Sample records for abreaction

  1. Evidence based abreactive ego state therapy for PTSD.

    Barabasz, Arreed


    A single 5-6 hours manualized abreactive ego state therapy session has recently been subjected to two placebo-controlled investigations meeting evidence-based criteria. Ego state therapy was found to be a highly effective and durable treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Apparently, ego state therapy works because it is emotion focused, activates sub-cortical structures, and because the supportive, interpretive therapist reconstructs the patient's personality to be resilient and adaptive. In this article the author reviews the treatment procedures and presents the findings of both studies.

  2. Efficacy of single-session abreactive ego state therapy for combat stress injury, PTSD, and ASD.

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne; Christensen, Ciara; French, Brian; Watkins, John G


    Using abreactive Ego State Therapy (EST), 36 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR and PTSD checklist (PCL) criteria were exposed to either 5-6 hours of manualized treatment or placebo in a single session. EST emphasizes repeated hypnotically activated abreactive "reliving" of the trauma experience combined with therapists' ego strength. Both the placebo and EST treatment groups showed significant reductions in PTSD checklist scores immediately posttreatment (placebo: mean 17.34 points; EST: mean 53.11 points) but only the EST patients maintained significant treatment effect at 4-week and 16- to 18-week follow-ups. Abreactive EST appears to be an effective and durable treatment for PTSD inclusive of combat stress injury and acute stress disorder.

  3. Efficacy of abreactive ego state therapy for PTSD: trauma resolution, depression, and anxiety.

    Christensen, Ciara; Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne


    Using manualized abreactive Ego State Therapy (EST), 30 subjects meeting DSM-IV-TR and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) criteria were exposed to either 5-6 hours of treatment or the Ochberg Counting Method (placebo) in a single session. EST emphasized repeated hypnotically activated abreactive "reliving" of the trauma and ego strengthening by the cotherapists. Posttreatment 1-month and 3-month follow-ups showed EST to be an effective treatment for PTSD. Using the Davidson Trauma Scale, Beck Depression II, and Beck Anxiety Scales, EST subjects showed significant positive effects from pretreatment levels at all posttreatment measurement periods in contrast to the placebo treatment. Most of the EST subjects responded and showed further improvement over time.

  4. Abreacting and Assimilating Traumatic, Dissociated Memories of MPD Patients through Art Therapy.

    Jacobson, Mindy


    Notes that, when used to treat patients diagnosed with multiple personality disorder, art therapy aids in translating unspeakable memories into visual format. Discusses "stepping in," drawing process that may promote "cross-alter associations" to imagery drawn by other personalities. Addresses recovery of traumatic material…

  5. Using context to treat traumatized children.

    Terr, Lenore C


    When treating childhood psychic trauma, context means "putting a perspective to the terrifying experience"--"seeing it in a new light", one might say, or understanding its magnitude and meaning. Of three essential mechanisms behind a young person's psychological recovery from a stress disorder--abreaction, context, and correction-context is the most reflective, cognitive, and conscious of these processes; while abreaction is primarily emotive, and correction is primarily behavioral (involving real or fantasied action). Because context, newly introduced by this author to the psychiatric literature (Terr, 2003), is the most recent and the least well understood of the three mechanisms, it will be the sole focus here.

  6. Psychodrama Participants' Perception of Therapeutic Factors.

    Kellermann, Peter Felix


    Administered questionnaire to 40 psychodrama participants and 42 controls with no psychotherapy experience to assess which specific events they would find helpful in psychotherapy. Psychodrama participants perceived emotional abreaction and cognitive insight most helpful while controls considered nonspecific healing aids most helpful. Suggests…

  7. Treating childhood trauma.

    Terr, Lenore C


    This review begins with the question "What is childhood trauma?" Diagnosis is discussed next, and then the article focuses on treatment, using 3 basic principles-abreaction, context, and correction. Treatment modalities and complications are discussed, with case vignettes presented throughout to illustrate. Suggestions are provided for the psychiatrist to manage countertransference as trauma therapy proceeds.

  8. Children of victims of terrorism in Israel: coping and adjustment in the face of trauma.

    Dreman, S


    A follow-up study was conducted of children whose parents were killed in terrorist activities in Israel over 10 years ago. Therapy at that time concentrated on promoting family strengths and coping. Subjects in the 10-year follow-up, however, demonstrated considerable psychopathology, which was hypothesized as emanating in part from unresolved fears of loss of control experienced at the time of the traumatic event. Cases presented, together with previous findings, suggest that early abreactive intrapsychic intervention may help prevent long-term pathology, but interpersonal intervention may also be necessary to prevent manipulative antisocial behavior. In the Israeli context, adjustment is likely to be strongly influenced by recurring events such as military reserve duty, war, or terrorist activities that retrigger or exacerbate existing posttraumatic symptomatology. A process view of posttraumatic adjustment and treatment is presented together with recommendations for future research and intervention.

  9. Single-session manualized ego state therapy (EST) for combat stress injury, PTSD, and ASD, part 1: the theory.

    Barabasz, Arreed F; Barabasz, Marianne; Watkins, John G


    Ego state therapy (EST) evolved from a psychodynamic understanding of personality as a product of an individual's ego states to a conceptualization of how ego-energized and object-energized elements are bound together to cope with a traumatic event. Neurobiological studies now substantiate Watkins's war neuroses conceptualizations. Because of their severity, trauma memories are encoded in the subcortical-subconscious brain regions that are accessed by the single-session manualized EST procedure but not by the popular cognitive-behavioral management therapies. The imprint of the trauma is not accessible or resolvable by such top-down verbal understanding or reframing; EST is a bottom-up therapy. Abreactive hypnosis facilitates ego state expression at physiologically and psychologically intense levels sufficient to activate subcortical processes to release affect in the presence of the therapist, who adds ego strength to the patient. This is followed by interpretation and reintegration. The result is a reconstructed personality that is adaptive and resilient.

  10. Single-session manualized ego state therapy (EST) for combat stress injury, PTSD, and ASD, Part 2: the procedure.

    Barabasz, Arreed F; Barabasz, Marianne; Watkins, John G


    An abbreviated description of our single-session 5- to 6-hour procedure is provided. In contrast to trauma reframing approaches, such as cognitive processing therapy (CPT) or traditional psychoanalytic interventions, our manualized procedure rapidly demystifies subconscious processes, making them accessible and understandable by the patient. The therapist's supportive ego strength is integrated into the intense repeated emotional and physiological releases of the traumatized ego states. The abreactive component of this 5-phase procedure exhausts the bound-up psychological and physiological reactions but also serves to quickly overcome the trauma and to restructure the personality. The patient becomes empowered to release the trauma memories and to emerge with the ability to be adaptive, assertive, giving, strong, and able to express anger appropriately yet be caring with family/friends.

  11. Neurolinguistic programming as an adjunct to other psychotherapeutic/hypnotherapeutic interventions.

    Field, E S


    The therapeutic dissociative techniques of "anchoring" and "three-part dissociation," neurolinguistic programming (NLP) treatment paradigms incorporating the idea of division into ego states, are effective in crisis intervention and as a stimulus for catharsis. Using the anchoring technique in the first session, a patient with severe anxiety, manifested by episodes of hyperactivity, was able to superimpose inner resources upon the situations which led to the episodes. Utilizing three-part dissociation, the patient experienced the hyperactive episodes "for the very last time" and terminated them permanently. Hypnotic exploration and ideomotor signaling were used with a patient presenting with uncomfortable feelings associated with intense anger. After the origin of the anger was determined, a three-part dissociation produced an abreaction and catharsis. Interaction at a cognitive level integrated the feelings and knowledge into personal consciousness.

  12. 经行风疹的中药周期性治疗%Periodical treatment of Chinese herbs for menstrual rubella



    The mechanism of menstrual rubella formed to be different shapes, characterized by itchy welts and attacked patient recurrently, they frequently came before menstruation and through the menstrual period. The mechanism of menstrual rubella in Chinese theory is heat accumulated in Yangming meridian and fur offended by wind-heat. The treatment for menstrual rubella is periodical treatment according to menstrual cycle. The basic principal is abreacting wind, nourishing Wood and eliminating heat in the premenstrual period, driving wind and removing heat in the menstrual period, nourishing blood and calming wind after menstruation. After the treatment, the chronic urticaria was cured and never attacked the patients before or during menstruation days any more.%经行风疹块,每值临经或行经期间,全身皮肤突起疹块,疹形大小不一,瘙痒异常,甚则融合成片,经净渐退,常反复发作,迁延不愈.若经行风疹为阳明积热于内,风热外侵皮毛;治疗可按月经周期性治疗,经前疏风养血,清热除湿;经期祛风清热;经后主要予以养血熄风治疗为基本治疗原则.

  13. Transference and katharsis, Freud to Aristotle.

    Turri, Maria Grazia


    Aristotle's theory of tragic katharsis is the most ancient and debated theory of the effect of the theatrical experience on the audience. It affirms that tragedy effects the katharsis of fear and pity, engaging readers with the controversy whether by katharsis Aristotle meant purification of the emotions (i.e. their perfection within the mind) or purification of the mind from the emotions (i.e. their abreaction from the mind). In this paper I will explore how Freud's theory of transference can suggest a new interpretation of Aristotle's tragic katharsis. Transference allows for the representation and expression of repressed emotions through the re-enactment of past relational dynamics. Although this process is essential to the psychoanalytic method, it is the subsequent analytic endeavour which allows for the "working through" of repressed emotions, bringing into effect the transference cure. I argue that the dynamic between emotional arousal in re-enactment and emotional distancing in analysis offers an effective parallel of the dynamic between katharsis of fear and katharsis of pity in Aristotle's theory. Such interpretation of tragic katharsis suggests that the theatrical effect in audiences may be an opportunity for self-analysis and the 'working through' of unconscious psychic dynamics.

  14. Homicides in Serbia within the context of social transition and war

    Simeunović-Patić Biljana J.


    Full Text Available Notably deplorable phenomenological changes of homicides in Serbia at the beginning of 1990’s proceeded along with the dismantling of SFRJ, wars and unsuccessful starting of social transition: within the turbulent and almost extreme social context it had been generated an increase of all types of violence as well as crime in general. Restrictive social conditions economic deprivation, social disorganization and deregulation are apprehended as factors of facilitation of risks of violent abreactions in the form of expressive homicides and also of risks of instrumental violence under the high structural pressure toward illegal alternatives and weak formal crime control at the same time. The crises of external and internal security coincided amplifying one another and succeeded by economic declension, deregulation and revived cultural definitions that extended the ‘legitimacy’ of violence. The plenty of cycles of structural and behavioural violence were initiated during the 1990s in Serbia: a holistic approach to violence as one complex phenomenon that extends from ‘invisible’ violence to homicides is the strategy which should be considered as perspective one regarding both the exploration and prevention of homicides. Key words homicide, violence, expressive homicides, instrumental homicides, social transition, Serbia.

  15. On Garden of Heart---Plan on Mental Remedy Garden at College%“蕊园”--关于高校心理修复花园的规划



    针对大学生心理问题现状,依据心理修复途径及心理修复花园规划理论,通过合理的景点及景观设施布置,来实现心理修复的目标,于此拓展风景园林新的功能、内涵与意义,同时为高校心理健康教育提供有效的辅助手段。%Recent years has often seen psychological problems of college students .The mental health edu‐cation is of increasing importance .The campus landscape ought to provide a mental remedy platform for students to confide ,abreact ,train ,encourage ,adjust and educate by oneself ,besides conventional service of learning ,leisure ,ornament and recreation .Aiming at actuality of the psychological problems of college students ,the objective of mental remedy has been achieved in this paper by means of suitable layout of view spots and landscape facilities ,according to the approach of mental remedy and the design theories of mental remedy garden ,herein new function ,connotation and significance of landscape architecture will be expanded ,and effective auxiliary means been provided for mental health education in colleges as well .

  16. On Annie Baby's Composing Psychology from the Perspective of Psychoanalysis%安妮宝贝创作心理的精神分析



    Psychoanalytic psychology explores preconsciousness or subconsciousness in human culture and behaviors.One ex-planation for writers'composing behaviors in psychoanalysis is abreaction.In the perspective of psychoanalysis,the death,leav-ing,rebellion,and indifference expressed in Annie Baby's works are the life experiential reflection of most urban marginal per-sons,including Annie Baby herself.%精神分析心理学探究人类文化和行为的前意识或潜意识,为宣泄而创作是精神分析学对作家行为的一种解释。从精神分析角度来看,安妮宝贝的作品中所表达的死亡和告别、叛逆和冷漠,是包括安妮宝贝本人在内的城市边缘大众生活经历的反映。

  17. Resilience in China recruits and its influencing factors%中国新兵心理弹性特点及影响因素分析

    缪毅; 冯国君; 李敏; 楚前; 支莉; 郭禹; 张佳佳; 许莹; 彭李


    (GSES) were applied to 2459 recruits(2231 males and 139 females, aged ( 19 ± 1.5 ) ) within two male recruits( 101.76 ± 14.06) was significantly higher than that of males (96.65 ± 15.62) ( t=4. 13, P<0. 0l ) ;Recruits with College and above education have significantly higher RSA scores than those with junior high school education and senior high school education (P < 0. 0l ). Between the only child group and non only child group, there was no significant difference in RSA total score , but significant difference existed only in three factors higher RSA group scored significantly higher in extraversion (Z = 19.13, P = 0.000), abreaction adjustment (Z =8.67, P = 0.600 ) and self-efficacy (Z = 19.48, P = 0.000 ), while scored significantly lower in the SCL-90 (Z =Resilience had significant positive correlation with extraversion, abreaction adjustment and self-efficacy, and negative correlation with the neuroticism and inhibition adjustment. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that extraversion, neuroticism,abreaction adjustment/inhibition adjustment and self-efficacy had predictive ability to resilience( explain 41% ). Conclusion Chinese recruits have good resilience. Emotion Regulation (abreaction adjustment/inhibition adjustment), extraversion, neuroticism and self-efficacy are important influencing factors of resilience for Chinese recruits.

  18. Effect of sex on histological and histochemical structures of different parts of the kidney in Japanese quail.

    Mobini, Behzad; Abdollahi, MohammadHossein


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of gender on the histological and histochemical structures of different anatomical regions of the kidney in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Tissue samples from cranial, middle and caudal divisions of each kidney were obtained from 20 male and 20 female adult, healthy Japanese quail. The sections stained with hematoxylin & eosin ( H & E: ), Masson's trichrome, Verhoeff's, Alcian blue (pH 2.5), Periodic acid-Schiff, and Gomori's method for reticulum. Unusual findings of the kidney in Japanese quail were the presence of three types of nephrons, all the connective tissue fibers in capsule and interlobular septa and AB-reactions of the proximal convoluted cells. No significant sex-based differences were found. The various histological structures of the kidney showed no significant differences among different divisions of the left and right kidneys. It is concluded that the general histological and histochemical properties of the kidney in Japanese quail were similar to those of chickens and some other species, but that there were also some differences. One of the major differences was brush border of interdigitating microvilli on luminal surface of collecting ducts in Japanese quail.

  19. Influence of coping style on smoking behavior among middle school students in Xi'an%西安市中学生应对方式对尝试吸烟行为的影响



    Objective To understand smoking situation of middle school students and to provide the basis for prevention and treatment of smoking behavior, the article explores the relationship between coping style and smoking behavior.Methods The questionnaire was conducted among 1 028 middle school students by random sampling from Grade eight, Grade ten and Grade twelve of 6 districts in Xi'an.Students Coping style was investigated: the relation between problem solving, seeking help, abreaction, fantasy, patience and their smoking behavior.Results The rate of young people trying to smoke was 34.1% in Xi'an.It had statistical significant of students smoking behavior among different grade and sex.The girls adopted more withdraw, abreaction and endurance than boys.The students of Grade ten were more likely to adopted problem solving, and those of grade eight were more likely to adopt problem seeking and withdraw.The students' coping style of problem-solving, avoidance, trying to imagine was related with their smoking behavior.Conclusion Coping style of middle school students is closely related to their smoking behavior.Students should be guided to use scientific methods to deal with stress so as to reduce smoking behavior.%目的 了解西安市中学生吸烟状况及其与应对方式的关系,为预防和矫治中学生吸烟行为提供依据.方法 从西安市6个城区随机抽取8所中学初二、高一和高三年级的1 028名学生,采用问卷调查分析中学生日常应对方式中问题解决、求助、发泄、幻想、忍耐与吸烟行为的关系.结果 西安市中学生尝试吸烟率为34.1%;中学生应对方式的性别、年级差异有统计学意义,女生采取退避、发泄和忍耐的方式多于男生,高三学生更多采取问题解决的方式,初二学生更多采取求助和退避的方式.中学生的问题解决、退避和幻想等应对方式与尝试吸烟行为之间存在相关.结论 中学生吸烟行为与其应对方式有密

  20. 乳腺癌患者心理应对调节与生活质量相关分析%Relationships between psychological adjustment, coping style and quality of life among breast cancer survivors

    钱琳; 黄雪薇


    目的 了解乳腺癌患者心理调节、应对方式与生活质量之间的相关性.方法 采用病例对照研究方法,于2008年8月-2010年8月选择广东省广州市3家三级甲等医院确诊的女性乳腺癌患者进行调查,采用Pearson相关分析方法分析患者心理调节、应对方式及生活质量三者间相关性.结果 病例组生活质量的“躯体良好和能力”与应对的“发泄”、“幻想”均呈负相关(P<0.05),生活质量的“心理良好”与应对的“幻想”、“回避与压抑”均呈负相关(P<0.05);对照组生活质量的“社会良好”与应对的“发泄”、“幻想”、“屈服”均呈负相关(P<0.05),生活质量的“社会良好”与应对的“回避与压抑”呈正相关(r =0.259,P<0.05),生活质量的“心理良好”与应对的“屈服”呈正相关(r=0.268,P<0.05).结论 不同病程的乳腺癌患者采取不同的应对方式,长期存活者更倾向于积极乐观的应对调节.%Objective To explore relationships between psychological adjustment,coping style and quality of life among breast cancer survivors. Methods With matched case-control method, 128 female breast cancer patients were randomly recruited in three grade A class Ⅲ hospitals from August 2008 to August 2010 in Guangzhou city, Guangdong province. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between psychological adjustment, coping style and quality of life in the patients. Results In case group,there were inverse correlations between physical well-being and fantacy/abreaction and between psychologic well-being and fancy avoidance,oppression(Ρ<0.05 for all). In control group,there were a significant inverse correlation between social well-being and abreaction(P<0.05) and significant positive correlations between social well-being and avoidance oppression ( P < 0.05) and between psycholic well-being and yielding (P<0.05). Conclusion There are correlations between

  1. Quantitative Correlation of in Vivo Properties with in Vitro Assay Results: The in Vitro Binding of a Biotin-DNA Analogue Modifier with Streptavidin Predicts the in Vivo Avidin-Induced Clearability of the Analogue-Modified Antibody.

    Dou, Shuping; Virostko, John; Greiner, Dale L; Powers, Alvin C; Liu, Guozheng


    Quantitative prediction of in vivo behavior using an in vitro assay would dramatically accelerate pharmaceutical development. However, studies quantitatively correlating in vivo properties with in vitro assay results are rare because of the difficulty in quantitatively understanding the in vivo behavior of an agent. We now demonstrate such a correlation as a case study based on our quantitative understanding of the in vivo chemistry. In an ongoing pretargeting project, we designed a trifunctional antibody (Ab) that concomitantly carried a biotin and a DNA analogue (hereafter termed MORF). The biotin and the MORF were fused into one structure prior to conjugation to the Ab for the concomitant attachment. Because it was known that avidin-bound Ab molecules leave the circulation rapidly, this design would theoretically allow complete clearance by avidin. The clearability of the trifunctional Ab was determined by calculating the blood MORF concentration ratio of avidin-treated Ab to non-avidin-treated Ab using mice injected with these compounds. In theory, any compromised clearability should be due to the presence of impurities. In vitro, we measured the biotinylated percentage of the Ab-reacting (MORF-biotin)⊃-NH2 modifier, by addition of streptavidin to the radiolabeled (MORF-biotin)⊃-NH2 samples and subsequent high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. On the basis of our previous quantitative understanding, we predicted that the clearability of the Ab would be equal to the biotinylation percentage measured via HPLC. We validated this prediction within a 3% difference. In addition to the high avidin-induced clearability of the trifunctional Ab (up to ∼95%) achieved by the design, we were able to predict the required quality of the (MORF-biotin)⊃-NH2 modifier for any given in vivo clearability. This approach may greatly reduce the steps and time currently required in pharmaceutical development in the process of synthesis, chemical analysis, in

  2. Endothelial cell processing and alternatively spliced transcripts of factor VIII: potential implications for coagulation cascades and pulmonary hypertension.

    Claire L Shovlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coagulation factor VIII (FVIII deficiency leads to haemophilia A. Conversely, elevated plasma levels are a strong predictor of recurrent venous thromboemboli and pulmonary hypertension phenotypes in which in situ thromboses are implicated. Extrahepatic sources of plasma FVIII are implicated, but have remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemistry of normal human lung tissue, and confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and ELISA quantification of conditioned media from normal primary endothelial cells were used to examine endothelial expression of FVIII and coexpression with von Willebrand Factor (vWF, which protects secreted FVIII heavy chain from rapid proteloysis. FVIII transcripts predicted from database mining were identified by RT-PCR and sequencing. FVIII mAb-reactive material was demonstrated in CD31+ endothelial cells in normal human lung tissue, and in primary pulmonary artery, pulmonary microvascular, and dermal microvascular endothelial cells. In pulmonary endothelial cells, this protein occasionally colocalized with vWF, centered on Weibel Palade bodies. Pulmonary artery and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells secreted low levels of FVIII and vWF to conditioned media, and demonstrated cell surface expression of FVIII and vWF Ab-reacting proteins compared to an isotype control. Four endothelial splice isoforms were identified. Two utilize transcription start sites in alternate 5' exons within the int22h-1 repeat responsible for intron 22 inversions in 40% of severe haemophiliacs. A reciprocal relationship between the presence of short isoforms and full-length FVIII transcript suggested potential splice-switching mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The pulmonary endothelium is confirmed as a site of FVIII secretion, with evidence of synthesis, cell surface expression, and coexpression with vWF. There is complex alternate transcription initiation from the FVIII gene. These findings provide a

  3. Anaesthetic and other treatments of shell shock: World War I and beyond.

    McKenzie, A G


    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important health risk factor for military personnel deployed in modern warfare. In World War I this condition (then known as shell shock or 'neurasthenia') was such a problem that 'forward psychiatry' was begun by French doctors in 1915. Some British doctors tried general anaesthesia as a treatment (ether and chloroform), while others preferred application of electricity. Four British 'forward psychiatric units' were set up in 1917. Hospitals for shell shocked soldiers were also established in Britain, including (for officers) Craiglockhart War Hospital in Edinburgh; patients diagnosed to have more serious psychiatric conditions were transferred to the Royal Edinburgh Asylum. Towards the end of 1918 anaesthetic and electrical treatments of shell shock were gradually displaced by modified Freudian methods psychodynamic intervention. The efficacy of 'forward psychiatry' was controversial. In 1922 the War Office produced a report on shell shock with recommendations for prevention of war neurosis. However, when World War II broke out in 1939, this seemed to have been ignored. The term 'combat fatigue' was introduced as breakdown rates became alarming, and then the value of pre-selection was recognised. At the Maudsley Hospital in London in 1940 barbiturate abreaction was advocated for quick relief from severe anxiety and hysteria, using i.v. anaesthetics: Somnifaine, paraldehyde, Sodium Amytal. 'Pentothal narcosis' and 'narco-analysis' were adopted by British and American military psychiatrists. However, by 1945 medical thinking gradually settled on the same approaches that had seemed to be effective in 1918. The term PTSD was introduced in 1980. In the UK the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for management (2005) recommend trauma-focussed Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and consideration of antidepressants.

  4. [The tribute of the pioneer of hypnotherapy--Franz Anton Mesmer, MD, PhD in the history of psychotherapy and medicine].

    Radovancević, Ljubomir


    Modern hypnosis started with the Austrian physician Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815), who believed that the phenomenon known as mesmerism, or animal magnetism, or fluidum was related to an invisible substance--a fluid that runs within the subject or between the subject and the therapist, that is, the hypnotist, or the "magnetizer". The term hypnosis was introduced in the 1840s by a Scottish surgeon James Braid (1795-1860), who believed the subject to be in a particular state of sleep--a trance. In the late 19th century, a French neurologist Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893) thought hypnotism to be a special physiological state, and his contemporary Hyppotite-Marie Bernheim (1840-1919) believed it to be a psychological state of heightened suggestibility. Sigmund Freud, who studied with Charcot, used hypnosis early in his career to help patients recover repressed memories. He noted that patients would relive traumatic events while under hypnosis, a process know as abreaction. Freud later replaced hypnosis with the technique of free associations. Today, hypnosis is used as a form of therapy (hypnotherapy), a method of investigation to recover lost memories, and research tool. According to Caplan & Sadock, F.A. Mesmer is generally thought of as the fons et origo of modern psychotherapy; and from the early techniques of mesmerism, it is said, have evolved the more elaborate and sophisticated therapeutic measures of the analyst and his colleagues. Although Mesmer was certainly dealing with individuals suffering from a variety of neurotic disorders, and though the clinical successes he achieved were the result of psychological processes that his procedures induced in his patients, Mesmer's theoretical formulations, his understanding of the nature of the treatment he developed, and his specific procedures were all totally different from those of the 20th century analyst. He was one of the corne stones in the development of psychoanalysis through hypnosis mainly of hysterical

  5. 海洋钻井绞车用水冷式制动盘瞬态温度场分析%Analysis of Transient Temperature Field of Water-Cooling Brake Disc in Offshore Drilling Drawworks

    唐文献; 蔡运迪; 黄秋芸; 王飞


    对海洋钻井绞车用水冷式制动盘,建立了三维瞬态热-机耦合理论模型和有限元分析模型.运用有限元分析软件ABAQUS,对钻井绞车紧急制动工况进行了数值模拟,分析了制动盘瞬态温度场分别在半径方向、周向和不同厚度处的分布特征和变化规律.计算结果表明:紧急制动时,制动盘在径向与周向均存在很大的温度梯度,相比之下,径向的温度梯度更大;制动结束时刻,温度的影响层深度很浅,盘面瞬时温度很高且高温区域集中在制动盘摩擦表面的中部区域.很高的盘面温度在短时间得不到消散是导致制动盘高温氧化的重要原因.%Theoretical model and FEM of three-dimensional transient thermo-mechanical coupling of the water-cooing brake disc for offshore drilling drawworks are established, with the real conditions of the brake disc taken into account. By using FEA software ABAQUS, an emergency braking condition is simulated, and distribution characteristics and variation disciplinarian of transient temperature distribution in radial, circular and thickness are analyzed respectively. Simulation results reveal that temperature gradient in radial direction is larger than that in circular direction at an emergency braking. Besides, at the end of braking, the depth of temperature influence layer is small and transient temperature on the disc surface is very high. What's more, the high temperature zone will concentrate in the middle of the friction area of the brake disc. The very high temperature, which can not be abreacted in a short time on the surface, is a very important reason for the high-temperature oxidation of the brake disc.

  6. Victimology in Homicide Crime Scene Analysis (Part IV)%被害人学在命案现场分析中的应用(Ⅳ)



    本文是被害人学在命案现场分析中的应用系列文章第四篇,阐述被害人身体损伤对命案现场分析的作用和价值。重点放在案犯有意实施的损伤,内容主要包括六个方面,即损伤程度、特殊工具损伤、加固损伤、发泄损伤、威逼损伤、左利手损伤。文章结合具体案例,对六个方面进行了分析探讨。%As the fourth portion of the serial treatise of victimology in homicide crime scene analysis, this paper relates the homicidal crime scene analysis to victim’s body injury which can be classified into two major types, one is the trauma that the culprit intentionally enforces to exert against the victim, for example the injuries over being attacked, and another is the one caused by other reasons such as the tumbling and bruising during a crime. Here the emphasis places on the first-mentioned type because the body injury formed with purposive exertion has capacity of reflecting the conditions of the criminal’s physiology and psychology so that forensic physicians often use the traits of victim’s body injury to make judgments and decision to excavate the criminal motives and/or depict the offender. The common-discussed body injury is consisted as follows: 1. degree of damage, indicating not only the severeness to leave one victim’s life in danger but also the different injuring degrees among the dead in cases of multiple lives claimed; 2. injuries formed with special tools, those created with the shape-and-usage-specific tools which are not commonly used and seen, either; 3. intensified trauma, one that is further inflicted by the criminal to ensure death after killing the victim; 4. wound out of abreaction, like the intensified trauma, the additional damage enforced by the offender to discharge wrath following putting the victim to death; 5. coercion injuries, those of the non-lethal ones produced by the culprit to ask the victim to obey for certain purpose, usually taking

  7. 海船船员负性情绪调节策略问卷的编制%Development of regulation strategy questionnaire of sea-going seafarers' negative emotion

    吕静; 任威; 王鹏


    Objective To study the negative emotion regulation of sea-going seafarers,establish a regulation strategy questionnaire of sea-going seafarers' negative emotion and examine its reliability and validity.Methods Based on open-ended questionnaires and previous researches,the initial questionnaire was obtained.Randomly selected 188 sea-going seafarers,by adopting program analysis and factor analysis,the final questionnaire was determined.Tested 121 sea-going seafarers by using the final questionnaire,while 55 of them by using coping style questionnaire at the same time.After two weeks,47 of them were tested by final questionnaire again.The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were investigated during the research,and the criterion validity between the coping style questionnaire and regulation strategy questionnaire of sea-going seafarers' negative emotion was also studied.Results The factor analysis results showed that the questionnaire was composed of seeking for support,abreaction,inobservance,transfer and oppression.Cronbach α of each factors was 0.857,0.841,0.825,0.806,0.754 respectively;and Cronbach o of the entire questionnaire was 0.873.The split-half correlation coefficients were 0.697,-0.839 (P < 0.01) ; test-retest reliability coefficients were 0.706,-0.822 (P < 0.01).The correlation between subscales were-0.031,-0.459 ; and the correlation between subscales and total scale were 0.590,-0.806 (P < 0.01).Criterion validity showed that despite for the abreaction,each factor was significantly correlated with the factors of coping style questionnaire.Conclusion The sea-going seafarers' negative emotion regulation strategy questionnaire has acceptable psychometrics properties on reliability and validity.%目的 编制海船船员负性情绪调节策略问卷,并对其信、效度进行检验.方法 在开放式问卷调查和既往研究的基础上编制初测问卷,采用随机抽样法抽取188名海船船员进行预测.通过项目分析和

  8. What becomes of infantile traumatic memories? An adult "wild child" is asked to remember.

    Terr, Lenore C


    A severely traumatized child, acting like a wild animal, was removed from her parents at thirteen months of age when her three-week-old sister was found, bitten and shaken to death. (Her father was later convicted of manslaughter and imprisoned.) The older child was also covered with bite marks. When she was twenty-nine months old, this child, whom I call "Cammie," was brought to me from miles away by herfoster parents for once-monthly psychotherapy. I have treated her, stressing abreaction, context, and correction, once a month ever since. When she was five years old Cammie's foster family adopted her. She is now twenty-two. I call her the "wild child" because of the growly voice, vomiting at will, grabbing at the genitalia of strangers, and cruelties to animals that she exhibited after her rescue. Presently she attends college and is training to be a preschool teacher or an aide to pediatricians. I have taken notes on what Cammie says and does during the twenty years she has come to me. In the spring of 2011, I was asked to speak later that year about infantile memories at the Margaret Mahler Symposium, Columbia University, New York. With the organizing committee's approval, I accompanied Cammie and her adoptive mother to the October 1, 2011, meeting and asked her in front of the psychoanalytic audience to recount her oldest remembrances. She, her mother, and I spoke about the nonverbal manifestations of her memory as well. I had briefly prepared Cammie and her mother for our presentation at the Mahler Symposium, but for the most part, it was spontaneous and unrehearsed. Their comments are quoted in this article. At twenty-two the "wild child" reports no verbal memory from her first year. On the other hand, her behaviors, attitudes, and perceptions over the years have reflected what occurred to her and indicate very active nonverbal memories of the traumatic experiences. Fragments of verbal memory that she recounted in therapy between ages two and three have

  9. Prevalence of Internet addiction and influencing factor among middle school students in Xuhui District of Shanghai%徐汇区中学生网络成瘾情况及其影响因素分析

    郑光; 沙吉达; 杨帆; 刘锋; 倪红伟


    Objective To study the effect on health of middle school students with Internet addiction in Xuhui District of Shanghai, and to provide evidence for the intervention.Methods Students in six middle schools in Xuhui District of Shanghai were selected randomly, and the Internet using condition, Internet addiction disorders, life style and health status were investigated with a self-designed questionnaires.Results About 4.08% students had internet addiction disorders; the students in Internet addiction groups scored higher on the factors of harmonious, anxiety, depression and the total score of GHQ - 12 than the students in non Internet addiction group did, which had statistical difference.The study time, physicalexercise time, sleeping time, and hobby time decreased.Satisfied own requirement, using computer for game, browsing on internet for abreaction, gaining satisfaction by Internet game were the most important influencing factor.Conclusion The Internet addiction disorder has effects on midile school students’ physical and psychologieal health.%目的 探讨上海市某区中学生计算机使用成瘾情况及其影响因素,为青少年网络成瘾的干预提供依据.方法 在上海市某区随机抽取6所中学(3所初中、3所高中)的2 277名学生作为研究对象.使用自编问卷进行调查,内容包括青少年计算机使用状况、网络成瘾状况、生活方式和健康状况.结果 网络成瘾者占4.08%,成瘾人群的自我和谐因子、焦虑因子,沮丧因子以及三者综合的GHQ量表中有障碍人群比例高于无障碍人群中学生,差异有统计学学意义;网络成瘾者学习时间、体育活动时间、睡眠时间、业余爱好时间、参加娱乐时间均有不同程度的降低.上网能否满足自己的需要、使用计算机主要用于游戏、上网只是为了发泄、上网游戏具有满足感对网络成瘾的影响作用较大.结论 中学生网络成瘾对心理和生理健康有较大的影响.

  10. The Influence of Parenting Style and Goping Style on the Occurrence of Problem Behaviors Among Troubled Adolescents%父母教养方式和应对方式对问题青少年出现问题行为的影响研究

    许标; 樊春雷; 高文斌


    middle school students were employed to investigate problem behaviors of adolescents , parenting style and coping style .The influence of parenting style and coping style on the total score of YSR was investigated by using stepwise regression analysis .Results The numbers of effective respondents were 112 and 109 for the problem group and the control group respectively .The problem group was higher ( P<0.05 ) than the control group in the total score of YSR .The problem group was lower ( P<0.05 ) than the control group in the scores of fatherly affection and understanding and maternal affection and understanding ; the problem group was higher (P<0.05) than the control group in the scores of father′s punishment, rigor, over-interference, refusal, denial and over-protection and mother′s punishment, rigor, over-interference, refusal, denial and over -protection.The problem group was higher ( P <0.05 ) than control group in the scores of emotion -focused coping , endurance , escape , emotion abreaction and illusion.Father′s refusal and denial, mother′s over-interference and over-protection and emotion -focus coping positively predicted the total score of YSR , and mother′s punishment and vigor negatively predicted the total score of YSR .These factors could explain the 50%of total variation.Gonclusion Both parenting style and coping style are influencing factors for the occurrence of problem behaviors among troubled adolescents .

  11. 水面舰艇军人的正负性情感与心理弹性情绪调节和应对方式的相关研究%Research of positive/negative emotion and the resilience, emotional adjustment and coping method of warship soldiers

    左昕; 叶民文; 彭李; 李敏; 文雄; 邹学军; 于永菊; 毛朝海


    Objective To investigate the relationship between positive/negative emotion and the resilience,emotional adjustment and coping method of warship soldiers.Methods A cluster sampling survey was conducted among 1451 warship soldiers by using the positive and negative affect scale (PANAS),Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA),Emotion Regulation Scale (ERS) and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ).According to the test results,212 soldiers were selected to be categorized into two groups,which were high emotional low negative emotion group (n 1 =106) and high negative affect low positive emotion group (n2 =106).The difference of RSA,ERS and SCSQ of two groups were compared.Results ①Compared with high negative affect low positive emotion group,high emotional low negative emotion group had higher resilience,more positive coping and less inhibition and abreaction adjustment (Respectively:(3.17 ± 0.42),(2.22 ± 0.50),(1.11 ± 0.76),(21.93 ±5.11) and (25.73 ± 4.66),(P < 0.01)).②The relationship between positive emotion and resilience,expression regulation and actively respond were positive correlation,and the coefficient of correhtion were 0.30,0.24 and 0.42(P <0.01).The negative emotion and inhibition negative coping were positively related to resilience and negatively related to correlation,and the coefficient of correlation were 0.36,0.41 and-0.13 (P<0.01).③Regression analysis showed that positive coping,catharsis regulating and resilience can better predict positive affection,meanwhile negative coping,inhibition and resilience can better predict negative affect,accounted for 21.6% and 24.1% respectively.Conclusion The positive/negative emotions and resilience,emotion regulation and coping styles of warship soldiers are closely related.%目的 探讨水面舰艇军人正负性情感与心理弹性、情绪调节和应对方式的关系.方法 采用正性负性情感量表(PANAS)、成人心理弹性量表(RSA)、情绪调节方式问卷(ERS)和

  12. Regulatory emotional self-efficacy and coping style in deaf-mute sutdents%聋哑生的情绪调节自我效能感及应对方式

    刘佩玲; 黄时华; 梁尚清


    seeking, rationalized explanation and patience of CSSMSS [e. G. , problem solving, (3. 5 ±0. 9) vs. (3. 9 ±0. 9), Ps <0.05], but higher in fantasy/repudiation of CSSMSS [(2. 4 ±0.5) vs. (2.3 ±0. 6), P <0. 05]. In the deaf-mute students, the scores of self-efficacy in expressing positive emotion of RESE were positively correlated with the scores of problem solving, support seeking and patience (β =0.24,0. 37,0. 22; P <0. 05). The scores of self-efficacy in managing distress were positively correlated with the scores of rationalize explanation and fantasy/repudiation (β =0. 28, 0. 21; P <0. 05). The scores of self-efficacy in managing anger were positively correlated with the scores of problem solving, seeking support, patience and abreaction (β =0. 29,0. 23,0. 34,0. 30; P <0. 05). Conclusion: It www cmhj. Cnsuggests that the deaf-mute middle school students may have lower regulatory emotional self-efficacy and be inclined tci use less problem solving, seeking support, rationalize explanation and patience coping styles, but more coping styles in fantasy/repudiation. The higher the regulatory emotional self-efficacy is, the more positive the coping effects are.