WorldWideScience

Sample records for abrasive wear behavior

  1. Abrasive wear of intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, J.A.; Alman, D.E.; Wilson, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines is investigating the wear behavior of a variety of advanced materials. Among the many materials under evaluation are intermetallic alloys based on the compounds: Fe 3 Al, Ti 3 Al, TiAl, Al 3 Ti, NiAl and MoSi 2 . The high hardness, high modulus, low density, and superior environmental stability of these compounds make them attractive for wear materials. This paper reports on the abrasive wear of alloys and composites based on the above compounds. The abrasive wear behavior of these alloys and composites are compared to other engineering materials used in wear applications

  2. Anisotropy abrasive wear behavior of bagasse fiber reinforced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parallel orientation (APO) and normal orientation (NO) by using a two body abrasion wear tester. Three different types of abrasives wear behaviour have been observed in the composite in three orientations and follow the following trends: WNO ...

  3. Abrasive wear of ceramic wear protection at ambient and high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, M.; Adam, K.; Tumma, M.; Alessio, K. O.

    2017-05-01

    Ceramic wear protection is often applied in abrasive conditions due to their excellent wear resistance. This is especially necessary in heavy industries conveying large amounts of raw materials, e.g. in steel industry. Some plants also require material transport at high temperatures and velocities, making the need of temperature stable and abrasion resistant wear protection necessary. Various types and wear behaviour of ceramic protection are known. Hence, the goal of this study is to identify the best suitable ceramic materials for abrasive conditions in harsh environments at temperatures up to 950°C and severe thermal gradients. Chamottes, known for their excellent thermal shock resistance are compared to high abrasion resistant ceramic wear tiles and a cost efficient cement-bounded hard compound. Testing was done under high-stress three-body abrasion regime with a modified ASTM G65 apparatus enabling for investigations up to ~950°C. Thereto heated abrasive is introduced into the wear track and also preheated ceramic samples were used and compared to ambient temperature experiments. Results indicate a significant temperature influence on chamottes and the hard compound. While the chamottes benefit from temperature increase, the cement-bounded hard compound showed its limitation at abrasive temperatures of 950°C. The high abrasion resistant wear tiles represented the materials with the best wear resistance and less temperature influence in the investigated range.

  4. Experimental Rock-on-Rock Abrasive Wear Under Aqueous Conditions: its Role in Subglacial Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, E. H.; Lee, A. G.

    2003-12-01

    We have determined experimentally the rate of abrasive wear of rock on rock for a range of rock types as a function of normal stress and shear displacement. Unlike abrasive wear in fault zones, where wear products accumulate as a thickening gouge zone, in our experiments wear particles were removed by flowing water. The experiments are thus directly pertinent to one of the most important processes in subglacial erosion, and to some extent in river incision. Wear was produced between rotating discs machined from rock samples and measured from the progressive approach of the disc axes towards each other under various levels of normal load. Shear displacements of several km were produced. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the worn rock surfaces, and particle size distributions in wear products were characterized using a laser particle size analyzer. Rock types studied were sandstones of various porosities and cement characteristics, schists and a granite. In all cases abrasion rate decreased logarithmically with displacement by up to 2 orders of magnitude until a steady state was approached, but only after at least 1 km displacement. The more porous, less-well cemented rocks wore fastest. Amount of abrasion could be characterized quantitatively using an exponentially decaying plus a steady-state term. Wear rate increased non-linearly with normal contact stress, apparently to an asymptote defined by the unconfined compressive strength. Microstructural study showed that the well-cemented and/or lowest porosity rocks wore by progressive abrasion of grains without plucking, whereas whole grains were plucked out of weakly-cemented and/or more porous rocks. This difference in behavior was reflected in wear-product particle size distributions. Where whole-grain plucking was possible, wear products were dominated by particles of the original grain size rather than finer rock flour. Comparison of our results to glacier basal abrasive wear estimated

  5. Abrasive wear behavior of heat-treated ABC-silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Lee, Gun Y.; Chen, Da; Ritchie, Robert O.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2002-06-17

    Hot-pressed silicon carbide, containing aluminum, boron, and carbon additives (ABC-SiC), was subjected to three-body and two-body wear testing using diamond abrasives over a range of sizes. In general, the wear resistance of ABC-SiC, with suitable heat treatment, was superior to that of commercial SiC.

  6. Micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of medical implant material Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy on various friction pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenguo; Huang, Weijiu; Ma, Yanlong

    2014-09-01

    The micro-scale abrasion behaviors of surgical implant materials have often been reported in the literature. However, little work has been reported on the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn (TLM) titanium alloy in simulated body fluids, especially with respect to friction pairs. Therefore, a TE66 Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester was used to study the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of the TLM alloy. This study covers the friction coefficient and wear loss of the TLM alloy induced by various friction pairs. Different friction pairs comprised of ZrO2, Si3N4 and Al2O3 ceramic balls with 25.4mm diameters were employed. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanisms and synergistic effect between corrosion and micro-abrasion of the TLM alloy were investigated under various wear-corrosion conditions employing an abrasive, comprised of SiC (3.5 ± 0.5 μm), in two test solutions, Hanks' solution and distilled water. Before the test, the specimens were heat treated at 760°C/1.0/AC+550°C/6.0/AC. It was discovered that the friction coefficient values of the TLM alloy are larger than those in distilled water regardless of friction pairs used, because of the corrosive Hanks' solution. It was also found that the value of the friction coefficient was volatile at the beginning of wear testing, and it became more stable with further experiments. Because the ceramic balls have different properties, especially with respect to the Vickers hardness (Hv), the wear loss of the TLM alloy increased as the ball hardness increased. In addition, the wear loss of the TLM alloy in Hanks' solution was greater than that in distilled water, and this was due to the synergistic effect of micro-abrasion and corrosion, and this micro-abrasion played a leading role in the wear process. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanism of the TLM alloy gradually changed from two-body to mixed abrasion and then to three-body abrasion as the Vickers hardness of the balls increased. Copyright

  7. Analysis of abrasive wear behavior of PTFE composite using Taguchi’s technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Şahin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric composites are widely used for structural, aerospace, and automobile sectors due to their good combination of high specific strength and specific modulus. These two main characteristics make these materials attractive, compared to conventional materials like metal or alloy ones. Some of their typical benefits include easy processing, corrosion resistance, low friction, and damping of noise and vibrations. Wear behavior of Polytetrafluoroethylenes (PTFE and its composites including glass-filled composites and carbon-filled composites are investigated using a pin-on-disc configuration. A plan of experiments in terms of Taguchi technique is carried out to acquire data in controlled way. An orthogonal array (L9 and the analysis of variance are employed to investigate the influence of process parameters on the wear of these composites. Volume loss increased with abrasive size, load, and distance. Furthermore, specific wear rate decreased with increasing grit size, load, sliding distance, whereas, slightly with compressive strength. Optimal process parameters, which minimize the volume loss, were the factor combinations of L1, G3, D1, and C3. Confirmation experiments were conducted to verify the optimal testing parameters. It was found that in terms of volume loss, there was a good agreement between the estimated and the experimental value of S/N ratio with an error of 1.604%. Moreover, abrasive size, load, and sliding distance exerted a great effect on the specific wear rate, at 51.14, 27.77, and 14.70%, respectively.

  8. Effects of Load and Speed on Wear Rate of Abrasive Wear for 2014 Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabas, D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the normal load and sliding speed on wear rate of two-body abrasive wear for 2014 Al Alloy were investigated in detail. In order to understand the variation in wear behaviour with load and speed, wear tests were carried out at a sliding distance of 11 m, a speed of 0.36 m/s, a duration of 30 s and loads in the range 3-11 N using 220 grit abrasive paper, and at a speed range 0.09-0.90 m/s, a load of 5 N and an average sliding distance of 11 m using abrasive papers of 150 grit size under dry friction conditions. Before the wear tests, solution treatment of the 2014 Al alloy was carried out at temperatures of 505 and 520 °C for 1 h in a muffle furnace and then quenched in cold water at 15 °C. Later, the ageing treatment was carried out at 185 °C for 8 h in the furnace. Generally, wear rate due to time increased linearly and linear wear resistance decreased with increasing loads. However, the wear rate was directly proportional to the load up to a critical load of 7 N. After this load, the slope of the curves decreased because the excessive deformation of the worn surface and the instability of the abrasive grains began to increase. When the load on an abrasive grain reaches a critical value, the groove width is about 0.17 of the abrasive grain diameter, and the abrasive grains begin to fail. The wear rate due to time increased slightly as the sliding speed increased in the range 0.09-0.90 m/s. The reason for this is that changes arising from strain rate and friction heating are expected with increasing sliding speeds.

  9. Third abrasive wear mode: is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Câmara Cozza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose an initial discussion on the characterization of a third abrasive wear mode. The results obtained in a previous work [1] under different test conditions revealed the occurrence of the superposition of the “rolling” and “grooving” abrasive wear modes. This phenomenon was denoted “micro-rolling abrasion” due to the observation that “rolling abrasion” was found to act on “grooving abrasion”.

  10. Mechanical and abrasive wear characterization of bidirectional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddhartha,; Gupta, Kuldeep

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bi-directional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites are fabricated. ► Three body abrasive wear behavior of fabricated composites has been assessed. ► Results are validated against existing microscopic models of Lancaster and Wang. ► Tensile strength of bi-directional E-glass fiber reinforced composites increases. ► Chopped glass fiber composites are found better in abrasive wear situations. -- Abstract: Bi-directional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites are fabricated in five different (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35) wt% in an epoxy resin matrix. The mechanical characterization of these composites is performed. The three body abrasive wear behavior of fabricated composites has been assessed under different operating conditions. Abrasive wear characteristics of these composites are successfully analysed using Taguchi’s experimental design scheme and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results obtained from these experiments are also validated against existing microscopic models of Ratner-Lancaster and Wang. It is observed that quite good linear relationships is held between specific wear rate and reciprocal of ultimate strength and strain at tensile fracture of these composites which is an indicative that the experimental results are in fair agreement with these existing models. Out of all composites fabricated it is found that tensile strength of bi-directional E-glass fiber reinforced composites increases because of interface strength enhancement. Chopped glass fiber reinforced composites are observed to perform better than bi-directional glass fiber reinforced composites under abrasive wear situations. The morphology of worn composite specimens has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand about dominant wear mechanisms.

  11. Micro-Abrasion Wear Resistance of Borided 316L Stainless Steel and AISI 1018 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reséndiz-Calderon, C. D.; Rodríguez-Castro, G. A.; Meneses-Amador, A.; Campos-Silva, I. E.; Andraca-Adame, J.; Palomar-Pardavé, M. E.; Gallardo-Hernández, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The 316L stainless steel has high corrosion resistance but low tribological performance. In different industrial sectors (biomedical, chemical, petrochemical, and nuclear engineering), improvement upon wear resistance of 316L stainless steel components using accessible and inexpensive methods is critical. The AISI 1018 steel is widely used in industry, but its tribological performance is not the best among steels. Therefore, in this study the behavior of the borided 316L stainless steel and 1018 steel is evaluated under micro-abrasion wear. The boriding was carried out at 1223 K over 6 h of exposure time, resulting in a biphase layer composed of FeB/Fe2B phases. In order to evaluate Fe2B phase with no influence from FeB phase, AISI 1018 steel samples were borided at 1273 K for over 20 min and then diffusion annealed at 1273 K over 2 h to obtain a Fe2B mono-phase layer. Micro-abrasion wear resistance was evaluated by a commercial micro-abrasion testing rig using a mix of F-1200 SiC particles with deionized water as abrasive slurry. The obtained wear rates for FeB and Fe2B phases and for the 316L stainless steel were compared. Wear resistance of 316L stainless steel increases after boriding. The wear mechanisms for both phases and for the stainless steel were identified. Also, transient conditions for rolling and grooving abrasion were determined for the FeB and Fe2B phases.

  12. A Study on Abrasive Wear Behavior of Spacer Grid Materials for Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. M.; Kim, J. H. [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. K.; Jeon, K. L. [Korea Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Spacer grid is one of the key components of a light water reactor (LWR) fuel assembly. The most important function of it is to hold the fuel rods to maintain the distance between the fuel rods inside a fuel assembly. At the reactor core in operating power plants, a fretting damage has been frequently reported between a nuclear fuel rod and its supporting spring/dimple of the fuel assemblies. This is due to a flow induced vibration (FIV), Which results from the primary coolant that rapidly passes around the fuel rod to remove the excess heat generated by the nuclear reaction. Fretting damage is generally caused by fretting wear, which includes various wear mechanisms such as an oxidative, adhesive, abrasive wear, etc., or fretting fatigue, which includes a surface or bulk fatigue. The purpose of the present work are to investigate the variation of the materials with increasing number of cycles and sliding velocity under abrasive wear test and to examine the wear mechanism at each test condition

  13. Abrasive Wear of Four Direct Restorative Materials by Standard and Whitening Dentifrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Weader, E., Liscombe, C., & Holt, J.S. (2005). The measurement of enamel and dentine abrasion by tooth - whitening products using an in situ model...ABRASION OF TOOTH STRUCTURE Hard tissue abrasion is a familiar consequence of toothbrushing. Enamel , dentin, and cementum differ in their...LESIONS Cervical enamel wear is common; however, relatively few epidemiologic studies have distinguished between cervical enamel wear and tooth wear in

  14. The model of the dependence of the abrasive wear value on the maximal linear wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Вишневський

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The relation of the contact area of the rubber roll with a sample and the maximal linear wear value is found. The mathematical model of the dependence of the wear volume weight value on the maximal dimple depth is presented with the friction on abrasive particles fixed nonrigidly. The relation of volume weight wear with the rubber roll contact surface area with a sample with the friction on abrasive particles fixed nonrigidly is established.

  15. Wear behavior of carbon fiber/aluminium-composites during abrasive loading; Verschleissverhalten von Kohlenstoffaser/Aluminium-Verbunden unter abrasiver Beanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielage, B.; Dorner, A. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbundwerkstoffe

    1998-07-01

    Abrasive wear resistance of aluminium is significantly improved by the reinforcement with a high volume percentage of carbon fibres. The wear of unreinforced aluminium after scratching by a diamond indenter can be described as pure microgrooving without any micro-chipping. After integration of 70 vol.-% carbon fibers the damage mechanism is considerably altered and a great amount of micro-chipping occurs. The abrasive wear is strongly influenced by the fiber orientation. The best wear resistance is observed when the fibers are orientated perpendicular to the wear surface. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verstaerkung von Aluminium mit einem hohen Volumengehalt endloser Kohlenstoffasern verbessert erkennbar dessen Resistenz gegenueber Abrasionsverschleiss. Der Verschleiss von unverstaerktem Aluminium infolge des Ritzens mit einem Diamantindenter erfolgt in Form von reinem Mikrofurchen ohne Spanbildung. Aufgrund der Integration von 70 Vol.-% Kohlenstoffasern wird eine erhebliche Zunahme des Schaedigungsmechanismus Mikrospanen festgestellt. Die Faserorientierung hat merklichen Einfluss auf die Sensibilitaet gegenueber Abrasion. Orientierung der anisotropen Kohlenstoffasern senkrecht zur Verschleissoberflaeche bedingt den geringsten Abrasionsverschleiss. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The three-body abrasive wear characteristic of fabricated composites has been assessed under different operating conditions. For this, the three-body abrasion test is done on dry abrasion test rig (TR-50)and analysed using Taguchi's experimental design scheme and analysis of variance. The results obtained from these ...

  17. Influence of the microstructure of WC-Co cemented carbides on the fracture toughness and abrasive wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zum Gahr, K.H.; Fischer, A.

    1981-01-01

    Fracture toughness and abrasive wear resistance of WC-Co cemented carbides were investigated by using the indentation cracking test (Palmqvist test) and the pin-on-disk method respectively. Size distribution of tungsten carbides and means free path between them were found to be important microstructural parameters related to the mechanical behavior. Results showed that selection of cemented carbides for heavy wear loading is complicated by contradictory influence of microstructural parameters on fracture toughness and abrasion resistance. Knowledge of the relation between microstructure and resistance to fracture or wear is necessary for optimum use of cemented carbides. (orig.) [de

  18. Erosion wear of boron carbide ceramic nozzles by abrasive air-jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    Boron carbide nozzles were produced by hot pressing. The erosion wear of this nozzle caused by abrasive particle impact was investigated by abrasive air-jets. Silica, silicon carbide and alumina powders with different hardness were used as the erodent abrasive particles. Results showed that the hardness of the erodent particles played an important role with respect to the erosion wear of the boron carbide nozzles. As the hardness of the erodent particles increases, there is a dramatic increase in erosion rate of the nozzles. The nozzle entrance area suffered from severe abrasive impact under large impact angles, and generated maximum tensile stresses. The wear mechanisms of boron carbide nozzle at this area appeared to be entirely brittle in nature with the evidence of large scale-chipping, and exhibited a brittle fracture induced removal process. While at the nozzle center wall section, most of the particles traveled parallel to the nozzle wall, and showed minimum tensile stresses. The wear mode in this area of the nozzle changed from impact to sliding erosion, and the wear mechanisms appeared to be the lateral cracking owing to a surface fatigue fracture mechanism

  19. Adhesive, abrasive and oxidative wear in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation is increasingly being used to provide wear resistance in metals and cemented tungsten carbides. Field trials and laboratory tests indicate that the best performance is achieved in mild abrasive wear. This can be understood in terms of the classification of wear modes (adhesive, abrasive, oxidative etc.) introduced by Burwell. Surface hardening and work hardenability are the major properties to be enhanced by ion implantation. The implantation of nitrogen or dual implants of metallic and interstitial species are effective. Recently developed techniques of ion-beam-enhanced deposition of coatings can further improve wear resistance by lessening adhesion and oxidation. In order to support such hard coatings, ion implantation of nitrogen can be used as a preliminary treatment. There is thus emerging a versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments involving intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (Auth.)

  20. Abrasive Wear Resistance of the Iron- and WC-based Hardfaced Coatings Evaluated with Scratch Test Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vencl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abrasive wear is one of the most common types of wear, which makesabrasive wear resistance very important in many industries. Thehard facing is considered as useful and economical way to improve theperformance of components submitted to severe abrasive wear conditions, with wide range of applicable filler materials. The abrasive wear resistance of the three different hardfaced coatings (two iron‐based and one WC‐based, which were intended to be used for reparation of the impact plates of the ventilation mill, was investigated and compared. Abrasive wear tests were carried‐out by using the scratch tester under the dry conditions. Three normal loads of 10, 50 and 100 N and the constant sliding speed of 4 mm/s were used. Scratch test was chosen as a relatively easy and quick test method. Wear mechanism analysis showed significant influence of the hardfaced coatings structure, which, along with hardness, has determined coatings abrasive wear resistance.

  1. Prediction Of Abrasive And Diffusive Tool Wear Mechanisms In Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuti, S.; Umbrello, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tool wear prediction is regarded as very important task in order to maximize tool performance, minimize cutting costs and improve the quality of workpiece in cutting. In this research work, an experimental campaign was carried out at the varying of cutting conditions with the aim to measure both crater and flank tool wear, during machining of an AISI 1045 with an uncoated carbide tool P40. Parallel a FEM-based analysis was developed in order to study the tool wear mechanisms, taking also into account the influence of the cutting conditions and the temperature reached on the tool surfaces. The results show that, when the temperature of the tool rake surface is lower than the activation temperature of the diffusive phenomenon, the wear rate can be estimated applying an abrasive model. In contrast, in the tool area where the temperature is higher than the diffusive activation temperature, the wear rate can be evaluated applying a diffusive model. Finally, for a temperature ranges within the above cited values an adopted abrasive-diffusive wear model furnished the possibility to correctly evaluate the tool wear phenomena.

  2. Wear behavior of pressable lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhongxiao; Izzat Abdul Rahman, Muhammad; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Ling

    2016-07-01

    This article reports effects of surface preparation and contact loads on abrasive wear properties of highly aesthetic and high-strength pressable lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (LDGC). Abrasive wear testing was performed using a pin-on-disk device in which LDGC disks prepared with different surface finishes were against alumina pins at different contact loads. Coefficients of friction and wear volumes were measured as functions of initial surface finishes and contact loads. Wear-induced surface morphology changes in both LDGC disks and alumina pins were characterized using three-dimensional laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that initial surface finishes of LDGC specimens and contact loads significantly affected the friction coefficients, wear volumes and wear-induced surface roughness changes of the material. Both wear volumes and friction coefficients of LDGC increased as the load increased while surface roughness effects were complicated. For rough LDGC surfaces, three-body wear was dominant while for fine LDGC surfaces, two-body abrasive wear played a key role. Delamination, plastic deformation, and brittle fracture were observed on worn LDGC surfaces. The adhesion of LDGC matrix materials to alumina pins was also discovered. This research has advanced our understanding of the abrasive wear behavior of LDGC and will provide guidelines for better utilization and preparation of the material for long-term success in dental restorations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 968-978, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Abrasive Wear Resistance of Tool Steels Evaluated by the Pin-on-Disc Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, José Divo; Schopf, Roberto Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Present work examines tool steels abrasion wear resistance and the abrasion mechanisms which are one main contributor to failure of tooling in metal forming industry. Tooling used in cutting and metal forming processes without lubrication fails due to this type of wear. In the workshop and engineering practice, it is common to relate wear resistance as function of material hardness only. However, there are others parameters which influences wear such as: fracture toughness, type of crystalline structure and the occurrence of hard precipitate in the metallic matrix and also its nature. In the present investigation, the wear mechanisms acting in tool steels were analyzed and, by normalized tests, wear resistance performance of nine different types of tool steels were evaluated by pin-on-disc testing. Conventional tool steels commonly used in tooling such as AISI H13 and AISI A2 were compared in relation to tool steels fabricated by sintering process such as Crucible CPM 3V, CPM 9V and M4 steels. Friction and wear testing were carried out in a pin-on-disc automated equipment which pin was tool steel and the counter-face was a abrasive disc of silicon carbide. Normal load of 5 N, sliding velocity of 0.45 m/s, total sliding distance of 3000 m and room temperature were employed. The wear rate was calculated by the Archard's equation and from the plotted graphs of pin cumulated volume loss versus sliding distance. Specimens were appropriately heat treated by quenching and three tempering cycles. Percentage of alloying elements, metallographic analyses of microstructure and Vickers microhardness of specimens were performed, analyzed and correlated with wear rate. The work is concluded by the presentation of a rank of tool steel wear rate, comparing the different tool steel abrasion wear resistance: the best tool steel wear resistance evaluated was the Crucible CPM 9V steel.

  4. Tribological properties of multifunctional coatings with Shape Memory Effect in abrasive wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednova, Zh. M.; Dmitrenko, D. V.; Balaev, E. U. O.

    2018-01-01

    The article gives research results of the abrasive wear process on samples made of Steel 1045, U10 and with applied composite surface layer "Nickel-Multicomponent material with Shape Memory Effect (SME) based on TiNi". For the tests we have chosen TiNiZr, which is in the martensite state and TiNiHfCu, which is in the austenitic state at the test temperature. The formation of the surface layer was carried out by high-speed oxygen-fuel deposition in a protective atmosphere of argon. In the wear test, Al2O3 corundum powder was used as an abrasive. It is shown that the wear rate of samples with a composite surface layer of multicomponent materials with SME is significantly reduced in comparison with the base, which is explained by reversible phase transformations of the surface layer with SME. After carrying out the additional surface plastic deformation (SPD), the resistance of the laminated composition to abrasion wear has greatly enhanced, due to the reinforcing effect of the SPD. It is recommended for products working in conditions of abrasive wear and high temperatures to use the complex formation technology of the surface composition "steel-nickel-material with high-temperature SME", including preparation of the substrate surface and the deposited material, high-speed spraying in the protective atmosphere of argon, followed by SPD.

  5. Two-body, dry abrasive wear of Fe/Cr/C experimental alloys - relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, C.K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A systematic study of abrasive wear resistance of Fe/Cr/Mn based alloys has been carried out using a two body pin-on-disc wear machine. Abrasives used were silicon carbide, alumina and quartz. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abrasive wear resistance and to investigate the relationships between microstructure, mechanical properties, and abrasive wear resistance for these experimental alloys. Several commercial alloys were also tested to provide a basis for comparison. The goal of this study was to develop information so as to improve wear resistance of these experimental alloys by means of thermal treatments. Grain-refinement by double heat treatment was carried out in this research

  6. Wear of dentine in vitro by toothpaste abrasives and detergents alone and combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C; Addy, M

    2005-12-01

    To measure in vitro the abrasion of dentine by toothpaste detergents and abrasives alone and combined. Detergents used were tego betain, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), adinol and pluronic diluted to 1% w/v. Abrasives were three artificial silicas, tixosil 73 and 123 and Zeodent 113, and calcium carbonate used at 2.5% w/v. Flat human dentine specimens were brushed with aqueous detergent solutions or abrasive slurries, detergent abrasive slurries and water for 20,000 brush strokes. Dentine loss was measured by non-contacting profilometry at 10,000 and 20,000 strokes. Silica particle size distribution was measured by laser deflection. Loss of dentine occurred with all detergents, abrasives and detergent abrasion combinations, but was not linear with number of brush strokes. Water appeared to remove the smear layer only, but all detergents exceeded the predicted smear layer thickness. The silica abrasives differed in abrasion properties despite similar particle size distribution. Different detergents modulated the abrasives actions in mainly positive or mainly negative directions. Detergents appear able to attack the dentine surface to produce wear. Abrasives vary considerably in wear produced under similar conditions. Detergents modulate the effect of abrasives in a way that may reflect the rheological properties of the mixture.

  7. Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    directional fabric reinforcement offers a unique solution for ... showed good performance to the three-body abrasive wear. .... plied by the Pioneer Chemical Company, Delhi, India. ..... Theoretical and measured densities of composites, along.

  8. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and Three-Body Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth Rajashekaraiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various amounts of short fibers (glass and carbon and particulate fillers like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, silicon carbide (SiC, and alumina (Al2O3 were systematically introduced into the thermoplastic copolyester elastomer (TCE matrix for reinforcement purpose. The mechanical properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, and Tan δ by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and three-body abrasive wear performance on a dry sand rubber wheel abrasion tester have been investigated. For abrasive wear study, the experiments were planned according to L27 orthogonal array by considering three factors and three levels. The complex moduli for TCE hybrid composites were pushed to a higher level relative to the TCE filled PTFE composite. At lower temperatures (in the glassy region, the storage modulus increases with increase in wt.% of reinforcement (fiber + fillers and the value is maximum for the composite with 40 wt.% reinforcement. The loss modulus and damping peaks were also found to be higher by the incorporation of SiC and Al2O3 microfillers. The routine abrasive wear test results indicated that TCE filled PTFE composite exhibited better abrasion resistance. Improvements in the abrasion resistance, however, have not been achieved by short-fiber and particlaute filler reinforcements. From the Taguchi’s experimental findings, optimal combination of control factors were obtained for minimum wear volume and also predictive correlations were proposed. Further, the worn surface morphology of the samples was discussed.

  9. Assessment of thermal spray coatings for wear and abrasion resistance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karode, Ishaan Nitin

    Thermal spray cermet and metallic coatings are extensively used for wear, abrasion and corrosion control in a variety of industries. The first part of the thesis focuses mainly on testing of sand erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings on carbon composites used in the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades. The test set-up employed is a sand blasting machine and is an effort to duplicate the in-flight conditions especially those encountered in hot arid conditions. The technique adopted follows the Department of Defence test method standard. Carbon Composites have excellent stiffness, strength and low weight/density. The strength to weight ratio is high. Hence, these are used in aerospace applications to a large extent. However, the biggest problem encountered with carbon composites is its low abrasion resistance as its surface is very weak. Hence, thermal spray coatings are used to improve the surface properties of CFRP. Zinc bond coats and WC-Co coatings were tested. However, high amount of thermal stresses were developed between the substrate and the coating due to large differences in the CTE's of the both, leading to high mass losses within two minutes and just 130 grams of sand sprayed on to the coatings with the sand blasting machine built; and hence the coatings with CC as a substrate could not qualify for the application. The second part of the thesis focuses on the assessment of different thermal spray coatings used for manufacture of mechanical seals in pumps and analyze the best coating material for the wear resistance application through detail quantification of material loss by block-on-ring test set-up. A machine based on Block-on-ring test set-up following ASTM G77 (Measurement of Adhesive wear resistance of thermal spray coatings) standards was built to duplicate the pump conditions. Thermally sprayed coated materials were tested in different conditions (Load, time, abrasive). WC-Co had the highest wear resistance (lower volume losses) and

  10. Abrasive wear of enamel by bioactive glass-based toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Asad; Mneimne, Mohammed; Zou, Li Fong; Hill, Robert G; Gillam, David G

    2014-10-01

    To determine the abrasivity of a 45S5 bioactive glass based toothpaste on enamel as a function of the particle size and shape of the glass. 45S5 glass was synthesized ground and sieved to give various particle sized fractions toothpastes and their tooth brush abrasivity measured according to BS EN ISO11609 methodology. Enamel loss increased with increasing particle size. The percussion milled powder exhibited particles that had sharp edges and the pastes were significantly more abrasive than the pastes made with round ball milled powders. One interesting observation made during the present study was that there was preferential wear of the enamel at the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ), particularly with the coarse particle sized pastes.

  11. Three-body abrasive wear behaviour of metastable spheroidal carbide cast irons with different chromium contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efremenko, Vasily; Pastukhova, Tatiana; Chabak, Yuliia; Efremenko, Alexey [Pryazovskyi State Technical Univ., Mariupol (Ukraine); Shimizu, Kazumichi; Kusumoto, Kenta [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Brykov, Michail [Zaporozhye National Technical Univ., Zaporozhye (Ukraine)

    2018-02-15

    The effect of heat treatment and chromium contents (up to 9.1 wt.%) on the wear resistance of spheroidal carbide cast iron (9.5 wt.% V) was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, dilatometry and three-body abrasive testing. It was found that quenching from 760 C and 920 C improved the alloys' wear resistance compared to the as-cast state due to the formation of metastable austenite transforming into martensite under abrasion. The wear characteristics of alloys studied are 1.6 - 2.3 times higher than that of reference cast iron (12 wt.% V) having stable austenitic matrix. Chromium addition decreases surface damage due to the formation of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides, while it reduces wear resistance owing to austenite stabilization to abrasion-induced martensite transformation. The superposition of these factors results in decreasing the alloys' wear behaviour with chromium content increase.

  12. Abrasive wear mechanisms and surface layer structure of refractory materials after mechanical working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, Y.V.; Lotsko, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanisms of abrasive wear and surface layer structure formation after different kinds of mechanical working are considered in terms of fracture and plastic deformation mechanisms for various refractory materials. The principles for classification of abrasive wear mechanisms are proposed, the four types of wear mechanisms are distinguished for various combinations of fractures and plastic deformation types. The concept of characteristic deformation temperature t * (knee temperature) is used. Detailed examples are given of investigating the surface layer structures in grinded crystals of sapphire and molybdenum. The amorphisation tendency of the thinnest surface layer while mechanical polishing is discussed separately. 19 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  13. Solutionizing temperature and abrasive wear behaviour of cast Al-Si-Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rajesh; Anesh; Dwivedi, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, the influence of solutionizing temperature during artificial age hardening treatment (T 6 ) of cast Al-(8, 12, 16%)Si-0.3%Mg on abrasive wear behaviour has been reported. Alloys were prepared by controlled melting and casting. Cast alloys were given artificial age hardening treatment having a sequence of solutionizing, quenching and artificial aging. All the alloys were solutionized at 450 deg. C, 480 deg. C, 510 deg. C, and 550 deg. C for 8 h followed by water quenching (30 deg. C) and aging hardening at 170 deg. C for 12 h. Abrasive wear tests were conducted against 320 grade SiC polishing papers at 5 N and 10 N normal loads. It was observed that the silicon content and solution temperature affected the wear resistance significantly. Increase in solution temperature improved the wear resistance. Hypereutectic alloy showed better wear resistance than the eutectic and hypoeutectic alloys under identical conditions. Optical microstructure study of alloys revealed that the increase in solutionizing temperature improved distribution of silicon grains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of wear surface was carried out to analyze the wear mechanism

  14. Controlled wear of vitrified abrasive materials for precision grinding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    2Machining Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of ... ods are applied to analyse the cutting mechanism in grinding. .... (d) Chemical reaction between abrasive and workpiece material at elevated temperatures ... most common method used for measuring wear flat area employs an optical, or an electron.

  15. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramic materials produced with two different processes is studied. Hot pressing process and conventional casting and controlled crystallization process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied material was calculated by fracture ...

  16. Wear resistance and structural changes in nitrogen-containing high-chromium martensitic steels under conditions of abrasive wear and sliding friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, A.V.; Korshunov, L.G.; Schastlivtsev, V.M.; Chernenko, N.L.

    1998-01-01

    Martensitic nitrogen-containing steels Kh17N2A0.14, Kh13A0.14, Kh14G4A0.22 as well as steel 20Kh13 were studied for their wear resistance under conditions of friction and abrasion. Metallography, X ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural changes taking place in a thin surface layer on wearing. It is shown that an increase of nitrogen content of 0.14 to 0.22% promotes an enhancement of steel resistance to abrasive and adhesive wear, especially after tempering in the range of 500-550 deg C. Typically, the nitrogen-containing steels exhibit lower resistance to various types of wear in comparison with the steels with high-carbon martensite due to their lower deformability under conditions of friction loading

  17. Abrasive wear resistance and microstructure of Ni-Cr-B-Si hardfacing alloys with additions of Al, Nb, Mo, Fe, Mn and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, H.; Fischer, A.; Theisen, W.

    1987-01-01

    The development of new Ni-base hardfacing alloys for filler wire welding or metal spraying should result in materials with a good resistance against high temperature corrosion and abrasive wear. The first step is to design microstructures, which obtain a satisfactory abrasive wear behaviour at room temperature. Thus, different alloys are melted and scrutinized as to their microstructure and their abrasive wear resistance in laboratory. Compared to commercial Ni-base hardfacing alloys they show a higher volume fraction of coarse hard phases due to the additional, initial solidification of Nb-carbides and Cr-, and Mo-borides. Thus, the abrasive wear resistance is improved. For hard abrasive particles, such as corundum, the Ni-base alloys are more wear resistant than harder Fe-base alloys investigate earlier. This is due to the tougher Ni metal matrix that results in microcracking not to be the most significantly acting wear mechanism

  18. Strength and gas-abrasive wear-resistance of zirconium carbide based cerments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonov, G.V.; Dan'kin, A.A.; Markov, A.A.; Bogomol, I.V.

    1976-01-01

    Results relating to a study of cermet strength and wear resistance by means of a gas-abrasive flow are presented. It has been found that with a higher amount of the metallic binder (over 25 at.%) in zirconium carbide-based cermets the bending and compression strength and also hardness and wear resistance within the systems ZrC-Nb, ZrC-Mo, ZrC-W become lower. The interrelation of the cermet wear resistance of the various systems and their bending and compression strengths, which, in turn, depend on the electronic structure is shown

  19. Investigations on mechanical and two-body abrasive wear behaviour of glass/carbon fabric reinforced vinyl ester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresha, B.; Kumar, Kunigal N. Shiva

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research article is to study the mechanical and two-body abrasive wear behaviour of glass/carbon fabric reinforced vinyl ester composites. The measured wear volume loss increases with increase in abrading distance/abrasive particle size. However, the specific wear rate decreases with increase in abrading distance and decrease in abrasive particle size. The results showed that the highest specific wear rate is for glass fabric reinforced vinyl ester composite with a value of 10.89 x 10 -11 m 3 /Nm and the lowest wear rate is for carbon fabric reinforced vinyl ester composite with a value of 4.02 x 10 -11 m 3 /Nm. Mechanical properties were evaluated and obtained values are compared with the wear behaviour. The worn surface features have been examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Photomicrographs of the worn surfaces revealed higher percentage of broken glass fiber as compared to carbon fiber. Also better interfacial adhesion between carbon and vinyl ester in carbon reinforced vinyl ester composite was observed.

  20. Aging temperature and abrasive wear behaviour of cast Al-(4%, 12%, 20%)Si-0.3% Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, K.B.; Kumar, Sandeep; Dwivedi, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, influence of aging temperature during artificial age hardening treatment (T 6 ) of cast Al-(4, 12, 20%)Si-0.3% Mg on abrasive wear behaviour has been reported. Alloys were prepared by controlled melting and casting. Cast alloys were given age hardening treatment having sequence of solutionizing, quenching and artificial aging. All the alloys were solutionized at 510 deg. C for 8 h followed by water quenching (30 deg. C) and aging hardening at 150, 170, 190, 210 and 230 deg. C for 12 h. Abrasive wear tests were conducted against of 320 grade SiC abrasive medium at 5 and 10 N normal loads. It was observed that the silicon content and aging temperature significantly affect the wear resistance. Increase in aging temperature improves the wear resistance. Hypereutectic alloy showed better wear resistance than the eutectic alloy under identical conditions. Optical microstructure study of alloys under investigation has shown that cast dendritic structure is destroyed besides the spheroidization of eutectic silicon crystals after the heat treatment. The extent of change in structure depends on aging temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of wear surface was carried to analyze the wear mechanism

  1. An experimental modeling and acoustic emission monitoring of abrasive wear in a steel/diabase pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchuganov, M. A.; Filippov, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Podgornyh, O. A.; Shamarin, N. N.; Filippova, E. O.

    2016-11-01

    The earthmoving of permafrost soil is a critical task for excavation of minerals and construction on new territories. Failure by abrasive wear is the main reason for excavation parts of earthmoving and soil cutting machines. Therefore investigation of this type of wear is a challenge for developing efficient and wear resistant working parts. This paper is focused on conducting tribological experiments with sliding the steel samples over the surface of diabase stone sample where abrasive wear conditions of soil cutting are modeled experimentally. The worn surfaces of all samples have been examined and transfer of metal and stone particles revealed. The acoustic emission (AE) signals have been recorded and related to the results of worn surface analysis. he acoustic emission (AE) signals have been recorded and related to the results of worn surface analysis. As shown the wear intensity correlates to that of acoustic emission. Both acoustic emission signal median frequency and energy are found to be sensitive to the wear mode.

  2. Study on Abrasive Wear of Brake Pad in the Large-megawatt Wind Turbine Brake Based on Deform Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfang; Hao, Qiang; Sha, Zhihua; Yin, Jian; Ma, Fujian; Liu, Yu

    2017-12-01

    For the friction and wear issues of brake pads in the large-megawatt wind turbine brake during braking, this paper established the micro finite element model of abrasive wear by using Deform-2D software. Based on abrasive wear theory and considered the variation of the velocity and load in the micro friction and wear process, the Archard wear calculation model is developed. The influence rules of relative sliding velocity and friction coefficient in the brake pad and disc is analysed. The simulation results showed that as the relative sliding velocity increases, the wear will be more serious, while the larger friction coefficient lowered the contact pressure which released the wear of the brake pad.

  3. Abrasive wear of WC-NiMoCrFeCo thermally sprayed coatings in dependence on different types of abrasive sands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašparová, M.; Zahálka, F.; Houdková, Š.; Ctibor, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2010), s. 75-85 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : WC-Hastelloy * abrasive wear * Al2O3 sand * SiO2 sand * braun size * abrasive efficiency Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.471, year: 2010 http://kovmat.sav.sk/abstract.php?rr=48&cc=1&ss=73

  4. Abrasion behavior of graphite pebble in lifting pipe of pebble-bed HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ke; Su, Jiageng [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 10084 (China); Zhou, Hongbo [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 10084 (China); Chinergy Co., LTD., Beijing 100193 (China); Peng, Wei; Liu, Bing [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 10084 (China); Yu, Suyun, E-mail: suyuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Combustion Energy, The Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering, Ministry of Educations, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Quantitative determination of abrasion rate of graphite pebbles in different lifting velocities. • Abrasion behavior of graphite pebble in helium, air and nitrogen. • In helium, intensive collisions caused by oscillatory motion result in more graphite dust production. - Abstract: A pebble-bed high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (pebble-bed HTR) uses a helium coolant, graphite core structure, and spherical fuel elements. The pebble-bed design enables on-line refueling, avoiding refueling shutdowns. During circulation process, the pebbles are lifted pneumatically via a stainless steel lifting pipe and reinserted into the reactor. Inevitably, the movement of the fuel elements as they recirculate in the reactor produces graphite dust. Mechanical wear is the primary source of graphite dust production. Specifically, the sources are mechanisms of pebble–pebble contact, pebble–wall (structural graphite) contact, and fuel handling (pebble–metal abrasion). The key contribution to graphite dust production is from the fuel handling system, particularly from the lifting pipe. During pneumatic lift, graphite pebbles undergo multiple collisions with the stainless steel lifting pipe, thereby causing abrasion of the graphite pebbles and producing graphite dust. The present work explored the abrasion behavior of graphite pebble in the lifting pipe by measuring the abrasion rate at different lifting velocities. The abrasion rate of the graphite pebble in helium was found much higher than those in air and nitrogen. This gas environment effect could be explained by either tribology behavior or dynamic behavior. Friction testing excluded the possibility of tribology reason. The dynamic behavior of the graphite pebble was captured by analysis of the audio waveforms during pneumatic lift. The analysis results revealed unique dynamic behavior of the graphite pebble in helium. Oscillation and consequently intensive collisions occur during pneumatic lift, causing

  5. Effect of heat treatment on strength and abrasive wear behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Aluminum 6061 has been used as matrix material owing to its ... Mechanical properties such as microhardness, tensile strength, and abrasive wear tests have been ... heat treatment conditions, adopted Al6061–SiCp composites exhibited better microhardness and tensile ... corrosion resistance (Ramesh et al 2005).

  6. Minimal alterations on the enamel surface by micro-abrasion: in vitro roughness and wear assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Charantola Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the in vitro changes on the enamel surface after a micro-abrasion treatment promoted by different products. Material and Methods: Fifty (50 fragments of bovine enamel (15 mm × 5 mm were randomly assigned to five groups (n=10 according to the product utilized: G1 (control= silicone polisher (TDV, G2= 37% phosphoric acid (3M/ESPE + pumice stone (SS White, G3= Micropol (DMC Equipment, G4= Opalustre (Ultradent and G5= Whiteness RM (FGM Dental Products. Roughness and wear were the responsible variables used to analyze these surfaces in four stages: baseline, 60 s and 120 s after the micro-abrasion and after polishing, using a Hommel Tester T1000 device. After the tests, a normal distribution of data was verified, with repeated ANOVA analyses (p≤0.05 which were used to compare each product in different stages. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied for individual comparisons between the products in each stage (p≤0.05. Results: Means and standard deviations of roughness and wear (µm after all the promoted stages were: G1=7.26(1.81/13.16(2.67, G2=2.02(0.62/37.44(3.33, G3=1.81(0.91/34.93(6.92, G4=1.92(0.29/38.42(0.65 and G5=1.98(0.53/33.45(2.66. At 60 seconds, all products tended to produce less surface roughness with a variable gradual decrease over time. After polishing, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups, except for G1. Independent of the product utilized, the enamel wear occurred after the micro-abrasion. Conclusions: In this in vitro study, enamel micro-abrasion presented itself as a conservative approach, regardless of the type of the paste compound utilized. These products promoted minor roughness alterations and minimal wear. The use of phosphoric acid and pumice stone showed similar results to commercial products for the micro-abrasion with regard to the surface roughness and wear.

  7. Abrasion Wear Resistance, Hardness and Microstructure of Hard Linings Deposited by Means of a Submerged Arc. Dureza, microestructura y resistencia al desgaste por abrasion de recargues duros depositados con arco sumergido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, R; Alcoforado, J M; Castillo, J A; Sauer, A

    1989-01-01

    Consumable materials for submerged arc welding of the types alloyed flux-neutral electrode and neutral flux-alloyed electrode were used to form, through multipass welding, a light alloy hard lining of the C-Mn type on ASTM A36 Type structural steel. Emphasis was put on microstructural characterization of the linings surveyed under electron scanning microscopy, and tests were performed to study their hardness and abrasion wear resistance at low pressures. As a result of these tests, a great influence of welding parameters on hardness and abrasion resistance properties of the combination active flux-neutral electrode was noticed. As the results showed no relationship between the hardness and the abrasion wear resistance of the linings surveyed, an attempt was made to relate the resulting microstructure with their abrasion wear resistance. (Author)

  8. FE simulation of the indentation deformation of SiC modified vinylester composites in respect to their abrasive wear performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The abrasive sliding friction and wear behaviours of silicon carbide (SiC filled vinylester (VE composites were investigated. The average grain size of the incorporated SiC particles was varied, holding the volume content of them in every case at 16 vol%. Mechanical properties (hardness, compression modulus, yield stress of the filled and neat VE were determined. The tribological properties were investigated in block (composite – on – ring (steel test configuration. The steel counter bodies were covered with abrasive papers of different graining. Coefficient of friction (COF and specific wear rate of the VE + SiC composites were determined. It was observed that the wear resistance increases with increasing average filler grain size and with decreasing abrasiveness of the counter surface. The COF of the VE + SiC composites is independent of the size of the incorporated particles, but it is strongly influenced by the abrasiveness of the counter body. The worn surfaces of the VE + SiC systems were analysed in scanning electron microscope (SEM to deduce the typical wear mechanisms. The size effect of the SiC filler particles onto the abrasive wear characteristics was investigated by assuming that the roughness peaks of the abrasive paper and the indenter of the microhardness test cause similar micro scaled contact deformations in the composites. Therefore FE method was used to simulate the micro scaled deformation process in the VE + SiC systems during microindentation tests. The FE results provided valuable information on how to explain the size effect of the incorporated SiC filler.

  9. Fretting Wear Behaviors of Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced (ACSR Conductors in High-Voltage Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchi Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the fretting wear behavior of aluminum cable steel reinforced (ACSR conductors for use in high-voltage transmission line. Fretting wear tests of Al wires were conducted on a servo-controlled fatigue testing machine with self-made assistant apparatus, and their fretting process characteristics, friction force, wear damage, and wear surface morphology were detailed analyzed. The results show that the running regime of Al wires changes from a gross slip regime to a mixed regime more quickly as increasing contact load. With increasing amplitudes, gross slip regimes are more dominant under contact loads of lower than 30 N. The maximum friction force is relatively smaller in the NaCl solution than in a dry friction environment. The primary wear mechanisms in dry friction environments are abrasive wear and adhesive wear whereas abrasive wear and fatigue damage are dominant in NaCl solution.

  10. Wear Behavior and Microstructure of Mg-Sn Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Hsuan; Shen, Yen-Chen; Chao, Chuen-Guang; Liu, Tzeng-Feng

    2017-11-16

    Mg-5wt.% Sn alloy is often used in portable electronic devices and automobiles. In this study, mechanical properties of Mg-5wt.% Sn alloy processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) were characterized. More precisely, its hardness and wear behavior were measured using Vickers hardness test and a pin-on-disc wear test. The microstructures of ECAE-processed Mg-Sn alloys were investigated by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. ECAE process refined the grain sizes of the Mg-Sn alloy from 117.6 μm (as-cast) to 88.0 μm (one pass), 49.5 μm (two passes) and 24.4 μm (four passes), respectively. Meanwhile, the hardness of the alloy improved significantly. The maximum wear resistance achieved in the present work was around 73.77 m/mm³, which was obtained from the Mg-Sn alloy treated with a one-pass ECAE process with a grain size of 88.0 μm. The wear resistance improvement was caused by the grain size refinement and the precipitate of the second phase, Mg₂Sn against the oxidation of the processed alloy. The as-cast Mg-Sn alloy with the larger grain size, i.e., 117.6 μm, underwent wear mechanisms, mainly adhesive wear and abrasive wear. In ECAE-processed Mg-Sn alloy, high internal energy occurred due to the high dislocation density and the stress field produced by the plastic deformation, which led to an increased oxidation rate of the processed alloy during sliding. Therefore, the oxidative wear and a three-body abrasive wear in which the oxide debris acted as the three-body abrasive components became the dominant factors in the wear behavior, and as a result, reduced the wear resistance in the multi-pass ECAE-processed alloy.

  11. Abrasive Wear of Alloyed Cast Steels Applied for Heavy Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.

  12. The effect of daily fluoride mouth rinsing on enamel erosive/abrasive wear in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhagen, K R; Hove, L H; Holme, B; Tveit, A B

    2013-01-01

    It is not known whether application of fluoride agents on enamel results in lasting resistance to erosive/abrasive wear. We investigated if one daily mouth rinse with sodium fluoride (NaF), stannous fluoride (SnF(2)) or titanium tetrafluoride (TiF(4)) solutions protected enamel against erosive/abrasive wear in situ (a paired, randomised and blind study). Sixteen molars were cut into 4 specimens, each with one amalgam filling (measurement reference surface). Two teeth (2 × 4 specimens) were mounted bilaterally (buccal aspects) on acrylic mandibular appliances and worn for 9 days by 8 volunteers. Every morning, the specimens were brushed manually with water (30 s) extra-orally. Then fluoride solutions (0.4% SnF(2) pH 2.5; 0.15% TiF(4) pH 2.1; 0.2% NaF pH 6.5, all 0.05 M F) were applied (2 min). Three of the specimens from each tooth got different treatment, and the fourth served as control. At midday, the specimens were etched for 2 min in 300 ml fresh 0.01 M hydrochloric acid and rinsed in tap water. This etch procedure was repeated in the afternoon. Topographic measurements were performed by a white-light interferometer. Mean surface loss (±SD) for 16 teeth after 9 days was: SnF(2) 1.8 ± 1.9 µm, TiF(4) 3.1 ± 4.8 µm, NaF 26.3 ± 4.7 µm, control 32.3 ± 4.4 µm. Daily rinse with SnF(2), TiF(4) and NaF resulted in 94, 90 and 18% reduction in enamel erosive/abrasive wear, respectively, compared with control (p < 0.05). The superior protective effect of daily rinse with either stannous or titanium tetrafluoride solutions on erosive/abrasive enamel wear is promising. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Wear behavior of Al-7%Si-0.3%Mg/melon shell ash particulate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahab, M; Dodo, R M; Suleiman, I Y; Gebi, A I; Umar, I

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined wear characteristics of A356/melon shell ash particulate composites. Dry-sliding the stainless steel ball against specimen disc revealed the abrasive wear behavior of the composites under loads of 2 and 5N. The composite showed lower wear rate of 2.182 × 10 -4 mm 3 /Nm at 20 wt% reinforced material under load of 5N. Results showed that wear rate decreased significantly with increasing weight percentage of melon shell ash particles. Microstructural analyses of worn surfaces of the composites reveal evidence of plastic deformation of matrix phase. The wear resistance of A356 increased considerably with percentage reinforcement. In other words, the abrasive mass loss decreased with increasing percentage of reinforcement addition at the both applied loads. The control sample suffered a highest mass loss at 5 N applied load.

  14. An investigation of two-body abrasive wear of laser processed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abass, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports two body abrasive wear studies of alloy and composite deposits produced with a 2 kW continuous wave CO/sub 2/ laser. Stellite alloy 6, Alloy 4815, Stainless steel and SiC powders were used to produce alloy and composite deposits on an En 3b mild steel substrate. The cladding material was injected into the laser produced melt pool by means of a pneumatic powder delivery system. In the present studies instead of using the conventional pin-on-disc method of wear measurement, a more realistic and practical wear testing procedure was adopted. The wear testing machine used was capable of measuring wear of three comparatively larger (30 x 30 x 10 mm) clad samples by abrading simultaneously against a revolving alumina disc. A comparative study of microstructure, hardness and wear of alloy and composite clads was made. The clad deposits were found sound and continuous. The hardness and wear resistance of the composites were markedly higher than that of the alloy clads. (author) 9 figs

  15. Abrasive wear resistance optimization of three different carbide coatings by the Taguchi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guer, Ali Kaya [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials; Kaya, Sinan [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Faculty of Technology

    2017-06-01

    In this study, FeCrC, SiC and B{sub 4}C powders were alloyed on the surface of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel by plasma arc welding. The mass losses of the abrasive wear of the AISI 430 substrate were examined under the loads of 6, 10 and 16 N and in the distances of 10, 20 and 30 m by using Taguchi design method. The results of abrasive wear test were optimized by the minimum optimal control characteristics of the Taguchi procedure and the results were analyzed by using graphical methods. The Taguchi procedure is an important approach to achieve high quality without increasing the cost during the optimization of process parameters. The orthogonal planes of maximum effects of the controllable process parameters and minimum effects of uncontrollable process parameters were employed in the Taguchi method.

  16. Wear behavior of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal versus titanium and titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbara, Tsunemichi; Yajima, Yasutomo; Yoshinari, Masao

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP) on the two-body wear behavior of titanium (Ti). Two-body wear tests were performed using TZP, two grades of cp-Ti or Ti alloy in distilled water, and the cross-sectional area of worn surfaces was measured to evaluate the wear behavior. In addition, the surface hardness and coefficient of friction were determined and an electron probe microanalysis performed to investigate the underlying mechanism of wear. The hardness of TZP was much greater than that of Ti. The coefficient of friction between Ti and Ti showed a higher value than the Ti/TZP combination. Ti was more susceptible to wear by both TZP and Ti than TZP, indicating that the mechanism of wear between TZP and Ti was abrasive wear, whereas that between Ti and Ti was adhesive wear. No remarkable difference in the amount of wear in Ti was observed between TZP and Ti as the opposite material, despite the hardness value of Ti being much smaller than that of TZP. (communication)

  17. Development of the white cast iron with niobium alloy, heat treating, to wear of the abrasive resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, Alessandro Fraga

    1997-01-01

    This work presents the heat treatment and abrasion tests results of a white cast iron with niobium alloy. The hardening heat treatment were made 950, 1000, 1050 e 110 deg C temperatures cooled by forced air. The tempering treatment were made at 450, 500 e 550 deg C temperatures. The heat treating alloy were compared, in the abrasive tests, with commercial alloys used as hardfacing by welding process in wear pieces. The abrasion tests was realized in pin on disk test. Additional tests were carried out for microstructural characterization to identify the different phases presents in the alloys. In a general way, the alloy studies showed the best wear rate for the heat treatments that results in higher hardness. It performance was superior than that of the commercial alloys. (author)

  18. Influence of Heat Treatment on Abrasive Wear Resistance of Silumin Matrix Composite Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawdzińska K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors attempted at examining the effect of heat treatment on abrasive wear resistance of metal composite castings. Metal matrix composites were made by infiltrating preforms created from unordered short fibers (graphite or silumin with liquid aluminium alloy AlSi12(b. Thus prepared composites were subject to solution heat treatment at a temperature of 520°C for four hours, then aging at a temperature of 220°C for four hours. Abrasion resistance of the material was tested before and after thermal treatment.

  19. Effect of nitrogen alloying on the microstructure and abrasive wear of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, J.A.; Simmons, J.W.; Rawers, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Alloying stainless steels with nitrogen has distinct advantages. Nitrogen is a strong austenite stabilizer and a potent solid-solution strengthener, and nitrogen has greater solubility than carbon iron. This study investigates the relationship among nitrogen concentration, precipitate microstructure, and abrasive wear using two high-nitrogen stainless steel alloys: Fe-19Cr-5Mn-5Ni-3Mo (SS1) and Fe-16Cr-7Mn-5Ni(SS2). Alloy SS1 contained 0.7 wt% N and was solution annealed at 1,150 C, thereby dissolving the nitrogen interstitially in the austenite. Subsequent aging, or cold work and aging, at 900 C led to the grain-boundary, cellular, and transgranular precipitation of Cr 2 N. Alloy SS2 was remelted in a high-pressure (200 MPa) N 2 atmosphere, leading to a spatial gradient of nitrogen in the alloy in the form of interstitial nitrogen and Cr 2 N and CrN precipitates. Nitrogen contents varied from a low of approximately 0.7 wt% at the bottom of the billet to a high of 3.6 wt% at the top. Nitrogen in excess of approximately 0.7 wt% formed increasingly coarser and more numerous Cr 2 N and CrN precipitates. The precipitate morphology created in alloy SS1 due to aging, or cold work and aging, had little effect on the abrasive wear of the alloy. However, a decrease in the abrasive wear rate in alloy SS2 was observed to correspond to the increase in number and size of the Cr 2 N and CrN precipitates

  20. Fissure sealants: in vitro evaluation of abrasion wear and superficial roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pardi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro wear and superficial roughness of four materials (Delton Dyract Flow, Dentsply; Filtek Flow, Vitremer, 3M ESPE used as fissure sealant in 32 extracted human molars divided in four groups (n = 8 after abrasion with toothbrush/dentifrice. Impressions of each occlusal surface were made to analyze wear and circular specimens were prepared to analyze the roughness. Teeth and specimens were mounted in a toothbrushing machine. The replicas were observed using a SEM to determine the superficial wear. Wear: there were no statistically significant differences either between Delton and Filtek Flow or between Dyract Flow and Vitremer. Roughness: there were no statistical differences between Filtek Flow and Dyract Flow, Dyract Flow and Vitremer, Vitremer and Delton., Considering the clinical practice, if caries activity is present the use of Vitremer is suggested not only for its well known fluoride release, but it presented good roughness results.

  1. Standard Test Method for Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cemented

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of abrasive wear resistance of cemented carbides. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents of inch-pound units are in parentheses and may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Study of abrasive wear process of lining of grinding chamber of vortex-acoustic disperser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelygin, D. N.

    2018-03-01

    The theoretical and experimental studies of the process of gas-abrasive wear of the lining of a vortex-acoustic disperser made it possible to establish the conditions and patterns of their occurrence and also to develop proposals for its reduction.

  3. Tribological wear behavior of diamond reinforced composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswarlu, K.; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Gunjan, Manoj Kumar; Mondal, D.P.; Pathak, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, diamond reinforced composite (DRC) coating has been applied on mild steel substrate using thermal spray coating technique. The composite powder consists of diamond, tungsten carbide, and bronze, which was mixed in a ball mill prior deposition by thermal spray. The microstructure and the distribution of diamond and tungsten carbide particle in the bronze matrix were studied. The DRC-coated mild steel substrates were assessed in terms of their high stress abrasive wear and compared with that of uncoated mild steel substrates. It was observed that when sliding against steel, the DRC-coated sample initially gains weight, but then loses the transferred counter surface material. In case of abrasive wear, the wear rate was greatly reduced due to the coating; wherein the wear rate decreased with increase in diamond content

  4. Nitriding the influence of plasma in resistance to wear micro abrasive tool steel AISI D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbi, Vagner Joao; Gobb, Silvio Jose; Silva, Cosme Roberto Moreira da

    2010-01-01

    This work studies the influence of time of treatment in the formation of nitride layer of AISI D2 tool steel and the resistance to micro-abrasive wear from the technique of nitriding in plasma. The samples were nitrides at 400 ° C with a pressure of 4.5 mbar (450 Pa) and using a gas mixture of 80% vol.H2 and 20% vol.N2. The times of treatment were: 30, 60, 120, 180 and 360 minutes. The properties of the layers in the samples obtained nitrides were assessed by surface microhardness, profiles of microhardness, metallography analysis, X-ray diffraction and test for resistance to micro-abrasive wear. The best results for nitriding to 400 deg C, was obtained with the time of treatment of 360 minutes. In this case the increase in surface hardness was 94.6% and resistance to micro-abrasive wear of 15%. This increase in hardness may be associated with high concentration of nitrogen in the crystalline network of iron-α and additional training of nitrides. Low temperature of nitriding reduces between grain fragility to reduce the likelihood of precipitation of nitrides in a continuous manner in the austenite grain boundaries and the absence of previous ε'+ γ phases. (author)

  5. Wear behavior of Cu-Ag-Cr alloy wire under electrical sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, S.G.; Liu, P.; Ren, F.Z.; Tian, B.H.; Zheng, M.S.; Zhou, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    The wear behavior of a Cu-Ag-Cr alloy contact wire against a copper-base sintered alloy strip was investigated. Wear tests were conducted under laboratory conditions with a special sliding wear apparatus that simulated train motion under electrical current conditions. The initial microstructure of the Cu-Ag-Cr alloy contact wire was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Worn surfaces of the Cu-Ag-Cr alloy wire were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The results indicate that the wear rate of the Cu-Ag-Cr wire increased with increasing electrical current and sliding. Within the studied range of electrical current, the wear rate increases with increasing electrical current and sliding speed. Compared with the Cu-Ag contact wire under the same testing conditions, the Cu-Ag-Cr alloy wire has much better wear resistance. Adhesive, abrasive, and electrical erosion wear are the dominant mechanisms during the electrical sliding processes

  6. The use of ion implantation for the improvement of abrasive wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delves, B.G.; Dearnaley, G.

    1979-01-01

    At the conclusion of the 1977 IPAT conference a practical problem was described which called for an economically feasible method of improving the resistance of tool steel, chromium and other alloys to abrasive wear sustained during the injection moulding of phenolic resin. This paper will describe subsequent work to investigate ion implantation as a possible means of treating steel taps, injection nozzles, feed wear pads, cavity moulds etc. Various problems were encountered and it will be described how most of these have now been overcome. Under favourable conditions factors of 4, and sometimes up to 10 times the normal life can be achieved. An attempt will be made to estimate some of the economic benefits of the process. (author)

  7. A method for increase abrasive wear resistance parts by obtaining on methods casting on gasifying models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedukhin, V. V.; Anikeev, A. N.; Chumanov, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    Method optimizes hardening working layer parts’, working in high-abrasive conditions looks in this work: bland refractory particles WC and TiC in respect of 70/30 wt. % prepared by beforehand is applied on polystyrene model in casting’ mould. After metal poured in mould, withstand for crystallization, and then a study is carried out. Study macro- and microstructure received samples allows to say that thickness and structure received hardened layer depends on duration interactions blend harder carbides and liquid metal. Different character interactions various dispersed particles and matrix metal observed under the same conditions. Tests abrasive wear resistance received materials of method calculating residual masses was conducted in laboratory’ conditions. Results research wear resistance showed about that method obtaining harder coating of blend carbide tungsten and carbide titanium by means of drawing on surface foam polystyrene model before moulding, allows receive details with surface has wear resistance in 2.5 times higher, than details of analogy steel uncoated. Wherein energy costs necessary for transformation units mass’ substances in powder at obtained harder layer in 2.06 times higher, than materials uncoated.

  8. The effect of fiber treatment on abrasive wear properties of palm fiber reinforced epoxy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Muhammad Firdaus Abdul; Bakar, Mimi Azlina Abu; Kasolang, Salmiah; Ahmad, Mohamad Ali

    2017-12-01

    Oil palm industries generate at least 30 million tons of lignocellulosic biomass annually in the form of oil palm trunks (OPT), empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm fronds (OPF) and palm pressed fibres (PPF). The palm fiber is one of the natural fibers used as reinforcement in composite materials in order to decrease environmental issues and promotes utilization of renewable resources. This paper presents a study on the effect of alkaline treatment on wear properties of palm fiber reinforced epoxy resin composite. Abrasive wear testing was deployed to investigate the wear profile of the composite surfaces. Testing was carried out which focused on the effect of alkaline treatment to the palm fiber under different amounts of fiber loading i.e. 1 wt%, 3 wt%, 5 wt% and 7 wt%. The palm fibers were soaked into 6 % of alkaline solution or natrium hydroxide (NaOH) for 12 hours. The fiber was treated in order to remove amorphous materials such as hemicelluloses, lignins and pectins of the fiber. The wear test samples were fabricated using hand lay-up technique and cured at room temperature for 24 hours. Surface roughness of the composite material was also measured using the surface measuring instrument. Dry sliding wear test was performed at room temperature at a constant velocity of 1.4 m/s with a constant load of 10 N by using the Abrasion Test Machine. Result shows that 5 wt% and 7 wt% treated palm fiber loadings have better specific wear rate compared to lower fiber loadings. The finding of this study contributes towards material development and utilization in promoting `waste into wealth' which is in line with national aspiration.

  9. Crack and wear behavior of SiC particulate reinforced aluminium based metal matrix composite fabricated by direct metal laser sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Saha, Partha

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, crack density and wear performance of SiC particulate (SiCp) reinforced Al-based metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) fabricated by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process have been studied. Mainly, size and volume fraction of SiCp have been varied to analyze the crack and wear behavior of the composite. The study has suggested that crack density increases significantly after 15 volume percentage (vol.%) of SiCp. The paper has also suggested that when size (mesh) of reinforcement increases, wear resistance of the composite drops. Three hundred mesh of SiCp offers better wear resistance; above 300 mesh the specific wear rate increases significantly. Similarly, there has been no improvement of wear resistance after 20 vol.% of reinforcement. The scanning electron micrographs of the worn surfaces have revealed that during the wear test SiCp fragments into small pieces which act as abrasives to result in abrasive wear in the specimen.

  10. Effects of sintering temperature on the microstructural evolution and wear behavior of WCp reinforced Ni-based coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-hui; Bai, Yang; Ye, Xu-chu

    2014-12-01

    This article focuses on the microstructural evolution and wear behavior of 50wt%WC reinforced Ni-based composites prepared onto 304 stainless steel substrates by vacuum sintering at different sintering temperatures. The microstructure and chemical composition of the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The wear resistance of the coatings was tested by thrust washer testing. The mechanisms of the decomposition, dissolution, and precipitation of primary carbides, and their influences on the wear resistance have been discussed. The results indicate that the coating sintered at 1175°C is composed of fine WC particles, coarse M6C (M=Ni, Fe, Co, etc.) carbides, and discrete borides dispersed in solid solution. Upon increasing the sintering temperature to 1225°C, the microstructure reveals few incompletely dissolved WC particles trapped in larger M6C, Cr-rich lamellar M23C6, and M3C2 in the austenite matrix. M23C6 and M3C2 precipitates are formed in both the γ/M6C grain boundary and the matrix. These large-sized and lamellar brittle phases tend to weaken the wear resistance of the composite coatings. The wear behavior is controlled simultaneously by both abrasive wear and adhesive wear. Among them, abrasive wear plays a major role in the wear process of the coating sintered at 1175°C, while the effect of adhesive wear is predominant in the coating sintered at 1225°C.

  11. Usage of abrasion-resistant materials in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Votava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soil-processing machines are subject to an extensive abrasive wear. This paper analyses technical materials and their fitness to exchangeable parts of plough bottoms, such as edge-tools and whole plough cutting edges. There were tested abrasion-resistant steels with different microstructures: austenite, martensite-bainite, and carbide. Steel with the pearlite-ferrite structure was used as an etalon. Abrasion resistance tests were processed in compliance with the norm CSN 01 5084, which is a test of abrasion wear on abrasive cloth.

  12. Abrasive wear response of TIG-melted TiC composite coating: Taguchi approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleque, M. A.; Bello, K. A.; Adebisi, A. A.; Dube, A.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, Taguchi design of experiment approach has been applied to assess wear behaviour of TiC composite coatings deposited on AISI 4340 steel substrates by novel powder preplacement and TIG torch melting processes. To study the abrasive wear behaviour of these coatings against alumina ball at 600° C, a Taguchi’s orthogonal array is used to acquire the wear test data for determining optimal parameters that lead to the minimization of wear rate. Composite coatings are developed based on Taguchi’s L-16 orthogonal array experiment with three process parameters (welding current, welding speed, welding voltage and shielding gas flow rate) at four levels. In this technique, mean response and signal-to-noise ratio are used to evaluate the influence of the TIG process parameters on the wear rate performance of the composite coated surfaces. The results reveal that welding voltage is the most significant control parameter for minimizing wear rate while the current presents the least contribution to the wear rate reduction. The study also shows the best optimal condition has been arrived at A3 (90 A), B4 (2.5 mm/s), C3 (30 V) and D3 (20 L/min), which gives minimum wear rate in TiC embedded coatings. Finally, a confirmatory experiment has been conducted to verify the optimized result and shows that the error between the predicted values and the experimental observation at the optimal condition lies within the limit of 4.7 %. Thus, the validity of the optimum condition for the coatings is established.

  13. Wear behaviors of pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy (AA2024-T4) under variable vertical loads and linear speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeki; Oak, Jeong-Jung; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Cho, Yi Je; Park, Yong Ho

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transition of wear behavior for pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy 2024-T4 (AA2024-T4). The wear test was carried using a ball-on-disc wear testing machine at various vertical loads and linear speeds. The transition of wear behaviors was analyzed based on the microstructure, wear tracks, wear cross-section, and wear debris. The critical wear rates for each material are occurred at lower linear speed for each vertical load. The transition of wear behavior was observed in which abrasion wears with the generation of an oxide layer, fracture of oxide layer, adhesion wear, severe adhesion wear, and the generation of seizure occurred in sequence. In case of the pure aluminum, the change of wear debris occurred in the order of blocky, flake, and needle-like debris. Cutting chip, flake-like, and coarse flake-like debris was occurred in sequence for the extruded AA2024-T4. The transition in the wear behavior of extruded AA2024-T4 occurred slower than in pure aluminum.

  14. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior and Wear Mechanism of Five Different Veneering Porcelains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Min

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this research was to investigate the wear behavior and wear mechanism of five different veneering porcelains.Five kinds of veneering porcelains were selected in this research. The surface microhardness of all the samples was measured with a microhardness tester. Wear tests were performed on a ball-on-flat PLINT fretting wear machine, with lubrication of artificial saliva at 37°C. The friction coefficients were recorded by the testing system. The microstructure features, wear volume, and damage morphologies were recorded and analyzed with a confocal laser scanning microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The wear mechanism was then elucidated.The friction coefficients of the five veneering porcelains differ significantly. No significant correlation between hardness and wear volume was found for these veneering porcelains. Under lubrication of artificial saliva, the porcelain with higher leucite crystal content exhibited greater wear resistance. Additionally, leucite crystal size and distribution in glass matrix influenced wear behavior. The wear mechanisms for these porcelains were similar: abrasive wear dominates the early stage, whereas delamination was the main damage mode at the later stage. Furthermore, delamination was more prominent for porcelains with larger crystal sizes.Wear compatibility between porcelain and natural teeth is important for dental restorative materials. Investigation on crystal content, size, and distribution in glass matrix can provide insight for the selection of dental porcelains in clinical settings.

  15. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  16. Study on torsional fretting wear behavior of a ball-on-socket contact configuration simulating an artificial cervical disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Song; Wang, Fei; Liao, Zhenhua; Wang, Qingliang; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    A ball-on-socket contact configuration was designed to simulate an artificial cervical disk in structure. UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) hot pressed by powders and Ti6Al4V alloy were selected as the material combination of ball and socket. The socket surface was coated by a ~ 500 nm C-DLC (carbon ion implantation-diamond like carbon) mixed layer to improve its surface nano hardness and wear resistance. The torsional fretting wear behavior of the ball-on-socket model was tested at different angular displacements under 25% bovine serum lubrication with an axial force of 100 N to obtain more realistic results with that in vivo. The fretting running regimes and wear damage characteristics as well as wear mechanisms for both ball and socket were studied based on 2D (two dimension) optical microscope, SEM (scanning electron microscope) and 3D (three dimension) profiles. With the increase of angular displacement amplitude from 1° to 7°, three types of T-θ (Torsional torque-angular displacement amplitude) curves (i.e., linear, elliptical and parallelogram loops) corresponding to running regimes of PSR (partial slip regime), MR (mixed regime) and SR (slip regime) were observed and analyzed. Both the central region and the edge zone of the ball and socket were damaged. The worn surfaces were characterized by wear scratches and wear debris. In addition, more severe wear damage and more wear debris appeared on the central region of the socket at higher angular displacement amplitude. The dominant damage mechanism was a mix of surface scratch, adhesive wear and abrasive wear for the UHMWPE ball while that for the coated socket was abrasive wear by PE particles and some polishing and rolling process on the raised overgrown DLC grains. The frictional kinetic behavior, wear type, damage region and damage mechanism for the ball-on-socket model revealed significant differences with those of a ball-on-flat contact while showing better consistency with that of in

  17. Study on torsional fretting wear behavior of a ball-on-socket contact configuration simulating an artificial cervical disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Song [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Fei [School of Material Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Liao, Zhenhua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Biomechanics and Biotechnology Lab, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Wang, Qingliang [School of Material Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Liu, Yuhong [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Weiqiang, E-mail: weiqliu@hotmail.com [Biomechanics and Biotechnology Lab, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-10-01

    A ball-on-socket contact configuration was designed to simulate an artificial cervical disk in structure. UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) hot pressed by powders and Ti6Al4V alloy were selected as the material combination of ball and socket. The socket surface was coated by a ~ 500 nm C-DLC (carbon ion implantation-diamond like carbon) mixed layer to improve its surface nano hardness and wear resistance. The torsional fretting wear behavior of the ball-on-socket model was tested at different angular displacements under 25% bovine serum lubrication with an axial force of 100 N to obtain more realistic results with that in vivo. The fretting running regimes and wear damage characteristics as well as wear mechanisms for both ball and socket were studied based on 2D (two dimension) optical microscope, SEM (scanning electron microscope) and 3D (three dimension) profiles. With the increase of angular displacement amplitude from 1° to 7°, three types of T-θ (Torsional torque-angular displacement amplitude) curves (i.e., linear, elliptical and parallelogram loops) corresponding to running regimes of PSR (partial slip regime), MR (mixed regime) and SR (slip regime) were observed and analyzed. Both the central region and the edge zone of the ball and socket were damaged. The worn surfaces were characterized by wear scratches and wear debris. In addition, more severe wear damage and more wear debris appeared on the central region of the socket at higher angular displacement amplitude. The dominant damage mechanism was a mix of surface scratch, adhesive wear and abrasive wear for the UHMWPE ball while that for the coated socket was abrasive wear by PE particles and some polishing and rolling process on the raised overgrown DLC grains. The frictional kinetic behavior, wear type, damage region and damage mechanism for the ball-on-socket model revealed significant differences with those of a ball-on-flat contact while showing better consistency with that of in

  18. Influence of applied load on wear behavior of C/C-Cu composites under electric current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Using carbon fiber needled fabrics with Cu-mesh and graphite powder as the preform, Cu mesh modified carbon/carbon(C/C-Cu composites were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD with C3H6 and impregnation-carbonization (I/C with furan resin. C/C composites, as a comparison, were also prepared. Their microstructures and wear morphologies were observed by optical microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscope (SEM, respectively. Wear behavior of C/C and C/C-Cu composites under different applied loads were investigated on a pin-on-disc wear tester. The results show that Cu meshes are well dispersed and pyrolytic carbon is in rough laminar structure. Both C/C and C/C-Cu composites had good wear properties. The current-carrying capacity of C/C-Cu composites increases and the arc discharge is hindered as the applied load increases from 40 N to 80 N. Both C/C and C/C-Cu composites had good wear properties. The mass wear rate of C/C-Cu composites under 80 N was only 4.2% of that under 60 N. In addition, C/C-Cu composites represent different wear behaviors because wear mechanisms of arc erosion, abrasive wear, adhesive wear, and oxidative wear are changing under different applied loads.

  19. Abrasive wear of BA1055 bronze with additives of Si, Cr, Mo and/or W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Pisarek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium bronzes belong to the high-grade constructional materials applied on the put under strongly load pieces of machines, aboutgood sliding, resistant properties on corrosion both in the cast state how and after the thermal processing. It moves to them Cr and Si in the aim of the improvement of their usable proprieties. The additions Mo and/or W were not applied so far. It was worked out therefore the new kind of bronzes casting including these elements. Make additions to the Cu-Al-Fe-Ni bronze of Si, Cr, Mo and/or W in the rise of these properties makes possible. The investigations of the surface distribution of the concentration of elements in the microstructure of the studied bronze on X-ray microanalyzer were conducted. It results from conducted investigations, that in the aluminium bronze BA1055 after makes additions Si, Cr, Mo and/or W the phases of the type κFe, κNi crystallize, probably as complex silicides. Elements such as: Fe and Si dissolve first of all in phases κ, in smaller stage in the matrix of the bronze; Mn, Ni and W they dissolve in matrix and phases κ. It dissolves Cr and Mo in the larger stage in phases κ than in the matrix. The sizes of the abrasive wear were compared in the state cast multicomponentnew casting Cu-Al-Fe-Ni bronzes with the additives Cr, Mo or W with the wear of the bronze CuAl10Fe5Ni5Si. The investigations of thewear were conducted on the standard device. It results from conducted investigations, that make additions to bronze BA1055 of the additives of Si, Cr, Mo, and/or W it influences the rise of the hardness (HB of the bronze in the cast state, in the result of the enlarged quantity separates of hard phases κ, and in the consequence the decrease of the abrasive wear. The addition of molybdenum made possible obtainment of the microhardness of the phase α and γ 2 on the comparable level. From the microstructure of the bronze CuAl10Fe5Ni5MoSi is characterizes the smallest abrasive wear among

  20. Microstructure, Wear Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of WC-FeCrAl and WC-WB-Co Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Brezinová

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on investigating the quality of two grades of thermally sprayed coatings deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF technology. One grade contains WC hard particles in an environmentally progressive Ni- and Co-free FeCrAl matrix, while the second coating contains WC and WB hard particles in a cobalt matrix. The aim of the experimental work was to determine the effect of thermal cyclic loading on the coatings’ resistance to adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear. Abrasive wear was evaluated using abrasive cloth of two grit sizes, and erosive wear was evaluated by a dry-pot wear test in a pin mill at two sample angles. Adhesion wear resistance of the coatings was determined by a sliding wear test under dry friction conditions and in a 1 mol water solution of NaCl. Corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization tests. Metallographic cross-sections were used for measurement of the microhardness and thickness and for line energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. The tests proved the excellent resistance of both coatings against adhesive, abrasive, and erosive wear, as well as the ability of the WC-WB-Co coating to withstand alternating temperatures of up to 600 °C. The “green carbide” coating (WC-FeCrAl can be recommended as an environmentally friendly replacement for Ni- and Co-containing coatings, but its operating temperature is strictly limited to 500 °C in air.

  1. Solidification structure and abrasion resistance of high chromium white irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J. A.; Laird, G.

    1997-06-01

    Superior abrasive wear resistance, combined with relatively low production costs, makes high Cr white cast irons (WCIs) particularly attractive for applications in the grinding, milling, and pumping apparatus used to process hard materials. Hypoeutectic, eutectic, and hypereutectic cast iron compositions, containing either 15 or 26 wt pct chromium, were studied with respect to the macrostructural transitions of the castings, solidification paths, and resulting microstructures when poured with varying superheats. Completely equiaxed macrostructures were produced in thick section castings with slightly hypereutectic compositions. High-stress abrasive wear tests were then performed on the various alloys to examine the influence of both macrostructure and microstructure on wear resistance. Results indicated that the alloys with a primarily austenitic matrix had a higher abrasion resistance than similar alloys with a pearlitic/bainitic matrix. Improvement in abrasion resistance was partially attributed to the ability of the austenite to transform to martensite at the wear surface during the abrasion process.

  2. A new methodology for predictive tool wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Sik

    An empirical approach to tool wear, which requires a series of machining tests for each combination of insert and work material, has been a standard practice for industries since early part of the twentieth century. With many varieties of inserts and work materials available for machining, the empirical approach is too experiment-intensive that the demand for the development of a model-based approach is increasing. With a model-based approach, the developed wear equation can be extended without additional machining experiments. The main idea is that the temperatures on the primary wear areas are increasing such that the physical properties of the tool material degrade substantially and consequently tool wear increases. Dissolution and abrasion are identified to be the main mechanisms for tool wear. Flank wear is predominantly a phenomenon of abrasion as evident by the presence of a scoring mark on the flank surface. Based on this statement, it is reasonable to expect that the flank-wear rate would increase with the content of hard inclusions. However, experimental flank wear results did not necessary correspond to the content of cementite phase present in the steels. Hence, other phenomena are believed to significantly affect wear behavior under certain conditions. When the cutting temperature in the flank interface is subjected to high enough temperatures, pearlitic structure austenizes. During the formation of a new austenitic phase, the existing carbon is dissolved into the ferrite matrix, which will reduce the abrasive action. To verify the austenitic transformation, turning tests were conducted with plain carbon steels. The machined surface areas are imaged using X-ray diffraction the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). On the other hand, crater wear occurs as a result of dissolution wear and abrasive wear. To verify the wear mechanisms of crater wear, various coating inserts as well as uncoated inserts were

  3. Protective Effect of Adhesive Systems associated with Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser on Enamel Erosive/Abrasive Wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crastechini, Erica; Borges, Alessandra B; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Thomas; Torres, Carlos Rg

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of self-etching adhesive systems associated or not associated with the neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser on the protection against enamel erosive/abrasive wear. Bovine enamel specimens were demineralized with 0.3% citric acid (5 minutes). The samples were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 20): SB - Single Bond Universal (3M/ESPE); SB+L - Single Bond Universal + laser (80 mJ/10 Hz); FB - Futurabond U (Voco); FB+L -Futurabond U + laser; GEN - G-aenial bond (GC); GEN+L -G-aenial bond + laser; L - laser irradiation; and C - no treatment. The laser was applied before light curing. The samples were subjected to erosive/abrasive challenges (0.3% citric acid - 2 minutes and tooth brushing four times daily for 5 days). Enamel surface loss was recovered profilometrically by comparison of baseline and final profiles. The adhesive layer thickness, retention percentage of the protective layer, and microhardness of cured adhesive were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (5%). There were significant differences for all parameters (p = 0.0001). Mean values ± SD and results of the Tukey's test were: Surface wear: GEN - 4.88 (±1.09)a, L - 5.04 ± 0.99)a, FB - 5.32 (±0.93)ab, GEN + L - 5.46 (±1.27)abc, SB + L - 5.78 (±1.12)abc, FB + L - 6.23 (±1.25)bc, SB - 6.35 (±1.11)c, and C - 6.46 (±0.61)c; layer thickness: GEN - 15.2 (±8.63)c, FB - 5.06 (±1.96)a, GEN + L - 13.96 (±7.07)bc, SB + L - 4.24 (±2.68)a, FB + L - 9.03 (±13.02)abc, and SB - 7.49 (±2.80)ab; retention: GEN - 68.89 (±20.62)c, FB - 54.53 (±24.80)abc, GEN + L - 59.90 (±19.79)abc, SB + L - 63.37 (±19.30)bc, FB + L - 42.23 (±17.68) a, and SB - 47.78 (±18.29)ab; microhardness: GEN - 9.27 (±1.75)c; FB - 6.99 (±0.89)b; GEN + L - 6.22 (±0.87)ab; SB + L - 15.48 (±2.51)d; FB + L - 10.67 (±1.58)c; SB - 5.00 (±1.60)a. The application of Futurabond U and G-aenial bond on enamel surface, as well as the Nd

  4. The Abrasive Wear Resistance of the Segmented Linear Polyurethane Elastomers Based on a Variety of Polyols as Soft Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kwiatkowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented results make an original contribution to the development of knowledge on the prediction and/or modeling of the abrasive wear properties of polyurethanes. A series of segmented linear polyurethane elastomers (PUR—In which the hard segments consist of 4,4′-methylene bis(phenylisocyanate and 1,4-butanodiol, whilst polyether, polycarbonate, or polyester polyols constitute the soft segments—Were synthesized and characterized. The hardness and wear performance as functions of the variable chemical composition of polyurethane elastomers were evaluated in order to define the relationship between studied factors. The microstructure was characterized in detail, including analysis of the hydrogen bonding by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and the phase structure by X-ray scattering (WAXS and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC methods. The presented studies provide the key features of the polymer composition affecting the abrasive resistance as well as attempts to explain the origin of the differences in the polyurethane elastomers’ performance.

  5. Influence of Corrosion on the Abrasion of Cutter Steels Used in TBM Tunnelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espallargas, N.; Jakobsen, P. D.; Langmaack, L.; Macias, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Abrasion on tunnel boring machine (TBM) cutters may be critical in terms of project duration and costs. Several researchers are currently studying the degradation of TBM cutter tools used for excavating hard rock, soft ground and loose soil. So far, the primary focus of this research has been directed towards abrasive wear. Abrasive wear is a very common process in TBM excavation, but with a view to the environment in which the tools are working, corrosion may also exert an influence. This paper presents a selection of techniques that can be used to evaluate the influence of corrosion on abrasion on TBM excavation tools. It also presents the influence of corrosion on abrasive wear for some initial tests, with constant steel and geomaterial and varying properties of the excavation fluids (soil conditioners, anti-abrasion additives and water). The results indicate that the chloride content in the water media greatly influences the amount of wear, providing evidence of the influence of corrosion on the abrasion of the cutting tools. The presence of conditioning additives tailored to specific rock or soil conditions reduces wear. However, when chloride is present in the water, the additives minimise wear rates but fail to suppress corrosion of the cutting tools.

  6. Researches concerning the ultasonic energy influence on the resistence to the abrasive wear of loaded welded parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Amza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The researches presented in the paper refer to the effect of ultrasounds propagation in the liquid metal bath on the process of transferring the additive material through the electric arch and on the crystallization process, and all these effects are analyzed for loaded welded parts solicited at the abrasive wear. All these influences are conferred to these two basic phenomena due to the ultrasounds propagation in liquid environments, namely, ultra-acoustic cavitation and acceleration of the diffusion process. The results concerns the resistance to the wear obtained for the loaded parts through manual welding with electric arch and classically covered electrode and ultrasonically activated.

  7. A level set methodology for predicting the effect of mask wear on surface evolution of features in abrasive jet micro-machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, T; Papini, M

    2012-01-01

    A previous implementation of narrow-band level set methodology developed by the authors was extended to allow for the modelling of mask erosive wear in abrasive jet micro-machining (AJM). The model permits the prediction of the surface evolution of both the mask and the target simultaneously, by representing them as a hybrid and continuous mask–target surface. The model also accounts for the change in abrasive mass flux incident to both the target surface and, for the first time, the eroding mask edge, that is brought about by the presence of the mask edge itself. The predictions of the channel surface and eroded mask profiles were compared with measurements on channels machined in both glass and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) targets at both normal and oblique incidence, using tempered steel and elastomeric masks. A much better agreement between the predicted and measured profiles was found when mask wear was taken into account. Mask wear generally resulted in wider and deeper glass target profiles and wider PMMA target profiles, respectively, when compared to cases where no mask wear was present. This work has important implications for the AJM of complex MEMS and microfluidic devices that require longer machining times. (paper)

  8. Wear mechanisms of dental composite restorative materials by two different in-vitro methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Antonino de Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work two very simple apparatuses, namely the ball crater (or ball-on-plate and the linear reciprocating (or pin-on-plate tests, were used in order to investigate the wear mechanisms of TPH Spectrum® and Resilab Master® dental composite resins. Loads in the range of 100 g to 1 kg and a total number of up to 24000 cycles were employed. During some of these tests, aqueous aluminum oxide suspensions were used as abrasive agent either diluted or not in distilled water. In case of the ball-on-plate test wear is dominated by abrasive and/or adhesive mechanisms, and is characterized by scratches which are composed of wear defects comprising particle detachment, wear of the polymer matrix and ceramic particle abrasion. However, the relative contributions of the two wear mechanisms could not be determined separately. In case of the pin-on-plate test wear is governed by the fatigue mechanism, although abrasive and adhesive wear mechanism are also present. After a certain number of cycles fatigue wear dominates the wear behavior and results in severe material loss. This mechanism seems to be more important in case of more brittle materials and when higher loads are employed. Qualitative analysis of the results suggests that the combination of these two very simple methods under appropriate conditions can yield sound results which may be representative of a number of clinical situations.

  9. Wear mechanisms of dental composite restorative materials by two different in-vitro methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Antonino de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work two very simple apparatuses, namely the ball crater (or ball-on-plate and the linear reciprocating (or pin-on-plate tests, were used in order to investigate the wear mechanisms of TPH Spectrum® and Resilab Master® dental composite resins. Loads in the range of 100 g to 1 kg and a total number of up to 24000 cycles were employed. During some of these tests, aqueous aluminum oxide suspensions were used as abrasive agent either diluted or not in distilled water. In case of the ball-on-plate test wear is dominated by abrasive and/or adhesive mechanisms, and is characterized by scratches which are composed of wear defects comprising particle detachment, wear of the polymer matrix and ceramic particle abrasion. However, the relative contributions of the two wear mechanisms could not be determined separately. In case of the pin-on-plate test wear is governed by the fatigue mechanism, although abrasive and adhesive wear mechanism are also present. After a certain number of cycles fatigue wear dominates the wear behavior and results in severe material loss. This mechanism seems to be more important in case of more brittle materials and when higher loads are employed. Qualitative analysis of the results suggests that the combination of these two very simple methods under appropriate conditions can yield sound results which may be representative of a number of clinical situations.

  10. Wear behavior of human enamel against lithium disilicate glass ceramic and type III gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahreum; Swain, Michael; He, Lihong; Lyons, Karl

    2014-12-01

    The wear behavior of human enamel that opposes different prosthetic materials is still not clear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate and compare the friction and wear behavior of human tooth enamel that opposes 2 indirect restorative materials: lithium disilicate glass ceramic and Type III gold. Friction-wear tests on human enamel (n=5) that opposes lithium disilicate glass ceramic (n=5) and Type III gold (n=5) were conducted in a ball-on-flat configuration with a reciprocating wear testing apparatus. The wear pairs were subjected to a normal load of 9.8 N, a reciprocating amplitude of approximately 200 μm, and a reciprocating frequency of approximately 1.6 Hz for up to 1100 cycles per test under distilled water lubrication. The frictional force of each cycle was recorded, and the corresponding friction coefficient for different wear pairs was calculated. After wear testing, the wear scars on the enamel specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Type III gold had a significantly lower steady-state friction coefficient (P=.009) and caused less wear damage on enamel than lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Enamel that opposed lithium disilicate glass ceramic exhibited cracks, plow furrows, and surface loss, which indicated abrasive wear as the prominent wear mechanism. In comparison, the enamel wear scar that opposed Type III gold had small patches of gold smear adhered to the surface, which indicated a predominantly adhesive wear mechanism. A lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance were observed when human enamel was opposed by Type III gold than by lithium disilicate glass ceramic in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tooth wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tušek Ivan

    2014-01-01

    surfaces. Attrition of teeth (attritio dentium represents teeth wear during mastication, friction on the tooth or teeth during parafunctional mandibular movements (bruxism, but without the abrasive effect. Dental erosion (erosio dentium or corrosive wear is a progressive, irreversible loss of dental hard tissue resulting from the effect of acids and /or chelation in the mouth, but without the participation of bacteria. Acids, of either exogenous or endogenous origin (peptic ulcer, gastritis, or bulimia, anoreksia nervosa, that come into the mouth can lead to different clinical manifestations of erosion depending on the time of exposure, the microstructure of teeth, buffering capacity, the amount of saliva and other factors. The changes are visible on the palatal surfaces of upper anterior teeth and, in severe cases, the lingual surfaces of posterior teeth. Occupational dental erosion occurs during exposure to industrial gases that contain hydrochloric or sulfuric acids, as well as the acids used in galvanizing and manufacture of battery and weapons. Due to the multifactorial nature of erosive tooth wear preventive measures must be applied taking into account chemical and biological factors as well as the patient's behavior associated with the etiology and pathogenesis of erosion. It is recommended to consume food and drinks that stimulate the secretion of large amounts of saliva base; to use neutral or alkaline mouthwash, and to chew sugar-free gum; to apply adequate oral hygiene (soft brushes, non-abrasive tooth paste, proper washing technique and not to consume aciding food and carbonated soft drinks and fizzy drinks in a great amount and frequently. It is necessary to apply preparations with high content of fluoride, and lubricant of tooth wear (powder CaF, CaF mixture and olive oil, and asset-based titanium tetrafluoride and casein-calcium phosphate. Commercial tooth paste that contains CPP-ACP (casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and calcium phosphate

  12. Microstructure and abrasive wear properties of M(Cr,Fe7C3 carbides reinforced high-chromium carbon coating produced by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner BUYTOZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, high-chromium ferrochromium carbon hypereutectic alloy powder was coated on AISI 4340 steel by the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW process. The coating layers were analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Depending on the gas tungsten arc welding pa-rameters, either hypoeutectic or hypereutectic microstructures were produced. Wear tests of the coatings were carried out on a pin-on-disc apparatus as function of contact load. Wear rates of the all coating layers were decreased as a function of the loading. The improvement of abrasive wear resistance of the coating layer could be attributed to the high hardness of the hypereutectic M7C3 carbides in the microstruc-ture. As a result, the microstructure of surface layers, hardness and abrasive wear behaviours showed different characteristics due to the gas tungsten arc welding parameters.

  13. Mechanism-Based FE Simulation of Tool Wear in Diamond Drilling of SiCp/Al Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Junfeng; Pang, Siqin; Xie, Lijing; Gao, Feinong; Hu, Xin; Yi, Jie; Hu, Fang

    2018-02-07

    The aim of this work is to analyze the micro mechanisms underlying the wear of macroscale tools during diamond machining of SiC p /Al6063 composites and to develop the mechanism-based diamond wear model in relation to the dominant wear behaviors. During drilling, high volume fraction SiC p /Al6063 composites containing Cu, the dominant wear mechanisms of diamond tool involve thermodynamically activated physicochemical wear due to diamond-graphite transformation catalyzed by Cu in air atmosphere and mechanically driven abrasive wear due to high-frequency scrape of hard SiC reinforcement on tool surface. An analytical diamond wear model, coupling Usui abrasive wear model and Arrhenius extended graphitization wear model was proposed and implemented through a user-defined subroutine for tool wear estimates. Tool wear estimate in diamond drilling of SiC p /Al6063 composites was achieved by incorporating the combined abrasive-chemical tool wear subroutine into the coupled thermomechanical FE model of 3D drilling. The developed drilling FE model for reproducing diamond tool wear was validated for feasibility and reliability by comparing numerically simulated tool wear morphology and experimentally observed results after drilling a hole using brazed polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond coated tools. A fairly good agreement of experimental and simulated results in cutting forces, chip and tool wear morphologies demonstrates that the developed 3D drilling FE model, combined with a subroutine for diamond tool wear estimate can provide a more accurate analysis not only in cutting forces and chip shape but also in tool wear behavior during drilling SiC p /Al6063 composites. Once validated and calibrated, the developed diamond tool wear model in conjunction with other machining FE models can be easily extended to the investigation of tool wear evolution with various diamond tool geometries and other machining processes in cutting different

  14. Investigation of the Effect of Residual Stress Gradient on the Wear Behavior of PVD Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, B.; Nouveau, C.; Guillemot, G.; Besnard, A.; Barkaoui, A.

    2018-02-01

    The control of residual stresses has been seldom investigated in multilayer coatings dedicated to improvement of wear behavior. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of superposed structures composed of Cr, CrN and CrAlN layers. Nano-multilayers CrN/CrAlN and Cr/CrN/CrAlN were deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) onto Si (100) and AISI4140 steel substrates. The Cr, CrN and CrAlN monolayers were developed with an innovative approach in PVD coatings technologies corresponding to deposition with different residual stresses levels. Composition and wear tracks morphologies of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and 3D-surface analyzer. The mechanical properties (hardness, residual stresses and wear) were investigated by nanoindentation, interferometry and micro-tribometry (fretting-wear tests). Observations suggest that multilayer coatings are composed mostly of nanocrystalline. The residual stresses level in the films has practically affected all the physicochemical and mechanical properties as well as the wear behavior. Consequently, it is demonstrated that the coating containing moderate stresses has a better wear behavior compared to the coating developed with higher residual stresses. The friction contact between coated samples and alumina balls shows also a large variety of wear mechanisms. In particular, the abrasive wear of the coatings was a combination of plastic deformation, fine microcracking and microspallation. The application of these multilayers will be wood machining of green wood.

  15. Preparation, characterization and wear behavior of carbon coated magnesium alloy with electroless plating nickel interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Yan; Li, Zhuguo; Feng, Kai; Guo, Xingwu; Zhou, Zhifeng; Dong, Jie; Wu, Yixiong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The carbon film with nickel interlayer (Ni + C coating) is deposited on GW83. • In Ni + C composite coating the carbon coating has good adhesion with the nickel interlayer. • The wear track of Ni + C coating is narrower compared to the bare one. • The wear resistance of GW83 is greatly improved by the Ni + C coating. - Abstract: Poor wear resistance of rare earth magnesium alloys has prevented them from wider application. In this study, composite coating (PVD carbon coating deposited on electroless plating nickel interlayer) is prepared to protect GW83 magnesium alloys against wear. The Ni + C composite coating has a dense microstructure, improved adhesion strength and hardness due to the effective support of Ni interlayer. The wear test result shows that the Ni + C composite coating can greatly prolong the wear life of the magnesium alloy. The wear track of the Ni + C coated magnesium alloy is obviously narrower and shows less abrasive particles as compared with the bare one. Abrasive wear is the wear mechanism of the coatings at the room temperature. In conclusion, the wear resistance of the GW83 magnesium alloy can be greatly improved by the Ni + C composite coating

  16. Corrosion and Wear Behaviors of Cr-Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S.; Mohan, L.; Bera, Parthasarathi; Kumar, V. Praveen; Barshilia, Harish C.; Anandan, C.

    2017-08-01

    A combination of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and magnetron sputtering techniques has been employed to deposit chromium-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on stainless steel, silicon and glass substrates. The concentrations of Cr in the coatings are varied by changing the parameters of the bipolar pulsed power supply and the argon/acetylene gas composition. The coatings have been studied for composition, morphology, surface nature, nanohardness, corrosion resistance and wear resistance properties. The changes in I D / I G ratio with Cr concentrations have been obtained from Raman spectroscopy studies. Ratio decreases with an increase in Cr concentration, and it has been found to increase at higher Cr concentration, indicating the disorder in the coating. Carbide is formed in Cr-doped DLC coatings as observed from XPS studies. There is a decrease in sp 3/ sp 2 ratios with an increase in Cr concentration, and it increases again at higher Cr concentration. Nanohardness studies show no clear dependence of hardness on Cr concentration. DLC coatings with lower Cr contents have demonstrated better corrosion resistance with better passive behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution, and corrosion potential is observed to move toward nobler (more positive) values. A low coefficient of friction (0.15) at different loads is observed from reciprocating wear studies. Lower wear volume is found at all loads on the Cr-doped DLC coatings. Wear mechanism changes from abrasive wear on the substrate to adhesive wear on the coating.

  17. Modeling of wear behavior of Al/B_4C composites produced by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Ismail; Bektas, Asli; Guel, Ferhat; Cinci, Hanifi

    2017-01-01

    Wear characteristics of composites, Al matrix reinforced with B_4C particles percentages of 5, 10,15 and 20 produced by the powder metallurgy method were studied in this study. For this purpose, a mixture of Al and B_4C powders were pressed under 650 MPa pressure and then sintered at 635 C. The analysis of hardness, density and microstructure was performed. The produced samples were worn using a pin-on-disk abrasion device under 10, 20 and 30 N load through 500, 800 and 1200 mesh SiC abrasive papers. The obtained wear values were implemented in an artificial neural network (ANN) model having three inputs and one output using feed forward backpropagation Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Thus, the optimum wear conditions and hardness values were determined.

  18. Fretting Wear Damage Mechanism of Uranium under Various Atmosphere and Vacuum Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A fretting wear experiment with uranium has been performed on a linear reciprocating tribometer with ball-on-disk contact. This study focused on the fretting behavior of the uranium under different atmospheres (Ar, Air (21% O2 + 78% N2, and O2 and vacuum conditions (1.05 and 1 × 10−4 Pa. Evolution of friction was assessed by coefficient of friction (COF and friction-dissipated energy. The oxide of the wear surface was evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. The result shows that fretting wear behavior presents strong atmosphere and vacuum condition dependence. With increasing oxygen content, the COF decreases due to abrasive wear and formation of oxide film. The COF in the oxygen condition is at least 0.335, and it has a maximum wear volume of about 1.48 × 107 μm3. However, the COF in a high vacuum condition is maximum about 1.104, and the wear volume is 1.64 × 106 μm3. The COF in the low vacuum condition is very different: it firstly increased and then decreased rapidly to a steady value. It is caused by slight abrasive wear and the formation of tribofilm after thousands of cycles.

  19. Investigation of Wear Behavior of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced by Al2O3 and Produced by Hot Pressing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil ARIK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Al powder produced by gas atomization technique has 72.06 µm average particle size and 99 % purity was mixed with as a reinforcement Al2O3 has 99.52% purity and 45 submicron particle size in a high energy ball mill for two hours. In order to obtain disk samples with 30 mm diameter and 6 mm thick mixed powders, after the characterization of particle size and morphology, were compacted in a single action press. Compaction process were carried out from mixed powders by hot pressing at 200 MPa pressure and 550 °C temperature for two hours. Then microstructural analysis, hardness and density measurements of powder metal composite parts were performed. After, the characterization of samples abrasion wear tests were performed according to ASTM-G99-05 by using TRIBOMETER T10/20 ball-on-disk abrasive wearing device. After the abrasive wear test of aluminum and composite powder metal parts produced under the identical test parameters, test results were compared and effect of Al2O3 on the wear properties of composite materials was exhibited. The test results showed that the composite parts have 62 % extra harness and better abrasion wear performance according to aluminum powder metal parts produced and tested under the identical conditions

  20. A comparative study of tribological behavior of plasma and D-gun sprayed coatings under different wear modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, G.; Rao, D.S.; Prasad, K.U.M.; Joshi, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, thermal sprayed protective coatings have gained widespread acceptance for a variety of industrial applications. A vast majority of these applications involve the use of thermal sprayed coatings to combat wear. While plasma spraying is the most versatile variant of all the thermal spray processes, the detonation gun (D-gun) coatings have been a novelty until recently because of their proprietary nature. The present study is aimed at comparing the tribological behavior of coatings deposited using the two above techniques by focusing on some popular coating materials that are widely adopted for wear resistant applications, namely, WC-12% Co, Al 2 O 3 , and Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr. To enable a comprehensive comparison of the above indicated thermal spray techniques as well as coating materials, the deposited coatings were extensively characterized employing microstructural evaluation, microhardness measurements, and XRD analysis for phase constitution. The behavior of these coatings under different wear modes was also evaluated by determining their tribological performance when subjected to solid particle erosion tests, rubber wheel sand abrasion tests, and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests. Among all the coating materials studied, D-gun sprayed WC-12% Co, in general, yields the best performance under different modes of wear, whereas plasma sprayed Al 2 O 3 shows least wear resistance to every wear mode

  1. Modeling of wear behavior of Al/B{sub 4}C composites produced by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Ismail; Bektas, Asli [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Industrial Design Engineering; Guel, Ferhat; Cinci, Hanifi [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgy Engineering

    2017-06-01

    Wear characteristics of composites, Al matrix reinforced with B{sub 4}C particles percentages of 5, 10,15 and 20 produced by the powder metallurgy method were studied in this study. For this purpose, a mixture of Al and B{sub 4}C powders were pressed under 650 MPa pressure and then sintered at 635 C. The analysis of hardness, density and microstructure was performed. The produced samples were worn using a pin-on-disk abrasion device under 10, 20 and 30 N load through 500, 800 and 1200 mesh SiC abrasive papers. The obtained wear values were implemented in an artificial neural network (ANN) model having three inputs and one output using feed forward backpropagation Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Thus, the optimum wear conditions and hardness values were determined.

  2. Wear behavior of niobium carbide coated AISI 52100 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos; Oliveira, Carlos Kleber Nascimento de; Lombardi Neto, Amadeu; Totten, George Edward

    2010-01-01

    Bearing steels must have high hardness, good wear resistance and dimensional stability. The aim of this work was to study the effect of NbC coating, produced using the thermo-reactive deposition (TRD) process, on the wear resistance of the AISI 52100 steel. Untreated AISI 52100 samples were ground up to 600 mesh emery paper. The bath was composed of 5wt.% ferroniobium (65 wt.% Nb), 3wt.% aluminum and (Na2B4O7) to 100%. Samples were treated at 1000 deg C for 4h and quenched in oil directly from the bath. The resulting layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and a micro-abrasive wear testing. The thermo-reactive deposition process in molten borax produced a hard and homogeneous layer composed by NbC, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The NbC coating produced a great increase in the wear resistance of the AISI 52100 steel, decreasing the wear rate by an order of magnitude in relation to the substrate. For coated and uncoated samples the worn volume and wear rate increases with the load. (author)

  3. Corrosion and wear behavior of functionally graded Al2024/SiC composites produced by hot pressing and consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Fatih; Canakci, Aykut, E-mail: aykut@ktu.edu.tr; Varol, Temel; Ozkaya, Serdar

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Functionally graded Al2024/SiC composites were produced by hot pressing. • Effect of the number of graded layers was investigated on the corrosion behavior. • Functionally graded composites has the most corrosion resistant than composites. • Wear mechanisms of Al2024/SiC composites were explained. - Abstract: Functionally graded Al2024/SiC composites (FGMs) with varying percentage of SiC (30–60%) were produced by hot pressing and consolidation method. The effects of SiC content and number of layers of Al2024/SiC FGMs on the corrosion and wear behaviors were investigated. The microstructures of these composites were characterized by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The corrosion performances of composites were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization scans in 3.5% NaCl solution. Corrosion experiments shows that corrosion rate (1109 mpy) of two layered FGMs which containing 50 wt.% SiC were much higher than Al2024 matrix (2569 mpy) and Al2024/50 wt.% SiC composite (2201 mpy). Mechanical properties of these composites were evaluated by microhardness measurements and ball-on-disk wear tests. As the applied load change from 15 to 20 N, the wear rates of the Al2024 increased significantly and wear mechanism transformed from mild to severe wear regime. It has been shown that Al2024/40 wt.% SiC composite has lower wear rate where adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms play a major role.

  4. Effect of dried sunflower seeds on incisal edge abrasion: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Avita; Ramamurthy, Priyadarshini H; Fernandes, Bennete Aloysius; Sidhu, Preena

    2017-01-01

    Tooth surface loss (TSL) is a complex phenomenon characterized by the loss of hard tooth structure at various locations of the teeth, usually due to more than one factor. TSL due to abrasion can be significant in patients consuming coarse, abrasive diet. The present case reports an interesting incisal edge abrasion in a female patient, attributed to a particular dietary behavior of long-term consumption of sunflower seeds. All her family members and most of the people from her native place were also reported to have similar lesions by the patient. Larger epidemiological studies to assess the prevalence and severity of such abrasive lesions in geographic areas with this particular dietary habit need to be carried out so that people may be made aware and educated about alternative ways of eating sunflower seeds that will not cause any form of tooth wear.

  5. Influence of the metallic matrix ratio on the wear resistance (dry and slurry abrasion) of plasma sprayed cermet (chromia / stainless steel) coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ageorges, H.; Ctibor, Pavel; Medarhri, Z.; Touimi, S.; Fauchais, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 201, č. 5 (2006), s. 2006-2011 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma spraying * composite coating * tribology * hardness * wear * abrasion * chromia/stainless steel Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2006

  6. Neural network approximation of tip-abrasion effects in AFM imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakucz, Peter; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger; Krüger-Sehm, Rolf; Yacoot, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The abrasion (wear) of tips used in scanning force microscopy (SFM) directly influences SFM image quality and is therefore of great relevance to quantitative SFM measurements. The increasing implementation of automated SFM measurement schemes has become a strong driving force for increasing efforts towards the prediction of tip wear, as it needs to be ensured that the probe is exchanged before a level of tip wear is reached that adversely affects the measurement quality. In this paper, we describe the identification of tip abrasion in a system of SFM measurements. We attempt to model the tip-abrasion process as a concatenation of a mapping from the measured AFM data to a regression vector and a nonlinear mapping from the regressor space to the output space. The mapping is formed as a basis function expansion. Feedforward neural networks are used to approximate this mapping. The one-hidden layer network gave a good quality of fit for the training and test sets for the tip-abrasion system. We illustrate our method with AFM measurements of both fine periodic structures and randomly oriented sharp features and compare our neural network results with those obtained using other methods

  7. Neural network approximation of tip-abrasion effects in AFM imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakucz, Peter; Yacoot, Andrew; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger; Krüger-Sehm, Rolf

    2008-06-01

    The abrasion (wear) of tips used in scanning force microscopy (SFM) directly influences SFM image quality and is therefore of great relevance to quantitative SFM measurements. The increasing implementation of automated SFM measurement schemes has become a strong driving force for increasing efforts towards the prediction of tip wear, as it needs to be ensured that the probe is exchanged before a level of tip wear is reached that adversely affects the measurement quality. In this paper, we describe the identification of tip abrasion in a system of SFM measurements. We attempt to model the tip-abrasion process as a concatenation of a mapping from the measured AFM data to a regression vector and a nonlinear mapping from the regressor space to the output space. The mapping is formed as a basis function expansion. Feedforward neural networks are used to approximate this mapping. The one-hidden layer network gave a good quality of fit for the training and test sets for the tip-abrasion system. We illustrate our method with AFM measurements of both fine periodic structures and randomly oriented sharp features and compare our neural network results with those obtained using other methods.

  8. Effect of pressing temperature on the wear resistance of a Co-based Cr-Mo powder alloy produced by hot pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somunkiran, Ilyas [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.; Balin, Ahmet [Siirt Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Vocational High School

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Co-based Cr-Mo powder alloy was produced at different pressing temperatures by using hot pressing technique and abrasive wear behaviors of the produced specimens were examined. Produced specimens were exposed to abrasive wear experiment using block on disc wear test device by applying a load of 50 N with 100-mesh SiC abrasive paper. Each specimen was investigated at 25, 50, 75 and 100 m. At the end of the experiment, abrasive wear results of the specimens were determined by calculating their mass losses. Microstructural properties of the specimens which were produced at different pressing temperatures were investigated by optical and SEM examinations and their wear resistances were examined by abrasive wear experiments. Consequently, it was observed that in Co-based Cr-Mo powder alloy produced by hot pressing technique; as sintering temperature increased, size of neck formations between the powder grains increased, porosity decreased and abrasive wear resistance increased. [German] In diesem Beitrag zugrunde liegenden Studie wurde eine Co-basierte Cr-Mo-Legierung mittels Heisspressens hergestellt und der Abrasivverschleisswiderstand dieser Proben untersucht. Die hergestellten Proben wurden dem Abrasivverschleissversuch durch einen Block-Scheibe-Versuchsaufbau unterzogen, wobei eine Kraft von 50 N mit einem SiC-Papier (100 mesh) verwendet wurde. Jede Probe wurde ueber eine Distanz von 25, 50, 75 und 100 m untersucht. Am Ende der jeweiligen Experimente wurden die Abrasivverschleissergebnisse ermittelt, indem die Massenverluste berechnet wurden. Die mikrostrukturellen Eigenschaften der Proben, die bei verschiedenen Presstemperaturen hergestellt wurden, wurden mittels optischer und Rasterelektronenmikroskopie bestimmt und ihr Verschleisswiderstand anhand der Verschleissversuche ermittelt. Schliesslich wurde beobachtet, dass bei steigender Sintertemperatur der heissgespressten Co-basierten Cr-Mo-Pulverlegierung die Groesse der Einschnuerungen zwischen den

  9. A Comparative Study on the Formation Mechanism of Wear Scars during the Partial and Full Scale Fretting Wear Tests of Spacer Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ho; Shin, Chang Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kang, Heung Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Fretting wear studies for evaluating the contact damages of nuclear fuel rods have been focused on the contact shape, rod motion, contact condition, environment, etc.. However, fretting wear mechanism was dramatically changed with slight variation of test variables such as test environments and contact shapes. For example, in an unlubricated condition, effects of wear debris and/or its layer on the fretting wear mechanism showed that the formation of a well-developed layer on the contact surfaces has a beneficial effect for decreasing a friction coefficient. Otherwise, a severe wear was happened due to a third body abrasion. In addition, in water lubrication condition, some of wear debris was remained on worn surface of fuel rod specimens at both sliding and impacting loading conditions. So, it is apparent that a wear rate of fuel rod specimen was easily accelerated by the third-body abrasion. This is because the restrained agglomeration behavior between generated wear particles results in rapid removal of wear debris and its layer. In case of contact shape effects, previous studies show that wear debris are easily trapped between contact surfaces and its debris layer was well developed in a localized area especially in a concave spring rather than a convex spring shape. Consequently, localized wear was happened at both ends of a concave spring and center region of a convex spring. So, it is useful for determining the fretting wear resistance of spacer gird spring and dimple by using part unit in the various lubricated conditions. It is well known that the fretting wear phenomenon of nuclear fuel rod is originated from a flow-induced vibration (FIV) due to the rapid primary coolant. This means that both rod vibration and debris removal behavior were affected by flow fields around the contact regions between fuel rod and spring/dimple. However, all most of the fretting tests were performed by simulating rod vibrating motions such as axial vibration, conservative rod

  10. A Comparative Study on the Formation Mechanism of Wear Scars during the Partial and Full Scale Fretting Wear Tests of Spacer Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ho; Shin, Chang Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kang, Heung Seok

    2012-01-01

    Fretting wear studies for evaluating the contact damages of nuclear fuel rods have been focused on the contact shape, rod motion, contact condition, environment, etc.. However, fretting wear mechanism was dramatically changed with slight variation of test variables such as test environments and contact shapes. For example, in an unlubricated condition, effects of wear debris and/or its layer on the fretting wear mechanism showed that the formation of a well-developed layer on the contact surfaces has a beneficial effect for decreasing a friction coefficient. Otherwise, a severe wear was happened due to a third body abrasion. In addition, in water lubrication condition, some of wear debris was remained on worn surface of fuel rod specimens at both sliding and impacting loading conditions. So, it is apparent that a wear rate of fuel rod specimen was easily accelerated by the third-body abrasion. This is because the restrained agglomeration behavior between generated wear particles results in rapid removal of wear debris and its layer. In case of contact shape effects, previous studies show that wear debris are easily trapped between contact surfaces and its debris layer was well developed in a localized area especially in a concave spring rather than a convex spring shape. Consequently, localized wear was happened at both ends of a concave spring and center region of a convex spring. So, it is useful for determining the fretting wear resistance of spacer gird spring and dimple by using part unit in the various lubricated conditions. It is well known that the fretting wear phenomenon of nuclear fuel rod is originated from a flow-induced vibration (FIV) due to the rapid primary coolant. This means that both rod vibration and debris removal behavior were affected by flow fields around the contact regions between fuel rod and spring/dimple. However, all most of the fretting tests were performed by simulating rod vibrating motions such as axial vibration, conservative rod

  11. Resistance to abrasion of extrinsic porcelain esthetic characterization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Woo J; Browning, William; Looney, Stephen; Mackert, J Rodway; Windhorn, Richard J; Rueggeberg, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    A novel esthetic porcelain characterization technique involves mixing an appropriate amount of ceramic colorants with clear, low-fusing porcelain (LFP), applying the mixture on the external surfaces, and firing the combined components onto the surface of restorations in a porcelain oven. This method may provide better esthetic qualities and toothbrush abrasion resistance compared to the conventional techniques of applying color-corrective porcelain colorants alone, or applying a clear glaze layer over the colorants. However, there is no scientific literature to support this claim. This research evaluated toothbrush abrasion resistance of a novel porcelain esthetic characterization technique by subjecting specimens to various durations of simulated toothbrush abrasion. The results were compared to those obtained using the conventional characterization techniques of colorant application only or colorant followed by placement of a clear over-glaze. Four experimental groups, all of which were a leucite reinforced ceramic of E TC1 (Vita A1) shade, were prepared and fired in a porcelain oven according to the manufacturer's instructions. Group S (stain only) was characterized by application of surface colorants to provide a definitive shade of Vita A3.5. Group GS (glaze over stain) was characterized by application of a layer of glaze over the existing colorant layer as used for Group S. Group SL (stain+LFP) was characterized by application of a mixture of colorants and clear low-fusing add-on porcelain to provide a definitive shade of Vita A3.5. Group C (Control) was used as a control without any surface characterization. The 4 groups were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing using a 1:1 water-to-toothpaste solution for a simulated duration of 32 years of clinical use. The amount of wear was measured at time intervals simulating every 4 years of toothbrushing. These parameters were evaluated longitudinally for all groups as well as compared at similar time points among

  12. Comprehensive study of the abrasive wear and slurry erosion behavior of an expanded system of high chromium cast iron and microstructural modification for enhanced wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Reinaldo Javier

    High chromium cast irons (HCCIs) have been demonstrated to be an effective material for a wide range of applications in aggressive environments, where resistances to abrasion, erosion and erosion-corrosion are required. For instance, machinery and facilities used in mining and extraction in Alberta's oil sands suffer from erosion and erosion-corrosion caused by silica-containing slurries, which create challenges for the reliability and maintenance of slurry pumping systems as well as other processing and handling equipment. Considerable efforts have been made to determine and understand the relationship between microstructural features of the HCCIs and their wear performance, in order to guide the material selection and development for specific service conditions with optimal performance. The focus was previously put on a narrow group of compositions dictated by ASTM A532. However, with recent advances in casting technology, the HCCI compositional range can be significantly expanded, which potentially brings new alloys that can be superior to those which are currently employed. This work consists of three main aspects of study. The first one is the investigation of an expanded system of white irons with their composition ranging from 1 to 6 wt.% C and 5 to 45 wt.% Cr, covering 53 alloys. This work has generated wear and corrosion maps and established correlation between the performance and microstructural features for the alloys. The work was conducted in collaboration with the Materials Development Center of Weir Minerals in Australia, and the results have been collected in a database that is used by the company to guide materials selection for slurry pump components in Alberta oil sands and in other mining operations throughout the world. The second part consists of three case studies on effects of high chromium and high carbon, respectively, on the performance of the HCCIs. The third aspect is the development of an approach to enhance the wear resistance of

  13. The abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquim, Victor; Martines Souza, Beatriz; Foratori Junior, Gerson Aparecido; Wang, Linda; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded bovine enamel samples in respect to erosive tooth wear. 72 bovine crowns were embedded, polished and subjected to the baseline profile analysis. The samples were then protected in 2/3 of the enamel surface and were randomly assigned to six groups (n= 12/group): G1: Oral-B 3D White, G2: Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White, G3: Sorriso Xtreme White 4D, G4: Colgate Luminous White, G5: Crest (conventional toothpaste), G6:erosion only (control). All samples were submitted to an erosive pH cycling (4 x 90 seconds in 0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, per day) and abrasive challenges (2 x 15 seconds, per day) for 7 days. After the first and the last daily cycles, the samples were subjected to abrasive challenges, using a toothbrushing machine, soft toothbrushes and slurry of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). Between the challenges, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva. The final profile was obtained and overlaid to the baseline profile for the calculation of the erosive tooth wear (μm). The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (Penamel wear (3.68±1.06 μm), similarly to G3 (3.17± 0.80 μm) and G4 (3.44± 1.29 μm). G3 and G4 performed similarly between them and compared with G5 (2.35± 1.44 μm). G2 (1.51± 0.95 μm) and G6 (0.85± 0.36 μm) showed the lowest enamel wear, which did not differ between them and from G5. Oral-B 3D White showed the highest abrasive potential while Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White showed the lowest abrasive potential on eroded enamel in vitro. This study showed that some commercial whitening toothpastes, especially those containing pyrophosphate associated with hydrated silica, enhanced enamel erosive wear.

  14. Wear properties of metal ion implanted 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Paoloni, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    AISI type 4140 (high tensile) steel has been implanted with tungsten and titanium using a metal vapour vacuum arc ion source. Doses in the range (1-5)x10 16 ionscm -2 were implanted to a depth of approximately 30nm. The relative wear resistance between non-implanted and implanted specimens has been estimated using pin-on-disc and abrasive wear tests. Implantation of titanium decreased the area of wear tracks by a factor of 5 over unimplanted steel. In some cases the steel was also hardened by a liquid carburization treatment before implantation. Abrasion tests revealed a further improvement in wear resistance on this material following ion irradiation. ((orig.))

  15. Nano-crystallization of steel wire and its wear behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.H. [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Xian University of Architecture and Technology, Xian 716000 (China) and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytecnical University, Xian 710072 (China)], E-mail: xuyunhua@vip.163.com; Peng, J.H. [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Xian University of Architecture and Technology, Xian 716000 (China); Fang, L. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710049 (China)

    2008-06-15

    As carbon steel wire is widely used in civil engineering and industry, it is quite important to increase its strength. In the present paper, a severe cold drawing approach is applied to increase strength and is shown to produce nano grains. With increasing true strain, the tensile strength increases continuously and the cementite flake thickness decreases correspondingly. It is observed by transmission electron microscopy that a significant amount of cementite flakes have been fragmented and dissolved at true strains. Finally, the grains are transformed to nano-sized crystals. Additionally, the cold drawn nano-sized steel wire has been knitted and filled with polyurethane to produce a composite material. Three-body abrasive wear tests show that the wear resistance of the test material is even better than that of high-Cr white cast irons.

  16. Nano-crystallization of steel wire and its wear behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.H.; Peng, J.H.; Fang, L.

    2008-01-01

    As carbon steel wire is widely used in civil engineering and industry, it is quite important to increase its strength. In the present paper, a severe cold drawing approach is applied to increase strength and is shown to produce nano grains. With increasing true strain, the tensile strength increases continuously and the cementite flake thickness decreases correspondingly. It is observed by transmission electron microscopy that a significant amount of cementite flakes have been fragmented and dissolved at true strains. Finally, the grains are transformed to nano-sized crystals. Additionally, the cold drawn nano-sized steel wire has been knitted and filled with polyurethane to produce a composite material. Three-body abrasive wear tests show that the wear resistance of the test material is even better than that of high-Cr white cast irons

  17. Development of the white cast iron with niobium alloy, heat treating, to wear of the abrasive resistance; Desenvolvimento de uma liga de ferro fundido branco alto cromo com niobio, tratada termicamente, para resistencia ao desgaste abrasivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, Alessandro Fraga

    1997-07-01

    This work presents the heat treatment and abrasion tests results of a white cast iron with niobium alloy. The hardening heat treatment were made 950, 1000, 1050 e 110 deg C temperatures cooled by forced air. The tempering treatment were made at 450, 500 e 550 deg C temperatures. The heat treating alloy were compared, in the abrasive tests, with commercial alloys used as hardfacing by welding process in wear pieces. The abrasion tests was realized in pin on disk test. Additional tests were carried out for microstructural characterization to identify the different phases presents in the alloys. In a general way, the alloy studies showed the best wear rate for the heat treatments that results in higher hardness. It performance was superior than that of the commercial alloys. (author)

  18. Control of erosive tooth wear: possibilities and rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Campos Serra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a type of wear caused by non bacterial acids or chelation. There is evidence of a significant increase in the prevalence of dental wear in the deciduous and permanent teeth as a consequence of the frequent intake of acidic foods and drinks, or due to gastric acid which may reach the oral cavity following reflux or vomiting episodes. The presence of acids is a prerequisite for dental erosion, but the erosive wear is complex and depends on the interaction of biological, chemical and behavioral factors. Even though erosion may be defined or described as an isolated process, in clinical situations other wear phenomena are expected to occur concomitantly, such as abrasive wear (which occurs, e.g, due to tooth brushing or mastication. In order to control dental loss due to erosive wear it is crucial to take into account its multifactorial nature, which predisposes some individuals to the condition.

  19. Anti-abrasive nanocoatings current and future applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fabrication methods for anti-abrasive nanocoatings. The connections among fabrication parameters, the characteristics of nanocoatings and the resulting properties (i.e. nanohardness, toughness, wear rate, load-bearing ability, friction coefficient, and scratch resistance) are discussed. Size-affected mechanical properties of nanocoatings are examined, including their uses. Anti-abrasive nanocoatings, including metallic-, ceramic-, and polymeric-based layers, as well as different kinds of nanostructures, such as multi-layered nanocomposites and thin films, are reviewed. * Provides a comprehensive overview of the fabrication methods for anti-abrasive nanocoatings* Discusses the connections among fabrication parameters, the characteristics of nanocoatings and the resulting properties* Reviews advantages and drawbacks of fabrication methods for anti-abrasive nanocoatings and clarifies the place of these nanocoatings in the world of nanotechnology

  20. Metal nitride coatings by physical vapor deposition (PVD) for a wear resistant aluminum extrusion die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Young; Kim, Sang Ho

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the friction and wear behaviors of CrN, TiN, CrAlN, and TiAIN coated onto SKD61 for application to Al 7000 series extrusion dies. On the wear test, the experimental parameters are the load and the counter material's temperature. The results showed that the friction coefficient increased with load but decreased with the counter material's temperature, and the friction coefficients of CrN and CrAIN were lower than the friction coefficients of TiAIN and TIN, especially at a higher temperature. The wear track with different coatings identified different wear behaviors; the wear behavior of CrAIN was found to be abrasive, but the wear behavior of TiN, CrN, and TiAIN was adhesive. Therefore, CrAIN showed the least wear loss with a lower friction coefficient and less adhesion with counter materials at the highest range of wear load and temperature. This resulted in the easy formation of aluminum oxide in the wear track and less Al adhesion; moreover during the hard second phase, AIN dispersed in the film during deposition.

  1. Influence of pulsed plasma streams processing on wear behavior of steels in different friction conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Tereshin, V.I.; Bovda, A.M.; Tortika, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed plasma streams processing was applied for surface modification of industrial steel samples. Different types of wear tests (pin-on-disk,flat-on-flat, abrasive,cavitation) were carried out for samples irradiated by pulsed nitrogen plasma streams. There was achieved essential decrease of wear and tear of processed surfaces of all kinds of steels including previously thermally quenched ones. Obtained results are of importance for both determination of optimal regimes of plasma streams processing and the most resulting use of pulsed plasma streams for technology purpose, i.e. for identification of wear modes and optimal friction conditions for steels processed by plasma streams

  2. Study of the rheological properties and the finishing behavior of abrasive gels in abrasive flow machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, A. C.; Liu, C. H.; Liang, K. Z.; Pai, S. H. [Ching Yun University, Taipei (China)

    2007-10-15

    Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is an effective method to finish the smooth surface in the complex holes. Abrasive media are key elements which dominate the polished results in AFM. But it is hard to develop the machining model of these abrasive gels because of its complicated mechanism. In this research, a non-Newtonian flow is used to set up the abrasive mechanism of the abrasive media in AFM. Power law is a main equation of the non-Newtonian flow to describe the motion of the abrasive media. Viscosities vs. shear rates of different abrasive gels are used to establish the power law in CFD-ACE{sup +} software first. And the working parameters of AFM were applied as input to study the properties of the abrasive gels in AFM. Finally, the relationships between the simulations and the experiments were found. And the abrasive mechanism of the abrasive gels was set up in AFM. The simulated results show that the abrasive gel with high viscosity can entirely deform in the complex hole than the abrasive gel with low viscosity. And the abrasive gel with high viscosity generates a larger shear force than the abrasive gel with low viscosity in the same area. Moreover, the strain rate is seriously changed when the abrasive gel cross over the narrow cross-section of the complex hole. It also means that abrasive gel will produce large finish force in that area. And these results indeed consist with the experiments in AFM.

  3. Wear properties of metal ion implanted 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J. (Applications of Nuclear Physics, Ansto, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)); Paoloni, F.J. (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wollongong, GPO Box 1144, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia))

    1994-07-01

    AISI type 4140 (high tensile) steel has been implanted with tungsten and titanium using a metal vapour vacuum arc ion source. Doses in the range (1-5)x10[sup 16]ionscm[sup -2] were implanted to a depth of approximately 30nm. The relative wear resistance between non-implanted and implanted specimens has been estimated using pin-on-disc and abrasive wear tests. Implantation of titanium decreased the area of wear tracks by a factor of 5 over unimplanted steel. In some cases the steel was also hardened by a liquid carburization treatment before implantation. Abrasion tests revealed a further improvement in wear resistance on this material following ion irradiation. ((orig.))

  4. Influence of silicon content and heat treatment on wear resistance of white chromium cast irons under high speed solidification conditions; Influencia del contenido de silicio y el tratamiento termico en la resistencia al desgaste de fundiciones blancas al cromo en condiciones de rapida solidificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyo, L.; Varela, A.; Verhaege, M.; Garcia, A.; Mier, J.; Moors, M.

    2012-11-01

    The influence of silicon content and heat treatment on microstructure, abrasive and dry friction wear resistance of a 3 % C, 12 % Cr cast iron, under fast solidification conditions is studied. The fast solidification condition diminishes the carbide volume and the silicon content increases their dispersion and finesses. All matrixes obtained were perlitics, whit different finesses. No intermediate transformation products were noticed. Hardness had little variation. Austenization treatment show little effectivity, with tendency to increase wear in reference to as cast and maintenance treatments. Behavior under dry friction and abrasive wear were similar under test conditions applied whit more influence of carbide morphology in the abrasive wear conditions. (Author) 32 refs.

  5. Effect of Laser Remelting on Friction-Wear Behaviors of Cold Sprayed Al Coatings in 3.5% NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A cold sprayed Al coating on S355 structural steel was processed using a laser remelting (LR. The surface and cross-section morphologies, chemical compositions, and phases of as-obtained Al coating before and after LR were analyzed using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, and X-ray diffractometer (XRD, respectively, and their hardness was measured using a micro-hardness tester. The friction-wear behaviors of Al coating before and after LR in 3.5% NaCl solution were conducted to simulate the sand and gravel scouring on its surface in seawater, the effects of wear loads and speeds on the tribological properties of Al coating were analyzed, and the wear mechanisms under different wear loads and speeds were also discussed. The results show that the Al coating after LR is primarily composed of an Al phase and its hardness is 104.66 HV, increasing 54.70 HV than the cold sprayed Al coating. The average coefficient of friction (COF of cold sprayed Al coating at the wear load of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 N is 0.285, 0.239, and 0.435, respectively, while that after LR is 0.243, 0.227, and 0.327, respectively, decreased by 14.73%, 5.02% and 24.83% compared to the cold sprayed Al coating. The wear rate of cold sprayed Al coating at the wear load of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 N is 1.60 × 10−4, 2.36 × 10−4, and 2.40 × 10−4 mm3/m·N, respectively, while that after LR is 1.59 × 10−4, 1.70 × 10−4, and 1.94 × 10–4 mm3/m·N, respectively, decreased by 1%, 32%, and 23%, respectively, indicating that LR has high anti-friction performance. Under the wear load action of 1.0 N, the average COF of laser remelted Al coating at the wear speeds of 300, 400 and 500 times/min is 0.294, 0.279, and 0.239, respectively, and the corresponding wear rate is 1.06 × 10−4, 1.24 × 10−4, and 1.70 × 10−4 mm3/m·N, respectively. The wear mechanism of cold sprayed Al coating is primarily corrosion wear at the loads of 0.5 and 1.0 N, and

  6. Wear-resistance of Aluminum Matrix Microcomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kandeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A procedure is developed for the study of wear of aluminum alloys AlSi7 obtained by casting, reinforced by TiC microparticles, before and after heat treatment. Tribological study is realized under conditions of friction on counterbody with fixed abrasive. Experimental results were obtained for mass wear, wear rate, wear intensity and wear-resistance of the alloys with different wt% of microparticles.

  7. Tribological performance evaluation of coated steels with TiNbCN subjected to tribo-chemical wear in Ringers solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero G, J.; Aperador, W.; Caicedo, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of generating solutions against the deterioration of the joint prostheses, it was studied the tribo-corrosive behavior of titanium niobium carbonitride (TiNbCN) deposited on stainless steel AISI 316 LVM using the technique of magnetron sputtering physical vapor deposition. The tests were performed in a balanced saline solution (Ringers solution) which represents the characteristics of the body fluids, using an equipment where the micro-abrasive wear is generated by the contact of micro particles in the system; the micro-abrasion-corrosion mechanism is described by means of the incorporation of an electrochemical cell consisting of three electrodes. Both the substrate and the coating, were subjected to micro-abrasive wear simultaneously with the electrochemical tests of Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); subsequently of the tests, the specimens were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy characterizing the surface morphology. It was observed that the coating presents an increase in its corrosion and wear resistance with the presence of a simulated biological fluid. The samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  8. Tribological performance evaluation of coated steels with TiNbCN subjected to tribo-chemical wear in Ringers solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero G, J.; Aperador, W. [Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Volta Research Group, 101-80 Bogota (Colombia); Caicedo, J. C., E-mail: g.ing.materiales@gmail.com [Universidad del Valle, Tribology Polymers, Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Cali (Colombia)

    2016-11-01

    With the aim of generating solutions against the deterioration of the joint prostheses, it was studied the tribo-corrosive behavior of titanium niobium carbonitride (TiNbCN) deposited on stainless steel AISI 316 LVM using the technique of magnetron sputtering physical vapor deposition. The tests were performed in a balanced saline solution (Ringers solution) which represents the characteristics of the body fluids, using an equipment where the micro-abrasive wear is generated by the contact of micro particles in the system; the micro-abrasion-corrosion mechanism is described by means of the incorporation of an electrochemical cell consisting of three electrodes. Both the substrate and the coating, were subjected to micro-abrasive wear simultaneously with the electrochemical tests of Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); subsequently of the tests, the specimens were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy characterizing the surface morphology. It was observed that the coating presents an increase in its corrosion and wear resistance with the presence of a simulated biological fluid. The samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  9. development and performance evaluation of an abrasive wear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    advanced countries are not available in Ghana. This makes ... experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with the soils from the five sites as ... Design of the wear equipment ..... tion of Wear Characteristics of Drill Cultures.

  10. Single-asperity contributions to multi-asperity wear simulated with molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, S J; Cihak-Bayr, U; Bianchi, D

    2016-01-01

    We use a molecular dynamics approach to simulate the wear of a rough ferrite surface due to multiple hard, abrasive particles under variation of normal pressure, grinding direction, and particle geometry. By employing a clustering algorithm that incorporates some knowledge about the grinding process such as the main grinding direction, we can break down the total wear volume into contributions from the individual abrasive particles in a time-resolved fashion. The resulting analysis of the simulated grinding process allows statements on wear particle generation, distribution, and stability depending on the initial topography, the grinding angle, the normal pressure, as well as the abrasive shape and orientation with respect to the surface. (paper)

  11. Friction and wear behavior of laser cladding Ni/hBN self-lubricating composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shitang; Zhou Jiansong; Guo Baogang; Zhou Huidi; Pu Yuping; Chen Jianmin

    2008-01-01

    Ni/hBN coating was successfully prepared on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate by means of laser cladding. The microhardness profile of the composite coating along the depth direction was measured, while its cross-sectional microstructures and phase compositions were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the friction and wear behavior of the composite coatings sliding against Si 3 N 4 from ambient to 800 deg. C was evaluated using a ball-on-disc friction and wear tester, and the worn surface morphologies of the composite coatings and counterpart ceramic balls were observed using a scanning electron microscope. At the same time, the worn surfaces of the ceramic balls were also analyzed using a 3D non-contact surface mapping profiler as well. It was found that the laser cladding Ni/hBN coating on the stainless steel substrate had high microhardness and good friction-reducing and antiwear abilities at elevated temperatures up to 800 deg. C. The composite coating registered slightly increased friction coefficient and wear rate as the temperature rose from ambient to 100 deg. C; then the friction coefficient and wear rate decreased with increasing temperature up to 800 deg. C (with the slight increase in the wear rate at 700 deg. C and 800 deg. C to be an exception). The laser cladding Ni/hBN coating was dominated by mixed adhesion and abrasive wear as it slid against the ceramic ball below 300 deg. C. With further increase in the test temperature up to 400 deg. C and above, it was characterized by mild adhesion wear and plastic deformation. Since the laser cladding Ni/hBN coating registered an increased wear rate at temperatures of 600 deg. C and above, it was not suggested to be used for wear prevention and protection of the stainless steel at elevated temperature above 800 deg. C

  12. Friction and wear behavior of laser cladding Ni/hBN self-lubricating composite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shitang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Jiansong [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo Baogang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Huidi [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Pu Yuping [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen Jianmin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: chenjm@lzb.ac.cn

    2008-09-15

    Ni/hBN coating was successfully prepared on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate by means of laser cladding. The microhardness profile of the composite coating along the depth direction was measured, while its cross-sectional microstructures and phase compositions were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the friction and wear behavior of the composite coatings sliding against Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} from ambient to 800 deg. C was evaluated using a ball-on-disc friction and wear tester, and the worn surface morphologies of the composite coatings and counterpart ceramic balls were observed using a scanning electron microscope. At the same time, the worn surfaces of the ceramic balls were also analyzed using a 3D non-contact surface mapping profiler as well. It was found that the laser cladding Ni/hBN coating on the stainless steel substrate had high microhardness and good friction-reducing and antiwear abilities at elevated temperatures up to 800 deg. C. The composite coating registered slightly increased friction coefficient and wear rate as the temperature rose from ambient to 100 deg. C; then the friction coefficient and wear rate decreased with increasing temperature up to 800 deg. C (with the slight increase in the wear rate at 700 deg. C and 800 deg. C to be an exception). The laser cladding Ni/hBN coating was dominated by mixed adhesion and abrasive wear as it slid against the ceramic ball below 300 deg. C. With further increase in the test temperature up to 400 deg. C and above, it was characterized by mild adhesion wear and plastic deformation. Since the laser cladding Ni/hBN coating registered an increased wear rate at temperatures of 600 deg. C and above, it was not suggested to be used for wear prevention and protection of the stainless steel at elevated temperature above 800 deg. C.

  13. Effect of Phenomena Accompanying Wear in Dry Corundum Abrasive on the Properties and Microstructure of Austempered Ductile Iron with Different Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myszka D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research described in this article is a fragment in the series of published works trying to determine the applicability of new materials for parts of the mining machinery. Tests were performed on two groups of austempered ductile iron - one of which contained 1.5% Ni and 0.5% Mo, while the other contained 1.9% Ni and 0.9% Cu. Each group has been heat treated according to the three different heat treatment variants and then the material was subjected to detailed testing of mechanical properties and abrasion wear resistance, measuring also hardness and magnetic properties, and conducting microstructural examinations. The results indicated that each of the tested materials was senstive to the surface hardening effect, which resulted in high wear resistance. It has been found that high temperature of austempering, i.e. 370°C, favours high wear resistance of ductile iron containing nickel and molybdenum. Low temperature of austempering, i.e. 270°C, develops high wear resistance in ductile iron containing nickel and copper. Both these materials offer completely different mechanical properties and as such can be used for different and specific applications.

  14. Abrasion Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Silica Fume Concrete According to Los Angeles and Water Abrasion Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Ching CHENG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study mainly investigated the influence of different tests on the abrasion resistance of concrete mixed with steel fibers and silica fume. The abrasion resistance was assessed at 28, 56 and 91 days on concretes with water-binder ratios of 0.35 and 0.55 where in some mixes silica fume was substituted by 5 % of cement by weight. Steel fibers of 0.5 % and 1.0 % of concrete volume were also added into the test concrete by replacement of coarse and fine aggregates. The results showed that concrete with higher compressive strength in Los Angeles abrasion tests also had better abrasion resistance. The inclusion of steel fibers into test concrete with a water-binder ratio of 0.35 resulted in a significant increase in compressive strength. This concrete also displayed better abrasion resistance and splitting tensile strength than reference concrete; in the test sample with a water-binder ratio of 0.55, the added steel fibers was unable to effectively produce cementation with the concrete. The inclusion of silica fume improved the abrasion resistance of concretes. In water abrasion testing, the abrasion resistance of concrete containing steel fiber was worse than that of concrete without steel fibers. In the water abrasion testing, the surface of steel fiber reinforced concrete was eroded by water and steel balls, and the impact caused the steel fibers to separate from the concrete and led to higher wear loss. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6460

  15. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33480 Tarsus, Turkey. MS received 18 October 2005; revised 22 March 2006. Abstract. In this study, abrasive ... process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied ...

  16. Modeling and Tool Wear in Routing of CFRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliescu, D.; Fernandez, A.; Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E.; Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.; Girot, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the prediction and evaluation of feed force in routing of carbon composite material. In order to extend tool life and improve quality of the machined surface, a better understanding of uncoated and coated tool behaviors is required. This work describes (1) the optimization of the geometry of multiple teeth tools minimizing the tool wear and the feed force, (2) the optimization of tool coating and (3) the development of a phenomenological model between the feed force, the routing parameters and the tool wear. The experimental results indicate that the feed rate, the cutting speed and the tool wear are the most significant factors affecting the feed force. In the case of multiple teeth tools, a particular geometry with 14 teeth right helix right cut and 11 teeth left helix right cut gives the best results. A thick AlTiN coating or a diamond coating can dramatically improve the tool life while minimizing the axial force, roughness and delamination. A wear model has then been developed based on an abrasive behavior of the tool. The model links the feed rate to the tool geometry parameters (tool diameter), to the process parameters (feed rate, cutting speed and depth of cut) and to the wear. The model presented has been verified by experimental tests.

  17. Effect of power toothbrushing on simulated wear of dental cement margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Marsha A; Bayne, Stephen C; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2007-01-01

    Power toothbrushes (PTBs), in combination with abrasive dentifrices, may encourage wear of dental cements at crown margins. The objective of this in vitro simulation was to control the clinical variables associated with PTB use and measure the potential side effects of PTBs with mild and abrasive dentifrices. Four PTBs ( Braun-Oral-B-Professional Care at 150 g brushing force, Sonicare-Elite at 90 g, Colgate-Actibrush at 200 g and Crest-Spinbrush-Pro at 250 g) and 2 dentifrices mixed 1:1 with tap water (Mild= Colgate-Total, Colgate-Palmolive; Abrasive= Close-up, Chesebrough-Ponds) versus tap water alone (control) were used to abrade 2 cements (Fleck's Mizzy Zinc Phosphate [ZP]; 3M-ESPE Unicem universal cement [UC]) using cement-filled slots (160 m wide) cut into wear-resistant ceramic blocks. A custom fixture controlled PTB/block alignment, PTB loads, and other testing variables. Wear was measured (3 profilometer traces/slot, 5 slots/block/group, baseline to 5-year differences) and analyzed (3-way ANOVA, p PTBs and both dentifrices. Brushing with water showed no effects (pPTBs. Pooled 5y-wear levels for ZP for both dentifrices approximately 21 microm /5y) were similar to values for current-day posterior composite materials. Combinations of PTBs with mild and abrasive dentifrices produced significant wear with ZP but not UC; thus, resin-composite cements seem to represent a better choice for wear resistance.

  18. A comparison of the tribological behaviour of Y-TZP in tea and coffee under micro-abrasion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, S; Stack, M M

    2013-01-01

    The micro-abrasion of Y-TZP, a candidate dental restorative material, was investigated in a range of caffeine-containing solutions which included tea and coffee. Additions of sugar and milk were used to test the effects of viscosity and pH on the wear rate. The results indicated a significant increase in wear rate in the various solutions, with some correlation between wear rate and increases in viscosity and this was linked to enhance particle entrainment in the more viscous solutions. The generally lower wear rate in tea compared to coffee was associated with a longer ageing period in this solution before uniform wear was observed. Micro-abrasion maps were used to characterize the differences in performance for the material in the environments studied. (paper)

  19. A comparison of the tribological behaviour of Y-TZP in tea and coffee under micro-abrasion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, S.; Stack, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    The micro-abrasion of Y-TZP, a candidate dental restorative material, was investigated in a range of caffeine-containing solutions which included tea and coffee. Additions of sugar and milk were used to test the effects of viscosity and pH on the wear rate. The results indicated a significant increase in wear rate in the various solutions, with some correlation between wear rate and increases in viscosity and this was linked to enhance particle entrainment in the more viscous solutions. The generally lower wear rate in tea compared to coffee was associated with a longer ageing period in this solution before uniform wear was observed. Micro-abrasion maps were used to characterize the differences in performance for the material in the environments studied.

  20. Influence of thermal oxidation duration on the microstructure and fretting wear behavior of Ti6Al4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Song [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liao, Zhenhua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Biomechanics and Biotechnology Lab, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Liu, Yuhong [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Weiqiang, E-mail: weiqliu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Biomechanics and Biotechnology Lab, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Thermal oxidation under water oxidizing atmosphere was performed on Ti6Al4V alloy under different durations from 2 h to 8 h. Surface characterizations were performed using X-ray diffractometery (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation and nano scratch testing. Fretting wear behaviors of untreated and oxidized samples were also examined. The formed oxide coating mainly included rutile TiO{sub 2} as well as a little alumina. The weight gain with respect to the oxidation duration obeyed the linear oxidation kinetics law. The growth of oxide grains was in inadequate growth state of incomplete scale coverage from 2nd to 4th hour duration, in normal growth state from 4th to 6th hour duration while in excessive growth state of oxide particle agglomeration and surface roughening from 6th to 8th (or more than 8th) hour duration. The coating thickness increased from 5 μm to 12 μm as oxidation duration increased from 2 h to 8 h. The increase in duration also increased surface roughness and nano hardness as well as adhesion strength of the film/substrate for oxidized samples. The nano hardness value was 10.06 ± 2.15 GPa and the critical load of failure during nano scratch testing was 554.3 ± 6.44 mN for 4 h treated sample. The untreated and oxidized samples showed a same fretting running status and fretting regime with a displacement amplitude of 200 μm while revealing different fretting failure mechanisms. It was mainly abrasive and adhesive wear under ploughing force for untreated sample, while a mix of 3-body abrasion by rolling oxide particles and severe plastic deformation under high contact stress between two ceramic materials for the oxidized samples. The oxide coating was not worn out and improved the fretting wear resistance of titanium alloy. - Highlights: • A thickness of 5–12 μm rutile TiO{sub 2} coating formed under different oxidation durations. • Weight gain with respect to oxidation duration obeyed linear

  1. Effect of filler type on 3-body abrasion of dental composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasini E.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The relatively poor wear resistance of dental composite in stress bearing posterior situations has restricted wider clinical application of this restorative material. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the three body abrasive wear of a dental composite based on a new filler (leucite: KAl Si2O6 and to compare it with the wear resistance of a composite based on commonly used Aluminium – Barium Silicate filler. Materials and Methods: This research was an interventional study done in Iran polymer institute. Five specimens were considered in each group. All ceramic IPS Empress® (Ivoclar- Vivadent ingots based on leucite crystals were ball milled, passed through an 800 sieve and used as filler. Experimental composites were prepared by mixing the silane- treated fillers with monomers (BisGMA and TEGDMA. Camphorquinone and amine were used as photoinitiator system. Degree of conversion of the light-cured and post-cured composites was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. The prepared pastes were inserted into plexy-glass mold and light cured (700 mw/cm2, 40 s. Then for maximum degree of conversion specimens were post- cured (120ºC, 5 hours. Three body abrasion wear testing was performed using a wear machine with 50 rpm rotational movement. In this machine, pumice (150 meshes was used as the third body. Weight loss of specimens in each group was measured by balance after each 50 hours. After wear testing SEM examination was made specimens in each group. The data were analyzed and compared using ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (P<0.05. Tetric Ceram was tested as commercial composite. Results: There were significantly differences between three body abrasive wear of composites. The ranking from lowest to highest was as follows: leucite composite (19% < Tetric Ceram (22% < glass composite (28%. leucite composite showed the highest wear resistance value, propably due to the crystalliniy and hardness of filler. Conclusion

  2. Use of dentifrices to prevent erosive tooth wear: harmful or helpful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Magalhães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is the loss of dental hard tissues caused by non-bacterial acids. Due to acid contact, the tooth surface becomes softened and more prone to abrasion from toothbrushing. Dentifrices containing different active agents may be helpful in allowing rehardening or in increasing surface resistance to further acidic or mechanical impacts. However, dentifrices are applied together with brushing and, depending on how and when toothbrushing is performed, as well as the type of dentifrice and toothbrush used, may increase wear. This review focuses on the potential harmful and helpful effects associated with the use of dentifrices with regard to erosive wear. While active ingredients like fluorides or agents with special anti-erosive properties were shown to offer some degree of protection against erosion and combined erosion/abrasion, the abrasive effects of dentifrices may increase the surface loss of eroded teeth. However, most evidence to date comes from in vitro and in situ studies, so clinical trials are necessary for a better understanding of the complex interaction of active ingredients and abrasives and their effects on erosive tooth wear.

  3. Tribomechanical behavior of B{sub 4}C{sub p} reinforced Al 359 composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Deivasigamani; Rathanasamy, Rajasekar [Kongu Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Subramanian, Mohan Kumar; Kaliyannan, Gobinath Velu [PAAVAI Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Mechatronics Engineering; Palaniappan, Sathish Kumar [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal (India); Durairaj, Jayanth

    2017-03-01

    n the present investigation, the influence of B{sub 4}C{sub p} particles on the mechanical and tribological behavior of Al 359 composites has been studied. B{sub 4}C{sub p} particle reinforced Al 359 composite samples were prepared by stir casting process. Hardness, tensile strength and wear behavior of the composites were studied and compared with a control specimen. Hardness of B{sub 4}C{sub p} particles reinforced Al 359 matrix increases compared to base matrix due to the presence of the ceramic phase. Coefficient of friction considerably increases with up to 20 wt.-% addition of B{sub 4}C{sub p} in base matrix. Specimens were subjected to wear tests under different load conditions and the following five different wear mechanisms such as wear groove, abrasion, delamination, oxidation and plastic deformation were evaluated. The abrasion results prove the increase in wear resistance of B{sub 4}C{sub p} reinforced composites compared to a control specimen.

  4. An analysis of the physiologic parameters of intraoral wear: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Cakir, Deniz; Burgess, John O; Janyavula, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the conditions of in vivo mastication and describes a novel method of measuring in vitro wear. Methods: parameters of intraoral wear are reviewed in this analysis, including chewing force, tooth sliding distance, food abrasivity, saliva lubrication, and antagonist properties. Results: clinical measurement of mastication forces indicates a range of normal forces between 20 and 140 N for a single molar. During the sliding phase of mastication, horizontal movement has been measured between 0.9 and 2.86 mm. In vivo wear occurs by three-body abrasion when food particles are interposed between teeth and by two-body abrasion after food clearance. Analysis of food particles used in wear testing reveals that food particles are softer than enamel and large enough to separate enamel and restoration surfaces and act as a solid lubricant. In two-body wear, saliva acts as a boundary lubricant with a viscosity of 3 cP. Enamel is the most relevant antagonist material for wear testing. The shape of a palatal cusp has been estimated as a 0.6 mm diameter ball and the hardest region of a tooth is its enamel surface. pH values and temperatures have been shown to range between 2–7 and 5–55 °C in intraoral fluids, respectively. These intraoral parameters have been used to modify the Alabama wear testing method. (paper)

  5. Processing and study of the wear and friction behaviour of discrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    due to the increase in the braking energy, (3) at low sliding speeds (5, 10 m s−1), abrasive wear is the main wear ... tion materials, gas turbine thermal barrier coatings, armour ..... in a optimum level to balance both the wear loss and the stop-.

  6. Abrasion-resistant concrete mix designs for precast bridge deck panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The report documents laboratory investigations undertaken to develop high performance concrete (HPC) for precast and pre-stressed bridge deck components that would reduce the life-cycle cost of bridges by improving the studded tire wear (abrasion) re...

  7. Wearing Quality of Austenitic, Duplex Cast Steel, Gray and Spheroidal Graphite Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work presents the research results of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing and liquid friction of new austenitic, austenitic-ferritic (“duplex” cast steel and gray cast iron EN-GJL-250, spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3, pearlitic with ledeburitic carbides and spheroidal graphite iron with ledeburitic carbides with a microstructure of the metal matrix: pearlitic, upper bainite, mixture of upper and lower bainite, martensitic with austenite, pearlitic-martensitic-bainitic-ausferritic obtained in the raw state. The wearing quality test was carried out on a specially designed and made bench. Resistance to abrasion wear was tested using sand paper P40. Resistance to adhesive wear was tested in interaction with steel C55 normalized, hardened and sulfonitrided. The liquid friction was obtained using CASTROL oil. It was stated that austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a similar value of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing friction. The smallest decrease in mass was shown by the cast steel in interaction with the sulfonitrided steel C55. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex��� in different combinations of friction pairs have a higher wear quality than gray cast iron EN-GJL- 250 and spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a lower wearing quality than the spheroidal graphite iron with bainitic-martensitic microstructure. In the adhesive wear test using CASTROL oil the tested cast steels and cast irons showed a small mass decrease within the range of 1÷2 mg.

  8. Modelling and analysis of abrasive wear performance of composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that fibre length plays a major role in wear phenomenon. The length of the fibre has been optimized using a popular evolutionary technique known as particle swarm optimization (PSO) and neural network. The study recommends that fibre length should be 7-8 mm for minimum wear of the composites.

  9. Prediction of wear rates in comminution equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lucas Roald Dörig; Fundal, Erling; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    -resistant high chromium white cast iron (21988/JN/HBW555XCr21), a heat-treated wear resistant steel (Hardox 400) and a plain carbon construction steel (S235). Quartz, which accounts for the largest wear loss in the cement industry, was chosen as abrasive. Other process parameters such as velocity (1–7 m...

  10. Effects of Running Shoes with Abrasion Resistant Rubber Sole on the Exercise Capacity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization, rubber has been gradually used in the manufacture of sports equipment for its favourable properties. This study involved the addition of C5 petroleum resin into brominated isobutylene-isoprene rubber (BIIR and butadiene rubber (BR while manufacturing the sole of running shoes. The effects of running shoes with abrasion resistant rubber sole on the exercise capacity of the human body were investigated by analysing the skid resistance and abrasion resistance of the running shoes, and conducting biomechanical study on naked feet and feet wearing the shoes. The results demonstrated that the rubber sole had favourable slip resistance property and mechanical properties such as stretching, abrasion resistance, and hardness. Compared to naked feet, the peak pressure intensity of the whole step of feet wearing the newly developed shoes, was significantly lower than that of feet wearing ordinary shoes. In the future, rubber can bring more comfortable experience because of its favourable properties.

  11. Optimization of pulsed DC PACVD parameters: Toward reducing wear rate of the DLC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Mansoureh; Mahboubi, Farzad; Naimi-Jamal, M. Reza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of pulsed DC PACVD deposition temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow and argon/CH4 flow ratio on the wear rate and durability of DLC films was studied. • Results show that wear rate of the DLC films, reduced from 14×E-4 mm3/Nm to 1×E-6 mm3/Nm with increasing the duty cycle from 50% to 80%. • In low duty cycle (around 50%), wear rate increases with increasing in Argon/CH4 flow ratio. • Oxidation, fatigue, abrasion and graphitization are main wear mechanisms in the DLC film. - Abstract: The effect of pulsed direct current (DC) plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) parameters such as temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH_4 flow ratio on the wear behavior and wear durability of the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). DLC films were deposited on nitrocarburized AISI 4140 steel. Wear rate and wear durability of the DLC films were examined with the pin-on-disk method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques were used for studying wear mechanisms, chemical structure, and hardness of the DLC films. RSM results show that duty cycle is one of the important parameters that affect the wear rate of the DLC samples. The wear rate of the samples deposited with a duty cycle of >75% decreases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. In contrast, for a duty cycle of <65%, the wear rate increases with an increase in the argon/CH_4 ratio. The wear durability of the DLC samples increases with an increase in the duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH_4 flow ratio at the deposition temperature between 85 °C and 110 °C. Oxidation, fatigue, abrasive wear, and graphitization are the wear mechanisms observed on the wear scar of the DLC samples deposited with the optimum deposition conditions.

  12. Optimization of pulsed DC PACVD parameters: Toward reducing wear rate of the DLC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Mansoureh [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 1875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahboubi, Farzad, E-mail: mahboubi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 1875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naimi-Jamal, M. Reza [Research Laboratory of Green Organic Synthesis and Polymers, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16846, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Effect of pulsed DC PACVD deposition temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow and argon/CH4 flow ratio on the wear rate and durability of DLC films was studied. • Results show that wear rate of the DLC films, reduced from 14×E-4 mm3/Nm to 1×E-6 mm3/Nm with increasing the duty cycle from 50% to 80%. • In low duty cycle (around 50%), wear rate increases with increasing in Argon/CH4 flow ratio. • Oxidation, fatigue, abrasion and graphitization are main wear mechanisms in the DLC film. - Abstract: The effect of pulsed direct current (DC) plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) parameters such as temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH{sub 4} flow ratio on the wear behavior and wear durability of the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). DLC films were deposited on nitrocarburized AISI 4140 steel. Wear rate and wear durability of the DLC films were examined with the pin-on-disk method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques were used for studying wear mechanisms, chemical structure, and hardness of the DLC films. RSM results show that duty cycle is one of the important parameters that affect the wear rate of the DLC samples. The wear rate of the samples deposited with a duty cycle of >75% decreases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. In contrast, for a duty cycle of <65%, the wear rate increases with an increase in the argon/CH{sub 4} ratio. The wear durability of the DLC samples increases with an increase in the duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH{sub 4} flow ratio at the deposition temperature between 85 °C and 110 °C. Oxidation, fatigue, abrasive wear, and graphitization are the wear mechanisms observed on the wear scar of the DLC samples deposited with the optimum deposition conditions.

  13. High Temperature Dry Sliding Friction and Wear Performance of Laser Cladding WC/Ni Composite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jiao-xi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different types of agglomerate and angular WC/Ni matrix composite coatings were deposited by laser cladding. The high temperature wear resistance of these composite coatings was tested with a ring-on-disc MMG-10 apparatus. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS for elemental composition. The results show that the high temperature wear resistance of the laser clad WC/Ni-based composite coatings is improved significantly with WC mass fraction increasing. The 60% agglomerate WC/Ni composite coating has optimal high temperature wear resistance. High temperature wear mechanism of 60% WC/Ni composite coating is from abrasive wear of low temperature into composite function of the oxidation wear and abrasive wear.

  14. Predicting the Abrasion Resistance of Tool Steels by Means of Neurofuzzy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Lisjak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work considers use neurofuzzy set theory for estimate abrasion wear resistance of steels based on chemical composition, heat treatment (austenitising temperature, quenchant and tempering temperature, hardness after hardening and different tempering temperature and volume loss of materials according to ASTM G 65-94. Testing of volume loss for the following group of materials as fuzzy data set was taken: carbon tool steels, cold work tool steels, hot work tools steels, high-speed steels. Modelled adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is compared to statistical model of multivariable non-linear regression (MNLR. From the results it could be concluded that it is possible well estimate abrasion wear resistance for steel whose volume loss is unknown and thus eliminate unnecessary testing.

  15. Abrasion of Polymeric Composites on Basis of Machining Splinters from Hardfacing Alloys – Usable in Agrocomplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Valášek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A paper focuses on a description of two-body and three-body abrasion wear of polymeric particle composites with fillers on a basis of machining splinters from hardfacing alloys. The abrasive wear is typical for functional surfaces of agricultural machines processing the soil. One of possibilities of the functional surface renovation is an application of resistant layers in a form of composite systems. Just the inclusion of hard inorganic particles into a polymeric matrix significantly increases its wear resistance. So long as the primary filler is replaced by the waste – by particles from the material machining – the matrix in which the filler is dispersed is a bearer of a material recyclation. This way of the recyclation is inexpensive, economic and sensitive to environment. The paper focuses on the experimental description of the two-body and three-body abrasion and the composites hardness, it describes a production of a prototype for field tests with the functional surface on the basis of the investigated composite system at the same time.

  16. 3D FEM Simulation of Flank Wear in Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Aldo; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Giardini, Claudio

    2011-05-01

    This work deals with tool wear simulation. Studying the influence of tool wear on tool life, tool substitution policy and influence on final part quality, surface integrity, cutting forces and power consumption it is important to reduce the global process costs. Adhesion, abrasion, erosion, diffusion, corrosion and fracture are some of the phenomena responsible of the tool wear depending on the selected cutting parameters: cutting velocity, feed rate, depth of cut, …. In some cases these wear mechanisms are described by analytical models as a function of process variables (temperature, pressure and sliding velocity along the cutting surface). These analytical models are suitable to be implemented in FEM codes and they can be utilized to simulate the tool wear. In the present paper a commercial 3D FEM software has been customized to simulate the tool wear during turning operations when cutting AISI 1045 carbon steel with uncoated tungsten carbide tip. The FEM software was improved by means of a suitable subroutine able to modify the tool geometry on the basis of the estimated tool wear as the simulation goes on. Since for the considered couple of tool-workpiece material the main phenomena generating wear are the abrasive and the diffusive ones, the tool wear model implemented into the subroutine was obtained as combination between the Usui's and the Takeyama and Murata's models. A comparison between experimental and simulated flank tool wear curves is reported demonstrating that it is possible to simulate the tool wear development.

  17. Comparação dos valores de desgaste abrasivo e de microdureza de 13 resinas compostas usadas em odontologia através do método do disco retificado Comparing abrasive wear and microhardness of 13 dental composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo C. Bianchi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente tem-se buscado simplificar a tarefa de caracterização da vida útil de restaurações dentárias realizadas por resinas compostas através de métodos laboratoriais, que são mais rápidos e não sofrem influência de variáveis pessoais inerentes às análises clínicas. Com este propósito, este trabalho apresenta uma nova metodologia de ensaio laboratorial para a avaliação do desgaste abrasivo de resinas compostas através do método do disco retificado. Realizaram-se ensaios de resistência ao desgaste abrasivo com 13 resinas compostas odontológicas e buscou-se analisar o comportamento da resistência ao desgaste abrasivo em relação à microdureza dessas resinas. Com a análise dos resultados concluiu-se que o método de discos retificados é eficiente para a obtenção da resistência ao desgaste abrasivo. Notou-se também ser extremamente pequeno o nível de correlação entre microdureza e desgaste abrasivo o que indica que cada resina composta tem características próprias e que o desgaste é dependente também de outros fatores.It is now commonplace to search for methods to assess the useful lifetime of dental restorations made of resins, which are quicker and less subjective than clinical analyses. With this purpose, this work presents a new methodology based on the grinding disk for evaluating the abrasive wear of composed resins. Resistance tests to the abrasive wear were made with 13 composed resins used as dental material, and a comparison was done with the hardness of those resins. From the data analysis, we concluded that the method of rectified disks is efficient for obtaining the resistance to the abrasive wear. Furthermore, the correlation between hardness and abrasive wear was very small, which indicates that each composed resin has its own characteristics and that the wear also depends on other factors.

  18. Three body abrasion of laser surface alloyed aluminium AA1200

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser to improve the abrasion wear resistance. Aluminium surfaces reinforced with metal matrix composites and intermetallic phases were achieved. The phases present depended...

  19. Wear monitoring of protective nitride coatings using image processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Inge Lise; Guibert, M.; Belin, M.

    2010-01-01

    -meter with up to 105 19 repetitive cycles, eventually leaving the embedded TiN signal layer uncovered at the bottom the wear scar. 20 The worn surface was characterized by subsequent image processing. A color detection of the wear scar with 21 the exposed TiN layer by a simple optical imaging system showed......A double-layer model system, consisting of a thin layer of tribological titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) on 17 top of titanium nitride (TiN), was deposited on polished 100Cr6 steel substrates. The TiAlN top-coatings 18 were exposed to abrasive wear by a reciprocating wear process in a linear tribo...... a significant increase up to a factor of 2 of 22 the relative color values from the TiAlN top layers to the embedded TiN signal layers. This behavior agrees 23 well with the results of reflectance detection experiment with a red laser optical system on the same system. 24 Thus we have demonstrated that image...

  20. Synthesis and wear behavior of aluminum 6061 alloy reinforced with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Abdullah

    In the present work, Al6061 alloy was uniformly reinforced with 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 2 wt. % Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) using two way dispersion method. For consolidation, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was used which resulted in very high densification for the matrix as well as composite. Results showed that addition of CNTs lead to increased hardness of the material and maximum hardness was found for 1 wt. % CNTs. So this composition was selected for detailed wear analysis. Pin-on-disk wear tests were conducted for the monolithic Al6061 and the composite at a constant speed of 0.5 m/s with varying load from 5 N to 30 N under dry sliding conditions using AISI 4140 steel disk as a counterface. The composite displayed lower wear rate and friction coefficient at lower levels of applied stress (0.175 to 0.525 MPa). Under higher stresses (0.700 to 1.050 MPa), the increased brittleness and porosity of the composite caused severe fracturing and delamination resulting in excessive wear rate and friction coefficient for the composite as compared to monolithic Al6061. The transition from mild to severe wear regime in composite occurred also at lower stress as compared to monolith. Analysis of the worn surfaces revealed abrasion as the dominant wear mechanism for both the materials at lower stresses. At higher stress levels, adhesion was found to be dominant in monolithic Al6061 whereas in composite, excessive sub-surface fracturing and delamination was mainly observed.

  1. Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials, SOP-R-2: Scientific Operating Procedure Series: Release (R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Nanotechnologies -- Terminology and definitions for nano-objects -- Nanoparticle, nanofibre and nanoplate Definitions Abrasion - wearing away...ER D C SR -1 6- 2 Environmental Consequences of Nanotechnologies Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials, SOP-R-2...ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Environmental Consequences of Nanotechnologies ERDC SR-16-2 April 2016

  2. Abrasion Resistance of as-Cast High-Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokusová Marcela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High chromium cast irons are widely used as abrasion resistant materials. Their properties and wear resistance depend on carbides and on the nature of the matrix supporting these carbides. The paper presents test results of irons which contain (in wt.% 18-22 Cr and 2-5 C, and is alloyed by 1.7 Mo + 5 Ni + 2 Mn to improve the toughness. Tests showed as-cast irons with mostly austenitic matrix achieved hardness 36-53 HRC but their relative abrasion-resistance was higher than the tool steel STN 19436 heat treated on hardness 60 HRC.

  3. Computer system for identification of tool wear model in hot forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkus Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to create a methodology that will enable effective and reliable prediction of the tool wear. The idea of the hybrid model, which accounts for various mechanisms of tool material deterioration, is proposed in the paper. The mechanisms, which were considered, include abrasive wear, adhesive wear, thermal fatigue, mechanical fatigue, oxidation and plastic deformation. Individual models of various complexity were used for separate phenomena and strategy of combination of these models in one hybrid system was developed to account for the synergy of various mechanisms. The complex hybrid model was built on the basis of these individual models for various wear mechanisms. The individual models expanded from phenomenological ones for abrasive wear to multi-scale methods for modelling micro cracks initiation and propagation utilizing virtual representations of granular microstructures. The latter have been intensively developed recently and they form potentially a powerful tool that allows modelling of thermal and mechanical fatigue, accounting explicitly for the tool material microstructure.

  4. A WEAR MODEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST VALVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    run for hundreds of hours in heavy-duty diesels provided insights into the kinds of complexity that the contact conditions in engines can produce, and suggested the physical basis for the current approach to modeling. The model presented here involves four terms, two representing the valve response and two for its mating seat material. The model's structure assumes that wear that takes place under a complex combination of plastic deformation, tangential shear, and oxidation. Tribolayers form, are removed, and may reform. Layer formation affects the friction forces in the interface, and in turn, the energy available to do work on the materials to cause wear. To provide friction data for the model at various temperatures, sliding contact experiments were conducted from 22 to 850 C in a pin-on-disk apparatus at ORNL. In order to account for the behavior of different materials and engine designs, parameters in all four terms of the model can be adjusted to account for wear-in and incubation periods before the dominant wear processes evolve to their steady-state rates. For example, the deformation rate is assumed to be maximum during the early stages of operation, and then, due to material work-hardening and the increase in nominal contact area (which reduces the load per unit area), decreases to a lower rate at long times. Conversely, the rate of abrasion increases with time or number of cycles due to the build-up of oxides and tribo-layers between contact surfaces. The competition between deformation and abrasion results in complex, non-linear behavior of material loss per cycle of operation. Furthermore, these factors are affected by valve design features, such as the angle of incline of the valve seat. Several modeling scenarios are presented to demonstrate how the wear profile versus number of cycles changes in response to: (a) different relative abrasion rates of the seat and valve materials, (b) the friction coefficient as a function of temperature, (c) the

  5. How patient-selected colors for removable appliances are reflected in electronically tracked compliance (wear times and wear behavior).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Timm C; Menne, Dieter

    2018-03-27

    A broad spectrum of colors for removable appliances, intended to optimize acceptance of treatment and patient cooperation, have been available on the dental market for years. This is the first study to analyze how patient-selected colors are reflected in wear times and wear behavior of removable appliances. The study included 117 children (55 girls and 62 boys) who were treated with active removable plate or functional appliances. All patients were offered to choose from 11 different colors, which were pooled into six groups (black, blue, green, yellow, pink, red) for analysis, or to combine any two to four colors ("multicolored" group) for their appliances. All appliances featured a built-in microsensor (TheraMon; MC Technology, Hargelsberg, Austria) for objective wear-time tracking. Differences between wear times were analyzed using pairwise t tests and Tukey correction. The longest median wear times were recorded in the blue and green groups (≈11 h/d) and the shortest ones in the red and pink groups (≈9 h/d), but they were not significantly influenced by the patient-selected colors. The median wear times involved an age-related decrease by 0.56 h/y that was statistically significant ( P = .00005). No gender-specific patterns of wear behavior were observed. Patient-selected colors for removable appliances can presumably improve acceptance of treatment, but they are not associated with statistically significant improvements in wear time or wear behavior.

  6. Performance Degradation Analysis of Aviation Hydraulic Piston Pump Based on Mixed Wear Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the mathematical modeling of axial piston pump through dividing the failure development of friction pair into lubrication, mixed lubrication and abrasion. Directing to the wedge-shaped oil film between cylinder block and valve plate, the support force distribution under the temperature variance was obtained. Considering the rough peak of valve plate, the contact load model is built under plastic deformation and elastic deformation and the corresponding wear volume is calculated. Computing the wear and tear along the counter-clockwise, the total amount of friction and wear can be calculated. Simulation and preliminary wear particle monitoring test indicates that proposed modeling and analysis can effectively reflect the real abrasion process of hydraulic piston pump.

  7. Effect of Fe content on the friction and abrasion properties of copper base overlay on steel substrate by TIG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Shixiong; Song Jianling; Liu Lei; Yang Shiqin

    2009-01-01

    Copper base alloy was overlaid onto 35CrMnSiA steel plate by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding method. The heat transfer process was simulated, the microstructures of the copper base overlay were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and the friction and abrasion properties of the overlay were measured. The results show that the Fe content increases in the overlay with increasing the welding current. And with the increase of Fe content in the overlay, the friction coefficient increases and the wear mechanism changes from oxidation wear to abrasive wear and plough wear, which is related to the size and quantity of Fe grains in the overlay. While with the increase of Fe content in the overlay, the protection of oxidation layer against the oxidation wear on the melted metal decreases.

  8. How wear affects road surface texture and its impact on tire/road noise

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Doreen

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical pavement wear in the Nordic countries is essentially influenced by the use of studded tires during long winter seasons. The abrasive effect of the studded tires is the cause of significant damage on the pavement and a contributor to rutting. In addition, the mechanical aggregate removal due to the studded tires is the reason for significant changes in the road surface texture. At traditional dense asphalt pavements, the mechanical wear is initiated by the abrasion of the mortar, wh...

  9. Comparative analyses of tooth wear in free-ranging and captive wild equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L A; Müller, D W H; Schwitzer, C; Kaiser, T M; Castell, J C; Clauss, M; Schulz-Kornas, E

    2016-03-01

    Captive breeding has played a crucial role in the conservation of threatened equid species. Grazing ruminants and rhinoceros in captivity have less abrasion-dominated tooth wear than their free-ranging conspecifics, with potential negative consequences for their health. However, a similar study on wild equids in captivity is missing. The aim was to establish if different tooth wear patterns are exhibited by free-ranging and captive equids. Cross-sectional study of museum specimens comparing free-ranging and captive equids. Dental casts of maxillary cheek teeth of 228 museum specimens (122 from free-ranging and 106 from captive individuals) of 7 wild equid species were analysed using the extended mesowear method. Although teeth showing specific abnormalities were not scored, the presence of focal overgrowths (hooks) of the rostral premolars (106, 206) was recorded. Captive Equus ferus przewalskii, E. grevyi, E. hemionus, E. quagga boehmi and E. zebra hartmannae have less abrasion-dominated tooth wear on their premolars than their free-ranging conspecifics (P<0.001). Fewer differences were exhibited between populations in the molars. No differences were exhibited in the distal cusp of the molars (110, 210) between populations, except in a small sample of E. kiang. Captive equids exhibited more homogeneous wear along the tooth row whereas free-ranging equids exhibited a tooth wear gradient, with more abrasion on premolars than molars. There were more rostral hooks on the premolars (106, 206) in the captive than the free-ranging population (P = 0.02). Captive equids did experience less abrasion-dominated tooth wear than their free-ranging conspecifics, but the differences in tooth wear were less pronounced than those between captive and free-ranging wild ruminant and rhinoceros species. This indicates that feeding regimes for captive equids deviate less from natural diets than those for captive ruminants and rhinoceros but that factors leading to hook

  10. Experimental Study of the Hygrothermal Effect on Wear Behavior of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhel Abbas. Abdulla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The hygrothermal effect on the wear behavior of composite material (fiberglass and polyester resin vf=40% was investigated experimentally in this work. The study includes manufacturing of test device (pin on disc according to ASTM G 99. In order to study the hygrothermal effect on wear behavior of composite materials the hygrothermal chamber was manufactured. The experimental results show that the wear of glass fiber/polyester increased with increasing the load, sliding speed and sliding distance. The load and sliding distance were more effective on the wear of the composite rather than sliding speed. Also, it has been revealed that, the hygrothermal is considerable effect that, the wear rate of glass fiber/polyester without hygrothermal effect is lower than wear with hygrothermal effect. Applied load is the wear factor that has the highest physical influence on the wear of composites materials than other wear factors. Also, the wear of glass fiber/polyester without hygrothermal effect is lower than wear with hygrothermal effect.

  11. Improving the Wear Resistance of Moulds for the Injection of Glass Fibre–Reinforced Plastics Using PVD Coatings: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that injection of glass fibre–reinforced plastics (GFRP causes abrasive wear in moulds’ cavities and runners. Physical vapour deposition (PVD coatings are intensively used to improve the wear resistance of different tools, also being one of the most promising ways to increase the moulds’ lifespan, mainly when used with plastics strongly reinforced with glass fibres. This work compares four different thin, hard coatings obtained using the PVD magnetron sputtering process: TiAlN, TiAlSiN, CrN/TiAlCrSiN and CrN/CrCN/DLC. The first two are monolayer coatings while the last ones are nanostructured and consist of multilayer systems. In order to carry out the corresponding tribological characterization, two different approaches were selected: A laboratorial method, using micro-abrasion wear tests based on a ball-cratering configuration, and an industrial mode, analysing the wear resistance of the coated samples when inserted in a plastic injection mould. As expected, the wear phenomena are not equivalent and the results between micro-abrasion and industrial tests are not similar due to the different means used to promote the abrasion. The best wear resistance performance in the laboratorial wear tests was attained by the TiAlN monolayer coating while the best performance in the industrial wear tests was obtained by the CrN/TiAlCrSiN nanostructured multilayer coating.

  12. Justification of parameters artificial soil for laboratory research of cutting edge wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Liskin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For soil cultivation with the cutting tools of agricultural machines we can allocate three main types of shavings: shift, separation and continuous chip. The shift is most accurately expressed on sandy soils, a separation - on clay and loamy, continuous chip - on humid soils with the high content of clay particles. In field conditions researches of regularities of cutting edges wear are complicated because of heterogeneity of physic and mechanical properties of the soil and the changing climatic conditions. At laboratory modeling of soil conditions we can make experiments independent of weather and season. For development of the artificial soil and depend modeling of edges wear we considered conditions of creation of model with use mechanics of abrasive wear. Have allocated The major factors defining character and intensity of wear were allocated. The wearing-out ability of abrasive particles is defined by the radius of the curve of their sharp ledges. This radius depends on the particle size. The hardness of the soil influences wear of the cutting details and characterizes penetration into it of the cutting elements, and degree of fixedness of abrasive particles defines shaving type. We conseeder the soil as the abrasive environment with the particles which are in a condition of non-rigid fixing and have an opportunity to move relatively each other or to turn on itself under the influence of normal and tangential stress. Type of shaving when soil layer destruction depends on a ratio of the normal and tangential stress characterizing degree of fixedness of firm particles. We conducted researches of physic and mechanical properties of the artificial soil on the basis of quartz sand and paraffin. Injection of the petrolatum into structure of the artificial soil reduces the hardness and degree of fixedness of firm particles, but the ceresin increases these indicators. The mechanical structure was changed due to introduction of dust-like cement and

  13. Investigation of wear land and rate of locally made HSS cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolalu, S. A.; Abioye, A. A.; Dirisu, J. O.; Okokpujie, I. P.; Ajayi, O. O.; Adetunji, O. R.

    2018-04-01

    Production technology and machining are inseparable with cutting operation playing important roles. Investigation of wear land and rate of cutting tool developed locally (C=0.56%) with an HSS cutting tool (C=0.65%) as a control was carried out. Wear rate test was carried out using Rotopol -V and Impact tester. The samples (12) of locally made cutting tools and one (1) sample of a control HSS cutting tool were weighed to get the initial weight and grit was fixed at a point for the sample to revolve at a specific time of 10 mins interval. Approach of macro transfer particles that involved mechanism of abrasion and adhesion which was termed as mechanical wear to handle abrasion adhesion processes was used in developing equation for growth wear at flank. It was observed from the wear test that best minimum wear rate of 1.09 × 10-8 and 2.053 × 10-8 for the tools developed and control were measured. MATLAB was used to simulate the wear land and rate under different conditions. Validated results of both the experimental and modeling showed that cutting speed has effect on wear rate while cutting time has predicted measure on wear land. Both experimental and modeling result showed best performances of tools developed over the control.

  14. Dentifrice fluoride and abrasivity interplay on artificial caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Hani M; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    Incipient caries lesions on smooth surfaces may be subjected to toothbrushing, potentially leading to remineralization and/or abrasive wear. The interplay of dentifrice abrasivity and fluoride on this process is largely unknown and was investigated on three artificially created lesions with different mineral content/distribution. 120 bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 12 groups (n = 10), resulting from the association of (1) lesion type [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC); carboxymethylcellulose solution (CMC); hydroxyethylcellulose gel (HEC)], (2) slurry abrasive level [low (REA 4/ RDA 69); high (REA 7/RDA 208)], and (3) fluoride concentration [0/275 ppm (14.5 mM) F as NaF]. After lesion creation, specimens were brushed in an automated brushing machine with the test slurries (50 strokes 2×/day). Specimens were kept in artificial saliva in between brushings and overnight. Enamel surface loss (SL) was determined by optical profilometry after lesion creation, 1, 3 and 5 days. Two enamel sections (from baseline and post-brushing areas) were obtained and analyzed microradiographically. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 5%). Brushing with high-abrasive slurry caused more SL than brushing with low-abrasive slurry. For MeC and CMC lesions, fluoride had a protective effect on SL from day 3 on. Furthermore, for MeC and CMC, there was a significant mineral gain in the remaining lesions except when brushed with high-abrasive slurries and 0 ppm F. For HEC, a significant mineral gain took place when low-abrasive slurry was used with fluoride. The tested lesions responded differently to the toothbrushing procedures. Both slurry fluoride content and abrasivity directly impacted SL and mineral gain of enamel caries lesions.

  15. Tooth wear

    OpenAIRE

    Tušek Ivan; Tušek Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear is the loss of dental hard tissue that was not caused by decay and represents a common clinical problem of modern man. In the etiology of dental hard tissue lesions there are three dominant mechanisms that may act synergistically or separately:friction (friction), which is caused by abrasion of exogenous, or attrition of endogenous origin, chemical dissolution of dental hard tissues caused by erosion, occlusal stress created by compression and flexion and tension that leads to toot...

  16. Abrasive wear based predictive maintenance for systems operating in sandy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldman, M.; Tinga, T.; Heide, E. van der; Masen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Machines operating in sandy environments are damaged by the abrasive action of sand particles that enter the machine and become entrapped between components and contacting surfaces. In the case of the military services the combination of a sandy environment and the wide range of tasks to be

  17. Effect of Volume Fraction of Particle on Wear Resistance of Al2O3/Steel Composites at Elevated Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Chong-gao; WANG En-ze; GAO Yi-min; XING Jian-dong

    2005-01-01

    Based on previous work,abrasive wear resistance of Al2 O3/steel composites with different Al2 O3 parti cle volume fraction (VOF) at 900 C was investigated.The experimental results showed that a suitable particle VOF is important to protect the metal matrix from wear at elevated temperature.Both too high and too low particle VOF lead to a poor abrasive wear because a bulk matrix is easily worn off by grits when it exceeds the suitable VOF and also because when VOF is low,the Al2O3 particles are easily dug out by grits during wearing as well.When the particle VOF is 39%,the wear resistance of tested composites is excellent.

  18. Wear characteristics of current aesthetic dental restorative CAD/CAM materials: two-body wear, gloss retention, roughness and Martens hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörmann, Werner H; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Ender, Andreas; Sener, Beatrice; Attin, Thomas; Mehl, Albert

    2013-04-01

    This study determined the two-body wear and toothbrushing wear parameters, including gloss and roughness measurements and additionally Martens hardness, of nine aesthetic CAD/CAM materials, one direct resin-based nanocomposite plus that of human enamel as a control group. Two-body wear was investigated in a computer-controlled chewing simulator (1.2 million loadings, 49N at 1.7Hz; 3000 thermocycles 5/50°C). Each of the 11 groups consisted of 12 specimens and 12 enamel antagonists. Quantitative analysis of wear was carried out with a 3D-surface analyser. Gloss and roughness measurements were evaluated using a glossmeter and an inductive surface profilometer before and after abrasive toothbrushing of machine-polished specimens. Additionally Martens hardness was measured. Statistically significant differences were calculated with one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance). Statistically significant differences were found for two-body wear, gloss, surface roughness and hardness. Zirconium dioxide ceramics showed no material wear and low wear of the enamel antagonist. Two-body wear of CAD/CAM-silicate and -lithium disilicate ceramics, -hybrid ceramics and -nanocomposite as well as direct nanocomposite did not differ significantly from that of human enamel. Temporary polymers showed significantly higher material wear than permanent materials. Abrasive toothbrushing significantly reduced gloss and increased roughness of all materials except zirconium dioxide ceramics. Gloss retention was highest with zirconium dioxide ceramics, silicate ceramics, hybrid ceramics and nanocomposites. Temporary polymers showed least gloss retention. Martens hardness differed significantly among ceramics, between ceramics and composites, and between resin composites and acrylic block materials as well. All permanent aesthetic CAD/CAM block materials tested behave similarly or better with respect to two-body wear and toothbrushing wear than human enamel, which is not true for temporary polymer CAD

  19. Friction and wear behavior of glasses and ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Adhesion, friction, and wear behavior of glasses and ionic solids are reviewed. These materials are shown to behave in a manner similar to other solids with respect to adhesion. Their friction characteristics are shown to be sensitive to environmental constituents and surface films. This sensitivity can be related to a reduction in adhesive bonding and the changes in surficial mechanical behavior associated with Rehbinder and Joffe effects. Both friction and wear properties of ionic crystalline solids are highly anisotropic. With metals in contact with ionic solids the fracture strength of the ionic solid and the shear strength in the metal and those properties that determine these will dictate which of the materials undergoes adhesive wear. The chemical activity of the metal plays an important role in the nature and strength of the adhesive interfacial bond that develops between the metal and a glass or ionic solid.

  20. Wear of semi-solid rheocast SiCp/Al metal matrix composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, UA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ). Hardness increases as the volume fractions of SiC increases. Wear rates of the MMCs in the F and T6 heat treatment conditions were assessed with a metallographic preparation machine. It is found that the 11% SiC MMC wear rate is higher on SiC abrasives...

  1. Baking soda as an abrasive in toothpastes: Mechanism of action and safety and effectiveness considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Anderson T; Turssi, Cecilia P

    2017-11-01

    Toothpastes can be formulated with different abrasive systems, depending on their intended clinical application. This formulation potentially affects their effectiveness and safety and, therefore, requires proper understanding. In this article, the authors focused on abrasive aspects of toothpastes containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), which have gained considerable attention because of their low abrasivity and good compatibility, while providing clinical effectiveness (further detailed in the other articles of this special issue). The authors first appraised the role of toothpaste abrasivity on tooth wear, exploring some underlying processes and the existing methods to determine toothpaste abrasivity. The authors reviewed the available data on the abrasivity of toothpastes containing baking soda and reported a summary of findings highlighting the clinical implications. On the basis of the collected evidence, baking soda has an intrinsic low-abrasive nature because of its comparatively lower hardness in relation to enamel and dentin. Baking soda toothpastes also may contain other ingredients, which can increase their stain removal effectiveness and, consequently, abrasivity. Even those formulations have abrasivity well within the safety limit regulatory agencies have established and, therefore, can be considered safe. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multi technical analysis of wear mechanisms in axial piston pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhler, G.; Jourani, A.; Bouvier, S.; Perrochat, J.-M.

    2017-05-01

    Axial piston pumps convert a motor rotation motion into hydraulic or pneumatic power. Their compactness and efficiency of approximately 0.9 make them suitable for actuation applications especially in aeronautics. However, they suffer a limited life due to the wear of their components. In the literature, studies of axial piston pumps deal with contact between its different elements under lubrication conditions. Nevertheless, they are more focused on analytic or numerical approaches. This study consists in an experimental analysis of worn pump components to highlight and understand wear mechanisms. Piston shoes are central components in the axial piston pump since they are involved in three tribological contacts. These three contacts are thereby studied: piston shoes/swashplate, piston shoes/pistons and piston shoes/shoes hold down plate (SHDP). To perform this analysis, helicopter hydraulic pumps after different operating times have been studied. The wear damage mechanisms and wear debris are analysed using SEM observations. 3D surface roughness measurements are then used to characterize worn surfaces. The observations reveal that in the contact between shoes and swashplate, the main wear mechanism is three-body abrasive wear due to coarse carbides removal. Between shoes and pistons, wear occurs in a less severe way and is mainly due to the debris generated in the first contact and conveyed by the lubricating fluid. In the third contact, the debris are also the prime cause of the abrasive wear and the generation of deep craters in the piston shoes.

  3. Comparison of sliding friction and wear behaviour of overhead conveyor steels tested under dry and lubrication conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Regal, G.; Fernandez-Vicente, A.; Martinez, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The sliding friction and wear behaviour of different steel qualities were investigated with and without lubrication conditions. Steel qualities tested are normally used in the overhead conveyor system of many industrial fields, like the automotive sector. Sliding wear tests have been conducted by means of a pin-on-disk machine. A 100Cr6 steel similar to that used within the overhead conveyor trolleys has been employed as a pin. Friction coefficient values obtained under lubrication conditions were three times smaller than those obtained without lubrication. The mechanism that controls wear behaviour under lubrication conditions is an abrasive one and the wear values obtained are almost worthless. On the other hand, mechanism controlling wear during non lubrication tests, was a combination of abrasion and adhesion. (Author) 20 refs

  4. Optimization of pulsed DC PACVD parameters: Toward reducing wear rate of the DLC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mansoureh; Mahboubi, Farzad; Naimi-Jamal, M. Reza

    2016-12-01

    The effect of pulsed direct current (DC) plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) parameters such as temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH4 flow ratio on the wear behavior and wear durability of the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). DLC films were deposited on nitrocarburized AISI 4140 steel. Wear rate and wear durability of the DLC films were examined with the pin-on-disk method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques were used for studying wear mechanisms, chemical structure, and hardness of the DLC films. RSM results show that duty cycle is one of the important parameters that affect the wear rate of the DLC samples. The wear rate of the samples deposited with a duty cycle of >75% decreases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. In contrast, for a duty cycle of <65%, the wear rate increases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. The wear durability of the DLC samples increases with an increase in the duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH4 flow ratio at the deposition temperature between 85 °C and 110 °C. Oxidation, fatigue, abrasive wear, and graphitization are the wear mechanisms observed on the wear scar of the DLC samples deposited with the optimum deposition conditions.

  5. Wear resistance of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  6. Effects of toothbrush hardness on in vitro wear and roughness of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoizumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Junji; Suzuki, Toshimitsu; Kanehira, Masafumi; Finger, Werner J; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2013-11-01

    To investigate and compare the effects of toothbrushes with different hardness on abrasion and surface roughness of composite resins. Toothbrushes (DENT. EX Slimhead II 33, Lion Dental Products Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) marked as soft, medium and hard, were used to brush 10 beam-shaped specimens of each of three composites resins (Venus [VEN], Venus Diamond [VED] and Venus Pearl [VEP]; HeraeusKulzer) with standardized calcium carbonate slurry in a multistation testing machine (2N load, 60 Hz). After each of five cycles with 10k brushing strokes the wear depth and surface roughness of the specimens were determined. After completion of 50k strokes representative samples were inspected by SEM. Data were treated with ANOVA and regression analyses (p composite resins increased linearly with increasing number of brushing cycles (r² > 0.9). Highest wear was recorded for VEN, lowest for VED. Hard brushes produced significantly higher wear on VEN and VEP, whereas no difference in wear by toothbrush type was detected for VED. Significantly highest surface roughness was found on VED specimens (Ra > 1.5 µm), the lowest one on VEN (Ra composite resins produced by toothbrushing with dentifrice depend mainly on the type of restorative resin. Hardness grades of toothbrushes have minor effects only on abrasion and surface roughness of composite resins. No relationship was found between abrasion and surface roughness. The grade of the toothbrush used has minor effect on wear, texture and roughness of the composite resin.

  7. Dental wear, wear rate, and dental disease in the African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart, Alison A

    2010-06-01

    The African apes possess thinner enamel than do other hominoids, and a certain amount of dentin exposure may be advantageous in the processing of tough diets eaten by Gorilla. Dental wear (attrition plus abrasion) that erodes the enamel exposes the underlying dentin and creates additional cutting edges at the dentin-enamel junction. Hypothetically, efficiency of food processing increases with junction formation until an optimal amount is reached, but excessive wear hinders efficient food processing and may lead to sickness, reduced fecundity, and death. Occlusal surfaces of molars and incisors in three populations each of Gorilla and Pan were videotaped and digitized. The quantity of incisal and molar occlusal dental wear and the lengths of dentin-enamel junctions were measured in 220 adult and 31 juvenile gorilla and chimpanzee skulls. Rates of dental wear were calculated in juveniles by scoring the degree of wear between adjacent molars M1 and M2. Differences were compared by principal (major) axis analysis. ANOVAs compared means of wear amounts. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the relationship between molar wear and incidence of dental disease. Results indicate that quantities of wear are significantly greater in permanent incisors and molars and juvenile molars of gorillas compared to chimpanzees. The lengths of dentin-enamel junctions were predominantly suboptimal. Western lowland gorillas have the highest quantities of wear and the most molars with suboptimal wear. The highest rates of wear are seen in Pan paniscus and Pan t. troglodytes, and the lowest rates are found in P.t. schweinfurthii and G. g. graueri. Among gorillas, G. b. beringei have the highest rates but low amounts of wear. Coefficients between wear and dental disease were low, but significant when all teeth were combined. Gorilla teeth are durable, and wear does not lead to mechanical senescence in this sample.

  8. Research on Oxidation Wear Behavior of a New Hot Forging Die Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuanji; Wu, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    Dry sliding tests for the hot forging die steel DM were performed in air under the test temperature at 400-700 °C and the time of 0.5-4 h by a UMT-3 high-temperature wear tester. The wear behavior and characteristics were studied systematically to explore the general characters in severe oxidation conditions. The results showed that a mild-to-severe oxidation wear transition occurred with an increase in the test temperature and duration. The reason was clarified as the unstable M6C carbides coarsening should be responsible for the severe delamination of tribo-oxide layer. More importantly, an intense oxidation wear with lower wear rates was found when the experimental temperature reaches 700 °C or after 4 h of test time at 600 °C, which was closely related to the degradation behavior during wear test. Furthermore, a new schematic diagram of oxidation wear of DM steel was proposed.

  9. CFD Based Erosion Modelling of Abrasive Waterjet Nozzle using Discrete Phase Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin, Naqib Hakim; Prasada Rao, A K; Azhari, Azmir

    2016-01-01

    In Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) machining, the nozzle is the most critical component that influences the performance, precision and economy. Exposure to a high speed jet and abrasives makes it susceptible to wear erosion which requires for frequent replacement. The present works attempts to simulate the erosion of the nozzle wall using computational fluid dynamics. The erosion rate of the nozzle was simulated under different operating conditions. The simulation was carried out in several steps which is flow modelling, particle tracking and erosion rate calculation. Discrete Phase Method (DPM) and K-ε turbulence model was used for the simulation. Result shows that different operating conditions affect the erosion rate as well as the flow interaction of water, air and abrasives. The simulation results correlates well with past work. (paper)

  10. Experimental Study of the Hygrothermal Effect on Wear Behavior of Composite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Fadhel Abbas. Abdulla; Katea L. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The hygrothermal effect on the wear behavior of composite material (fiberglass and polyester resin vf=40%) was investigated experimentally in this work. The study includes manufacturing of test device (pin on disc) according to ASTM G 99. In order to study the hygrothermal effect on wear behavior of composite materials the hygrothermal chamber was manufactured. The experimental results show that the wear of glass fiber/polyester increased with increasing the load, sliding speed and sliding di...

  11. A Comparative Study on Wear Properties of As Cast, Cast Aged and Forge Aged A356 Alloy with Addition of Grain Refiner and/or Modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Mallapur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative wear behavior study of three categories of materials viz, as cast, cast aged (casting followed by T6 and forge aged (forging followed by T6 has been investigated. Neither melt treatment nor solid state processing (like aging and forging seems to be altering the wear behavior of the materials drastically. Cast aged A356 materials exhibit higher wear resistance compared to as cast and forge aged A356 materials. Further, it was observed that cast aged samples register lower coefficient of friction compared to other samples. It is also noted that the difference in wear behavior is revealed only at conditions of higher load, higher speed and longer sliding distance of testing. At lower regimes the difference is marginal. Among cast aged samples, ones treated with combined addition exhibit better wear resistance compared to other materials. Samples treated with combined addition register lowest coefficient of friction followed by samples treated with Sr, those with B, those with Ti and untreated ones. Abrasive wear mechanism is found to be operative in the regime of higher loading and higher velocity of sliding. Adhesive wear mechanism seems to be dominating the wear process at the lower regime of load and velocity of sliding.

  12. Combating wear in bulk solids handling plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    A total of five papers presented at a seminar on problems of wear caused by abrasive effects of materials in bulk handling. Topics of papers cover the designer viewpoint, practical experience from the steel, coal, cement and quarry industries to create an awareness of possible solutions.

  13. Prepolishing on a CNC platform with bound abrasive contour tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeffler, Adrienne E.; Gregg, Leslie L.; Schoen, John M.; Fess, Edward M.; Hakiel, Michael; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2003-05-01

    Deterministic microgrinding (DMG) of optical glasses and ceramics is the commercial manufacturing process of choice to shape glass surfaces prior to final finishing. This process employs rigid bound matrix diamond tooling resulting in surface roughness values of 3-5μm peak to valley and 100-400nm rms, as well as mid-spatial frequency tool marks that require subsequent removal in secondary finishing steps. The ability to pre-polish optical surfaces within the grinding platform would reduce final finishing process times. Bound abrasive contour wheels containing cerium oxide, alumina or zirconia abrasives were constructed with an epoxy matrix. The effects of abrasive type, composition, and erosion promoters were examined for tool hardness (Shore D), and tested with commercial optical glasses in an Optipro CNC grinding platform. Metrology protocols were developed to examine tool wear and subsequent surface roughness. Work is directed to demonstrating effective material removal, improved surface roughness and cutter mark removal.

  14. Wear Behavior of an Unstable Knee: Stabilization via Implant Design?

    OpenAIRE

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background. Wear-related failures and instabilities are frequent failure mechanisms of total knee replacements. High-conforming designs may provide additional stability for the joint. This study analyzes the effects of a ligamentous insufficiency on the stability and the wear behavior of a high-conforming knee design. Methods. Two simulator wear tests were performed on a high-conforming total knee replacement design. In the first, a ligamentous-stable knee replacement with a sacrificed anteri...

  15. Characterization and wear performance of boride phases over tool steel substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar E Vera Cárdenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work was conducted to characterize boride phases, obtained from the powder-pack process, on AISI H13 and D2 steel substrates, and investigate their tribological behavior. The boriding was developed at a temperature of 1273 K with an exposure time of 8 h. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were conducted on the borided material to characterize the presence of the FeB, Fe2B, and CrB phases and the distribution of heavy elements on the surface of the substrates. The adherence of the boride layers was evaluated, in a qualitative form, through the Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C indentation technique. Sliding wear tests were then performed using a reciprocating wear test machine. All tests were conducted in dry conditions at room temperature. A frequency of 10 Hz and 15-mm sliding distance were used. The applied Hertzian pressure was 2.01 GPa. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe and analyze the wear mechanisms. Additionally, the variation of the friction coefficient versus the number of cycles was obtained. Experimental results showed that the characteristic wear mechanism for the borided surface was plastic deformation and mild abrasive wear; for unborided substrates, cracking and spalling were observed.

  16. On the abrasion of heat-treated 2.8C21Cr1Mo white cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rubaie, Kassim S.; Preti, Orlando [Centro Universitario SOCIESC, Joinville (Brazil). Engenharia Mecanica; Pohl, Michael [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe

    2016-09-15

    The abrasion behaviour of heat-treated 2.8C21Cr1Mo cast iron was studied. The specimens were destabilised at two temperatures, 980 and 1050 C, for 4 h, air hardened, and then tempered at five temperatures, 220, 320, 400, 500, and 620 C, for 2 h followed by air cooling. Using a pin-on-plate abrasion apparatus, the specimens were abraded on four types of bonded abrasives (silicon carbide, corundum, flint, and glass). The effect of work hardening on the abrasion resistance was investigated. It was found that the increase in alloy hardness produced by heat treatment had little effect on the abrasion resistance against silicon carbide or corundum; the inverse was true against flint or glass. The as-hardened structure containing 40% retained austenite gave the best abrasion resistance, whereas the hardened and tempered at 620 C showed the worst. Both bulk hardness and matrix hardness before wear correlated poorly with the abrasion resistance. Therefore, a general model ''equivalent hardness'' was developed, in which the hardness of the abraded matrix was considered. With this model, the abrasion behaviour can be clearly analysed.

  17. Wear Resistance of Piston Sleeve Made of Layered Material Structure: MMC A356R, Anti-Abrasion Layer and FGM Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernik Szymon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the numerical analysis of the one of main part of car engine – piston sleeve. The first example is for piston sleeve made of metal matrix composite (MMC A356R. The second improved material structure is layered. Both of them are comparison to the classical structure of piston sleeve made of Cr-Ni stainless steel. The layered material structure contains the anti-abrasion layer at the inner surface of piston sleeve, where the contact and friction is highest, FGM (functionally graded material interface and the layer of virgin material on the outer surface made of A356R. The complex thermo-elastic model with Archard's condition as a wear law is proposed. The piston sleeve is modelling as a thin walled cylindrical axisymmetric shell. The coupled between the formulation of thermo-elasticity of cylindrical axisymmetric shell and the Archard’s law with functionally changes of local hardness is proposed.

  18. THE COURSE IN TESTING THE WEARING OUT OF MUD PUMPS PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Matanović

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Piston and cylinder are such parts in the mud pumps which cause the greatest expences due to the work stoppage of drilling rig. To reduce so caused expences it is necessary to produce spare parts of better quality. In determining the abrasion wear resistance for chosen materials, so called dry sand/rubber wheel abrasion test as an ASTM standard has been used (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Friction and wear of stainless steel, titanium and aluminium with various surface treatments, ion implantation and overlay hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunshah, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with the evaluation of the wear properties of 304 stainless steel, commercial grade titanium and commercial grade aluminium without and with different surface treatments, i.e., ion implantation of boron and nitrogen, and overlay coating of superhard materials, titanium carbide and nitride by the Biased Activated Reactive Evaporation (BARE) process. Wear properties were evaluated in adhesive, erosive and abrasive modes of wear. In the case of adhesive wear, ion implantation resulted in an improved wear behaviour in lubricated conditions but had no beneficial effect in dry wear conditions. Overlay coatings on the other hand resulted in improved wear behaviour for both the dry and lubricating conditions. In the case of erosive wear with SiC particles at high velocities, overlay coatings showed higher erosion rates (typical of brittle materials in normal impingement) whereas ion implanted materials behaved similarly as untreated materials; i.e., a lower wear rate than the specimens with overlay coatings. In the case of abrasive wear, it was again observed that the wear rates of overlay coatings is far lower than the wear rates of untreated or ion implanted materials. (author)

  20. Wear Assessment of Fe-TiC/ZrC Hardfacing Produced from Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corujeira-Gallo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct conversion of oxides into carbides during plasma transferred arc welding is a promising processing route to produce wear resistant overlays at low cost. In the present study, Fe-TiC and Fe-ZrC composite overlays were produced by carbothermic reduction of TiO2 and ZrO2 during plasma transferred arc deposition. The overlays were characterised by optical microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The microstructure consisted of small TiC and ZrC evenly dispersed in a pearlitic matrix. The Vickers microhardness was measured and low-stress abrasion tests were conducted. The results showed increased hardness and promising wear resistance under low-stress abrasion conditions.

  1. WEAR OF THE FRICTION SURFACES PARTS IN THE PRESENSE OF SOLID PARTICLES CONTACTING ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Musaibov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of intensity of wear of details of the cars working in the oil polluted by abrasive particles, depending on mechanical properties of material of details and abrasive particles, their sizes, a form and concentration, loading, temperature of a surface of friction, speed of sliding, quality of lubricant are considered. 

  2. Wear Resistant Thermal Sprayed Composite Coatings Based on Iron Self-Fluxing Alloy and Recycled Cermet Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki SARJAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal spray and WC-Co based coatings are widely used in areas subjected to abrasive wear. Commercial  cermet thermal spray powders for HVOF are relatively expensive. Therefore applying these powders in cost-sensitive areas like mining and agriculture are hindered. Nowadays, the use of cheap iron based self-fluxing alloy powders for thermal spray is limited. The aim of this research was to study properties of composite powders based on self-fluxing alloys and recycled cermets and to examine the properties of thermally sprayed (HVOF coatings from composite powders based on iron self-fluxing alloy and recycled cermet powders (Cr3C2-Ni and WC-Co. To estimate the properties of  recycled cermet powders, the sieving analysis, laser granulometry and morphology were conducted. For deposition of coatings High Velocity Oxy-Fuel spray was used. The structure and composition of powders and coatings were estimated by SEM and XRD methods. Abrasive wear performance of coatings was determined and compared with wear resistance of coatings from commercial powders. The wear resistance of thermal sprayed coatings from self-fluxing alloy and recycled cermet powders at abrasion is comparable with wear resistance of coatings from commercial expensive spray powders and may be an alternative in tribological applications in cost-sensitive areas.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1338

  3. Gear Tooth Wear Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Irebert R.

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-based condition indicators continue to be developed for Health Usage Monitoring of rotorcraft gearboxes. Testing performed at NASA Glenn Research Center have shown correlations between specific condition indicators and specific types of gear wear. To speed up the detection and analysis of gear teeth, an image detection program based on the Viola-Jones algorithm was trained to automatically detect spiral bevel gear wear pitting. The detector was tested using a training set of gear wear pictures and a blind set of gear wear pictures. The detector accuracy for the training set was 75 percent while the accuracy for the blind set was 15 percent. Further improvements on the accuracy of the detector are required but preliminary results have shown its ability to automatically detect gear tooth wear. The trained detector would be used to quickly evaluate a set of gear or pinion pictures for pits, spalls, or abrasive wear. The results could then be used to correlate with vibration or oil debris data. In general, the program could be retrained to detect features of interest from pictures of a component taken over a period of time.

  4. Recent developments in the use of plastic optical fiber for an embedded wear sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Edward I.; Mastro, Stephen A.; Nemarich, Christopher P.; Korczynski, Joseph F., Jr.; Jarrett, Andrew W.; Jones, Wayne C.

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes recent developments of a practical, low cost embedded plastic optical fiber (POF) wear sensor system for the condition based maintenance of external outboard water lubricated bearings aboard U.S. Navy Ships. The benefit of this measurement system over the status quo is the ability to remotely monitor bearing wear. The Embedded Wear Sensor system (Navy invention disclosure #78,570) features a sacrificial wear fiber embedded into the nitrile rubber bearing. This fiber may also act as a conduit for the transmission of pressure and temperature data that may be resolved into alignment data. The authors selected a commercially-off-the- shelf plastic fiber for the sensor because of its material compatibility with the nitrile rubber bearing staves in terms of flexural modulus and wear properties. Presented herein is a description of the system concept, the results of non-linear finite element analysis, market survey of POF, mold studies, small scale prototyping and abrasive wear testing. A description of the sensor concept and the results of the preliminary finite element analysis of the bearing stave geometry are presented. Preliminary results of molding and glue bonding POF in nitrile rubber and then abrasive wear testing indicate that this is a viable concept.

  5. Effect of low temperature annealing on the wear properties of NITINOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukunda, Sriram; Nath S, Narendra; Herbert, Mervin A.; Mukunda, P. G.

    2016-01-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy is a wonder material that is a solution looking for problems. The material finds wide biomedical applications like endodontic files for root canal treatment and cardiovascular stents. This material has rendered the surgical procedure simple compared to that with the existing Stainless Steel (SS) or titanium ones. NiTi as an endodontic file would cause less discomfort to the patients in comparison to that with far stiffer SS or titanium ones. Here nearly equi-atomic 50:50 commercial NiTi rods were subjected to low temperature aging at 300 to 450°C. The wear resistance of the as-received and the heat-treated samples was studied using adhesive wear tests on hardened steel counter face. Abrasive wear tests were run against Alumina disc to simulate the working of endodontic drills and files against dental hard and soft tissues. The abrasive wear resistance is expected to be proportional to the Vickers Hardness of the material and is high for the 450°C heat-treated sample. A correlation between the mechanical properties and microstructures of this material is attempted (paper)

  6. Cleaning, abrasion, and polishing effect of novel perlite toothpaste abrasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to optimize perlite particle size and morphology for better tooth cleaning and lower tooth abrasion, and to evaluate the performance of a whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive for tooth cleaning, abrasion, and polishing. Perlite toothpaste abrasive samples were prepared by air classifying a commercial expanded perlite product. The tooth cleaning and abrasion properties for these classified perlite samples were reported via the pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) and relative dentin abrasion (RDA). Performance of the whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive in tooth cleaning, polishing, and abrasion was evaluated against a widely used synthetic high-cleaning silica. Air classification removes large perlite particles and also physically changes perlite particle morphology from mostly three dimensional and angular particles to mainly two dimensional and platy particles. All the classified samples show good tooth cleaning effect, but tooth abrasion decreases significantly with decreasing particle size. Compared to high-cleaning silica whitening toothpaste, the whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive (PerlClean) is slightly better at tooth cleaning, lower in tooth abrasion, and significantly better at tooth polishing. Fine platy perlite particles are effective in tooth cleaning with low tooth abrasion. The enhanced performance of optimized perlite toothpaste abrasive compared to high-cleaning silica in a whitening toothpaste is attributed to the optimized particle size distribution and the unique platy particle geometry.

  7. Pre-polishing on a CNC platform with bound abrasive contour tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeffer, Adrienne E.

    2003-05-01

    Deterministic micorgrinding (DMG) of optical glasses and ceramics is the commercial manufacturing process of choice to shape glass surfaces prior to final finishing. This process employs rigid bound matrix diamond tooling resulting in surface roughness values of 3-51.tm peak to valley and 100-400nm rms, as well as mid-spatial frequency tool marks that require subsequent removal in secondary finishing steps. The ability to pre-polish optical surfaces within the grinding platform would reduce final finishing process times. Bound abrasive contour wheels containing cerium oxide, alumina or zirconia abrasives were constructed with an epoxy matrix. The effects of abrasive type, composition, and erosion promoters were examined for tool hardness (Shore D), and tested with commercial optical glasses in an OptiproTM CNC grinding platform. Metrology protocols were developed to examine tool wear and subsequent surface roughness. Work is directed to demonstrating effective material removal, improved surface roughness and cutter mark removal.

  8. An in vitro study of dental enamel wear by restorative materials using radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa

    2000-01-01

    There is an increasing demand and interest to study the dental materials wear as well as about the abrasion effect on antagonistic teeth. Due to the fact that the existent restorative materials have no specifications about their abrasiveness, it is necessary the establishment of degrees of comparison among them to support clinical application. In this work, the radiometric method was applied to study the enamel wear caused by another enamel and by restorative materials (Ceramco II, Noritake and Finesse porcelains, Artglass and Targis). The dental enamel made radioactive by irradiation at the IEA-R1m nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux was submitted to wear in a machine which allows sliding motion of an antagonistic surface in contact with this radioactive enamel. The enamel wear was evaluated by measuring beta activity of 32 P transferred to water from this irradiated tooth. Results obtained indicated that dental porcelains cause pronounced enamel wear when compared with that provoked by another enamel or by resin materials. Resin materials caused less enamel wear than another enamel. Vickers microhardness data obtained for antagonistic materials showed a correlation with the wear caused to the enamel. This study allowed to conclude that the radiometric method proposed can be used satisfactorily in the evaluation of enamel wear by restorative materials. This method presents advantages due to quick responses and ease of analyses There is (author)

  9. Creep behavior and wear resistance of Al 5083 based hybrid composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and boron carbide (B{sub 4}C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Ali [Faculty of Materials & Manufacturing Processes, Malek-e-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Alireza, E-mail: alirezaabdollahi1366@gmail.com [Faculty of Materials & Manufacturing Processes, Malek-e-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biukani, Hootan [Faculty of Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-25

    In the current research, aluminum based hybrid composite reinforced with boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was produced by powder metallurgy method. creep behavior, wear resistance, surface roughness, and hardness of the samples were investigated. To prepare the samples, Al 5083 powder was milled with boron carbide particles and carbon nanotubes using planetary ball mill under argon atmosphere with ball-to-powder weight ratio of 10:1 for 5 h. Afterwards, the milled powders were formed by hot press process at 380{sup °}C and then were sintered at 585{sup °}C under argon atmosphere for 2 h. There was shown to be an increase in hardness values of composite with an increase in B{sub 4}C content. The micrograph of worn surfaces indicate a delamination mechanism due to the presence of CNTs and abrasion mechanism in composite containing 10 vol.%B{sub 4}C. Moreover, it was shown that increasing B{sub 4}C content increases the wear resistance by 3 times under a load of 20 N and 10 times under a load of 10 N compared to CNTs-reinforced composite. surface roughness of the composite containing 5 vol.%CNT has shown to be more than other samples. The results of creep test showed that adding carbon nanotubes increases creep rate of Al 5083 alloy; however, adding B{sub 4}C decreases its creep rate. - Highlights: • Al 5083/(CNTs + B{sub 4}C) hybrid composite was produced by powder metallurgy method. • Creep behavior, wear resistance, surface roughness, and Hardness of samples were investigated. • Addition of CNTs to Al 5083 matrix reduces alloy hardness, wear resistance and creep strength. • By addition of B{sub 4}C and composite hybridization, creep strength and wear resistance increased. • Surface roughness of Al-5 vol.%CNT has shown to be more than other samples.

  10. Evolution of metal-metal wear mechanisms in martensitic steel deposits for recharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualco, Agustin; Svoboda, Hernan G; Surian, Estela S; De Vedia, Luis A

    2008-01-01

    This work studied metal recharged by welding with a martensitic steel (Cr, Mn, Mo, V and W alloy), deposited with a metal filled tubular wire on a low carbon steel, using semi-automatic welding with a contributing heat of 2 kJ/mm and under a gaseous protection of Ar-2%CO 2 . Transverse cuts were extracted from the welded sample for microstructural characterization, hardness measurement, determination of chemical composition and wear tests. The microstructural characterization was performed using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The wear tests (metal-metal) were carried out on an Amsler machine in natural flow condition, with 500, 1250 and 2000 N of applied charge. The reference material was SAE 1020 steel. The weight loss curves were determined as a function of the distance run up to 5000 meters for all conditions. Then the test's wear surfaces and debris were analyzed. The microstructure consisted mostly of martensite and a fraction of retained austenite. A pattern of dendritic segregation was observed. The hardness on the wear surface averaged 670 HV 1 . The wear behavior showed a lineal variation between the loss of weight and the distance run, for the different loads applied. The rates of wear for each condition were obtained. The observed wear mechanisms were abrasion and adhesion, with plastic deformation. At low charges, the predominant mechanism was mild oxidative wear and at bigger loads heavy oxidative wear with the presence of zones with adhesion. The oxides formed on the surface of the eroded plate were identified

  11. Impact Fretting Wear Behavior of Alloy 690 Tubes in Dry and Deionized Water Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Bing Cai; Jin-Fang Peng; Hao Qian; Li-Chen Tang; Min-Hao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    The impact fretting wear has largely occurred at nuclear power device induced by the flow-induced vibration,and it will take potential hazards to the service of the equipment.However,the present study focuses on the tangential fretting wear of alloy 690 tubes.Research on impact fretting wear of alloy 690 tubes is limited and the related research is imminent.Therefore,impact fretting wear behavior of alloy 690 tubes against 304 stainless steels is investigated.Deionized water is used to simulate the flow environment of the equipment,and the dry environment is used for comparison.Varied analytical techniques are employed to characterize the wear and tribochemical behavior during impact fretting wear.Characterization results indicate that cracks occur at high impact load in both water and dry equipment;however,the water as a medium can significantly delay the cracking time.The crack propagation behavior shows a jagged shape in the water,but crack extended disorderly in dry equipment because the water changed the stress distribution and retarded the friction heat during the wear process.The SEM and XPS analysis shows that the main failure mechanisms of the tube under impact fretting are fatigue wear and friction oxidation.The effect of medium(water) on fretting wear is revealed,which plays a potential and promising role in the service of nuclear power device and other flow equipments.

  12. Wear mechanisms of Al2O3/TiC/Mo/Ni ceramic wire-drawing dies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jianxin; Yang Xuefeng; Wang Jinghai

    2006-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 /TiC/Mo/Ni ceramic composites were produced by hot-pressing for the use of wire drawing dies. The fundamental properties of these ceramic die materials were examined. Wire drawing tests were carried out on the 65Mn steel wire with these ceramic dies. Finite element method (FEM) was used as a means of numerically evaluating stress and its distribution inside the ceramic drawing dies. Worn bore surfaces of the ceramic drawing dies were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The wear mechanisms of the ceramic drawing dies were investigated. Detailed observations and analyses of the die wear surface have revealed that the most common failure of the ceramic drawing die is the wear at its approach zone. FEM analysis showed that the compressive stresses on both sides of the corners at the approach zone are higher than those of other parts of the ceramic drawing die. Abrasive and adhesive wear were found to be the predominant wear mechanisms through the whole approach zone owing to the greater compressive stresses. Examination of the center bore surface at the die bearing zone of the ceramic drawing dies demonstrated that the wear occurred by light abrasive, no adhesion wear was observed

  13. Selected Properties And Tribological Wear Alloys Co-Cr-Mo And Co-Cr-Mo-W Used In Dental Prosthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustyn-Pieniążek J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work provides the results of the abrasive wear resistance tests performed on Co-Cr-Mo and Co-Cr-Mo-W alloys with the use of the Miller’s apparatus. The analyzed alloys underwent microstructure observations as well as hardness measurements, and the abraded surfaces of the examined materials were observed by means of electron scanning microscopy. The performed examinations made it possible to state that the Co-Cr alloys characterized in a high hardness, whereas the changes in the mass decrement were minimal, which proved a high abrasive wear resistance.

  14. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  15. The effects of retained austenite on dry sliding wear behavior of carburized steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung-Jun [Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technology, Steel Products Dept., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Young-Gak [Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technology, Steel Products Dept., Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    Ring-on-square tests on two kinds of low-alloy carburized steel which were AISI 8620 and 4140 were carried out to study the dry sliding wear behavior. The influence of different retained austenite level of 6% to 40% was evaluated while trying to eliminate other factors. Test results show that the effects of grain size and carburized steel species are negligible in dry sliding wear behavior. While the influence of retained austenite is negligible at 20 kg load condition, wear resistance is decreased at 40 kg load condition as the retained austenite level is increased from 6% to 30%. However, wear resistance is again increased above about 30% of retained austenite level at 40 kg load condition. (orig.)

  16. Wear Behavior of an Unstable Knee: Stabilization via Implant Design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Reinders

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wear-related failures and instabilities are frequent failure mechanisms of total knee replacements. High-conforming designs may provide additional stability for the joint. This study analyzes the effects of a ligamentous insufficiency on the stability and the wear behavior of a high-conforming knee design. Methods. Two simulator wear tests were performed on a high-conforming total knee replacement design. In the first, a ligamentous-stable knee replacement with a sacrificed anterior cruciate ligament was simulated. In the second, a ligamentous-unstable knee with additionally insufficient posterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament was simulated. Wear was determined gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. Implant kinematics was recorded during simulation. Results. Significantly higher wear rates (P≤0.001 were observed for the unstable knee (14.58±0.56 mg/106 cycles compared to the stable knee (7.97 ± 0.87 mg/106 cycles. A higher number of wear particles with only small differences in wear particle characteristics were observed. Under unstable knee conditions, kinematics increased significantly for translations and rotations (P≤0.01. This increase was mainly attributed to higher tibial posterior translation and internal rotations. Conclusion. Higher kinematics under unstable test conditions is a result of insufficient stabilization via implant design. Due to the higher kinematics, increased wear was observed in this study.

  17. Wear Characteristics of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohamed A.; Mohammed, Abdul Samad; Al-Aqeeli, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Metals are extensively used in a variety of applications in the medical field for internal support and biological tissue replacements, such as joint replacements, dental roots, orthopedic fixation, and stents. The metals and alloys that are primarily used in biomedical applications are stainless steels, Co alloys, and Ti alloys. The service period of a metallic biomaterial is determined by its abrasion and wear resistance. A reduction in the wear resistance of the implant results in the release of incompatible metal ions into the body that loosen the implant. In addition, several reactions may occur because of the deposition of wear debris in tissue. Therefore, developing biomaterials with high wear resistance is critical to ensuring a long life for the biomaterial. The aim of this work is to review the current state of knowledge of the wear of metallic biomaterials and how wear is affected by the material properties and conditions in terms of the type of alloys developed and fabrication processes. We also present a brief evaluation of various experimental test techniques and wear characterization techniques that are used to determine the tribological performance of metallic biomaterials.

  18. Corrosive wear. Evaluation of wear and corrosive resistant materials; Noetningskorrosion. Utvaerdering av noetnings- och korrosionsbestaendiga material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H.; Hjertsen, D.; Waara, P.; Prakash, B.; Hardell, J.

    2007-12-15

    With a new purchase of a waste conveyer screw at hand, for the 'A-warehouse' at the combined power and heating plant at E.ON Norrkoeping, the request for improved construction materials was raised. The previous screw required maintenance with very short intervals due to the difficult operation conditions. With the new screw the expectation is to manage 6 months of operation without interruption. The environment for the screw has two main components that sets the demand on the materials, on one hand the corrosive products that comes along and which forms at digestion of the waste and on the other hand the abrasive content in the waste. The term of the mechanism is wear-corrosion and can give considerably higher material loss than the two mechanisms wear and corrosion separately. Combination of a strong corrosive environment together with extensive wear is something that we today have limited knowledge about. The overall objective of the project has been to establish better wear and corrosive resistant construction materials for a waste conveyer screw that will lead to reduced operational disturbance costs. The evaluation has been performed in both controlled laboratory environments and in field tests, which has given us a better understanding of what materials are more suitable in this tough environment and has given us a tool for future predictions of the wear rate of the different material. The new conveyer screw, installed in February 2007 and with which the field test have been performed, has considerably reduced the wear of the construction and the target of 6 month maintenance-free operation is met with this screw for all the evaluated materials. The wear along the screw varies very much and with a clear trend for all the materials to increase towards the feeding direction of the screw. As an example, the wear plate SS2377 (stainless duplex steel) has a useful life at the most affected areas that is calculated to be 1077 days of operation with the

  19. Influence of quartz particles on wear in vertical roller mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lucas R.D.; Friis, Henrik; Fundal, Erling

    2010-01-01

    The standard closed circuit comminution process commonly employed in industrial vertical roller mills has been analyzed to determine the influence of typical abrasive minerals on wear rates. With the main focus on raw mixes used in cement plants, synthetic mixtures imitating were prepared. Using...

  20. Corrosion and wear resistant metallic layers produced by electrochemical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lasse; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    Corrosion and wear-corrosion properties of novel nickel alloy coatings with promising production characteristics have been compared with conventional bulk materials and hard platings. Corrosion properties in neutral and acidic environments have been investigated with electrochemical methods....... Determination of polarisation resistance during 100 hours followed by stepwise anodic polarisation seems to be a promising technique to obtain steady state data on slowly corroding coatings with transient kinetics. A slurry test enables determination of simultaneous corrosion and abrasive wear. Comparison...... of AISI 316, hard chromium and hardened Ni-P shows that there is no universal correlation between surface hardness and wear-corrosion loss. The possible relation between questionable passivity of Ni-P coatings and their high wear-corrosion loss rate compared to hard chromium is discussed....

  1. Particulate matter mass concentrations produced from pavement surface abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullova Dasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest findings particulate matter belong to the most significant pollutants in Europe together with ground-level ozone O3 and nitrogen dioxide NO2. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter. Traffic volume has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and also on the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The paper deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The paper offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  2. Dry sliding wear of Al-Fe-Cr-Mn quasicrystalline phase former alloy obtained by spray forming; Estudo do comportamento ao desgaste de liga Al-Fe-Cr-Mn obtida por conformacao por spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, S.M.T.; Rios, C.T.; Botta Filho, W.J.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Gargarella, P.; Mendes, M.A.B., E-mail: marcio.andreato@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEMUFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Samples from different regions of a spray formed billet of Al{sub 92}Fe{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}Mn{sub 3} quasicrystalline phase former alloy were analyzed and their wear behavior has been studied. The microstructures observed depend on the cooling rate imposed to the material. The border of the billet exhibits a very fine structure with presence of quasicrystalline phase and the base showed a fine structure but without presence of quasicrystalline phase. Dry sliding wear tests were made using three loads and samples of these two different regions. The wear surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Similar wear behavior was observed in the border and the base samples at the same load. The wear mechanism verified is the adhesive and the applied load increases the formation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These particles can take off the surface and act as abrasive, which can explain the large increase in the wear rate for the samples loaded at 30N.(author)

  3. Dental Wear: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Levrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental wear can be differentiated into different types on the basis of morphological and etiological factors. The present research was carried out on twelve extracted human teeth with dental wear (three teeth showing each type of wear: erosion, attrition, abrasion, and abfraction studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The study aimed, through analysis of the macro- and micromorphological features of the lesions (considering the enamel, dentin, enamel prisms, dentinal tubules, and pulp, to clarify the different clinical and diagnostic presentations of dental wear and their possible significance. Our results, which confirm current knowledge, provide a complete overview of the distinctive morphology of each lesion type. It is important to identify the type of dental wear lesion in order to recognize the contributing etiological factors and, consequently, identify other more complex, nondental disorders (such as gastroesophageal reflux, eating disorders. It is clear that each type of lesion has a specific morphology and mechanism, and further clinical studies are needed to clarify the etiological processes, particularly those underlying the onset of abfraction.

  4. Binder extrusion of sliding wear of WC-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen-Basse, J.

    1985-01-01

    It has previously been proposed that preferential removal of the cobalt binder is an important mechanism in the abrasive wear of cemented carbides in the WC-Co family. It is here demonstrated that binder extrusion occurs also in metal-to-metal sliding wear contacts. The wear scar generated by sliding a hardened steel ball repeatedly over a polished WC-Co surface was studied by SEM. The extruded cobalt fragments accumulate by surface defects, such as cracks caused by the sliding loaded ball, and gradual microfragmentation of the carbide grains follows. The energy required to extrude the cobalt and cause the gradual change in surface layer microstructure is provided by the frictional forces

  5. Wear Characteristics of Ceramic Coating Materials by Plasma Spray under the Lubricative Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Ho

    2001-02-01

    This paper is to investigate the wear behaviors of two types of ceramics, Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 , by coated plasma thermal spray method under the lubricative environment. The lubricative environments are grease fluids, a general hydraulic fluids, and bearing fluids. The wear testing machine used a pin on disk type. Wear characteristics, which were friction force, friction coefficient and the specific wear rate, according to the lubricative environments were obtained at the four kinds of load, and the sliding velocity is 0.2m/sec. After the wear experiments, the wear surfaces of the each test specimen were observed by a scanning electronic microscope. The obtained results are as follows. : 1. The friction coefficients of TiO 2 coating materials are 0.11 ∼ 0.16 range and those of Al 2 O 3 are 0.24 ∼ 0.39. The friction coefficient of two coating materials is relative to the hardness of these materials. 2. The friction coefficient of TiO 2 coating materials in three lubricative environments is almost same to each other in spite of changing of applied loads. 3. The friction coefficient of Al 2 O 3 coating materials is more large in low load than high load. And the friction coefficient in grease is more large than a general hydraulic and bearing fluids had almost same friction coefficient. 4. The specific wear rate in TiO 2 is greatly increasing according to change the applied loads, but that in Al 2 O 3 is slightly. And the wear in grease is the least among three lubricating environments. 5. On the wear mechanism by SEM image observation, the wear of Al 2 O 3 is adhesive wear and TiO 3 is abrasive wear

  6. Impact Capacity Reduction in Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers with Surface Abrasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Li, Dan; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2017-10-01

    Railway sleepers (also called ‘railroad tie’ in North America) embedded in ballasted railway tracks are a main part of railway track structures. Its important role is to transfer the loads evenly from the rails to a wider area of ballast bed and to secure rail gauge and enable safe passages of rolling stocks. By nature, railway infrastructure is nonlinear, evidenced by its behaviours, geometry and alignment, wheel-rail contact and operational parameters such as tractive efforts. Based on our critical review, the dynamic behaviour of railway sleepers has not been fully investigated, especially when the sleepers are deteriorated by excessive wears. In fact, the ballast angularity causes differential abrasions on the soffit or bottom surface of sleepers (especially at railseat zone). Furthermore, in sharp curves and rapid gradient change, longitudinal and lateral dynamics of rails increase the likelihood of railseat abrasions in concrete sleepers due to the unbalanced loading conditions. This paper presents a structural capacity of concrete sleepers under dynamic transient loading. The modified compression field theory for ultimate strength design of concrete sleepers under impact loading will be highlighted in this study. The influences of surface abrasions, including surface abrasion and soffit abrasion, on the dynamic behaviour of prestressed concrete sleepers, are firstly highlighted. The outcome of this study will improve the rail maintenance and inspection criteria in order to establish appropriate and sensible remote track condition monitoring network in practice. Moreover, this study will also improve the understanding of the fundamental dynamic behaviour of prestressed concrete sleepers with surface abrasions. The insight into these behaviours will not only improve safety and reliability of railway infrastructure but will enhance the structural safety of other concrete structures.

  7. Dry sliding wear behavior of heat treated hybrid metal matrix composite using Taguchi techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, T.S.; Prasanna Kumar, M.; Basavarajappa, S.; Viswanatha, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZA-27 alloy is used as matrix material and reinforced with SiC and Gr particles. • Heat treatment was carried out for all specimen. • Dry sliding wear test was done on pin-on-disc apparatus by Taguchi technique. • ZA-27/9SiC–3Gr showed superior wear resistance over the base alloy. • Ceramic mixed mechanical layer on contact surface of composite was formed. - Abstract: Dry sliding wear behavior of zinc based alloy and composite reinforced with SiCp (9 wt%) and Gr (3 wt%) fabricated by stir casting method was investigated. Heat treatment (HT) and aging of the specimen were carried out, followed by water quenching. Wear behavior was evaluated using pin on disc apparatus. Taguchi technique was used to estimate the parameters affecting the wear significantly. The effect of HT was that it reduced the microcracks, residual stresses and improved the distribution of microconstituents. The influence of various parameters like applied load, sliding speed and sliding distance on wear behavior was investigated by means and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Further, correlation between the parameters was determined by multiple linear regression equation for each response. It was observed that the applied load significantly influenced the wear volume loss (WVL), followed by sliding speed implying that increase in either applied load or sliding speed increases the WVL. Whereas for composites, sliding distance showed a negative influence on wear indicating that increase in sliding distance reduces WVL due to the presence of reinforcements. The wear mechanism of the worn out specimen was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The analysis shows that the formation and retention of ceramic mixed mechanical layer (CMML) plays a major role in the dry sliding wear resistance

  8. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of FeCoCrNiMo0.2 High Entropy Coatings Prepared by Air Plasma Spray and the High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spray Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchen Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the spherical FeCoCrNiMo0.2 high entropy alloy (HEA powders with a single FCC solid solution structure were prepared by gas atomization. Subsequently, the FeCoCrNiMo0.2 coatings with a different content of oxide inclusions were prepared by air plasma spraying (APS and high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF, respectively. The microstructure, phase composition, mechanical properties, and tribological behaviors of these HEA coatings were investigated. The results showed that both HEA coatings showed a typical lamellar structure with low porosity. Besides the primary FCC phase, a mixture of Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and AB2O4 (A = Fe, Co, Ni, and B = Fe, Cr was identified as the oxide inclusions. The oxide content of the APS coating and HVOF coating was calculated to be 47.0% and 12.7%, respectively. The wear resistance of the APS coating was approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of the HVOF coating. It was mainly attributed to the self-lubricated effect caused by the oxide films. The mass loss of the APS coating was mainly ascribed to the breakaway of the oxide film, while the main wear mechanism of the HVOF coating was the abrasive wear.

  9. Adhesive Wear Performance of CFRP Multilayered Polyester Composites Under Dry/wet Contact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaelan, D.; Yousif, B. F.

    The tribo-performance of a new engineering composite material based on coconut fibers was investigated. In this work, coconut fibers reinforced polyester (CFRP) composites were developed. The tribo-experiments were conducted by using pin-on-disc machine under dry and wet sliding contact condition against smooth stainless steel counterface. Worn surfaces were observed using optical microscope. Friction coefficient and specific wear rate were presented as a function of sliding distance (0-0.6 km) at different sliding velocities (0.1-0.28 m/s). The effect of applied load and sliding velocity was evaluated. The results showed that all test parameters have significant influence on friction and wear characteristics of the composites. Moreover, friction coefficient increased as the normal load and speed increased, the values were about 0.7-0.9 under dry contact condition. Meanwhile, under wet contact condition, there was a great reduction in the friction coefficient, i.e. the values were about 0.1-0.2. Furthermore, the specific wear rates were found to be around 2-4 (10-3) mm3/Nm under dry contact condition and highly reduced under wet condition. In other words, the presence of water as cleaner and polisher assisted to enhance the adhesive wear performance of CFRP by about 10%. The images from optical microscope showed evidence of adhesive wear mode with transition to abrasive wear mode at higher sliding velocities due to third body abrasion. On the other hand, optical images for wet condition showed less adhesive wear and smooth surfaces.

  10. Microstructure and wear behavior of friction stir processed cast hypereutectic aluminum silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rosli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypereutectic as-cast Al-18Si-Cu-Ni alloy was subjected to friction stir processing (FSP. The resultant effect of FSP on the alloy was evaluated by microstructure analysis and wear tests (dry sliding. A significant microstructural modification and enhancement in wear behavior of Al-18Si-Cu-Ni alloy was recorded after friction stir processing. Wear resistance improvement was related to considerable modification in size, morphology and distribution of silicon particles, and hardness improvement. It was found that lower tool rotation speed was more effective to refine silicon particles and in turn increase wear resistance. Minimum Si particle mean area of about 47.8 µm2, and wear rate of 0.0155 mg/m was achieved.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of dentition: methodology and ultrastructural morphology of tooth wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurkin, G V; Almquist, A J; Pfeihofer, A A; Stoddard, E L

    1975-01-01

    Scanning electron micrographs were taken of sets of human molars-those of paleo-Indians used in mastication of, ostensibly, a highly abrasive diet, and those of contemporary Americans. Different ultrastructural patterns of enamel wear were observed between the groups.

  12. Sliding wear and friction behavior of zirconium alloy with heat-treated Inconel718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H., E-mail: kimjhoon@cnu.ac.kr [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.M. [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.K.; Jeon, K.L. [Nuclear Fuel Technology Department, Korea Nuclear Fuel, 1047 Daedukdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    In water-cooled nuclear reactors, the sliding of fuel rod can lead to severe wear and it is an important issue to sustain the structural integrity of nuclear reactor. In the present study, sliding wear behavior of zirconium alloy in dry and water environment using Pin-On-Disk sliding wear tester was investigated. Wear resistance of zirconium alloy against heat-treated Inconel718 pin was examined at room temperature. Sliding wear tests were carried out at different sliding distance, axial load and sliding speed based on ASTM (G99-05). The results of these experiments were verified with specific wear rate and coefficient of friction. The micro-mechanisms responsible for wear in zirconium alloy were identified to be microcutting and microcracking in dry environment. Moreover, micropitting and delamination were observed in water environment.

  13. Wear Characteristics According of Heat Treatment of Si3N4 with Different Amounts of SiO2 Nano-Colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Seok Hwan; Nam, Ki Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study sintered Si 3 N 4 with different amounts of SiO 2 nano-colloid. The surface of a mirror-polished specimen was coated with SiO 2 nano-colloid, and cracks were healed when the specimen was treated at a temperature of 1273 K for 1 h in air. Wear specimen experiments were conducted after heat treatments for 10 min at 1073, 1273, and 1573 K. The heat-treated surface that was coated with the SiO 2 nano-colloid was slightly rougher than the noncoated surface. The oxidation state of the surface according to the heat treatment temperature showed no correlation with the surface roughness. Moreover, the friction coefficient, wear loss, and bending strength were not related to the surface roughness. Si 3 N 4 exhibited an abrasive wear behavior when SKD11 was used as an opponent material. The friction coefficient was proportional to the wear loss, and the bending strength was inversely proportional to the friction coefficient and wear loss. The friction coefficient and wear loss increased with increasing amounts of the SiO 2 nanocolloid. In addition, the friction coefficient was slightly increased by increasing the heat treatment temperature

  14. Single layer and multilayer wear resistant coatings of (Ti,Al)N: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PalDey, S.; Deevi, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of (Ti,Al)N based coatings obtained by various physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques and compare their properties. PVD techniques based on sputtering and cathodic arc methods are widely used to deposit wear resistant (Ti,Al)N coatings. These techniques were further modified to improve the metal ionization rate and to eliminate macrodroplets from plasma streams. We summarize manufacture of target/cathode, substrate materials for deposition of coatings, deposition parameters, and the effect of deposition parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of (Ti,Al)N coatings. It is shown that (Ti,Al)N coatings by PVD enhance the wear, thermal, and oxidation resistance of a wide variety of tool materials. We discuss the wear resistant properties of (Ti,Al)N for various machining applications as compared with coatings such as TiN, Ti(C,N) and (Ti,Zr)N. High hardness (∼28-32 GPa), relatively low residual stress (∼5 GPa), superior oxidation resistance, high hot hardness, and low thermal conductivity make (Ti,Al)N coatings most desirable in dry machining and machining of abrasive alloys at high speeds. Multicomponent coatings based on different metallic and nonmetallic elements combine the benefit of individual components leading to a further refinement of coating properties. Alloying additions such as Cr and Y drastically improve the oxidation resistance, Zr and V improve the wear resistance, whereas, Si increases the hardness and resistance to chemical reactivity of the film. Addition of boron improves the abrasive wear behavior of Ti-Al based coatings due to the formation of TiB 2 and BN phases depending on the deposition conditions. Hafnium based nitrides and carbides have potential for resistance to flank and crater wear. The presence of a large number of interfaces between individual layers of a multilayered structure results in a drastic increase in hardness and strength. (Ti,Al)N multilayer super lattice coatings with lattice

  15. The influence of social networking technologies on female religious veil-wearing behavior in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Shakiba, Abbas; Kwok, Justin; Montazeri, Mohammad Sadegh

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Social networking technologies can influence attitudes, behaviors, and social norms. Research on this topic has been conducted primarily among early adopters of technology and within the United States. However, it is important to evaluate how social media might affect people's behaviors in international settings, especially among countries with longstanding, government recommended, cultural and religious traditions and behaviors, such as Iran. This study seeks to assess whether Iranian women who have been using social networking technologies for a longer time (compared to those who have recently joined) would be less likely to cover themselves with a veil and be more comfortable publicly displaying pictures of this behavior on Facebook. Iranian females (N=253) were selected through snowball sampling from nongovernmental organizations in November 2011 and asked to complete a survey assessing their use of Facebook, concerns about not wearing a veil in Facebook pictures, and their actual likelihood of wearing a veil. Items were combined to measure lack of interest in wearing a veil. Length of time as a Facebook user was significantly associated with not wearing a veil (b=0.16, peducation, and frequency of using Facebook. Results also revealed a significant relationship such that older people were more likely to adhere to the religious behavior of wearing a veil (b=-0.45, ptechnologies can affect attitudes and behaviors internationally. We discuss methods of using social media for self-presentation and expression, as well as the difficulties (and importance) of studying use of technologies, such as social media, internationally.

  16. Combined Corrosion and Wear of Aluminium Alloy 7075-T6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Mol, J.M.C.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aluminium alloy 7075-T6 is widely used in engineering. In some applications, like slurry transport, corrosion and abrasion occur simultaneously, resulting in early material failure. In the present work, we investigated the combined effect of corrosion and wear on the aluminium alloy 7075-T6. We

  17. The Influence of Social Networking Technologies on Female Religious Veil-Wearing Behavior in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Abbas; Kwok, Justin; Montazeri, Mohammad Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Social networking technologies can influence attitudes, behaviors, and social norms. Research on this topic has been conducted primarily among early adopters of technology and within the United States. However, it is important to evaluate how social media might affect people's behaviors in international settings, especially among countries with longstanding, government recommended, cultural and religious traditions and behaviors, such as Iran. This study seeks to assess whether Iranian women who have been using social networking technologies for a longer time (compared to those who have recently joined) would be less likely to cover themselves with a veil and be more comfortable publicly displaying pictures of this behavior on Facebook. Iranian females (N=253) were selected through snowball sampling from nongovernmental organizations in November 2011 and asked to complete a survey assessing their use of Facebook, concerns about not wearing a veil in Facebook pictures, and their actual likelihood of wearing a veil. Items were combined to measure lack of interest in wearing a veil. Length of time as a Facebook user was significantly associated with not wearing a veil (b=0.16, pbehavior of wearing a veil (b=−0.45, pSocial networking technologies can affect attitudes and behaviors internationally. We discuss methods of using social media for self-presentation and expression, as well as the difficulties (and importance) of studying use of technologies, such as social media, internationally. PMID:24611768

  18. Friction and Wear Behavior of Several Hard Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quercia Bianchi, G.; Grigorescu, I.C.; Di Rauso, C.; Contreras, H.; Gutierrez, D.

    2001-01-01

    Sliding friction, abrasion and erosion tests were performed on several materials: cemented carbides, partially stabilized zirconia (Mg–PSZ), electroless Ni–P coatings and SAE 4140 steel as reference material. Sliding friction test was carried out in a pin-on-disk system. A micro-abrasion test was

  19. Evaluation of dry sliding wear behavior of silicon particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhiqiang; Zhang Di; Li Guobin

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the wear property of powder metallurgy aluminum matrix composites 9Si/Al-Cu-Mg. A on rock wear-testing machine is used to evaluate the wear property of the composites, in which a GCrl5 steel ring is used as the counter face material. The wear behavior of the composites under different conditions is studied. The optical microscope and scanning electron microscope are used to analyze the worn surfaces and the subsurface of the composites in order to research the wear mechanism of the composites. Results indicate that the weight loss of the composite were lower than that of the matrix alloy

  20. Assessment of abrasiveness for research of rock cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Labaš

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rock abrasiveness is ability of rock to wear down the working tool during the mutual interaction between the working indentorand the rock in the mechanical rock cutting process. The cutting indentor is worn down during the interaction, which changes itsgeometric dimensions causing the enlargement of a contact area between the tool and the rock surface. The changes in these dimensionsconsequently alter the rate of advance of the drilling machine and the specific cutting energy. We have determined the abrasivenessaccording to the norm ON 44 1121 (1982 on the testing device constructed at the Institute of Geotechnics SAS.

  1. Backside wear in modern total knee designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Prakash; Furman, Bridgette D; Cottrell, Jocelyn M; Wright, Timothy M

    2007-02-01

    Although modularity affords various options to the orthopedic surgeon, these benefits come at a price. The unintended bearing surface between the back surface of the tibial insert and the metallic tray results in micromotion leading to polyethylene wear debris. The objective of this study was to examine the backside wear of tibial inserts from three modern total knee designs with very different locking mechanisms: Insall-Burstein II (IB II), Optetrak, and Advance. A random sample of 71 inserts were obtained from our institution's retrieval collection and examined to assess the extent of wear, depth of wear, and wear damage modes. Patient records were also obtained to determine patient age, body mass index, length of implantation, and reason for revision. Modes of wear damage (abrasion, burnishing, scratching, delamination, third body debris, surface deformation, and pitting) were then scored in each zone from 0 to 3 (0 = 0%, 1 = 0-10%, 2 = 10-50%, and 3 = >50%). The depth of wear was subjectively identified as removal of manufacturing identification markings stamped onto the inferior surface of the polyethylene. Both Advance and IB II polyethylene inserts showed significantly higher scores for backside wear than the Optetrak inserts. All IB II and Advance implants showed evidence of backside wear, whereas 17% (5 out of 30) of the retrieved Optetrak implants had no observable wear. There were no significant differences when comparing the depth of wear score between designs. The locking mechanism greatly affects the propensity for wear and should be considered when choosing a knee implant system.

  2. Plasma immersion ion implantation on 15-5PH stainless steel: influence on fatigue strength and wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, R.; Cioffi, M. O. H.; Voorwald, H. J. C.

    2017-05-01

    Surface improvement in steels is of great interest for applications in industry. The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the axial fatigue strength and wear resistance of 15-5 PH stainless steel. It is well know that electroplated coatings, which are used to improve abrasive wear and corrosion properties, affects negatively the fatigue strength. It is also important to consider requirements to reduce the use of coated materials with electroplated chromium and cadmium, that produce waste, which is harmful to health and environment. The HVOF (High velocity oxygen fuel) process provides hardness, wear strength and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to electroplated chromium. Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used to enhance the hardness, wear, fatigue and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. In the present research the fatigue life increased twice for 15-5 PH three hours PIII treated in comparison to base material. From the abrasive wear tests a lower pin mass reduction was observed, associated to the superficial treatments. The improvement of fatigue and mechanical performance is attributed to a combination of nitrides phase structure and compressive residual stresses during the PIII treatment.

  3. Plasma immersion ion implantation on 15-5PH stainless steel: influence on fatigue strength and wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, R; Cioffi, M O H; Voorwald, H J C

    2017-01-01

    Surface improvement in steels is of great interest for applications in industry. The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the axial fatigue strength and wear resistance of 15-5 PH stainless steel. It is well know that electroplated coatings, which are used to improve abrasive wear and corrosion properties, affects negatively the fatigue strength. It is also important to consider requirements to reduce the use of coated materials with electroplated chromium and cadmium, that produce waste, which is harmful to health and environment. The HVOF (High velocity oxygen fuel) process provides hardness, wear strength and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to electroplated chromium. Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used to enhance the hardness, wear, fatigue and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. In the present research the fatigue life increased twice for 15-5 PH three hours PIII treated in comparison to base material. From the abrasive wear tests a lower pin mass reduction was observed, associated to the superficial treatments. The improvement of fatigue and mechanical performance is attributed to a combination of nitrides phase structure and compressive residual stresses during the PIII treatment. (paper)

  4. The Effects of Rare Earth Pr and Heat Treatment on the Wear Properties of AZ91 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the influences of Pr addition and heat treatment (T6 on the dry sliding wear behavior of AZ91 alloy. The wear rates and friction coefficients were measured by using a pin-on-disc tribometer under loads of 30, 60 and 90 N at dry sliding speeds of 100 rpm, over a sliding time of 15 min. The worn surfaces were examined using a scanning electron microscope and was analyzed with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The experimental results revealed that AZ91-1.0%Pr magnesium alloy exhibited lower wear rate and friction coefficient than the other investigated alloys. As the applied load increased, the wear rate and friction coefficient increased. Compared with the as-cast AZ91-1.0%Pr magnesium alloy, the hardness and wear resistance of the alloy after solution treatment were reduced, and through the subsequent aging, the hardness and wear resistance of the alloy were improved and the hardness was 101.1 HB (compared to as-cast AZ91 magnesium alloy, it increased by 45%. The AZ91-1.0%Pr with T6 magnesium alloy exhibited best wear resistance. Abrasion was dominant at load of 30 N, delamination was dominant at load of 60 N and plastic deformation was dominant at load of 90 N. Oxidation was observed at all loads.

  5. Wear resistance of TiB/sub 2/-Fe cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champagne, B.; Dallaire, S.

    1985-01-01

    A material which consists of TiB/sub 2/ dispersed in an iron matrix was synthesized by the exothermic reaction of ferrotitanium and boron. The as-reacted products were hot isostatically pressed to produce TiB/sub 2/-Fe cermets. The influence of HIP variables on the density and total fractional porosity of specimens is presented. Density above 95% is obtained by HIPping at temperatures below 1300 0 C. Increasing the temperature and the time of HIPping enhance the mechanical properties and wear resistance of TiB/sub 2/-Fe cermets by reducing their residual porosity. Relations obtained by regression analysis showed that the porosity strongly affects the properties of parts. Regression analysis point out that the wear loss of a 5% porosity TiB/sub 2/-Fe cermet is 270% higher than a dense HIPped cermet. Low stress and high stress abrasion resistance tests utilizing various abrasive media were carried out on dense HIPped cermets and results were compared with those obtained from WC-Co cermets and 1020 steel

  6. Disc cutter wear and rock texture in hard rock TBM tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yu; Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Tanimoto, Chikaosa; Nakagawa, Shigeo; Fujita, Naoya

    2008-01-01

    Disc cutter wear in TBM tunneling is caused by initial fragmentation of a solid rock face (the primary fragmentation) and fragmentation of residual rock pieces between a cutterhead and the face (the secondary fragmentation). In two projects through sedimentary and granitic rocks, the authors investigated the relationships between the rate of cutter wear caused by the primary fragmentation, point load index and the grain size and contents of abrasive minerals. As a result, it was found that the tensile strength and the mineral contents of rocks significantly influenced the cutter wear in both projects and thus it is necessary to take into account of rock type. (author)

  7. The inter-relationship between dietary and environmental properties and tooth wear: comparisons of mesowear, molar wear rate, and hypsodonty index of extant Sika deer populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugino Ozaki Kubo

    Full Text Available In reference to the evolutionary trend of increasing cheek tooth height in herbivorous ungulates, the causes of dental abrasion have long been debated. Interspecific comparisons of extant ungulates have revealed that both phytoliths in grass and external abrasive matter may play important roles. Using analysis of extant sika deer living in various environments and showing continuous latitudinal variation in food habits from northern grazing to southern browsing, we quantitatively evaluated the influence of dietary and environmental properties on three dental variables: mesowear score (MS, molar wear rate, and M3 hypsodonty index. We used 547 skulls and 740 mandibles from 16 populations of sika deer to obtain the dental measurements. We found that only graminoid proportion in diet correlated with MS and the molar wear rate, implying that phytoliths in grass abrade dental tissues. In contrast, annual precipitation in habitat was not correlated with any of the dental variables. We also found a significant correlation between the molar wear rate (selective pressure for high-crowned molars and the M3 hypsodonty index of extant sika deer, implying an evolutionary increment in molar height corresponding to the molar wear rate. Our intraspecific comparative analyses provide further support for use of mesowear analysis as a paleodiet estimation method; it not only reveals staple food types (graminoids or dicots but also implies regional or seasonal variation in the diet of the species.

  8. Erosive Wear of Inconel 625 Alloy Coatings Deposited by CMT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solecka M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the investigation results concerning the determination of the characteristics of erosive wear caused by the impact of Al2O3 solid particles on the surface of Inconel 625 alloy after plastic working and the same material after weld cladding process using the CMT method. Erosion wear tests were performed at two temperatures: 20°C and 650°C. The erosion tests were conducted using the standard ASTM G76. A jet with a specified abrasive waight was directed to the surface of the tested material at an α impingement angle varied in the range of 30-90° at a velocity imparted to the abrasive by the medium, which was compressed air. The eroded surface was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, while the depths of craters caused by the erosion tests were measured with an optical profilometer. The predominant mechanisms of the formation of mass losses during solid particle erosion were microcutting and microfissuring.

  9. Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Super Duplex Stainless Steel AISI 2507: a Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davanageri M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The dry sliding wear behavior of heat-treated super duplex stainless steel AISI 2507 was examined by taking pin-on-disc type of wear-test rig. Independent parameters, namely applied load, sliding distance, and sliding speed, influence mainly the wear rate of super duplex stainless steel. The said material was heat treated to a temperature of 850°C for 1 hour followed by water quenching. The heat treatment was carried out to precipitate the secondary sigma phase formation. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of independent parameters set at three factor levels using the L27 orthogonal array of the Taguchi experimental design on the wear rate. Statistical significance of both individual and combined factor effects was determined for specific wear rate. Surface plots were drawn to explain the behavior of independent variables on the measured wear rate. Statistically, the models were validated using the analysis of variance test. Multiple non-linear regression equations were derived for wear rate expressed as non-linear functions of independent variables. Further, the prediction accuracy of the developed regression equation was tested with the actual experiments. The independent parameters responsible for the desired minimum wear rate were determined by using the desirability function approach. The worn-out surface characteristics obtained for the minimum wear rate was examined using the scanning electron microscope. The desired smooth surface was obtained for the determined optimal condition by desirability function approach.

  10. Wear behavior of the surface alloyed AISI 1020 steel with Fe-Nb-B by TIG welding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, B.; Durmaz, M.; Abakay, E.; Sen, U.; Sen, S.

    2015-03-01

    Weld overlay coatings also known as hardfacing is a method which involves melting of the alloys and solidification for applied coatings. Recently hardfacing by welding has become a commonly used technique for improvement of material performance in extreme (high temperature, impact/abrasion, erosion, etc.) conditions.In the present study, the coatings were produced from a mixture of ferrous niobium, ferrous boron and iron powders in the ranges of -45µm particle size with different ratio. Fe12Nb5B3 and Fe2NbBalloys were coated on the AISI 1020 steel surface by TIG welding. The phases formed in the coated layer are Fe2B, NbB2, NbFeB and Fe0,2 Nb0,8 phases. The hardness of the presence phases are changing between 1689±85 HV0.01, and 181±7 HV0.1. Microstructural examinations were realized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The wear and friction behaviors of Fe12Nb5B3 and Fe2NbB realized on the AISI 1020 steel were investigated by the technique of TIG welding by using ball-on-disk arrangement against alumina ball.

  11. Effect of distribution of striated laser hardening tracks on dry sliding wear resistance of biomimetic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Zhou, Ti; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong; Li, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Some biological surfaces were proved to have excellent anti-wear performance. Being inspired, Nd:YAG pulsed laser was used to create striated biomimetic laser hardening tracks on medium carbon steel samples. Dry sliding wear tests biomimetic samples were performed to investigate specific influence of distribution of laser hardening tracks on sliding wear resistance of biomimetic samples. After comparing wear weight loss of biomimetic samples, quenched sample and untreated sample, it can be suggested that the sample covered with dense laser tracks (3.5 mm spacing) has lower wear weight loss than the one covered with sparse laser tracks (4.5 mm spacing); samples distributed with only dense laser tracks or sparse laser tracks (even distribution) were proved to have better wear resistance than samples distributed with both dense and sparse tracks (uneven distribution). Wear mechanisms indicate that laser track and exposed substrate of biomimetic sample can be regarded as hard zone and soft zone respectively. Inconsecutive striated hard regions, on the one hand, can disperse load into small branches, on the other hand, will hinder sliding abrasives during wear. Soft regions with small range are beneficial in consuming mechanical energy and storing lubricative oxides, however, soft zone with large width (>0.5 mm) will be harmful to abrasion resistance of biomimetic sample because damages and material loss are more obvious on surface of soft phase. As for the reason why samples with even distributed bionic laser tracks have better wear resistance, it can be explained by the fact that even distributed laser hardening tracks can inhibit severe worn of local regions, thus sliding process can be more stable and wear extent can be alleviated as well.

  12. Development of in-situ ZrC reinforced iron based composites for wear resistance applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, T.K.; Das, K.

    2002-01-01

    A common objective behind the processing of iron-based composites is to improve the wear resistance of steels by incorporating some reinforcing phases, e.g., carbides and oxides. In the present investigation, iron-based zirconium carbide reinforced composite is produced by the aluminothermic reduction of zircon sand (ZrSiO 4 ) and blue dust (Fe 2 O 3 ) in the presence of carbon. Aluminothermic reduction of blue dust and zircon sand, being highly exothermic in nature, essentially leads to a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) of the Fe-ZrC composite. The as-cast composite is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties of the composite and the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure are evaluated. The composite possess sufficient hardness and promising abrasive wear resistance property. The abrasive wear resistance property of the Fe-ZrC composite is compared with that of a M2 grade tool material and it is found to be better than the tool material. The composite also possess good high temperature stability. (author)

  13. Study of corrosive-erosive wear behaviour of Al6061/albite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.C.; Krishna, M.; Murthy, H.N. Narasimha; Tarachandra, R.; Satyamoorthy, M.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation analyses the influence of dispersed alumina particles on the wear behaviour of the Al/albite composites in a corrosive environment. The composites were prepared by modified pressure die-casting technique. The corrosive-erosive wear experiments were carried out on a proprietary corrosion-erosion wear tester to study the wear characteristics of the composites. The slurry was made up of water and alumina (size: 90-150 μm, proportion: 0-30 wt.%), while H 2 SO 4 (0.01, 0.1 and 1N) was added to create the corrosive conditions. Experiments were arranged to test the relationships among the corrosive-erosive wear rate, concentrations of H 2 SO 4 and alumina in the slurry, weight percent of albite in the composite, erosion speed and distance. Wear rate varies marginally at low speeds but sharply increases at higher speeds. The corrosive wear rate logarithmically increased with the increasing concentration of the corrosive medium. The effect of abrasive particles and corrosion medium on the wear behaviour of the composite is explained experimentally, theoretically and using scanning electron microscopy

  14. Wear Behavior of Woven Roving Aramid / Epoxy Composite under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad A. Khalid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wear behavior studies of aramid woven roving /epoxy composite has been conducted. Sliding the material against smooth steel counter face under dry and  lubricated with oil conditions has been investigated. Powder of Silicon carbide has been mixed with the epoxy resin and tested also. The powder was mixed in a volumetric fraction of 10% with the epoxy resin. Four Laminates of six layers were fabricated by hand lay up  method. A pin on disc apparatus has been fabricated to conduct the sliding wear tests on specimens of (4 mm   4 mm   12 mm in size have been cut from the four laminates. The effect of sliding condition including dry, lubricated, dry with additives and lubricated with additives have been studied. Wear rate tests have been conducted at different sliding speeds and loads. Results show that the wear characteristics are influenced by the operating conditions and the construction of the composite material used. It was also found that the wear of aramid /epoxy composite onto the steel counter face were significantly reduced by using lubricant and additives but still took place.Keywords: Wear, Composite materials, Woven roving aramid, Epoxy, Additives, Lubricant.

  15. Tribological behavior of an austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L nitrurated by DC-pulsed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Las Heras, E; Walther, F; Corengia, P.A; Quinteiro, M.O; Cabo, A; Bruhl, S; Sommadossi, S

    2004-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in different applications because they withstands corrosion. Ionic nitruration has proven to be an adequate technique for modifying this type of steel, in order to improve its resistance to wear without diminishing its resistance to corrosion. While many publications have reported improvements in the tribological properties of the nitrurated AISI 316, systematic studies that evaluate this behavior using industrial equipment for its thermochemical treatment are of interest. This work studied the tribological behavior of an AISI 316L steel nitrurated by DC pulsed plasma in an industrial machine in an atmosphere of 25% N 2 and 75% H 2 for 20 h at 400 o C by means of abrasion tests under different conditions in an A 135 Amsler-disk machine. In order to characterize the abraded samples microhardness, optic and scanning electron microscopy profiles to determine the abrasion mechanisms were performed. The results showed substantial improvement in the abrasion resistance of the nitrurated samples compared to the non nitrurated ones and the different abrasion mechanisms are discussed to explain the test results (CW)

  16. A new mathematical model of the surface degradation causing wear on the cutting tool`s flank land

    OpenAIRE

    Pаlmai, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Having reviewed the extensive literature on the wear of the cutting tool, we chose the theoretical description of flank wear as the subject matter of this paper. Based on the optical electron-optical and morphological studies of the physical characteristics of wear processes we came to the conclusion that the cutting distance need not only be taken into consideration in abrasive, adhesive processes but also in thermally activated diffusion, oxidation processes. Consequently, we propose the ap...

  17. Numerical modelling of tool wear in turning with cemented carbide cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, P.; Estrems, M.; Faura, F.

    2007-04-01

    A numerical model is proposed for analysing the flank and crater wear resulting from the loss of material on cutting tool surface in turning processes due to wear mechanisms of adhesion, abrasion and fracture. By means of this model, the material loss along cutting tool surface can be analysed, and the worn surface shape during the workpiece machining can be determined. The proposed model analyses the gradual degradation of cutting tool during turning operation, and tool wear can be estimated as a function of cutting time. Wear-land width (VB) and crater depth (KT) can be obtained for description of material loss on cutting tool surface, and the effects of the distinct wear mechanisms on surface shape can be studied. The parameters required for the tool wear model are obtained from bibliography and experimental observation for AISI 4340 steel turning with WC-Co cutting tools.

  18. Numerical modelling of tool wear in turning with cemented carbide cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, P.; Estrems, M.; Faura, F.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical model is proposed for analysing the flank and crater wear resulting from the loss of material on cutting tool surface in turning processes due to wear mechanisms of adhesion, abrasion and fracture. By means of this model, the material loss along cutting tool surface can be analysed, and the worn surface shape during the workpiece machining can be determined. The proposed model analyses the gradual degradation of cutting tool during turning operation, and tool wear can be estimated as a function of cutting time. Wear-land width (VB) and crater depth (KT) can be obtained for description of material loss on cutting tool surface, and the effects of the distinct wear mechanisms on surface shape can be studied. The parameters required for the tool wear model are obtained from bibliography and experimental observation for AISI 4340 steel turning with WC-Co cutting tools

  19. Comparison of performance coatings thermally sprayed subject to testing adhesive wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marangoni, G.F.; Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R. da

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microstructural changes and wear resistance adhesive coatings obtained from powders thermally sprayed by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) were evaluated. Based coatings chrome-nickel and tungsten-cobalt are applied in conditions subject to intense wear especially abrasive. With the aim of evaluate the performance of these coatings under conditions of adhesive wear, these coatings samples were tested by the standard ASTM G99. As test parameters were used: Tungsten carbide pin (SAE 52100) with 6 mm diameter, normal load of 50N and a tangential velocity of 0.5 m / s. The worn surfaces of the coatings were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results indicate that the performance front wear is related to the conditions of adhesion and uniformity of the coating applied. (author)

  20. Risk factors for tooth wear lesions among patients attending the dental clinic of a Nigerian Teaching Hospital, Benin City: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeigbemen A Sunny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with tooth wear lesions in patients attending a dental clinic. Context: Tooth wear lesions entail the loss of dental hard tissues in the absence of caries or trauma. They include abrasion, attrition, and erosion. The etiology is often related to habits leading to insidious symptoms with similar presentations in both community and hospital patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved patients attending the outpatient dental clinic of a Nigerian Teaching Hospital over a 3-month period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. Results: A total of 152 respondents aged 17–80 years and above, comprising 86 males (56.6%, and 66 females (43.3% constituted the study population. The Binis were the most represented 34.2%, followed by the Esans 21.1%, while the least represented were the Yorubas (6.6%. The occupations represented in this study include civil servants (30.3%, unskilled workers (23.7%, and non-medical professionals (7.9%. Tooth wear lesions were present in 55.3% of the respondents. Attrition accounted for 29.6%, Abrasion (11.8%, combination of attrition and abrasion (4.6%, and abfraction (2.0%. There was a statistically significant association between tooth wear lesions and age, occupation, sensitivity or pain, tooth cleaning aids, toothbrush texture brushing technique, intake of carbonated beverages, and method of intake. Conclusion: Tooth wear lesions such as attrition and abrasion were prevalent among the respondents in this hospital setting and, therefore, represent an important group of dental problems among this population. It is, therefore, important to direct the appropriate oral health awareness program for the prevention, early detection, and management of these conditions.

  1. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  2. Association between Severity of Tooth Wear and Dentinal Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Ayer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Tooth wear (attrition, abrasion, erosion, and abfraction is perceived globally as ever increasing problem. Several outcome of the tooth wear are hypersensitivity, esthetic problems, functional impairment, annoyance to the patient, and fracture of the tooth. Among these, the measurable and more commonly reported outcome is hypersensitivity to stimuli. Although dentin hypersensitivity is a common clinical condition and is generally reported by the patient after experiencing a sharp, short pain caused by one of the several different external stimuli, it is often inadequately understood. None of the scientific literature available till date attempted to establish the relationship between tooth wear and dentin hypersensitivity which could be a key factor in monitoring those patients.  The aim of the study was to estimate the association between severity of teeth wear and sensitivity in the patients with reported dentinal hypersensitivity.Materials & Methods: Fifty patients with dentin hypersensitivity were investigated for tooth wear. Tooth wear measured using exact tooth wear index and level of sensitivity to stimuli was recorded using a numerical rating scale. Results: Enamel wear at cervical region of teeth showed a positive correlation (p=.010, similarly, dentin wear at cervical region of teeth showed positive correlation and significant association (p<.001 with dentinal hypersensitivity.Conclusion: The observation supports a significant association between severities of tooth surface wear and dentinal hypersensitivity.

  3. Dry sliding wear behavior of epoxy composite reinforced with short palmyra fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswal, Somen; Satapathy, Alok

    2016-01-01

    The present work explores the possibility of using palmyra fiber as a replacement for synthetic fiber in conventional polymer composites for application against wear. An attempt has been made in this work to improve the sliding wear resistance of neat epoxy by reinforcing it with short palmyra fibers (SPF). Epoxy composites with different proportions (0, 4, 8 and 12 wt. %) of SPF are fabricated by conventional hand lay-up technique. Dry sliding wear tests are performed on the composite samples using a pin-on-disc test rig as per ASTM G 99-05 standards under various operating parameters. Design of experiment approach based on Taguchi's L16 Orthogonal Arrays is used for the analysis of the wear. This parametric analysis reveals that the SPF content is the most significant factor affecting the wear process followed by the sliding velocity. The sliding wear behavior of these composites under an extensive range of test conditions is predicted by a model based on the artificial neural network (ANN). A well trained ANN has been used to predict the sliding wear response of epoxy based composites over a wide range. (paper)

  4. Abrasive wear behaviour of Al-Cu-Mg/palm kernel shell ash particulate composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambo Anthony VICTOR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic approach to develop a wear model of Al-Cu-Mg/Palm kernel shell ash particulate composites (PKSAp produced by double stir-casting method. Four factors, five levels, central composite, rotatable design matrix was used to optimize the number of experiments. The factors considered were sliding velocity, sliding distance, normal load and mass fraction of PKSA reinforcement in the matrix. Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to develop the mathematical model. The developed regression model was validated by statistical software MINITAB and statistical tool such as analysis of variance (ANOVA. It was found that the developed regression model could be effectively used to predict the wear rate at 95% confidence level. The regression model indicated that the wear rate of cast Al-Cu-Mg/PKSAp composite decreased with an increase in the mass fraction of PKSA and increased with an increase of the sliding velocity, sliding distance and normal load acting on the composite specimen.

  5. Simplified Abrasion Test Methodology for Candidate EVA Glove Lay-Ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabel, Emily; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, space suit outer-layer fabrics were badly abraded after performing just a few extravehicular activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots that penetrated the outer-layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than 8 hrs of surface operations. Current plans for the exploration planetary space suits require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on a lunar or Martian surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last 40 years and improve on the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo Program. Over the past 25 years the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division has focused on tumble testing as means of simulating wear on the outer layer of the space suit fabric. Most recently, in 2009, testing was performed on 4 different candidate outer layers to gather baseline data for future use in design of planetary space suit outer layers. In support of the High Performance EVA Glove Element of the Next Generation Life Support Project, testing a new configuration was recently attempted in which require 10% of the fabric per replicate of that need in 2009. The smaller fabric samples allowed for reduced per sample cost and flexibility to test small samples from manufacturers without the overhead to have a production run completed. Data collected from this iteration was compared to that taken in 2009 to validate the new test method. In addition the method also evaluated the fabrics and fabric layups used in a prototype thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG) developed for EVA gloves under the NASA High Performance EVA Glove Project. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, results of the validation study, and results of the TMG testing.

  6. Microstructure and wear behavior of austempered high carbon high silicon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Palaksha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the influence of austempering temperature and time on the microstructure and dry sliding wear behavior of high silicon steel was studied. The test specimens were initially austenitised at 900°C for 30 minutes, thereafter austempered at various temperatures 280°C, 360°C and 400°C, for varying duration from 30 to 120 minutes. These samples after austempering heat treatment were subsequently air cooled to room temperature, to generate typical ausferritic microstructures and then correlated with the wear property. The test outcomes demonstrate the slight increase in specific wear rate with increase in both austempering temperature and time. Specific wear rate was found to be minimum at an austempering temperature of 280°C, that exhibits lower bainite microstructure with high hardness, on the other hand specific wear rate was found to be slightly high at increased austempering temperatures at 360°C and 400°C, due to the upper bainite structure that offered lower hardness to the matrix. The sample austempered at 280°C for 30 minutes offered superior wear resistance when compared to other austempering conditions, mainly due to the presence of fine acicular bainitic ferrite along with stabilized retained austenite and also some martensite in the microstructure.

  7. Abrasion Resistance of Nano Silica Modified Roller Compacted Rubbercrete: Cantabro Loss Method and Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Musa; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Shafiq, Nasir

    2018-04-01

    Roller compacted concrete (RCC) when used for pavement is subjected to skidding/rubbing by wheels of moving vehicles, this causes pavement surface to wear out and abrade. Therefore, abrasion resistance is one of the most important properties of concern for RCC pavement. In this study, response surface methodology was used to design, evaluate and analyze the effect of partial replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber, and addition of nano silica on the abrasion resistance of roller compacted rubbercrete (RCR). RCR is the terminology used for RCC pavement where crumb rubber was used as partial replacement to fine aggregate. The Box-Behnken design method was used to develop the mixtures combinations using 10%, 20%, and 30% crumb rubber with 0%, 1%, and 2% nano silica. The Cantabro loss method was used to measure the abrasion resistance. The results showed that the abrasion resistance of RCR decreases with increase in crumb rubber content, and increases with increase in addition of nano silica. The analysis of variance shows that the model developed using response surface methodology (RSM) has a very good degree of correlation, and can be used to predict the abrasion resistance of RCR with a percentage error of 5.44%. The combination of 10.76% crumb rubber and 1.59% nano silica yielded the best combinations of RCR in terms of abrasion resistance of RCR.

  8. Development of a new inexpensive green thermoplastic composite and evaluation of its physico-mechanical and wear properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, Murtuza Ali; Syed, Akheel Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Turmeric spent (TS) incorporated polypropylene (PP) green composites were fabricated. ► Addition of TS into PP matrix improved tensile modulus and flexural properties of composites. ► The water absorption characteristics of composites were determined. ► Wear volume loss and specific wear rate as a function of abrading distance and load were determined. ► Surface morphology of composites was examined using scanning electron microscope. -- Abstract: In the present study an attempt has been made to use turmeric spent (TS) as reinforcing filler to fabricate polypropylene (PP) green composite for load bearing and tribological applications. PP/TS composites were fabricated using varying amounts of TS viz, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% (w/w) by twin screw extrusion method. The fabricated PP green composites were evaluated for physico-mechanical and tribological properties. Experimentally obtained tensile values were compared with theoretically predicted values using different theoretical models. Tensile modulus of composites increased from 1041 to 1771 MPa with the increase in filler addition from 0 to 40 wt.%. Flexural strength and flexural modulus of composites were improved after incorporation of TS into PP matrix. The water absorption characteristics of composites were determined. The effect of abrading distances viz., 150, 300, 450, and 600 m and different loads of 23.54 and 33.54 N at 200 rpm on the abrasive wear behaviour were studied using dry sand/rubber wheel abrasive test rig. The TS filler lowered the abrasion resistance of PP/TS composites. The wear volume loss and specific wear rate as a function of abrading distance and load were determined. The surface morphology of tensile fractured green composites and their worn surface features were examined under scanning electron microscope.

  9. Tool Wear and Life Span Variations in Cold Forming Operations and Their Implications in Microforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders E. W. Jarfors

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to review tooling life span, failure modes and models in cold microforming processes. As there is nearly no information available on tool-life for microforming the starting point was conventional cold forming. In cold forming common failures are (1 over stressing of the tool; (2 abrasive wear; (3 galling or adhesive wear, and (4 fatigue failure. The large variation in tool life observed in production and how to predict this was reviewed as this is important to the viability of microforming based on that the tooling cost takes a higher portion of the part cost. Anisotropic properties of the tool materials affect tool life span and depend on both the as-received and in-service conditions. It was concluded that preconditioning of the tool surface, and coating are important to control wear and fatigue. Properly managed, the detrimental effects from surface particles can be reduced. Under high stress low-cycle fatigue conditions, fatigue failure form internal microstructures and inclusions are common. To improve abrasive wear resistance larger carbides are commonly the solution which will have a negative impact on tooling life as these tend to be the root cause of fatigue failures. This has significant impact on cold microforming.

  10. Tool wear of a single-crystal diamond tool in nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Terano, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    Tool wear characteristics of a diamond tool in ductile mode machining are presented in this paper. Nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate was conducted to examine the tool wear rate of a single-crystal diamond tool. Effects of lubrication on the tool wear rate were also evaluated. A numerical simulation technique was developed to evaluate the tool temperature and normal stress acting on the wear surface. From the simulation results it was found that the tool temperature does not increase during the machining experiment. It is also demonstrated that tool wear is attributed to the abrasive wear mechanism, but the effect of the adhesion wear mechanism is minor in nano-groove machining. It is found that the tool wear rate is reduced by using water or kerosene as a lubricant. (paper)

  11. Sustainable and long-time 'rejuvenation' of biomimetic water-repellent silica coating on polyester fabrics induced by rough mechanical abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Cornelia; Lin, Haisheng; Jiang, Lu; Breedveld, Victor; Hess, Dennis W

    2018-04-15

    The economical use of water-repellent coatings on polymeric materials in commercial and industrial applications is limited by their mechanical wear robustness and long-term durability. In this study, we demonstrate that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric modified with inorganic, methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS)-based coatings shows excellent resistance against various types of wear damage, thereby mimicking superhydrophobic biological materials. These features were facilitated by the rational design of coating processing that also enabled tunable hierarchical surface structure. A series of custom and standard testing protocols revealed that coating-to-substrate adhesion was remarkably high, as was the resistance to various mechanical abradents. The most intriguing characteristic observed during aging and abrasion cycles was the enhancement in non-wettability or 'rejuvenation' reflected by water droplet roll-off behavior, a characteristic of self-cleaning materials. Water-repellent properties of coated polyester were also enhanced by prolonged thermal annealing and were maintained after custom laundry. The developed technology offers opportunities to design low cost, durable and functional textiles for both indoor and outdoor applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermally-treated Pt-coated silicon AFM tips for wear resistance in ferroelectric data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Palacio, Manuel; Kwak, Kwang Joo

    2008-01-01

    In ferroelectric data storage, a conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe with a noble metal coating is placed in contact with a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film. The understanding and improvement of probe tip wear, particularly at high velocities, is needed for high data rate recording. A commercial Pt-coated silicon AFM probe was thermally treated in order to form platinum silicide at the near-surface. Nanoindentation, nanoscratch and wear experiments were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and wear performance at high velocities. The thermally treated tip exhibited lower wear than the untreated tip. The tip wear mechanism is adhesive and abrasive wear with some evidence of impact wear. The enhancement in mechanical properties and wear resistance in the thermally treated film is attributed to silicide formation in the near-surface. Auger electron spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurements confirm the formation of platinum silicide. This study advances the understanding of thin film nanoscale surface interactions

  13. Effect of heat treatment on strength and abrasive wear behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present investigation Al6061–SiCp composites was fabricated by liquid metallurgy route with percentages of SiCp varying from 4 wt% to 10 wt% in steps of 2 ... However, under identical heat treatment conditions, adopted Al6061–SiCp composites exhibited better microhardness and tensile strength reduced wear loss ...

  14. Wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Arsić; Vukić Lazić; Ruzica R. Nikolic; Milan Mutavdžić; Srbislav Aleksandrović; Milan Djordjević

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal, with or without the austenite inter-layer, on parts that operate at different sliding speeds in conditions without lubrication. The samples were hard faced with the filler metal E 10-UM-60-C with high content of C, Cr and W. Used filler metal belongs into group of alloys aimed for reparatory hard facing of parts damaged by abrasive and erosive wear and it is characterized by ...

  15. Effect of nanodiamond on friction and wear behavior of metal dichalcogenides in synthetic oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Ankush; Anand, Ankush

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, experiments were conducted to study the tribological behavior of synthetic oil containing nanodiamond (ND) with molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and tungsten disulphide (WS2) nanoparticles. The experiments were performed in boundary lubrication regime for steel/steel contacts. A ball on disc configuration was used to obtain the frictional characteristics of the lubricating oils at a constant velocity of 0.58 m/s. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were carried out to evaluate the wear behavior of the worn out disc samples. The results obtained from the investigation exhibited an improvement in both wear and friction coefficient. On addition of 0.2% ND in the oil containing MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles, the coefficient of friction (COF) and wear volume decreased around two times in comparison to the PAO oil. The enhancement in overall lubrication behavior is mainly due to the synergism between the MoS2/ND and WS2/ND nanoparticles.

  16. Wear Resistance Increase by Friction Stir Processing for Partial Magnesium Replacement in Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balos, Sebastian; Labus Zlatanovic, Danka; Janjatovic, Petar; Dramicanin, Miroslav; Rajnovic, Dragan; Sidjanin, Leposava

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the influence of friction stir processing (FSP) was evaluated as a way of increasing mechanical properties and a way of replacing the magnesium content in aluminium alloys. FSP was done on AA5754 H111 aluminium alloy, containing 3 % Mg, by using various types of tools and different welding speeds, rotational speeds and tilt angles. Wear test was done against SiC abrasive papers. SiC was used to simulate extreme abrasive wear conditions. The wear test was done on untreated AA5754 specimens, processed AA5754 specimens and untreated AA5083 H111 specimens, the latter containing 4.5 % Mg. AA5083 was chosen as an alternative to AA5754, but with a significantly higher Mg content. Base material microhardness was 60 HV1 and 80 HV1 for AA5754 and AA5083 alloys respectively. To find the effect of FSP on AA5754 alloy, microstructures were studied, mainly grain size in the stir zone. It was found, that an elevated processing and rotational speed, without tilt angle and the tool without a reservoir resulted in an increase in hardness of the AA5754 to 70 HV1, but with the occurrence of tunneling defect and the wear rate of 79.3 mg. Lower FSP parameters and a tilted tool with a reservoir resulted in microhardness of 68 HV1 and wear rate of 68.2 mg without tunneling. These wear values are lower than those obtained with unmodified Al-alloys: AA5754 97.2 mg and AA5083 86.3 mg. An increased wear resistance can be attributed to the combined effect of grain boundary strengthening mechanism and solid solution strengthening, versus only the latter in untreated alloys.

  17. THE CORROSION BEHAVIOR AND WEAR RESISTANCE OF GRAY CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina F. Kadhim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gray cast iron has many applications as pipes , pumps and valve bodies where it has influenced by heat and contact with other solutions . This research has studied the corrosion behavior and Vickers hardness of gray cast iron by immersion in four strong alkaline solutions (NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH2, LiOHwith three concentrations (1%,2%,3% of each solution. Dry sliding wear has carried out before and after the heat treatments (stress relief ,normalizing, hardening and tempering. In this work ,maximum wear strength has obtained at tempered gray cast iron and minimum corrosion rate has obtained in LiOH solution by forming protective white visible oxide layer.

  18. Wear behavior of the surface alloyed AISI 1020 steel with Fe-Nb-B by TIG welding technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilinc, B., E-mail: bkilinc@sakarya.edu.tr; Durmaz, M.; Abakay, E. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Institute of Arts and Sciences, SakaryaUniversity, Esentepe Campus, 54187Sakarya (Turkey); Sen, U.; Sen, S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Sakarya University, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey)

    2015-03-30

    Weld overlay coatings also known as hardfacing is a method which involves melting of the alloys and solidification for applied coatings. Recently hardfacing by welding has become a commonly used technique for improvement of material performance in extreme (high temperature, impact/abrasion, erosion, etc.) conditions.In the present study, the coatings were produced from a mixture of ferrous niobium, ferrous boron and iron powders in the ranges of -45µm particle size with different ratio. Fe{sub 12}Nb{sub 5}B{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}NbBalloys were coated on the AISI 1020 steel surface by TIG welding. The phases formed in the coated layer are Fe{sub 2}B, NbB{sub 2}, NbFeB and Fe0,2 Nb{sub 0,8} phases. The hardness of the presence phases are changing between 1689±85 HV{sub 0.01}, and 181±7 HV{sub 0.1}. Microstructural examinations were realized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The wear and friction behaviors of Fe{sub 12}Nb{sub 5}B{sub 3} and Fe2NbB realized on the AISI 1020 steel were investigated by the technique of TIG welding by using ball-on-disk arrangement against alumina ball.

  19. Mechanical properties and bio-tribological behaviors of novel beta-Zr-type Zr-Al-Fe-Nb alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Nengbin; Chen, Wenzhe; Zhang, Lei; Li, Guanghui; Liao, Zhenlong; Lin, Yan

    2017-07-01

    The present study prepares novel Zr 70+x Al 5 Fe 15-x Nb 10 (x=0, 5) alloys by arc-melting for potential biomedical application. The mechanical properties and bio-tribological behaviors of the Zr-based alloys are evaluated and compared with biomedical pure Zr. The as-prepared alloys exhibit a microstructure containing a micrometer-sized dendritic beta-Zr phase dispersed in a Zr 2 Fe-typed matrix. It is found that increasing the content of Zr is favorable for the mechanical compatibility with a combination of low Young's modulus, large plasticity, and high compressive strength. The wear resistance of the Zr-Al-Fe-Nb alloys in air and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution is superior to that of pure Zr. The wear mechanism of Zr-based alloys sliding in air is controlled by oxidation and abrasive wear whereas that sliding in PBS is controlled by synergistic effects of the abrasive and corrosive wear. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Zr-based alloys are corrosion resistant in PBS. Their bio-corrosion resistance is improved with the increase in Zr content, which is attributed to the enrichment in Zr and decrease in Al concentration in the surface passive film of alloys. The Zr 75 Al 5 Fe 10 Nb 10 exhibits the best corrosion resistance in PBS, which contributes to its superior wear resistance in a simulated body environment. The combination of good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biotribological behaviors of the Zr-Al-Fe-Nb alloys offers them potential advantages in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Rock Properties on Wear of M and SR Grade Rubber with Varying Normal Load and Sliding Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Samir Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubbers are interesting materials and are extensively used in many mining industries for material transportation. Wear of rubber is a very complex phenomenon to understand. The present study aims to explain the influence of rock properties on wear of M and SR grade rubber used in top cover of conveyor belts. Extensive laboratory experiments were conducted under four combinations of normal load and sliding speed. The wear of both the rubber types were analyzed based on the rock properties like shear strength, abrasivity index and fractal dimension. A fully instrumented testing set up was used to study the wear of rubber samples under different operating conditions. In general, wear was higher for M grade rubber compared to SR grade rubber. Increase in shear strength of rocks depicts decreasing trend for the wear of M and SR grade rubber at lower load conditions. Moreover, a higher load combination displays no definite trend in both the rubbers. The strong correlation between the wear of rubber and frictional power for all rubber-rock combinations has given rise to the parameter A, which reflects the relative compatibility between the rubber and rock. Increase of Cerchar’s Abrasivity Index of rocks shows gradual enhancement in wear for M grade rubber in all the load and speed combinations whereas, it fails in SR grade rubber due to its higher strength. The wear of rubber tends to decrease marginally with the surface roughness of rocks at highest normal load and sliding speed in M grade rubber. However, the wear of M and SR grade rubber is influenced by the surface roughness of rocks.

  1. Radioactive wear measurements of cutting tools made of metal in cutting aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frevert, E.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of making quick checkings of the inhomogeneities of turning materials with radioactive wear measurements has been tested. After activation analysis of the long-lived radioisotopes of cutting tools made of hard metal a method for loss-free collection of the turnings has been developed. The detection limit of the abrasion is about 10 -8 g, the measuring times are 5-10 minutes. Special radiation protection measures are not necessary. An analysis of the abrasion showed that at the beginning of cutting the amount of cobalt is 6 times higher than in the normal composition of the used cutting tools. (author)

  2. Friction and wear behavior of Colmonoy and Stellite alloys in sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoh, S.; Mizobuchi, S.; Atsumo, H.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a series of experiments in sodium environment for the research and development of friction and wear resistant material used for the sliding components of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. The study relates to the friction and wear characteristics of nickel-base alloy, Colmonoy, and cobalt-base alloy, Stellite, with respect to temperature, load, sliding velocity, sliding mode, and sodium flushing. The friction behavior of these alloys in sodium is compared with that in argon

  3. Mechanical and wear properties of pre-alloyed molybdenum P/M steels with nickel addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanoglu R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand the effect of nickel addition on mechanical and wear properties of molybdenum and copper alloyed P/M steel. Specimens with three different nickel contents were pressed under 400 MPa and sintered at 1120ºC for 30 minutes then rapidly cooled. Microstructures and mechanical properties (bending strength, hardness and wear properties of the sintered specimens were investigated in detail. Metallographical investigations showed that the microstructures of consolidated specimens consist of tempered martensite, bainite, retained austenite and pores. It is also reported that the amount of pores varies depending on the nickel concentration of the alloys. Hardness of the alloys increases with increasing nickel content. Specimens containing 2% nickel showed minimum pore quantity and maximum wear resistance. The wear mechanism changed from abrasive wear at low nickel content to adhesive wear at higher nickel content.

  4. Effects of Rare Earth Metal Addition on Wear Resistance of Chromium-Molybdenum Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinska J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses changes in the microstructure and abrasive wear resistance of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel modified with rare earth metals (REM. The changes were assessed using scanning microscopy. The wear response was determined in the Miller test to ASTM G75. Abrasion tests were supplemented with the surface profile measurements of non-modified and modified cast steel using a Talysurf CCI optical profilometer. It was demonstrated that the modification substantially affected the microstructure of the alloy, leading to grain size reduction and changed morphology of non-metallic inclusions. The observed changes in the microstructure resulted in a three times higher impact strength (from 33 to 99 kJ/cm2 and more than two times higher resistance to cracking (from 116 to 250 MPa. The following surface parameters were computed: Sa: Arithmetic mean deviation of the surface, Sq: Root-mean-square deviation of the surface, Sp: Maximum height of the peak Sv: Maximum depth of the valley, Sz: Ten Point Average, Ssk: Asymmetry of the surface, Sku: Kurtosis of the surface. The findings also indicated that the addition of rare earth metals had a positive effect on the abrasion behaviour of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel.

  5. Optical tools for high-throughput screening of abrasion resistance of combinatorial libraries of organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Chisholm, Bret J.; Olson, Daniel R.; Brennan, Michael J.; Molaison, Chris A.

    2002-02-01

    Design, validation, and implementation of an optical spectroscopic system for high-throughput analysis of combinatorially developed protective organic coatings are reported. Our approach replaces labor-intensive coating evaluation steps with an automated system that rapidly analyzes 8x6 arrays of coating elements that are deposited on a plastic substrate. Each coating element of the library is 10 mm in diameter and 2 to 5 micrometers thick. Performance of coatings is evaluated with respect to their resistance to wear abrasion because this parameter is one of the primary considerations in end-use applications. Upon testing, the organic coatings undergo changes that are impossible to quantitatively predict using existing knowledge. Coatings are abraded using industry-accepted abrasion test methods at single-or multiple-abrasion conditions, followed by high- throughput analysis of abrasion-induced light scatter. The developed automated system is optimized for the analysis of diffusively scattered light that corresponds to 0 to 30% haze. System precision of 0.1 to 2.5% relative standard deviation provides capability for the reliable ranking of coatings performance. While the system was implemented for high-throughput screening of combinatorially developed organic protective coatings for automotive applications, it can be applied to a variety of other applications where materials ranking can be achieved using optical spectroscopic tools.

  6. The friction and wear of γ-irradiated polytetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briscoe, B.J.; Ni, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The exposure of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to γ radiation significantly reduces the molecular weight but below the gross softening temperature suppresses the overall molecular domain mobility. The shear modulus and creep resistance increase but the toughness is reduced. Data are presented to substantiate these trends and to interpret their influence on the friction and wear of γ-damaged PTFE. The sliding friction on smooth rigid counterfaces increases but the wear in this configuration is decreased. The rate of abrasion on rough rigid counterfaces is increased. There is also an improvement in the ultimate load-bearing capacity. All the changes produced are a function of the exposure but most of the effects are fully manifested by 20 Mrad. The general conclusion is that the extent of the molecular mobility or migration induced by mechanical stresses, imposed in both the interface and the bulk of the polymer, has a critical effect on the friction and wear processes. (Auth.)

  7. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  8. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  9. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsley, M. Brad; Sebright, Jason L.

    2008-11-18

    Wear and corrosion of structures cuts across industries and continues to challenge materials scientists and engineers to develop cost effective solutions. Industries typically seek mature technologies that can be implemented for production with rapid or minimal development and have little appetite for the longer-term materials research and development required to solve complex problems. The collaborative work performed in this project addressed the complexity of this problem in a multi-year program that industries would be reluctant to undertake without government partnership. This effort built upon the prior development of Advanced Abrasion Resistant Materials conduct by Caterpillar Inc. under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41054. In this referenced work, coatings were developed that exhibited significant wear life improvements over standard carburized heat treated steel in abrasive wear applications. The technology used in this referenced work, arc lamp fusing of thermal spray coatings, was one of the primary technical paths in this work effort. In addition to extending the capability of the coating technology to address corrosion issues, additional competitive coating technologies were evaluated to insure that the best technology was developed to meet the goals of the program. From this, plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding was selected as the second primary technology that was investigated. Specifically, this project developed improved, cost effective surfacing materials and processes for wear and corrosion resistance in both sliding and abrasive wear applications. Materials with wear and corrosion performance improvements that are 4 to 5 times greater than heat treated steels were developed. The materials developed were based on low cost material systems utilizing ferrous substrates and stainless steel type matrix with hard particulates formed from borides and carbides. Affordability was assessed against other competing hard surfacing or coating

  10. Fundamental studies on dynamic wear behavior of SBR rubber compounds modified by SBR rubber powder

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Heinrich, Gert; Michael, Hannes; Gehde, Michael; Stocek, Radek; Kratina, Ondrej; Kipscholl, Reinhold; Bunzel, Jörg-Michael; Saal, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is focused on the experimental investigation of dynamic wear behavior of carbon black filled rubber compounds comprising pristine styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) together with incorporated SBR ground rubber (rubber powder). We also analyzed and described quantitatively the service conditions of some dynamically loaded rubber products, which are liable to wear (e.g. conveyor belts, tires). Beside the well-known standard test method to characterize wear resistance at steady...

  11. Metallurgical/Alloy Optimization of High Strength and Wear Resistant Structural Quench and Tempered Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalheim, Douglas G.; Peimao, Fu; Linhao, Gu; Yongqing, Zhang

    Structural steels with yield strength requirements greater or equal to 690 MPa can be produced through controlled recrystallization hot rolling coupled with precipitation strengthening or purposeful heat treatment through quench and tempering (Q&T). High strength structural steel and wear/abrasion resistant requirements greater or equal to 360 Brinell hardness (BHN) are produced by the development of microstructures of tempered lower bainite and/or martensite through the Q&T process. While these Q&T microstructures can produce very high strengths and hardness levels making them ideal for 690 MPa plus yield strength or wear/abrasion resistant applications, they lack toughness/ductility and hence are very brittle and prone to cracking. While tempering the microstructures helps in improving the toughness/ductility and reducing the brittleness, strength and hardness can be sacrificed. In addition, these steels typically consist of alloy designs containing boron with carbon equivalents (CE) greater than 0.50 to achieve the desired microstructures. The higher CE has a negative influence on weldability.

  12. Microstructure and wear of in-situ Ti/(TiN + TiB) hybrid composite layers produced using liquid phase process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, R., E-mail: ryazdi@ut.ac.ir; Kashani-Bozorg, S.F.

    2015-02-15

    Tungsten inert gas (TIG) technique was conducted on commercially pure (CP)-Ti substrate, which was coated with h-BN-based powder mixture prior to the treatment. The treated surfaces were evaluated and characterized by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis, and electron dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The microhardness and wear experiment were also performed by using a microhardness machine and pin-on-disk tribometer. As h-BN reacted with titanium, an in-situ hybrid composite layer was formed showing near stoichiometric dendrites of TiN, platelets of TiB and interdendritic regions of α′-Ti martensite crystal structures. The population level of TiN and TiB regions were found to increase using a pre-placed powder mixture with greater h-BN content. However, the fabricated layers exhibited cracking and porosity; these were minimized by adjusting arc energy density and h-BN content of powder mixture. The microhardness value of the fabricated hybrid composite layers was found to be in the range of ∼650 HV{sub 0.2}–1000 HV{sub 0.2}; this is three to five times higher than that of the untreated CP-Ti substrate. In addition, the in-situ hybrid composite layers exhibited superior wear behavior over CP-Ti substrate; this is attributed to the formation of newly formed ceramic phases in the solidified surface layers and good coherent interface between the composite layer and CP-substrate. Meanwhile, severe adhesive wear mechanism of CP-titanium surface changed to mild abrasive one as a result of surface treatment. - Highlights: • In-situ Ti/(TiN + TiB) hybrid composite layers were synthesized by TIG processing on commercially pure titanium. • The microstructure features were characterized by several methods. • Microhardness enhanced three to five times higher than that of the CP-Ti substrate after surface modification. • The fabricated composite layers improved wear resistance of CP-titanium. • Severe adhesive wear mechanism of

  13. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed AlCoCrFeNiTi High-Entropy Alloy Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li-Hui; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Chuan; Lu, Sheng; Fu, Ming

    2016-12-01

    Due to the advantages such as high strength, high hardness and good wear resistance, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) attracted more and more attentions in recent decades. However, most reports on HEAs were limited to bulk materials. Although a few of studies on atmospheric plasma-sprayed (APS) HEA coatings were carried out, the wear behavior, especially the high-temperature wear behavior of those coatings has not been investigated till now. Therefore, in this study, APS was employed to deposit AlCoCrFeNiTi high-entropy alloy coating using mechanically alloyed AlCoCrFeNiTi powder as the feedstock. The phase structure of the initial powder, the feedstock powder and the as-sprayed coating was examined by an x-ray diffractometer. The surface morphology of the feedstock powder and the microstructure of the as-sprayed coating were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The bonding strength and the microhardness of the as-sprayed coating were tested. The wear behavior of the coating at 25, 500, 700 and 900 °C was investigated by analysis of the wear surface morphology and measurements of the volume wear rate and the coefficient of friction.

  14. Effect of surface oxidation on the nm-scale wear behavior of a metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, A.; Louzguine-Luzguin, D. V.; Sharma, P.; Inoue, A.; Shluger, A.; Fecht, H.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Metallic glasses are good candidates for applications in micromechanical systems. With size reduction of mechanical components into the micrometer and submicrometer range, the native surface oxide layer starts playing an important role in contact mechanical applications of metallic glasses. We use atomic force microscopy to investigate the wear behavior of the Ni 62 Nb 38 metallic glass with a native oxide layer and with an oxide grown after annealing in air. After the annealing, the wear rate is found to have significantly decreased. Also the dependency of the specific wear on the velocity is found to be linear in the case of the as spun sample while it follows a power law in the case of the sample annealed in air. We discuss these results in relation to the friction behavior and properties of the surface oxide layer obtained on the same alloy.

  15. Study on wear resistance of vanadium alloying compacted/vermicular graphite cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoon Woo

    1987-01-01

    Wear resistance of the Compacted/Vermicular graphite cast irons was studied by changing the vanadium content in the cast irons. The results obtained in this work are summarized as follows. 1. When the same amount of vanadium was added to the flake graphite cast iron, spheroidal graphitecast iron and Compacted/Vermicular graphite cast iron, spheroidal graphite cast iron and Compacted/Vermicular graphite cast iron wear resistance decreased in following sequence, that is, flake graphite cast iron> spheroidal graphite cast iron>Compacted/Vermicular graphite cast iron. 2. Addition of vanadium to the Compacted/Vermicular cast iron leaded to a remarkable increase in hardness because it made the amount of pearlite in matrix increase. 3. Addition of vanadium to the compacted/Vermicular graphite cast iron significantly enhanced wear resistance and the maximum resistance was achieved at about 0.36% vanadium. 4. The maximum amount of wear apppeared at sliding speed of about 1.4m/sec and wear mode was considered to be oxidation abrasion from the observation of wear tracks. (Author)

  16. Synthesis CNTs Particle Based Abrasive Media for Abrasive Flow Machining Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sonu; Walia, R.S; Dhull, S.; Murtaza, Q.; Tyagi, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is a modem fine finishing process used for intricate and internal finishing of components or parts. It is based on flowing of viscoelastic abrasive media over the surface to be fine finished. The abrasive media is the important parameter in the AFM process because of its ability to accurately abrade the predefined area along it flow path. In this study, an attempt is made to develop a new abrasive, alumina with Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in viscoelastic medium. CNT s in house produced through chemical vapour deposition technique and characterize through TEM. Performance evaluation of the new abrasive media is carried out by increasing content of CNT s with fixed extrusion pressure, viscosity of media and media flow rate as process parameters and surface finish improvement and material removal as process responses in AFM setup. Significantly improvement has been observed in material removal and maximum improvement of 100% has been observed in the surface finish on the inner cylindrical surface of the cast iron work piece. (paper)

  17. Effect of gallic acid on the wear behavior of early carious enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, S S; Huang, S B; Yu, H Y; Qian, L M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the wear behavior of early carious enamel remineralized with gallic acid. Forty natural human premolar specimens with early caries lesions were prepared. A remineralization pH-cycling treatment agent of 4000 ppm gallic acid was used for 12 days to treat the early lesions. The changes in microhardness were monitored. Nanoscratch tests were used to evaluate wear resistance. The experimental data were analyzed by using a t-test. The widths of traces were measured by an AMBIOS XP-2 stylus profilometer. After remineralization, all samples re-hardened significantly. The coefficients of friction became higher, and the widths of scratches were larger than they were before remineralization. Gallic acid significantly improved the early carious enamel's hardness. The wear damage of the samples treated with gallic acid was more severe than that of the control group. There were more obvious cracks and delaminations on the traces of the treated group. Compared with the control group, the enamel remineralized with gallic acid had inferior wear resistance. After remineralization, the dominant damage mechanisms of early carious enamel had changed from plastic deformation and adhesive wear to a combination of brittle cracks and delamination of enamel.

  18. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  19. CONTROL SYSTEM EVALUATION AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR THE ABRASIVE MACHINING PROCESS ON WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Jackson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous process improvement and automation have proven to be powerful tools for the wood processing industries in order to obtain better final product quality and thus increase profits. Abrasive machining represents an important and relevant process in the manufacturing and processing of wood products, which also implies high cost of materials and labor; therefore, special attention to this process is necessary. The objective of this work was to evaluate and demonstrate a process control system for use in the abrasive machining of wood and wood-based products. A control system was created on LabView® to integrate the monitoring process and the actions required, depending on the abrasive machining process conditions. The system acquires information from the optical sensor to detect loading and activate the cleaning system. The system continuously monitors the condition of the abrasive belt (tool wear by using an acoustic emission sensor and alerts the operator of the status of the belt (green, yellow, and red lights indicating satisfactory, medium, and poor belt condition. The system also incorporates an additional safety device, which helps prevent permanent damage to the belt, equipment, or workpiece by alerting the operator when an excessive temperature has been reached. The process control system proved that automation permits enhancement in the consistency of the belt cleaning technique by the elimination of the human errors. Furthermore, this improvement also affects the cost by extending the life of the belt, which reduces setup time, belt cost, operation cost, as well as others.

  20. Effect of powders refinement on the tribological behavior of Ni-based composite coatings by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lingqian; Zhou Jiansong; Yu Youjun; Guo Chun; Chen Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    NiCr + Cr 3 C 2 + Ag + BaF 2 /CaF 2 composite coatings were produced on stainless steel (1Cr18Ni9Ti) substrates by laser cladding. Corresponding powders were prepared by high-energy ball milling technique. The friction and wear behavior at room temperature was investigated through sliding against the Si 3 N 4 ball. The morphologies of the wear debris, worn surfaces of both samples and the Si 3 N 4 ball were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and three dimensional non-contact surface mapping. Results showed that milling time had a great effect on the size, morphology, uniformity of the powders as well as the microstructure and properties of laser cladding coatings. The wear mechanism of the coatings is dominated by abrasive wear, plastic deformation and slight adhesive wear. The consecutive evolution trend of friction coefficient, wear rate as well as microhardness of the serials of coatings produced with powders of different sizes was presented.

  1. Effect of powders refinement on the tribological behavior of Ni-based composite coatings by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingqian; Zhou, Jiansong; Yu, Youjun; Guo, Chun; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-06-01

    NiCr + Cr3C2 + Ag + BaF2/CaF2 composite coatings were produced on stainless steel (1Cr18Ni9Ti) substrates by laser cladding. Corresponding powders were prepared by high-energy ball milling technique. The friction and wear behavior at room temperature was investigated through sliding against the Si3N4 ball. The morphologies of the wear debris, worn surfaces of both samples and the Si3N4 ball were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and three dimensional non-contact surface mapping. Results showed that milling time had a great effect on the size, morphology, uniformity of the powders as well as the microstructure and properties of laser cladding coatings. The wear mechanism of the coatings is dominated by abrasive wear, plastic deformation and slight adhesive wear. The consecutive evolution trend of friction coefficient, wear rate as well as microhardness of the serials of coatings produced with powders of different sizes was presented.

  2. Tribological behavior of Al-WC nano-composites fabricated by ultrasonic cavitation assisted stir-cast method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arpan; Poria, Suswagata; Sutradhar, Goutam; Sahoo, Prasanta

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of WC nano-particles content on the microstructure, hardness, wear, and friction behavior of aluminum matrix composites are investigated. Al-WC nano composites with varying wt% of WC (0, 1, 1.5, and 2) are fabricated using ultrasonic cavitation assisted stir-cast method. The microstructure of the nano-composite samples is analyzed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Elemental composition is determined by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Vicker’s microhardness test is performed in different locations on the composite sample surface with a load of 50 gf and 10s dwell time. Wear and friction of the composites under dry sliding is studied using a pin-on-disk tribotester for varying normal load (10–40 N) and sliding speed (0.1–0.4 m/s). Uniform distribution of nano-WC is observed over composite surface without noticeable clustering. Reinforcement of nano-WC particles improves wear resistance and frictional behavior of the composite. Hardness is seen to increase with increase in wt% of nano-particles. Wear behavior of composites depends on formation of layers over the surface mixed with oxidized debris and counter-face particles. Wear mechanism changes from adhesion to abrasion with increase in wt% of hard nano particles.

  3. Patterned CoCrMo and Al2 O3 surfaces for reduced free wear debris in artificial joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabolsi, Mohamad; Klassen, Thomas; Mantwill, Frank; Gärtner, Frank; Siegel, Frank; Schulz, Arndt-Peter

    2013-12-01

    Surface wear of corresponding tribological pairings is still a major problem in the application of artificial joint surgery. This study aims at developing wear reduced surfaces to utilize them in total joint arthroplasty. Using a pico-second laser, samples of medical CoCrMo metal alloy and Al2 O3 ceramic were patterned by laser material removal. The subsequent tribological investigations employed a ring-on-disc method. The results showed that those samples with modified surfaces show less mass or volume loss than those with a regular, smooth surface. Using calf serum as lubricating medium, the volume loss of the structured CoCrMo samples was eight times lower than that of regular samples. By structuring Al2 O3 surfaces, the wear volume could be reduced by 4.5 times. The results demonstrate that defined surface channels or pits enable the local sedimentation of wear debris. Thus, the amount of free debris could be reduced. Fewer abrasives in the lubricated so-called three-body-wear between the contact surfaces should result in less surface damage. Apart from direct influences on the wear behavior, less amounts of free debris of artificial joints should also be beneficial for avoiding undesired reactions with the surrounding soft tissues. The results from this study are very promising. Future investigations should involve the use of simulators meeting the natural conditions in the joint and in vivo studies with living organisms. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  4. Investigation on wear behavior of graphite baII under different pneumatic conveying environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhipeng; Zheng Yanhua; Shi Lei; Yu Suyuan

    2014-01-01

    An experimental platform was built in the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) to investigate the wear behavior of the graphite ball under the operational condition of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel handling system. In this experimental platform, a series of experiments were carried out under different pneumatic conveying environments with the graphite balls, which were made of the material same as the fuel element matrix graphite (A3) of the 10 MW high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR-10). The effect of the pneumatic conveying condition on the wear rate of graphite ball has been investigated, and the results include: (1) There is an obvious linear relationship between the wear rate and the feeding velocity of graphite ball elevated in the stainless steel elevating tube, and the wear rate will increase with the increase of the feeding velocity. (2) The wear rate of graphite ball under helium environment is significantly greater than that under air and nitrogen environments, which is caused by the different effects of various gas environments on mechanical properties of graphite. (author)

  5. Wear Resistance of TiC Reinforced Cast Steel Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobula S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wear resistance of TiC-cast steel metal matrix composite has been investigated. Composites were obtained with SHSB method known as SHS synthesis during casting. It has been shown the differences in wear between composite and base cast steel. The Miller slurry machine test were used to determine wear loss of the specimens. The slurry was composed of SiC and water. The worn surface of specimens after test, were studied by SEM. Experimental observation has shown that surface of composite zone is not homogenous and consist the matrix lakes. Microscopic observations revealed the long grooves with SiC particles indented in the base alloy area, and spalling pits in the composite area. Due to the presence of TiC carbides on composite layer, specimens with TiC reinforced cast steel exhibited higher abrasion resistance. The wear of TiC reinforced cast steel mechanism was initially by wearing of soft matrix and in second stage by polishing and spalling of TiC. Summary weight loss after 16hr test was 0,14÷0,23 g for composite specimens and 0,90 g for base steel.

  6. Wear Behavior of Cold Pressed and Sintered Al2O3/TiC/CaF2Al2O3/TiC Laminated Ceramic Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng YANG; Jian CHENG; Peilong SONG; Shouren WANG; Liying YANG; Yanjun WANG; Ken MAO

    2013-01-01

    A novel laminated Al2O3/TiC/CaF2-Al2O3/TiC sandwich ceramic composite was fabricated through cold pressing and sintering to achieve better anti-wear performance,such as low friction coefficient and low wear rate.Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 and Al2O3/TiC composites were alternatively built layer-by-layer to obtain a sandwich structure.Solid lubricant CaF2 was added evenly into the Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 layer to reduce the friction and wear.Al2O3/TiC ceramic was also cold pressed and sintered for comparison.Friction analysis of the two ceramics was then conducted via a wear-and-tear machine.Worn surface and surface compositions were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrum,respectively.Results showed that the laminated Al2O3/TiC/CaF2-Al2O3/TiC sandwich ceramic composite has lower friction coefficient and lower wear rate than those of Al2O3/TiC ceramic alone because of the addition of CaF2 into the laminated Al2O3/TiC/CaF2-Al2O3/TiC sandwich ceramic composite.Under the friction load,the tiny CaF2 particles were scraped from the Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 layer and spread on friction pairs before falling off into micropits.This process formed a smooth,self-lubricating film,which led to better anti-wear properties.Adhesive wear is the main wear mechanism of Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 layer and abrasive wear is the main wear mechanism of Al2O3/TiC layer.

  7. A new approach for assessing the wear resistance of soft ductile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.; Banna, M.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are the most versatile and attractive metallic materials which have been used for many decades in many engineering applications specially in the automobile and airspace industries due to their high strength-to- weight ratio, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, corrosion and wear resistances. Wear is the loss of material from a surface caused by interaction with another material. The main mechanisms of interaction are applied loads and relative motion, which can cause adhesion or/and abrasion, all of which leads to material loss. Therefore, most of the suggested methods, theoretical and empirical, for estimating the wear resistance of material is based on the mass loss, irrespective of the material or type of existing wear. Experimental observations reveal that in some situations, especially for soft and ductile materials, the tested specimen showed little or no mass loss while its dimensions and shape have suffered from plastic deformation which causes more damage than mass loss. Similar phenomenon was observed during electric spot welding of aluminum and zinc coated steels at the area beneath the electrode where plastic deformation takes place, causing increase in area which reduces the current density, will be also discussed in the paper. The amount of the plastic deformation, even when mentioned in some publications, was neglected in assessing wear resistance. In this paper, a model based on the plastic deformation at the worn end together with the mass loss is forwarded and discussed. The model was tested qualitatively using commercially pure aluminum of 99.97% purity in the as supplied condition and in grain refined conditions by some rare earth materials e.g. titanium and titanium plus boron, which are normally used in industry for improving its hardness and mechanical behavior. The wear tests were carried out under different loads and speeds (the main parameters in assessing wear resistance) and the data was used for

  8. Sliding wear of steels (used in polished rods of oil pump jack) against polyurethane; Desgaste de deslizamento de acos (usados em hastes de unidade de bombeio de petroleo) contra poliuretano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Gelsoneide da Silva [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Engenharia de Materiais; Farias, Aline Cristina Mendes; Lima da Silva, Ruthilene Catarina; Medeiros, Joao Telesforo Nobrega [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: gelsoneidegg@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: alineastro@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: ruthilene@ufrnet.br, e-mail: medeirosj2@asme.org

    2008-07-01

    Accelerated sliding tests were carried out in the steels AISI 316, AISI 4140, AISI 1045 coated and AISI 4142 coated, in the dry and lubricated with contaminated oil with 10% SiO{sub 2} conditions. Each cylindrical counterbody with angular generatrix of polyurethane slid against a stationary metallic specimen. The contact pressure changed by increment of normal loads of 10,0 and 2,3 N, velocity of 0,91 m/s and distance of 12 km. The wear rates were calculated through of the mass variation from specimens after each test. The wear morphology was characterized by Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy, where identified damages by abrasion at two and three bodies. The contaminated lubricant increase the wear rate due to action of the abrasive particles. (author)

  9. Effect of vanadium of mechanical behavior, machinability and wear resistance of aluminium grain refined by Ti+B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.; Hamid, A.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    It is well established that aluminum and its alloys are industrially grain refined by adding either Ti or Ti-B to improve their mechanical behavior and surface finish. In a previous paper, it was found that the grain refining efficiency of aluminum master alloys containing Ti or Ti+B was enhanced by addition of small amounts of other elements including vanadium. V. Therefore, it is anticipated that such an element will improve mechanical behavior, machinability and wear resistance of aluminum and its alloys. In this paper, the effect of vanadium addition, up to 0.3% on mechanical behavior is investigated. Machinability was assessed under different cutting conditions: speed, feed and depth of cut and finally the wear resistance was determined at different loads and speeds. The results indicated that improvement in hardness and mechanical strength were achieved by the addition of V that addition of more than 0.2%V resulted in little or no improvement. Similarly, addition of V resulted in improvement of surface quality under the different cutting conditions of speed, feed and depth of cut, and resistance to wear. However addition of more than 0.2% V resulted in increase of wear rate and change of wear mechanisms. (author)

  10. Microstructure and wear resistance of spray-formed supermartensitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zepon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 90's the oil industry has been encouraging the development of corrosion and wear resistant alloys for onshore and offshore pipeline applications. In this context supermartensitic stainless steel was introduced to replace the more expensive duplex stainless steel for tubing applications. Despite the outstanding corrosion resistance of stainless steels, their wear resistance is of concern. Some authors reported obtaining material processed by spray forming, such as ferritic stainless steel, superduplex stainless steel modified with boron, and iron-based amorphous alloys, which presented high wear resistance while maintaining the corrosion performance1,2. The addition of boron to iron-based alloys promotes the formation of hard boride particles (M2B type which improve their wear resistances3-9. This work aimed to study the microstructure and wear resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel modified with 0.3 wt. (% and 0.7 wt. (% processed by spray forming (SF-SMSS 0.3%B and SF-SMSS 0.7%B, respectively. These boron contents were selected in order to improve the wear resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel through the formation of uniformly distributed borides maintaining the characteristics of the corrosion resistant matrix. SF-SMSS 0.7%B presents an abrasive wear resistance considerably higher than spray-formed supermartensitic stainless steel without boron addition (SF-SMSS.

  11. On the tribological behavior of nanoalumina reinforced low alloy sintered steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallahdoost, H.; Khorsand, H.; Eslami-Farsani, R.; Ganjeh, E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel process has done to ameliorate wear resistance. • We examine changes in the level of porosity by adding alumina nanoparticles. • Effect of load on tribological behavior of metal matrix composite has investigated. • By adding alumina nanoparticles, volume loss decrease up to 73%. • Wear mechanisms have studied completely. - Abstract: Powder metallurgy (PM) technique offers progress of new material processing for applications requiring various combinations of properties. Demanding for applying ceramic materials in tribological concept is increasingly growing over last two decades. Unique characteristic of ceramic materials such as low density, high hardness, low thermal expansion, high corrosion and tribological resistance is the rudimentary reason. In this study, different weight percentage of alumina nanoparticles was added to low alloy powder steel (Astaloy 85Mo) as reinforcement agent. Microstructure and tribological behavior of the metal matrix composite has investigated at dry condition and room temperature for different loads by reciprocating tribometer. Sintered specimens possess homogenous microstructure with bainitic and partial ferrite feature in retained austenite matrix. Outcomes show improvement in wear resistance by increasing of alumina nanoparticles containing 3 wt.%, porosity level of 15.38% and micro hardness of 105.4 HV which demonstrates the best wear resistance properties. Tribological behavior of PM steel parts is so complex due to existing pores. Not only do surface pores deteriorate the wear resistant as inherent characteristic but also the properties could enhance at optimum porosity level. An important role of surface porosities which have crucial influence on decreasing wear rate is trapping wear debris causes severe wear. Mixed mode of abrasive, adhesive and oxidation mechanisms were distinguishing according to electron image analysis

  12. Low-Velocity Impact Wear Behavior of Ball-to-Flat Contact Under Constant Kinetic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhang; Cai, Zhen-bing; Chen, Zhi-qiang; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Min-hao

    2017-11-01

    The impact tests were conducted on metallic materials with different bulk hardness and Young's moduli. Analysis of the dynamics response during the tribological process showed that the tested materials had similar energy absorption, where the peak contact force increased as the tests continued. Moreover, wear volume decreased with the increase in Young's modulus of metals, except for Cr with a relatively low hardness. Wear rate was gradually reduced to a steady stage with increasing cycles, which was attributed to the decrease in contact stress and work-hardening effect. The main wear mechanism of impact was characterized by delamination, and the specific surface degradation mechanisms were depending on the mechanical properties of materials. The absorbed energy was used to the propagation of micro-cracks in the subsurface instead of plastic deformation, when resistance of friction wear and plastic behavior was improved. Hence, both the hardness and Young's modulus played important roles in the impact wear of metallic materials.

  13. Influence of Cryogenic Treatments on the Wear Behavior of AISI 420 Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, G.; Tuckart, W. R.

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present work is to characterize the wear behavior of a cryogenically treated low-carbon AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, by means of ball-on-disk tribological tests. Wear tests were performed under a range of applied normal loads and in two different environments, namely a petrolatum bath and an argon atmosphere. Wear tracks were analyzed by both optical and scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy to evaluate wear volume, track geometry, surface features and the tribolayers generated after testing. This paper is an extension of the work originally reported in the VIII Iberian Conference of Tribology (Prieto and Tuckart, in: Ballest Jiménez, Rodríguez Espinosa, Serrano Saurín, Pardilla Arias, Olivares Bermúdez (eds) VIII Iberian conference of tribology, Cartagena, 2015). In this study, it has been experimentally demonstrated that cryogenically treated specimens showed a wear resistance improvement ranging from 35 to 90% compared to conventionally treated ones.

  14. Effect of gallic acid on the wear behavior of early carious enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, S S; Huang, S B; Yu, H Y [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Qian, L M, E-mail: yhyang6812@scu.edu.c [Tribology Research Institute, National Traction Power Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the wear behavior of early carious enamel remineralized with gallic acid. Forty natural human premolar specimens with early caries lesions were prepared. A remineralization pH-cycling treatment agent of 4000 ppm gallic acid was used for 12 days to treat the early lesions. The changes in microhardness were monitored. Nanoscratch tests were used to evaluate wear resistance. The experimental data were analyzed by using a t-test. The widths of traces were measured by an AMBIOS XP-2 stylus profilometer. After remineralization, all samples re-hardened significantly. The coefficients of friction became higher, and the widths of scratches were larger than they were before remineralization. Gallic acid significantly improved the early carious enamel's hardness. The wear damage of the samples treated with gallic acid was more severe than that of the control group. There were more obvious cracks and delaminations on the traces of the treated group. Compared with the control group, the enamel remineralized with gallic acid had inferior wear resistance. After remineralization, the dominant damage mechanisms of early carious enamel had changed from plastic deformation and adhesive wear to a combination of brittle cracks and delamination of enamel.

  15. Wear Mechanism of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Carbide Insert in Orthogonal Cutting Ti-6Al-4V ELI at High Cutting Speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusri, A. I.; Che Hassan, C. H.; Jaharah, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) carbide insert with ISO designation of CCMT 12 04 04 LF, when turning titanium alloys was investigated. There were four layers of coating materials for this insert i.e.TiN-Al2O3-TiCN-TiN. The insert performance was evaluated based on the insert's edge resistant towards the machining parameters used at high cutting speed range of machining Ti-6Al-4V ELI. Detailed study on the wear mechanism at the cutting edge of CVD carbide tools was carried out at cutting speed of 55-95 m/min, feed rate of 0.15-0.35 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.10-0.20 mm. Wear mechanisms such as abrasive and adhesive were observed on the flank face. Crater wear due to diffusion was also observed on the rake race. The abrasive wear occurred more at nose radius and the fracture on tool were found at the feed rate of 0.35 mm/rev and the depth of cut of 0.20 mm. The adhesion wear takes place after the removal of the coating or coating delaminating. Therefore, adhesion or welding of titanium alloy onto the flank and rake faces demonstrates a strong bond at the workpiece-tool interface.

  16. Abrasives and possibilities of increase in efficiency of abrasive waterjets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sitek, Libor; Martinec, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, March 2016 (2016), s. 877-881 ISSN 1805-0476 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high-speed waterjets * abrasive waterjets * abrasives * garnet * zirconia Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.mmscience.eu/content/file/archives/MM_Science_201603.pdf

  17. Microstructure and High-temperature Wear Behavior of Hot-dipped Aluminized Coating on Different Substrate Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU De-qin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aluminized 45 and H13 steel were prepared via hot-dipped aluminizing and subsequently high-temperature diffusion treatment. The phase, morphology and composition of aluminized coating were characterized by XRD,SEM and EDS methods. Comparative study was performed on unlubricated sliding wear behavior of plating under different substrates on a pin-on-disc wear tester, and the wear mechanism was explored. The results show that the coating is composed of ductile phases FeAl and Fe3Al. Kikendall porosity parallel to the surface exists around the interface of the two phases; because of the carbide particles agglomeration, the bond between the coating and H13 steel is apparently inferior to that in the case of 45 steel; the aluminized 45 steel possesses an excellent wear resistance under 50-200N at 400℃, whereas mild-to-severe wear transition occurs when the temperature increases to 600℃. The wear rate of the aluminized H13 steel reaches the lowest at 400℃, then slightly increases at 600℃. The wear mechanisms of Fe-Al coating are mainly predominated by oxidative mild wear, whereas the extrusion wear prevails in the process for aluminized 45 steel at 600℃.

  18. Research on operation mode of abrasive grain during grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T. N.; Dement’ev, V. B.; Nikitina, O. V.

    2018-03-01

    The processing of materials by cutting with an abrasive tool is carried out by means of thousands of grains bonded together as a single whole. The quality of the abrasive tool is defined by cutting properties of abrasive grains and depends on features of spreading the temperature field in time and in the abrasive grain volume. Grains are exposed to heating and cooling during work. It leads to undesired effects such as a decrease of durability of grain retention in the binder, hardness, intensification of diffusion and oxidation processes between the binder and the grain, the occurrence of considerable temperature stresses in the grain itself. The obtained equation which allows calculation of temperature field of grain for one rotation of grinding wheel shows that the temperature of the wheel depends on grinding modes and thermophysical properties of abrasive material. Thus, as the time of contact of grain with processed material increases, the temperature in the cutting area rises. As thermophysical properties increase, the temperature in cutting area decreases. Thermal working conditions are determined to be different from each other depending on contact time of the grain and the material. For example, in case of creep-feed grinding, the peak value of temperature is higher than during multistep grinding; the depth of expansion is greater. While the speed of the thermal process in creep-feed grinding is 2-3 times lower than in multistep grinding, the gradient reduces 3-4 times. The analysis of machining methods shows that creep-feed grinding ensures greater depth of grain heating, a smaller heating rate and a reduced velocity gradient. It causes a decrease of probable allotropic modifications and prevents from occurring of heat strokes - cracking of grains due to high temperature falls. Consequently, it is necessary to employ creep-feed grinding to increase the efficiency of abrasive tool employing. Three operation modes of grinding wheel including blunting, full

  19. Sand Particles Impact on the Tribological Behavior of Sliding Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldajah Saud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lubricant contaminants cause severe problems to machines. Substantial research has been conducted to study the impact of such contaminates on the tribological performance of lubricated contacts. The primary goal of such studies is to find solutions to avoid the dirtiest cause of damaging machines’ parts and to reduce energy consumption and maintenance costs. The current study investigates the tribological behavior of contaminated lubricated contacts; the contaminants considered in this research are sand particles. The effect of the sand particles concentration levels on friction and wear of a tribological system under sliding contact was studied. Three different concentration levels were tested; 5%, 10% and 15%.The experimental program was carried out using an in-house built ball on disc machine at room temperature, constant normal load, constant speed, constant running time and constant travelling distance. Results showed that both friction coefficient and wear volume of the contacting surfaces are dependent on the concentration level of the sand particles. Both friction coefficient and wear volume increased by increasing the sand particles concentration. SEM was utilized to study the wear mechanisms of the contacting surfaces, it was found that the dominant wear mechanism in all cases was abrasive wear.

  20. Investigation of machining damage and tool wear resulting from drilling powder metal aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, H.A. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This report documents the cutting of aluminum powder metallurgy (PM) parts for the North Carolina Manufacturing Extension Partnership. The parts, an aluminum powder metal formulation, were supplied by Sinter Metals Inc., of Conover, North Carolina. The intended use of the alloy is for automotive components. Machining tests were conducted at Y-12 in the machine shop of the Skills Demonstration Center in Building 9737. Testing was done on June 2 and June 3, 1997. The powder metal alloy tested is very abrasive and tends to wear craters and produce erosion effects on the chip washed face of the drills used. It also resulted in huge amounts of flank wear and degraded performance on the part of most drills. Anti-wear coatings on drills seemed to have an effect. Drills with the coating showed less wear for the same amount of cutting. The usefulness of coolants and lubricants in reducing tool wear and chipping/breakout was not investigated.

  1. Three-dimensional in vitro measurements of tooth wear using fluoridated dentifrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mashhadani, A; Plygkos, I; Bozec, L; Rodriguez, J M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare differences in wear of human enamel and dentine in vitro using a 3D measurement method comparing silica versus non-silica containing fluoridated dentifrices (Colgate Total(™) [CT] or Fluor Protector Gel(™) [FPG]). Mounted native enamel (n = 36) and polished dentine (n = 36) samples were subjected to 10 wear cycles. Each cycle consisted of: (1) 1 hour remineralization in artificial saliva (AS); (2) 10 minute erosion (0.3% citric acid; pH = 2.8); (3) 2 minute toothbrush abrasion in AS (G1, control) or a slurry of 3:1 by weight of AS:dentifrice (G2 = CT; G3 = FPG) under a load of 2 N. Each group contained 12 enamel and 12 dentine samples. Paired pre- and post-wear scans made with a contacting scanner were digitally superimposed using ball bearings as datum. Mean and (SD) enamel wear was G1 = 21.9 μm (6.4); G2 = 15.2 μm (2.8); G3 = 16.9 μm (3.2). Enamel wear was not different between dentifrices (p = 0.99). Both dentifrices resulted in less enamel wear compared to the control (p Dental Association.

  2. Wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Arsić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal, with or without the austenite inter-layer, on parts that operate at different sliding speeds in conditions without lubrication. The samples were hard faced with the filler metal E 10-UM-60-C with high content of C, Cr and W. Used filler metal belongs into group of alloys aimed for reparatory hard facing of parts damaged by abrasive and erosive wear and it is characterized by high hardness and wear resistance. In experiments, the sliding speed and the normal loading were varied and the wear scar was monitored, based on which the volume of the worn material was calculated analytically. The contact duration time was monitored over the sliding path of 300 mm. The most intensive wear was established for the loading force of 100 N and the sliding speed of 1 m.s-1, though the significant wear was also noticed in conditions of the small loading and speed of 0.25 m.s-1, which was even greater that at larger speeds.

  3. Thermal Conductivity and Wear Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed Fe-Based Amorphous Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Yao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To protect aluminum parts in vehicle engines, metal-based thermal barrier coatings in the form of Fe59Cr12Nb5B20Si4 amorphous coatings were prepared by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF spraying under two different conditions. The microstructure, thermal transport behavior, and wear behavior of the coatings were characterized simultaneously. As a result, this alloy shows high process robustness during spraying. Both Fe-based coatings present dense, layered structure with porosities below 0.9%. Due to higher amorphous phase content, the coating H-1 exhibits a relatively low thermal conductivity, reaching 2.66 W/(m·K, two times lower than the reference stainless steel coating (5.85 W/(m·K, indicating a good thermal barrier property. Meanwhile, the thermal diffusivity of amorphous coatings display a limited increase with temperature up to 500 °C, which guarantees a steady and wide usage on aluminum alloy. Furthermore, the amorphous coating shows better wear resistance compared to high carbon martensitic GCr15 steel at different temperatures. The increased temperature accelerating the tribological reaction, leads to the friction coefficient and wear rate of coating increasing at 200 °C and decreasing at 400 °C.

  4. THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS ON DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOR AND SUBSURFACE OF AGED HYBRID METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES USING TAGUCHI TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Viswanatha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of applied load, sliding speed and sliding distance on the dry sliding wear behavior of aged Al-SiCp-Gr composites were investigated. The specimen were fabricated by stir-casting technique. The pin-on-disc wear testing machine was used to investigate the wear rate by design of experiments based on L27 using Taguchi technique. Sliding distance was the most important variable that influenced the wear rate followed by sliding speed and applied load. The worn out surfaces were analyzed by SEM and EDS to study the subsurface mechanism of wear. The addition of reinforcements showed improved tribological behavior of the composite than base alloy.

  5. Abrasive Wear of AlSi12-Al2O3 Composite Materials Manufactured by Pressure Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremzer M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate tribological properties of EN AC-AlSi12 alloy composite materials matrix manufactured by pressure infiltration of Al2O3 porous preforms. In the paper, a technique of manufacturing composite materials was described in detail as well as wear resistance made on pin on disc was tested. Metallographic observations of wear traces of tested materials using stereoscopic and confocal microscopy were made. Studies allow concluding that obtained composite materials have much better wear resistance than the matrix alloy AlSi12. It was further proved that the developed technology of their preparation consisting of pressure infiltration of porous ceramic preforms can find a practical application.

  6. Improvement of finishing antifriction treatment without abrasive of the rubbing parts surfaces of agricultural machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shepelenk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wear of machines and mechanisms after rubbing is a major concern. The costs of manufacturing and restoration parts for agricultural machinery are enormous such as the trunnions pinions of hydraulic pumps. Finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive (FTAA is the existing method of manufacturing and restoration, but it has disadvantages like low work efficiency and the frequent replacement of the instrument. That is why a new method of FTAA parts type ''tree'' has been developed called vibratory finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive, (VFTAA method. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the State Technical University of Kirovograd (Ukraine where turn 16K20, the profilograph-profilometer "Talysurf-5", the scanning electron microscope REM-106I, friction machine MI-1M and the stand KI-28097-02M were used respectively for machining, study of micro relief before and after the VFTAA, microstructure, wear resistance and the determination of the break-in period of parts. The results showed that the VFTAA helped reduce the roughness Ra of the samples studied by half compared to the samples processed by polishing and 1.3 times compared to those treated with the FTAA, the break-in period has been reduced four times , this leads to an increase in the life of the hydraulic pump. This technology can be recommended for manufacturing and repair of hydraulic units of agricultural machineries.

  7. Microstructural study and wear behavior of ductile iron surface alloyed by Inconel 617

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi Jeshvaghani, R.; Jaberzadeh, M.; Zohdi, H.; Shamanian, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ni-base alloy was deposited on the surface of ductile iron by TIG welding process. • Microstructure of alloyed layer consisted of carbides embedded in Ni-rich dendrite. • Hardness and wear resistance of coated sample greatly improved. • The formation of oxide layer and delamination were dominant mechanisms of wear. - Abstract: In this research, microstructure and wear behavior of Ni-based alloy is discussed in detail. Using tungsten inert gas welding process, coating of nearly 1–2 mm thickness was deposited on ductile iron. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, as well as X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe microanalysis were used to characterize the microstructure of the surface alloyed layer. Micro-hardness and wear resistance of the alloyed layer was also studied. Results showed that the microstructure of the alloyed layer consisted of M 23 C 6 carbides embedded in Ni-rich solid solution dendrites. The partial melted zone (PMZ) had eutectic ledeburit plus martensite microstructure, while the heat affected zone (HAZ) had only a martensite structure. It was also noticed that hardness and wear resistance of the alloyed layer was considerably higher than that of the substrate. Improvement of wear resistance is attributed to the solution strengthening effect of alloying elements and also the presence of hard carbides such as M 23 C 6 . Based on worn surface analysis, the dominant wear mechanisms of alloyed layer were found to be oxidation and delamination

  8. Effect of sintering temperature and boron carbide content on the wear behavior of hot pressed diamond cutting segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islak S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sintering temperature and boron carbide content on wear behavior of diamond cutting segments. For this purpose, the segments contained 2, 5 and 10 wt.% B4C were prepared by hot pressing process carried out under a pressure of 35 MPa, at 600, 650 and 700 °C for 3 minutes. The transverse rupture strength (TRS of the segments was assessed using a three-point bending test. Ankara andesite stone was cut to examine the wear behavior of segments with boron carbide. Microstructure, surfaces of wear and fracture of segments were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. As a result, the wear rate decreased significantly in the 0-5 wt.% B4C contents, while it increased in the 5-10 wt.% B4C contents. With increase in sintering temperature, the wear rate decreased due to the hard matrix.

  9. TiN-Coating Effects on Stainless Steel Tribological Behavior Under Dry and Lubricated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Yang, Huisheng; Pang, Xiaolu; Gao, Kewei; Tran, Hai T.; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2014-04-01

    The tribological properties of magnetron sputtered titanium nitride coating on 316L steel, sliding against Si3N4 ceramic ball under dry friction and synthetic perspiration lubrication, were investigated. The morphology of the worn surface and the elemental composition of the wear debris were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. TiN coatings and 316L stainless steel had better tribological properties under synthetic perspiration lubrication than under dry friction. Among the three tested materials (316L, 1.6 and 2.4 μm TiN coatings), 2.4 μm TiN coating exhibits the best wear resistance. The difference in wear damage of the three materials is essentially due to the wear mechanisms. For the TiN coating, the damage is attributed to abrasive wear under synthetic perspiration lubrication and the complex interactive mechanisms, including abrasive and adhesive wear, along with plastic deformation, under dry friction.

  10. Effect of deep cryogenic treatment on the formation of nano-sized carbides and the wear behavior of D2 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Kamran; Akhbarizadeh, Amin; Javadpour, Sirus

    2012-09-01

    The effect of deep cryogenic treatment on the microstructure, hardness, and wear behavior of D2 tool steel was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness test, pin-on-disk wear test, and the reciprocating pin-on-flat wear test. The results show that deep cryogenic treatment eliminates retained austenite, makes a better carbide distribution, and increases the carbide content. Furthermore, some new nano-sized carbides form during the deep cryogenic treatment, thereby increasing the hardness and improving the wear behavior of the samples.

  11. Preparation and Properties of Superamphiphobic Wear-resistance PPS-based Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Huai-yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Superamphiphobic wear-resistance PPS-based coatings were prepared by a simple spraying method with a pore-forming reagent of NH4HCO3 and nano-filler of carbon nanotubes (CNTs.The surface morphology and the hydrophobicity,oleophobicity of the coating were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and contact angle meter.The wear-resistance of the coating was verified by sanding method with given load.The results indicate that a rough surface is obtained after pore-forming,and the porous structures in combination with the CNTs construct the special micro/nano-scale network structures.When the mass fraction of NH4HCO3 is 5%,the contact angles of the coating for water,glycerine and ethylene glycol are 162°,158° and 152°,showing superamphiphobic property.After polished 10000 times by abrasive paper,the coating shows slight friction marks and remains high hydrophobicity,exhibiting excellent wear-resistance.

  12. An in vitro study of dental enamel wear by restorative materials using radiometric method; Estudo in vitro do desgaste do esmalte dental pelos materiais restauradores utilizando metodo radiometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa

    2000-07-01

    There is an increasing demand and interest to study the dental materials wear as well as about the abrasion effect on antagonistic teeth. Due to the fact that the existent restorative materials have no specifications about their abrasiveness, it is necessary the establishment of degrees of comparison among them to support clinical application. In this work, the radiometric method was applied to study the enamel wear caused by another enamel and by restorative materials (Ceramco II, Noritake and Finesse porcelains, Artglass and Targis). The dental enamel made radioactive by irradiation at the IEA-R1m nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux was submitted to wear in a machine which allows sliding motion of an antagonistic surface in contact with this radioactive enamel. The enamel wear was evaluated by measuring beta activity of {sup 32}P transferred to water from this irradiated tooth. Results obtained indicated that dental porcelains cause pronounced enamel wear when compared with that provoked by another enamel or by resin materials. Resin materials caused less enamel wear than another enamel. Vickers microhardness data obtained for antagonistic materials showed a correlation with the wear caused to the enamel. This study allowed to conclude that the radiometric method proposed can be used satisfactorily in the evaluation of enamel wear by restorative materials. This method presents advantages due to quick responses and ease of analyses There is (author)

  13. Wear Behavior of Medium Carbon Steel with Biomimetic Surface Under Starved Lubricated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihui; Shao, Feixian; Liang, Yunhong; Lin, Pengyu; Tong, Xin; Ren, Luquan

    2017-07-01

    Friction and wear under starved lubrication condition are both key life-related factors for mechanical performance of many structural parts. In this paper, different surface morphologies on medium carbon steel were fabricated using laser, inspired by the surface coupling effect of biological system. The friction and sliding wear behaviors of biomimetic specimens (characterized by convex and concave units on the specimen surface) were studied under starved lubrication condition. The stress distribution on different sliding surfaces under sliding friction was studied using finite element method. The results showed that the tribological performance of studied surfaces under starved lubrication condition depended not only on the surface morphology but also on the structure of biomimetic units below surface (subsurface structure). The friction coefficient of biomimetic surface was effectively reduced by the concave unit depth, while the refined microstructure with higher hardness led to the much better wear resistance. In addition to lubricant reserving and wear debris trapping effect derived from the surface concave morphology, it was believed that the well-formed subsurface structure of biomimetic units could carry much heavy loads against tribopair, which enhanced the function of surface topography and resulted in complementary lubrication in the wear contact area. The uniform stress distribution on the entire biomimetic surface also played an important role in stabilizing the friction coefficient and reducing the wear cracks.

  14. Cutting concrete with abrasion jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yie, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fluidyne Corporation has developed a unique process and apparatus that allow selected abrasives to be introduced into high-speed waterjet to produce abrasive-entrained waterjet that has high material-cutting capabilities, which is termed by Fluidyne as the Abrasion Jet. Such Abrasion Jet has demonstrated capability in cutting hard rock and concrete at a modest pressure of less than 1360 bars (20,000 psi) and a power input of less than 45 kW (60 horsepower). Abrasion Jet cutting of concrete is characterized by its high rate of cutting, flexible operation, good cut quality, and relatively low costs. This paper presents a general description of this technology together with discussions of recent test results and how it could be applied to nuclear decontamination and decommissioning work. 8 references

  15. Effects of Strand Lay Direction and Crossing Angle on Tribological Behavior of Winding Hoist Rope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-dong Chang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Friction and wear behavior exists between hoisting ropes that are wound around the drums of a multi-layer winding hoist. It decreases the service life of ropes and threatens mine safety. In this research, a series of experiments were conducted using a self-made test rig to study the effects of the strand lay direction and crossing angle on the winding rope’s tribological behavior. Results show that the friction coefficient in the steady-state period shows a decreasing tendency with an increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions, but the variation range is different under different cross directions. Using thermal imaging, the high temperature regions always distribute along the strand lay direction in the gap between adjacent strands, as the cross direction is the same with the strand lay direction (right cross contact. Additionally, the temperature rise in the steady-state increases with the increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions. The differences of the wear scar morphology are obvious under different cross directions, especially for the large crossing angle tests. In the case of right cross, the variation range of wear mass loss is larger than that in left cross. The damage that forms on the wear surface is mainly ploughing, pits, plastic deformation, and fatigue fracture. The major wear mechanisms are adhesive wear, and abrasive and fatigue wear.

  16. Effects of Strand Lay Direction and Crossing Angle on Tribological Behavior of Winding Hoist Rope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiang-Dong; Peng, Yu-Xing; Zhu, Zhen-Cai; Gong, Xian-Sheng; Yu, Zhang-Fa; Mi, Zhen-Tao; Xu, Chun-Ming

    2017-06-09

    Friction and wear behavior exists between hoisting ropes that are wound around the drums of a multi-layer winding hoist. It decreases the service life of ropes and threatens mine safety. In this research, a series of experiments were conducted using a self-made test rig to study the effects of the strand lay direction and crossing angle on the winding rope's tribological behavior. Results show that the friction coefficient in the steady-state period shows a decreasing tendency with an increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions, but the variation range is different under different cross directions. Using thermal imaging, the high temperature regions always distribute along the strand lay direction in the gap between adjacent strands, as the cross direction is the same with the strand lay direction (right cross contact). Additionally, the temperature rise in the steady-state increases with the increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions. The differences of the wear scar morphology are obvious under different cross directions, especially for the large crossing angle tests. In the case of right cross, the variation range of wear mass loss is larger than that in left cross. The damage that forms on the wear surface is mainly ploughing, pits, plastic deformation, and fatigue fracture. The major wear mechanisms are adhesive wear, and abrasive and fatigue wear.

  17. Study on the wear of TiN/Ti duplex and multilayer coatings in microabrasion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, M; De Las Heras, E; Ruelas, R; Rodriguez, E; Bautista, A; Pazos, L; Corengia, P

    2008-01-01

    Ionic nitriding, on steels, is used to harden the surface of components improving resistance to corrosion and wear and increasing the stress life. Duplex treatments are an alternative for resolving the limitations of very hard coatings on less hard substrates. In this case the duplex treatment consists of an ionic nitriding treatment followed by a single or multilayer coatings deposited by means of the PVD technique. This work presents the influence of the variation in the severity of contact on the kind of wear present in the microabrasion test used to measure the wear coefficient of duplex coatings, consisting of a layer nitrided by DC-pulsed plasma plus TiN coatings and multilayers of TiN/Ti deposited on non-nitrided and nitrided AISI 316L stainless steel and H13 steel. The severity of contact was modified by varying the charge (0.25 to 1 N). The abrasives used were a suspension of 0.1μm diameter diamond particles and a suspension of an average 5 μm diameter aluminum particles. The influence of the presence of relatively soft metallic layers on the determination of the wear coefficient was analyzed in the metal-ceramic multilayers. Two sphere revolving speeds of de 0.05 and 0.154 m/s were used on two microabrasion machines: one commercial and the other built in the UdeG laboratory. The wear marks were photographed and measured with an optic microscope. The value of the critical charge at which the transition occurs between the methods of wear of the substrates and the nitrited samples was determined. Resistance to the AISI 316L steel's microabrasive wear increases with the ionic nitriding treatment. The duplex coatings increase resistance to the wear from the nitrited samples. The wear resistance of the samples with multilayer coatings surpassed that of the duplex samples with multilayer coatings. The greater resistance of the multilayers may be explained by an increase in the resistance to the fracture and not by a increase in surface hardness. The transition

  18. Wear of PEEK-OPTIMA® and PEEK-OPTIMA®-Wear Performance articulating against highly cross-linked polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Rebecca H; Briscoe, Adam; Unsworth, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    The idea of all polymer artificial joints, particularly for the knee and finger, has been raised several times in the past 20 years. This is partly because of weight but also to reduce stress shielding in the bone when stiffer materials such as metals or ceramics are used. With this in mind, pin-on-plate studies of various polyetheretherketone preparations against highly cross-linked polyethylene were conducted to investigate the possibility of using such a combination in the design of a new generation of artificial joints. PEEK-OPTIMA(®) (no fibre) against highly cross-linked polyethylene gave very low wear factors of 0.0384 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the polyetheretherketone pins and -0.025 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the highly cross-linked polyethylene plates. The carbon-fibre-reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK-OPTIMA(®)-Wear Performance) also produced very low wear rates in the polyetheretherketone pins but produced very high wear in the highly cross-linked polyethylene, as might have been predicted since the carbon fibres are quite abrasive. When the fibres were predominantly tangential to the sliding plane, the mean wear factor was 0.052 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the pins and 49.3 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the highly cross-linked polyethylene plates; a half of that when the fibres ran axially in the pins (0.138 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the pins and 97.5 × 10(-6) mm/ N m for the cross-linked polyethylene plates). PEEK-OPTIMA(®) against highly cross-linked polyethylene merits further investigation. © IMechE 2015.

  19. Tribological Characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Reinforced Arc Sprayed Coatings using Different Carbide Grain Size Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tillmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide reinforced coatings play an important role in the field of surface engineering to protect stressed surfaces against wear. For thermally sprayed coatings, it is already shown that the tribological properties get mainly determined by the carbide grain size fraction. Within the scope of this study, the tribological characteristics of iron based WC-W2C reinforced arc sprayed coatings deposited using cored wires consisting of different carbide grain size fractions were examined. Microstructural characteristics of the produced coatings were scrutinized using electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses. Ball-on-disk test as well as Taber Abraser and dry sand rubber wheel test were employed to analyze both the dry sliding and the abrasive wear behavior. It was shown that a reduced carbide grain size fraction as filling leads to an enhanced wear resistance against sliding. In terms of the Taber Abraser test, it is also demonstrated that a fine carbide grain size fraction results in an improved wear resistant against abrasion. As opposed to that, a poorer wear resistance was found within the dry sand rubber wheel tests. The findings show that the operating mechanisms for both abrasion tests affect the stressed surface in a different way, leading either to microcutting or microploughing.

  20. Influence of Plasma Transferred Arc Process Parameters on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Wear Resistive NiCrBSi-WC/Co Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitvydas GRUZDYS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-fluxing NiCrBSi and related coatings received considerable interest due to their good wear as well as corrosion resistance at moderate and elevated temperatures. Hard tungsten carbide (WC particles can be included in NiCrBSi for further increase of the coating hardness and abrasive wear resistance. Flame spray technique is widely used for fabrication of NiCrBSi films. However, in such a case, subsequent remelting of the deposited coatings by flame, arc discharge or high power laser beam is necessary. In present study NiCrBSi-WC/Co coatings were formed using plasma transferred arc process. By adjusting plasma parameters, such as current, plasma gas flow, shielding gas flow, a number of coatings were formed on steel substrates. Structure of the coatings was investigated using X-ray diffractometry. Microstructure of cross-sectioned coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Hardness of the coating was evaluated by means of the Vickers hardness tests. Wear tests were also performed on specimens to determine resistance to abrasive wear. Acquired results allowed estimating the influence of the deposition process parameters on structure and mechanical properties of the coatings.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.482

  1. Quantitative characterization of agglomerate abrasion in a tumbling blender by using the Stokes number approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsz, Tofan A; Nguyen, Tien Thanh; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2013-03-01

    Removal of microcrystalline cellulose agglomerates in a dry-mixing system (lactose, 100 M) predominantly occurs via abrasion. The agglomerate abrasion rate potential is estimated by the Stokes abrasion (StAbr) number of the system. The StAbr number equals the ratio between the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed and the work of fracture of the agglomerate. Basically, the StAbr number concept describes the blending condition of the dry-mixing system. The concept has been applied to investigate the relevance of process parameters on agglomerate abrasion in tumbling blenders. Here, process parameters such as blender rotational speed and relative fill volumes were investigated. In this study, the StAbr approach revealed a transition point between abrasion rate behaviors. Below this transition point, a blending condition exists where agglomerate abrasion is dominated by the kinetic energy density of the powder blend. Above this transition point, a blending condition exists where agglomerates show (undesirable) slow abrasion rates. In this situation, the blending condition is mainly determined by the high fill volume of the filler.

  2. Effect of powders refinement on the tribological behavior of Ni-based composite coatings by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lingqian [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Jiansong, E-mail: jszhou@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu Youjun; Guo Chun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen Jianmin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-06-15

    NiCr + Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} + Ag + BaF{sub 2}/CaF{sub 2} composite coatings were produced on stainless steel (1Cr18Ni9Ti) substrates by laser cladding. Corresponding powders were prepared by high-energy ball milling technique. The friction and wear behavior at room temperature was investigated through sliding against the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ball. The morphologies of the wear debris, worn surfaces of both samples and the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ball were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and three dimensional non-contact surface mapping. Results showed that milling time had a great effect on the size, morphology, uniformity of the powders as well as the microstructure and properties of laser cladding coatings. The wear mechanism of the coatings is dominated by abrasive wear, plastic deformation and slight adhesive wear. The consecutive evolution trend of friction coefficient, wear rate as well as microhardness of the serials of coatings produced with powders of different sizes was presented.

  3. EFECTO DEL CONTENIDO DE CARBONO SOBRE LA RESISTENCIA AL DESGASTE ABRASIVO DE RECUBRIMIENTOS DE CrC DEPOSITADOS POR PULVERIZACIÓN CATÓDICA MAGNETRÓN EFEITO DO CONTEÚDO DE CARBONO SOBRE A RESISTÊNCIA AO DESGASTE ABRASIVO DE RECOBRIMENTOS DE CrC DEPOSITADOS POR PULVERIZAÇÃO CATÓDICA MAGNETRÃO EFFECT OF THE CARBON CONTENT IN ABRASIVE WEAR RESISTANCE OF CrC COATINGS DEPOSITED BY MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryory Astrid Gómez

    2012-12-01

    diamante. O volume das impressões de abrasão mediu-se com as imagens obtidas no microscópio interferométrico e ademais se corroborou com o cálculo do volume geométrico baseado em seções medidas com o perfilômetro. O comportamento ao desgaste abrasivo mostrou uma marcada dependência com o conteúdo de carbono. O desgaste abrasivo mais baixo obtevese para os recobrimentos com o mais alto conteúdo de carbono.Chromium carbide coatings on steel are a good candidate for applications on forming and molding dies. The high mechanical strength, chemical resistance and high temperature stability of Cr3C2 phase can be compatible with the severe abrasive wear and corrosion found in those manufacture operations. In this work chromium carbide coatings deposited by means of RF magnetron sputtering showed carbon contents between 25 % and 58 % by EDS analysis. Hardness values of these coatings were between 15 and 24 GPa, being the hardest values in the samples with carbon content in the 39-53 % range. The abrasive wear behavior of the coatings was evaluated by using a dimple grinder with diamond powder. The volume of the abrasion craters was measured from the images obtained with the interferometric microscope, and further corroborated by geometrical volume calculation based in profilometer sections that were measured. Abrasive wear behavior showed a marked dependence with carbon content. The lowest abrasive wear was obtained for the coatings with the highest carbon content.

  4. Friction, adhesion and wear properties of PDMS films on silicon sidewalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penskiy, I; Gerratt, A P; Bergbreiter, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the first tests of friction, adhesion and wear properties of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films on the sidewalls of silicon-on-insulator structures. The test devices were individually calibrated using a simple method that included optical and electrical measurements. The static coefficient of friction versus normal pressure curves were obtained for PDMS–PDMS, PDMS–silicon and silicon–silicon sidewall interfaces. The effects of aging on friction and adhesion properties of PDMS were also evaluated. The results of friction tests showed that the static coefficient of friction follows the JKR contact model, which means that the friction force depends on the apparent area of contact. The wear tests showed high resistance of PDMS to abrasion over millions of cycles.

  5. Effects of applying an external magnetic field during the deep cryogenic heat treatment on the corrosion resistance and wear behavior of 1.2080 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhbarizadeh, Amin; Amini, Kamran; Javadpour, Sirus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deep cryogenic increases the carbide percentage and make a more homogenous distribution. ► Deep cryogenic improve the wear resistance and corrosion behavior of 1.2080 tool steel. ► Applying the magnetic field weaker the carbide distribution and decreases the carbides percentage. ► Magnetized samples showed weaker corrosion and wear behavior. -- Abstract: This work concerns with the effect of applying an external magnetic field on the corrosion behavior, wear resistance and microstructure of 1.2080 (D2) tool steel during the deep cryogenic heat treatment. These analyses were performed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope (OM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ay diffraction (XRD) to study the microstructure, a pin-on-disk wear testing machine to study the wear behavior, and linear sweep voltammetry to study the corrosion behavior of the samples. It was shown that the deep cryogenic heat treatment eliminates retained austenite and makes a more uniform carbide distribution with higher percentage. It was also observed that the deep cryogenic heat treatment improves the wear behavior and corrosion resistance of 1.2080 tool steel. In comparison between the magnetized and non-magnetized samples, the carbide percentage decreases and the carbide distribution weakened in the magnetized samples; subsequently, the wear behavior and corrosion resistance attenuated compared in the magnetized samples.

  6. [Influences of composition on brush wear of composite resins. Influences of particle size and content of filler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, S

    1990-07-01

    The influences of the composition on abrasion resistance of composite resins were examined using various experimental composite resins which had various matrix resin, filler size and content. The abrasion test was conducted by the experimental toothbrush abrasion testing machine developed in our laboratory. Three series of heat-curing composite resins were tested. One series was made from a Bis-MPEPP or UDMA monomer, and a silica filler with an average particle size of 0.04, 1.9, 3.8, 4.3, 7.5, 13.8 and 14.1 microns. The filler content of this series was constant at 45 wt%. The second series contained a silica filler of 4.3 microns in a content ranging from 35 to 75 wt%. The third series contained a microfiller (0.04 microns) and macrofiller (4.3 microns) in total content of 45 wt%. In this series, the microfiller was gradually replaced by 5, 15, 25 and 45 wt% of the macrofiller. The results obtained for these three series indicated that the abrasion resistance of composite resins was controlled by the inorganic filler, mainly filler size and content. The abrasion loss did not vary with the difference of matrix resin. When the particle size of the filler was below about 5 microns, the abrasion resistance decreased markedly with the decrease in filler size. The composite resin which contained a 0.04 or 1.9 micron filler was less resistant to toothbrush wear than the unfilled matrix resin. However, the microfiller also contributed to abrasion resistance when used in combination with the macrofiller, although abrasion resistance decreased with the increase in the microfiller concentration. The increase of filler content clearly improved the abrasion resistance when used the macrofiller. The analysis of these results and SEM observations of the brushed surfaces of samples suggested that the toothbrush abrasion was three-body abrasion caused by the abrasive in the toothpaste, and affected by the difference in the particle size between abrasive and filler, and between

  7. Development of an Extrusion Process to Ameliorate the Tribological Properties of Heat Treated Al Mg Si (Cu System Alloys Matrix Composites in Consolidated State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Shabani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The developments of AA6061 aluminum matrix composites are of great interest in industrial applications for lighter materials with high specific strength, stiffness and wear resistance. In this article, the dry wear behavior of AA6061 matrix composites was investigated under different sliding speeds and applied loads. It is observed that the composites exhibit higher friction coefficients and greater wear resistances than the Al alloy against the steel disc surface. Low-speed wear rates are associated with abrasive wear,indicating the dominant wear mechanism, though minor, delamination wear may be produced. Abrasive wear associates with the formation of deep scratches on the worn surface in the sliding direction. For a given load and sliding velocity the extent of iron transfer is highest in case of 15 % SiC reinforced Al6061 composite among all the material studied.

  8. Dynamic SEM wear studies of tungsten carbide cermets. [friction and wear experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.; Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Dynamic friction and wear experiments were conducted in a scanning electron microscope. The wear behavior of pure tungsten carbide and composite with 6 and 15 weight percent cobalt binder was examined, and etching of the binder was done to selectively determine the role of the binder in the wear process. Dynamic experiments were conducted as the tungsten carbide (WC) and bonded WC cermet surfaces were transversed by a 50 micron radiused diamond stylus. These studies show that the predominant wear process in WC is fracture initiated by plastic deformation, and the wear of the etched cermets is similar to pure WC. The presence of the cobalt binder reduces both friction and wear. The cementing action of the cobalt reduces granular separation, and promotes a dense polished layer because of its low shear strength film-forming properties. The wear debris generated from unetched surface is approximately the same composition as the bulk.

  9. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm(2) and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm(2)of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  10. Study on Tribological Properties of CoCrMo Alloys against Metals and Ceramics as Bearing Materials for Artificial Cervical Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dingding; Song, Jian; Wang, Song; Liao, Zhenhua; Liu, Yuhong; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Liu, Weiqiang

    2018-02-01

    CoCrMo alloys are believed to be a kind of potential material for artificial cervical disc. However, the tribological properties of CoCrMo alloys against different metals and ceramics are not systematically studied. In this study, the tribological behaviors of CoCrMo alloys against metals (316L, Ti6Al4V) and ceramics (Si3N4, ZrO2) were focused under dry friction and 25 wt.% newborn calf serum (NCS)-lubricated conditions using a ball-on-disc apparatus under reciprocating motion. The microstructure, composition and hardness of CoCrMo alloys were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hardness testers, respectively. The contact angles of the CoCrMo alloys with deionized water and 25 wt.% NCS were measured by the OCA contact angle measuring instrument. The maximum wear width, wear depth and wear volume were measured by three-dimensional white light interference. The morphology and the EDX analysis of the wear marks on CoCrMo alloys were examined by SEM to determine the basic mechanism of friction and wear. The dominant wear mechanism in dry friction for CoCrMo alloys against all pairings was severe abrasive wear, accompanied with a lot of material transfer. Under 25 wt.% NCS-lubricated condition, the wear mechanism for CoCrMo alloys against ceramics (Si3N4, ZrO2) was also mainly severe abrasive wear. However, severe abrasive wear and electrochemical corrosion occurred for the CoCrMo-316L pairing under lubrication. Severe abrasive wear, adhesive wear and electrochemical corrosion occurred for the CoCrMo-Ti6Al4V pairing under lubrication. According to the results, the tribological properties of CoCrMo alloys against ceramics were better than those against metals. The CoCrMo-ZrO2 pairing displayed the best tribological behaviors and could be taken as a potential candidate bearing material for artificial cervical disc.

  11. Structure and wear behavior of AlCrSiN-based coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chengdu Tool Research Institute Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610500 (China); Du, Hao [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chen, Ming, E-mail: mchen@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, Jun [Chengdu Tool Research Institute Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610500 (China); Xiong, Ji [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhao, Haibo [The Analysis and Testing Centre, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • AlCrSiN based coating showed amorphous structure. • AlCrSiN/Me{sub x}N coatings obtained better wear resistance. • Molybdenum and niobium increased the coating hardness and wear resistance. - Abstract: AlCrN, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings have been deposited on high-polished WC–Co cemented carbide substrate and tools by mid-frequency magnetron sputtering in Ar/N{sub 2} mixtures. Al{sub 0.6}Cr{sub 0.4}, Al{sub 0.6}Cr{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.1}, and C/Mo/Nb targets were used during the deposition. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-deposited coatings were investigated. Investigations of the wear behaviors of coated tools were also performed. The results showed that cubic structure was formed in the coatings. Broader CrAlN (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) peaks without SiN{sub x} peak were formed in the AlCrSiN/Me{sub x}N coatings, which showed a nanocomposited structure. Meanwhile, according to SEM micrographs, AlCrN exhibited a columnar structure, while, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed nanocrystalline morphology. The nano-multilayered coatings performed higher hardness, H/E, and H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} ratios compared with AlCrN coating. Through the Rockwell adhesion test, all the coatings exhibited adhesion strength quality HF1. After turning Inconel 718 under dry condition, the nano-multilyered coatings showed better wear resistance than AlCrN coating. Due to the molybdenum and niobium in the coating, AlCrSiN/MoN and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed the best wear resistance.

  12. Study on tribological behaviors of Fe+ ion implanted in 2024 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aimin; Chen Jianmin; Shi Weidong; Liu Zhenmin

    2000-01-01

    2024 aluminum alloy was implanted with Fe + ions at a dose of 7x10 16 -3 x 10 17 Fe + /cm 2 . The depth profile of Fe element was investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The composition of the surface layer was investigated by XRD with sample-tilting diffraction (STD) mode. The worn out surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Micro-hardness, friction and wear properties have been studied before and after Fe + implantation. An AES analysis shows Fe display Gaussian shape distributions. STD shows Al 5 Fe 2 formed during the implantation. Micro-hardness of surface layer was reduced after implantation, but it did not simply decrease with the increasing implantation doses. The friction and wear tests of implanted and unimplanted samples were carried out on a static-dynamic friction precise measuring apparatus. After implantation, the friction coefficient was reduced from 0.7 to 0.1; the wear resistance was improved remarkably, but decreased with increasing implantation dose. The wear mechanism of the unimplanted sample was adhesive wear, abrasive wear and plastic deformation. The wear reducing effect of Fe + ion induced on 2024 aluminum alloy is mainly attributed to tribooxidation of iron and transfixion of line defect. These two factors prevent the adhesive wear, abrasive wear and plastic deformation of 2024 aluminum alloy

  13. Sustainability of abrasive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aurich, J.C.; Linke, B.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    , the content of technical presentations in STC G, and the results of a comprehensive literature study. The approach to sustainability includes environmental, social, and economic sustainability in accordance with the definition proposed in the Brundtland Report of the United Nations [156]. The main focus......This paper presents an overview of research on sustainability of abrasive processes. It incorporates results from a round robin study on ‘‘energy-efficiency of abrasive processes’’ which has been carried out within the scientific technical committee ‘‘abrasive processes’’ (STC G) of CIRP...... is on environmental and social sustainability. Economic sustainability will be considered as manufacturing productivity. © 2013 CIRP....

  14. Study on the Correlation Between Dynamical Behavior and Friction/Wear Mechanism Under the Effect of Grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z. Y.; Mo, J. L.; Wang, D. W.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, M. H.; Zhou, Z. R.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the interfacial friction and wear and vibration characteristics are studied by sliding a chromium bearing steel ball (AISI 52100) over both multi-grooved and single-grooved forged steel disks (20CrMnMo) at low and high rotating speeds in order to reveal the effect mechanism of groove-textured surface on tribological behaviors. The results show that the grooves modify the contact state of the ball and the disk at the contact interface. This consequently causes variations in the normal displacement, normal force, and friction force signals. The changes in these three signals become more pronounced with increasing groove width at a low speed. The collision behavior between the ball and the groove increase the amplitude of vibration acceleration at a high speed. The test results suggest that grooves with appropriate widths could trap wear debris on the ball surface while avoiding a strong collision between the disk and the ball, resulting in an improvement in the wear states.

  15. Wear of Polished Steel Surfaces in Dry Friction Linear Contact on Polimer Composites with Glass Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is generally known that the friction and wear between polymers and polished steel surfaces has a special character, the behaviour to friction and wear of a certain polymer might not be valid for a different polymer, moreover in dry friction conditions. In this paper, we study the reaction to wear of certain polymers with short glass fibres on different steel surfaces, considering the linear friction contact, observing the friction influence over the metallic surfaces wear. The paper includes also its analysis over the steel’s wear from different points of view: the reinforcement content influence and tribological parameters (load, contact pressure, sliding speed, contact temperature, etc.. Thus, we present our findings related to the fact that the abrasive component of the friction force is more significant than the adhesive component, which generally is specific to the polymers’ friction. Our detections also state that, in the case of the polyamide with 30% glass fibres, the steel surface linear wear rate order are of 10-4 mm/h, respectively the order of volumetric wear rate is of 10-6 cm3 /h. The resulting volumetric wear coefficients are of the order (10-11 – 10-12 cm3/cm and respectively linear wear coefficients of 10-9 mm/cm.

  16. Sliding-wear resistance of pure near fully-dense B4C under lubrication with water, diesel fuel, and paraffin oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Angel L.; Leal, Victor Manuel Candelario; Borrero-López, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The sliding-wear resistance of pure near fully-dense B4C is investigated, and the wear mode/mechanisms identified, under lubrication with water, diesel fuel, and paraffin oil. It is found that the wear is mild in the three cases, with specific wear rates (SWRs) of 10−16–10−17 m3/N m. Nonetheless......, the wear resistance of the B4C ceramic is one order of magnitude greater under oil lubrication (1016 N m/m3) than under water lubrication (1015 N m/m3), and twice as great for the specific case of paraffin oil than diesel fuel, attributable to the lubricant’s viscosity. It is also found that the wear mode...... is always abrasion, and that the wear mechanisms are plastic deformation and localized fracture with grain pullout. However, in agreement with the macro-wear data, the severity of the wear damage is lower under lubrication with paraffin oil, followed by diesel fuel, and lastly water. Finally...

  17. Friction and wear behavior of nanosilica-filled epoxy resin composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Yingke; Chen Xinhua; Song Shiyong; Yu Laigui; Zhang Pingyu

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophilic silica nanoparticles (abridged as nano-SiO 2 ) surface-capped with epoxide were dispersed in the solution of epoxy resin (abridged as EP) in tetrahydrofuran under magnetic stirring. Resultant suspension of nano-SiO 2 in EP was then coated onto the surface of glass slides and dried at 80 °C in a vacuum oven for 2 h, generating epoxy resin-nanosilica composite coatings (coded as EP/nano-SiO 2 ). EP coating without nano-SiO 2 was also prepared as a reference in the same manner. A water contact angle meter and a surface profiler were separately performed to measure the water contact angles and surface roughness of as-prepared EP/nano-SiO 2 composite coatings. The friction and wear behavior of as-prepared EP/nano-SiO 2 composite coatings sliding against steel in a ball-on-plate contact configuration under unlubricated condition was evaluated. Particularly, the effect of coating composition on the friction and wear behavior of the composite coatings was highlighted in relation to their microstructure and worn surface morphology examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that EP/nano-SiO 2 composite coatings have a higher surface roughness and water contact angle than EP coating. The EP-SiO 2 coatings doped with a proper amount of hydrophilic SiO 2 nanoparticles show lower friction coefficient than EP coating. However, the introduction of surface-capped nanosilica as the filler results in inconsistent change in the friction coefficient and wear rate of the filled EP-matrix composites; and it needs further study to achieve well balanced friction-reducing and antiwear abilities of the composite coatings for tribological applications.

  18. Progress in abrasive and grinding technology

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xipeng

    2009-01-01

    The grinding and abrasive processing of materials are machining techniques which use bonded or loose abrasives to remove material from workpieces. Due to the well-known advantages of grinding and abrasive processes, advances in abrasive and grinding technology are always of great import in enhancing both productivity and component quality. In order to highlight the recent progress made in this field, the editor invited 21 world-wide contributions with the aim of gathering together all of the achievements of leading researchers into a single publication. The authors of the 21 invited papers, of

  19. A quasi-stationary approach to particle concentration and distribution in gear oil for wear mode estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Morten; Eriksen, René Lynge; Jørgensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    that particles less than 14 μm dominate the wear. Hence, it is concluded that abrasion dominate the wear, for the gear in operation, and it is concluded to be in quasi-stationary mode. The distribution of the particles is observed in conjunction with the particle quantity to determine a basis for normal...... operation. Limitations to the model in lack of fitting to large and frequent signal spikes are suggested to be caused by measurement equipment and/or model constraints. Predicting the transition from quasi-stationary (normal) mode to break-down mode is made possible by particle quantity detection as well......Suspension of wear particles in gear oil with respect to the diversity of particle size combined with filter mechanisms has been analyzed. Coupling of wear modes from tribology is combined with particle size bins to show how a mathematical model can be expanded to include information gained from...

  20. Friction and wear behavior of steam-oxidized ferrous PM compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, P. Philomen-D-Anaand; GopalaKrishna, A. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada (India); Palaniradja, K [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry (India)

    2016-10-15

    This study determines density effect by assessing sintering temperature and graphite content on the dry sliding wear characteristics of steam-treated iron materials using a pin-on-disk wear test. The specimens were prepared from atomized premixed iron base powders and contained 0.1 to 1.0 wt.% carbon compacted at different densities (5.9 g/cc to 6.8 g/cc). The specimens were sintered for 1 h at different sintering temperatures (1090°C to 1130°C), and then subjected to continuous steam treatment at 540°C for 95 min through in situ Powder metallurgy (PM) technique. Steam treatment was proposed to improve the wear performances of the components of PM. Wear tests were conducted using a pin-on-disk-type machine. Load ranged from 20 N to 60 N. Sliding distance and sliding velocity of 312 m and 0.26 m/s, respectively, were adopted for all tests. Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze wear surface. Increased density and graphite content reduced the wear rate of steam-treated materials. Hardness increased with increasing graphite content. Wear mechanism, wear rate map, and wear maps were drawn for the test result data. Wear transition map identified mild, severe, and ultra-severe wear regimes as functions of applied load.

  1. Properties, structure and machnining capabilities sintered corundum abrasives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cz.J. Niżankowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of sintered corundum abrasives used in both bonded and in the embankment of abrasive tools currently poses substantialproblems for their choice of technology to specific tasks. Therefore performed a comparative study of ownership structures and capacitiesof elected representatives machnining sintered corundum abrasives of different generations, and this is normal sintered alumina,submicrocrystalline alumina sintered and nanocrystalline alumina sintered. Were studied some properties of a set of abrasive particles,physicochemical properties and structural and mechanical and technological properties. The studies used the method of microscopicmeasurement to determine the shape of abrasive particles, the pycnometer to determine the density of abrasive, a spectrometer todetermine the chemical composition of the magnetic analyzer for determining the magnetic fraction, scanning electron microscope toanalysis of abrasive grains and a special position to designate the machining capacity abrasive grains. The results showed a significantincrease in machining capacity sintered corundum abrasives with increasing degree of fragmentation of the crystallites sintered corundum abrasives and distinctive bands in the emerging microchip. The originality of the development provides a comparative summary ofproperties of sintered corundum abrasives of different generations and functions obtained by the author making the change in value indexof machininhcapacity grit from cutting speeds for different generations of sintered corundum.

  2. INTRODUCTION TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANICS OF THE DIAMOND GRINDING PROCESS WITH THE ACCOUNT OF WEAR OF WHEEL GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feodor NOVIKOV

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the theoretical analysis of the mechanics of the diamond grinding process, taking into account the wear of the wheel grains for scientifically based choice of optimal processing conditions. A multiplicative probabilistic approach to the generalization of the cutting profile of a diamond grinding wheel in its consideration in a state of some steady wear during processing is considered. This is achieved by working the wheel in a mode of properly established self-sharpening or with the use of effective dressing methods. In this case, the linear wear of individual grains of diamond abrasive located on the working surface of the grinding wheel and opened to mechanical contact with the material being processed is assumed to proportionally to the depth of the introduction of grain into it. The analytical dependence of the maximum thickness of the cut is presented, and the relationship between the maximum grain wear and the accepted universal relative characteristic of the steady wear with the operational parameters of the tool and the grinding mode is shown. The obtained results can be used in the development of analytical models of processing productivity and microgeometric engineering of the treated surface, new approaches to increasing the efficiency of diamond grinding. The research is based on modern technical possibilities of controlling the state of the cutting relief of diamond-abrasive tools, especially in electro-physical-mechanical grinding technologies, for example, using the diamond-spark method developed at the Kharkov Polytechnic Institute.

  3. Study of wear mechanism of chopped fiber reinforced epoxy composite filled with graphite and bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nitinchand; Prasad, Krishna

    2018-04-01

    The combined effect of graphite and sintered bronze with a short glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites was investigated in this work. A pin on disc wear test was carried out to study the wear behaviour and mechanism of the composites. The objective of this work is to develop an alternate friction resistance material for the application of sliding bearing. It was observed that the addition of sintered bronze improved mechanical and thermal stability of the composites as bronze has low contact resistance with graphite and has high thermal conductivity. It was observed from the test results that increased volume percentage of graphite and presence of bronze are play significant role in wear mechanism of the composites. It was observed from the scanning electronic microscopes (SEM) that the abrasive and adhesive wear mechanism was prominent in this study. It was also evident from the result that the frictional force remains stable irrespective of the applied normal load.

  4. Effect of Microstructure on the Wear Behavior of Heat Treated SS-304 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sliding wear characteristics of some heat treated SS-304 stainless steel against EN-8 steel in dry condition have been studied in the present experimental work. Samples of SS-304 stainless steel have been heated in a muffle furnace in desired temperature and allowed to dwell for two hours. The heated specimen are then cooled in different media namely inside the furnace, open air, cutting grade oil (grade 44 and water at room temperature to obtain different grades of heat treatment. Microstructures and corresponding micro hardness of the samples have been measured along with Feritscopic studies. Wear characteristics have been studied in a multi tribo-tester (Ducom in dry sliding condition against EN-8 steel roller. Speed, load on job and duration of test run have been considered as the experimental parameters. The wear of the samples have been obtained directly from ‘Winducom 2006’ software. Mass loss of the samples before and after operation has also been considered as the measure of wear in the present study. All the samples have been slid against EN-8 steel roller with fixed experimental parameters. The data have been plotted, compared and analyzed. Effect of microstructures as well as micro hardness on the wear behavior has been studied and concluded accordingly.

  5. Study of Stainless Steel Resistance in Conditions of Tribocorrosion Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rozing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed was the influence of tribocorrosion wear due to effects of fatty acids present in the processed medium. The analysis was conducted on samples made of two austenitic and two martensitic stainless steels. Austenitic steels were tested in their nitrided state and martensitic in their induction hardened state. Conducted were laboratory tests of corrosion resistance of samples, analysis of the microstructure and hardness. To see how the applied processes for modifying the surface of stainless steels behave in realistic conditions, it was conducted the examination of samples/parts of a sunflower cake chain conveyer. Based on the comparison of results obtained in the laboratory and in real conditions, it was estimated that steels AISI 420 and AISI 431 with induction hardened surfaces have a satisfactory resistance to abrasive-adhesive wear in the presence of fatty acids.

  6. Tribological and Mechanical Behaviors of Polyamide 6/Glass Fiber Composite Filled with Various Solid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duxin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, graphite, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, and their compounds on mechanical and tribological properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6/GF were studied. The polymeric materials were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength. Friction and wear experiments were run under ambient conditions at a rotating speed of 200 rpm and load of 100 N. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were also observed with scanning electron microscope. The results showed that graphite could increase the tensile strength of PA6/GF-15 composite, but the material became soft. Graphite/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were effective in increasing the already high impact strength of PA6/GF-15 composite. 5% PTFE gave the maximum reduction in the coefficient of friction. However, PTFE/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were the best choice for improving both friction and wear behaviors due to the lower friction coefficient and mass wear rate. Moreover, the worn surface of PA6 composites revealed that adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and fatigue wear occurred in this study.

  7. Tribological and mechanical behaviors of polyamide 6/glass fiber composite filled with various solid lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duxin; Xie, Ying; Li, Wenjuan; You, Yilan; Deng, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), graphite, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and their compounds on mechanical and tribological properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6/GF) were studied. The polymeric materials were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength. Friction and wear experiments were run under ambient conditions at a rotating speed of 200 rpm and load of 100 N. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were also observed with scanning electron microscope. The results showed that graphite could increase the tensile strength of PA6/GF-15 composite, but the material became soft. Graphite/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were effective in increasing the already high impact strength of PA6/GF-15 composite. 5% PTFE gave the maximum reduction in the coefficient of friction. However, PTFE/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were the best choice for improving both friction and wear behaviors due to the lower friction coefficient and mass wear rate. Moreover, the worn surface of PA6 composites revealed that adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and fatigue wear occurred in this study.

  8. Microstructural and Wear Behavior Characterization of Porous Layers Produced by Pulsed Laser Irradiation in Glass-Ceramics Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Daniel; Conde, Ana; García, Iñaki; Gracia-Escosa, Elena; de Damborenea, Juan J; Peña, Jose I

    2013-09-09

    In this work, wear behavior and microstructural characterization of porous layers produced in glass-ceramic substrates by pulsed laser irradiation in the nanosecond range are studied under unidirectional sliding conditions against AISI316 and corundum counterbodies. Depending on the optical configuration of the laser beam and on the working parameters, the local temperature and pressure applied over the interaction zone can generate a porous glass-ceramic layer. Material transference from the ball to the porous glass-ceramic layer was observed in the wear tests carried out against the AISI316 ball counterface whereas, in the case of the corundum ball, the wear volume loss was concentrated in the porous layer. Wear rate and friction coefficient presented higher values than expected for dense glass-ceramics.

  9. Microstructural and Wear Behavior Characterization of Porous Layers Produced by Pulsed Laser Irradiation in Glass-Ceramics Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose I. Peña

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, wear behavior and microstructural characterization of porous layers produced in glass-ceramic substrates by pulsed laser irradiation in the nanosecond range are studied under unidirectional sliding conditions against AISI316 and corundum counterbodies. Depending on the optical configuration of the laser beam and on the working parameters, the local temperature and pressure applied over the interaction zone can generate a porous glass-ceramic layer. Material transference from the ball to the porous glass-ceramic layer was observed in the wear tests carried out against the AISI316 ball counterface whereas, in the case of the corundum ball, the wear volume loss was concentrated in the porous layer. Wear rate and friction coefficient presented higher values than expected for dense glass-ceramics.

  10. Studies on the Biotribological and Biological Behavior of Thermally Oxidized Ti6Al4V for Use in Artificial Cervical Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Li, Junhui; Lu, Junzhe; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Liao, Zhenhua; Feng, Pingfa; Liu, Weiqiang

    2017-05-01

    The artificial cervical disk was simplified and considered as a ball-on-socket model with the material configuration of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene and Ti6Al4V (PE-on-TC4). In order to improve the wear resistance, an optimized thermal oxidation (TO) coating was applied on TC4 component. The long-term wear behavior of the model was assessed in vitro using a wear simulator under 10 million cycles (MC) testing intervals. The biological behavior was investigated by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cell attachment and cell viability/proliferation assays, respectively. The total average wear rate for PE/TC4 pair was found to be 0.81 mg/MC, whereas the same was about 0.96 mg/MC for PE/TO pair. The wear rate of the metal has been neglected in comparison with that of the mating polymer. PE component was found to suffer severe damage characterized by scratches, fatigue cracks and arc-shaped wear grooves on the edge zone of ball. The dominant wear mechanism was abrasion for metal component while the dominant failure mechanism was a mix of plowing, fatigue and plastic deformation for polymer component. TO coating improved the cell attachment property of TC4, and the cell viability results were also quite good. TO coating protected TC4 from being plowed and avoided the release of toxic metal ions. However, this intensified the wear of PE component. Considering the biotribological and biological behavior in totality, TO coating could still be promising when applied in articulation surfaces.

  11. Microstructural evolution during dry wear test in magnesium and Mg-Y alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somekawa, Hidetoshi, E-mail: SOMEKAWA.Hidetoshi@nims.go.jp [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Maeda, Shunsuke; Hirayama, Tomoko; Matsuoka, Takashi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Miyakodani, Tatara, Kyotanabe 610-0321 (Japan); Inoue, Tadanobu [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Mukai, Toshiji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan)

    2013-01-20

    The friction and wear properties of pure magnesium and the Mg-Y alloy were investigated using the pin-on-disk configuration. The friction and wear resistance of the Mg-Y alloy was superior to those of pure magnesium. The wear mechanism was abrasion under all the conditions. The deformed microstructural evolutions near the surface region were observed by transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The stress and strain states were also evaluated by finite element analysis (FEA). The deformed microstructures of both alloys consisted of the {l_brace}10-12{r_brace} twinning formation and the FEA results showed the occurrence of plastic deformation even at the beginning of the test. The formation of low angle grain boundaries was also confirmed with an increase in the applied load in the Mg-Y alloy. On the other hand, grain refinement due to dynamic recrystallization was observed in pure magnesium as the wear test progressed. The different microstructures resulted from difference in the surface temperature during the wear test, which was estimated to be around 393 K and 363 K for pure magnesium and the Mg-Y alloy, respectively. The high increment temperature in the fine-grained alloys brought about the occurrence of grain boundary sliding, i.e., material softening, which led to a decrease in the friction and wear properties. The present results indicated that one of the methods for enhancing the friction and wear properties is to increase the dynamic recrystallization temperature.

  12. Release of carbon nanotubes from an epoxy-based nanocomposite during an abrasion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Chu, Bryan T T; Buha, Jelena; Nüesch, Frank; Wang, Jing

    2012-07-03

    The abrasion behavior of an epoxy/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite was investigated. An experimental setup has been established to perform abrasion, particle measurement, and collection all in one. The abraded particles were characterized by particle size distribution and by electron microscopy. The abrasion process was carried out with a Taber Abraser, and the released particles were collected by a tube for further investigation. The particle size distributions were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and revealed four size modes for all measured samples. The mode corresponding to the smallest particle sizes of 300-400 nm was measured with the SMPS and showed a trend of increasing size with increasing nanofiller content. The three measured modes with particle sizes from 0.6 to 2.5 μm, measured with the APS, were similar for all samples. The measured particle concentrations were between 8000 and 20,000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the SMPS and between 1000 and 3000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the APS. Imaging by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that free-standing individual CNTs and agglomerates were emitted during abrasion.

  13. Friction and wear behaviour of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy/steel tribopair under dry and lubricated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dry and lubricated sliding tribological tests on hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy was performed using a ball- on- disk configuration at room temperature. Hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy were prepared by rapid solidification process under T6 condition. Friction coefficient (COF and wear rate of the alloy were measured under different applied loads ranging from 5–100 N. It is found that the friction coefficient varies with load, first declines (from 5-50 N, then increases (from 50-80 N and then again decreases (80-100 N. The wear rate of the samples of hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy, first increases and then decreases with increasing the applied normal load. Hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy presents higher wear rate at 50 N due to the participation of a large amount of needle-like precipitates, but shows low wear rate under high load of 100 N because of the work hardening layer. Worn surface morphologies were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The improvements in COF and wear rate were mainly attributed to morphology, size and distribution of Si particles due to its fabrication process. The dominant wear mechanism for hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy was adhesive wear, abrasive wear and plastic deformation.

  14. Mechanical Properties and Tribological Behavior of In Situ NbC/Fe Surface Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaolong; Zhong, Lisheng; Xu, Yunhua

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties and tribological behavior of the niobium carbide (NbC)-reinforced gray cast iron surface composites prepared by in situ synthesis have been investigated. Composites are comprised of a thin compound layer and followed by a deep diffusion zone on the surface of gray cast iron. The graded distributions of the hardness and elastic modulus along the depth direction of the cross section of composites form in the ranges of 6.5-20.1 and 159.3-411.2 GPa, respectively. Meanwhile, dry wear tests for composites were implemented on pin-on-disk equipment at sliding speed of 14.7 × 10-2 m/s and under 5 or 20 N, respectively. The result indicates that tribological performances of composites are considerably dependent on the volume fraction and the grain size of the NbC as well as the mechanical properties of the matrices in different areas. The surface compound layer presents the lowest coefficient of friction and wear rate, and exhibits the highest wear resistance, in comparison with diffusion zone and substrate. Furthermore, the worn morphologies observed reveal the dominant wear mechanism is abrasive wear feature in compound layer and diffusion zone.

  15. Resistance to wear and microstructure of martensitic welds deposits for recharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualco, Agustin; Svoboda, Hernan G; Surian, Estela S; Vedia, Luis A

    2006-01-01

    This work studied the welding metal for a martensitic steel (alloyed to Cr, Mn, Mo, V and W), deposited with a tubular metal-cored wire with gaseous protection of 82%Ar-18%Co 2 on a low carbon steel using the semi-automatic welding process. Transverse pieces were cut from the welded coupon for microstructural characterization, measurement of hardness profiles, determination of the chemical composition and wear trials. The microstructural characterization was done using optic and scanning electronic microscopes, X-rays diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Vicker microhardness (1 kg.) was measured. The wear trials (metal-metal) were performed in an Amsler machine under pure flow conditions. Different loads were used and the reference material was a SAE 1020 steel. The temperatures for each case were measured and the weight loss curves were defined as a function of the distance run and of the load. After testing the wear surfaces and the debris were measured. The microstructure of the welded deposit mostly consists of martensite and some retained austenite, with a pattern of dendritic segregation, and a hardness on the surface of 612 HVI. A lineal variation between the weight loss and the load applied was obtained as a response to the wear. The following phenomena were observed: abrasion, plastic deformation, oxidation and adhesion to the wear surfaces, as well as a tempering effect in the condition of the biggest load. The wear mechanisms acting on both surfaces were identified (CW)

  16. CR TKA UHMWPE Wear Tested after Artificial Aging of the Vitamin E Treated Gliding Component by Simulating Daily Patient Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schwiesau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wear behaviour of total knee arthroplasty (TKA is dominated by two wear mechanisms: the abrasive wear and the delamination of the gliding components, where the second is strongly linked to aging processes and stress concentration in the material. The addition of vitamin E to the bulk material is a potential way to reduce the aging processes. This study evaluates the wear behaviour and delamination susceptibility of the gliding components of a vitamin E blended, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE cruciate retaining (CR total knee arthroplasty. Daily activities such as level walking, ascending and descending stairs, bending of the knee, and sitting and rising from a chair were simulated with a data set received from an instrumented knee prosthesis. After 5 million test cycles no structural failure of the gliding components was observed. The wear rate was with 5.62±0.53 mg/million cycles falling within the limit of previous reports for established wear test methods.

  17. CR TKA UHMWPE wear tested after artificial aging of the vitamin E treated gliding component by simulating daily patient activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiesau, Jens; Fritz, Bernhard; Kutzner, Ines; Bergmann, Georg; Grupp, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    The wear behaviour of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is dominated by two wear mechanisms: the abrasive wear and the delamination of the gliding components, where the second is strongly linked to aging processes and stress concentration in the material. The addition of vitamin E to the bulk material is a potential way to reduce the aging processes. This study evaluates the wear behaviour and delamination susceptibility of the gliding components of a vitamin E blended, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) cruciate retaining (CR) total knee arthroplasty. Daily activities such as level walking, ascending and descending stairs, bending of the knee, and sitting and rising from a chair were simulated with a data set received from an instrumented knee prosthesis. After 5 million test cycles no structural failure of the gliding components was observed. The wear rate was with 5.62 ± 0.53 mg/million cycles falling within the limit of previous reports for established wear test methods.

  18. Estimation of Wear Behavior of Polyphenylene Sulphide Composites Reinforced with Glass/Carbon Fibers, Graphite and Polytetrafluoroethylene, by Pin-on-disc Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.C. Besnea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wear behavior of polyphenylene sulphide composites was investigated according to load and test speed. Two types of materials were studied: first, with 40 wt% glass fiber, and second, with 10 wt% carbon fiber, 10 wt% graphite and 10 wt%. Tribological tests were performed on the universal tribometer UMT-2, using a pin-on-disc device. The friction coefficient and wear rate for the composites were analyzed. As a result of experimental tests, it was established that polymer composite with polyphenylene sulphide matrix, carbon fibers, graphite and polytetrafluorethylene exhibit good wear behavior under operating conditions.

  19. Effect of Cobalt on Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Ni-Based Alloy Coating Fabricated by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiming Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ni-based alloy powders with different contents of cobalt (Co have been deposited on a 42CrMo steel substrate surface using a fiber laser. The effects of Co content on the microstructure, composition, hardness, and wear properties of the claddings were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, a hardness tester, and a wear tester. The results show that the phases in the cladding layers are mainly γ, M7(C, B3, M23(C, B6, and M2B. With the increase in Co content, the amounts of M7(C, B3, M23(C, B6, and M2B gradually decrease, and the width of the eutectic structure in the cladding layer also gradually decreases. The microhardness decreases but the wear resistance of the cladding layer gradually improves with the increase of Co content. The wear resistance of the NiCo30 cladding layer is 3.6 times that of the NiCo00 cladding layer. With the increase of Co content, the wear mechanism of the cladding layer is changed from abrasive wear to adhesive wear.

  20. Effect of deep cryogenic treatment and tempering on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of a wear-resistant austempered alloyed bainitic ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of deep cryogenic treatment in combination with conven- tional heat treatment process was investigated on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of alloyed bainitic ductile iron. Three processing schedules were employed to treat this alloyed ductile iron including direct tempering treatment, tempering.+deep cryogenic treatment and deep cryogenic treatment.+tempering treatments. The microstructure and mechanical behavior, especially the wear resistance, have been evaluated after treated by these three schedules. The results show that martensite microstructure can be obviously refined and the precipitation of dispersed carbides is promoted by deep cryogenic treatment at .−196 ∘C for 3 h after tempered at 450 ∘C for 2 h. In this case, the alloyed bainitic ductile iron possesses rather high hardness and wear-resistance than those processed by other two schedules. The main wear mechanism of the austempered alloyed ductile iron with deep cryogenic treatment and tempering is micro-cutting wear in association with plastic deformation wear.

  1. Microstructure and wear behaviors of WC–12%Co coating deposited on ductile iron by electric contact surface strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Xiaoben; Zhu, Shigen; Ding, Hao; Zhu, Zhengkun; Han, Zhibing

    2013-01-01

    WC–12%Co powders deposited on ductile iron by electric contact strengthening were studied. This technology was based on the application of the contact resistance heating between the electrode and work piece to form a wear resistant layer on ductile iron. The microstructure, microhardness distribution, phase transformation and wear behaviors of the coating were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, Vickers hardness (HV 0.5 ), X-ray diffraction, rolling contact wear tests. The results showed that the WC–12%Co coating by electric contact strengthening was metallurgically bonded to the ductile iron. Additionally, the effect of experimental parameters on microhardness and wear resistance of coatings were studied using orthogonal experiment. The results showed that compared with (A) electric current and (B) rotating speed, (C) contact force displays the most significant effect on microhardness and wear resistance of coatings. The coatings produced at A = 19 kA, B = 0.3 r/min and C = 700 N possessed highest microhardness of 1073 HV 0.5 and wear resistance.

  2. Wear studies on diamond layers; Verschleissuntersuchungen an Diamantschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deuerler, F. [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Materialkunde; Pohl, M.; Tikana, L. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe

    2000-08-01

    Wear studies were carried out on thin CVD diamond layers on WC/Co hard metal substrate. The diamond and hard metal system was exposed to abrasive particles, and the time to initial failure and the size of the wear crater were recorded. In the cavitation test, vibrational cavitation is induced by a sonotrode immersed in a liquid and excited by ultrasonic waves. The wear damage on the surface are recorded by quantitative image analysis as percent surface damage. The mechanism of layer failure (adhesive, cohesive) can be assessed qualitatively by means of SEM pilctures. The effects of surface pretreatment on the adhesive strength of the coating are investigated as well. [German] Das Verhalten von duennen CVD-Diamantschichten auf WC/Co-Hartmetallsubstraten unter Verschleissbeanspruchung wird beschrieben. Dabei wird der Schichtverbund Diamant-Hartmetall im Strahlverschleisstest abrasiven Partikeln ausgesetzt und die Zeit bis zum ersten Schichtversagen sowie die Groesse des Verschleisskraters registriert. Beim Kavitationstest erzeugt eine durch Ultraschall angeregte Sonotrode, die in eine Fluessigkeit eintaucht, Schwingungskavitation. Die durch Oberflaechenzerruettung verursachten Verschleissschaeden an der Schichtoberflaeche werden ueber quantitative Bildanalyse als prozentuale Flaechenschaedigung erfasst. Der Mechanismus des Schichtversagens (adhaesiv, kohaesiv) kann anhand von REM-Aufnahmen qualitativ beurteilt werden. Die Auswirkungen einer Vorbehandlung der Oberflaeche des Hartmetalls auf die fuer die Anwendung massgebliche Haftfestigkeit der Beschichtung werden betrachtet. (orig.)

  3. The effect of roughness on the tribological behavior of the prosthetic pair UHMWPE/TiN-coated stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispert, M P; Serro, A P; Colaço, R; Pires, E; Saramago, B

    2008-01-01

    The effect of roughness on the tribological behavior of the prosthetic pair ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/TiN coated stainless steel was investigated. Standard and polished TiN coated stainless steel pins were tested against either standard or smooth UHMWPE disks. Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution in HBSS were used as lubricants. Friction and wear were determined using a pin-on-disk apparatus and the wear mechanisms were investigated through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that the decrease in the roughness led to a reduction of the friction coefficient and of the wear rate of UHMWPE. However, the most important effect was achieved through the decrease in the roughness of the hard TiN counterface while keeping the standard UHMWPE surface. If BSA was added to HBSS, a strong decrease of both the friction coefficient and the polymeric wear was observed independently of the roughness of both the TiN and the polyethylene surfaces. Abrasive and fatigue wear mechanisms are proposed to interpret the experimental results.

  4. An Investigation of the Influence of Initial Roughness on the Friction and Wear Behavior of Ground Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guoxing; Schmauder, Siegfried; Lyu, Ming; Schneider, Yanling; Zhang, Cheng; Han, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Friction and wear tests were performed on AISI 1045 steel specimens with different initial roughness parameters, machined by a creep-feed dry grinding process, to study the friction and wear behavior on a pin-on-disc tester in dry sliding conditions. Average surface roughness (Ra), root mean square (Rq), skewness (Rsk) and kurtosis (Rku) were involved in order to analyse the influence of the friction and wear behavior. The observations reveal that a surface with initial roughness parameters of higher Ra, Rq and Rku will lead to a longer initial-steady transition period in the sliding tests. The plastic deformation mainly concentrates in the depth of 20–50 μm under the worn surface and the critical plastic deformation is generated on the rough surface. For surfaces with large Ra, Rq, low Rsk and high Rku values, it is easy to lose the C element in, the reciprocating extrusion. PMID:29401703

  5. Friction and Wear of Metals With a Single-Crystal Abrasive Grit of Silicon Carbide - Effect of Shear Strength of Metal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the removal and plastic deformation of metal as a function of the metal properties when the metal is in sliding contact with a single-crystal abrasive grit of silicon carbide...

  6. Effects of crystal refining on wear behaviors and mechanical properties of lithium disilicate glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Guo, Jiawen; Sun, Yali; Tian, Beimin; Zheng, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Ming; He, Lin; Zhang, Shaofeng

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve wear resistance and mechanical properties of lithium disilicate glass-ceramics by refining their crystal sizes. After lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (LD) were melted to form precursory glass blocks, bar (N = 40, n = 10) and plate (N = 32, n = 8) specimens were prepared. According to the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of precursory glass, specimens G1-G4 were designed to form lithium disilicate glass-ceramics with different crystal sizes using a two-step thermal treatment. In the meantime, heat-pressed lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (GC-P) and original ingots (GC-O) were used as control groups. Glass-ceramics were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and were tested using flexural strength test, nanoindentation test and toughness measurements. The plate specimens were dynamically loaded in a chewing simulator with 350 N up to 2.4 × 10 6 loading cycles. The wear analysis of glass-ceramics was performed using a 3D profilometer after every 300,000 wear cycles. Wear morphologies and microstructures were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. Multiple pairwise comparisons of means were performed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Materials with different crystal sizes (p properties. Specifically, G3 with medium-sized crystals presented the highest flexural strength, hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness. G1 and G2 with small-sized crystals showed lower flexural strength, whereas G4, GC-P, and GC-O with large-sized crystals exhibited lower hardness and elastic modulus. The wear behaviors of all six groups showed running-in wear stage and steady wear stage. G3 showed the best wear resistance while GC-P and GC-O exhibited the highest wear volume loss. After crystal refining, lithium disilicate glass-ceramic with medium-sized crystals showed the highest wear resistance and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2018

  7. Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure for determining the wear of materials during sliding using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Materials are tested in pairs under nominally non-abrasive conditions. The principal areas of experimental attention in using this type of apparatus to measure wear are described. The coefficient of friction may also be determined. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.; Russel, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by an Ames-led project team under a 4-year DOE-ITP sponsored project titled, 'Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency.' The Report serves as the project deliverable for the CPS agreement number 15015. The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a family of lightweight, bulk composite materials that are highly resistant to degradation by erosive and abrasive wear. These materials, based on AlMgB{sub 14}, are projected to save over 30 TBtu of energy per year when fully implemented in industrial applications, with the associated environmental benefits of eliminating the burning of 1.5 M tons/yr of coal and averting the release of 4.2 M tons/yr of CO{sub 2} into the air. This program targeted applications in the mining, drilling, machining, and dry erosion applications as key platforms for initial commercialization, which includes some of the most severe wear conditions in industry. Production-scale manufacturing of this technology has begun through a start-up company, NewTech Ceramics (NTC). This project included providing technical support to NTC in order to facilitate cost-effective mass production of the wear-resistant boride components. Resolution of issues related to processing scale-up, reduction in energy intensity during processing, and improving the quality and performance of the composites, without adding to the cost of processing were among the primary technical focus areas of this program. Compositional refinements were also investigated in order to achieve the maximum wear resistance. In addition, synthesis of large-scale, single-phase AlMgB{sub 14} powder was conducted for use as PVD sputtering targets for nanocoating applications.

  9. Study on design of light-weight super-abrasive wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, K.; Yanagihara, K.; Ogawa, M.

    2018-01-01

    Fixed-abrasive tool, also called a grinding wheel, is produced by furnacing abrasive compound which contains abrasive grains and binding powder such as vitrified materials or resins. Fixed-abrasive tool is installed on spindle of grinding machine. And it is given 1,800-2,000 min-1 of spindle rotation for the usage. The centrifugal fracture of the compound of fixed- abrasive tool is one of the careful respects in designing. In recent years, however, super-abrasive wheel as a fixed-abrasive tool has been developed and applied widely. One of the most characteristic respects is that metal is applied for the body of grinding-wheel. The strength to hold abrasive grain and the rigidity of wheel become stronger than those of general grinding wheel, also the lifespan of fixed-abrasive tool becomes longer. The weight of fixed-abrasive tool, however, becomes heavier. Therefore, when the super-abrasive wheel is used, the power consumption of spindle motor becomes larger. It also becomes difficult for the grinding-wheel to respond to sudden acceleration or deceleration. Thus, in order to reduce power consumption in grinding and to obtain quicker frequency response of super-abrasive wheel, the new wheel design is proposed. The design accomplishes 46% weight reduction. Acceleration that is one second quicker than that of conventional grinding wheel is obtained.

  10. Seat-belt wearing and driving behavior: an instrumented-vehicle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, W

    1994-04-01

    Less-than-expected fatality reductions after seat-belt legislation has been introduced in a jurisdiction may be explained in terms of selective recruitment of parts of the driving population and/or behavioral adaptation by beginning belt users. The present investigation has compared the relative merits of these two hypotheses at the level of individual driver behavior. In the initial study the driving behavior of groups of habitual wearers and nonwearers of the belt was compared. Nonwearers made two trips, one with the belt on and one without the belt. Habitual wearers drove belted only. The main part of the experiment was a 105 km freeway route. Two additional tasks of a somewhat more critical nature, a double lane-change manoeuvre and the performance of a braking manoeuvre in front of a fixed obstacle, were performed after the freeway trips. Factor analysis on 39 variables describing driving behavior on the road and during the additional tasks resulted in five factors. One of these, the factor describing the distribution of driving speed on the freeway, differentiated between nonwearers and wearers (thus yielding support for the selective recruitment hypothesis) as well as between wearing and not wearing the belt by the same drivers (thus yielding support for the behavioral adaptation hypothesis). In the follow-up study the original wearers and nonwearers were assigned to one of four experimental treatments: (i) the promise by the experimenter of a considerable incentive for not having a culpable motor vehicle accident over a period of a year. Half the habitual wearer subjects were assigned to this condition. The expectation was that this group would become more careful in their driving; (ii) a control group, consisting of the remaining habitual wearers; (iii) the agreement between the experimenter and the subject that the latter would buckle up in everyday driving for the year to come--half the habitual nonwearer subjects were assigned to this condition; (iv) a

  11. A Possible Link Between Macroscopic Wear and Temperature Dependent Friction Behaviors of MoS2 Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    measured during operation without breaking the gas environment. For this study, coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel spheres and rectangular...activated behavior in macroscopic tribology is reserved for systems with stable interfaces and ultra-low wear, and athermal behavior is characteristic to...efforts to measure and under- stand tribological behavior at cryogenic temperatures; to date, results of these efforts show either no trend or con- flicting

  12. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Wear Properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu/In-Situ Al-9Si-SiCp/Pure Al Composite by Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Byung Chul; Bae, Ki-Chang; Jung, Je Ki; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Park, Yong Ho

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and wear properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu/in-situ Al-9Si-SiCp/pure Al composites. Pure Al powder was used to increase densification but it resulted in heterogeneous precipitation as well as differences in hardness among the grains. Heat treatment was conducted to solve this problem. The heat treatment process consisted of three stages: solution treatment, quenching, and aging treatment. After the solution treatment, the main dissolved phases were η'(Mg4Zn7), η(MgZn2), and Al2Cu phase. An aging treatment was conducted over the temperature range, 100-240 °C, for various times. The GP zone and η'(Mg4Zn7) phase precipitated at a low aging temperature of 100-160 °C, whereas the η(MgZn2) phase precipitated at a high aging temperature of 200-240 °C. The hardness of the sample aged at 100-160 °C was higher than that aged at 200-240 °C. The wear test was conducted under various linear speeds with a load of 100 N. The aged composite showed a lower wear rate than that of the as-sintered composite under all conditions. As the linear speed was increased to 1.0 m/s, the predominant wear behavior changed from abrasive to adhesive wear in all composites.

  13. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Wear Properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu/In-Situ Al-9Si-SiCp/Pure Al Composite by Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Byung Chul; Bae, Ki-Chang; Jung, Je Ki; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Park, Yong Ho

    2018-05-01

    This study examined the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and wear properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu/in-situ Al-9Si-SiCp/pure Al composites. Pure Al powder was used to increase densification but it resulted in heterogeneous precipitation as well as differences in hardness among the grains. Heat treatment was conducted to solve this problem. The heat treatment process consisted of three stages: solution treatment, quenching, and aging treatment. After the solution treatment, the main dissolved phases were η'(Mg4Zn7), η(MgZn2), and Al2Cu phase. An aging treatment was conducted over the temperature range, 100-240 °C, for various times. The GP zone and η'(Mg4Zn7) phase precipitated at a low aging temperature of 100-160 °C, whereas the η(MgZn2) phase precipitated at a high aging temperature of 200-240 °C. The hardness of the sample aged at 100-160 °C was higher than that aged at 200-240 °C. The wear test was conducted under various linear speeds with a load of 100 N. The aged composite showed a lower wear rate than that of the as-sintered composite under all conditions. As the linear speed was increased to 1.0 m/s, the predominant wear behavior changed from abrasive to adhesive wear in all composites.

  14. Mechanical behavior and wear prediction of stir cast Al–TiB2 composites using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, S.; Shenbaga Vinayaga Moorthi, N.; Vettivel, S.C.; Selvakumar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Various experiments were conducted on Al6061–TiB 2 composite. • XRD and EDS studies confirm the crystalline size and elements present. • SEM, EDS and OM observations were used to study the characteristics. • Curve fitting and RSM design methods are effectively used to develop the model. - Abstract: Al6061 was reinforced with various percentages of TiB 2 particles by using high energy stir casting method. The characterization was performed through X-ray Diffraction, Energy Dispersive Spectrum and Scanning Electron Microscope. The mechanical behaviors such as hardness, tensile strength and tribological behavior were investigated. Wear experiments were conducted by using a pin-on-disc wear tester at varying load. The curve fitting technique was used to develop the respective polynomial and power law equations. The wear mechanism of the specimen was studied through SEM. Response Surface Methodology was used to minimize the number of experimental conditions and develop the mathematical models between the key process parameters namely weight percentage of TiB 2 , load and sliding distance. Analysis of Variance technique was applied to check the validity of the developed model. The mathematical model developed for the specific wear rate was predicted at 99.5% confidence level and some useful conclusions were made

  15. Abrasive water jets for controlled demolition and dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abudaka, M.; Crofton, P.S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Abrasive water jets offer an efficient high speed cutting tool for hard materials such as reinforced concrete, tool steel and armour plate. Cutting by abrasive water jets is often described as a cold cutting operation since no heat is developed and any increase in local temperature is immediately cooled by the water jet. Moreover no sparks are generated to ignite a potentially inflammable atmosphere. Mass flow rates of water and abrasive are small (typically 4 litres/min.water and 1 kg/min abrasive) and hence are easy to collect and to dispose of. For these reasons abrasive water jets offer certain advantages in cutting difficult materials in hazardous environments such as in the nuclear industry, offshore oil rigs and petrochemical plant. Available portable cutting systems are described and the advantages of using abrasive water jets are discussed as well as some of the parameters involved in the cutting operation. Finally a description is presented of some typical applications of abrasive water jet cutting. (author)

  16. Cleaning power and abrasivity of European toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülknitz, P

    1997-11-01

    For 41 toothpastes available to European consumers in 1995, the cleaning efficacy was evaluated in comparison with abrasivity on dentin (RDA value). For cleaning power assessment, a modified pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) measurement method was developed. The method is characterized by a five-day tea-staining procedure on bovine front teeth slabs on a rotating wheel, standardized brushing of the slabs in a V8 cross-brushing machine, and brightness measurement by a chromametric technique. All tested products were in accordance with the new DIN/ISO standard 11,609 for toothpastes in terms of dentin abrasivity. Not a single product exceeded an RDA value of 200. The majority of toothpastes (80%) had an RDA value below 100. Only three products surpassed the reference in cleaning power. Most products (73%) had a cleaning power (PCR value) between 20 and 80. The correlation between cleaning power and dentin abrasion was low (r = 0.66), which can be explained with the different influence on dentin and stains by factors like abrasive type, particle surface and size, as well as the chemical influence of other toothpaste ingredients. Some major trends could be shown on the basis of abrasive types. The ratio PCR to RDA was rather good in most silica-based toothpastes. A lower ratio was found in some products containing calcium carbonate or aluminum trihydrate as the only abrasive. The addition of other abrasives, such as polishing alumina, showed improved cleaning power. Some active ingredients, especially sequenstrants such as sodium tripolyphosphate or AHBP, also improve the PCR/RDA ratio by stain-dissolving action without being abrasive. The data for some special anti-stain products did not differ significantly from standard products. Compared with data measured in 1988, a general trend toward reduced abrasivity without loss of cleaning efficacy could be noticed on the European toothpaste market. This may be mostly due to the increased use of high-performance abrasives such

  17. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF NiCrBSi COATINGS PREPARED BY LASER BEAM CLADDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Iždinská

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of processing conditions on the microstructure and abrasive wear behavior of a NiCrBSi laser clad coating is analyzed. The powder was applied onto a mild steel substrate (Fe–0.17% C by different laser powers and cladding speeds providing 0.7 – 1.2 mm thick coatings. The microstructure of coatings was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX was applied for chemical analysis and tribological properties of coatings were evaluated by pin-on-disc wear test. EDX analysis reveals the influence of cladding speed on dilution of iron from the substrate into the coating. Higher iron content matches with lower hardness and wear resistance of appropriate coatings. Obtained results indicate that laser cladding is suitable technique for manufacturing NiCrBSi abrasive wear coatings and that it is possible to find out proper parameters in order to optimize tribological behavior of these coatings.

  18. Fretting and wear behaviors of Ni/nano-WC composite coatings in dry and wet conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benea, Lidia; Başa, Sorin-Bogdan; Dănăilă, Eliza; Caron, Nadège; Raquet, Olivier; Ponthiaux, Pierre; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The friction and wear properties of Ni/nano-WC composite were studied. • Nano-WC reinforcement decreased friction coefficient in dry and wet conditions. • Nano-WC reinforcement fraction was seen to be 12 wt.%. • Nanohardness increased by 27% compared to nickel without WC reinforcements. • Ennoblement of OCP corresponding to the Ni/nano-WC composite coating. - Abstract: The fretting and wear behaviors of Ni/nano-WC composite coatings were studied by considering the effect of fretting frequency of 1 Hz during 10,000 cycles, at different applied loads in dry or wet conditions. The studies were performed on a ball-on-disk tribometer and the results were compared with pure Ni coating. The nanohardness of pure Ni and Ni/nano-WC composite coatings was tested by nanoindentation technique. To evaluate the wet wear (tribocorrosion) behavior the open circuit potential (OCP) was measured before, during and after the fretting tests at room temperature in the solution that simulates the primary water circuit of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The results show that Ni/nano-WC composite coatings exhibited a low friction coefficient, high nanohardness and wear resistance compared with pure Ni coatings under similar experimental conditions. Ni/nano-WC composite coatings were obtained on stainless steel support by electrochemical codeposition of nano-sized WC particles (diameter size of ∼60 nm) with nickel, from a standard nickel Watts plating bath. The surface morphology and the composition of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) respectively

  19. Wear rate quantifying in real-time using the charged particle surface activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.

    1997-02-01

    Surface activation, commonly known as Thin Layer Activation (TLA), is currently employed in over 30 accelerator laboratories around the world for wear and/or corrosion monitoring in industrial plants [1-6]. TLA was primarily designed and developed to meet requirements of potential industrial partners, in order to transfer this technique from research to industry. The method consists of accelerated ion bombardment of a surface of interest, e.g., a machine part subjected to wear. Loss of material owing to wear, erosive corrosion or abrasion is characterized by monitoring the resultant changes in radioactivity. In principle, depending upon the case at hand, one may choose to measure either the remnant activity of the component of interest or to monitor the activity of the debris. For applications of the second type, especially when a lubricating agent is involved, dedicated installations have been constructed and adapted to an engine or a tribological testing stand in order to assure oil circulation around an externally placed detection gauge. This way, the wear particles suspended in the lubricant can be detected and the material loss rates quantified in real time. Moreover, in specific cases, such as the one presented in this paper, remnant activity measurements prove to be useful tools for complementary results. This paper provides a detailed presentation of such a case: in situ resistance-to-wear testing of two types of piston rings.

  20. Design and tailoring of Ni-Sn-W composites for bonded abrasive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourtoukova, G.L.; Demetry, C.; Biederman, R.R. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Program; Ramanath, S.; Andrews, R.M.; Jacobs, D.S. [Saint-Gobain/Norton Company, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2000-01-15

    The combination of properties ideal for metal bonds in abrasive products can rarely be achieved in a monolithic material. This research demonstrates a successful approach for producing a composite bond with higher elastic modulus without a significant increase in wear resistance, by taking advantage of the reaction between matrix and reinforcement to produce intermetallics. Composites comprised of a Ni-Sn matrix with continuous W fiber and/or W powder dispersoid were prepared by powder metallurgy methods. Composite specimens densified by hot pressing were characterized with a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, measurements of wear resistance, and measurements of Young's modulus and hardness by both bulk and nanoindentation methods. A significant stiffening effect was observed; the elastic modulus of the composites was up to 30% greater than that predicted by a rule of mixtures based on the moduli of the unreacted fiber and matrix constituents alone. As desired, the wear resistance of the composite was approximately equal to that of the Ni-Sn matrix. One contribution to this combination of properties is believed to be the high elastic moduli and likely low fracture toughness of the Ni-W and Ni-Sn intermetallics that are formed. Properties of the Ni-Sn-W composites are contrasted with those of a Ni-Sn matrix reinforced with WC particulate, where no reaction occurs at the interface. (orig.)

  1. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Gorin, Andrew H.; Seals, Roland D.

    1994-01-01

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  2. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Gorin, A.H.; Seals, R.D.

    1994-11-22

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  3. Dry sliding wear behavior and corrosion resistance of NiCrBSi coating deposited by activated combustion-high velocity air fuel spray process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shenglin; Zheng, Xueping; Geng, Gangqiang

    2010-01-01

    NiCrBSi is a Ni-based superalloy widely used to obtain high wear and corrosion resistant coatings. This Ni-based alloy coating has been deposited onto 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel using the AC-HVAF technique. The structure and morphologies of the Ni-based coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The wear resistance and corrosion resistance were studied. The tribological behaviors were evaluated using a HT-600 wear test rig. The wear resistance of the Ni-based coating was shown to be higher than that of the 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel because Fe 3 B, with high hardness, was distributed in the coating so the dispersion strengthening in the Ni-based coating was obvious and this increased the wear resistance of the Ni-based coating in a dry sliding wear test. Under the same conditions, the worn volume of 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel was 4.1 times greater than that of the Ni-based coating. The wear mechanism is mainly fatigue wear. A series of the electrochemical tests was carried out in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution in order to examine the corrosion behavior. The mechanisms for corrosion resistance are discussed.

  4. Determination of vibration frequency depending on abrasive mass flow rate during abrasive water jet cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Radvanská, A.; Hloch, Sergej; Peržel, V.; Krolczyk, G.; Monková, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 77, 1-4 (2014), s. 763-774 ISSN 0268-3768 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Abrasive water jet * Abrasive mass flow rate * Vibration Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.458, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00170-014-6497-9#page-1

  5. Effect of Load on Friction-Wear Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed WC-12Co Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifu, Jin; Weicheng, Kong; Tianyuan, Sheng; Ruihong, Zhang; Dejun, Kong

    2017-07-01

    A WC-12Co coating was sprayed on AISI H13 hot work mold steel using a high-velocity oxygen fuel. The morphologies, phase compositions, and distributions of chemical elements of the obtained coatings were analyzed using a field emission scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDS), respectively. The friction-wear behaviors under different loads were investigated using a reciprocating wear tester; the morphologies and distributions of the chemical elements of worn tracks were analyzed using a SEM and its configured EDS, respectively. The results show the reunited grains of WC are held together by the Co binder; the primary phases of the coating are WC, Co, and a small amount of W2C and W, owing to the oxidation and decarburization of WC. Inter-diffusion of Fe and W between the coating and the substrate is shown, which indicates a good coating adhesion. The values of the average coefficient of friction under the loads of 40, 80, and 120 N are 0.29, 0.31, and 0.49, respectively. The WC grains are pulled out of the coating during the sliding wear test, but the coating maintains its integrity, suggesting that the coating is intact and continuously protects the substrate from wearing.

  6. Dry sliding wear behaviour of Al-12Si-4Mg alloy with cerium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anasyida, A.S.; Daud, A.R.; Ghazali, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to understand the effect of cerium addition on wear resistance behaviour of as-cast alloys. Al-12Si-4 Mg alloys with 1-5 wt% cerium addition were prepared using the casting technique. A sliding wear test was carried out under applied loads of 10 N, 30 N and 50 N at a fixed sliding speed of 1 m/s using a pin-on-disc configuration. The wear test was conducted in dry conditions at room temperature of ∼25 o C. Detailed analysis of the microstructure, worn surface, collected debris and microhardness was undertaken in order to investigate the differences between the as-cast alloys with different levels of cerium addition. The addition of 1-5 wt% cerium was found to lead to the precipitation of intermetallic phases (Al-Ce), resulting a needle-like structures. Increasing cerium content up to 2 wt% improved both wear resistance and microhardness of as-cast alloys. Addition of more than 2 wt% cerium, however, led to a decrease in microhardness, resulting in lower wear resistance of the alloys. Moderate wear was observed at all loads, with specific wear rates (K') ranging from 6.82 x 10 -5 with 2 wt% Ce at applied load of 50 N to 21.48 x 10 -5 mm 3 /N m without added Ce at an applied load of 10 N. Based on K' ranges, the as-cast alloys exhibited moderate wear regimes, and the mechanism of wear is a combination of abrasion and adhesion. Alloy containing 2 wt% Ce, with the highest hardness and lowest K' value, showed the greatest wear resistance.

  7. Cerium Addition Improved the Dry Sliding Wear Resistance of Surface Welding AZ91 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqiang Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of cerium (Ce addition on the friction and wear properties of surface welding AZ91 magnesium alloys were evaluated by pin-on-disk dry sliding friction and wear tests at normal temperature. The results show that both the friction coefficient and wear rate of surfacing magnesium alloys decreased with the decrease in load and increase in sliding speed. The surfacing AZ91 alloy with 1.5% Ce had the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate. The alloy without Ce had the worst wear resistance, mainly because it contained a lot of irregularly shaped and coarse β-Mg17Al12 phases. During friction, the β phase readily caused stress concentration and thus formed cracks at the interface between β phase and α-Mg matrix. The addition of Ce reduced the size and amount of Mg17Al12, while generating Al4Ce phase with a higher thermal stability. The Al-Ce phase could hinder the grain-boundary sliding and migration and reduced the degree of plastic deformation of subsurface metal. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the surfacing AZ91 alloy with 1.5% Ce had a total of four types of wear mechanism: abrasion, oxidation, and severe plastic deformation were the primary mechanisms; delamination was the secondary mechanism.

  8. Influence of deep cryogenic treatment on structure and wear resistance of materials of hydraulic breaker chisels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolobov, V. I.; BinhLe, Thanh

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that shallow cryogenic treatment at -75°C (SCT) of the materials of hydraulic breaker chisels - P20, 1080 and D2 steels leads to a decrease (44 ÷ 82%) in the amount of retained austenite and an increase (26 ÷ 99%) in the amount of carbides in the structure of hardened steel, which is accompanied by an increase in its hardness (1.4 ÷ 2.1%) and abrasive wear resistance (10 ÷ 31%) with a simultaneous decrease in impact toughness (19 ÷ 24%). Deep cryogenic treatment at -196°C (DCT) and subsequent low-temperature tempering of D2 steel leads to a significant increase in its wear resistance (98%) and impact toughness (32%).

  9. Early stages of sliding wear behaviour of Al2O3 and SiC reinforced aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonollo, F.; Ceschini, L.; Garagnani, G.L.; Palombarini, G.; Tangerini, I.; Zambon, A.

    1993-01-01

    Al matrix composites reinforced by 10 vol.% Al 2 O 3 and SiC particles were subjected to dry sliding tests against steel using a slider-on-cylinder tribometer. Damage mechanisms were 'micro-machining' of the steel carried out by ceramic particles, plastic deformation and oxidation of the metal matrix, as well as abrasion. The results were discussed on the basis of the third-body wear model. (orig.)

  10. Microstructure and wear behavior of stellite 6 cladding on 17-4 PH stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipour, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamanian, M., E-mail: shamanian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashrafizadeh, F. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-07

    Research highlights: > The microstructure of the surface layer consisted of carbides embedded in a Co-rich solid solution with dendritic structure. Primary phases formed during the process were identified as Co(FCC) and lamellar eutectic phases (M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, M{sub 6}C, Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}). > Microhardness profiles showed that hardness increases from interface to the coating surface. This is due to the finer size of the grains at coating surface in comparison to that at interface and also diffusion of Fe adjacent to the interface. > The delamination was suggested as the dominant mechanism of the wear. In this regard, plate-like wear debris consisted of voids and cracks. In addition, due to increase in surface temperature, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide phase was formed during wear tests. - Abstract: This paper deals with the investigation of the microstructure and wear behavior of the stellite 6 cladding on precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (17-4PH) using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) method. 17-4 PH stainless steel is widely used in oil and gas industries. Optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were employed to study the microstructure and wear mechanisms. X-ray diffraction analysis was also used to identify phases formed in the coating. The results showed that the microstructure of the surface layer consisted of carbides embedded in a Co-rich solid solution with a dendritic structure. In addition, the dendritic growth in the coating was epitaxial. Primary phases formed during the process were Co (fcc), Co (hcp), lamellar eutectic phases, M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} type carbides. The results of the wear tests indicated that the delamination was the dominant mechanism. So, it is necessary to apply an inter-layer between the substrate and top coat.

  11. Wear mechanisms of toughened zirconias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, P.C.; Libsch, T.A.; Rhee, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    The dry friction and wear behavior of toughened zirconias against hardened steel was studied using the falex ring and block technique. Three experimental ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 ceramics and two commerical ZrO 2 -MgO ceramics were investigated. Each ceramic was tested at 500 and 2000 rpm at normal loads in the range 2.3 to 40.8 kg. Significant trends in the friction and wear data were found correlating composition, test speeds, and loads. Microstructural examination of the ring, ceramic block, and wear debris has shown that the wear process is very complex and incorporates a number of mechanisms

  12. Behavior and biological action of 239Pu while getting into skin abrasions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhin, A.G.; Lyubchanskij, Eh.R.; Nifatov, A.N.; Sinyakov, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The levels of the radionuclide resorption are given through abrasions in applying 224-906 kBk of 239 Pu on them (0.6=1.5 % for 600 days), the nature of distribution and parameters of its exchange in the test skin area, skeleton and liver. Data of morphological studies are presented. The influence of prolonged complexon therapy on 239 Pu content in organs and tissues, mean life span, the frequency of appearance of morphological changes in test skin areas with the contamination density of 40; 184 and 722 kBk of 239 Pu/cm 2 and the frequency of tumor development including malignancy in case of applying 224 and 906 kBk of 239 Pu to abrasions is evaluated. It has been established that as a result of complexon therapy dosage exposure of the skeleton lessened by 4-5 times, the mean life span of rats with tumors increased, the development of osteosarcomas caused by Pu reduced from 23.6-36.2 to 4.4-6.2 % but the therapy did not influence the frequency of pathological changes in the test skin area

  13. WearSense: Detecting Autism Stereotypic Behaviors through Smartwatches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Amiri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex developmental disorder that affects approximately 1 in 68 children (according to the recent survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—CDC in the U.S., and has become the fastest growing category of special education. Each student with autism comes with her or his own unique needs and an array of behaviors and habits that can be severe and which interfere with everyday tasks. Autism is associated with intellectual disability, impairments in social skills, and physical health issues such as sleep and abdominal disturbances. We have designed an Internet-of-Things (IoT framework named WearSense that leverages the sensing capabilities of modern smartwatches to detect stereotypic behaviors in children with autism. In this work, we present a study that used the inbuilt accelerometer of a smartwatch to detect three behaviors, including hand flapping, painting, and sibbing that are commonly observed in children with autism. In this feasibility study, we recruited 14 subjects to record the accelerometer data from the smartwatch worn on the wrist. The processing part extracts 34 different features in each dimension of the three-axis accelerometer, resulting in 102 features. Using and comparing various classification techniques revealed that an ensemble of 40 decision trees has the best accuracy of around 94.6%. This accuracy shows the quality of the data collected from the smartwatch and feature extraction methods used in this study. The recognition of these behaviors by using a smartwatch would be helpful in monitoring individuals with autistic behaviors, since the smartwatch can send the data to the cloud for comprehensive analysis and also to help parents, caregivers, and clinicians make informed decisions.

  14. Ion implantation and ion assisted coatings for wear resistance in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1986-01-01

    The implantation of electrically accelerated ions of chosen elements into the surface of material provides a method for improving surface properties such as wear resistance. High concentrations of nitrogen implanted into metals create obstacles to dislocation movement, and certain combinations of metallic and non-metallic species will also strengthen the surface. The process is best applied to situations involving mild abrasive wear and operating temperatures that are not too high. Some dramatic increases in life have been reported under such favourable conditions. A more recent development has been the combination of a thin coating with reactive ion bombardment designed to enhance adhesion by ion mixing at the interface and so provide hardness by the formation of finely dispersed nitrides, including cubic boron nitride. These coatings often possess vivid and decorative colours as an added benefit. Developments in the equipment for industrial ion implantation now offer more attractive costs per unit area and a potentially greater throughput of work. A versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments is now emerging, involving the use of intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (author)

  15. Wear behavior of A356/M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and A356/SiC particulate metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhan, H. [Univ. of Firat, Dept. of Metallurgy, Elazig (Turkey); Yilmaz, O. [Univ. of Firat, Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Elazig (Turkey)

    2002-06-01

    The stability of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides as reinforcement for A356 materials for tribological applications has been investigated. For this purpose, A356/M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, A356/SiC and A356/M{sub 7}C{sub 3}/SiC composites were prepared by powder metallurgy and tested at room temperature against SAE 4620 steel ring and AISI 304 stainless steel counterfaces under loads of 10 - 150 N. For comparison, also unreinforced A356 specimens were processed and tested under the same conditions. The tribological behavior was evaluated by microstructural examination of the wear-effected zones and by weight loss measurements of the specimens and counterfaces. The wear behavior of A356/M{sub 7}C{sub 3} composite gave an excellent result as function of the applied load because the M{sub 7}C{sub 3} particles act as load-bearing elements due to their excellent bonding to the Al matrix, and their interfaces withtood the wear stresses even at the highest applied load. Moreover, the M{sub 7}C{sub 3} particles limited the incorporation of wear debris into the Al matrix and reduced the wear damage occasioned to the steel counterfaces compared to that of A356 Al alloy. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of refractory lining wear of Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN) blast furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, N.J. dos; Mello, A.H.B. de; Pereira, C.L.; Paula Sarkis, D. de; Martins Filho, D.I.; Banados Perez, H.E.; Carvalho, G.; Daltro, T.F.L.

    1984-01-01

    The blast furnace refractory linings are submitted to unfavourable conditions such as alkalis attack, temperature, top pressure, abrasion and so forth... After studies on distribution and installation of radioactive sources with low activities in the refractory lining, it was possible to develop a new technique of thickness evaluation and attendance of wearing in the furnace lining. The viability analysis, simulated laboratory tests, localization, identification, installations and periodical measurements of the radioactive sources are described, as well the results obtained on the present campaign of CSN Blast Furnaces. (Author) [pt

  17. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  18. Microstructure and surface chemistry of amorphous alloys important to their friction and wear behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the microstructure and surface chemistry of amorphous alloys, and their effects on tribological behavior. The results indicate that the surface oxide layers present on amorphous alloys are effective in providing low friction and a protective film against wear in air. Clustering and crystallization in amorphous alloys can be enhanced as a result of plastic flow during the sliding process at a low sliding velocity, at room temperature. Clusters or crystallines with sizes to 150 nm and a diffused honeycomb-shaped structure are produced on sizes to 150 nm and a diffused honeycomb-shaped structure are produced on the wear surface. Temperature effects lead to drastic changes in surface chemistry and friction behavior of the alloys at temperatures to 750 C. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the alloys to the surface upon heating and impart to the surface oxides at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The oxides increase friction while the boron nitride reduces friction drastically in vacuum.

  19. Laser cladding of copper with molybdenum for wear resistance enhancement in electrical contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.W.; Man, H.C.; Cheng, F.T.; Yue, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Laser cladding of Mo on Cu has been attempted with the aim of enhancing the wear resistance and hence increasing the service life of electrical contacts made of Cu. In order to overcome the difficulties arising from the large difference in thermal properties and the low mutual solubility between Cu and Mo, Ni was introduced as an intermediate layer between Mo and Cu. The Ni and Mo layers were laser clad one after the other to form a sandwich layer of Mo/Ni/Cu. Excellent bonding between the clad layer and the Cu substrate was ensured by strong metallurgical bonding. The hardness of the surface of the clad layer is seven times higher than that of the Cu substrate. Pin-on-disc wear tests consistently showed that the abrasive wear resistance of the clad layer was also improved by a factor of seven as compared with untreated Cu substrate. The specific electrical contact resistance of the clad surface was about 5.6 x 10 -7 Ω cm 2

  20. Wear studies on ZrO2-filled PEEK as coating bearing materials for artificial cervical discs of Ti6Al4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Liu, Yuhong; Liao, Zhenhua; Wang, Song; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Liu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and its composite coatings are believed to be the potential candidates' bio-implant materials. However, these coatings have not yet been used on the surface of titanium-based orthopedics and joint products and very few investigations on the tribological characteristics could be found in the published literature till date. In this study, the wettabilities, composition and micro-hardness were characterized using contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hardness tester. The tribological tests were conducted using a ball-on-disc contact pair under 25% newborn calf serum (NCS) lubricated condition. For comparison, bare Ti6Al4V was studied. The obtained results revealed that those PEEK/ZrO 2 composite coatings could improve the tribological properties of Ti6Al4V significantly. Adhesive wear and mild abrasive wear might be the dominant wear and failure mechanisms for PEEK/ZrO 2 composite coatings in NCS lubricated condition. After comprehensive evaluation in the present study, 5 wt.% ZrO 2 nanoparticles filled PEEK coating displayed the optimum tribological characteristics and could be taken as a potential candidate for the bearing material of artificial cervical disc. - Graphical abstract: Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a type of biomaterial which might be used in surface modification. In this study, the wettabilities, composition, hardness, friction and wear characteristics of PEEK/ZrO 2 coatings were investigated, compared with bare Ti6Al4V sample. After comprehensive evaluation, 5 wt.% ZrO 2 nanoparticles filled PEEK coating displayed the optimum tribological characteristics and could be taken as a potential candidate for the bearing material of artificial cervical disc. - Highlights: • PEEK coating were filled by ZrO 2 nanoparticles with different weight percentage. • The lubrication regime of all the tested samples are boundary lubrication. • Adhesive wear and mild abrasive wear were the dominant wear

  1. Carbon-Based Wear Coatings: Properties and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2003-01-01

    The technical function of numerous engineering systems - such as vehicles, machines, and instruments - depends on the processes of motion and on the surface systems. Many processes in nature and technology depend on the motion and dynamic behavior of solids, liquids, and gases. Smart surface systems are essential because of the recent technological push toward higher speeds, loads, and operating temperatures; longer life; lighter weight and smaller size (including nanotechnology); and harsh environments in mechanical, mechatronic, and biomechanical systems. If proper attention is not given to surface systems, then vehicles, machines, instruments, and other technical systems could have short lives, consume excessive energy, experience breakdowns, result in liabilities, and fail to accomplish their missions. Surface systems strongly affect our national economy and our lifestyles. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we believe that proper attention to surface systems, especially in education, research, and application, could lead to economic savings of between 1.3 and 1.6 percent of the gross domestic product. Wear coatings and surface systems continue to experience rapid growth as new coating and surface engineering technologies are discovered, more cost-effective coating and surface engineering solutions are developed, and marketers aggressively pursue, uncover, and exploit new applications for engineered surface systems in cutting tools and wear components. Wear coatings and smart surface systems have been used widely in industrial, consumer, automotive, aerospace, and biomedical applications. This presentation expresses the author's views of and insights into smart surface systems in wear coatings. A revolution is taking place in carbon science and technology. Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, joins graphite, fullerenes, and nanotubes as its major pure carbon structures. It has a unique combination of extreme properties: hardness and abrasion resistance; adhesion

  2. Modeling wear of cast Ti alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S; Koike, Marie; Okabe, Toru

    2007-05-01

    The wear behavior of Ti-based alloys was analyzed by considering the elastic-plastic fracture of individual alloys in response to the relevant contact stress field. Using the contact stresses as the process driving force, wear was computed as the wear rate or volume loss as a function of hardness and tensile ductility for Ti-based cast alloys containing an alpha, alpha+beta or beta microstructure with or without the intermetallic precipitates. Model predictions indicated that wear of Ti alloys increases with increasing hardness but with decreasing fracture toughness or tensile ductility. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data to elucidate the roles of microstructure in wear and contrasted against those in grindability.

  3. The Sliding Wear and Friction Behavior of M50-Graphene Self-Lubricating Composites Prepared by Laser Additive Manufacturing at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyao; Shi, Xiaoliang; Huang, Yuchun; Deng, Xiaobin; Lu, Guanchen; Yan, Zhao; Zhou, Hongyan; Xue, Bing

    2018-03-01

    M50 steel is widely applied to manufacture aircraft bearings where service lives are mainly determined by the friction and wear behaviors. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the tribological behaviors and wear mechanisms of M50-1.5 wt.% graphene composites (MGC) prepared by laser additive manufacturing (LAM) (MGC-LAM) sliding against Si3N4 ball from 25 to 550 °C at 18 N-0.2 m/s. XRD, EPMA, FESEM, and EDS mapping were conducted to understand the major mechanisms leading to the improvement in the sliding behavior of MGC-LAM. The results indicated that MGC-LAM showed the excellent friction and wear performance at 25-550 °C for the lower friction coefficient of 0.16-0.52 and less wear rate of 6.1-9.5 × 10-7 mm3 N-1 m-1. Especially at 350 °C, MGC-LAM obtained the best tribological performance (0.16, 6.1 × 10-7mm3 N-1 m-1). It was attributed to the dense coral-like microstructure, as well as the formed surface lubricating structure which is composed of the upper uniform lubricating film with massive graphene and the underneath compacted layer.

  4. Recent Developments in Abrasive Hybrid Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszaj Adam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent dynamic development of abrasive hybrid manufacturing processes results from application of a new difficult for machining materials and improvement of technological indicators of manufacturing processes already applied in practice. This tendency also occurs in abrasive machining processes which are often supported by ultrasonic vibrations, electrochemical dissolution or by electrical discharges. In the paper we present the review of new results of investigations and new practical applications of Abrasive Electrodischarge (AEDM and Electrochemical (AECM Machining.

  5. Sandstone Turning by Abrasive Waterjet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Petr; Cárach, J.; Hloch, Sergej; Vasilko, K.; Klichová, Dagmar; Klich, Jiří; Lehocká, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2015), s. 2489-2493 ISSN 0723-2632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : turning away from the jet * conventional turning towards the jet * sandstone * abrasive water jet Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2015 http://www.springerprofessional.de/sandstone-turning-by-abrasive-waterjet/6038028.html

  6. Wear studies on ZrO{sub 2}-filled PEEK as coating bearing materials for artificial cervical discs of Ti6Al4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Yuhong, E-mail: liuyuhong@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liao, Zhenhua; Wang, Song [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Biomechanics and Biotechnology Lab, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Tyagi, Rajnesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi, Varanasi 221005 (India); Liu, Weiqiang, E-mail: weiqliu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Biomechanics and Biotechnology Lab, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and its composite coatings are believed to be the potential candidates' bio-implant materials. However, these coatings have not yet been used on the surface of titanium-based orthopedics and joint products and very few investigations on the tribological characteristics could be found in the published literature till date. In this study, the wettabilities, composition and micro-hardness were characterized using contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hardness tester. The tribological tests were conducted using a ball-on-disc contact pair under 25% newborn calf serum (NCS) lubricated condition. For comparison, bare Ti6Al4V was studied. The obtained results revealed that those PEEK/ZrO{sub 2} composite coatings could improve the tribological properties of Ti6Al4V significantly. Adhesive wear and mild abrasive wear might be the dominant wear and failure mechanisms for PEEK/ZrO{sub 2} composite coatings in NCS lubricated condition. After comprehensive evaluation in the present study, 5 wt.% ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles filled PEEK coating displayed the optimum tribological characteristics and could be taken as a potential candidate for the bearing material of artificial cervical disc. - Graphical abstract: Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a type of biomaterial which might be used in surface modification. In this study, the wettabilities, composition, hardness, friction and wear characteristics of PEEK/ZrO{sub 2} coatings were investigated, compared with bare Ti6Al4V sample. After comprehensive evaluation, 5 wt.% ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles filled PEEK coating displayed the optimum tribological characteristics and could be taken as a potential candidate for the bearing material of artificial cervical disc. - Highlights: • PEEK coating were filled by ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles with different weight percentage. • The lubrication regime of all the tested samples are boundary lubrication. • Adhesive wear and mild abrasive

  7. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa H. X. Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38–80 μm versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p<0.05 despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine.

  8. Corrosion-wear of β-Ti alloy TMZF (Ti-12Mo-6Zr-2Fe) in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyuan; Hutchinson, Christopher R

    2016-09-15

    Titanium alloys are popular metallic implant materials for use in total hip replacements. Although, α+β titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V have been the most commonly used alloys, the high Young's modulus (∼110GPa) leads to an undesirable stress shielding effect. An alternative is to use β titanium alloys that exhibit a significantly lower Young's modulus (∼70GPa). Femoral stems made of a β titanium alloy known as TMZF (Ti-12Mo-6Zr-2Fe (wt.%)) have been used as part of modular hip replacements since the early 2000's but these were recalled in 2011 by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) due to unacceptable levels of 'wear debris'. The wear was caused by small relative movement of the stem and neck at the junction where they fit together in the modular hip replacement design. In this study, the corrosion and wear properties of the TMZF alloy were investigated in simulated body fluid to identify the reason for the wear debris generation. Ti64 was used as a control for comparison. It is shown that the interaction between the surfaces of Ti64 and TMZF with simulated body fluid is very similar, both from the point of view of the products formed and the kinetics of the reaction. The dry wear behaviour of TMZF is also close to that of Ti64 and consistent with expectations based on Archard's law for abrasive wear. However, wear of Ti64 and TMZF in simulated body fluid show contrasting behaviours. A type of time-dependent wear test is used to examine the synergy between corrosion and wear of TMZF and Ti64. It is shown that the wear of TMZF accelerated rapidly in SBF whereas that of Ti64 is reduced. The critical role of the strain hardening capacity of the two materials and its role in helping the surface resist abrasion by hydroxyapatite particles formed as a result of the reaction with the SBF is discussed and recommendations are made for modifications that could be made to the TMZF alloy to improve the corrosion-wear response. TMZF is a low modulus β-Ti alloy

  9. Microhardness and wear resistance of PEO-coated 5754 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyaliy, I. E.; Egorkin, V. S.; Sinebryukhov, S. L.; Minaev, A. N.; Gnedenkov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    We present results of the study aimed at assessing the effect of duty cycle (D) during plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on protective properties of the coatings produced on 5754 aluminum alloy. It is shown that increasing the duty cycle of a microsecond current pulses leads to increased hardness and reduced abrasive wear of the PEO-layers, improving mechanical properties. The obtained data allowed confirming, that increasing the amount of energy consumed for coating growth leads to the formation of thicker PEO-layers with improved tribological properties. The effect of duty cycle during plasma electrolytic oxidation on protective properties of the produced coatings was assessed.

  10. Life cycle and sustainability of abrasive tools

    CERN Document Server

    Linke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This monograph focuses on abrasive tools for grinding, polishing, honing, and lapping operations. The book describes the life cycle of abrasive tools from raw material processing of abrasive grits and bonding, manufacturing of monolithic or multi-layered tools, tool use to tool end-of-life. Moreover, this work highlights sustainability challenges including economic, environmental, social and technological aspects. The target audience primarily comprises research and industry experts in the field of manufacturing, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  11. Synthesis, microstructural and mechanical properties of ex situ zircon particles (ZrSiO4 reinforced Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Thandalam

    2015-07-01

    This review article details the current development on the synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of zircon reinforced MMCs, with specific attention on the abrasive wear behavior of the composites. This review also summarizes the work done by various research groups on zircon reinforced MMCs in achieving higher hardness and wear resistance in these composites.

  12. Study of Surface Wear and Damage Induced by Dry Sliding of Tempered AISI 4140 Steel against Hardened AISI 1055 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elhadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In industry, the sliding mechanical systems are subject to friction and wear phenomena. These phenomena can be the origin of a reduction of the efficiency of the mechanical system even to be responsible for its incapacity. Generally, the materials of the parts which are moving relative (tribological couple of these systems are low alloy steels and carbon steels, thanks to their good mechanical and tribological properties. The present work aimed to study, the surface wear and damage induced by dry sliding of hard carbon steel AISI 1055 (disc against tempered low alloy steel AISI 4140 (pin with different hardness and applied loads was investigated. The results revealed that the interaction between the applied load and pin hardness result in complex thermo-mechanical behaviour of the worn surfaces. When a lower hardness pin is used, the main wear mechanisms observed on the discs were abrasion, adhesion, and oxidation. When a higher hardness pin is used, the wear of the discs is governed by delamination, oxidation, and plastic deformation. In particular, third-body wear occurs at high applied load resulting in higher wear rate of high hardness pins compared to low hardness pins.

  13. Development of dynamic models of wagons on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies taking into account wheel wear research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Saidova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Wear parameters clarification in wear simulation is an actual goal because of absence of corresponding data for freight cars in condition of using them on Russian railways. Research is devoted to development of dynamic models of wagons on three-peace two-axle models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies with maximum axle-loads 23,5 ts and 25 ts, and to choice of factors, with varying which parameters in the model of wheel wear can be identified. Methodology. The problem is solved by method of mathematic simulation in «MEDYNA» software. Wear calculation is based on abrasive wear theory (Archard’s theory. Findings. Clarification of wheels’ wear model may be done with varying of friction coefficient between wheel and rail for different wheel profile areas (flange and tread, wear coefficient in Archard’s model for mild and heavy wear and transition between them. Originality. Dynamic models of universal gondola on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies are developed. It is established, that rail treads irregularities size effect wheel wear insignificantly, when car is running on circle track of constant radius. Practical value. Developed dynamic models of wagons on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies may be used in wear simulation, determination of car running characteristics, interaction of car and rail of different type, construction, condition and etc. Research results of some factors influence on freight car wheel wear may be interesting for people, who study this problem.

  14. Abrasive water jet: a complementary tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, J.P.; Pecas, P.; Nunes, E.; Gouveia, H.

    1998-01-01

    The abrasive water jet is a powerful cutting tool, whose main advantages lie in the absence of thermal effects and the capability of cutting highly thick materials. Compared with Laser, the abrasive water jet allows the cutting of a larger range of thicknesses and a wider variety of materials such as: ornamental stones, metals, polymers, composites, wood, glass ceramics. The application of this technology has suffered and extensive growth, with successful applications in varied industrial sectors like the automotive, aerospace, textile, metalworking, ornamental stones, etc. The present communication aims at introducing the abrasive water jet as a complementary tool to laser cutting, presenting its advantages by showing some documented examples of pieces cut for different industries. (Author) 5 refs

  15. Microstructure analysis and wear behavior of titanium cermet femoral head with hard TiC layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Ge, Shirong; Liu, Hongtao; Jin, Zhongmin

    2009-12-11

    Titanium cermet was successfully synthesized and formed a thin gradient titanium carbide coating on the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy by using a novel sequential carburization under high temperature, while the titanium cermet femoral head was produced. The titanium cermet phase and surface topography were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and backscattered electron imaging (BSE). And then the wear behavior of titanium cermet femoral head was investigated by using CUMT II artificial joint hip simulator. The surface characterization indicates that carbon effectively diffused into the titanium alloys and formed a hard TiC layer on the Ti6Al4V alloys surface with a micro-porous structure. The artificial hip joint experimental results show that titanium cermet femoral head could not only improve the wear resistance of artificial femoral head, but also decrease the wear of UHMWPE joint cup. In addition, the carburized titanium alloy femoral head could effectively control the UHMWPE debris distribution, and increase the size of UHMWPE debris. All of the results suggest that titanium cermet is a prospective femoral head material in artificial joint.

  16. Effect of Cu content on wear resistance and mechanical behavior of Ti-Cu binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feifei; Wang, Hefeng; Yuan, Guozheng; Shu, Xuefeng

    2017-04-01

    Arc melting with nonconsumable tungsten electrode and water-cooled copper crucible was used to fabricate Ti-Cu binary alloys with different Cu contents in an argon atmosphere. The compositions and phase structures of the fabricated alloys were investigated by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Nanoindentation tests through continuous stiffness measurement were then performed at room temperature to analyze the mechanical behaviors of the alloys. Results indicated that the composition of each Ti-Cu binary alloy was Ti(100- x) Cu x ( x = 43, 60, 69, and 74 at.%). The XRD analysis results showed that the alloys were composed of different phases, indicating that different Cu contents led to the variations in alloy hardness. The wear tests results revealed that elemental Cu positively affects the wear resistance properties of the Ti-Cu alloys. Nanoindentation testing results showed that the moduli of the Ti-Cu alloys were minimally changed at increasing Cu content, whereas their hardness evidently increased according to the wear test results.

  17. Effect of nanoparticles as lubricant additives on friction and wear behavior of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As diamond like carbon (DLC coating becomes increasingly popular in providing low friction and wear under lubricated conditions, the effect of various oil additives on tribological behavior of DLC coating is drawing more attention. Various oil additives, such as ZnDTP and MoDTC, have been widely used in automobile engine industry to pursuit excellent tribological performance in the insufficient lubrication condition. Although such commercial oil additives have been proven to reduce friction or/and wear to some extent, usage of such high -SAPS (sulphuric ash, phosphor, sulfphur conventional additives is bound to arouse concerns due to environmental reasons. In this research, we investigate the effect of two nanoparticle oil additives, which are cerium oxide (CeO2 and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2, on friction and wear of non-hydrogen tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C coating. The results show that by adding ZrO2 nanoparticle, the friction of DLC coating could be reduced about 32% compared to non-additive base oil scenario, but specific wear rate increases by 40%. When CeO2 nanoparticle is used, friction increases by 22% compared to non-additive base oil scenario, however wear decreases by nearly 77%.

  18. Wear- and heat resistance of vacuum-arc TiN and TiAlN based coatings with Si and Y additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, I.I.; Belous, V.A.; Grigor'ev, A.N.; Ermolenko, I.G.; Zadneprovskij, Yu.A.; Kovalenko, V.I.; Lomino, N.S.; Marinin, V.G.; Tolmacheva, G.N.; Sobol', O.V.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown, that insertion of silicon additives into TiN coatings and of yttrium into TiAlN coatings in explored limits (to a few wht. %) leads to increasing of resistance against abrasive friction wear. At the same time silicon or yttrium presence in the coatings leads to loos of their columnar structure and demonstrate decrease in the cavitation resistance. It is supposed, that such distinction in behaviour of the given working performances is a consequence of that mechanisms of the coating surface fracture at action of cavitation and abrasive friction are different. All explored coatings of (Ti-Si)N composition are not oxidised up to 600 o C, and of (Ti-Al-Y)N coatings - up to 800 o C.

  19. Tribological Behavior of Al-Cr Coating Obtained by Dgpsm and IIP Composite Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xixi; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhang, Pingze; Zhou, Keyin; Chen, Yu; Tao, Xuewei

    An Al-Cr composite alloyed layer composed of an Al enriched layer, a Cr enriched layer and a transition layer from the surface to the bulk along the cross-section was deposited on a 45# steel substrate by composite technology, where Cr was deposited using double glow plasma surface metallurgy (DGPSM), and Al was then implanted by ion implantation (IIP) to achieve higher micro-hardness and excellent abrasive resistance. The composite alloyed layer is approximately 5μm, and as metallurgical adherence to the substrate. The phases are Al8Cr5, Fe2AlCr, Cr23C6, Cr (Al) and Fe (Cr, Al) solid solution. The wear resistance tests were performed under various rotational speed (i.e. 280, 560 and 840r/min) with silicon nitride balls as the counterface material at ambient temperature. The Al-Cr composite alloyed layer exhibits excellent wear resistance when the speed is 280r/min with a friction coefficient as low as 0.3, which is attributed to Al8Cr5 in the Al implanted layer that withstands abrasive wear. Better wear resistance (friction coefficient: 0.254) at 560r/min is resulted from the formation of a high micro-hardness zone, and an oxidation layer with lubrication capacity. In addition, the composite alloyed layer suffers severe oxidative wear and adhesive wear at 840r/min due to the increment of the frictional heating. When compared to the 45# steel substrate, the enhanced wear resistance of the Al-Cr composite alloyed layer demonstrates the viable method developed in this work.

  20. Fretting wear behaviour of TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiN multi-layer coatings at elevated temperature in gross slip regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanwei; Huang Kunpeng; Zhu Minhao; Zhou Zhongrong

    2005-01-01

    Tic/Ti(C,N)/TiN multi-layer coatings are prepared on the 1Cr13 stainless steel substrate by the technique of Chemical Vapour Deposition, and the fretting wear behaviour of 1Cr13 stainless steel and TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiN coatings are investigated and studied controversially from 25 degree C to 400 degree C in the gross slip regime. It shows that the temperature has great influence on the fretting wear in the gross slip regime for the 1Cr13 stainless steel but little for Ti/C/Ti(C,N)/TiN multi-layer coatings. With the temperature increasing, the friction coefficient and the wear volume of the 1Cr13 alloy decreases and the wear volume of TiC/Ti(C, N)/TiN multi-layer coatings is invariant. TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiN multi-layer coatings have better wear-resistant capability than the 1Cr13 stainless steel, but the wear volume of the substrate increases greatly because of the grain-abrasion resulted from hard debris when TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiN multi-layer coatings are ground off. (authors)

  1. Effect of hexagonal boron nitride and calcined petroleum coke on friction and wear behavior of phenolic resin-based friction composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Gewen; Yan Fengyuan

    2006-01-01

    Calcined petroleum coke (CPC) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) were used as the friction modifiers to improve the friction and wear properties of phenolic resin-based friction composites. Thus, the composites with different relative amounts of CPC and h-BN as the friction modifiers were prepared by compression molding. The hardness and bending strength of the friction composites were measured. The friction and wear behaviors of the composites sliding against cast iron at various temperatures were evaluated using a pin-on-disc test rig. The worn surfaces and wear debris of the friction composites were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the hybrid of the two friction modifiers was effective to significantly decrease the wear rate and stabilize the friction coefficient of the friction composites at various temperatures by forming a uniform lubricating and/or transferred film on the rubbing surfaces. The uniform and durable transfer films were also able to effectively diminish the direct contact between the friction composite and the cast iron counterpart and hence prevent severe wear of the latter as well. The effectiveness of the hybrid of CPC and h-BN in improving the friction and wear behavior of the phenolic resin-based friction modifiers could be attributed to the complementary action of the 'low temperature' lubricity of CPC and the 'high temperature' lubricity of h-BN. The optimum ratio of the two friction modifiers CPC and h-BN in the friction composites was suggested to be 1:1, and the corresponding friction composite showed the best friction-reducing and antiwear abilities

  2. Friction and wear properties of novel HDPE--HAp--Al2O3 biocomposites against alumina counterface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodhak, Subhadip; Nath, Shekhar; Basu, Bikramjit

    2009-03-01

    In an effort to enhance physical properties of biopolymers (high-density polyethylene, HDPE) in terms of elastic modulus and hardness, various ceramic fillers, like alumina (Al2O3) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are added, and therefore it is essential to assess the friction and wear resistance properties of HDPE biocomposites. In this perspective, HDPE composites with varying ceramic filler content (upto 40 vol%) were fabricated under the optimal compression molding conditions and their friction and wear properties were evaluated against Al2O3 at fretting contacts. All the experiments were conducted at a load of 10 N for duration of 100,000 cycles in both dry as well as simulated body fluid (SBF). Such planned set of experiments has been designed to address three important issues: (a) whether the improvement in physical properties (hardness, E-modulus) will lead to corresponding improvement in friction and wear properties; (b) whether the fretting in SBF will provide sufficient lubrication in order to considerably enhance the tribological properties, as compared to that in ambient conditions; and (c) whether the generation of wear debris particles be reduced for various compositionally modified polymer composites, in comparison to unreinforced HDPE. The experimental results indicate the possibility of achieving extremely low coefficient of friction (COF approximately 0.047) as well as higher wear resistance (wear rate in the order of approximately 10(-7) mm3 N(-1) m(-1)) with the newly developed composites in SBF. A low wear depth of 3.5-4 microm is recorded, irrespective of fretting environment. Much effort has been put forward to correlate the friction and wear mechanisms with abrasion, adhesion, and wear debris formation.

  3. Effect of Wearing a Telemetry Jacket on Behavioral and Physiologic Parameters of Dogs in the Open-Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Richard E; Foster, Melanie L; Gruen, Margaret E; Sherman, Barbara L; Dorman, Davidc C

    2017-07-01

    Safety pharmacology studies in dogs often integrate behavioral assessments made using video recording with physiologic measurements collected by telemetry. However, whether merely wearing the telemetry vest affects canine behavior and other parameters has not been evaluated. This pilot study assessed the effect of a telemetry vest on behavioral and physiologic responses to an environmental stressor, the sounds of a thunderstorm, in Labrador retrievers. Dogs were assigned to one of 2 experimental groups (Vest and No-Vest, n = 8 dogs per group) by using a matched pairs design, with a previously determined, sound-associated anxiety score as the blocking variable. Dogs were individually retested with the same standardized sound stimulus (thunderstorm) in an open-field arena, and their behavioral responses were video recorded. Video analysis of locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior and manual determination of heart rate and body temperature were performed; results were compared between groups. Vest wearing did not affect total locomotor activity or rectal body temperature but significantly decreased heart rate by 8% and overall mean anxiety score by 34% during open-field test sessions. Our results suggest that the use of telemetry vests in dogs influences the measurement of physiologic parameters and behaviors that are assessed in safety pharmacology studies.

  4. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder form...

  5. Friction and wear behavior of nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films deposited via MOCVD under dry contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S. Mbamara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most researches on doped ZnO thin films are tilted toward their applications in optoelectronics and semiconductor devices. Research on their tribological properties is still unfolding. In this work, nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on 304 L stainless steel substrate from a combination of zinc acetate and ammonium acetate precursor by MOCVD technique. Compositional and structural studies of the films were done using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. The frictional behavior of the thin film coatings was evaluated using a ball-on-flat configuration in reciprocating sliding under dry contact condition. After friction test, the flat and ball counter-face surfaces were examined to assess the wear dimension and failure mechanism. Both friction behavior and wear (in the ball counter-face were observed to be dependent on the crystallinity and thickness of the thin film coatings.

  6. The Effect of Bias Voltage and Gas Pressure on the Structure, Adhesion and Wear Behavior of Diamond Like Carbon (DLC Coatings With Si Interlayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Ward

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study diamond like carbon (DLC coatings with Si interlayers were deposited on 316L stainless steel with varying gas pressure and substrate bias voltage using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technology. Coating and interlayer thickness values were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS which also revealed the presence of a gradient layer at the coating substrate interface. Coatings were evaluated in terms of the hardness, elastic modulus, wear behavior and adhesion. Deposition rate generally increased with increasing bias voltage and increasing gas pressure. At low working gas pressures, hardness and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing bias voltage. Reduced hardness and modulus of elasticity were observed at higher gas pressures. Increased adhesion was generally observed at lower bias voltages and higher gas pressures. All DLC coatings significantly improved the overall wear resistance of the base material. Lower wear rates were observed for coatings deposited with lower bias voltages. For coatings that showed wear tracks considerably deeper than the coating thickness but without spallation, the wear behavior was largely attributed to deformation of both the coating and substrate with some cracks at the wear track edges. This suggests that coatings deposited under certain conditions can exhibit ultra high flexible properties.

  7. Experimental study and effect of particulate interference on the microhardness, wear and microstructural properties of ternary doped coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayomi, O. S. I., E-mail: ojosundayfayomi3@gmail.com [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Canaanland, Ota (Nigeria); Popoola, A. P. I. [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Joseph, O. O.; Inegbenebor, A. O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Canaanland, Ota (Nigeria); Olukanni, D. O. [Department of Civil Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria)

    2016-07-25

    This paper studies effects of the composite particle infringement of ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on zinc rich ternary based coating. The corrosion-degradation property in 3.5% NaCl was investigatedusing polarization technique. The structural characteristics of the multilayer produce coatings were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The mechanical response of the coated samples was studied using a diamond base Dura –Scan) micro-hardness tester and a MTR-300 dry abrasive wear tester. The combined effect of the coatings gave highly-improved performance on microhardness, corrosion and wear damage. This also implies that protection of wind-energy structures in marine environments can be achieved by composite strengthening capacity.

  8. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of CoCrFeMnNbNi High-Entropy Alloy Coating by TIG Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yi Huo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alloy cladding coatings are widely prepared on the surface of tools and machines. High-entropy alloys are potential replacements of nickel-, iron-, and cobalt-base alloys in machining due to their excellent strength and toughness. In this work, CoCrFeMnNbNi HEA coating was produced on AISI 304 steel by tungsten inert gas cladding. The microstructure and wear behavior of the cladding coating were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, microhardness tester, pin-on-ring wear tester, and 3D confocal laser scanning microscope. The microstructure showed up as a nanoscale lamellar structure matrix which is a face-centered-cubic solid solution and niobium-rich Laves phase. The microhardness of the cladding coating is greater than the structure. The cladding coating has excellent wear resistance under the condition of dry sliding wear, and the microploughing in the worn cladding coating is shallower and finer than the worn structure, which is related to composition changes caused by forming the nanoscale lamellar structure of Laves phase.

  9. Abrasion of 6 dentifrices measured by vertical scanning interference microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascaretti-Grizon, Florence; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Chappard, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The abrasion of dentifrices is well recognized to eliminate the dental plaque. The aims of this study were to characterize the abrasive powders of 6 dentifrices (3 toothpastes and 3 toothpowders) and to measure the abrasion on a test surface by Vertical Scanning Interference microscopy (VSI). Bright field and polarization microscopy were used to identify the abrasive particles on the crude dentifrices and after prolonged washes. Scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis characterized the shape and nature of the particles. Standardized and polished blocks of poly(methylmethacrylate) were brushed with a commercial electric toothbrush with the dentifrices. VSI quantified the mean roughness (Ra) and illustrated in 3D the abraded areas. Toothpastes induced a limited abrasion. Toothpowders induced a significantly higher roughness linked to the size of the abrasive particles. One powder (Gencix® produced a high abrasion when used with a standard testing weight. However, the powder is based on pumice particles covered by a plant homogenate that readily dissolves in water. When used in the same volume, or after dispersion in water, Ra was markedly reduced. Light and electron microscopy characterize the abrasive particles and VSI is a new tool allowing the analysis of large surface of abraded materials.

  10. Tooth wear and feeding ecology in mountain gorillas from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, Jordi; Imanizabayo, Olive; Romero, Alejandro; Vecellio, Veronica; Glowacka, Halszka; Cranfield, Michael R; Bromage, Timothy G; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Stoinski, Tara S; McFarlin, Shannon C

    2016-03-01

    Ecological factors have a dramatic effect on tooth wear in primates, although it remains unclear how individual age contributes to functional crown morphology. The aim of this study is to determine how age and individual diet are related to tooth wear in wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. We calculated the percent of dentine exposure (PDE) for all permanent molars (M1-M3) of known-age mountain gorillas (N = 23), to test whether PDE varied with age using regression analysis. For each molar position, we also performed stepwise multiple linear regression to test the effects of age and percentage of time spent feeding on different food categories on PDE, for individuals subject to long-term observational studies by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International's Karisoke Research Center. PDE increased significantly with age for both sexes in all molars. Moreover, a significant effect of gritty plant root consumption on PDE was found among individuals. Our results support prior reports indicating reduced tooth wear in mountain gorillas compared to western gorillas, and compared to other known-aged samples of primate taxa from forest and savanna habitats. Our findings corroborate that mountain gorillas present very low molar wear, and support the hypothesis that age and the consumption of particular food types, namely roots, are significant determinants of tooth wear variation in mountain gorillas. Future research should characterize the mineral composition of the soil in the Virunga habitat, to test the hypothesis that the physical and abrasive properties of gritty foods such as roots influence intra- and interspecific patterns of tooth wear. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Basics of cutting and abrasive processes

    CERN Document Server

    Toenshoff, Hans Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturing is the basic industrial activity generating real value. Cutting and abrasive technologies are the backbone of precision production in machine, automotive and aircraft building as well as of production of consumer goods. We present the knowledge of modern manufacturing in these technologies on the basis of scientific research. The theory of cutting and abrasive processes and the knowledge about their application in industrial practice are a prerequisite for the studies of manufacturing science and an important part of the curriculum of the master study in German mechanical engineering. The basis of this book is our lecture “Basics of cutting and abrasive processes” (4 semester hours/3 credit hours) at the Leibniz University Hannover, which we offer to the diploma and master students specializing in manufacturing science.

  12. Wear behavior of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plant operating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Sup; Hong, Jin-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Nam; Jang, Ki-Sang

    2003-01-01

    Reciprocating sliding wear tests were performed on steam generator tubes materials at steam generator operating temperature. The material surfaces react with oxygen to form oxides. The oxide properties such as formation rate and mechanical properties are varied with the test temperature and alloy composition. So, it is important to investigate the wear properties of each steam generator tube materials in steam generator operating condition. The tests results indicated that the wear coefficient in work rate model of alloy 690 was faster than that of alloy 800. From the scanning electron microscopy observation, the wear scars were similar each other and worn surfaces were covered with oxide layers. It seemed that the oxide layers were formed by wear debris sintering or cold welding and these layer properties affected the wear rate of steam generator tube materials. (author)

  13. Tactile Sliding Behavior of R2R Mass-Produced PLLA Nanosheet towards Biomedical Device in Skin Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, sliding friction was measured between the fingertip and nanosheet on a silicon substrate under two conditions: dry and wet. By using a force transducer, the tactile friction force and applied load were measured. According to the experimental results, the relationship of friction force and applied load exhibits a positive correlation under both dry and wet conditions. In addition, the nanosheets are able to reduce the friction force and coefficient of friction (COF compared to the reference sample, especially under the wet condition. Under the assumption of a full contact condition, the estimated contact area increases with larger applied loads. Furthermore, based on the wear observation, the skin sliding performance caused slight abrasions to the surface of the nanosheet samples with a mild wear track along the sliding direction. Overall, the sliding behavior between the skin and nanosheet was investigated in terms of friction force, COF, applied load, contact area, and wear. These findings can contribute to the nanosheet-related research towards biomedical devices in skin applications.

  14. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-01-01

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear.First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test.All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  15. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-05-01

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry1,2,3. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago1. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear. First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test. All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Abrasive Grinding Wheel Formulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a study on the formulation and manufacture of abrasive grinding wheel using locally formulated silicon carbide abrasive grains. Six local raw material substitutes were identified through pilot study and with the initial mix of the identified materials, a systematic search for an optimal formulation of silicon ...

  17. Superficial characterization of titanium league when submitted to abrasive blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, L.Y.; Leite, I.V.; Szesz, E.M.; Siqueira, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Commercially pure titanium and some of its alloys exhibit a good biocompatibility. These characteristics are frequently used in the manufacture of orthopedic and dental implants. It is possible to modify its surface making it the bioactive using various methods, such as deposition of hydroxyapatite by plasma spray and increasing the roughness of the surface by abrasive blasting. This work is to modify the surface of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V ELI (ASTM F136: 02a) for abrasive blasting and study the morphology, crystallographic phases and the mechanical characteristics of the surface obtained. For such purpose, SEM images, diffraction of X-rays and tests of risk produced by nanoindenter. The sandblasting was done using alumina powder and blasting time of 6s. The morphology of the surfaces of Ti6Al4V ELI changed after sandblasting with increased roughness. It is possible to conclude that after sandblasting the titanium surface do not have a ductile behavior. (author)

  18. Use of new ceramic linings in coal preparation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorchenko, V.E.; Rudenko, V.A.; Bondarev, A.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    This article evaluates several materials used as liners in coal preparation equipment. The evaluations concentrate on liners used under conditions of intensive temperature fluctuations, e.g. liners of coal chutes for coal transport from coal dryers. Two aspects of wear are analyzed: abrasion by friction and effects of temperature fluctuations. Abrasive wear is tested using magnetite suspension with a density of 400 g/l. Tests show that abrasive wear of liners on an alumina basis is 3 times lower than abrasive wear of high quality steel, from 13 to 24 times lower than that of iron and from 6 to 8 times lower than that of steels used in coal preparation plants. Effects of temperature fluctuations from 20 to 840 C on abrasive wear of liners of steels, iron, slag glass ceramics, mullite-corundum material and corundum is shown in a table. The test show that mullite-corundum material on the basis of alumina is characterized by a high resistance to abrasive wear after 30 cycles of temperature increase from 20 to 840 C and decrease to 20 C. Using mullite-corundum as liners of equipment and installations operating under conditions of temperature fluctuations is recommended.

  19. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be securely fastened to the spindle and the bearing surface shall run true. When more than one wheel... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive wheel machinery. 1910.215 Section 1910.215 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery. (a...

  20. Determination of a Wear Initiation Cycle by using a Contact Resistance Measurement in Nuclear Fuel Fretting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2008-01-01

    In nuclear fuel fretting, the improving of the contact condition with a modified spring shape is a useful method for increasing the wear resistance of the nuclear fuel rod. This is because the fretting wear resistance between the fuel rod and grid spring is mainly affected by the grid spring shape rather than the environment, the contact modes, etc. In addition, the wear resistance is affected by the wear debris behavior between contact surfaces. So, it is expected that the wear initiation of each spring shape should be determined in order to evaluate a wear resistance. However, it is almost impossible to measure the wear behavior in contact surfaces on a real time basis because the contact surfaces are always hidden. Besides, the results of the worn surface observation after the fretting wear tests are restricted to archive the information on the wear debris behavior and the formation mechanism of the wear scar. In order to evaluate the wear behavior during the fretting wear tests, it is proposed that the contact resistance measurement is a useful method for examining the wear initiation cycle and modes. Generally, fretting wear damages are rapidly progressed by a localized plastic deformation between the contact surfaces, crack initiation and fracture of the deformed surface with a strain hardening difference between a surface and a subsurface and finally a detachment of wear debris. After this, wear debris is easily oxidized by frictional heat, test environment, etc. At this time, a small amount of electric current applied between the contact surfaces will be influenced by the wear debris, which could be an obstacle to an electric current flow. So, it is possible to archive the information on the wear behavior by measuring the contact resistance. In order to determine the wear initiation cycle during the fretting wear tests, in this study, fretting wear tests have been performed by applying a constant electric current in room temperature air

  1. Micro-tribological properties of hydroxyapatite-based composites in dry sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhi; Liu, Yong; Liu, Bowei; Liu, Meiling

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The micro-tribological properties of HA-based composites were investigated. ► The micro-scale test is greatly benefits to the analyses of the wear mechanism. ► A higher speed benefits the formation of the lubricating layer, when high in Cu. ► With increasing Cu, the wear mechanism shift from abrasive wear to adhesive wear. - Abstract: The micro-tribological properties of hydroxyapatite-based composites sliding against alumina balls were investigated by a ball-on-block tribometer. Surface properties of the HA-based composites were measured and examined by using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Running-in behavior during sliding tests was studied as a function of surface properties. The effects of copper fibers, initial surface roughness, and sliding velocity on the friction coefficient and the wear resistance were discussed. Results show that a lubricant layer benefits the tribological properties of the composites. With the increasing of Cu, the lubricant layer is more stable, and resistant to increase of the sliding velocity. At a Cu content of 15%, the wear curve is very stable even at a velocity of 900 rpm. The wear mechanism also changes from abrasive wear to adhesive wear. A model was quoted to describe the relationship between the wear resistant and the load

  2. Using stamping punch force variation for the identification of changes in lubrication and wear mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, B. M.; Pereira, M. P.; Rolfe, B. F.; Doolan, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    The growth in use of Advanced High Strength Steels in the automotive industry for light-weighting and safety has increased the rates of tool wear in sheet metal stamping. This is an issue that adds significant costs to production in terms of manual inspection and part refinishing. To reduce these costs, a tool condition monitoring system is required and a firm understanding of process signal variation must form the foundation for any such monitoring system. Punch force is a stamping process signal that is widely collected by industrial presses and has been linked closely to part quality and tool condition, making it an ideal candidate as a tool condition monitoring signal. In this preliminary investigation, the variation of punch force due to different lubrication conditions and progressive wear are examined. Linking specific punch force signature changes to developing lubrication and wear events is valuable for die wear and stamping condition monitoring. A series of semi-industrial channel forming trials were conducted under different lubrication regimes and progressive die wear. Punch force signatures were captured for each part and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to determine the key Principal Components of the signature data sets. These Principal Components were linked to the evolution of friction conditions over the course of the stroke for the different lubrication regimes and mechanism of galling wear. As a result, variation in punch force signatures were correlated to the current mechanism of wear dominant on the formed part; either abrasion or adhesion, and to changes in lubrication mechanism. The outcomes of this study provide important insights into punch force signature variation, that will provide a foundation for future work into the development of die wear and lubrication monitoring systems for sheet metal stamping.

  3. Effect of cobalt content on wear and corrosion behaviors of electrodeposited Ni-Co/WC nano-composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadeh, A; Ebadpour, R

    2013-02-01

    Metal-ceramic composite coatings are widely used in automotive and aerospace industries as well as micro-electronic systems. Electrodeposition is an economic method for application of these coatings. In this research, nickel-cobalt coatings reinforced by nano WC particles were applied on carbon steel substrate by pulse electrodeposition from modified Watts bath containing different amounts of cobalt sulphate as an additive. Saccharin and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were also added to electroplating bath as grain refiner and surfactant, respectively. The effect of cobalt content on wear and corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated. Wear and corrosion properties were assessed by pin-on-disk and potentiodynamic polarization methods, respectively. Phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using CuK(alpha) radiation and the worn surfaces were studied by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the addition of cobalt improved the wear resistance of the coatings. In the presence of 18 g/L cobalt in electrodeposition bath, the wear rate of the coating decreased to 0.002 mg/m and the coefficient of friction reduced to 0.695 while they were 0.004 mg/m and 0.77 in the absence of cobalt, respectively. This improvement in wear properties can be attributed to the formation of hcp phase in metallic matrix. Meanwhile, the corrosion resistance of the coatings slightly reduced because cobalt is more active metal with respect to nickel.

  4. Transition metal carbide and boride abrasive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdsaar, H.

    1978-01-01

    Abrasive particles and their preparation are discussed. The particles consist essentially of a matrix of titanium carbide and zirconium carbide, at least partially in solid solution form, and grains of crystalline titanium diboride dispersed throughout the carbide matrix. These abrasive particles are particularly useful as components of grinding wheels for abrading steel. 1 figure, 6 tables

  5. Microstructural evolution and wear behaviors of laser cladding Ti_2Ni/α(Ti) dual-phase coating reinforced by TiB and TiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, R.; Li, J.; Shao, J.Z.; Bai, L.L.; Chen, J.L.; Qu, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A TiC+TiB reinforced intermetallic matrix coating was fabricated by laser cladding. • The microstructural evolution of the reinforcements was analyzed. • A formula was established in term of wear loss, sliding time and applied load. • Wear behaviors were investigated by in situ continuing tests in different time intervals. • The transformation of wear mechanism at different applied loads was revealed. - Abstract: The Ti_2Ni/α(Ti) dual-phase coating reinforced by TiB and TiC was fabricated on the Ti6Al4V substrate by laser cladding. Phase constituents were confirmed by a theoretical prediction combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. From the surface to the bottom of the coating, a regular evolution of the reinforcements’ microstructure, namely TiC_p+(TiB+TiC)_e, (TiB+TiC)_e and TiB_p+(TiB+TiC)_e (p and e were the abbreviations of primary and eutectic, respectively), was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coating possessed the higher microhardness than that of the substrate. An in situ dynamic method (in situ continuing tests at different time intervals) was designed to reveal wear behaviors at different wear stages. A quantitative calculation formula was established by a mathematic model to predict wear losses under different sliding time and applied loads in a definite precision. The wear mechanism was transformed from brittle debonding (at 10 N) to the joint action of brittle debonding and micro-cutting (at 20 N and 30 N) due to the microstructural evolution across the depth from the surface of the coating.

  6. Abrasive water jet: a complementary tool

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, J. P.; Peças, P.; Nunes, E.; Gouveia, H.

    1998-01-01

    The abrasive water jet is a powerful cutting tool, whose main advantages lie in the absence of thermal effects and the capability of cutting highly thick materials. Compared with Laser, the abrasive water jet allows the cutting of a larger range of thicknesses and a wider variety of materials such as: ornamental stones, metals, polymers, composites, wood, glass and ceramics. The application of this technology has suffered an extensive growth, with successful applications in varied industrial ...

  7. Polishability and wear resistance of splint material for oral appliances produced with conventional, subtractive, and additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettig, Fabian; Kustermann, Achim; Kuscu, Ebru; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Spintzyk, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Occlusal splints to treat bruxism are commonly made from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in a manual workflow (powder-liquid technique). Today digitalization allows a machine-based manufacturing in subtractive (milling) and additive (printing) means using industrial-made PMMA or comparable resins. An in-vitro study should assess the surface finish and screen the wear resistance of conventional and industrial materials. Therefore, a total of 30 specimens made from conventionally PMMA (group C; powder-liquid, Palapress), polycarbonate ingots (group S; innoBlanc splint plus), and light-curing resin (group A; VarseoWax splint) were polished to examine the surface roughness (Ra) by profilometry and further analyzed by SEM. The specimens were loaded with a steatite ball moving 5000 times along 1cm with 5N of surface pressure under constant wetting (artificial saliva). The total height of profile (Pt) was calculated by further profilometry of the specimens. All specimen showed initially comparable Ra values ranging between 0.06 and 0.05µm (SD = 0.01) after polishing. SEM investigations revealed no visual cues for scratches or irregularities in any group. After abrasion test, the comparison of the wear depths, revealed mean Pt values of 111.4µm (SD = 18.5) in C, 85.7µm (SD = 21.5) in S, and 99.1µm (SD = 21.5) in A, whereas the mean of S was statistically different from C (p = 0.025). No signs of abrasion were found on the steatite balls. All materials showed comparable polished surfaces and a similar scale of wear. It remains questionable if the detected statistical differences are of clinical relevance, but indicates the need for tests of novel materials, especially in additive manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synergism of carbon fiber and polyimide in polytetrafluoroethylene-based composites: Friction and wear behavior under sea water lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Beibei; Wang, Jianzhang; Yan, Fengyuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of PI and CF on the microstructure of PTFE was investigated. ► PI and CF had synergism on the improvement of tribological property of PTFE. ► PTFE-4 (with 5% PI and 15% CF) showed promising application in ocean environment. -- Abstract: Polytetrafluoroethylene-based (PTFE-based) composites reinforced simultaneously with carbon fiber (CF) and polyimide (PI) of different volume fractions were prepared. The microstructure and phase composition of as-prepared PTFE-based composites were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Besides, their friction and wear behavior under sea water lubrication was evaluated in relation to the synergistic effect between CF and PI using a ring-on-block test rig, and their worn surfaces were also analyzed using SEM. Results showed that the incorporation of PI induced loosening of the microstructure of PTFE but increased the wear resistance. Contrary to the above, the incorporation of CF led to increased compactness of PTFE, and the compactness as well as wear resistance of the PTFE-based composites increased with the increase of CF content. More importantly, the simultaneous incorporation of PI and CF at a proper volume fraction led to drastically reduced wear rate of PTFE under sea water lubrication. This implies that there exists synergistic friction-reducing and wear-resistant effect between PI and CF. As a result, the PTFE-based composite containing 5% PI (volume fraction) and 15% CF had the best wear resistance, showing promising application in ocean environment.

  9. Dynamic SEM wear studies of tungsten carbide cermets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.; Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Dynamic friction and wear experiments were conducted in a scanning electron microscope. The wear behavior of pure tungsten carbide and composite with 6 and 15 weight percent cobalt binder was examined. Etching of the binder was done to selectively determine the role of the binder in the wear process. Dynamic experiments were conducted as the WC and bonded WC cermet surfaces were transversed by a 50 micron radiused diamond stylus. These studies show that the predominant wear process in WC is fracture initiated by plastic deformation. The wear of the etched cermets is similar to pure WC. The presence of the cobalt binder reduces both friction and wear. The cementing action of the cobalt reduces granular separation and promotes a dense polished layer because of its low shear strength film-forming properties. The wear debris generated from unetched surface is approximately the same composition as the bulk.

  10. Tooth wear and wear investigations in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A; He, L H; Lyons, K; Swain, M V

    2012-03-01

    Tooth wear has been recognised as a major problem in dentistry. Epidemiological studies have reported an increasing prevalence of tooth wear and general dental practitioners see a greater number of patients seeking treatment with worn dentition. Although the dental literature contains numerous publications related to management and rehabilitation of tooth wear of varying aetiologies, our understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of tooth wear is still limited. The wear behaviour of dental biomaterials has also been extensively researched to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and for the development of restorative materials with good wear resistance. The complex nature of tooth wear indicates challenges for conducting in vitro and in vivo wear investigations and a clear correlation between in vitro and in vivo data has not been established. The objective was to critically review the peer reviewed English-language literature pertaining to prevalence and aetiology of tooth wear and wear investigations in dentistry identified through a Medline search engine combined with hand-searching of the relevant literature, covering the period between 1960 and 2011. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Analysis of Microstructure and Sliding Wear Behavior of Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 High-Entropy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentzaris, K.; Poulia, A.; Georgatis, E.; Lekatou, A. G.; Karantzalis, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    Α Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 high-entropy alloy (HEA) of the well-known family of CoCrFeNiTi has been designed using empirical parameters. The aim of this design was the production of a HEA with fcc structure that gives ductile behavior and also high strength because of the solid solution effect. The VEC calculations (8.1) supported the fcc structure while the δ factor calculations (4.97) not being out of the limit values, advised a significant lattice distortion. From the other hand, the ΔΗ mix calculations (- 9.64 kJ/mol) gave strong indications that no intermetallic would be formed. In order to investigate its potential application, the Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 HEA was prepared by vacuum arc melting and a primary assessment of its surface degradation response was conducted by means of sliding wear testing using different counterbody systems for a total sliding distance of 1000 m. An effort to correlate the alloy's wear response with the microstructural characteristics was attempted. Finally, the wear behavior of the Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 HEA was compared with that of two commercially used wear-resistant alloys. The results obtained provided some first signs of the high-entropy alloys' better wear performance when tested under sliding conditions against a steel ball.

  12. Method of forming an abrasive compact of cubic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, F.R.

    1976-01-01

    This patent concerns an abrasive compact comprising diamond or cubic boron nitride or mixtures thereof held in a matrix of a refractory substance and a substance which dissolves the abrasive particle to at least a limited extent. The compact may be made by subjecting a powdered mixture of the ingredients to conditions of temperature and pressure at which the abrasive particle is crystallographically stable and the solvent substance acts to dissolve the abrasive particle. The refractory substance and solvent substance are preferably so chosen that during compact manufacture there is interaction resulting in the formation of a hard material

  13. Estudo do desgaste abrasivo das resinas compostas disponíveis no mercado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carlos Bianchi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a proposal to assess the abrasive wear of composite resins available in the national market, which are materials largely used in dental clinics for functional and aesthetic tooth restorations. This was achieved by utilizing an experimental set-up on which a dynamic disc covered with proper porcelain (representing hardness close to the human teeth wears a static disc covered with the resin tested under a constant and pre-determined load. Thus, by means of this set-up and keeping a behavioral status needed to the calculus for all tests, the aggressiveness (referred as to letter k for all tests was analyzed. Due to the fact that resin characteristic revels how weary the material has become to the abrasion process with other harder material, the strength to wear for such resins was observed. Therefore, a real classification for these materials with their strength to the abrasion wear was made, which is a very important factor in the influence on their lifetime in dental restorations. The classification in descending order for those resins is presented as following: HELIOMOLAR RO, DURAFILL, FILTEK A110, HELIO FILL, POINT 4, FLOW IT; NATURAL FLOW, SUPRAFILL, FILTEK P60, FILTEK Z250, TETRIC FLOW, REVOLUTION, PRODIGY, TETRIC CERAM, HERCULITE, FILLMAGIC, TPH, CHARISMA, Z100.

  14. Effect of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on Hardness and Wear Behavior of 5120 AISI Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Torkian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effect of deep cryogenic treatment time on microstructure and tribological behavior of AISI 5120 case hardennig steel is studied. The disk shape samples were carburized at 920 ◦C for 6 hours and air cooled; after austenitizing, the samples were quenched in oil.Then immediately after quenching and sanding, the sample were kept in liquid nitrogen for 1, 24, 30 and 48 h and then tempered at 200 ◦C for 2 hours. The wear test was done by ball on disk method using of WC ball at 80 and 110 N load. For characterization of carbides, the etchant solution of CuCl2 (5 gr+HCl (100 mL + ethanol (100 mL was used. The hardness of samples before and after of tempering was measured by vicers method at 300 N load.. The amount of retained austenite was measured by X Ray Diffraction method. For 1DCT and 24DCT samples it was about 8% and 4%; in the other samples, the retained austenite peal was so decreased that it was not visible. The result showed that the hardness increases by deep cryogenic treatment in all speciments. While wear resistance increases in 1DCT and 24DCT samples, it decreases for 30DCT and 48DCT samples in compare with Conventional heat treatment (CHT sample in both applied loads, such that , 48DCT sample has the least wear resistance. The cause of increament of hardness is due to reduction in amount of retained austenite as a result of deep cryogenic treatment and decreasing in wear resistance after 24 hour, is due to carbide growth and nonhemogenuse distribution in microstructure and then weakening of matrix. So the 24 hour deep cryogenic treatment was the best optimal for AISI 5120 steel.

  15. LITERATURE SURVEY ON ABRASION PROBLEM IN CHENILLE YARNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Kenan ÇEVEN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chenille yarns are traditionally used in the manufacture of furnishing fabrics, fashion knitwear, and as decorative threads in many types of broad and narrow fabrics. Chenille yarn has a very distinct weakness-it does not have very good inherent abrasion resistance. When the yarns are in use, clearly the abrasion resistance of the chenille yarn is crucially important. Either during further processing or during the eventual end-use, any removal of the effect yarn forming the beard will expose the ground yarns, which in turn will result in a bare appearance. To avoid this undesirable result, several options are available. Therefore, the studies on this area are about the investigation of the influences of some material types and machine parameters on the abrasion resistance of chenille yarns and fabrics produced with these yarns. In this paper, the experimental studies about the abrasion properties of chenille yarns in yarn, knitted and woven fabric forms are summarized.

  16. Comparison of the structure and wear resistance of Al2O3 -13 wt%TiO2 coatings made by GSP and WSP plasma process with two different powders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ageorges, H.; Ctibor, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 202, č. 18 (2008), s. 4362-4368 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Alumina * titania * plasma spraying * wear resistance * slurry abrasion Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.860, year: 2008

  17. Control technology for crystalline silica exposures in construction: wet abrasive blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, Vijay; Heitbrink, William

    2004-03-01

    This study was designed to document the effect that wet abrasive blasting has on reducing worker exposure to crystalline silica, which has been associated with silicosis and premature death. In this study, worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica was monitored during wet abrasive blasting on the exterior walls of a parking garage to remove surface concrete and expose the underlying aggregate. In this process a wet sand mix comprised of 80% dry sand and 20% water was used. Sampling and analysis revealed that the geometric mean respirable quartz concentration was 0.2 mg/m(3) for workers conducting abrasive blasting and 0.06 mg/m(3) for helpers. When abrasive blasting was conducted in areas that apparently had reduced natural ventilation, dust exposures appeared to increase. When compared with other published data, this case study suggests that wet abrasive blasting causes less exposure to crystalline silica than dry abrasive blasting.

  18. Effect of load and reciprocating velocity on the transition from mild to severe wear behavior of Al-Si-SiCp composites in reciprocating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajeev, V.R.; Dwivedi, D.K.; Jain, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, the effect of normal load and reciprocating velocity on transition from mild to severe wear of A319/15%SiC p , A336/15%SiC p , and A390/15%SiC p composites have been reported. Composites were produced through liquid metal metallurgy route. Adhesive wear behavior of composites was studied under dry reciprocating conditions using indigenously developed reciprocating friction wear test rig conforming to ASTM Standard G133-05. It was found that increase in normal load increases wear rate and depending upon the reciprocating velocity and type of composites, mode of wear changes from mild oxidative to severe metallic wear was noticed. The load corresponding to the transition from mild to severe wear usually termed as transition load was found to decrease with increase in reciprocating velocity and reduction in silicon content in the alloys used for the development of Al-Si-SiC p composites. At 1 m/s reciprocating velocity, the transition load for A319/15%SiC p , A336/15%SiC p and A390/15%SiC p composites were found to be in the range of 60-90 N, 60-105 N and 60-120 N respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of wear surface and wear debris were conducted to analyze the mode of wear and operating wear mechanism. Severe wear was characterized by massive plastic deformation and gross material removal while the mild wear was found to be associated with delamination and scoring as main wear mechanisms responsible for material loss. Wear mechanism maps for different Al-(6-18)%Si-15%SiC p composites were proposed in reciprocating contacts.

  19. Reciprocating sliding wear of Inconel 600 tubing in room temperature air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hun; Choi, Jong Hyun; Kim, Jun Ki; Hong, Hyun Seon; Kim, Seon Jin

    2003-01-01

    The sliding wear behavior of the material of a steam generator in a nuclear power station (Inconel 600) was investigated at room temperature. Effects of the wear parameters such as material combination, sliding distance and contact stress were examined with various mating materials including 304 austenitic stainless steel, Inconel 600 and Al-Cu alloy 2011. In the prediction of the wear volume by Archard's wear equation, the standard error range was calculated to be ±4.04x10 -9 m 3 and the reliability to be 71.9% for the combination of Inconel 600 and 304 stainless steel. The error range was considered to be relatively broad because the wear coefficient in Archard's equation was assumed to be a constant, regardless of the changes in the mechanical properties during the wear. In the present study, the sliding wear behavior turned out to be influenced by the material combination; the wear volume of 304 stainless steel did not linearly increase with the sliding distance, while that of other material combinations exhibited linear increases. Based on the experimental results, the wear coefficient was modified as a function of the sliding distance. The calculation with the modified wear equation showed that the error range narrowed down to ±2.60x10 -9 m 3 and the reliability increased to 75.3%, compared to Archard's original equation

  20. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    increasing expansion of highway and other construction works and decreasing natural aggregate resources in the world, the demand for crushed stone aggregates has in- creased from day-to-day. One of the important properties of rock aggregates is abrasion resistance. The abrasion resistance of aggregates is generally ...

  1. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior of Arc-Sprayed and Hammer-Peened Coatings Using Tungsten Carbide Cored Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Hagen, L.; Schröder, P.

    2017-01-01

    Due to their outstanding properties, WC-W2C iron-based cermet coatings are widely used in the field of wear protection. Regarding commonly used WC-W2C reinforced coating systems, it has been reported that their tribological behavior is mainly determined by the carbide grain size fraction. Although the manufacturing route for arc-sprayed WC-W2C cermet coatings is in an advanced state, there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the performance of cored wires with tungsten carbides as filling material and their related coating properties when post-treatment processes are used such as machine hammer peening (MHP). A major objective was to characterize WC-W2C FeCMnSi coatings, deposited with different carbide grain size fractions as a filling using cored wires, with respect to their tribological behavior. Moreover, deposits derived from cored wires with a different amount of hard phases are investigated. According to this, polished MHP surfaces are compared to as-sprayed and polished samples by means of metallographic investigations. With the use of ball-on-disk and dry rubber wheel tests, dry sliding and rolling wear effects on a microscopic level are scrutinized. It has been shown that the MHP process leads to a densification of the microstructure formation. For dry sliding experiments, the MHP coatings obtain lower wear resistances, but lower coefficients of friction than the conventional coatings. In view of abrasion tests, the MHP coatings possess an improved wear resistance. Strain hardening effects at the subsurface area were revealed by the mechanical response using nanoindentation. However, the MHP process has caused a cracking of embedded carbides, which favor breakouts, leading to advanced third-body wear.

  2. Utilization of radiometric method in evaluation of wear on human dental enamel in vitro by dental porcelain glazed and polished

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Campos, Tomie Nakakuki de; Adachi, Eduardo Makoto

    2005-01-01

    The dental porcelain is a material commonly used in prosthesis. Disadvantages of dental porcelain use include possibility to cause tooth or dental materials wear. Before its use in the mouth, surfaces are treated with polishing and/or glazing. This research used the radiometric method to verify the influence of these surface treatments on the porcelains of commercial brands: Ceramco II, Noritake and Finesse. This method was originally developed for dentifrice abrasiveness evaluation. Five specimens of dental enamel and 10 specimens of each porcelain (5 glazed, 5 polished) were used. The dental enamel was flattened and irradiated with neutrons from the IEA-R1 (IPEN/CNEN) nuclear reactor. Then it was weared by each porcelain in sliding motion, with water. After 2,500 cycles for each porcelain specimen, the released enamel residue was measured. The enamel wear was evaluated by measuring beta activity of 32 P transferred to water from the irradiated tooth. Results varied from 2.57 to 5.81 μg of enamel /mm 2 weared surface. There was no statistical difference (α=0.05) between dental enamel wear caused by the same porcelains glazed or polished. The results suggest that adequate surface finishing depend on the type of dental porcelain. (author)

  3. Fretting wear characteristic tests of X2-GEN midgrid for SMART under a FIV rod trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Jae Yong; Kim, Hyung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co. requested the fretting wear characteristic tests of a X2-GEN midgrid under a FIV rod trace at room temperature air. The following results were obtained for the fretting wear test. {center_dot} Fretting wear tests under a FIV rod trace Based on the result of the fretting wear tests of the X2-GEN and 17ACE7 1x1 mid-grid under a FIV rod trace, X2-GEN mid-grid showed a slightly severe wear volume rather than 17ACE7 spring. But, maximum wear depth shows an opposite behavior. This is due to spring shape effect. The fretting wear mechanisms at each mid-grid were influenced by each spring shape, that are depended on the different impacting behavior under a FIV rod motion. Up to 5x105 cycles, wear characteristics of each mid-grid shows a relatively similar wear rate. Consequently, it is necessary to further study for examining exact fretting wear behavior under a FIV rod tra

  4. Submerged cutting characteristics of abrasive suspension jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Seiji; Peng, Guoyi; Oguma, Yasuyuki; Nishikata, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    An abrasive suspension jet (ASJ) formed by propelling abrasive suspension through a nozzle has a greater cutting capability than the conventional abrasive water jet. However the cutting capability of submerged ASJs decreases drastically with increasing the standoff distance and the pressure around the jet. A sheathed nozzle nozzle with ventilation for ASJs has been developed as a mean of extending the effective stand-off distance and improving the cutting capabilities under submerged condition. In the present investigation, cutting tests by ASJs in air and under submerged condition are conducted with specimens of aluminum alloy. Air coated ASJs are formed by using a sheathed nozzle with ventilation. The relative cutting depth is defined as the cutting depth is arranged effectually by the cavitation number based on the cavity pressure measured at the sheath. (author)

  5. Influence of martensitic phase in abrasion behaviour of stainless steel 304 L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzante, J.; Alvarez, P.; Hey, A.; Gestido, G.D.; Vosen, J.H.; Fernandez, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Abrasion behaviour is studied in commercial stainless steels of different class compositions by standard. The work achieved guieds in structural analysis of superficial coat formed and its relation with abrasion variables, load and velocity. The abrasion is made in an equipment LF WK of high velocity with friction powers, abrasion velocity and temperature variation registered on the tested piece. The abrasion zone is studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The deformed superficial zone nature is studied relationing its microstructure with profile corresponding of microhardness. (C.M.C.T.R.) [pt

  6. Microstructural evolution and wear behaviors of laser cladding Ti{sub 2}Ni/α(Ti) dual-phase coating reinforced by TiB and TiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, R.; Li, J., E-mail: jacob_lijun@sina.com; Shao, J.Z.; Bai, L.L.; Chen, J.L.; Qu, C.C.

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A TiC+TiB reinforced intermetallic matrix coating was fabricated by laser cladding. • The microstructural evolution of the reinforcements was analyzed. • A formula was established in term of wear loss, sliding time and applied load. • Wear behaviors were investigated by in situ continuing tests in different time intervals. • The transformation of wear mechanism at different applied loads was revealed. - Abstract: The Ti{sub 2}Ni/α(Ti) dual-phase coating reinforced by TiB and TiC was fabricated on the Ti6Al4V substrate by laser cladding. Phase constituents were confirmed by a theoretical prediction combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. From the surface to the bottom of the coating, a regular evolution of the reinforcements’ microstructure, namely TiC{sub p}+(TiB+TiC){sub e}, (TiB+