an important class of pervasive genes involved in a variety of biological functions. They are aberrantly expressed in many types of diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the lncRNA profiles in preeclampsia. Preeclampsia has been observed in patients with molar pregnancy where a fetus is absent, which demonstrate that the placenta is sufficient to cause this condition. Thus, we analyzed the lncRNA profiles in preeclampsia placentas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we described the lncRNA profiles in six preeclampsia placentas (T and five normal pregnancy placentas (N using microarray. With abundant and varied probes accounting for 33,045 LncRNAs in our microarray, 28,443 lncRNAs that were expressed at a specific level were detected. From the data, we found 738 lncRNAs that were differentially expressed (≥ 1.5-fold-change among preeclampsia placentas compared with controls. Coding-non-coding gene co-expression networks (CNC network were constructed based on the correlation analysis between the differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs. According to the CNC network and GO analysis of differentially expressed lncRNAs/mRNAs, we selected three lncRNAs to analyze the relationship between lncRNAs and preeclampsia. LOC391533, LOC284100, and CEACAMP8 were evaluated using qPCR in 40 preeclampsia placentas and 40 controls. These results revealed that three lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in preeclampsia placentas compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first study to determine the genome-wide lncRNAs expression patterns in preeclampsia placenta using microarray. These results revealed that clusters of lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in preeclampsia placenta compared with controls, which indicated that lncRNAs differentially expressed in preeclampsia placenta might play a partial or key role in preeclampsia development. Misregulation of LOC391533, LOC

  17. Chlorinated Polyfluoroalkyl Ether Sulfonic Acids in Matched Maternal, Cord, and Placenta Samples: A Study of Transplacental Transfer.

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    Chen, Fangfang; Yin, Shanshan; Kelly, Barry C; Liu, Weiping

    2017-06-06

    Currently, information regarding concentrations of chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs) in human placenta does not exist. The main objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and distribution of two Cl-PFESAs, 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA, in maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, and placenta to better assess the transport pathways related to human prenatal exposure. The widely studied perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was studied for comparison. This study was a hospital-based survey involving quantitative determination of Cl-PFESA and PFOS concentrations in maternal serum (n = 32), cord serum (n = 32), and placenta (n = 32) samples from women in Wuhan, China. The results indicate that Cl-PFESAs can efficiently be transported across placenta, with median exposure levels of 0.60 and 0.01 ng/mL for 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA in the cord sera, respectively. Concentrations of the target compounds in maternal sera, cord sera, and placentas decreased in the following order: PFOS > 6:2 Cl-PFESA > 8:2 Cl-PFESA. Similar patterns were observed in maternal sera, cord sera, and placentas for Cl-PFESAs, with concentrations decreasing in the following order: maternal sera > cord sera > placentas. Significant correlations were observed among 6:2 Cl-PFESA, 8:2 Cl-PFESA, and PFOS concentrations in the maternal serum, cord serum, and placenta samples (r > 0.7; p < 0.001). The median value of RCM (ratio of cord serum to maternal serum concentration) of 6:2 Cl-PFESA was 0.403, indicating a relatively high (∼40%) placental transfer efficiency. 8:2 Cl-PFESA was transported across placenta to a greater extent than 6:2 Cl-PFESA was, likely because of its higher hydrophobicity and lower plasma protein binding affinity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the occurrence and distribution of 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA in human placenta. The findings improve our understanding of the mechanisms of transplacental transfer and

  18. Post-implantation mortality of in vitro produced embryos is associated with DNA methyltransferase 1 dysfunction in sheep placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Grazyna Ewa; D'Agostino, Antonella; Toschi, Paola; Fidanza, Antonella; Zacchini, Federica; Czernik, Marta; Monaco, Federica; Loi, Pasqualino

    2013-02-01

    Is DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) dysfunction involved in epigenetic deregulation of placentae from embryos obtained by assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs)? DNMT1 expression in growing placentae of in vitro produced (IVP) embryos is compromised and associated with pregnancy loss. DNMT1 maintains the methylation profile of genes during cell division. The methylation status of genes involved in placenta development is altered in embryos obtained in vitro. Disturbances in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression during placentogenesis could be involved in the frequent developmental arrest and loss of IVP embryos. Forty sheep were naturally mated (Group 1, CTR). IVP blastocysts (2-4 per ewe) were surgically transferred to the remaining 46 recipient sheep 6 days after oestrus (Group 2). Twenty-one recipients from Group 1 and 27 recipients from Group 2 were allowed to deliver in order to compare embryo survival in both groups at term (150 days). From the remaining recipients (n = 38), fetuses and placentae of both groups were recovered by paramedian laparotomy at Days 20, 22, 24, 26 and 28 of gestation. Immediately after collection, early placental tissues (chorion-allantois) were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and DNMT1 expression and activity was evaluated. mRNA levels (for DNMT1, HDAC2, PCNA, DMAP1, MEST, IGF2, CDKN1C, H19) and the methylation status of H19 were also analyzed. Furthermore, embryo size and survival rate were measured. Our study shows that DNMT1 expression was reduced in early placentae from sheep IVP embryos. This reduction was associated with growth arrest and subsequent death of the sheep embryos. Conversely, normal levels of DNMT1 and its cofactors were observed in placentae from IVP embryos that survived this developmental bottleneck. Although DNA methylation machinery was severely compromised in IVP placentae only up to Day 24, the low DNMT1 enzymatic activity that persisted after this stage in IVP placentae was not lethal for the

  19. Maternal obesity alters brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the placenta in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Calais S; Maloyan, Alina; Myatt, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a major clinical problem in obstetrics being associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and fetal programming. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a validated miR-210 target, is necessary for placental development, fetal growth, glucose metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Plasma BDNF levels are reduced in obese individuals; however, placental BDNF has yet to be studied in the context of maternal obesity. In this study, we investigated the effect of maternal obesity and sexual dimorphism on placental BDNF signaling. BDNF signaling was measured in placentas from lean (pre-pregnancy BMI 30) women at term without medical complications that delivered via cesarean section without labor. MiRNA-210, BDNF mRNA, proBDNF, and mature BDNF were measured by RT - PCR, ELISA, and Western blot. Downstream signaling via TRKB (BDNF receptor) was measured using Western blot. Maternal obesity was associated with increased miRNA-210 and decreased BDNF mRNA in placentas from female fetuses, and decreased proBDNF in placentas from male fetuses. We also identified decreased mature BDNF in placentas from male fetuses when compared to female fetuses. Mir-210 expression was negatively correlated with mature BDNF protein. TRKB phosphorylated at tyrosine 817, not tyrosine 515, was increased in placentas from obese women. Maternal obesity was associated with increased phosphorylation of MAPK p38 in placentas from male fetuses, but not phosphorylation of ERK p42/44. BDNF regulation is complex and highly regulated. Pre-pregnancy/early maternal obesity adversely affects BDNF/TRKB signaling in the placenta in a sexually dimorphic manner. These data collectively suggest that induction of placental TRKB signaling could ameliorate the placental OB phenotype, thus improving perinatal outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Innate immune function in placenta and cord blood of hepatitis C--seropositive mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Christine Waasdorp; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Brocato, Megan; Krull, Mona; Narkewicz, Michael R; Rosen, Hugo R

    2010-08-30

    Vertical transmission accounts for the majority of pediatric cases of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. In contrast to the adult population who develop persistent viremia in approximately 80% of cases following exposure, the rate of mother-to-child transmission (2-6%) is strikingly low. Protection from vertical transmission likely requires the coordination of multiple components of the immune system. Placenta and decidua provide a direct connection between mother and infant. We hypothesized that innate immune responses would differ across the three compartments (decidua, placenta and cord blood) and that hepatitis C exposure would modify innate immunity in these tissues. The study was comprised of HCV-infected and healthy control mother and infant pairs from whom cord blood, placenta and decidua were collected with isolation of mononuclear cells. Multiparameter flow cytometry was performed to assess the phenotype, intracellular cytokine production and cytotoxicity of the cells. In keeping with a model where the maternal-fetal interface provides antiviral protection, we found a gradient in proportional frequencies of NKT and gammadelta-T cells being higher in placenta than cord blood. Cytotoxicity of NK and NKT cells was enhanced in placenta and placental NKT cytotoxicity was further increased by HCV infection. HCV exposure had multiple effects on innate cells including a decrease in activation markers (CD69, TRAIL and NKp44) on NK cells and a decrease in plasmacytoid dendritic cells in both placenta and cord blood of exposed infants. In summary, the placenta represents an active innate immunological organ that provides antiviral protection against HCV transmission in the majority of cases; the increased incidence in preterm labor previously described in HCV-seropositive mothers may be related to enhanced cytotoxicity of NKT cells.

  1. The expression of aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 in fetal membranes and placenta in term pregnancies complicated by idiopathic polyhydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xueqiong; Jiang, Shanshan; Hu, Yingchun; Zheng, Xiaoqun; Zou, Shuangwei; Wang, Yuhuan; Zhu, Xuejie

    2010-10-01

    Aquaporins are a family of membrane-bound water channel proteins that regulate the flow of water across a variety of biological membranes. The expression of aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 has been demonstrated in human chorioamniotic membrane and placenta. But their roles in the pathophysiology of polyhydramnios are unclear. To study the expression of aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 in fetal membranes and placenta in term pregnancies complicated by idiopathic polyhydramnios and to explore the association between aquaporin expressions and polyhydramnios. The placentas were collected from 51 patients who underwent elective Cesarean sections at term, of which 21 cases had idiopathic polyhydramnios and the other 30 had normal amniotic fluid volume. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry techniques were used to determine the expression and localization of aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 in the amnion, chorion and placenta. Expression of aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 was detected in the amnion, chorion and placenta and located in amnion epithelia, chorion cytotrophoblasts and placental trophoblast. Compared to normal amniotic fluid volume group, the expression of aquaporin 8 in amnion, and aquaporin 9 in amnion and chorion, were significantly increased in idiopathic polyhydramnios group; however, their expression in the placenta was significantly decreased. When polyhydramnios occurs, expression of aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 in fetal membranes and placenta is an adaptive change, which may be involved in the regulation of amniotic fluid volume. However, the modulation factors of the aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 expressions need further study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. /sup 125/I-human epidermal growth factor specific binding to placentas and fetal membranes from varoius pregnancy states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, G.E.; Siddiqi, T.A.; Rao, Ch. V.; Carman, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Specific binding of /sup 125/I-human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) to homogenates of term human placentas and fetal membranes from normal and appropriate for gestational age (N = 20), intrauterine growth retarded (N = 9), twin (N = 11), White class AB diabetic (N = 12), and large for gestational age (N = 13) pregnancies was measured. In all pregnancy states, placentas bound approximately four times more /sup 125/I-hEGF than did fetal membranes (P<0.0001). There was no significant differnce in /sup 125/I-hEGF binding to fetal membranes from the various pregnancy states (P<0.05). /sup 125/I-hEGF specific binding to placentas from intrauterine growth retarded or twin pregnancies was significantly greater compared with placentas from normal and appropriate for gestational age pregnancies (P<0.05). The binding to placentas from pregnancies complicated by White class AB diabetes or large for gestational age infants, on the other hand, was not significantly different from that to placentas from normal and appropriate for gestational age pregnancies. /sup 125/I-hEGF specific binding did not differ between placentas from intrauterine growth retarded or twin pregnancies (P<0.05). Placental and fetal membrane /sup 125/I-hEGF binding did not vary with fetal sex, maternal race, placental weight, or gestational age between 37 to 42 weeks (P<0.05). Placental but not fetal membrane /sup 125/I-hEGF binding increased with increasing infant weight when appropriate for gestational age and large for gestational age infants were included (P<0.05, r = 0.38, N = 32) but not for intrauterine growth retarded, appropriate for gestational age, or large for gestational age infants alone.

  3. Placental Pathology of Zika Virus: Viral Infection of the Placenta Induces Villous Stromal Macrophage (Hofbauer Cell) Proliferation and Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Avi Z; Yu, Weiying; Hill, D Ashley; Reyes, Christine A; Schwartz, David A

    2017-01-01

    -The placenta is an important component in understanding the fetal response to intrauterine Zika virus infection, but the pathologic changes in this organ remain largely unknown. Hofbauer cells are fetal-derived macrophages normally present in the chorionic villous stroma. They have been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathologic processes, in particular involving infectious agents. -To characterize the fetal and maternal responses and viral localization in the placenta following Zika virus transmission to an 11 weeks' gestation fetus. The clinical course was notable for prolonged viremia in the mother and extensive neuronal necrosis in the fetus. The fetus was delivered at 21 weeks' gestation after pregnancy termination. -The placenta was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cells (macrophages/monocytes [Hofbauer cells], B and T lymphocytes) and proliferating cells, and an RNA probe to Zika virus. The fetal brain and the placenta were previously found to be positive for Zika virus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. -The placenta demonstrated prominently enlarged, hydropic chorionic villi with hyperplasia and focal proliferation of Hofbauer cells. The degree of Hofbauer cell hyperplasia gave an exaggerated immature appearance to the villi. No acute or chronic villitis, villous necrosis, remote necroinflammatory abnormalities, chorioamnionitis, funisitis, or hemorrhages were present. An RNA probe to Zika virus was positive in villous stromal cells, presumably Hofbauer cells. -Zika virus placental infection induces proliferation and prominent hyperplasia of Hofbauer cells in the chorionic villi but does not elicit villous necrosis or a maternal or fetal lymphoplasmacellular or acute inflammatory cell reaction.

  4. Analysis of Genomic DNA Methylation Levels in Human Placenta using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

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    Sulistyo Emantoko Dwi Putra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: DNA-methylation is a common epigenetic tool which plays a crucial role in gene regulation and is essential for cell differentiation and embryonic development. The placenta is an important organ where gene activity can be regulated by epigenetic DNA modifications, including DNA methylation. This is of interest as, the placenta is the interface between the fetus and its environment, the mother. Exposure to environmental toxins and nutrition during pregnancy may alter DNA methylation of the placenta and subsequently placental function and as a result the phenotype of the offspring. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method to quantify DNA methylation in large clinical studies. This will be a tool to analyze the degree of DNA methylation in the human placenta in relationship to clinical readouts. Methods: Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS technique was used for the quantification of the 5dmC/dG ratio in placentas from 248 healthy pregnancies. We were able to demonstrate that this method is a reliable and stable way to determine global placental DNA methylation in large clinical trials. Results/Conclusion: The degree of placental DNA methylation seen in our pilot study varies substantially from 2% to 5%. The clinical implications of this variation need to be demonstrated in adequately powered large studies.

  5. Reactivity of blood vessels in response to prostaglandin E2 in placentas from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Oded; Bar, Jacob; Barnea, Ofer; Golan, Abraham; Kovo, Michal

    2012-05-01

    The authors aimed to study the contractility responses of normal and fetal growth restriction (FGR) placentas to prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ) and to correlate the results to subsequent placental histological analysis. A dual-perfused single cotyledon model was used. Placentas from pregnancies complicated by FGR and from normal pregnancies were obtained. Selected cotyledons were cannulated and dually perfused. Following stabilization, three concentrations of PGE(2) (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 mg/mL) were administered to the fetal arterial side causing contraction/relaxation response. Fetal perfusion pressure was measured continuously during these contraction and relaxation phases. Following the perfusion experiments, the placentas were analyzed for fetal or maternal origin vascular lesions. A total of 21 complete experiments were performed (16 normal, 5 FGR). In response to PGE(2) , FGR placentas exhibited lower change in the perfusion pressure and lower relaxation time constant. Basal perfusion pressure did not differ significantly between the two groups. Placental histopathology lesions, fetal or maternal origin, were more common in the FGR compared with the controls placentas, 80% versus 25%, respectively, P=  0.047. The lower vascular reactivity in response to PGE(2) and the presence of fetal and maternal vascular placental lesions suggest a mechanism explaining the altered vascular supply in FGR. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Efficacy and safety of human placenta extract in alleviating climacteric symptoms: prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo-Kyung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kang, Soon-Beom

    2009-12-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of human placenta extract in the relief of climacteric symptoms. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 108 women with menopausal symptoms. Human placenta extract or placebo was administered to the women for 4 weeks. Climacteric symptoms were assessed with the Kupperman Index (KMI). Both groups showed a significant reduction in the KMI score at the end of treatment. However, the decrease in the KMI score was significantly greater in the product group than in the placebo group (-12.30 +/- 10.44 vs -7.15 +/- 9.11, P = 0.012) after 4 weeks of treatment. The level of lipid profiles and liver function tests demonstrated no significant changes before and after treatment in both groups. Human placenta extract reduced climacteric symptoms more than the placebo. The safety evaluation showed a good safety and tolerability profile in the placenta extract group. The results of the present study suggest that human placenta extract can be an alternative therapy in women with menopausal symptoms.

  7. Reorganization of Extracellular Matrix in Placentas from Women with Asymptomatic Chagas Disease: Mechanism of Parasite Invasion or Local Placental Defense?

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    Juan Duaso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, produced by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi, is one of the most frequent endemic diseases in Latin America. In spite the fact that in the past few years T. cruzi congenital transmission has become of epidemiological importance, studies about this mechanism of infection are scarce. In order to explore some morphological aspects of this infection in the placenta, we analyzed placentas from T. cruzi-infected mothers by immunohistochemical and histochemical methods. Infection in mothers, newborns, and placentas was confirmed by PCR and by immunofluorescence in the placenta. T. cruzi-infected placentas present destruction of the syncytiotrophoblast and villous stroma, selective disorganization of the basal lamina, and disorganization of collagen I in villous stroma. Our results suggest that the parasite induces reorganization of this tissue component and in this way may regulate both inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Changes in the ECM of placental tissues, together with the immunological status of mother and fetus, and parasite load may determine the probability of congenital transmission of T. cruzi.

  8. Meta-analysis of low-molecular-weight heparin to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Marc A; Carrier, Marc; Le Gal, Grégoire; Martinelli, Ida; Perna, Annalisa; Rey, Evelyne; de Vries, J I P; Gris, Jean-Christophe

    2014-02-06

    A 35-year-old woman with recurrent severe placenta-mediated pregnancy complications in her 2 pregnancies asks: Will low-molecular-weight heparin help prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications in my next pregnancy? We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) vs no LMWH for the prevention of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. We identified six RCTs that included a total of 848 pregnant women with prior placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. The primary outcome was a composite of pre-eclampsia (PE), birth of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn (pregnancy loss >20 weeks. Overall, 67 (18.7%) of 358 of women being given prophylactic LMWH had recurrent severe placenta-mediated pregnancy complications compared with 127 (42.9%) of 296 women with no LMWH (relative risk reduction, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.86; P = .01; I(2), 69%, indicating moderate heterogeneity). We identified similar relative risk reductions with LMWH for individual outcomes, including any PE, severe PE, SGA pregnancy complications, but further research is required.

  9. Microarray-Based Analysis of Methylation of 1st Trimester Trisomic Placentas from Down Syndrome, Edwards Syndrome and Patau Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Lotte; Aagaard, Mads M; Bach, Cathrine; Graakjaer, Jesper; Sommer, Steffen; Agerholm, Inge E; Kølvraa, Steen; Bojesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Methylation-based non-invasive prenatal testing of fetal aneuploidies is an alternative method that could possibly improve fetal aneuploidy diagnosis, especially for trisomy 13(T13) and trisomy 18(T18). Our aim was to study the methylation landscape in placenta DNA from trisomy 13, 18 and 21 pregnancies in an attempt to find trisomy-specific methylation differences better suited for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have conducted high-resolution methylation specific bead chip microarray analyses assessing more than 450,000 CpGs analyzing placentas from 12 T21 pregnancies, 12 T18 pregnancies and 6 T13 pregnancies. We have compared the methylation landscape of the trisomic placentas to the methylation landscape from normal placental DNA and to maternal blood cell DNA. Comparing trisomic placentas to normal placentas we identified 217 and 219 differentially methylated CpGs for CVS T18 and CVS T13, respectively (delta β>0.2, FDR<0.05), but only three differentially methylated CpGs for T21. However, the methylation differences was only modest (delta β<0.4), making them less suitable as diagnostic markers. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the gene set connected to theT18 differentially methylated CpGs was highly enriched for GO terms related to"DNA binding" and "transcription factor binding" coupled to the RNA polymerase II transcription. In the gene set connected to the T13 differentially methylated CpGs we found no significant enrichments.

  10. The effect of gestational age on angiogenic gene expression in the rat placenta.

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    Kanchan Vaswani

    Full Text Available The placenta plays a central role in determining the outcome of pregnancy. It undergoes changes during gestation as the fetus develops and as demands for energy substrate transfer and gas exchange increase. The molecular mechanisms that coordinate these changes have yet to be fully elucidated. The study performed a large scale screen of the transcriptome of the rat placenta throughout mid-late gestation (E14.25-E20 with emphasis on characterizing gestational age associated changes in the expression of genes involved in angiogenic pathways. Sprague Dawley dams were sacrificed at E14.25, E15.25, E17.25 and E20 (n = 6 per group and RNA was isolated from one placenta per dam. Changes in placental gene expression were identified using Illumina Rat Ref-12 Expression BeadChip Microarrays. Differentially expressed genes (>2-fold change, <1% false discovery rate, FDR were functionally categorised by gene ontology pathway analysis. A subset of differentially expressed genes identified by microarrays were confirmed using Real-Time qPCR. The expression of thirty one genes involved in the angiogenic pathway was shown to change over time, using microarray analysis (22 genes displayed increased and 9 gene decreased expression. Five genes (4 up regulated: Cd36, Mmp14, Rhob and Angpt4 and 1 down regulated: Foxm1 involved in angiogenesis and blood vessel morphogenesis were subjected to further validation. qPCR confirmed late gestational increased expression of Cd36, Mmp14, Rhob and Angpt4 and a decrease in expression of Foxm1 before labour onset (P<0.0001. The observed acute, pre-labour changes in the expression of the 31 genes during gestation warrant further investigation to elucidate their role in pregnancy.

  11. Particulate urban air pollution affects the functional morphology of mouse placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Mariana Matera; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Maciel Ribeiro, Antonio A C; Mayhew, Terry M; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2008-09-01

    In humans, adverse pregnancy outcomes (low birth weight, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation) are associated with exposure to urban air pollution. Experimental data have also shown that such exposure elicits adverse reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that the effects of urban air pollution on pregnancy outcomes could be related to changes in functional morphology of the placenta. To test this, future dams were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to filtered or nonfiltered air in exposure chambers. Placentas were collected from near-term pregnancies and prepared for microscopical examination. Fields of view on vertical uniform random tissue slices were analyzed using stereological methods. Volumes of placental compartments were estimated, and the labyrinth was analyzed further in terms of its maternal vascular spaces, fetal capillaries, trophoblast, and exchange surface areas. From these primary data, secondary quantities were derived: vessel calibers (expressed as diameters), trophoblast thickness (arithmetic mean), and total and mass-specific morphometric diffusive conductances for oxygen of the intervascular barrier. Two-way analysis of variance showed that both periods of exposure led to significantly smaller fetal weights. Pregestational exposure to nonfiltered air led to significant increases in fetal capillary surface area and in total and mass-specific conductances. However, the calibers of maternal blood spaces were reduced. Gestational exposure to nonfiltered air was associated with reduced volumes, calibers, and surface areas of maternal blood spaces and with greater fetal capillary surfaces and diffusive conductances. The findings indicate that urban air pollution affects placental functional morphology. Fetal weights are compromised despite attempts to improve diffusive transport across the placenta.

  12. Human placenta-derived neurospheres are susceptible to transformation after extensive in vitro expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Donatella; Nardella, Marta; Guglielmi, Loredana; Cerquetti, Lidia; Carico, Elisabetta; Alesi, Viola; Porru, Manuela; Leonetti, Carlo; Bearzi, Claudia; Rizzi, Roberto; D'Agnano, Igea; Stigliano, Antonio; Novelli, Giuseppe; Bucci, Barbara

    2014-04-22

    The cancer stem cell model links neoplastic cells with normal stem cell biology, but little is known on how normal stem cells are transformed into cancer stem cells. To investigate the processes underlying the transformation of normal stem cells we developed in vitro a cancer stem cell model from human amniotic and chorionic placenta membranes. In this model we studied the expression of specific stem cell molecules by flow cytometry, and genes, by real time RT-PCR. Microscopy immunfluorescence was employed to investigate the proliferative and differentiation patterns. Fluorescence microscopy and FACS were employed to investigate the proliferative and differentiation patterns. To evaluate the tumorigenic potential of our model we injected the cells into NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/NCrHsd mice. Normal human stem cells from amniotic and chorionic placenta membranes were converted into neural cell lineages, under specific conditions, to form secondary neurospheres with a capacity for self-renewal. After extensive in vitro culture, these cells underwent spontaneous transformations and acquired a neuroblastoma (NB)-like phenotype with an elevated proliferative potential that is comparable to established neuroblastoma cell lines. The ability of these cells to transform their phenotype was evidenced by increased clonogenic ability in vitro; by augmented expression level of certain proliferation- and transformation-related genes (e.g., CCNA2, MYCN, ENPP2, GRIA3, and KIT); by the presence of multinucleated and hyperdiploid cells. We further demonstrated that the transformed phenotype is an NB by measuring the expression of NB-specific markers, disialoganglioside GD2 and N-Myc proteins. We have developed a cancer stem cell model starting from normal human stem cells derived from amniotic and chorionic placenta membranes. These cells are able to differentiate into neural cell lineages and to undergo spontaneous transformations and acquire an NB-like phenotype.

  13. HLA gene expression is altered in whole blood and placenta from women who later developed preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akehurst, Christine; Sharafetdinova, Liliya; McBride, Martin W.; McClure, John D.; Robinson, Scott W.; Carty, David M.; Freeman, Dilys J.; Delles, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease that significantly contributes to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In this study, we used a non-biased microarray approach to identify dysregulated genes in maternal whole blood samples which may be associated with the development of preeclampsia. Whole blood samples were obtained at 28 wk of gestation from 5 women who later developed preeclampsia (cases) and 10 matched women with normotensive pregnancies (controls). Placenta samples were obtained from an independent cohort of 19 women with preeclampsia matched with 19 women with normotensive pregnancies. We studied gene expression profiles using Illumina microarray in blood and validated changes in gene expression in whole blood and placenta tissue by qPCR. We found a transcriptional profile differentiating cases from controls; 336 genes were significantly dysregulated in blood from women who developed preeclampsia. Functional annotation of microarray results indicated that most of the genes found to be dysregulated were involved in inflammatory pathways. While general trends were preserved, only HLA-A was validated in whole blood samples from cases using qPCR (2.30- ± 0.9-fold change) whereas in placental tissue HLA-DRB1 expression was found to be significantly increased in samples from women with preeclampsia (5.88- ± 2.24-fold change). We have identified that HLA-A is upregulated in the circulation of women who went on to develop preeclampsia. In placenta of women with preeclampsia we identified that HLA-DRB1 is upregulated. Our data provide further evidence for involvement of the HLA gene family in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID:28130428

  14. Safety and toxicological evaluation of a novel, fermented, peptide-enriched, hydrolyzed swine placenta extract powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yukio; Bagchi, Manashi; Marone, Palma Ann; Moriyama, Hiroyoshi; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    Placenta is an important organ that connects the developing fetus to allow nutrient uptake, antibody provisions and gas exchange via the blood supply of the mother. We developed a novel, standardized, stable, water-soluble, peptide-enriched hydrolyzed, Horus fermented placenta powder (HFPEP) from healthy, pathogen-free, swine placenta. Earlier studies demonstrated that HFPEP significantly improves physical fatigue, hepatic functions and repair of muscle fibers. We examined the broad safety of HFPEP in various toxicology models in Good Laboratory Practices-approved laboratories. The acute oral toxicity study was conducted in female Sprague-Dawley rats, and the acute oral LD50 was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Ames' bacterial reverse mutation assay was conducted to determine the ability of HFPEP to induce reverse mutation at selected histidine loci in five tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium viz. TA1535, TA1537, TA98, TA100 and TA102 in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9) at the doses of 50, 15, 4.5, 1.35 and 0.41 mg/ml. No mutagenic potential was observed. Mutagenic potential was also evaluated using in vivo micronucleus test, and no mutagenic potential of HFPEP was observed. Repeated dose 28-d oral toxicity study was performed in male and female rats with 14-d recovery period at the dose levels of 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg. No abnormal clinical signs or toxicity were detected. No observed adverse effect level of HFPEP was found to be greater than 1000 mg/kg body weight. These studies affirm that HFPEP has broad spectrum safety for human consumption.

  15. HLA gene expression is altered in whole blood and placenta from women who later developed preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Heather Y; Akehurst, Christine; Sharafetdinova, Liliya; McBride, Martin W; McClure, John D; Robinson, Scott W; Carty, David M; Freeman, Dilys J; Delles, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease that significantly contributes to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In this study, we used a non-biased microarray approach to identify dysregulated genes in maternal whole blood samples which may be associated with the development of preeclampsia. Whole blood samples were obtained at 28 wk of gestation from 5 women who later developed preeclampsia (cases) and 10 matched women with normotensive pregnancies (controls). Placenta samples were obtained from an independent cohort of 19 women with preeclampsia matched with 19 women with normotensive pregnancies. We studied gene expression profiles using Illumina microarray in blood and validated changes in gene expression in whole blood and placenta tissue by qPCR. We found a transcriptional profile differentiating cases from controls; 336 genes were significantly dysregulated in blood from women who developed preeclampsia. Functional annotation of microarray results indicated that most of the genes found to be dysregulated were involved in inflammatory pathways. While general trends were preserved, only HLA-A was validated in whole blood samples from cases using qPCR (2.30- ± 0.9-fold change) whereas in placental tissue HLA-DRB1 expression was found to be significantly increased in samples from women with preeclampsia (5.88- ± 2.24-fold change). We have identified that HLA-A is upregulated in the circulation of women who went on to develop preeclampsia. In placenta of women with preeclampsia we identified that HLA-DRB1 is upregulated. Our data provide further evidence for involvement of the HLA gene family in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. The effects of pravastatin on the normal human placenta: Lessons from ex-vivo models.

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    Adelina Balan

    Full Text Available Research in animal models and preliminary clinical studies in humans support the use of pravastatin for the prevention of preeclampsia. However, its use during pregnancy is still controversial due to limited data about its effect on the human placenta and fetus.In the present study, human placental cotyledons were perfused in the absence or presence of pravastatin in the maternal reservoir (PraM. In addition, placental explants were treated with pravastatin for 5, 24 and 72 h under normoxia and hypoxia. We monitored the secretion of placental growth factor (PlGF, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1, soluble endoglin (sEng, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression and activation and the fetal vasoconstriction response to angiotensin-II.The concentrations of PlGF, sFlt-1 and sEng were not significantly altered by pravastatin in PraM cotyledons and in placental explants compared to control. Under hypoxic conditions, pravastatin decreased sFlt-1 concentrations. eNOS expression was significantly increased in PraM cotyledons but not in pravastatin-treated placental explants cultured under normoxia or hypoxia. eNOS phosphorylation was not significantly affected by pravastatin. The feto-placental vascular tone and the fetal vasoconstriction response to angiotensin-II, did not change following exposure of the maternal circulation to pravastatin.We found that pravastatin does not alter the essential physiological functions of the placenta investigated in the study. The relevance of the study lays in the fact that it expands the current knowledge obtained thus far regarding the effect of the drug on the normal human placenta. This data is reassuring and important for clinicians that consider the treatment of high-risk patients with pravastatin, a treatment that exposes some normal pregnancies to the drug.

  17. Gene expression and epigenetic aberrations in F1-placentas fathered by obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Megan; Strick, Reiner; Strissel, Pamela L; Dittrich, Ralf; McPherson, Nicole O; Lane, Michelle; Pliushch, Galyna; Potabattula, Ramya; Haaf, Thomas; El Hajj, Nady

    2017-04-01

    Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analyzed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing. Our aim was to determine if paternal obesity deregulated placental gene expression and DNA methylation when compared to normal-weight males. Gene methylation of sperm DNA was analyzed and compared to placentas to address epigenetic transmission. Of the 10 paternally expressed genes (Pegs), 11 genes important for development and transport of nutrients, and the long-terminal repeat Intracisternal A particle (IAP) elements, derived from a member of the class II endogenous retroviral gene family, we observed a significant effect of paternal diet-induced obesity on deregulated expression of Peg3, Peg9, Peg10, and the nutrient transporter gene Slc38a2, and aberrant DNA methylation of the Peg9 promoter in F1 placental tissue. Epigenetic changes in Peg9 were also found in sperm from obese fathers. We therefore propose that paternal obesity renders changes in gene expression and/or methylation throughout the placental genome, which could contribute to the reproductive problems related to fertility and to the metabolic, long-term health impact on offspring. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Identificação imuno-histoquímica de Listeria monocytogenes em placentas fixadas em formol e embebidas em parafina Immunohistochemical identification of Listeria monocytogenes in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Pires Schwab

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar Listeria monocytogenes (Lm em placentas humanas pela técnica de imuno-histoquímica (IHQ e relacionar sua presença com as alterações histológicas encontradas com as alterações histológicas encontradas no exame convencional, com o trimestre gestacional, a idade das gestantes, casos de aborto e parto prematuro e a ocorrência de aborto habitual. MÉTODOS: um estudo retrospectivo foi realizado no setor de patologia de um hospital-escola de Porto Alegre no ano 2000. O material dos blocos de parafina de 254 placentas (exames anatomopatológicos, provenientes de aborto, de parto prematuro e de nascimento a termo, foi analisado pela técnica histológica convencional com a coloração de hematoxilina e eosina (HE. A técnica de IHQ foi realizada no material de 148 exames anatomopatológicos, que apresentaram alterações inflamatórias, hemorragia, necrose e trombose, utilizando anticorpo policlonal Rabbit A "Listeria monocytogenes" B65420R (Biodesign® na diluição 1:1000 e complexo avidina-biotina-estreptavidina. O teste c² foi aplicado para a análise estatística. RESULTADOS: a presença de Lm foi identificada em 33,7% das placentas analisadas pela técnica IHQ. Corioamnionite e vilite foram as alterações inflamatórias que estiverem associadas a diferença significativa nas placentas positivas. Lm esteve presente nas placentas de 1º, 2º e 3º trimestre gestacional. Não houve associação entre idade das gestantes, casos de aborto e/ou parto prematuro e a presença ou ausência de Lm nas placentas. Abortos habituais ocorreram em pacientes com ou sem Lm no tecido placentário. CONCLUSÃO: a técnica de IHQ pode ser utilizada para confirmar o diagnóstico histopatológico de listeriose em todos os trimestres gestacionais.PURPOSE: to identify Listeria monocytogenes (Lm in human placentas by immunohistochemistry (IHC and relate its presence to the histological alterations found on conventional examination, to the

  19. Human cytomegalovirus-induces cytokine changes in the placenta with implications for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

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    Stuart T Hamilton

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (CMV infection of the developing fetus can result in adverse pregnancy outcomes including death in utero. Fetal injury results from direct viral cytopathic damage to the CMV-infected fetus, although evidence suggests CMV placental infection may indirectly cause injury to the fetus, possibly via immune dysregulation with placental dysfunction. This study investigated the effects of CMV infection on expression of the chemokine MCP-1 (CCL2 and cytokine TNF-α in placentae from naturally infected stillborn babies, and compared these changes with those found in placental villous explant histocultures acutely infected with CMV ex vivo. Tissue cytokine protein levels were assessed using quantitative immunohistochemistry. CMV-infected placentae from stillborn babies had significantly elevated MCP-1 and TNF-α levels compared with uninfected placentae (p = 0.001 and p = 0.007, which was not observed in placentae infected with other microorganisms (p = 0.62 and p = 0.71 (n = 7 per group. Modelling acute clinical infection using ex vivo placental explant histocultures showed infection with CMV laboratory strain AD169 (0.2 pfu/ml caused significantly elevated expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α compared with uninfected explants (p = 0.0003 and p<0.0001 (n = 25 per group. Explant infection with wild-type Merlin at a tenfold lower multiplicity of infection (0.02 pfu/ml, caused a significant positive correlation between increased explant infection and upregulation of MCP-1 and TNF-α expression (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.017. Cytokine dysregulation has been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, and can negatively affect placental development and function. These novel findings demonstrate CMV infection modulates the placental immune environment in vivo and in a multicellular ex vivo model, suggesting CMV-induced cytokine modulation as a potential initiator and/or exacerbator of placental and fetal injury.

  20. Total water content in different areas of the human term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, M A; Jacomo, K H; Benedetti, W L; Alvarez, H

    1975-01-01

    The authors study the total water content in two different areas (parabasal and subchorial), in 40 normal, full-term placentas. The water content is found to be different in these two areas. As an average, it is 0.90% higher in the parabasal area. This difference persists even after washing off the fetal placental blood by perfusión with saline. The difference in the total water content between both areas, which is added to other differences previously demonstrated, must be related to a different functional role of the placental areas.

  1. Glycosylation at the fetomaternal interface in hemomonochorial placentae from five widely separated species of mammal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Carolyn J. P.; Carter, Anthony M.; Aplin, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Hemomonochorial placentation occurs in diverse species. We have examined placental glycosylation in five widely separated mammals with this type of placentation--lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), human (Homo...... sapiens) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)--in order to assess whether evolutionary convergence to the hemomonochorial state is accompanied by a similar convergence of glycan expression. Placentae from 2 E. telfairi, 3 C. crocuta, 1 D. novemcinctus, 4 womenand 1 C. porcellus were fixed and processed...

  2. Metodologia para estudo do volume e densidade absoluta da placenta humana de termo

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    Del Nero Ulisses

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar duas metodologias para o cálculo do volume placentário em gestações normais de termo: a do princípio de Arquimedes e a do volume do cilindro, para estimar a densidade absoluta da placenta. Definir a metodologia mais adequada para o cálculo do volume e densidade placentários, que se relacione com o peso e classificação do recém-nascido. MÉTODOS: foram estudadas 50 placentas provenientes de gestações de termo sem complicações e calculados o volume e a densidade absoluta placentários: a pelo princípio de Arquimedes e b na suposição de que a placenta seria uma secção de cilindro com duas alturas diferentes do bolo placentário: com a altura média e com a altura da média aritmética do centro e extremidades. As densidades absolutas placentárias foram calculadas pelo quociente entre o peso ao ar da placenta e os diferentes volumes. RESULTADOS: a maioria das gestantes eram multíparas, idade média de 25,4 anos, volume placentário médio entre 547,8 e 610 cmsuperscript three e densidade média entre 0,94 e 1,14 g/cmsuperscript three, dependendo da metodologia empregada. CONCLUSÕES: a metodologia mais adequada para estimar o volume placentário no termo foi a do princípio de Arquimedes, pela melhor correlação com o peso dos recém-nascidos, o índice placentário e a classificação do peso dos recém-nascidos em relação à idade gestacional.

  3. Review: The evolving placenta: Different developmental paths to a hemochorial relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M

    2012-01-01

    confined to lacunae; and fetal villi entering preexisting maternal blood sinuses. Although it might be considered logical that developing placentas would pass through an endotheliochorial stage to become hemochorial, this developmental pattern is seen only as a transient stage in several species of bats...... a trabecular arrangement similar to though differently arrived at than that in the tarsier. In armadillos, preexisting maternal venous sinuses are converted into an intervillous blood space by intruding fetal villi. Variations from the major patterns of development also occur. The way in which the definitive...

  4. Fetal-maternal interactions in the synepitheliochorial placenta using the eGFP cloned cattle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Flavia Thomaz Verechia; Oliveira, Lilian J; Barreto, Rodrigo da Silva Nunes; Mess, Andrea; Perecin, Felipe; Bressan, Fabiana Fernandes; Mesquita, Ligia Garcia; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Pimentel, José RodrigoValim; Fantinato Neto, Paulo; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira

    2013-01-01

    To investigate mechanisms of fetal-maternal cell interactions in the bovine placenta, we developed a model of transgenic enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (t-eGFP) expressing bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer (NT) to assess the distribution of fetal-derived products in the bovine placenta. In addition, we searched for male specific DNA in the blood of females carrying in vitro produced male embryos. Our hypothesis is that the bovine placenta is more permeable to fetal-derived products than described elsewhere. Samples of placentomes, chorion, endometrium, maternal peripheral blood leukocytes and blood plasma were collected during early gestation and processed for nested-PCR for eGFP and testis-specific Y-encoded protein (TSPY), western blotting and immunohistochemistry for eGFP detection, as well as transmission electron microscopy to verify the level of interaction between maternal and fetal cells. TSPY and eGFP DNA were present in the blood of cows carrying male pregnancies at day 60 of pregnancy. Protein and mRNA of eGFP were observed in the trophoblast and uterine tissues. In the placentomes, the protein expression was weak in the syncytial regions, but intense in neighboring cells on both sides of the fetal-maternal interface. Ultrastructurally, our samples from t-eGFP expressing NT pregnancies showed to be normal, such as the presence of interdigitating structures between fetal and maternal cells. In addition, channels-like structures were present in the trophoblast cells. Data suggested that there is a delivery of fetal contents to the maternal system on both systemic and local levels that involved nuclear acids and proteins. It not clear the mechanisms involved in the transfer of fetal-derived molecules to the maternal system. This delivery may occur through nonclassical protein secretion; throughout transtrophoblastic-like channels and/or by apoptotic processes previously described. In conclusion, the bovine synepitheliochorial placenta displays

  5. Expression of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNRs in placentas of HIV-positive patients

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    Komala Pillay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN is a mannose-binding lectin that initiates interaction between dendritic cells and resting T-lymphocytes. DC-SIGN is highly expressed in placental tissue on dendritic cells and Hofbauer cells, and it is suggested that HIV may become adsorbed to DC-SIGN on Hofbauer cells as part of the mechanism of mother-to-child HIV transmission. A possible mechanism of transfer of the virus from the Hofbauer cells to the fetus is the subsequent adsorption to DC-SIGN-related molecules (DC-SIGNRs, present on immediately adjacent capillary vascular endothelium. However, data on DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR expression in the placenta are few.Methods. Forty term placentas from HIV-positive mothers and 21 term placentas from HIV-negative mothers underwent immunohistochemistry staining for DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR expression. Five random sets of 10 villi were assessed, and the average number of positive cells were counted in each case. In addition, where possible, maternal and cord blood viral loads and maternal CD4+ counts were performed in the HIV-positive group only.Results. The median maternal CD4+ count was 377 cells/µl and 27% of participants had undetectable viral loads; the median detectable viral load was 3.72 log. Most (97% of the cord bloods tested in infants from HIV-positive mothers had lower than detectable viral loads. HIV-positive cases had significantly greater expression of both DC-SIGNRs (median values in HIV-positive cases, 14.5 positive cells/10 villi (pc/10villi, compared with 11 pc/10villi in HIV-negative cases, p=0.020 and DC-SIGN (median value in HIV-positive cases, 26.5 pc/10villi, compared with 23 pc/10villi in HIV-negative cases, p=0.037. DC-SIGNR expression was also noted in Hofbauer cells and decidual macrophages in addition to endothelium (reported currently. There was no difference in expression of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNRs in patients

  6. Successful treatment of Placenta Percreta through a combinatorial treatment involving a Bakri Balloon and Methotrexate--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Nermin; Cevrioğlu, Arif Serhan; Özden, Selçuk; Gündüz, Yasemin; Ilhan, Göken

    2015-08-01

    Placental percreta is a complication involving an abnormally deep placental attachment to the myometrium, resulting in obstetric hemorrhage and peripartum hysterectomy A 38-year-old pregnant woman, with a history of 2 Cesarean births, myomectomy 9 pregnancies, and 6 spontaneous abortions, was admitted after experiencing intrauterine fetal death, which occurred at 19 weeks gestation. The patient was referred to our institution after 8 days of unsuccessful medical treatment. Doppler ultrasonography and vacuum curettage revealed possible signs of abnormal placentation. Because of the unsuccessful separation of the placenta and massive bleeding, we used a Bakri Balloon to treat excessive bleeding during the acute phase, followed by the conservative administration of parenteral methotrexate to treat the spontaneous involution of the placenta at 7 weeks of conservative therapy Bakri Balloon and methotrexate application to treat bleeding after curettage is a useful choice in placenta percreta and hemorrhage after abortion.

  7. Confocal and conventional immunofluorescent and immunogold electron microscopic localization of collagen types III and IV in human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanaev, A K; Rukosuev, V S; Shirinsky, V P; Milovanov, A P; Domogatsky, S P; Duance, V C; Bradbury, F M; Yarrow, P; Gardiner, L; d'Lacey, C

    1991-01-01

    Confocal and conventional indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopic methods were applied to examine the distribution of extracellular matrix constituents (collagens types III and IV) in the villi of immature and term human placentae. The immunofluorescence study revealed that collagen type III is more distinct in the villous stroma of term placenta as compared with that of the first trimester. Collagen type IV was detected mainly in endothelial and epithelial basement membranes and interestingly also to a certain extent in the stroma. Results obtained using immunoelectron microscopy support the proposal that collagen types III and IV are characteristic of stromal and basement membranes, respectively. Stromal collagen type IV is apparently localized in association with the interstitial types of collagen (I and III), in the villous stroma of term placenta.

  8. VEGF system expression by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR study on collared peccary placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Tatiana C.; Oliveira, Moacir F.; Papa, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to induce endothelial cell proliferation, to promote cell migration, and to inhibit apoptosis, thus playing a central role in angiogenesis and in the regulation of vasculogenesis. The expression of the VEGF-ligand receptor system was studied...... in the placenta and uterus of the collared peccary in nonpregnant females in the luteal phase and throughout pregnancy (>35, 75, 115, and 135 days). The material was examined by immunohistochemistry and by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Intense positive immunolabeling was observed...... in late pregnancy. In the collared peccary, the expression of the VEGF-ligand receptor system was similar to that in porcine and ruminant placentas, suggesting that an epitheliochorial placenta has the same physiological and interhemal barrier during vascular gestational development. The expression...

  9. A novel sonographic scoring system for antenatal risk assessment of obstetric complications in suspected morbidly adherent placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Yinon; Spira, Maya; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Schiff, Eyal; Sivan, Eyal; Achiron, Reuven

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel sonographic scoring system for risk assessment of complications in patients suspected of having morbidly adherent placenta. This retrospective study evaluated the association between maternal complications and a grayscale sonographic scoring system for adherent placenta before surgery. Criteria for adherent placenta included uteroplacental and uterobladder demarcation lines and the presence of lacunae. Placentas were classified into 4 stages: stage 0, normal placentation; stage 1, low probability of adherence; stage 2, moderate possibility of adherence; and stage 3, high suspicion of adherence. Placental adherence as assessed by a surgical team, estimated blood loss, and postoperative hospitalization days were determined for each group, as well as the rates of the need for packed blood cells, cryoprecipitate units, and hysterectomy. One hundred nine women were included in the study. Twenty-six (23.8%) women were given a score of stage 0, 22 (20.2%) stage 1, 28 (25.7%) stage 2, and 33 (30.3%) stage 3. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the sonographic staging was the only variable significantly associated with the number of packed cells or cryoprecipitate units transfused (P< .001) and a clinical diagnosis of adherent placenta (P< .001). In addition, both sonographic staging and a history of cesarean delivery were significantly associated with hysterectomy (P = .01; P = .03, respectively), treatment with any blood products (P< .001; P= .01), and the duration of postoperative hospitalization (P< .001; P = .006). A scoring system based on simple grayscale parameters may be effective for antenatal risk assessment of maternal complications in cases of suspected morbidly adherent placenta. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Downregulated miR-195 detected in preeclamptic placenta affects trophoblast cell invasion via modulating ActRIIA expression.

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    Yang Bai

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a pregnancy-specific syndrome manifested by on-set of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Abnormal placenta development has been generally accepted as initial cause of the disorder. Recently, miR-195 was found to be down-regulated in preeclamptic placentas compared with normal pregnant ones, indicating possible association of this small molecule with placental pathology of preeclampsia. By far the function of miR-195 in the development of placenta remains unknown.Bioinformatic assay predicted ActRIIA as one of the targets for miR-195. By using Real-time PCR, Western blotting and Dual Luciferase Assay, we validated that ActRIIA was the direct target of miR-195 in human trophoblast cells. Transwell insert invasion assay showed that miR-195 could promote cell invasion in trophoblast cell line, HTR8/SVneo cells, and the effect could be abrogated by overexpressed ActRIIA. In preeclamptic placenta tissues, pri-miR-195 and mature miR-195 expressions were down-regulated, whereas ActRIIA level appeared to be increased when compared with that in gestational-week-matched normal placentas.This is the first report on the function of miR-195 in human placental trophoblast cells which reveals an invasion-promoting effect of the small RNA via repressing ActRIIA. Aberrant expression of miR-195 may contribute to the occurrence of preeclampsia through interfering with Activin/Nodal signaling mediated by ActRIIA in human placenta.

  11. Caracterização das áreas hemófagas da placenta bovina Characterization of hemophagous areas of the bovine placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M.M. Cazerta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A região específica da interface materno-fetal corresponde à zona arcada do placentônio ovino e caprino. Em pequenos ruminantes esta área é também caracterizada por sangue materno extravasado (áreas hemófagas. É possível que o ferro seja transferido para o feto por eritrofagocitose trofoblástica nestas áreas. Para investigar as áreas hemófagas na placenta bovina, foram analisados placentônios de 34 vacas zebuínas gestantes (dois a três, quatro a seis, sete a oito, e nove meses de prenhez. O material foi fixado com solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10% e paraformaldeído a 4%, em tampão fosfato, pH 7,4, 0,1M, sendo processado e corado para microscopia de luz e histoquímica. Os hematomas placentários foram observados entre o epitélio uterino e trofoblástico, a partir de três meses de prenhez. A presença de eritrócitos nas células trofoblásticas elucidou a eritrofago-citose. A reação histoquímica de Perl's permitiu provar a existência de ferro férrico no trofoblasto. A reação de PAS foi po-sitiva, marcando substância mucóide nas células epiteliais e, principalmente, nas células binucleadas do epitélio fetal. Baseando-se nas características histológicas e histoquímicas, inferimos que as áreas hemófagas são sítios importantes para a transferência de ferro na placenta bovina.The specific region of maternal fetal interface needs to be clarified and corresponds to the "arcade zone" of sheep and goat placentomes. In small ruminants that area is also characterized by macroscopic blood extravasation (hemophagous areas. This occurs possibly because the iron is transferred to the embryo by trophoblastic erytrophagocytosis in these hemophagous placental areas. In order to investigate the hemophagous placental areas in cattle, placentomes of 34 pregnant Bos indicus cows (2-3, 4-6, 7-8 and 9 months of gestation were analyzed. They were fixed by perfusion with 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and 4

  12. Placenta previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois KE, Foley MR. Antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2017: ...

  13. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Apoptosis and Proliferation in the Placenta: Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietrak, Ewa; Kamiński, Krzysztof; Leszczyńska-Gorzelak, Bożena; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies confirm a higher incidence of preeclampsia in patients with low erythrocyte concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. Observations point to an association of disorders of pregnancy, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preeclampsia, with excessive apoptosis. One potential mechanism of action of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) promoting a reduction in the risk of pathological pregnancy may be by influencing these processes in the placenta. We investigated 28 pregnant women supplemented with a fish oil product containing 300 mg DHA starting from pregnancy week 20 until delivery (DHA group). The control group consisted of 50 women who did not receive such supplementation (control group). We determined the expression of Ki-67 and p21 as markers of proliferation and caspase 3 activity as a marker of apoptosis and DHA levels in umbilical cord blood. Caspase 3 activity was significantly lower in the DHA group in comparison to the control group. Umbilical cord blood DHA concentration was higher in the DHA group. The expression of the proteins p21 and Ki-67 did not differ significantly between the groups. We observed an association between DHA supplementation and inhibition of placental apoptosis. We did not find an association between DHA and proliferation process in the placenta.

  14. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Apoptosis and Proliferation in the Placenta: Preliminary Report

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    Ewa Wietrak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Observational studies confirm a higher incidence of preeclampsia in patients with low erythrocyte concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. Observations point to an association of disorders of pregnancy, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and preeclampsia, with excessive apoptosis. One potential mechanism of action of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA promoting a reduction in the risk of pathological pregnancy may be by influencing these processes in the placenta. Materials and Methods. We investigated 28 pregnant women supplemented with a fish oil product containing 300 mg DHA starting from pregnancy week 20 until delivery (DHA group. The control group consisted of 50 women who did not receive such supplementation (control group. We determined the expression of Ki-67 and p21 as markers of proliferation and caspase 3 activity as a marker of apoptosis and DHA levels in umbilical cord blood. Results. Caspase 3 activity was significantly lower in the DHA group in comparison to the control group. Umbilical cord blood DHA concentration was higher in the DHA group. The expression of the proteins p21 and Ki-67 did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions. We observed an association between DHA supplementation and inhibition of placental apoptosis. We did not find an association between DHA and proliferation process in the placenta.

  15. Evaluation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in placentas of rats with severe diabetes

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    Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the cell proliferation and apoptosis indexes on the 18th and 21st days of pregnancy of diabetic rats and to correlate with maternal glycemia and perinatal outcomes. Placentas from 20 Wistar rats were collected and divided into four experimental groups: control and diabetic of 18 and 21 days of pregnancy. The cell proliferation was analyzed using the PCNA expression and apoptosis by the TUNEL method. It was observed that PCNA and TUNEL indexes decreased from day 18 to 21 of pregnancy in the placentas of diabetic rats and these values were lower than control groups. Diabetic dams presented higher percentage of small for pregnancy age (SPA fetuses. However, there was no difference between the PCNA and TUNEL indexes in SPA and N-SPA fetuses in all the groups and these indexes were not correlated to maternal glycemic. Thus, placental cell proliferation and apoptosis did not interfere in the intrauterine growth restriction.

  16. Ectopic Bone Formation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Term Placenta and the Decidua.

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    Gina D Kusuma

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are one of the most attractive cell types for cell-based bone tissue repair applications. Fetal-derived MSCs and maternal-derived MSCs have been isolated from chorionic villi of human term placenta and the decidua basalis attached to the placenta following delivery, respectively. Chorionic-derived MSCs (CMSCs and decidua-derived MSCs (DMSCs generated in this study met the MSCs criteria set by International Society of Cellular Therapy. These criteria include: (i adherence to plastic; (ii >90% expression of CD73, CD105, CD90, CD146, CD44 and CD166 combined with <5% expression of CD45, CD19 and HLA-DR; and (iii ability to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. In vivo subcutaneous implantation into SCID mice showed that both bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU-labelled CMSCs and DMSCs when implanted together with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate particles were capable of forming ectopic bone at 8-weeks post-transplantation. Histological assessment showed expression of bone markers, osteopontin (OPN, osteocalcin (OCN, biglycan (BGN, bone sialoprotein (BSP, and also a marker of vasculature, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA. This study provides evidence to support CMSCs and DMSCs as cellular candidates with potent bone forming capacity.

  17. Engraftment potential of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells after in utero transplantation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chie-Pein; Liu, Shu-Hsiang; Huang, Jian-Pei; Aplin, John D; Wu, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Chun; Hu, Cing-Siang; Ko, Chun-Chuan; Lee, Ming-Yi; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Human placental mesenchymal stem cells (hPMCs) are thought to be multipotent, but their fate after in utero transplantation is not known. hPMCs isolated from term placenta were assessed for their phenotype markers, mutilineage capacity, and immunomodulatory properties. Their engraftment potential was analyzed in a pregnant rat model after in utero transplantation at embryonic day 17. Immunohistochemistry, tracing of labeled cells, fluorescence in situ hybridization and real-time PCR were used to assess post-transplant chimerism. In vitro, lineage-negative, CD34-negative hPMCs differentiated into osteocytes, adipocytes, hepatocytes and endothelial cells with tube formation, and actively suppressed the rat lymphocyte proliferative response to allogeneic lymphocyte stimulation (P transplantation into pregnant rats, a low level of engraftment was achieved in various fetal tissues. Engraftment occurred in more than 60% of the fetal rats. Cells persisted for at least 12 weeks after delivery and evidence was obtained to suggest differentiation into specific lineages, including hepatocytes and hematopoietic cells. However, a greater number of hPMCs migrated to the placenta than to the fetus, thus limiting the degree of cell engraftment in fetal organs. We conclude that hPMCs are mutipotent cells that can be engrafted long-term in immunocompetent rats after in utero transplantation.

  18. Child neurodevelopmental outcomes following preterm and term birth: What can the placenta tell us?

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    Hodyl, Nicolette A; Aboustate, Natalie; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Roberts, Claire T; Clifton, Vicki L; Stark, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    A significant proportion of children born preterm will experience some level of neurodevelopmental impairment. Changes in placental function have been observed with many antenatal conditions that are risk factors for preterm birth and/or poor neurodevelopment including fetal growth restriction and in-utero inflammation. This review will highlight placental factors that have been studied to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify biomarkers that lead to poor child neurodevelopmental outcomes. These include changes in gross morphological and histopathological structure and the placental inflammatory response to prenatal infection. Further, we will describe the placenta's role as both a barrier to maternally-derived bioactive substances critical for normal fetal brain development, such as cortisol, and a source of neuroactive steroids and neurotrophins known to have critical functions in neuronal proliferation, axonal growth, myelination and the regulation of apoptosis. Finally, emerging data supporting the potential utility of novel placental biomarkers in the early prediction of poor neurodevelopmental outcome in infants born both preterm and term will be discussed. These include the assessment of genetic variants (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms in placental tissue) and epigenetic biomarkers (e.g. placental microRNAs and placental DNA methylation). With the placenta the key tissue regulating the fetal environment, integration of observed changes in placental function with genetic and epigenetic variations may advance our ability to predict future infant health. Ultimately, this may facilitate targeted allocation of health resources with the aim of improving lifelong neurodevelopmental capability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In Vitro Differentiation Potential of Human Placenta Derived Cells into Skin Cells

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    Ruhma Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin autografting is the most viable and aesthetic technique for treatment of extensive burns; however, this practice has potential limitations. Harvesting cells from neonatal sources (such as placental tissue is a simple, inexpensive, and noninvasive procedure. In the current study authors sought to evaluate in vitro potential of human placenta derived stem cells to develop into skin-like cells. After extensive washing, amniotic membrane and umbilical cord tissue were separated to harvest amniotic epithelial cells (AECs and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs, respectively. Both types of cells were characterized for the expression of embryonic lineage markers and their growth characteristics were determined. AECs and UC-MSCs were induced to differentiate into keratinocytes-like and dermal fibroblasts-like cells, respectively. After induction, morphological changes were detected by microscopy. The differentiation potential was further assessed using immunostaining and RT-PCR analyses. AECs were positive for cytokeratins and E-Cadherin while UC-MSCs were positive for fibroblast specific makers. AECs differentiated into keratinocytes-like cells showed positive expression of keratinocyte specific cytokeratins, involucrin, and loricrin. UC-MSCs differentiated into dermal fibroblast-like cells indicated expression of collagen type 3, desmin, FGF-7, fibroblast activation protein alpha, procollagen-1, and vimentin. In conclusion, placenta is a potential source of cells to develop into skin-like cells.

  20. We can Diagnose it if we Consider it. Diagnostic Pitfall for Placenta: Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia

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    Havva Serap TORU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is an increasingly recognizable abnormality. Early cases have been confused with partial hydatidiform mole. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is probably under-diagnosed because of being an unfamiliar clinical entity and also mistaken for gestational trophoblastic disease due to the similar sonographic findings of two entities. In this report, we describe the clinical, gross, and histopathological findings of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in two cases. The 33-week-preterm baby of a 26-year-old woman with cardiovascular disease and 342 gram placenta and the 19-week fetus with trisomy 21 of a 40 year-old woman were terminated. Macroscopically thick-walled vessels and microscopically hydropic villous with peripherally localized thick-walled vessels without trophoblastic cell proliferation were observed in both cases. These two cases represent a rare placental anomaly that is benign but it is challenging to distinguish placental mesenchymal dysplasia from an incomplete mole. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia should be included in the differential diagnosis of sonographic findings that show a normal appearing fetus and a placenta with cystic lesions. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is associated with pregnancy-related hypertension. In conclusion, the most important point is “you can diagnose it if you consider it”.

  1. Safe spinal anesthesia in a woman with chronic renal failure and placenta previa

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    Beyazit Zencirci

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Beyazit ZencirciKahramanmaras, TurkeyBackground: Chronic renal failure is strongly associated with poor pregnancy outcome. Women dependent on hemodialysis before conception rarely achieve a successful live birth.Case presentation: A 31-year-old multiparous Turkish woman was scheduled for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia at 37 weeks and five days’ gestation because of hemorrhage due to secondary placenta previa. Spinal anesthesia with 8 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine was successfully performed. Invasive blood pressure, central venous pressure, and heart rate were stable during the surgery. The mother returned to regular hemodialysis on the first postoperative day.Conclusion: Pregnancy is uncommon in women with chronic renal failure requiring chronic dialysis. Rates of maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia, anemia, and infection in the pregnant chronic dialysis patient are high. However, our findings suggest that with careful, close, and effective monitoring preoperatively and intraoperatively, spinal anesthesia can be safely performed for cesarean section in patients undergoing hemodialysis.Keywords: chronic renal failure, pregnancy, spinal anesthesia, hemodialysis, placenta previa

  2. A Role for the Placenta in Programming Maternal Mood and Childhood Behavioural Disorders.

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    Janssen, A B; Kertes, D A; McNamara, G I; Braithwaite, E C; Creeth, H D J; Glover, V I; John, R M

    2016-08-01

    Substantial data demonstrate that the early-life environment, including in utero, plays a key role in later life disease. In particular, maternal stress during pregnancy has been linked to adverse behavioural and emotional outcomes in children. Data from human cohort studies and experimental animal models suggest that modulation of the developing epigenome in the foetus by maternal stress may contribute to the foetal programming of disease. Here, we summarise insights gained from recent studies that may advance our understanding of the role of the placenta in mediating the association between maternal mood disorders and offspring outcomes. First, the placenta provides a record of exposures during pregnancy, as indicated by changes in the placental trancriptome and epigenome. Second, prenatal maternal mood may alter placental function to adversely impact foetal and child development. Finally, we discuss the less well established but interesting possibility that altered placental function, more specifically changes in placental hormones, may adversely affect maternal mood and later maternal behaviour, which can also have consequence for offspring well-being. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  3. Inter-individual variation of selenium in maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta

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    Lee, Anne M.; Huel, Guy; Godin, Jean; Hellier, Georgette; Sahuquillo, Josiane; Moreau, Thierry [Epidemiological Research Unit, National Institute of Health and Medical Research, Villejuif (France); Blot, Phillipe [Clinique obstetricale Baudelocque, Paris (France)

    1994-12-09

    Selenium (Se) in high doses has been known to cause injury to the fetus and newborn. The major difficulty in assessing the effects of selenium on human reproduction stems from the need for a suitable means of estimating maternal and fetal exposure. The present investigation, therefore, examines the respective reliability of maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta as epidemiological indicators as well as inter-individual variation of this trace element. An unselected population of 128 pregnancies was studied. Obstetrical characteristics were noted. Selenium concentrations were determined for maternal plasma, cord plasma, and placental tissue by fluorometric analysis. Maternal plasma selenium concentrations (Se-Bm) were significantly greater than fetal concentrations (Se-Bc). Placental selenium (Se-Pl) levels were four times that of fetal levels. Variability of Se-Bc is best explained by placental concentrations. Maternal weight and ethnic origin are significantly correlated with Se-Bc. Female newborn have higher selenium levels than male newborn. The present study demonstrates the significance of the placenta as an indicator of fetal selenium exposure.

  4. Correlations from gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging after methotrexate chemotherapy for hemorrhagic placenta increta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Salim A; Ghulmiyyah, Labib M; Carroll, Kenneth T; Perloe, Mark; Schwartzberg, Daniel G; Sills, E Scott

    2003-01-01

    Objective To describe pre- and post-methotrexate (MTX) therapy images from pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadopentetate dimeglumine contrast following chemotherapy for post-partum hemorrhage secondary to placenta increta. Material and method A 28-year-old Caucasian female presented 4 weeks post-partum complaining of intermittent vaginal bleeding. She underwent dilatation and curettage immediately after vaginal delivery for suspected retained placental tissue but 28 d after delivery, the serum β-hCG persisted at 156 IU/mL. Office transvaginal sonogram (4 mHz B-mode) was performed, followed by pelvic MRI using a 1.5 Tesla instrument after administration of gadolinium-based contrast agent. MTX was administered intramuscularly, and MRI was repeated four weeks later. Results While transvaginal sonogram suggested retained products of conception confined to the endometrial compartment, an irregular 53 × 34 × 28 mm heterogeneous intrauterine mass was noted on MRI to extend into the anterior myometrium, consistent with placenta increta. Vaginal bleeding diminished following MTX treatment, with complete discontinuation of bleeding achieved by ~20 d post-injection. MRI using identical technique one month later showed complete resolution of the uterine lesion. Serum β-hCG was gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement, which offers advantages over standard transvaginal sonography. PMID:14617375

  5. Meeting report of the first conference of the International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, O.; Alviano, F.; Betz, A.G.; Bianchi, D.W.; Götherström, C.; Manuelpillai, U.; Mellor, A.L.; Ofir, R.; Ponsaerts, P.; Scherjon, S.A.; Weiss, M.L.; Wolbank, S.; Wood, K.J.; Borlongan, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    The International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS) was founded in June 2010. Its goal is to serve as a network for advancing research and clinical applications of stem/progenitor cells isolated from human term placental tissues, including the amnio-chorionic fetal membranes and Wharton's jelly. The commitment of the Society to champion placenta as a stem cell source was realized with the inaugural meeting of IPLASS held in Brescia, Italy, in October 2010. Officially designated as an EMBO-endorsed scientific activity, international experts in the field gathered for a 3-day meeting, which commenced with “Meet with the experts” sessions, IPLASS member and board meetings, and welcome remarks by Dr. Ornella Parolini, President of IPLASS. The evening's highlight was a keynote plenary lecture by Dr. Diana Bianchi. The subsequent scientific program consisted of morning and afternoon oral and poster presentations, followed by social events. Both provided many opportunities for intellectual exchange among the 120 multi-national participants. This allowed a methodical and deliberate evaluation of the status of placental cells in research in regenerative and reparative medicine. The meeting concluded with Dr. Parolini summarizing the meeting's highlights. This further prepared the fertile ground on which to build the promising potential of placental cell research. The second IPLASS meeting will take place in September 2012 in Vienna, Austria. This meeting report summarizes the thought-provoking lectures delivered at the first meeting of IPLASS. PMID:21575989

  6. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant. PMID:26186596

  7. Concentration of amoxicillin in maternal serum, cord blood, amniotic fluid and the placenta after vaginal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba-Szczudlik, Julia; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Różańska, Hanna; Czajkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the amoxicillin concentration in maternal serum, cord blood, amniotic fluid and the placenta, 2 h following vaginal administration and the factors influencing the drug level. Twenty-eight full-term pregnant women who qualified for elective cesarean delivery were included in the study. Vaginal suppositories containing 250 mg of amoxicillin were administered 2 h prior to the operation. Amoxicillin levels were determined using the diffusion microbial assay. The amoxicillin level in amniotic fluid was significantly higher in comparison to that of maternal serum, cord blood or the placenta. Maternal age positively and gestational weight gain negatively correlated with the amoxicillin concentration in maternal serum. The maternal serum hemoglobin level and red blood cell count were positively correlated with amoxicillin concentration in the amniotic fluid. Neonatal birth weight was positively correlated with maternal serum and cord blood amoxicillin levels. Hypertensive women had significantly higher amoxicillin concentrations in amniotic fluid, and women with thrombocytopenia presented significantly higher cord blood amoxicillin concentrations. Amoxicillin presented poor concentration in maternal-fetal compartments after vaginal administration, but the factors influencing the drug level in different compartments require further investigation.

  8. Association between tobacco use in pregnancy and placenta-associated syndromes: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Lynch, O'Neil; Wilson, Ronee E; Alio, Amina P; Kristensen, Sibylle; Marty, Phillip J; Whiteman, Valerie E; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2011-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and the occurrence of placental-associated syndromes (PAS). We analyzed data from a population-based retrospective cohort of singleton deliveries that occurred in the state of Missouri from 1989 through 2005 (N = 1,224,133). The main outcome was PAS, a composite outcome defined as the occurrence of placental abruption, placenta previa, preeclampsia, small for gestational age, preterm or stillbirth. We used logistic regression models to generate adjusted odd ratios and their 95 percent confidence intervals. Non-smoking gravidas served as the referent category. The overall prevalence of prenatal smoking was 19.6%. Cigarette smoking in pregnancy was associated with the composite outcome of placental syndromes (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.59, 1.57-1.60). This association showed a dose-response relationship, with the risk of PAS increasing with increased quantity of cigarettes smoked. Similar results were observed between smoking in pregnancy and independent risks for abruption, previa, SGA, stillbirth, and preterm delivery. Maternal smoking in pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of placenta-associated syndrome. Smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy should continue to be encouraged in all maternity care settings.

  9. [Leonardo da Vinci and his studies on the human fetus and the placenta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, L; Fanos, V

    2000-01-01

    To review the accuracy of Leonardo's anatomical studies of the female external genitalia and the foetus, particularly those concerning the umbilical cord with its blood vessels. The anatomical drawings of Leonardo da Vinci which are now stored in the Windors Castle near London were reviewed and the accuracy of the details of the genital apparatus and foetus was evaluated. A written comment characterizes many of his drawings. He described accurately the position of the uterine blood vessels and the relationship between the pelvic organs. However his drawing and description of the female external genitalia and human placenta was incorrect because his understanding of it was inadequate. He believed that the human placenta had cotyledons like that of the ungulate uterus (drown side A of sheet 19). At the top of that sheet some Leonardo's details of the anatomic relationship are shown. In our opinion, Leonardo's misunderstanding is probably because he was only able to perform one anatomical dissection of a pregnant women and foetus and therefore his knowledge was limited. The resulting documentation of the pregnant women and foetus was therefore heavily supplemented with his enormous experience in animal anatomy.

  10. The effect of Vdr gene ablation on global gene expression in the mouse placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Buckberry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vitamin D are mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR, a predominantly nuclear receptor, expressed in numerous tissues including the placenta. VDR and the retinoid X receptor (RXR form a dimer complex which binds to genomic vitamin D responsive elements located primarily in promoter regions and recruit cell-specific transcription factor complexes which regulate the expression of numerous genes. To investigate the role of VDR on regulating placental gene expression, mice heterozygous (+/− for an ablated Vdr allele (C57Bl6 strain B6.129S4-VDRtm1Mbd/J, Jackson Laboratory were mated to generate Vdr+/+, Vdr+/− and Vdr −/− fetuses and placental samples were collected at day 18.5 of pregnancy. RNA was isolated from placental tissue with global gene expression measured using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.1 ST Arrays to assess the effects of VDR on global gene expression in the placenta. All raw array data are deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under accession GSE61583.

  11. Variable Methylation Potential in Preterm Placenta: Implication for Epigenetic Programming of the Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, Vinita V; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Mehendale, Savita; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2017-06-01

    Children born preterm are reported to be at increased risk of developing noncommunicable diseases in later life. Altered placental DNA methylation patterns are implicated in fetal programming of adult diseases. Our earlier animal studies focus on micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) that interact in the 1 carbon cycle, thereby influencing methylation reactions. Our previous studies in women delivering preterm show altered plasma levels of micronutrients and lower plasma LCPUFA levels. We postulate that alterations in the micronutrient metabolism may affect the regulation of enzymes, methionine adenosyltransferase ( MAT2A), and SAH-hydrolase ( AHCY), involved in the production of methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), thereby influencing the methylation potential (MP) in the placenta of women delivering preterm. The present study, therefore, examines the mRNA, protein levels of enzymes ( MAT2A and AHCY), SAM, S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) levels, and global DNA methylation levels from preterm (n = 73) and term (n = 73) placentae. The enzyme messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, protein levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and SAM-SAH levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mRNA levels for MAT2A and AHCY are higher ( P epigenetic programming of the developing fetus.

  12. Is thrombophilia associated with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, M A; Walker, M C; Smith, G N; Wells, P S; Ramsay, T; Langlois, N J; Carson, N; Carrier, M; Rennicks White, R; Shachkina, S; Wen, S W

    2014-04-01

    Case control studies suggest that genetic thrombophilias increase the risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (pregnancy loss, small for gestational age (SGA), preeclampsia and/or placental abruption). Cohort studies have not supported this association but were underpowered to detect small effects. To determine if factor V Leiden (FVL) or the prothrombin gene mutation (PGM) were associated with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. A prospective cohort of unselected, consenting pregnant women at three Canadian tertiary care hospitals had blood drawn in the early second trimester and were genotyped for FVL and PGM after delivery. The main outcome measure was a composite of pregnancy loss, SGA pregnancy complication. Of the remaining 6836 women, 11.23% experienced a complication. FVL and/or PGM was associated with a relative risk of 1.04 (95% CI, 0.81-1.33) for the composite outcome, with similar results after adjustment for important covariates. Carriers of FVL or PGM are not at significantly increased risk of these pregnancy complications. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. We can Diagnose it if we Consider it. Diagnostic Pitfall for Placenta: Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toru, Havva Serap; Aytekin, Esra Çobankent; Sanhal, Cem Yaşar; Yakut, Sezin; Çetin, Zafer; Mendilcioğlu, İbrahim İnanç; Peştereli, Hadice Elif

    2017-02-04

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is an increasingly recognizable abnormality. Early cases have been confused with partial hydatidiform mole. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is probably under-diagnosed because of being an unfamiliar clinical entity and also mistaken for gestational trophoblastic disease due to the similar sonographic findings of two entities. In this report, we describe the clinical, gross, and histopathological findings of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in two cases. The 33-week-preterm baby of a 26-year-old woman with cardiovascular disease and 342 gram placenta and the 19-week fetus with trisomy 21 of a 40 year-old woman were terminated. Macroscopically thick-walled vessels and microscopically hydropic villous with peripherally localized thick-walled vessels without trophoblastic cell proliferation were observed in both cases. These two cases represent a rare placental anomaly that is benign but it is challenging to distinguish placental mesenchymal dysplasia from an incomplete mole. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia should be included in the differential diagnosis of sonographic findings that show a normal appearing fetus and a placenta with cystic lesions. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is associated with pregnancy-related hypertension. In conclusion, the most important point is "you can diagnose it if you consider it".

  14. [Expression of aquaporin 3 and aquaporin 9 in placenta and fetal membrane with idiopathic polyhydramnios.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-Qiong; Jiang, Shan-Shan; Zou, Shuang-Wei; Hu, Ying-Chun; Wang, Yu-Huan

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the pathogenesis role of aquaporin 3 and aquaporin 9 in idiopathic polyhydramnios by detecting their expression and distribution in fetal membranes and placenta. Twenty-one of term pregnancy women with idiopathic polyhydramnios were enrolled as patient group matched with 30 women with normal term pregnancy as control group. The expression and localization of aquaporin 3 and aquaporin 9 in fetal membranes and placenta were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and streptavidin peroxidase immunohistochemiscal staining. (1) The mRNA expressions of aquaporin 3 and aquaporin 9 were detected in amnion, chorion and placental tissue in both patient group and control group. Both aquaporin 3 and aquaporin 9 were demonstrated positive staining in the amnion epithelia, chorion cytotrophoblasts and placental trophoblast. (2) The ratio of aquaporin 3 and aquaporin 9 mRNA expressions in amnion in patient group comparing to those in control group were 5.00 and 3.25, while in chorion they were 2.03 and 2.08. When compared with those in amnion and chorion of control group, there was a significant difference (P polyhydramnios. Further investigation should be needed to clarify the regulatory mechanism of aquaporin 3 and aquaporin 9 expressions.

  15. The expression and function of fatty acid transport protein-2 and -4 in the murine placenta.

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    Takuya Mishima

    Full Text Available The uptake and trans-placental trafficking of fatty acids from the maternal blood into the fetal circulation are essential for embryonic development, and involve several families of proteins. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs uniquely transport fatty acids into cells. We surmised that placental FATPs are germane for fetal growth, and are regulated during hypoxic stress, which is associated with reduced fat supply to the fetus.Using cultured primary term human trophoblasts we found that FATP2, FATP4 and FATP6 were highly expressed in trophoblasts. Hypoxia enhanced the expression of trophoblastic FATP2 and reduced the expression of FATP4, with no change in FATP6. We also found that Fatp2 and Fatp4 are expressed in the mouse amnion and placenta, respectively. Mice deficient in Fatp2 or Fatp4 did not deviate from normal Mendelian distribution, with both embryos and placentas exhibiting normal weight and morphology, triglyceride content, and expression of genes related to fatty acid mobilization.We conclude that even though hypoxia regulates the expression of FATP2 and FATP4 in human trophoblasts, mouse Fatp2 and Fatp4 are not essential for intrauterine fetal growth.

  16. The expression and function of fatty acid transport protein-2 and -4 in the murine placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Takuya; Miner, Jeffrey H; Morizane, Mayumi; Stahl, Andreas; Sadovsky, Yoel

    2011-01-01

    The uptake and trans-placental trafficking of fatty acids from the maternal blood into the fetal circulation are essential for embryonic development, and involve several families of proteins. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) uniquely transport fatty acids into cells. We surmised that placental FATPs are germane for fetal growth, and are regulated during hypoxic stress, which is associated with reduced fat supply to the fetus. Using cultured primary term human trophoblasts we found that FATP2, FATP4 and FATP6 were highly expressed in trophoblasts. Hypoxia enhanced the expression of trophoblastic FATP2 and reduced the expression of FATP4, with no change in FATP6. We also found that Fatp2 and Fatp4 are expressed in the mouse amnion and placenta, respectively. Mice deficient in Fatp2 or Fatp4 did not deviate from normal Mendelian distribution, with both embryos and placentas exhibiting normal weight and morphology, triglyceride content, and expression of genes related to fatty acid mobilization. We conclude that even though hypoxia regulates the expression of FATP2 and FATP4 in human trophoblasts, mouse Fatp2 and Fatp4 are not essential for intrauterine fetal growth.

  17. Frequency, Risk Factors, and Adverse Fetomaternal Outcomes of Placenta Previa in Northern Tanzania

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    Elizabeth Eliet Senkoro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Placenta previa (PP is a potential risk factor for obstetric hemorrhage, which is a major cause of fetomaternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This study aimed to determine frequency, risk factors, and adverse fetomaternal outcomes of placenta previa in Northern Tanzania. Methodology. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using maternally-linked data from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre birth registry spanning 2000 to 2015. All women who gave birth to singleton infants were studied. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals for risk factors and adverse fetomaternal outcomes associated with PP were estimated in multivariable logistic regression models. Result. A total of 47,686 singleton deliveries were analyzed. Of these, the frequency of PP was 0.6%. Notable significant risk factors for PP included gynecological diseases, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, malpresentation, and gravidity ≥5. Adverse maternal outcomes were postpartum haemorrhage, antepartum haemorrhage, and Caesarean delivery. PP increased odds of fetal Malpresentation and early neonatal death. Conclusion. The prevalence of PP was comparable to that found in past research. Multiple independent risk factors were identified. PP was found to have associations with several adverse fetomaternal outcomes. Early identification of women at risk of PP may help clinicians prevent such complications.

  18. Modulation of cholesterol transport by maternal hypercholesterolemia in human full-term placenta.

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    Ran Zhang

    Full Text Available The significance of maternal cholesterol transporting to the fetus under normal as well as pathological circumstances is less understood. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of maternal hypercholesterolemia on placental cholesterol transportation. Human full-time placenta, maternal and venous cord blood were sampled at delivery from the pregnant women with serum total cholesterol (TC concentrations at third trimester higher than 7.25 mM (n = 19 and the pregnant women with normal TC concentrations (n = 19. Serum lipids and expression of genes related to cholesterol transportation were measured by western blot or real-time PCR. The results indicated that serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels were significantly increased, in pregnancies, but decreased in cord blood in hypercholesterolemic group compared to the matched control group. All the subjects were no-drinking, non-smoker, and gestational disease free. The mRNA expression of lipoprotein receptors, including LDLR and VLDLR were significantly increased, while the protein expression of PCSK9 was significantly increased in hypercholesterolemic placenta. In conclusion, maternal hypercholesterolemia might decrease the transportation of cholesterol from mother to fetus because of the high levels of PCSK9 protein expression.

  19. Prophylactic balloon occlusion of internal iliac arteries in women with placenta accreta: Literature review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilauro, M.D.; Dason, S. [McMaster University, Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine (Canada); Athreya, S., E-mail: sathreya@stjoes.ca [Diagnostic Imaging, St Joseph' s Healthcare Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Aim: To review the literature on the use of prophylactic balloon occlusion alone and in conjunction with arterial embolization of the internal iliac arteries in women with placenta accreta. Materials and methods: The PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for keywords related to this technique and its use in the avoidance of caesarean hysterectomy. The relevant published articles were selected and then searched for further references. Results: The literature search found 15 case reports and five studies for a total of 20 articles. The use of balloon catheters to prevent post-partum haemorrhage in women with placenta accreta is controversial with some investigators reporting reduced blood loss and transfusion requirements while others reporting no benefit. This procedure does not appear to reduce operative time or hospital stay. Some groups have described catheter-related complications, such as maternal thromboembolic events and the need for stent placement and/or arterial bypass. Thus far, there is no reported maternal or foetal mortality related to this procedure. Conclusion: Current evidence is based upon case reports and small retrospective studies. Larger studies or randomized controlled trials are essential in order to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of bilateral iliac balloon occlusion. The creation of a data registry would also facilitate the reporting of this technique.

  20. Activation of type III interferon genes by pathogenic bacteria in infected epithelial cells and mouse placenta.

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    Hélène Bierne

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections trigger the expression of type I and II interferon genes but little is known about their effect on type III interferon (IFN-λ genes, whose products play important roles in epithelial innate immunity against viruses. Here, we studied the expression of IFN-λ genes in cultured human epithelial cells infected with different pathogenic bacteria and in the mouse placenta infected with Listeria monocytogenes. We first showed that in intestinal LoVo cells, induction of IFN-λ genes by L. monocytogenes required bacterial entry and increased further during the bacterial intracellular phase of infection. Other Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis, also induced IFN-λ genes when internalized by LoVo cells. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydia trachomatis did not substantially induce IFN-λ. We also found that IFN-λ genes were up-regulated in A549 lung epithelial cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in HepG2 hepatocytes and BeWo trophoblastic cells infected with L. monocytogenes. In a humanized mouse line permissive to fetoplacental listeriosis, IFN-λ2/λ3 mRNA levels were enhanced in placentas infected with L. monocytogenes. In addition, the feto-placental tissue was responsive to IFN-λ2. Together, these results suggest that IFN-λ may be an important modulator of the immune response to Gram-positive intracellular bacteria in epithelial tissues.

  1. Aortic Compression and Cross Clamping in a Case of Placenta Percreta and Amniotic Fluid Embolism: A Case Report

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    Michael A. Belfort

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE, also known as anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy at the time of surgery for placenta percreta has been previously reported. We report here a case in which AFE and associated cardiac arrest occurred following a hysterectomy for placenta percreta. In this case, subhepatic manual aortic compression during the cardiac arrest and chest compressions followed by infrarenal aortic cross-clamping during volume infusion and reversal of the coagulopathy were associated with a successful resuscitation and good maternal outcome.

  2. Determination of thyroid hormones in placenta using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhong-Min; Giesert, Florian; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    The transplacental passage of thyroid hormones (THs) is of great significance since the maternal THs are vitally important in ensuring the normal fetal development. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of seven THs, viz. L-thyroxine (T4), 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), 3,3',5'-triiod...... THs in five mouse placentas. The presence of T2 was tracked in placenta for the first time. This method with improved selectivity and sensitivity allows comprehensive evaluation of TH homeostasis in research of metabolism and effects of environmental contaminant exposures....

  3. Estudio anatomopatológico en placentas de mujeres con hipertensión inducida por el embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora Vargas, Luis; Aguilar Salazar, Cintya; Cascante Campos, Yancy

    2008-01-01

    La hipertensión inducida por el embarazo (HIE) puede desembocar en una serie de síndromes dependiendo de la gravedad con que se presente y los signos y síntomas que lo acompañen. Sabemos que la interrupción del embarazo junto con la expulsión de la placenta termina con estos problemas. En total se estudiaron 28 placentas en donde los hallazgos más importantes fueron que el 100% de las muestras relacionadas a HIE presentaron patologías y el 87% de las muestras presentaron menos de un 50% de ár...

  4. Microarray-Based Analysis of Methylation of 1st Trimester Trisomic Placentas from Down Syndrome, Edwards Syndrome and Patau Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatt, Lotte; Aagaard, Mads M; Bach, Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    Methylation-based non-invasive prenatal testing of fetal aneuploidies is an alternative method that could possibly improve fetal aneuploidy diagnosis, especially for trisomy 13 (T13) and trisomy 18(T18). Our aim was to study the methylation landscape in placenta DNA from trisomy 13, 18 and 21...... pregnancies in an attempt to find trisomy-specific methylation differences better suited for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have conducted highresolution methylation specific bead chip microarray analyses assessing more than 450,000 CpGs analyzing placentas from 12 T21 pregnancies, 12 T18 pregnancies...

  5. Acción del medio condicionado de placenta sobre células tumorales de ratón

    OpenAIRE

    Bibé, Solange; Gutiérrez, A.; Castro Cavallo, L.; Coronato, Silvia; Ponzinibbio, Carlos; Laguens, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    Las células tumorales durante el proceso de crecimiento e invasión y las células trofoblásticas de la placenta en la implantación endometrial, comparten características similares, con la diferencia que en estas últimas existe un mecanismo de regulación y control que limita su crecimiento e invasión. En cambio las células tumorales exhiben una tasa de crecimiento y un poder de infiltración incontrolados. Están descriptos dos tipos celulares principales en los cultivos de placenta murinos: las ...

  6. A comparison of cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid and color Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in patients with placenta accreta

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    Elham Naghshineh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Cell-free mRNA is an acceptable, easy made, functional test with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV more than Doppler ultrasound for diagnosis and prediction of incidence of placenta accrete and we recommend the use of cell-free mRNA test for diagnosis of placenta accreta.

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' disease agent reduces HIV-1 replication in human placenta

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    Cappa Stella

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several factors determine the risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, such as coinfections in placentas from HIV-1 positive mothers with other pathogens. Chagas' disease is one of the most endemic zoonoses in Latin America, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The purpose of the study was to determine whether T. cruzi modifies HIV infection of the placenta at the tissue or cellular level. Results Simple and double infections were carried out on a placental histoculture system (chorionic villi isolated from term placentas from HIV and Chagas negative mothers and on the choriocarcinoma BeWo cell line. Trypomastigotes of T. cruzi (VD lethal strain, either purified from mouse blood or from Vero cell cultures, 24 h-supernatants of blood and cellular trypomastigotes, and the VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 reporter virus were used for the coinfections. Viral transduction was evaluated by quantification of luciferase activity. Coinfection with whole trypomastigotes, either from mouse blood or from cell cultures, decreased viral pseudotype luciferase activity in placental histocultures. Similar results were obtained from BeWo cells. Supernatants of stimulated histocultures were used for the simultaneous determination of 29 cytokines and chemokines with the Luminex technology. In histocultures infected with trypomastigotes, as well as in coinfected tissues, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10 and MCP-1 production was significantly lower than in controls or HIV-1 transducted tissue. A similar decrease was observed in histocultures treated with 24 h-supernatants of blood trypomastigotes, but not in coinfected tissues. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the presence of an intracellular pathogen, such as T. cruzi, is able to impair HIV-1 transduction in an in vitro system of human placental histoculture. Direct effects of the parasite on cellular structures as well as on cellular/viral proteins essential for HIV-1 replication might influence

  8. Transfer of Silver Nanoparticles through the Placenta and Breast Milk during in vivo Experiments on Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, E A; Buzulukov, Yu P; Demin, V F; Demin, V A; Gmoshinski, I V; Tyshko, N V; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs), widely used in the manufacture of various types of consumer products and for medical applications, belong to novel types of materials that pose potential risks to human health. The potential negative effects of the influence of these NPs on reproduction are insufficiently researched. A quantitative assessment of the transfer of metallic silver nanoparticles through the placenta and breast milk was carried out during an in vivo experiment. We used 34.9 ± 14.8 nm in size silver NPs that were stabilized by low-molecularweight polyvinylpyrrolidone and labeled with the (110m)Ag radioactive isotope using thermal neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor. [(110m)Ag]-labeled NPs preparations were administered intragastrically via a gavage needle to pregnant (20(th) day of gestation) or lactating (14-16th day of lactation) female rats at a dose of 1.69-2.21 mg/kg of body weight upon conversion into silver. The accumulation of NPs in rat fetuses and infant rats consuming their mother's breast milk was evaluated using a low-background semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometer 24 and 48 hours following labeling, respectively. In all cases, we observed a penetration of the [(110m)Ag]-labeled NPs through the placenta and ther entry into the mother's milk in amounts exceeding by 100-1,000 times the sensitivity of the utilized analytical method. The average level of accumulation of NPs in fetuses was 0.085-0.147% of the administered dose, which was comparable to the accumulation of the label in the liver, blood, and muscle carcass of adult animals and exceeded the penetration of NPs across the hematoencephalic barrier into the brain of females by a factor of 10-100. In lactating females, the total accumulation of [(110m)Ag]-labeled NPs into the milk exceeded 1.94 ± 0.29% of the administered dose over a 48 h period of lactation; not less than 25% of this amount was absorbed into the gastrointestinal tract of infant rats. Thus, this was the first time

  9. [Low molecular weight heparin inhibits cell apoptosis in the placenta of rats with preeclampsia-like symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhong, Mei; Liu, Fengyan

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the anti-apoptotic effect of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in the placenta of rats with preeclampsia-like symptoms. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats were randomized equally into 3 groups and received subcutaneous saline injection (control group), 200 mg/kg L-NAME injection to induce preeclampsia symptoms (PE group), or L-NAME with 40 µl/kg LMWH injections (LMWH group). The blood pressure, urine protein, the number of pups and the weight of the fetuses and placenta were measured, and the placental apoptotic index was measured by TUNEL assay. The expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax in the placenta were examined by Western blotting. Compared with the control group, L-NAME injections caused significantly increased blood pressure and urine protein (P0.05). The LMWH group showed a significantly lower placental apoptosis index than the PE group (Papoptosis index and expressions of cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax protein were similar between LMWH group and normal pregnant group (P>0.05). LMWH can alleviate preeclampsia-like symptoms and decrease the apoptosis in the placenta of rats possibly by enhancing Bcl-2 and suppressing Bax expressions.

  10. Capsaicin Synthesis Requires in Situ Phenylalanine and Valine Formation in in Vitro Maintained Placentas from Capsicum chinense

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    Fray M. Baas-Espinola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicinoids (CAP are nitrogenous metabolites formed from valine (Val and phenylalanine (Phe in the placentas of hot Capsicum genotypes. Placentas of Habanero peppers can incorporate inorganic nitrogen into amino acids and have the ability to secure the availability of the required amino acids for CAP biosynthesis. In order to determine the participation of the placental tissue as a supplier of these amino acids, the effects of blocking the synthesis of Val and Phe by using specific enzyme inhibitors were analyzed. Isolated placentas maintained in vitro were used to rule out external sources′ participation. Blocking Phe synthesis, through the inhibition of arogenate dehydratase, significantly decreased CAP accumulation suggesting that at least part of Phe required in this process has to be produced in situ. Chlorsulfuron inhibition of acetolactate synthase, involved in Val synthesis, decreased not only Val accumulation but also that of CAP, pointing out that the requirement for this amino acid can also be fulfilled by this tissue. The presented data demonstrates that CAP accumulation in in vitro maintained placentas can be accomplished through the in situ availability of Val and Phe and suggests that the synthesis of the fatty acid chain moiety may be a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids.

  11. Significant alteration of gene expression in wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium by plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber Vanden Wymelenberg; Jill Gaskell; Michael Mozuch; Sandra Splinter BonDurant; Grzegorz Sabat; John Ralph; Oleksandr Skyba; Shawn D. Mansfield; Robert A. Blanchette; Igor Grigoriev; Philip J. Kersten; Daniel Cullen

    2011-01-01

    Identification of specific genes and enzymes involved in conversion of lignocellulosics from an expanding number of potential feedstocks is of growing interest to bioenergy process development. The basidiomycetous wood decay fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Postia placenta are promising in this regard because they are able to utilize a wide range of simple and...

  12. Energy Balance Regulating Neuropeptides Are Expressed through Pregnancy and Regulated by Interleukin-6 Deficiency in Mouse Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Patricia; Lima, Luis; Diéguez, Carlos; García, María C.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta produces a number of signaling molecules including metabolic and reproductive hormones as well as several inflammatory mediators. Among them, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a well-known immune and metabolic regulator, acts peripherally modulating metabolic function and centrally increasing energy expenditure and reducing body fat. IL-6 interacts with key hypothalamic neuropeptidergic systems controlling energy homeostasis such as those producing the orexigenic/anabolic: neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and anorectic/catabolic neuropeptides: proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART). Human and rat placenta have been identified as source of these neuropeptides, but their expression and regulation in murine placental tissues remain unknown. Therefore, placental mRNA levels of IL-6, NPY, AgRP, POMC, and CART at different pregnancy stages (gestational days 13, 15, and 18) were analyzed by real time PCR, as were the effect of IL-6 deficiency (IL-6 knockout mice) on their placental expression. Our results showed that placenta-derived neuropeptides were regulated by gestational age and IL-6 throughout the second half of mouse pregnancy. These data suggest that IL-6 may participate in the fine tune control of energy balance during pregnancy by extending its action as a metabolic signal to the main organ at the fetomaternal interface: the placenta. PMID:24744782

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13 Isolated from Placenta of Aborted Cattle in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, H C; Patel, Bharat K; Chandel, B S; Patel, Kirit B; Patel, A C; Shrimali, M D; Patel, S S; Bhagat, A G; Rajgor, Manish; Patel, Mitul A; Patel, Maulik; Kala, Jitendra; Patel, Bhumika

    2016-10-27

    Brucella abortus is generally known to cause brucellosis in cattle and buffalo. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13, isolated from aborted cattle placenta in the area of Gujarat, India, providing precious resources for comparative genomic analyses of Brucella field strains. Copyright © 2016 Chauhan et al.

  14. EphA2 is a biomarker of hMSCs derived from human placenta and umbilical cord

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    Shih-Pei Shen

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: EphA2 can be used to distinguish and isolate MSCs from a primary culture of placenta-derived cells. EphA2-sorted MSCs exhibited superior responsiveness to TNF-α signaling in an inflammatory environment compared with unsorted MSCs or MSC-like cells.

  15. Successful use of BT-Cath(®) balloon tamponade in the management of postpartum haemorrhage due to placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygur, D; Altun Ensari, T; Ozgu-Erdinc, A S; Dede, H; Erkaya, S; Danisman, A N

    2014-10-01

    To investigate efficacy of the BT-Cath(®) in cases of uncontrollable haemorrhage due to placenta previa. Retrospective study of women treated with the BT-Cath in the event of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) due to placenta previa, despite optimal management with medical treatment. Between 2011 and 2013, 237 women had placenta previa (0.45%) at the study hospital. This study evaluated 53 women who underwent uterine tamponade with a BT-Cath. Haemostasis was achieved in 45 women (85%), and hysterectomy was required in six women (11%). Two women required repeat laparotomy. The mean duration of balloon tamponade was 9.8h (standard deviation 6.4h). When the relationship between balloon volume and treatment success was evaluated, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.803 (95% confidence interval 0.633-0.973; p=0.007) and the optimal cut-off point was 220ml, with sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 71%. The intra-uterine BT-Cath is simple to use, even among clinicians with little experience, and is an effective treatment choice in patients with PPH due to placenta previa when medical treatment is unsuccessful. Minimal inflation of the balloon, a shorter period of intra-uterine balloon tamponade and early deflation of the balloon are recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of immunization of pregnant guinea pigs with guinea pig cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B on viral spread in the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kaede; Yamada, Souichi; Katano, Harutaka; Fukuchi, Saki; Sato, Yuko; Kato, Minami; Yamaguchi, Toyofumi; Moriishi, Kohji; Inoue, Naoki

    2013-06-28

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital virus infection. Infection of guinea pigs with guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) can provide a useful model for the analysis of its pathogenesis as well as for the evaluation of vaccines. Although glycoprotein B (gB) vaccines have been reported to reduce the incidence and mortality of congenital infection in human clinical trials and guinea pig animal models, the mechanisms of protection remain unclear. To understand the gB vaccine protection mechanisms, we analyzed the spread of challenged viruses in the placentas and fetuses of guinea pig dams immunized with recombinant adenoviruses expressing GPCMV gB and β-galactosidase, rAd-gB and rAd-LacZ, respectively. Mean body weight of the fetuses in the dams immunized with rAd-LacZ followed by GPCMV challenge 3 weeks after immunization was 78% of that observed for dams immunized with rAd-gB. Under conditions in which congenital infection occurred in 75% of fetuses in rAd-LacZ-immunized dams, only 13% of fetuses in rAd-gB-immunized dams were congenitally infected. The placentas were infected less frequently in the gB-immunized animals. In the placentas of the rAd-LacZ- and rAd-gB-immunized animals, CMV early antigens were detected mainly in the spongiotrophoblast layer. Focal localization of viral antigens in the spongiotrophoblast layer suggests cell-to-cell viral spread in the placenta. In spite of a similar level of antibodies against gB and avidity indices among fetuses in each gB-immunized dam, congenital infection was sometimes observed in a littermate fetus. In such infected fetuses, CMV spread to most organs. Our results suggest that antibodies against gB protected against infection mainly at the interface of the placenta rather than from the placenta to the fetus. The development of strategies to block cell-to-cell viral spread in the placenta is, therefore, required for effective protection against congenital CMV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. The long path of human placenta, and its derivatives, in regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta R Silini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1800’s, a baby born with a caul, a remnant of the amniotic sack or fetal membranes, was thought to be lucky, special, or protected. Over time, fetal membranes lost their legendary power and were soon considered nothing more than biological waste after birth. However, placenta tissues have reclaimed their potential and since the early 1900’s an increasing body of evidence has shown that these tissues have clinical benefits in a wide range of wound repair and surgical applications. Nowadays, there is a concerted effort to understand the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of placental tissues, and, more recently, cells derived thereof. This review will summarize the historical and current clinical applications of human placental tissues, and cells isolated from these tissues, and discuss some mechanisms thought to be responsible for the therapeutic effects observed after tissue and/or cell transplantation.

  18. Fetal growth restriction and methylation of growth-related genes in the placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xirong; Zhao, Yan; Jin, Rong; Chen, Jiao; Wang, Xiu; Baccarelli, Andrea; Zhang, Yunhui

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To examine the associations between fetal growth restriction (FGR) and DNA methylation of six growth-related genes in human placenta. Materials & methods: A total of 181 mother-newborn pairs (80 FGR cases and 101 controls) were enrolled in this case–control study. Placental DNA methylation was measured by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Results: DNA methylation levels of IGF2 and AHRR were positively associated with newborn birth weight and Quetelet's index, while DNA methylation levels of HSD11B2 and WNT2 were negatively associated with those fetal growth indicators. In addition, significantly elevated odds of FGR birth were associated with increasing DNA methylation of HSD11B2 and WNT2, and decreasing DNA methylation of IGF2. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that placental DNA methylation levels of IGF2, AHRR, HSD11B2 and WNT2 were associated with measures of fetal growth. PMID:26678531

  19. Transplacental transfer of monomethyl phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a human placenta perfusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Hedegaard, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The transplacental passage of monomethylphtalate (mMP) and mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (mEHP) was studied using an ex vivo placental perfusion model with simultaneous perfusion of fetal and maternal circulation in a single cotyledon. Umbilical cord blood and placental tissue collected both before...... tissue levels of mMP after perfusions with mMP compared to perfusions with mEHP suggest an accumulation of mMP during perfusion. No tendency for accumulation of mEHP was observed during perfusions with mEHP compared to perfusions with mMP. Detectable levels of mEHP and mEP were found in umbilical cord...... plasma samples. mMP and possibly other short-chained phthalate monoesters in maternal blood can cross the placenta by slow transfer, whereas the results indicate no placental transfer of mEHP. Further studies are recommended....

  20. [Iliac artery occlusion balloons for suspected placenta accreta during cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos Frías, N; Gredilla, E; Guasch, E; Gilsanz, F

    2014-02-01

    Massive obstetric hemorrhage still remains a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. The risk factors associated with this pathology must be identified in order to schedule the appropriate delivery with the necessary resources. A case is presented of an iliac artery occlusion with intravascular balloons for suspected placenta accreta during cesarean section. The perioperative treatment, as well as an analysis of the treatment options is described, along with their advantages and disadvantages, from the use of postpartum hemorrhage protocols, blood transfusion and procoagulant factors, and other maneuvers to control bleeding, until the hysterectomy. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.