WorldWideScience

Sample records for aboveground biomass production

  1. Bioenergy production potential for aboveground biomass from a subtropical constructed wetland

    Wang, Yi-Chung [Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114 (China); Ko, Chun-Han [School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Bioenergy Research Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Chang, Fang-Chih [The Instrument Center, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan City 70101 (China); Chen, Pen-Yuan [Department of Landscape Architecture, National Chiayi University, Chiayi City 60004 (China); Liu, Tzu-Fen [School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Sheu, Yiong-Shing [Department of Water Quality Protection, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan, Taipei 10042 (China); Shih, Tzenge-Lien [Department of Chemistry, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taipei 25137 (China); Teng, Chia-Ji [Environmental Protection Bureau, Taipei County Government, Taipei 22001 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Wetland biomass has potentials for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration. Planted with multiple species macrophytes to promote biodiversity, the 3.29 ha constructed wetland has been treated 4000 cubic meter per day (CMD) domestic wastewater and urban runoff. This study investigated the seasonal variations of aboveground biomass of the constructed wetland, from March 2007 to March 2008. The overall aboveground biomass was 16,737 kg and total carbon content 6185 kg at the peak of aboveground accumulation for the system emergent macrophyte at September 2007. Typhoon Korsa flood this constructed wetland at October 2007, however, significant recovery for emergent macrophyte was observed without human intervention. Endemic Ludwigia sp. recovered much faster, compared to previously dominated typha. Self-recovery ability of the macrophyte community after typhoon validated the feasibility of biomass harvesting. Incinerating of 80% biomass harvested of experimental area in a nearby incineration plant could produce 11,846 kWh for one month. (author)

  2. Aboveground biomass and net primary production of semi-evergreen tropical forest of Manipur, north-eastern India

    L.Supriya Devi; P.S Yadava

    2009-01-01

    The aboveground biomass dynamics and net primary productivity were investigated to assess the productive potential of Dipterocarpus forest in Manipur, Northeast India. Two forest stands (stand I and II) were earmarked randomly in the study site for the evaluation of biomass in the different girth classes of tree species by harvest method. The total biomass was 22.50 t·ha-1 and 18.27 t·ha-1 in forest stand I and II respectively. Annual aboveground net primary production varied from 8.86 to 10.43 t·ha-1 respectively in two forest stands (stand I and II). In the present study, the values of production efficiency and the biomass accumulation ratio indicate that the forest is at succession stage with high productive potential.

  3. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; ASCARRUNZ, N.; Bret-Harte, M. S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F; Diaz, S; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M; L. Poorter

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica. Initial above-ground biomass and biomass increments of survivors, recruits and survivors + recruits (total) were estimated for trees ≥10 cm d.b.h. in 62 and 21 1.0-ha plots, respecti...

  4. The biomass and aboveground net primary productivity of Schima superba-Castanopsis carlesii forests in east China

    2010-01-01

    The biomass and productivity of Schima superba-Castanopsis carlesii forests in Tiantong,Zhejiang Province,were determined using overlapping quadrants and stem analyses.The total community biomass was(225.3±30.1) t hm-2,of which the aboveground parts accounted for 72.0% and the underground parts accounted for 28.0%.About 87.2% of biomass existed in the tree layer.The resprouting biomass was small,of which over 95.0% occurred in the shrub layer.The productivity of the aboveground parts of the community was(386.8±98.9) g m-2a-1,in which more than 96.0% was present at the tree level.The trunk’s contribution to productivity was the greatest,while that of leaves was the smallest.In China,the community biomass of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests differs significantly with the age of the forest.The community biomass of the 52-year-old S.superba-C.carlesii forests in this study was lower than the average biomass of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests in China,and was lower than the biomass of other subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests elsewhere in the world.Moreover,its productivity was lower than the model estimate,indicating that without disturbance,this community has great developmental potential in terms of community biomass and productivity.

  5. The biomass and aboveground net primary productivity of Schima superba-Castanopsis carlesii forests in east China.

    Yang, TongHui; Song, Kun; Da, LiangJun; Li, XiuPeng; Wu, JianPing

    2010-07-01

    The biomass and productivity of Schima superba-Castanopsis carlesii forests in Tiantong, Zhejiang Province, were determined using overlapping quadrants and stem analyses. The total community biomass was (225.3+/-30.1) t hm(-2), of which the aboveground parts accounted for 72.0% and the underground parts accounted for 28.0%. About 87.2% of biomass existed in the tree layer. The resprouting biomass was small, of which over 95.0% occurred in the shrub layer. The productivity of the aboveground parts of the community was (386.8+/-98.9) g m(-2)a(-1), in which more than 96.0% was present at the tree level. The trunk's contribution to productivity was the greatest, while that of leaves was the smallest. In China, the community biomass of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests differs significantly with the age of the forest. The community biomass of the 52-year-old S. superba-C. carlesii forests in this study was lower than the average biomass of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests in China, and was lower than the biomass of other subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests elsewhere in the world. Moreover, its productivity was lower than the model estimate, indicating that without disturbance, this community has great developmental potential in terms of community biomass and productivity.

  6. Relationships between functional diversity and aboveground biomass production in the Northern Tibetan alpine grasslands.

    Zhu, Juntao; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Yangjian

    2016-09-26

    Functional diversity, the extent of functional differences among species in a community, drives biodiversity-ecosystem function (BEF) relationships. Here, four species traits and aboveground biomass production (ABP) were considered. We used two community-wide measures of plant functional composition, (1) community weighted means of trait values (CWM) and (2) functional trait diversity based on Rao's quadratic diversity (FDQ) to evaluate the effects of functional diversity on the ABP in the Northern Tibetan alpine grasslands. Both species and functional diversity were positively related to the ABP. Functional trait composition had a larger predictive power for the ABP than species diversity and FDQ, indicating a primary dependence of ecosystem property on the identity of dominant species in our study system. Multivariate functional diversity was ineffective in predicting ecosystem function due to the trade-offs among different traits or traits selection criterions. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms driving the BEF relationships in stressed ecosystems, and especially emphasizes that abiotic and biotic factors affect the BEF relationships in alpine grasslands.

  7. Changes in light- and nitrogen-use and in aboveground biomass allocation patterns along productivity gradients in grasslands.

    Aan, Anne; Lõhmus, Krista; Sellin, Arne; Kull, Olevi

    2014-05-01

    Light- and nitrogen-use change was examined along productivity gradients in natural grasslands at Laelatu, western Estonia, both at community level and in most abundant species. Aboveground biomass (M) ranged from 341 to 503 g m(-2) in wet (W) and from 248 to 682 g m(-2) in dry (D) community. Aboveground leaf area ratio (aLAR) decreased with rising M in D site, while it increased in W site. In a high-aLAR W community (significantly higher compared to D), adjustment of leaf morphology through an increase in specific leaf area is responsible for an increase in aLAR with rising productivity. In low-aLAR stand, by contrast, adjustment of biomass allocation due to decrease in aboveground leaf mass fraction is primarily responsible for the tendency of aLAR to decline. In conclusion, a decrease in aLAR is not a universal response to increasing M. We hypothesise that there exists an optimum of light acquisition efficiency (ΦM) along a productivity gradient independent of community type. Aboveground nitrogen-use efficiency (aNUE) decreased in high-aLAR, W community with increasing M, while in low-aLAR, D site, there was no relationship along a gradient, although aNUE increased along six plots dominated by graminoids. A trade-off was established between leaf nitrogen content per unit leaf area (N A) and aLAR.

  8. Grazing effects on aboveground primary production and root biomass of early-seral, mid-seral, and undisturbed semiarid grassland

    Milchunas, D.G.; Vandever, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Annual/perennial and tall/short plant species differentially dominate early to late successional shortgrass steppe communities. Plant species can have different ratios of above-/below-ground biomass distributions and this can be modified by precipitation and grazing. We compared grazing effects on aboveground production and root biomass in early- and mid-seral fields and undisturbed shortgrass steppe. Production averaged across four years and grazed and ungrazed treatments were 246, 134, and 102 g m−2 yr−1 for the early-, mid-seral, and native sites, respectively, while root biomass averaged 358, 560, and 981 g m−2, respectively. Early- and mid-seral communities provided complimentary forage supplies but at the cost of root biomass. Grazing increased, decreased, or had no effect on aboveground production in early-, mid-seral, and native communities, and had no effect on roots in any. Grazing had some negative effects on early spring forage species, but not in the annual dominated early-seral community. Dominant species increased with grazing in native communities with a long evolutionary history of grazing by large herbivores, but had no effects on the same species in mid-seral communities. Effects of grazing in native communities in a region cannot necessarily be used to predict effects at other seral stages.

  9. Recovery of aboveground plant biomass and productivity after fire in mesic and dry black spruce forests of interior Alaska

    Mack, M.C.; Treseder, K.K.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Vogel, J.G.; Randerson, J.T.; Chapin, F. S.

    2008-01-01

    Plant biomass accumulation and productivity are important determinants of ecosystem carbon (C) balance during post-fire succession. In boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forests near Delta Junction, Alaska, we quantified aboveground plant biomass and net primary productivity (ANPP) for 4 years after a 1999 wildfire in a well-drained (dry) site, and also across a dry and a moderately well-drained (mesic) chronosequence of sites that varied in time since fire (2 to ???116 years). Four years after fire, total biomass at the 1999 burn site had increased exponentially to 160 ?? 21 g m-2 (mean ?? 1SE) and vascular ANPP had recovered to 138 ?? 32 g m-2 y -1, which was not different than that of a nearby unburned stand (160 ?? 48 g m-2 y-1) that had similar pre-fire stand structure and understory composition. Production in the young site was dominated by re-sprouting graminoids, whereas production in the unburned site was dominated by black spruce. On the dry and mesic chronosequences, total biomass pools, including overstory and understory vascular and non-vascular plants, and lichens, increased logarithmically (dry) or linearly (mesic) with increasing site age, reaching a maximum of 2469 ?? 180 (dry) and 4008 ?? 233 g m-2 (mesic) in mature stands. Biomass differences were primarily due to higher tree density in the mesic sites because mass per tree was similar between sites. ANPP of vascular and non-vascular plants increased linearly over time in the mesic chronosequence to 335 ?? 68 g m-2 y -1 in the mature site, but in the dry chronosequence it peaked at 410 ?? 43 g m-2 y-1 in a 15-year-old stand dominated by deciduous trees and shrubs. Key factors regulating biomass accumulation and production in these ecosystems appear to be the abundance and composition of re-sprouting species early in succession, the abundance of deciduous trees and shrubs in intermediate aged stands, and the density of black spruce across all stand ages. A better understanding of the controls

  10. [Estimation of aboveground biomass of desert plants].

    Zhao, Chengyi; Song, Yudong; Wang, Yuchao; Jiang, Pinan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the research of plant quadrate in Sangong River Basin in Xinjiang, the fitted equations were given, which could be used to estimate the aboveground biomass of typical desert plant by using the thicket characteristics such as length of crown diameter, width of crown diameter, number of basal branch, length of new branch, basal diameter (D) and plant height (H) as parameters. Using the length of crown diameter and the width of crown diameter as parameters, the fitted equation was set up and tested for estimating the aboveground biomass of Reaumuria soongorica Maxim. It had a relatively high accuracy and a fine linear relationship between the predicted values and measured values. Its coefficient and relative standard deviation was 0.9989 and 4.79%-10.12%, respectively. The results indicated that the fitted equation was easy and available for estimating the aboveground biomass of Reaumuria soongorica Maxim in large scale. The fitted equations were also set up and tested for estimating the aboveground biomass of Haloxylon ammodendron and Tamarix ramosissima by using the basal diameter and height of plant as the parameters. The coefficients and relative standard deviations of these equations were 0.9902, 0.9875 and 6.87%-19.22%, 7.49%-18.47%, respectively. Therefore, estimating the biomass of Reaumuria soongorica in large scale through crown characteristics was available, and estimating the biomass of Halaxylon Ammodendron and Tamarix ramosissima through crown characteristics would produce certain error.

  11. Evaluating lidar point densities for effective estimation of aboveground biomass

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Stoker, Jason M.; Vogel, John M.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) was recently established to provide airborne lidar data coverage on a national scale. As part of a broader research effort of the USGS to develop an effective remote sensing-based methodology for the creation of an operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (Biomass ECV) data product, we evaluated the performance of airborne lidar data at various pulse densities against Landsat 8 satellite imagery in estimating above ground biomass for forests and woodlands in a study area in east-central Arizona, U.S. High point density airborne lidar data, were randomly sampled to produce five lidar datasets with reduced densities ranging from 0.5 to 8 point(s)/m2, corresponding to the point density range of 3DEP to provide national lidar coverage over time. Lidar-derived aboveground biomass estimate errors showed an overall decreasing trend as lidar point density increased from 0.5 to 8 points/m2. Landsat 8-based aboveground biomass estimates produced errors larger than the lowest lidar point density of 0.5 point/m2, and therefore Landsat 8 observations alone were ineffective relative to airborne lidar for generating a Biomass ECV product, at least for the forest and woodland vegetation types of the Southwestern U.S. While a national Biomass ECV product with optimal accuracy could potentially be achieved with 3DEP data at 8 points/m2, our results indicate that even lower density lidar data could be sufficient to provide a national Biomass ECV product with accuracies significantly higher than that from Landsat observations alone.

  12. Establishment of Alleycropped Hybrid Aspen “Crandon” in Central Iowa, USA: Effects of Topographic Position and Fertilizer Rate on Aboveground Biomass Production and Allocation

    Richard B. Hall

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid poplars have demonstrated high productivity as short rotation woody crops (SRWC in the Midwest USA, and the hybrid aspen “Crandon” (Populus alba L. × P. grandidenta Michx. has exhibited particularly promising yields on marginal lands. However, a key obstacle for wider deployment is the lack of economic returns early in the rotation. Alleycropping has the potential to address this issue, especially when paired with crops such as winter triticale which complete their growth cycle early in the summer and therefore are expected to exert minimal competition on establishing trees. In addition, well-placed fertilizer in low rates at planting has the potential to improve tree establishment and shorten the rotation, which is also economically desirable. To test the potential productivity of “Crandon” alleycropped with winter triticale, plots were established on five topographic positions with four different rates of fertilizer placed in the planting hole. Trees were then harvested from the plots after each of the first three growing seasons. Fertilization resulted in significant increases in branch, stem, and total aboveground biomass across all years, whereas the effects of topographic position varied by year. Allocation between branches and stems was found to be primarily a function of total aboveground biomass.

  13. Aboveground Tree Biomass for Pinus ponderosa in Northeastern California

    Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for spatial or temporal variability. Individual-tree aboveground biomass allometric equations are presented from an analysis of 79 felled trees from four separate management units at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: one unthinned and three separate thinned units. A simultaneous set of allometric equations for foliage, branch and bole biomass were developed as well as branch-level equations for wood and foliage. Foliage biomass relationships varied substantially between units while branch and bole biomass estimates were more stable across a range of stand conditions. Trees of a given breast height diameter and crown ratio in thinned stands had more foliage biomass, but slightly less branch biomass than those in an unthinned stand. The observed variability in biomass relationships within Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest suggests that users should consider how well the data used to develop a selected model relate to the conditions in any given application.

  14. Intermediate coupling between aboveground and belowground biomass maximises the persistence of grasslands.

    Scheiter, Simon; Higgins, Steven I

    2013-01-01

    Aboveground and belowground biomass compartments of vegetation fulfil different functions and they are coupled by complex interactions. These compartments exchange water, carbon and nutrients and the belowground biomass compartment has the capacity to buffer vegetation dynamics when aboveground biomass is removed by disturbances such as herbivory or fire. However, despite their importance, root-shoot interactions are often ignored in more heuristic vegetation models. Here, we present a simple two-compartment grassland model that couples aboveground and belowground biomass. In this model, the growth of belowground biomass is influenced by aboveground biomass and the growth of aboveground biomass is influenced by belowground biomass. We used the model to explore how the dynamics of a grassland ecosystem are influenced by fire and grazing. We show that the grassland system is most persistent at intermediate levels of aboveground-belowground coupling. In this situation, the system can sustain more extreme fire or grazing regimes than in the case of strong coupling. In contrast, the productivity of the system is maximised at high levels of coupling. Our analysis suggests that the yield of a grassland ecosystem is maximised when coupling is strong, however, the intensity of disturbance that can be sustained increases dramatically when coupling is intermediate. Hence, the model predicts that intermediate coupling should be selected for as it maximises the chances of persistence in disturbance driven ecosystems.

  15. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    Yin, Guodong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests.

  16. Aboveground overyielding in grassland mixtures is associated with reduced biomass partitioning to belowground organs.

    Bessler, Holger; Temperton, Vicky M; Roscher, Christiane; Buchmann, Nina; Schmid, Bernhard; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Engels, Christof

    2009-06-01

    We investigated effects of plant species richness in experimental grassland plots on annual above- and belowground biomass production estimated from repeated harvests and ingrowth cores, respectively. Aboveground and total biomass production increased with increasing plant species richness while belowground production remained constant. Root to shoot biomass production ratios (R/S) in mixtures were lower than expected from monoculture performance of the species present in the mixtures, showing that interactions among species led to reduced biomass partitioning to belowground organs. This change in partitioning to belowground organs was not confined to mixtures with legumes, but also measured in mixtures without legumes, and correlated with aboveground overyielding in mixtures. It is suggested that species-rich communities invest less in belowground biomass than do monocultures to extract soil resources, thus leading to increased investment into aboveground organs and overyielding.

  17. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  18. Some metals in aboveground biomass of Scots pine in Lithuania

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis; Stupak, Inge;

    2014-01-01

    The stocks of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and aluminium (Al) in different compartments of the aboveground tree biomass were estimated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Lithuania. Simulated removals of metals due to the forest biomass extraction in a model Scots pine stands...

  19. [Aboveground biomass of three conifers in Qianyanzhou plantation].

    Li, Xuanran; Liu, Qijing; Chen, Yongrui; Hu, Lile; Yang, Fengting

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the regressive models of the aboveground biomass of Pinus elliottii, P. massoniana and Cunninghamia lanceolata in Qianyanzhou of subtropical China were established, and the regression analysis on the dry weight of leaf biomass and total biomass against branch diameter (d), branch length (L), d3 and d2L was conducted with linear, power and exponent functions. Power equation with single parameter (d) was proved to be better than the rests for P. massoniana and C. lanceolata, and linear equation with parameter (d3) was better for P. elliottii. The canopy biomass was derived by the regression equations for all branches. These equations were also used to fit the relationships of total tree biomass, branch biomass and foliage biomass with tree diameter at breast height (D), tree height (H), D3 and D2H, respectively. D2H was found to be the best parameter for estimating total biomass. For foliage-and branch biomass, both parameters and equation forms showed some differences among species. Correlations were highly significant (P biomass, with the highest for total biomass. By these equations, the aboveground biomass and its allocation were estimated, with the aboveground biomass of P. massoniana, P. elliottii, and C. lanceolata forests being 83.6, 72. 1 and 59 t x hm(-2), respectively, and more stem biomass than foliage-and branch biomass. According to the previous studies, the underground biomass of these three forests was estimated to be 10.44, 9.42 and 11.48 t x hm(-2), and the amount of fixed carbon was 47.94, 45.14 and 37.52 t x hm(-2), respectively.

  20. Assessing aboveground tropical forest biomass using Google Earth canopy images.

    Ploton, Pierre; Pélissier, Raphaël; Proisy, Christophe; Flavenot, Théo; Barbier, Nicolas; Rai, S N; Couteron, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in efforts to combat climate change requires participating countries to periodically assess their forest resources on a national scale. Such a process is particularly challenging in the tropics because of technical difficulties related to large aboveground forest biomass stocks, restricted availability of affordable, appropriate remote-sensing images, and a lack of accurate forest inventory data. In this paper, we apply the Fourier-based FOTO method of canopy texture analysis to Google Earth's very-high-resolution images of the wet evergreen forests in the Western Ghats of India in order to (1) assess the predictive power of the method on aboveground biomass of tropical forests, (2) test the merits of free Google Earth images relative to their native commercial IKONOS counterparts and (3) highlight further research needs for affordable, accurate regional aboveground biomass estimations. We used the FOTO method to ordinate Fourier spectra of 1436 square canopy images (125 x 125 m) with respect to a canopy grain texture gradient (i.e., a combination of size distribution and spatial pattern of tree crowns), benchmarked against virtual canopy scenes simulated from a set of known forest structure parameters and a 3-D light interception model. We then used 15 1-ha ground plots to demonstrate that both texture gradients provided by Google Earth and IKONOS images strongly correlated with field-observed stand structure parameters such as the density of large trees, total basal area, and aboveground biomass estimated from a regional allometric model. Our results highlight the great potential of the FOTO method applied to Google Earth data for biomass retrieval because the texture-biomass relationship is only subject to 15% relative error, on average, and does not show obvious saturation trends at large biomass values. We also provide the first reliable map of tropical forest aboveground biomass predicted

  1. Estimating forest and woodland aboveground biomass using active and passive remote sensing

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Aboveground biomass was estimated from active and passive remote sensing sources, including airborne lidar and Landsat-8 satellites, in an eastern Arizona (USA) study area comprised of forest and woodland ecosystems. Compared to field measurements, airborne lidar enabled direct estimation of individual tree height with a slope of 0.98 (R2 = 0.98). At the plot-level, lidar-derived height and intensity metrics provided the most robust estimate for aboveground biomass, producing dominant species-based aboveground models with errors ranging from 4 to 14Mg ha –1 across all woodland and forest species. Landsat-8 imagery produced dominant species-based aboveground biomass models with errors ranging from 10 to 28 Mg ha –1. Thus, airborne lidar allowed for estimates for fine-scale aboveground biomass mapping with low uncertainty, while Landsat-8 seems best suited for broader spatial scale products such as a national biomass essential climate variable (ECV) based on land cover types for the United States.

  2. Individual tree size inequality enhances aboveground biomass in homegarden agroforestry systems in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Ali, Arshad; Mattsson, Eskil

    2017-01-01

    Individual tree size variation, which is generally quantified by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and height in isolation or conjunction, plays a central role in ecosystem functioning in both controlled and natural environments, including forests. However, none of the studies have been conducted in homegarden agroforestry systems. In this study, aboveground biomass, stand quality, cation exchange capacity (CEC), DBH variation, and species diversity were determined across 45 homegardens in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand quality and CEC, via tree size inequality and species diversity, on aboveground biomass. The SEM accounted for 26, 8, and 1% of the variation in aboveground biomass, species diversity and DBH variation, respectively. DBH variation had the strongest positive direct effect on aboveground biomass (β=0.49), followed by the non-significant direct effect of species diversity (β=0.17), stand quality (β=0.17) and CEC (β=-0.05). There were non-significant direct effects of CEC and stand quality on DBH variation and species diversity. Stand quality and CEC had also non-significant indirect effects, via DBH variation and species diversity, on aboveground biomass. Our study revealed that aboveground biomass substantially increased with individual tree size variation only, which supports the niche complementarity mechanism. However, aboveground biomass was not considerably increased with species diversity, stand quality and soil fertility, which might be attributable to the adaptation of certain productive species to the local site conditions. Stand structure shaped by few productive species or independent of species diversity is a main determinant for the variation in aboveground biomass in the studied homegardens. Maintaining stand structure through management practices could be an effective approach for enhancing aboveground biomass in these dry

  3. Functional dominance rather than taxonomic diversity and functional diversity mainly affects community aboveground biomass in the Inner Mongolia grassland.

    Zhang, Qing; Buyantuev, Alexander; Li, Frank Yonghong; Jiang, Lin; Niu, Jianming; Ding, Yong; Kang, Sarula; Ma, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and productivity has been a hot topic in ecology. However, the relative importance of taxonomic diversity and functional characteristics (including functional dominance and functional diversity) in maintaining community productivity and the underlying mechanisms (including selection and complementarity effects) of the relationship between diversity and community productivity have been widely controversial. In this study, 194 sites were surveyed in five grassland types along a precipitation gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland of China. The relationships between taxonomic diversity (species richness and the Shannon-Weaver index), functional dominance (the community-weighted mean of four plant traits), functional diversity (Rao's quadratic entropy), and community aboveground biomass were analyzed. The results showed that (1) taxonomic diversity, functional dominance, functional diversity, and community aboveground biomass all increased from low to high precipitation grassland types; (2) there were significant positive linear relationships between taxonomic diversity, functional dominance, functional diversity, and community aboveground biomass; (3) the effect of functional characteristics on community aboveground biomass is greater than that of taxonomic diversity; and (4) community aboveground biomass depends on the community-weighted mean plant height, which explained 57.1% of the variation in the community aboveground biomass. Our results suggested that functional dominance rather than taxonomic diversity and functional diversity mainly determines community productivity and that the selection effect plays a dominant role in maintaining the relationship between biodiversity and community productivity in the Inner Mongolia grassland.

  4. Regional contingencies in the relationship between aboveground biomass and litter in the world's grasslands.

    O'Halloran, Lydia R; Borer, Elizabeth T; Seabloom, Eric W; MacDougall, Andrew S; Cleland, Elsa E; McCulley, Rebecca L; Hobbie, Sarah; Harpole, W Stan; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Chu, Chengjin; Bakker, Jonathan D; Davies, Kendi F; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hagenah, Nicole; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Knops, Johannes M H; Li, Wei; Melbourne, Brett A; Morgan, John W; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Stevens, Carly J

    2013-01-01

    Based on regional-scale studies, aboveground production and litter decomposition are thought to positively covary, because they are driven by shared biotic and climatic factors. Until now we have been unable to test whether production and decomposition are generally coupled across climatically dissimilar regions, because we lacked replicated data collected within a single vegetation type across multiple regions, obfuscating the drivers and generality of the association between production and decomposition. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationships between production and decomposition rests heavily on separate meta-analyses of each response, because no studies have simultaneously measured production and the accumulation or decomposition of litter using consistent methods at globally relevant scales. Here, we use a multi-country grassland dataset collected using a standardized protocol to show that live plant biomass (an estimate of aboveground net primary production) and litter disappearance (represented by mass loss of aboveground litter) do not strongly covary. Live biomass and litter disappearance varied at different spatial scales. There was substantial variation in live biomass among continents, sites and plots whereas among continent differences accounted for most of the variation in litter disappearance rates. Although there were strong associations among aboveground biomass, litter disappearance and climatic factors in some regions (e.g. U.S. Great Plains), these relationships were inconsistent within and among the regions represented by this study. These results highlight the importance of replication among regions and continents when characterizing the correlations between ecosystem processes and interpreting their global-scale implications for carbon flux. We must exercise caution in parameterizing litter decomposition and aboveground production in future regional and global carbon models as their relationship is complex.

  5. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  6. Distribution of Aboveground Live Biomass in the Amazon Basin

    Saatchi, S. S.; Houghton, R. A.; DosSantos Alvala, R. C.; Soares, J. V.; Yu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The amount and spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Amazon basin is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the flux of carbon released from land-cover and land-use change. Direct measurements of aboveground live biomass (AGLB) are limited to small areas of forest inventory plots and site-specific allometric equations that cannot be readily generalized for the entire basin. Furthermore, there is no spaceborne remote sensing instrument that can measure tropical forest biomass directly. To determine the spatial distribution of forest biomass of the Amazon basin, we report a method based on remote sensing metrics representing various forest structural parameters and environmental variables, and more than 500 plot measurements of forest biomass distributed over the basin. A decision tree approach was used to develop the spatial distribution of AGLB for seven distinct biomass classes of lowland old-growth forests with more than 80% accuracy. AGLB for other vegetation types, such as the woody and herbaceous savanna and secondary forests, was directly estimated with a regression based on satellite data. Results show that AGLB is highest in Central Amazonia and in regions to the east and north, including the Guyanas. Biomass is generally above 300Mgha(sup 1) here except in areas of intense logging or open floodplains. In Western Amazonia, from the lowlands of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia to the Andean mountains, biomass ranges from 150 to 300Mgha(sup 1). Most transitional and seasonal forests at the southern and northwestern edges of the basin have biomass ranging from 100 to 200Mgha(sup 1). The AGLB distribution has a significant correlation with the length of the dry season. We estimate that the total carbon in forest biomass of the Amazon basin, including the dead and below ground biomass, is 86 PgC with +/- 20% uncertainty.

  7. Retrieval of Aboveground Biomass Using Multi-Frequency SAR

    Stelmaszczuk-Gorska, Martyna; Thiel, Christian; Schmullius, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate above-ground biomass (AGB) estimation in forests by combining multi-frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) L-band and C-band data. An area of Siberian boreal forest was selected for this study. The results demonstrated that relatively high estimation accuracy can be obtained at the spatial resolution of 0.5 ha using the L- and C-band SAR backscatter. Overall, the AGB estimation error was calculated to be approximately 24 t ha-1 using the Random Forests machine learning algorithm.

  8. Weed management, training, and irrigation practices for organic production of trailing blackberry: III. Accumulation and removal of aboveground biomass, carbon, and nutrients

    The effects of various production practices on biomass, C, and nutrient content, accumulation, and loss were assessed over 2 years in a mature organic trailing blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus, Watson) production system. Treatments included two irrigation options (no irrigation after harvest and ...

  9. ALLOMETRIC EQUATIONS FOR ESTIMATING ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS IN PAPUA TROPICAL FOREST

    Sandhi Imam Maulana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Allometric equations can be used to estimate biomass and carbon stock of  the forest. However, so far the allometric equations for commercial species in Papua tropical forests have not been appropriately developed. In this research, allometric equations are presented based on the genera of  commercial species. Few equations have been developed for the commercial species of  Intsia, Pometia, Palaquium and Vatica genera and an equation of  a mix of  these genera. The number of  trees sampled in this research was 49, with diameters (1.30 m above-ground or above buttresses ranging from 5 to 40 cm. Destructive sampling was used to collect the samples where Diameter at Breast Height (DBH and Wood Density (WD were used as predictors for dry weight of  Total Above-Ground Biomass (TAGB. Model comparison and selection were based on the values of  F-statistics, R-sq, R-sq (adj, and average deviation. Based on these statistical indicators, the most suitable model for Intsia, Pometia, Palaquium and Vatica genera respectively are Log(TAGB = -0.76 + 2.51Log(DBH, Log(TAGB = -0.84 + 2.57Log(DBH, Log(TAGB = -1.52 + 2.96Log(DBH, and Log(TAGB = -0.09 + 2.08Log(DBH. Additional explanatory variables such as Commercial Bole Height (CBH do not really increase the indicators’ goodness of  fit for the equation. An alternative model to incorporate wood density should  be considered for estimating the above-ground biomass for mixed genera. Comparing the presented mixed-genera equation; Log(TAGB = 0.205 + 2.08Log(DBH + 1.75Log(WD, R-sq: 97.0%, R-sq (adj: 96.9%, F statistics 750.67, average deviation: 3.5%; to previously published datashows that this local species specific equation differs substantially from previously published equations and this site-specific equation is  considered to give a better estimation of  biomass.

  10. Modeling Aboveground Biomass in Hulunber Grassland Ecosystem by Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Discrete Lidar.

    Wang, Dongliang; Xin, Xiaoping; Shao, Quanqin; Brolly, Matthew; Zhu, Zhiliang; Chen, Jin

    2017-01-19

    Accurate canopy structure datasets, including canopy height and fractional cover, are required to monitor aboveground biomass as well as to provide validation data for satellite remote sensing products. In this study, the ability of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) discrete light detection and ranging (lidar) was investigated for modeling both the canopy height and fractional cover in Hulunber grassland ecosystem. The extracted mean canopy height, maximum canopy height, and fractional cover were used to estimate the aboveground biomass. The influences of flight height on lidar estimates were also analyzed. The main findings are: (1) the lidar-derived mean canopy height is the most reasonable predictor of aboveground biomass (R² = 0.340, root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 81.89 g·m(-2), and relative error of 14.1%). The improvement of multiple regressions to the R² and RMSE values is unobvious when adding fractional cover in the regression since the correlation between mean canopy height and fractional cover is high; (2) Flight height has a pronounced effect on the derived fractional cover and details of the lidar data, but the effect is insignificant on the derived canopy height when the flight height is within the range (<100 m). These findings are helpful for modeling stable regressions to estimate grassland biomass using lidar returns.

  11. Shifts in Aboveground Biomass Allocation Patterns of Dominant Shrub Species across a Strong Environmental Gradient.

    Kumordzi, Bright B; Gundale, Michael J; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A

    2016-01-01

    Most plant biomass allocation studies have focused on allocation to shoots versus roots, and little is known about drivers of allocation for aboveground plant organs. We explored the drivers of within-and between-species variation of aboveground biomass allocation across a strong environmental resource gradient, i.e., a long-term chronosequence of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden across which soil fertility and plant productivity declines while light availability increases. For each of the three coexisting dominant understory dwarf shrub species on each island, we estimated the fraction of the total aboveground biomass produced year of sampling that was allocated to sexual reproduction (i.e., fruits), leaves and stems for each of two growing seasons, to determine how biomass allocation responded to the chronosequence at both the within-species and whole community levels. Against expectations, within-species allocation to fruits was least on less fertile islands, and allocation to leaves at the whole community level was greatest on intermediate islands. Consistent with expectations, different coexisting species showed contrasting allocation patterns, with the species that was best adapted for more fertile conditions allocating the most to vegetative organs, and with its allocation pattern showing the strongest response to the gradient. Our study suggests that co-existing dominant plant species can display highly contrasting biomass allocations to different aboveground organs within and across species in response to limiting environmental resources within the same plant community. Such knowledge is important for understanding how community assembly, trait spectra, and ecological processes driven by the plant community vary across environmental gradients and among contrasting ecosystems.

  12. Potential aboveground biomass in drought-prone forest used for rangeland pastoralism.

    Fensham, R J; Fairfax, R J; Dwyer, J M

    2012-04-01

    The restoration of cleared dry forest represents an important opportunity to sequester atmospheric carbon. In order to account for this potential, the influences of climate, soils, and disturbance need to be deciphered. A data set spanning a region defined the aboveground biomass of mulga (Acacia aneura) dry forest and was analyzed in relation to climate and soil variables using a Bayesian model averaging procedure. Mean annual rainfall had an overwhelmingly strong positive effect, with mean maximum temperature (negative) and soil depth (positive) also important. The data were collected after a recent drought, and the amount of recent tree mortality was weakly positively related to a measure of three-year rainfall deficit, and maximum temperature (positive), soil depth (negative), and coarse sand (negative). A grazing index represented by the distance of sites to watering points was not incorporated by the models. Stark management contrasts, including grazing exclosures, can represent a substantial part of the variance in the model predicting biomass, but the impact of management was unpredictable and was insignificant in the regional data set. There was no evidence of density-dependent effects on tree mortality. Climate change scenarios represented by the coincidence of historical extreme rainfall deficit with extreme temperature suggest mortality of 30.1% of aboveground biomass, compared to 21.6% after the recent (2003-2007) drought. Projections for recovery of forest using a mapping base of cleared areas revealed that the greatest opportunities for restoration of aboveground biomass are in the higher-rainfall areas, where biomass accumulation will be greatest and droughts are less intense. These areas are probably the most productive for rangeland pastoralism, and the trade-off between pastoral production and carbon sequestration will be determined by market forces and carbon-trading rules.

  13. Species Composition, Richness and Aboveground Biomass of Natural Grassland in Hilly-Gully Regions of the Loess Plateau, China

    DENG Lei; SHANGGUAN; Zhou-ping

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the characteristics of species composition, richness and aboveground biomass of natural grasslands, and then ifnd out the relations between species richness and aboveground productivity of the communities and possible mechanisms to form the relations, four typical grassland communities (Artemisia capillaries (AC), Thymus quinquecostatus (TQ), Stipa bungeana (SB) and Stipa grandis (SG)) along with a succession sequence in hilly-gully regions of the Loess Plateau, China, were investigated by ifeld survey and laboratory analysis. The results were summarized as follows:Different succession stages had different species compositions as well as different proportions of plant life forms and photosynthetic types, and Asteraceae, Poaceae and Leguminosae were their dominant species as well as their dominant perennial herb species;and different succession stages had signiifcantly different species richness and aboveground biomasses. There were many relation patterns (linear positive correlation, unrelated relations and unimodal relations) between the species richness and aboveground biomass in different succession stages and a signiifcant unimodal relation between the species richness and aboveground biomass in all the grassland communities and the highest species diversity appeared at a moderate level of productivity. The results suggest the unimodal relations in all the grassland communities are accumulative results of the relations in each succession stage.

  14. QUANTIFICATION OF ABOVE-GROUND BIOMASS IN STAND OF Acacia mearnsii DE WILD., BATEMANS BAY PROVENANCE - AUSTRALIA

    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The above-ground biomass of the Australian provenance Batemans Bay of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild., at 2.4 years after planting was quantified. The provenance was established in soils of low fertility, with high acidity, at Fazenda Menezes, District of Capão Comprido, County of Butiá/RS. Nine trees were selected to form a sample. The destructive sampling comprised the individualization of the compartments of the above-ground biomass (leaves, live branches, dead branches, bark, and wood, and the determination of the dry matter allocated in each of these compartments. The production of above-ground biomass of the Australian provenance Batemans Bay was 36,1 Mg ha-1 with the following distribution: 20% in the leaves; 19,5% in the live branches; 2,8% in the dead branches; 11,8% in the bark and 45,9% in the wood.

  15. Modeling aboveground biomass of Tamarix ramosissima in the Arkansas River Basin of Southeastern Colorado, USA

    Evangelista, P.; Kumar, S.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Crall, A.W.; Newman, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Predictive models of aboveground biomass of nonnative Tamarix ramosissima of various sizes were developed using destructive sampling techniques on 50 individuals and four 100-m2 plots. Each sample was measured for average height (m) of stems and canopy area (m2) prior to cutting, drying, and weighing. Five competing regression models (P aboveground biomass of T. ramosissima using average height and/or canopy area measurements and were evaluated using Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc). Our best model (AICc = -148.69, ??AICc = 0) successfully predicted T. ramosissima aboveground biomass (R2 = 0.97) and used average height and canopy area as predictors. Our 2nd-best model, using the same predictors, was also successful in predicting aboveground biomass (R2 = 0.97, AICc = -131.71, ??AICc = 16.98). A 3rd model demonstrated high correlation between only aboveground biomass and canopy area (R2 = 0.95), while 2 additional models found high correlations between aboveground biomass and average height measurements only (R2 = 0.90 and 0.70, respectively). These models illustrate how simple field measurements, such as height and canopy area, can be used in allometric relationships to accurately predict aboveground biomass of T. ramosissima. Although a correction factor may be necessary for predictions at larger scales, the models presented will prove useful for many research and management initiatives.

  16. Regional Mapping, Modelling, and Monitoring of Tree Aboveground Biomass Carbon

    Hudak, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Airborne lidar collections are preferred for mapping aboveground biomass carbon (AGBC), while historical Landsat imagery are preferred for monitoring decadal scale forest cover change. Our modelling approach tracks AGBC change regionally using Landsat time series metrics; training areas are defined by airborne lidar extents within which AGBC is accurately mapped with high confidence. Geospatial topographic and climate layers are also included in the predictive model. Validation is accomplished using systematically sampled Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data that have been independently collected, processed and summarized at the county level. Our goal is to demonstrate that spatially and temporally aggregated annual AGBC map predictions show no bias when compared to annual county-level summaries across the Northwest USA. A prominent source of bias is trees outside forest; much of the more arid portions of our study area meet the FIA definition of non-forest because the tree cover does not exceed their minimum tree cover threshold. We employ detailed tree cover maps derived from high-resolution aerial imagery to extend our AGBC predictions into non-forest areas. We also employ Landsat-derived annual disturbance maps into our mapped AGBC predictions prior to aggregation and validation.

  17. The variable effects of soil nitrogen availability and insect herbivory on aboveground and belowground plant biomass in an old-field ecosystem.

    Blue, Jarrod D; Souza, Lara; Classen, Aimée T; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Sanders, Nathan J

    2011-11-01

    Nutrient availability and herbivory can regulate primary production in ecosystems, but little is known about how, or whether, they may interact with one another. Here, we investigate how nitrogen availability and insect herbivory interact to alter aboveground and belowground plant community biomass in an old-field ecosystem. In 2004, we established 36 experimental plots in which we manipulated soil nitrogen (N) availability and insect abundance in a completely randomized plot design. In 2009, after 6 years of treatments, we measured aboveground biomass and assessed root production at peak growth. Overall, we found a significant effect of reduced soil N availability on aboveground biomass and belowground plant biomass production. Specifically, responses of aboveground and belowground community biomass to nutrients were driven by reductions in soil N, but not additions, indicating that soil N may not be limiting primary production in this ecosystem. Insects reduced the aboveground biomass of subdominant plant species and decreased coarse root production. We found no statistical interactions between N availability and insect herbivory for any response variable. Overall, the results of 6 years of nutrient manipulations and insect removals suggest strong bottom-up influences on total plant community productivity but more subtle effects of insect herbivores on aspects of aboveground and belowground production.

  18. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands.

  19. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    Xue, Kai; Yuan, Mengting M.; Xie, Jianping; Li, Dejun; Qin, Yujia; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass) is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened. PMID:27677789

  20. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    Kai Xue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened.

  1. Evaluation of aboveground and belowground biomass recovery in physically disturbed seagrass beds.

    Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Kenworthy, W Judson

    2008-11-01

    Several studies addressed aboveground biomass recovery in tropical and subtropical seagrass systems following physical disturbance. However, there are few studies documenting belowground biomass recovery despite the important functional and ecological role of roots and rhizomes for seagrass ecosystems. In this study, we compared the recovery of biomass (g dry weight m(-2)) as well as the biomass recovery rates in ten severely disturbed multi-species seagrass meadows, after the sediments were excavated and the seagrasses removed. Three sites were located in the tropics (Puerto Rico) and seven in the subtropics (Florida Keys), and all were originally dominated by Thalassia testudinum. Total aboveground biomass reached reference values at four out of ten sites studied, two in the Florida Keys and two in Puerto Rico. Total belowground biomass was lower at the disturbed locations compared to the references at all sites, apart from two sites in the Florida Keys where the compensatory effect of opportunistic species (Syringodium filiforme and Halodule wrightii) was observed. The results revealed large variation among sites in aboveground and belowground biomass for all species, with higher aboveground recovery than belowground for T. testudinum. Recovery rates for T. testudinum were highly variable across sites, but a general trend of faster aboveground than belowground recovery was observed. Equal rates between aboveground and belowground biomass were found for opportunistic species at several sites in the Florida Keys. These results indicate the importance of belowground biomass when assessing seagrass recovery and suggest that the appropriate metric to assess seagrass recovery should address belowground biomass as well as aboveground biomass in order to evaluate the full recovery of ecological services and functions performed by seagrasses. We point out regional differences in species composition and species shifts following severe disturbance events and discuss

  2. Conservative species drive biomass productivity in tropical dry forests

    Prado-Junior, Jamir A.; Schiavini, Ivan; Vale, Vagner S.; Sande, van der Masha T.; Lohbeck, Madelon; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-01-01

    Forests account for a substantial part of the terrestrial biomass storage and productivity. To better understand forest productivity, we need to disentangle the processes underlying net biomass change. We tested how above-ground net biomass change and its underlying biomass dynamics (biomass recr

  3. [Relationships between aboveground biomass and environmental factors along an altitude gradient of alpine grassland].

    Li, Kai-Hui; Hu, Yu-Kun; Wang, Xin; Fan, Yong-Gang; Wu-Maier, Wu-Shou

    2007-09-01

    In order to analyze the relationships between aboveground biomass and environmental factors along an altitude gradient of Bayanbulak alpine grassland on the southern slope of Tianshan Mountain, nine plots were selected, with each at 100 m interval of altitude. The results showed that Stipa purpurea and Festuca ovina communities distributed at the altitude from 2460 to 2760 m, and the aboveground biomass were 52.2-75.9 g x m(-2). Kobresia capillifolia + S. purpurea communities distributed at altitude 2860 m, and the aboveground biomass was 53.2 g x m(-2). K. capillifolia, Aichemilla tianschanica and Carex stenocarpa distributed at the altitude from 2860 to 3260 m, and the aboveground biomass was 62.1-107.4 g x m(-2). The mean relative humidity in July and August had greater effects on the aboveground biomass. Altitude had a negative correlation with the aboveground biomass of gramineous functional group, but a positive correlation with that of sedge functional group. The mean air temperature in July and August was the key factor affecting the aboveground biomass of gramineous and sedge functional groups, and the stepwise regression equations were Y = 13.467X - 97.284 and Y = 171.699 - 15.331X, respectively (X represented mean air temperature, and Y represented aboveground biomass). Altitude was negatively correlated with mean air temperature and soil pH value (P < 0.01), and positively correlated with mean relative humidity (P < 0.01) and soil available nitrogen and water content (P < 0.05).

  4. [Spatial distribution of aboveground biomass of shrubs in Tianlaochi catchment of the Qilian Mountains].

    Liang, Bei; Di, Li; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Peng, Shou-Zhang; Peng, Huan-Hua; Wang, Chao

    2014-02-01

    This study estimated the spatial distribution of the aboveground biomass of shrubs in the Tianlaochi catchment of Qilian Mountains based on the field survey and remote sensing data. A relationship model of the aboveground biomass and its feasibly measured factors (i. e. , canopy perimeter and plant height) was built. The land use was classified by object-oriented technique with the high resolution image (GeoEye-1) of the study area, and the distribution of shrub coverage was extracted. Then the total aboveground biomass of shrubs in the study area was estimated by the relationship model with the distribution of shrub coverage. The results showed that the aboveground biomass of shrubs in the study area was 1.8 x 10(3) t and the aboveground biomass per unit area was 1598.45 kg x m(-2). The distribution of shrubs mainly was at altitudes of 3000-3700 m, and the aboveground biomass of shrubs on the sunny slope (1.15 x 10(3) t) was higher than that on the shady slope (0.65 x 10(3) t).

  5. [Effect of flooding disturbance on aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis grassland--a preliminary study].

    Wang, Zhengwen; Zhu, Tingcheng

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effect of flooding disturbance on the net primary productivity of Songnen steppe, a comparatively thorough study was conducted on Sanjiadian State-owned Rangeland in Da'an city, Jilin Province, which was partly flooded in 1998. The study site was located in the south Songnen plain of Northeastern China, dominated by Leymus chinensis grassland. An extensively mild slope with flooding gradients (from un-flooded to heavily flooded) was taken as the study site. Two flooded transects coded FL and FH which was respectively subjected to 3 and 9 months of flooding were designed, and an un-flooded one coded CK at a relatively higher elevation was set as a control. Before flooding occurred in 1998, the slope had an almost uniform soil and L. chinensis dominated vegetation. Each transect was 0.2 hm2 (100 m x 20 m) in size, and the two flooded transects were almost paralleled each other, with the longer sides of them perpendicular to the retrieving direction of floodwater. In each transect twenty 1 m2 sized quadrats were randomly chosen to survey the community structure and the aboveground biomass. Comparative analyses were made on the dynamics of soil water, soil N and P, and species composition of grassland communities that occurred in responses to flooding disturbance. The results showed that the lightly and heavily flooded transects had a significantly larger aboveground biomass than the control, with the increase of 89.54% and 113.45%, respectively. The heavily flooded transect had a slightly but insignificantly larger aboveground biomass than the lightly flooded one, indicating that on flooded sites, water was not the limiting factor of the aboveground biomass. The acute changes of soil water caused by flooding led to the changes of soil nutrients and species assemblages, which would impact community biomass. Just as the case for aboveground biomass, the soil water contents of the two flooded transects were significantly larger than that of control

  6. Mapping aboveground forest biomass combining dendrometric data and spectral signature of forest species

    Avocat, H.; Tourneux, F.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate measures and explicit spatial representations of forest biomass compose an important aspect to model the forest productivity and crops, and to implement sustainable forest management. Several methods have been developed to estimate and to map forest biomass, combining point-sources measurements of biophysical variables such as diameter-at-breast height (DBH), tree height, crown size, crown length, crown volume and remote sensing data (spectral vegetation index values). In this study, we propose a new method for aboveground biomass (AGB) mapping of forests and isolated trees. This method is tested on a 1100 km2 area located in the eastern France. In contrast to most of studies, our model is not calibrated using field plot measurements or point-source inventory data. The primary goal of this model is to propose an accessible and reproducible method for AGB mapping of temperate forests, by combining standard biomass values coming from bibliography and remotely sensed data. This method relies on three steps. (1) The first step consists of produce a map of wooded areas including small woods and isolated trees, and to identify the major forest stands. To do this, we use an unsupervised classification of a Landsat 7 ETM+ image. Results are compared and improved with various land cover data. (2) The second step consists of extract the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values of main forest stands. (3) Finally, these values are combined with standard AGB values provided by bibliography, to calibrate four AGB estimation models of different forest types (broadleaves, coniferous, coppices, and mixed stands). This method provides a map of aboveground biomass for forests and isolated trees with a 30 meters spatial resolution. Results demonstrate that 71 % of AGB values for hardwoods vary between 143 and 363 t.ha-1, i.e. × 1 standard deviation around the average. For coniferous stands, most of values of AGB range from 167 to 256 t.ha-1.

  7. Increasing native, but not exotic, biodiversity increases aboveground productivity in ungrazed and intensely grazed grasslands.

    Isbell, Forest I; Wilsey, Brian J

    2011-03-01

    Species-rich native grasslands are frequently converted to species-poor exotic grasslands or pastures; however, the consequences of these changes for ecosystem functioning remain unclear. Cattle grazing (ungrazed or intensely grazed once), plant species origin (native or exotic), and species richness (4-species mixture or monoculture) treatments were fully crossed and randomly assigned to plots of grassland plants. We tested whether (1) native and exotic plots exhibited different responses to grazing for six ecosystem functions (i.e., aboveground productivity, light interception, fine root biomass, tracer nitrogen uptake, biomass consumption, and aboveground biomass recovery), and (2) biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships depended on grazing or species origin. We found that native and exotic species exhibited different responses to grazing for three of the ecosystem functions we considered. Intense grazing decreased fine root biomass by 53% in exotic plots, but had no effect on fine root biomass in native plots. The proportion of standing biomass consumed by cattle was 16% less in exotic than in native grazed plots. Aboveground biomass recovery was 30% less in native than in exotic plots. Intense grazing decreased aboveground productivity by 25%, light interception by 14%, and tracer nitrogen uptake by 54%, and these effects were similar in native and exotic plots. Increasing species richness from one to four species increased aboveground productivity by 42%, and light interception by 44%, in both ungrazed and intensely grazed native plots. In contrast, increasing species richness did not influence biomass production or resource uptake in ungrazed or intensely grazed exotic plots. These results suggest that converting native grasslands to exotic grasslands or pastures changes ecosystem structure and processes, and the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

  8. Effects of site disturbance and vegetation control on aboveground biomass in young mixed-conifer plantations in California

    Zhang, J.; Powers, R.; Fiddler, G. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, CA (United States). California Long-Term Soil Productivity Experiment Steering Committee, Pacific Southwest Research Station; Young, D. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, CA (United States). California Long-Term Soil Productivity Experiment Steering Committee, Shasta-Trinity National Forest; Roath, B.; Landram, M. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, CA (United States). California Long-Term Soil Productivity Experiment Steering Committee, Pacific Southwest Region

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of vegetation control and site disturbance on aboveground biomass in young conifer plantations in California. Ten-year vegetation data from 12 long-term soil productivity sites in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascades were used to determine above ground biomass. In addition, 15-year vegetation data from 3 earlier Sierra Nevada sites was also examined. The aim of the study was to determine how biomass management impacts site productivity in the next generation of forest. The sites included 9 factorial combinations of 3 organic matter removals. Plots were planted with a mixture of conifers and divided into 2 subplots where understory vegetation was either controlled, or allowed to develop naturally. The study showed that neither the 10-year nor the 15-year total aboveground biomass was significantly impacted by organic matter removal. Results indicated that no negative effect of either organic matter removal or soil compaction on total aboveground biomass occurred in the early stages of stand development of mixed conifer plantations. However, understory control significantly decreased total site production as a result of delayed site occupancy.

  9. Modeling compatible single-tree aboveground biomass equations for masson pine (Pinus massoniana) in southern China

    ZENG Wei-sheng; TANG Shou-zheng

    2012-01-01

    Because of global climate change,it is necessary to add forest biomass estimation to national forest resource monitoring.The biomass equations developed for forest biomass estimation should be compatible with volume equations.Based on the tree volume and aboveground biomass data of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) in southern China,we constructed one-,two-and three-variable aboveground biomass equations and biomass conversion functions compatible with tree volume equations by using error-in-variable simultaneous equations.The prediction precision of aboveground biomass estimates from one variable equation exceeded 95%.The regressions of aboveground biomass equations were improved slightly when tree height and crown width were used together with diameter on breast height,although the contributions to regressions were statistically insignificant.For the biomass conversion function on one variable,the conversion factor decreased with increasing diameter,but for the conversion function on two variables,the conversion factor increased with increasing diameter but decreased with increasing tree height.

  10. Impact of logging on aboveground biomass stocks in lowland rain forest, Papua New Guinea.

    Bryan, Jane; Shearman, Phil; Ash, Julian; Kirkpatrick, J B

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse-gas emissions resulting from logging are poorly quantified across the tropics. There is a need for robust measurement of rain forest biomass and the impacts of logging from which carbon losses can be reliably estimated at regional and global scales. We used a modified Bitterlich plotless technique to measure aboveground live biomass at six unlogged and six logged rain forest areas (coupes) across two approximately 3000-ha regions at the Makapa concession in lowland Papua New Guinea. "Reduced-impact logging" is practiced at Makapa. We found the mean unlogged aboveground biomass in the two regions to be 192.96 +/- 4.44 Mg/ha and 252.92 +/- 7.00 Mg/ha (mean +/- SE), which was reduced by logging to 146.92 +/- 4.58 Mg/ha and 158.84 +/- 4.16, respectively. Killed biomass was not a fixed proportion, but varied with unlogged biomass, with 24% killed in the lower-biomass region, and 37% in the higher-biomass region. Across the two regions logging resulted in a mean aboveground carbon loss of 35 +/- 2.8 Mg/ha. The plotless technique proved efficient at estimating mean aboveground biomass and logging damage. We conclude that substantial bias is likely to occur within biomass estimates derived from single unreplicated plots.

  11. [Effects of shading on the aboveground biomass and stiochiometry characteristics of Medicago sativa].

    Ma, Zhi-Liang; Yang, Wan-Qin; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Gao, Shun

    2014-11-01

    In order to provide scientific basis for inter-planting alfalfa in abandoned farmland, a shading experiment was conducted to simulate the effects of different light intensities on the aboveground biomass, the contents of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and the stoichiometric characteristics of alfalfa under the plantation. The results showed that the aboveground biomass of alfalfa correlated significantly with the light intensity, and shading treatment reduced the aboveground biomass of alfalfa significantly. The aboveground alfalfa tissues under the 62% shading treatment had the highest contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, which was 373.73, 34.38 and 5.47 g · kg(-1), respectively, and significantly higher than those of the control. However, shading treatments had no significant effect on the potassium content of aboveground part. The C/N ratio in aboveground tissues under the 72% shading treatment was significantly higher than that of the control, but no significant differences among other treatments were found. The ratios of N/P and C/P in aboveground tissues showed a tendency that decreased firstly and then increased with the increase of light intensity.

  12. Relationships among the Stem,Aboveground and Total Biomass across Chinese Forests

    2007-01-01

    Forest biomass plays a key role in the global carbon cycle.In the present study,a general allometric model was derived to predict the relationships among the stem biomass Ms,aboveground biomass MA and total biomass Mr.based on previously developed scaling relationships for leaf,stem and root standing biomass.The model predicted complex scaling exponents for MT and/or MA with respect to MS.Because annual biomass accumulation in the stem,root and branch far exceeded the annual increase in standing leaf biomass,we can predict that MT∝MA∝Ms as a simple result of the model.Although slight variations existed in different phyletic affiliations(I.e.conifers versus angiosperms),empirical results using Model Type Ⅱ (reduced major axis) regression supported the model's predictions.The predictive formulas among stem,aboveground and total biomass were obtained using Model Type Ⅰ(ordinary least squares) regression to estimate forest biomass.Given the low mean percentage prediction errors for aboveground(and total biomass) based on the stem biomass.the results provided a reasonable method to estimate the biomass of forests at the individual level.which was insensitive to the variation in local environmental conditions (e.g.precipitation,tempereture,etc.).

  13. Standing crop and aboveground biomass partitioning of a dwarf mangrove forest in Taylor River Slough, Florida

    Coronado-Molina, C.; Day, J.W.; Reyes, E.; Perez, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    The structure and standing crop biomass of a dwarf mangrove forest, located in the salinity transition zone ofTaylor River Slough in the Everglades National Park, were studied. Although the four mangrove species reported for Florida occurred at the study site, dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees dominated the forest. The structural characteristics of the mangrove forest were relatively simple: tree height varied from 0.9 to 1.2 meters, and tree density ranged from 7062 to 23 778 stems haa??1. An allometric relationship was developed to estimate leaf, branch, prop root, and total aboveground biomass of dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees. Total aboveground biomass and their components were best estimated as a power function of the crown area times number of prop roots as an independent variable (Y = B ?? Xa??0.5083). The allometric equation for each tree component was highly significant (paboveground biomass that ranged from 7.9 to 23.2 ton haa??1. Rhizophora mangle contributed 85% of total standing crop biomass. Conocarpus erectus, Laguncularia racemosa, and Avicennia germinans contributed the remaining biomass. Average aboveground biomass allocation was 69% for prop roots, 25% for stem and branches, and 6% for leaves. This aboveground biomass partitioning pattern, which gives a major role to prop roots that have the potential to produce an extensive root system, may be an important biological strategy in response to low phosphorus availability and relatively reduced soils that characterize mangrove forests in South Florida.

  14. Demographic Drivers of Aboveground Biomass Dynamics During Secondary Succession in Neotropical Dry and Wet Forests

    Rozendaal, Danaë M.A.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Arreola-Villa, Felipe; Balvanera, Patricia; Bentos, Tony V.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Hernández-Stefanoni, J.L.; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin E.; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo E.S.; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita C.G.; Mora, Francisco; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Romero-Pérez, I.E.; Saenz-Pedroza, Irving; Breugel, van Michiel; Williamson, G.B.; Bongers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of the carbon sink in second-growth forests is expected to vary with successional biomass dynamics resulting from tree growth, recruitment, and mortality, and with the effects of climate on these dynamics. We compare aboveground biomass dynamics of dry and wet Neotropical forests, b

  15. Soil nutrients affect spatial patterns of aboveground biomass and emergent tree density in southwestern Borneo.

    Paoli, Gary D; Curran, Lisa M; Slik, J W F

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the relationship between soil fertility and aboveground biomass in lowland tropical forests have yielded conflicting results, reporting positive, negative and no effect of soil nutrients on aboveground biomass. Here, we quantify the impact of soil variation on the stand structure of mature Bornean forest throughout a lowland watershed (8-196 m a.s.l.) with uniform climate and heterogeneous soils. Categorical and bivariate methods were used to quantify the effects of (1) parent material differing in nutrient content (alluvium > sedimentary > granite) and (2) 27 soil parameters on tree density, size distribution, basal area and aboveground biomass. Trees > or =10 cm (diameter at breast height, dbh) were enumerated in 30 (0.16 ha) plots (sample area = 4.8 ha). Six soil samples (0-20 cm) per plot were analyzed for physiochemical properties. Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equations. Across all plots, stem density averaged 521 +/- 13 stems ha(-1), basal area 39.6 +/- 1.4 m(2) ha(-1) and aboveground biomass 518 +/- 28 Mg ha(-1) (mean +/- SE). Adjusted forest-wide aboveground biomass to account for apparent overestimation of large tree density (based on 69 0.3-ha transects; sample area = 20.7 ha) was 430 +/- 25 Mg ha(-1). Stand structure did not vary significantly among substrates, but it did show a clear trend toward larger stature on nutrient-rich alluvium, with a higher density and larger maximum size of emergent trees. Across all plots, surface soil phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium and percentage sand content were significantly related to stem density and/or aboveground biomass (R (Pearson) = 0.368-0.416). In multiple linear regression, extractable P and percentage sand combined explained 31% of the aboveground biomass variance. Regression analyses on size classes showed that the abundance of emergent trees >120 cm dbh was positively related to soil P and exchangeable bases, whereas trees 60-90 cm dbh were negatively related to these

  16. Aboveground biomass of three conifers in the Qianyanzhou plantation, Jiangxi Province, China

    Xuanran LI; Qijing LIU; Yongrui CHEN; Lile HU; Fengting YANG

    2008-01-01

    Regressive models of the aboveground bio-mass for three conifers in subtropical China-slash pine (Pinus elliottii), Masson pine (P. massoniana) andChinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata)-were established. Regression analysis of leaf biomass and total biomass of each branch against branch diameter (d), branch length (L), d3 and d2L was conducted with functions of linear, power and exponent. A power law equation with a single parameter (d) was proved to be better than the rest for Masson pine and Chinese fir, and a linear equation with parameter (d3) is better for slash pine. The canopy biomass was derived by adopting the regression equa-tions to all branches of each individual tree. These kinds of equations were also used to fit the relationship between total tree biomass, branch biomass, foliage biomass and tree diameter at breast height (D), tree height (H), D3 and D2H, respectively. D2H was found to be the best parameter for estimating total biomass. However, for foliage biomass and branch biomass, both parameters and equation forms showed some differences among species. Correlations were highly significant (P<0.001) for foliage biomass, branch biomass and total biomass, among which the equation of the total biomass was the highest. With these equations, the aboveground biomass of Masson pine forest, slash pine forest and Chinese fir forest were estimated, in addition to the allocation of aboveground biomass. The above-ground biomass of Masson pine forest, slash pine forest and Chinese fir forest was 83.6, 72.1 and 59 t/hm2 respectively, and the stem biomass was more than the foliage biomass and the branch biomass. The under-ground biomass of these three forests which estimated with others' research were 10.44, 9.42 and 11.48 t/hm2, and the amount of carbon-fixed were 47.94, 45.14 and 37.52 t/hm2, respectively.

  17. Estimating aboveground biomass of broadleaved woody plants in the understory of Florida Keys pine forests

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Koptur, S.; Snyder, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Species-specific allometric equations that provide estimates of biomass from measured plant attributes are currently unavailable for shrubs common to South Florida pine rocklands, where fire plays an important part in shaping the structure and function of ecosystems. We developed equations to estimate total aboveground biomass and fine fuel of 10 common hardwood species in the shrub layer of pine forests of the lower Florida Keys. Many equations that related biomass categories to crown area and height were significant (p aboveground shrub biomass and shrub fine fuel increased with time since last fire, but the relationships were non-linear. The relative proportion of biomass constituted by the major species also varied with stand age. Estimates based on mixed-species regressions differed slightly from estimates based on species-specific models, but the former could provide useful approximations in similar forests where species-specific regressions are not yet available. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Demographic controls of aboveground forest biomass across North America.

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Zeng, Hongcheng; Caspersen, John P; Kunstler, Georges; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2016-04-01

    Ecologists have limited understanding of how geographic variation in forest biomass arises from differences in growth and mortality at continental to global scales. Using forest inventories from across North America, we partitioned continental-scale variation in biomass growth and mortality rates of 49 tree species groups into (1) species-independent spatial effects and (2) inherent differences in demographic performance among species. Spatial factors that were separable from species composition explained 83% and 51% of the respective variation in growth and mortality. Moderate additional variation in mortality (26%) was attributable to differences in species composition. Age-dependent biomass models showed that variation in forest biomass can be explained primarily by spatial gradients in growth that were unrelated to species composition. Species-dependent patterns of mortality explained additional variation in biomass, with forests supporting less biomass when dominated by species that are highly susceptible to competition (e.g. Populus spp.) or to biotic disturbances (e.g. Abies balsamea).

  19. Estimating above-ground carbon biomass in a newly restored coastal plain wetland using remote sensing.

    Joseph B Riegel

    Full Text Available Developing accurate but inexpensive methods for estimating above-ground carbon biomass is an important technical challenge that must be overcome before a carbon offset market can be successfully implemented in the United States. Previous studies have shown that LiDAR (light detection and ranging is well-suited for modeling above-ground biomass in mature forests; however, there has been little previous research on the ability of LiDAR to model above-ground biomass in areas with young, aggrading vegetation. This study compared the abilities of discrete-return LiDAR and high resolution optical imagery to model above-ground carbon biomass at a young restored forested wetland site in eastern North Carolina. We found that the optical imagery model explained more of the observed variation in carbon biomass than the LiDAR model (adj-R(2 values of 0.34 and 0.18 respectively; root mean squared errors of 0.14 Mg C/ha and 0.17 Mg C/ha respectively. Optical imagery was also better able to predict high and low biomass extremes than the LiDAR model. Combining both the optical and LiDAR improved upon the optical model but only marginally (adj-R(2 of 0.37. These results suggest that the ability of discrete-return LiDAR to model above-ground biomass may be rather limited in areas with young, small trees and that high spatial resolution optical imagery may be the better tool in such areas.

  20. Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees.

    Chave, Jérôme; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Búrquez, Alberto; Chidumayo, Emmanuel; Colgan, Matthew S; Delitti, Welington B C; Duque, Alvaro; Eid, Tron; Fearnside, Philip M; Goodman, Rosa C; Henry, Matieu; Martínez-Yrízar, Angelina; Mugasha, Wilson A; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Nelson, Bruce W; Ngomanda, Alfred; Nogueira, Euler M; Ortiz-Malavassi, Edgar; Pélissier, Raphaël; Ploton, Pierre; Ryan, Casey M; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Vieilledent, Ghislain

    2014-10-01

    Terrestrial carbon stock mapping is important for the successful implementation of climate change mitigation policies. Its accuracy depends on the availability of reliable allometric models to infer oven-dry aboveground biomass of trees from census data. The degree of uncertainty associated with previously published pantropical aboveground biomass allometries is large. We analyzed a global database of directly harvested trees at 58 sites, spanning a wide range of climatic conditions and vegetation types (4004 trees ≥ 5 cm trunk diameter). When trunk diameter, total tree height, and wood specific gravity were included in the aboveground biomass model as covariates, a single model was found to hold across tropical vegetation types, with no detectable effect of region or environmental factors. The mean percent bias and variance of this model was only slightly higher than that of locally fitted models. Wood specific gravity was an important predictor of aboveground biomass, especially when including a much broader range of vegetation types than previous studies. The generic tree diameter-height relationship depended linearly on a bioclimatic stress variable E, which compounds indices of temperature variability, precipitation variability, and drought intensity. For cases in which total tree height is unavailable for aboveground biomass estimation, a pantropical model incorporating wood density, trunk diameter, and the variable E outperformed previously published models without height. However, to minimize bias, the development of locally derived diameter-height relationships is advised whenever possible. Both new allometric models should contribute to improve the accuracy of biomass assessment protocols in tropical vegetation types, and to advancing our understanding of architectural and evolutionary constraints on woody plant development.

  1. Aboveground biomass and nutrient allocation in an age-sequence of Larix oigensis plantations

    ZHAO Qiong; LIU Xing-yu; ZENG De-hui

    2011-01-01

    Biomass and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) stock in various aboveground tree components (stemwood, stembark, branches and leaves) were quantified in an age sequence of pure Larix olgensis plantations (20, 35, 53 and 69 years old) in Northeast China. The results show that the aboveground biomass allocation in various tree components was in the order of stemwood (62%-83%), branches (9%-21%), stembark (7%-11%) and leaves (1%-6%) for all stands. The proportion of stemwood biomass to total aboveground biomass increased whereas that of other tree components decreased consistently with stand age from 20 to 53 years old, but kept relatively constant with stand age from 53 and 69 years old. The nutrient allocation in various tree components generally followed the same pattern as the biomass allocation (i.e. stemwood > branches > stembark > leaves). The proportion of nutrient stock in leaves to total aboveground nutrient stock decreased consistently with increasing stand age, while that in stemwood increased with stand age from 20 to 53 years old but then decreased from 53 to 69 years old. The rate of nutrient removal for stands was estimated at different stand ages under different logging schemes, showing that the rate of nutrient removal would be unchanged when the rotation length was shortened to 20 years by the harvest of stem only, but greatly increased by the harvest of total aboveground biomass. The rate of nutrient removal would be a considerable reduction for all elements by debarking, especially for Ca.

  2. Mapping aboveground woody biomass using forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

    Yadav, Bechu K V; Nandy, S

    2015-05-01

    Mapping forest biomass is fundamental for estimating CO₂ emissions, and planning and monitoring of forests and ecosystem productivity. The present study attempted to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) integrating forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques, viz., direct radiometric relationships (DRR), k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) and cokriging (CoK) and to evaluate their accuracy. A part of the Timli Forest Range of Kalsi Soil and Water Conservation Division, Uttarakhand, India was selected for the present study. Stratified random sampling was used to collect biophysical data from 36 sample plots of 0.1 ha (31.62 m × 31.62 m) size. Species-specific volumetric equations were used for calculating volume and multiplied by specific gravity to get biomass. Three forest-type density classes, viz. 10-40, 40-70 and >70% of Shorea robusta forest and four non-forest classes were delineated using on-screen visual interpretation of IRS P6 LISS-III data of December 2012. The volume in different strata of forest-type density ranged from 189.84 to 484.36 m(3) ha(-1). The total growing stock of the forest was found to be 2,024,652.88 m(3). The AGWB ranged from 143 to 421 Mgha(-1). Spectral bands and vegetation indices were used as independent variables and biomass as dependent variable for DRR, k-NN and CoK. After validation and comparison, k-NN method of Mahalanobis distance (root mean square error (RMSE) = 42.25 Mgha(-1)) was found to be the best method followed by fuzzy distance and Euclidean distance with RMSE of 44.23 and 45.13 Mgha(-1) respectively. DRR was found to be the least accurate method with RMSE of 67.17 Mgha(-1). The study highlighted the potential of integrating of forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques for forest biomass mapping.

  3. [Spatiotemporal variations of aboveground biomass and leaf area index of typical grassland in tower flux footprint].

    Wang, Meng; Li, Gui-cai; Wang, Jun-bang

    2011-03-01

    By using cyclic sampling method, the aboveground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) of typical grassland in tower flux footprint were measured at three growth stages, i.e., early July (July 2-7), late July (July 20-26), and late August (Aug. 25-30), with their spatial patterns analyzed by geostatistics. At the three stages, the aboveground biomass of the grassland kept rising, while the LAI decreased after an initial increase. Both the two variables had good spatial autocorrelation, with similar spatial pattern and temporal evolution trend, and changed from stripe to patch. From early July to late August, the C0/(C0+C) of the aboveground biomass and LAI all decreased significantly, indicating that the spatial autocorrelation of the two variables changed from medium to high. The change ranges of the two variables gradually decreased, presenting the decrease of spatial continuity. The fractal dimension (D) also decreased gradually, suggesting the increase of spatial dependence. Topography and field management were the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass and LAI, which induced the spatial variability of water and heat, and further, affected the grass growth.

  4. Capabilities and limitations of Landsat and land cover data for aboveground woody biomass estimation of Uganda

    Avitabile, V.; Baccini, A.; Friedl, M.A.; Schmullius, C.

    2012-01-01

    Aboveground woody biomass for circa-2000 is mapped at national scale in Uganda at 30-m spatial resolution on the basis of Landsat ETM + images, a National land cover dataset and field data using an object-oriented approach. A regression tree-based model (Random Forest) produces good results (cross-v

  5. Allometric equations for aboveground and belowground biomass estimations in an evergreen forest in Vietnam

    Nam, Vu Thanh; Kuijk, Van Marijke; Anten, Niels P.R.

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations fo

  6. Aboveground total and green biomass of dryland shrub derived from terrestrial laser scanning

    The distribution of many dryland vegetation species are expected to shift based on predictions of future increases in global temperatures. Quantifying aboveground biomass in dryland systems is important for assessing global carbon storage and monitoring the presence and distribution of these rapidl...

  7. Estimation of Aboveground Biomass Using Manual Stereo Viewing of Digital Aerial Photographs in Tropical Seasonal Forest

    Katsuto Shimizu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to: (1 evaluate accuracy of tree height measurements of manual stereo viewing on a computer display using digital aerial photographs compared with airborne LiDAR height measurements; and (2 develop an empirical model to estimate stand-level aboveground biomass with variables derived from manual stereo viewing on the computer display in a Cambodian tropical seasonal forest. We evaluate observation error of tree height measured from the manual stereo viewing, based on field measurements. RMSEs of tree height measurement with manual stereo viewing and LiDAR were 1.96 m and 1.72 m, respectively. Then, stand-level aboveground biomass is regressed against tree height indices derived from the manual stereo viewing. We determined the best model to estimate aboveground biomass in terms of the Akaike’s information criterion. This was a model of mean tree height of the tallest five trees in each plot (R2 = 0.78; RMSE = 58.18 Mg/ha. In conclusion, manual stereo viewing on the computer display can measure tree height accurately and is useful to estimate aboveground stand biomass.

  8. Nondestructive estimates of above-ground biomass using terrestrial laser scanning

    Calders, K.; Newnham, G.; Burt, A.; Murphy, S.; Raumonen, P.; Herold, M.; Culvenor, D.; Avitabile, V.; Disney, M.; Armston, J.; Kaasalainen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Allometric equations are currently used to estimate above-ground biomass (AGB) based on the indirect relationship with tree parameters. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) can measure the canopy structure in 3D with high detail. In this study, we develop an approach to estimate AGB from TLS data, which

  9. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam

    Nam, Vu Thanh; van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for a

  10. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  11. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam.

    Nam, Vu Thanh; van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB) and root biomass (RB) based on 300 (of 45 species) and 40 (of 25 species) sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H), wood density (WD) was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam.

  12. Estimates of Aboveground Biomass from Texture Analysis of Landsat Imagery

    Katharine C. Kelsey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Maps of forest biomass are important tools for managing natural resources and reporting terrestrial carbon stocks. Using the San Juan National Forest in Southwest Colorado as a case study, we evaluate regional biomass maps created using physical variables, spectral vegetation indices, and image textural analysis on Landsat TM imagery. We investigate eight gray level co-occurrence matrix based texture measures (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation on four window sizes (3 × 3, 5 × 5, 7 × 7, 9 × 9 at four offsets ([1,0], [1,1], [0,1], [1,−1] on four Landsat TM bands (2, 3, 4, and 5. The map with the highest prediction quality was created using three texture metrics calculated from Landsat Band 2 on a 3 × 3 window and an offset of [0,1]: entropy, mean and correlation; and one physical variable: slope. The correlation of predicted versus observed biomass values for our texture-based biomass map is r = 0.86, the Root Mean Square Error is 45.6 Mg∙ha−1, and the Coefficient of Variation of the Root Mean Square Error is 0.31. We find that models including image texture variables are more strongly correlated with biomass than models using only physical and spectral variables. Additionally, we suggest that the use of texture appears to better capture the magnitude and direction of biomass change following disturbance compared to spectral approaches. The biomass mapping methods we present here are widely applicable throughout the US, as they are based on publically available datasets and utilize relatively simple analytical routines.

  13. Aboveground biomass variability across intact and degraded forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Longo, Marcos; Keller, Michael; dos-Santos, Maiza N.; Leitold, Veronika; Pinagé, Ekena R.; Baccini, Alessandro; Saatchi, Sassan; Nogueira, Euler M.; Batistella, Mateus; Morton, Douglas C.

    2016-11-01

    Deforestation rates have declined in the Brazilian Amazon since 2005, yet degradation from logging, fire, and fragmentation has continued in frontier forests. In this study we quantified the aboveground carbon density (ACD) in intact and degraded forests using the largest data set of integrated forest inventory plots (n = 359) and airborne lidar data (18,000 ha) assembled to date for the Brazilian Amazon. We developed statistical models relating inventory ACD estimates to lidar metrics that explained 70% of the variance across forest types. Airborne lidar-ACD estimates for intact forests ranged between 5.0 ± 2.5 and 31.9 ± 10.8 kg C m-2. Degradation carbon losses were large and persistent. Sites that burned multiple times within a decade lost up to 15.0 ± 0.7 kg C m-2 (94%) of ACD. Forests that burned nearly 15 years ago had between 4.1 ± 0.5 and 6.8 ± 0.3 kg C m-2 (22-40%) less ACD than intact forests. Even for low-impact logging disturbances, ACD was between 0.7 ± 0.3 and 4.4 ± 0.4 kg C m-2 (4-21%) lower than unlogged forests. Comparing biomass estimates from airborne lidar to existing biomass maps, we found that regional and pantropical products consistently overestimated ACD in degraded forests, underestimated ACD in intact forests, and showed little sensitivity to fires and logging. Fine-scale heterogeneity in ACD across intact and degraded forests highlights the benefits of airborne lidar for carbon mapping. Differences between airborne lidar and regional biomass maps underscore the need to improve and update biomass estimates for dynamic land use frontiers, to better characterize deforestation and degradation carbon emissions for regional carbon budgets and Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+).

  14. Topographic variation in aboveground biomass in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China.

    Lin, Dunmei; Lai, Jiangshan; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Mi, Xiangcheng; Ma, Keping

    2012-01-01

    The subtropical forest biome occupies about 25% of China, with species diversity only next to tropical forests. Despite the recognized importance of subtropical forest in regional carbon storage and cycling, uncertainties remain regarding the carbon storage of subtropical forests, and few studies have quantified within-site variation of biomass, making it difficult to evaluate the role of these forests in the global and regional carbon cycles. Using data for a 24-ha census plot in east China, we quantify aboveground biomass, characterize its spatial variation among different habitats, and analyse species relative contribution to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats. The average aboveground biomass was 223.0 Mg ha(-1) (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [217.6, 228.5]) and varied substantially among four topographically defined habitats, from 180.6 Mg ha(-1) (bootstrapped 95% CI [167.1, 195.0]) in the upper ridge to 245.9 Mg ha(-1) (bootstrapped 95% CI [238.3, 253.8]) in the lower ridge, with upper and lower valley intermediate. In consistent with our expectation, individual species contributed differently to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats, reflecting significant species habitat associations. Different species show differently in habitat preference in terms of biomass contribution. These patterns may be the consequences of ecological strategies difference among different species. Results from this study enhance our ability to evaluate the role of subtropical forests in the regional carbon cycle and provide valuable information to guide the protection and management of subtropical broad-leaved forest for carbon sequestration and carbon storage.

  15. Topographic variation in aboveground biomass in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China.

    Dunmei Lin

    Full Text Available The subtropical forest biome occupies about 25% of China, with species diversity only next to tropical forests. Despite the recognized importance of subtropical forest in regional carbon storage and cycling, uncertainties remain regarding the carbon storage of subtropical forests, and few studies have quantified within-site variation of biomass, making it difficult to evaluate the role of these forests in the global and regional carbon cycles. Using data for a 24-ha census plot in east China, we quantify aboveground biomass, characterize its spatial variation among different habitats, and analyse species relative contribution to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats. The average aboveground biomass was 223.0 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [217.6, 228.5] and varied substantially among four topographically defined habitats, from 180.6 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [167.1, 195.0] in the upper ridge to 245.9 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [238.3, 253.8] in the lower ridge, with upper and lower valley intermediate. In consistent with our expectation, individual species contributed differently to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats, reflecting significant species habitat associations. Different species show differently in habitat preference in terms of biomass contribution. These patterns may be the consequences of ecological strategies difference among different species. Results from this study enhance our ability to evaluate the role of subtropical forests in the regional carbon cycle and provide valuable information to guide the protection and management of subtropical broad-leaved forest for carbon sequestration and carbon storage.

  16. Estimating aboveground biomass for broadleaf woody plants and young conifers in Sierra Nevada, California forests.

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Shook, Christine D.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of biomass is fundamental to a wide range of research and natural resource management goals. An accurate estimation of plant biomass is essential to predict potential fire behavior, calculate carbon sequestration for global climate change research, assess critical wildlife habitat, and so forth. Reliable allometric equations from simple field measurements are necessary for efficient evaluation of plant biomass. However, allometric equations are not available for many common woody plant taxa in the Sierra Nevada. In this report, we present more than 200 regression equations for the Sierra Nevada western slope that relate crown diameter, plant height, crown volume, stem diameter, and both crown diameter and height to the dry weight of foliage, branches, and entire aboveground biomass. Destructive sampling methods resulted in regression equations that accurately predict biomass from one or two simple, nondestructive field measurements. The tables presented here will allow researchers and natural resource managers to easily choose the best equations to fit their biomass assessment needs.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL ALLOMETRIC EQUATION TO ESTIMATE TOTAL ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS IN PAPUA TROPICAL FOREST

    Sandhi Imam Maulana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, pantropical allometric equations  have been commonly used across the globe to  estimate the aboveground biomass of the forests, including in Indonesia. However, in relation to regional differences in diameter, height and wood density, the lack of data measured, particularly from eastern part of Indonesia, may raise the question on  accuracy of pantropical allometric in such area. Hence, this paper examines  the differences of local allometric equations of Papua Island with equations developed by Chave and his research groups.. Measurements of biomass in this study were conducted directly based on weighing and destructive samplings. Results show that the most appropriate local equation to estimate total aboveground biomass in Papua tropical forest is Log(TAGB = -0.267 + 2.23 Log(DBH +0.649 Log(WD (CF=1.013; VIF=1.6; R2= 95%; R2-adj= 95.1%; RMSE= 0.149; P<0.001. This equation is also a better option in comparison to those of previously published pantropical equations with only 6.47% average deviation and 5.37 points of relative bias. This finding implies that the locally developed equation should be a better option to produce more accurate site specific total aboveground biomass estimation.

  18. Carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species in lower Gangetic plain.

    Jana, Bipal K; Biswas, Soumyajit; Majumder, Mrinmoy; Roy, Pankaj K; Mazumdar, Asis

    2011-07-01

    Carbon is sequestered by the plant photosynthesis and stored as biomass in different parts of the tree. Carbon sequestration rate has been measured for young species (6 years age) of Shorea robusta at Chadra forest in Paschim Medinipur district, Albizzia lebbek in Indian Botanic Garden in Howrah district and Artocarpus integrifolia at Banobitan within Kolkata in the lower Gangetic plain of West Bengal in India by Automated Vaisala Made Instrument GMP343 and aboveground biomass carbon has been analyzed by CHN analyzer. The specific objective of this paper is to measure carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia. The carbon sequestration rate (mean) from the ambient air during winter season as obtained by Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 11.13 g/h, 14.86 g/h and 4.22g/h, respectively. The annual carbon sequestration rate from ambient air were estimated at 8.97 t C ha(-1) by Shorea robusta, 11.97 t C ha(-1) by Albizzia lebbek and 3.33 t C ha(-1) by Artocarpus integrifolia. The percentage of carbon content (except root) in the aboveground biomass of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 47.45, 47.12 and 43.33, respectively. The total aboveground biomass carbon stock per hectare as estimated for Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 5.22 t C ha(-1) , 6.26 t C ha(-1) and 7.28 t C ha(-1), respectively in these forest stands.

  19. Effect of stand structure on models for volume and aboveground biomass assessment (Castelfusano pinewood, Roma

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to analyse the effects of stand structure on biomass allocation and on the accurancy of estimation models for volume and aboveground biomass of Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.. Although the species is widely distributed on Mediterranean coasts, few studies on forest biomass estimation have focused on pinewoods. The research was carried out in the Castelfusano’s pinewood (Rome and concerned the two most common structural types: (a 50 years-old pinewood originated by broadcast seeding; and (b 62 years-old pinewood originated by partial seeding alternating worked strips to firm strips. Some 83 sample trees were selected for stem volume estimation and a subset of 32 trees used to quantify the total epigeous biomass, the wooden biomass compartment, including stem and big branches (diameter > 3 cm and the photosynthetic biomass, including thin branches (diameter < 3 cm and needles. Collected data were used to elaborate allometric relations for stem volume, total biomass and specific relations for both compartments, based on one (d2 or two (d2h indipendent variables, for both structural types. Furthermore, pinewood specific biomass expansion factors (BEF - indexes used to estimate carbon stocks starting from stem biomass data - were obtained. The achieved estimation models were subjected to both parallelism and coincidence tests, showing significant effects of stand structure on the accurancy of the allometric relations. The effects of stand structure and reliability of tree height curves on the accurancy of estimation models for volume and aboveground biomass and on biomass allocation in different compartments are analysed and discussed.

  20. The variable effects of soil nitrogen availability and insect herbivory on aboveground and belowground plant biomass in an old-field ecosystem

    Blue, Jarrod D.; Souza, Lara; Classen, Aimée T.

    2011-01-01

    in an old-field ecosystem. In 2004, we established 36 experimental plots in which we manipulated soil nitrogen (N) availability and insect abundance in a completely randomized plot design. In 2009, after 6 years of treatments, we measured aboveground biomass and assessed root production at peak growth...

  1. Modeling forest aboveground biomass by combining spectrum, textures and topographic features

    Mingshi LI; Ying TAN; Jie PAN; Shikui PENG

    2008-01-01

    Many textural measures have been developed and used for improving land cover classification accu-racy, but they rarely examined the role of textures in improving the performance of forest aboveground biomass estimations. The relationship between texture and biomass is poorly understood. In this paper, SPOT5 HRG datasets were ortho-rectified and atmospherically calibrated. Then the transform of spectral features is introduced, and the extraction of textural measures based on the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix is also implemented in accordance with four different directions (0°, 45°, 90o and 135°) and various moving window sizes, ranging from 3 x 3 to 51 x 51. Thus, a variety of textures were generated. Combined with derived topo-graphic features, the forest aboveground biomass estima-tion models for five predominant forest types in the scenic spot of the Mausoleum of Sun Yat-Sen, Nanjing, are identified and constructed, and the estimation accuracies exhibited by these models are also validated and evaluated respectively. The results indicate that: 1) Most textures are weakly correlated with forest biomass, but minority textural measures such as ME, CR and VA play a significantly effective and critical role in estimating forest biomass; 2) The textures of coniferous forest appear preferable to those of broad-leaved forest and mixed forest in representing the spatial configurations of forests;and 3) Among the topographic features including slope,aspect and elevation,aspect has the lowest correlation with the biomass of a forest in this study.

  2. Temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass decreases as spatial variability increases.

    McGranahan, Devan Allen; Hovick, Torre J; Elmore, R Dwayne; Engle, David M; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Winter, Stephen L; Miller, James R; Debinski, Diane M

    2016-03-01

    Ecological theory predicts that diversity decreases variability in ecosystem function. We predict that, at the landscape scale, spatial variability created by a mosaic of contrasting patches that differ in time since disturbance will decrease temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. Using data from a multi-year study of seven grazed tallgrass prairie landscapes, each experimentally managed for one to eight patches, we show that increased spatial variability driven by spatially patchy fire and herbivory reduces temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. This pattern is associated with statistical evidence for the portfolio effect and a positive relationship between temporal variability and functional group synchrony as predicted by metacommunity variability theory. As disturbance from fire and grazing interact to create a shifting mosaic of spatially heterogeneous patches within a landscape, temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass can be dampened. These results suggest that spatially heterogeneous disturbance regimes contribute to a portfolio of ecosystem functions provided by biodiversity, including wildlife habitat, fuel, and forage. We discuss how spatial patterns of disturbance drive variability within and among patches.

  3. Forecasting annual aboveground net primary production in the intermountain west

    For many land manager’s annual aboveground net primary production, or plant growth, is a key factor affecting business success, profitability and each land manager's ability to successfully meet land management objectives. The strategy often utilized for forecasting plant growth is to assume every y...

  4. Mapping Aboveground Biomass in the Amazon Basin: Exploring Sensors, Scales, and Strategies for Optimal Data Linkage

    Walker, W. S.; Baccini, A.

    2013-05-01

    Information on the distribution and density of carbon in tropical forests is critical to decision-making on a host of globally significant issues ranging from climate stabilization and biodiversity conservation to poverty reduction and human health. Encouraged by recent progress at both the international and jurisdictional levels on the design of incentive-based policy mechanisms to compensate tropical nations for maintaining their forests intact, governments throughout the tropics are moving with urgency to implement robust national and sub-national forest monitoring systems for operationally tracking and reporting on changes in forest cover and associated carbon stocks. Monitoring systems will be required to produce results that are accurate, consistent, complete, transparent, and comparable at sub-national to pantropical scales, and satellite-based remote sensing supported by field observations is widely-accepted as the most objective and cost-effective solution. The effectiveness of any system for large-area forest monitoring will necessarily depend on the capacity of current and near-future Earth observation satellites to provide information that meets the requirements of developing monitoring protocols. However, important questions remain regarding the role that spatially explicit maps of aboveground biomass and carbon can play in IPCC-compliant forest monitoring systems, with the majority of these questions stemming from doubts about the inherit sensitivity of satellite data to aboveground forest biomass, confusion about the relationship between accuracy and resolution, and a general lack of guidance on optimal strategies for linking field reference and remote sensing data sources. Here we demonstrate the ability of a state-of-the-art satellite radar sensor, the Japanese ALOS/PALSAR, and a venerable optical platform, Landsat 5, to support large-area mapping of aboveground tropical woody biomass across a 153,000-km2 region in the southwestern Amazon

  5. Spatially explicit estimation of aboveground boreal forest biomass in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    Ji, Lei; Wylie, Bruce K.; Brown, Dana R. N.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Alexander, Heather D.; Mack, Michelle C.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Waldrop, Mark P.; McFarland, Jack W.; Chen, Xuexia; Pastick, Neal J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of aboveground biomass (AGB) in Alaska’s boreal forest is essential to the accurate evaluation of terrestrial carbon stocks and dynamics in northern high-latitude ecosystems. Our goal was to map AGB at 30 m resolution for the boreal forest in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska using Landsat data and ground measurements. We acquired Landsat images to generate a 3-year (2008–2010) composite of top-of-atmosphere reflectance for six bands as well as the brightness temperature (BT). We constructed a multiple regression model using field-observed AGB and Landsat-derived reflectance, BT, and vegetation indices. A basin-wide boreal forest AGB map at 30 m resolution was generated by applying the regression model to the Landsat composite. The fivefold cross-validation with field measurements had a mean absolute error (MAE) of 25.7 Mg ha−1 (relative MAE 47.5%) and a mean bias error (MBE) of 4.3 Mg ha−1(relative MBE 7.9%). The boreal forest AGB product was compared with lidar-based vegetation height data; the comparison indicated that there was a significant correlation between the two data sets.

  6. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  7. The relationship between aboveground biomass and radar backscatter as observed on airborne SAR imagery

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.; Dobson, M. Craig

    1991-01-01

    The initial results of an experiment to examine the dependence of radar image intensity on total above-ground biomass in a southern US pine forest ecosystem are presented. Two sets of data are discussed. First, we examine two L-band (VV-polarization) data sets which were collected 5 years apart. These data sets clearly illustrate the change in backscatter resulting from the growth of a young pine stand. Second, we examine the dependence between radar backscatter and biomass as a function of radar frequency using data from the JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) and ERIM/NADC P-3 SAR systems. These results show that there is a positive correlation between above-ground biomass and radar backscatter and at C-, L-, and P-bands, but very little correlation at C-band. The biomass level for which this positive correlation holds decreases as radar frequency increases. This positive correlation is stronger at HH and HV polarizations that VV polarization at L- and P-bands, but strongest at VV polarization for C-band.

  8. Long-term patterns in tropical reforestation: plant community composition and aboveground biomass accumulation.

    Marín-Spiotta, E; Ostertag, R; Silver, W L

    2007-04-01

    Primary tropical forests are renowned for their high biodiversity and carbon storage, and considerable research has documented both species and carbon losses with deforestation and agricultural land uses. Economic drivers are now leading to the abandonment of agricultural lands, and the area in secondary forests is increasing. We know little about how long it takes for these ecosystems to achieve the structural and compositional characteristics of primary forests. In this study, we examine changes in plant species composition and aboveground biomass during eight decades of tropical secondary succession in Puerto Rico, and compare these patterns with primary forests. Using a well-replicated chronosequence approach, we sampled primary forests and secondary forests established 10, 20, 30, 60, and 80 years ago on abandoned pastures. Tree species composition in all secondary forests was different from that of primary forests and could be divided into early (10-, 20-, and 30-year) vs. late (60- and 80-year) successional phases. The highest rates of aboveground biomass accumulation occurred in the first 20 years, with rates of C sequestration peaking at 6.7 +/- 0.5 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1). Reforestation of pastures resulted in an accumulation of 125 Mg C/ha in aboveground standing live biomass over 80 years. The 80 year-old secondary forests had greater biomass than the primary forests, due to the replacement of woody species by palms in the primary forests. Our results show that these new ecosystems have different species composition, but similar species richness, and significant potential for carbon sequestration, compared to remnant primary forests.

  9. Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation in the Greater Mekong, Subregion and Russian Siberia

    Pang, Yong; Li, Zengyuan; Sun, Gouqing; Zhang, Zhiyu; Schmullius, Christiane; Meng, Shili; Ma, Zhenyu; Lu, Hao; Li, Shiming; Liu, Qingwang; Bai, Lina; Tian, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Forests play a vital role in sustainable development and provide a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. We summarized works in forest aboveground biomass estimation in Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and Russian Siberia (RuS). Both regions are rich in forest resources. These mapping and estimation works were based on multiple-source remote sensing data and some field measurements. Biomass maps were generated at 500 m and 30 m pixel size for RuS and GMS respectively. With the available of the 2015 PALSAR-2 mosaic at 25 m spacing, Sentinel-2 data at 20 m, we will work on the biomass mapping and dynamic study at higher spatial resolution.

  10. Decreasing precipitation variability does not elicit major aboveground biomass or plant diversity responses in a mesic rangeland

    There is an emergent need to understand how altered precipitation regimes will affect aboveground biomass, stability of this biomass, and diversity in grassland ecosystems. We used replicated 9X10 m rainout shelters to experimentally remove inherent intra- and inter-annual variability of precipitati...

  11. Satellite detection of land-use change and effects on regional forest aboveground biomass estimates.

    Zheng, Daolan; Heath, Linda S; Ducey, Mark J

    2008-09-01

    We used remote-sensing-driven models to detect land-cover change effects on forest aboveground biomass (AGB) density (Mg.ha(-1), dry weight) and total AGB (Tg) in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan USA, between the years 1992-2001, and conducted an evaluation of the approach. Inputs included remotely-sensed 1992 reflectance data and land-cover map (University of Maryland) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and 2001 products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 1-km resolution for the region; and 30-m resolution land-cover maps from the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) for a subarea to conduct nine simulations to address our questions. Sensitivity analysis showed that (1) AVHRR data tended to underestimate AGB density by 11%, on average, compared to that estimated using MODIS data; (2) regional mean AGB density increased slightly from 124 (1992) to 126 Mg ha(-1) (2001) by 1.6%; (3) a substantial decrease in total forest AGB across the region was detected, from 2,507 (1992) to 1,961 Tg (2001), an annual rate of -2.4%; and (4) in the subarea, while NLCD-based estimates suggested a 26% decrease in total AGB from 1992 to 2001, AVHRR/MODIS-based estimates indicated a 36% increase. The major source of uncertainty in change detection of total forest AGB over large areas was due to area differences from using land-cover maps produced by different sources. Scaling up 30-m land-cover map to 1-km resolution caused a mean difference of 8% (in absolute value) in forest area estimates at the county-level ranging from 0 to 17% within a 95% confidence interval.

  12. A radiative transfer model-based method for the estimation of grassland aboveground biomass

    Quan, Xingwen; He, Binbin; Yebra, Marta; Yin, Changming; Liao, Zhanmang; Zhang, Xueting; Li, Xing

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a novel method to derive grassland aboveground biomass (AGB) based on the PROSAILH (PROSPECT + SAILH) radiative transfer model (RTM). Two variables, leaf area index (LAI, m2m-2, defined as a one-side leaf area per unit of horizontal ground area) and dry matter content (DMC, gcm-2, defined as the dry matter per leaf area), were retrieved using PROSAILH and reflectance data from Landsat 8 OLI product. The result of LAI × DMC was regarded as the estimated grassland AGB according to their definitions. The well-known ill-posed inversion problem when inverting PROSAILH was alleviated using ecological criteria to constrain the simulation scenario and therefore the number of simulated spectra. A case study of the presented method was applied to a plateau grassland in China to estimate its AGB. The results were compared to those obtained using an exponential regression, a partial least squares regression (PLSR) and an artificial neural networks (ANN). The RTM-based method offered higher accuracy (R2 = 0.64 and RMSE = 42.67 gm-2) than the exponential regression (R2 = 0.48 and RMSE = 41.65 gm-2) and the ANN (R2 = 0.43 and RMSE = 46.26 gm-2). However, the proposed method offered similar performance than PLSR as presented better determination coefficient than PLSR (R2 = 0.55) but higher RMSE (RMSE = 37.79 gm-2). Although it is still necessary to test these methodologies in other areas, the RTM-based method offers greater robustness and reproducibility to estimate grassland AGB at large scale without the need to collect field measurements and therefore is considered the most promising methodology.

  13. National Forest Aboveground Biomass Mapping from ICESat/GLAS Data and MODIS Imagery in China

    Hong Chi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest aboveground biomass (AGB was mapped throughout China using large footprint LiDAR waveform data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS onboard NASA’s Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS imagery and forest inventory data. The entire land of China was divided into seven zones according to the geographic characteristics of the forests. The forest AGB prediction models were separately developed for different forest types in each of the seven forest zones at GLAS footprint level from GLAS waveform parameters and biomass derived from height and diameter at breast height (DBH field observation. Some waveform parameters used in the prediction models were able to reduce the effects of slope on biomass estimation. The models of GLAS-based biomass estimates were developed by using GLAS footprints with slopes less than 20° and slopes ≥ 20°, respectively. Then, all GLAS footprint biomass and MODIS data were used to establish Random Forest regression models for extrapolating footprint AGB to a nationwide scale. The total amount of estimated AGB in Chinese forests around 2006 was about 12,622 Mt vs. 12,617 Mt derived from the seventh national forest resource inventory data. Nearly half of all provinces showed a relative error (% of less than 20%, and 80% of total provinces had relative errors less than 50%.

  14. Comparison of machine-learning methods for above-ground biomass estimation based on Landsat imagery

    Wu, Chaofan; Shen, Huanhuan; Shen, Aihua; Deng, Jinsong; Gan, Muye; Zhu, Jinxia; Xu, Hongwei; Wang, Ke

    2016-07-01

    Biomass is one significant biophysical parameter of a forest ecosystem, and accurate biomass estimation on the regional scale provides important information for carbon-cycle investigation and sustainable forest management. In this study, Landsat satellite imagery data combined with field-based measurements were integrated through comparisons of five regression approaches [stepwise linear regression, K-nearest neighbor, support vector regression, random forest (RF), and stochastic gradient boosting] with two different candidate variable strategies to implement the optimal spatial above-ground biomass (AGB) estimation. The results suggested that RF algorithm exhibited the best performance by 10-fold cross-validation with respect to R2 (0.63) and root-mean-square error (26.44 ton/ha). Consequently, the map of estimated AGB was generated with a mean value of 89.34 ton/ha in northwestern Zhejiang Province, China, with a similar pattern to the distribution mode of local forest species. This research indicates that machine-learning approaches associated with Landsat imagery provide an economical way for biomass estimation. Moreover, ensemble methods using all candidate variables, especially for Landsat images, provide an alternative for regional biomass simulation.

  15. Dynamics, aboveground biomass and composition on permanent plots, Tambopata National Reserve. Madre de Dios, Peru

    Nadir C. Pallqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the floristic composition and changes in stored biomass and dynamics over time in 9 permanent plots monitored by RAINFOR (Amazon Forest Inventory Network and located in the lowland Amazon rainforest of the Tambopata National Reserve. Data were acquired in the field using the standardized methodology of RAINFOR. The biomass was estimated using the equation for tropical moist forests of Chave et al. (2005. Biomass dynamics were analyzed, in three separated periods from 2003 to 2011. 64 families, 219 genera and 531 species were recorded. The tree floristic composition is very similar in all plots except for one swamp plot, although but it is also evident that two slightly different forest communities exist in the rest of landscape, apparently related to the age of the ancient river terraces in the area. Mortality and recruitment of individuals averaged 2.12 ± 0.52% and 1.92 ± 0.49%, respectively. The turnover rate is 2.02% per year. Aboveground biomass stored in these forests averages 296.2 ± 33.9 t ha-1. The biomass dynamics show a total net gain of 1.96, 1.69 and –1.23 t ha-1 for period respectively. Prior to the drought of 2010 a change in biomass was found 1.88 t ha-1 yr-1 and post drought was -0.18 t ha-1 yr-1 on average, though the difference is not significant. Demographic analysis suggests a dynamic equilibrium in the plots. The negative balance of biomass observed for the period 2008 – 2011 may be due to the drought of 2010, in which half of the monitored plots experienced negative net biomass change due to mortality of individuals selectively affecting the floristic composition.

  16. Mapping Global Forest Aboveground Biomass with Spaceborne LiDAR, Optical Imagery, and Forest Inventory Data

    Tianyu Hu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As a large carbon pool, global forest ecosystems are a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Accurate estimations of global forest aboveground biomass (AGB can improve the understanding of global carbon dynamics and help to quantify anthropogenic carbon emissions. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR techniques have been proven that can accurately capture both horizontal and vertical forest structures and increase the accuracy of forest AGB estimation. In this study, we mapped the global forest AGB density at a 1-km resolution through the integration of ground inventory data, optical imagery, Geoscience Laser Altimeter System/Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite data, climate surfaces, and topographic data. Over 4000 ground inventory records were collected from published literatures to train the forest AGB estimation model and validate the resulting global forest AGB product. Our wall-to-wall global forest AGB map showed that the global forest AGB density was 210.09 Mg/ha on average, with a standard deviation of 109.31 Mg/ha. At the continental level, Africa (333.34 ± 63.80 Mg/ha and South America (301.68 ± 67.43 Mg/ha had higher AGB density. The AGB density in Asia, North America and Europe were 172.28 ± 94.75, 166.48 ± 84.97, and 132.97 ± 50.70 Mg/ha, respectively. The wall-to-wall forest AGB map was evaluated at plot level using independent plot measurements. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2 and root-mean-square error (RMSE between our predicted results and the validation plots were 0.56 and 87.53 Mg/ha, respectively. At the ecological zone level, the R2 and RMSE between our map and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggested values were 0.56 and 101.21 Mg/ha, respectively. Moreover, a comprehensive comparison was also conducted between our forest AGB map and other published regional AGB products. Overall, our forest AGB map showed good agreements with these regional AGB products, but some of the regional

  17. [Spatial distribution of Tamarix ramosissima aboveground biomass and water consumption in the lower reaches of Heihe River, Northwest China].

    Peng, Shou-Zhang; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Peng, Huan-Hua; Zheng, Xiang-Lin; Xu, Zhong-Lin

    2010-08-01

    Based on the field observation on the Tamarix ramosissima populations in the lower reaches of Heihe River, the relationship models between the aboveground biomass of T. ramosissima and its morphological features (basal diameter, height, and canopy perimeter) were built. In the mean time, the land use/cover of the study area was classified by the decision tree classification with high resolution image (QuickBird), the distribution of T. ramosissima was extracted from classification map, and the morphological feature (canopy perimeter) of T. ramosissima was calculated with ArcGIS 9.2. On the bases of these, the spatial distribution of T. ramosissima aboveground biomass in the study area was estimated. Finally, the spatial distribution of the water consumption of T. ramosissima in the study area was calculated by the transpiration coefficient (300) and the aboveground biomass. The results showed that the aboveground biomass of T. ramosissima was 69644.7 t, and the biomass per unit area was 0.78 kg x m(-2). Spatially, the habitats along the banks of Heihe River were suitable for T. ramosissima, and thus, this tree species had a high biomass. The total amount of water consumption of T. ramosissima in the study area was 2.1 x 10(7) m3, and the annual mean water consumption of T. ramosissima ranged from 30 mm to 386 mm.

  18. Estimating forest aboveground biomass using HJ-1 Satellite CCD and ICESat GLAS waveform data

    2010-01-01

    The ecosystem in northeastern China and the Russian Far East is a hotspot of scientific research into the global carbon balance.Forest aboveground biomass(AGB) is an important component in the land surface carbon cycle.In this study,using forest inventory data and forest distribution data,the AGB was estimated for forest in Daxinganlin in northeastern China by combining charge-coupled device(CCD) data from the Small Satellite for Disaster and Environment Monitoring and Forecast(HJ-1) and Geoscience Laser Altimeter System(GLAS) waveform data from the Ice,Cloud and land Elevation Satellite(ICESat).The forest AGB prediction models were separately developed for different forest types in the research area at GLAS footprint level from GLAS waveform parameters and field survey plot biomass in the Changqing(CQ) Forest Center,which was calculated from forest inventory data.The resulted statistical regression models have a R2=0.68 for conifer and R2=0.71 for broadleaf forests.These models were used to estimate biomass for all GLAS footprints of forest located in the study area.All GLAS footprint biomass coupled with various spectral reflectivity parameters and vegetation indices derived from HJ-1 satellite CCD data were used in multiple regression analyses to establish biomass prediction models(R2=0.55 and R2=0.52 for needle and broadleaf respectively).Then the models were used to produce a forest AGB map for the whole study area using the HJ-1 data.Biomass data obtained from forest inventory data of the Zhuanglin(ZL) Forest Center were used as independent field measurements to validate the AGB estimated from HJ-1 CCD data(R2=0.71).About 80% of biomass samples had an error less than 20 t ha-1,and the mean error of all validation samples is 5.74 t ha-1.The pixel-level biomass map was then stratified into different biomass levels to illustrate the AGB spatial distribution pattern in this area.It was found that HJ-1 wide-swath data and GLAS waveform data can be combined to

  19. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Li; Li, Mai-He

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with > or = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha), 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded) was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI) varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha) accounted for 1.4% of the total community above-ground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales.

  20. Estimating aboveground biomass in the boreal forests of the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    Ji, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Nossov, D.; Peterson, B.; Waldrop, M. P.; McFarland, J.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Rover, J. A.; Chen, X.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of aboveground biomass (AGB) in Alaska's boreal forests is essential to accurately evaluate terrestrial carbon stocks and dynamics in northern high-latitude ecosystems. However, regional AGB datasets with spatially detailed information (1 m tall), which were converted to plot-level AGB using allometric equations. We acquired Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images from the Web Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) that provides multi-date composites of top-of-atmosphere reflectance and brightness temperature for Alaska. From the WELD images, we generated a three-year (2008 - 2010) image composite for the Yukon River Basin using a series of compositing criteria including non-saturation, non-cloudiness, maximal normalize difference vegetation index (NDVI), and maximal brightness temperature. Airborne lidar datasets were acquired for two sub-regions in the central basin in 2009, which were converted to vegetation height datasets using the bare-earth digital surface model (DSM) and the first-return DSM. We created a multiple regression model in which the response variable was the field-observed AGB and the predictor variables were Landsat-derived reflectance, brightness temperature, and spectral vegetation indices including NDVI, soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized difference infrared index (NDII), and normalized difference water index (NDWI). Principal component analysis was incorporated in the regression model to remedy the multicollinearity problems caused by high correlations between predictor variables. The model fitted the observed data well with an R-square of 0.62, mean absolute error of 29.1 Mg/ha, and mean bias error of 3.9 Mg/ha. By applying this model to the Landsat mosaic, we generated a 30-m AGB map for the boreal forests in the Yukon River Basin. Validation of the Landsat-derived AGB using the lidar dataset indicated a significant correlation between the AGB estimates and the lidar

  1. Estimating aboveground biomass in interior Alaska with Landsat data and field measurements

    Ji, Lei; Wylie, Bruce K.; Nossov, Dana R.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Waldrop, Mark P.; McFarland, Jack W.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial plant biomass is a key biophysical parameter required for understanding ecological systems in Alaska. An accurate estimation of biomass at a regional scale provides an important data input for ecological modeling in this region. In this study, we created an aboveground biomass (AGB) map at 30-m resolution for the Yukon Flats ecoregion of interior Alaska using Landsat data and field measurements. Tree, shrub, and herbaceous AGB data in both live and dead forms were collected in summers and autumns of 2009 and 2010. Using the Landsat-derived spectral variables and the field AGB data, we generated a regression model and applied this model to map AGB for the ecoregion. A 3-fold cross-validation indicated that the AGB estimates had a mean absolute error of 21.8 Mg/ha and a mean bias error of 5.2 Mg/ha. Additionally, we validated the mapping results using an airborne lidar dataset acquired for a portion of the ecoregion. We found a significant relationship between the lidar-derived canopy height and the Landsat-derived AGB (R2 = 0.40). The AGB map showed that 90% of the ecoregion had AGB values ranging from 10 Mg/ha to 134 Mg/ha. Vegetation types and fires were the primary factors controlling the spatial AGB patterns in this ecoregion.

  2. The effect of topography on arctic-alpine aboveground biomass and NDVI patterns

    Riihimäki, Henri; Heiskanen, Janne; Luoto, Miska

    2017-04-01

    Topography is a key factor affecting numerous environmental phenomena, including Arctic and alpine aboveground biomass (AGB) distribution. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a source of topographic information which can be linked to local growing conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of DEM derived variables, namely elevation, topographic position, radiation and wetness on AGB and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in a Fennoscandian forest-alpine tundra ecotone. Boosted regression trees were used to derive non-parametric response curves and relative influences of the explanatory variables. Elevation and potential incoming solar radiation were the most important explanatory variables for both AGB and NDVI. In the NDVI models, the response curves were smooth compared with AGB models. This might be caused by large contribution of field and shrub layer to NDVI, especially at the treeline. Furthermore, radiation and elevation had a significant interaction, showing that the highest NDVI and biomass values are found from low-elevation, high-radiation sites, typically on the south-southwest facing valley slopes. Topographic wetness had minor influence on AGB and NDVI. Topographic position had generally weak effects on AGB and NDVI, although protected topographic position seemed to be more favorable below the treeline. The explanatory power of the topographic variables, particularly elevation and radiation demonstrates that DEM-derived land surface parameters can be used for exploring biomass distribution resulting from landform control on local growing conditions.

  3. Mapping Aboveground Biomass using Texture Indices from Aerial Photos in a Temperate Forest of Northeastern China

    Shili Meng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical remote sensing data have been considered to display signal saturation phenomena in regions of high aboveground biomass (AGB and multi-storied forest canopies. However, some recent studies using texture indices derived from optical remote sensing data via the Fourier-based textural ordination (FOTO approach have provided promising results without saturation problems for some tropical forests, which tend to underestimate AGB predictions. This study was applied to the temperate mixed forest of the Liangshui National Nature Reserve in Northeastern China and demonstrated the capability of FOTO texture indices to obtain a higher prediction quality of forest AGB. Based on high spatial resolution aerial photos (1.0 m spatial resolution acquired in September 2009, the relationship between FOTO texture indices and field-derived biomass measurements was calibrated using a support vector regression (SVR algorithm. Ten-fold cross-validation was used to construct a robust prediction model, which avoided the over-fitting problem. By further comparison the performance of the model estimates for greater coverage, the predicted results were compared with a reference biomass map derived from LiDAR metrics. This study showed that the FOTO indices accounted for 88.3% of the variance in ground-based AGB; the root mean square error (RMSE was 34.35 t/ha, and RMSE normalized by the mean value of the estimates was 22.31%. This novel texture-based method has great potential for forest AGB estimation in other temperate regions.

  4. Estimating Stand Volume and Above-Ground Biomass of Urban Forests Using LiDAR

    Vincenzo Giannico

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing forest stand conditions in urban and peri-urban areas is essential to support ecosystem service planning and management, as most of the ecosystem services provided are a consequence of forest stand characteristics. However, collecting data for assessing forest stand conditions is time consuming and labor intensive. A plausible approach for addressing this issue is to establish a relationship between in situ measurements of stand characteristics and data from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR. In this study we assessed forest stand volume and above-ground biomass (AGB in a broadleaved urban forest, using a combination of LiDAR-derived metrics, which takes the form of a forest allometric model. We tested various methods for extracting proxies of basal area (BA and mean stand height (H from the LiDAR point-cloud distribution and evaluated the performance of different models in estimating forest stand volume and AGB. The best predictors for both models were the scale parameters of the Weibull distribution of all returns (except the first (proxy of BA and the 95th percentile of the distribution of all first returns (proxy of H. The R2 were 0.81 (p < 0.01 for the stand volume model and 0.77 (p < 0.01 for the AGB model with a RMSE of 23.66 m3·ha−1 (23.3% and 19.59 Mg·ha−1 (23.9%, respectively. We found that a combination of two LiDAR-derived variables (i.e., proxy of BA and proxy of H, which take the form of a forest allometric model, can be used to estimate stand volume and above-ground biomass in broadleaved urban forest areas. Our results can be compared to other studies conducted using LiDAR in broadleaved forests with similar methods.

  5. Estimating Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) Leaf Area Index and Aboveground Biomass with the Use of Hyperspectral Data

    Hyperspectral remote-sensed data were obtained via a Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager-II (CASI-II) and used to estimate leaf-area index (LAI) and aboveground biomass of a highly invasive weed species, yellow starthistle (YST). In parallel, 34 ground-based field plots were used to measure abov...

  6. L-Band SAR Backscatter Related to Forest Cover, Height and Aboveground Biomass at Multiple Spatial Scales across Denmark

    Joshi, Neha P.; Mitchard, Edward T A; Schumacher, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Mapping forest aboveground biomass (AGB) using satellite data is an important task, particularly for reporting of carbon stocks and changes under climate change legislation. It is known that AGB can be mapped using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), but relationships between AGB and radar backscatter...

  7. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Aboveground Biomass of Hybrid Eucalyptus Plantation Forest

    Siti Latifah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests are a significant part of the global carbon cycle. Forests sequester carbon by conducting photosynthesis, which is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of sugar. Carbon sequestration through forestry has the potential to play a significant role in ameliorating global environmental problems such as atmospheric accumulation of GHG's and climate change.  The present investigation was carried out to determine carbon sequestration potential of hybrid Eucalyptus. This study was conducted primarily to develop a prediction model of carbon storage capacity for plantation forest of hybrid Eucalyptus in Aek Nauli, Simalungun District, North Sumatera. Models were tested and assessed for statistical validity and accuracy in predicting biomass and carbon, based on determination coefficient (R and correlation coefficient (r, aggregative deviation percentage (AgD, and the average deviation percentage (AvD. The best general model to estimate the biomass of hybrid Eucalyptus was Y = 1351,09x^0,876. e^(0,094.  Results showed that hybrid Eucalyptus had an average above-ground biomass in year 0 (the land without the eucalyptus trees up to year 3 as large as 1.36, 11.56, 43.18, and 63.84 t ha. The carbon content of hybrid Eucalyptus were 0.61, 5.2, 19.43 t^(-1, and 28,73  t^(-1 C ha while the carbon sequestration potential were 2.23, 19.08, 71.31, and 105.43 t^(-1 CO  ha^(-1 respectively.Keywords: biomass, carbon stock, model, hybrid Eucalyptus, plantation forest

  8. Biomassas de partes aéreas em plantas da caatinga Aboveground biomass of caatinga plants

    Grécia Cavalcanti Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As biomassas de partes aéreas de nove espécies da caatinga foram determinadas e relacionadas com as medidas das plantas, cortando-se 30 plantas de cada espécie e separando-as em caule, galhos, ramos e folhas. As espécies foram divididas em dois grupos: seis espécies com plantas grandes e três com plantas menores. Cada grupo foi separado em classes de diâmetro do caule (DAP. As alturas totais (HT dobraram (3,8 a 8,5 m da classe de menor para a de maior diâmetro (Biomass of aboveground parts of nine caatinga species were determined and related to plant measurements. Thirty plants of each species were collected and separated into stems, branches, twigs and leaves. The species were divided in two groups: six species of large plants and three species of smaller plants. Each group was divided into classes of stem diameter (DBH. Plant height (H doubled (3.8 to 8.5 m from the smallest-diameter class to the largest diameter ( 5 cm diameter, 20% of branches from 1 to 5 cm, 5% of twigs < 1 cm and 5% of leaves. DBH was the single variable that best predicted biomass of parts, in both species groups, according to a power equation (B = a DBH b. H and CPA were also significantly related to biomass for some parts and group, but with R² lower than DBH. Combining DBH and H improved estimation but not enough to justify the extra field effort in determining H. Therefore, plant part biomass can be estimated from measurements of stem diameter, in a non-destructive process.

  9. A RAPID NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS OF SALT MARSH GRASSES

    Understanding the primary productivity of salt marshes requires accurate estimates of biomass. Unfortunately, these estimates vary enough within and among salt marshes to require large numbers of replicates if the averages are to be statistically meaningful. Large numbers of repl...

  10. Remote Sensing of Aboveground Biomass in Tropical Secondary Forests: A Review

    J. M. Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical landscapes are, in general, a mosaic of pasture, agriculture, and forest undergoing various stages of succession. Forest succession is comprised of continuous structural changes over time and results in increases in aboveground biomass (AGB. New remote sensing methods, including sensors, image processing, statistical methods, and uncertainty evaluations, are constantly being developed to estimate biophysical forest changes. We review 318 peer-reviewed studies related to the use of remotely sensed AGB estimations in tropical forest succession studies and summarize their geographic distribution, sensors and methods used, and their most frequent ecological inferences. Remotely sensed AGB is broadly used in forest management studies, conservation status evaluations, carbon source and sink investigations, and for studies of the relationships between environmental conditions and forest structure. Uncertainties in AGB estimations were found to be heterogeneous with biases related to sensor type, processing methodology, ground truthing availability, and forest characteristics. Remotely sensed AGB of successional forests is more reliable for the study of spatial patterns of forest succession and over large time scales than that of individual stands. Remote sensing of temporal patterns in biomass requires further study, in particular, as it is critical for understanding forest regrowth at scales useful for regional or global analyses.

  11. Total aboveground biomass (TAGB) estimation using IFSAR: speckle noise effect on TAGB in tropical forest

    Misbari, S.; Hashim, M.

    2014-02-01

    Total Aboveground Biomass (TAGB) estimation is critically important to enhance understanding of dynamics of carbon fluxes between atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem. For humid tropical forest, it is a challenging task for researchers due to complex canopy structure and predominant cloud cover. Optical sensors are only able to sense canopy crown. In contrast, radar technology is able to sense sub-canopy structure of the forest with penetration ability through the cloud for precise biomass estimation with validation from field data including diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees. This study is concerned about estimation of TAGB through the utilization of Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR). Based on this study, it is found that the stand parameters such as DBH and backscattered on IFSAR image has high correlation, R2=0.6411. The most suitable model for TAGB estimation on IFSAR is Chave Model with R2=0.9139. This study analyzes the impact brought by speckle noises on IFSAR image. It is found that filtering process has improves TAGB estimation about +30% using several filtering schemes especially Gamma filter for 11×11 window size. Using field data obtained from a primary tropical forest at Gerik, Perak, TAGBestimation can be validated and the assessment has been carried out.

  12. China Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation by Fusion of Inventory and Remote Sensing Data: 1st results from Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province

    Pang, Y.; Li, Z.; Huang, G.; Sun, G.; Cheng, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, G.

    2013-12-01

    Forests play an irreplaceable role in maintaining regional ecological environment, global carbon balance and mitigating global climate change. Forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important indicator of forest carbon stocks. Estimating forest aboveground biomass accurately could significantly reduce the uncertainties in terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. LIDAR provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests (Lefsky et al., 2007; Naesset et al., 2004; Pang et al., 2008). Combining airborne LiDAR and spaceborne LiDAR for regional forest biomass retrieval could provide a more reliable and accurate quantitative information in regional forest biomass estimate (Boudreau et al., 2008; Nelson et al., 2009; Pang et al., 2011; Saatchi et al., 2011). The Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province are rich in forest resources and suffers intensive forest management activities for timber products. The Heilongjiang Province is typical in temperate forest and the Yunnan Province contains multiple forest types including tropical forest. These two provinces also have good ground inventory system with thousands of permanent field plots. Two campaign consists of in-situ measurement, airborne Lidar data and spaceborne data fusion were designed and implemented. First results show that i). Both spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data are useful for AGB mapping at province level. ii). The combination of spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data gave better biomass estimation with less bias. iii). A pixel level bias mapping was also proposed and gave spatial explicit map of estimation uncertainties. This method will be investigated further with more reference data and tested in other area.

  13. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition along a degradation gradient in the Inner Mongolian steppe, China.

    Xu, Xiaotian; Liu, Hongyan; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Wei; Hu, Guozheng; Qi, Zhaohuan

    2015-07-21

    Although nitrogen addition and recovery from degradation can both promote production of grassland biomass, these two factors have rarely been investigated in combination. In this study, we established a field experiment with six N-treatment (CK, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 g N m(-2) yr(-1)) on five fields with different degradation levels in the Inner Mongolian steppe of China from 2011-2013. Our observations showed that while the external nitrogen increased the aboveground biomass in all five grasslands, the magnitude of the effects differed with the severity of degradation. Fields with a higher level of degradation tended to have a higher saturation value (20 g N m(-2) yr(-1)) than those with a lower degradation level ( < 10 g N m(-2) yr(-1)). After three years of experimentation, species richness showed little change across degradation levels. Among the four functional groups of grasses, sedges, forbs and legumes, grasses shared the most similar response patterns with those of the whole community, demonstrating the predominant role that they play in the restoration of grassland under a stimulus of nitrogen addition.

  14. Allometric models for aboveground biomass of ten tree species in northeast China

    Shuo Cai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available China contains 119 million hectares of natural forest, much of whichis secondary forest. An accurate estimation of the biomass of these forests is imperative because many studies conducted in northeast China have only used primary forest and this may have resulted in biased estimates. This study analyzed secondary forest in the area using information from a forest inventory to develop allometric models of the aboveground biomass (AGB. The parameter values of the diameter at breast height (DBH, tree height (H, and crown length (CL were derived from a forest inventory of 2,733 trees in a 3.5 ha plot. The wood-specific gravity (WSG was determined for 109 trees belonging to ten species. A partial sampling method was also used to determine the biomass of branches (including stem, bark and foliage in 120 trees, which substantially ease the field works. The mean AGB was110,729 kg ha–1. We developed four allometric models from the investigation and evaluated the utility of other 19 published ones for AGB in the ten tree species. Incorporation of full range of variables with WSG-DBH-H-CL, significantly improved the precision of the models. Some of models were chosen that best fitted each tree species with high precision (R2 ≥ 0.939, SEE 0.167. At the latitude level, the estimated AGB of secondary forest was lower than that in mature primary forests, but higher than that in primary broadleaf forest and the average level in other types of forest likewise.

  15. Allometric models for aboveground biomass of ten tree species in northeast China

    Shuo Cai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available China contains 119 million hectares of natural forest, much of which is secondary forest. An accurate estimation of the biomass of these forests is imperative because many studies conducted in northeast China have only used primary forest and this may have resulted in biased estimates. This study analyzed secondary forest in the area using information from a forest inventory to develop allometric models of the aboveground biomass (AGB. The parameter values of the diameter at breast height (DBH, tree height (H, and crown length (CL were derived from a forest inventory of 2,733 trees in a 3.5 ha plot. The wood-specific gravity (WSG was determined for 109 trees belonging to ten species. A partial sampling method was also used to determine the biomass of branches (including stem, bark and foliage in 120 trees, which substantially easy the field works. The mean AGB was 110,729 kg ha–1. We developed four allometric models from the investigation and evaluated the utility of other 19 published ones for AGB in the ten tree species. Incorporation of full range of variables with WSG-DBH-H-CL, significantly improved the precision of the models. Some of models were chosen that best fitted each tree species with high precision (R2 = 0.939, SEE 0.167. At the latitude level, the estimated AGBof secondary forest was lower than that in mature primary forests, but higher than that in primary broadleaf forest and the average level in other types of forest likewise. 

  16. Salinity influences on aboveground and belowground net primary productivity in tidal wetlands

    Pierfelice, Kathryn N.; Graeme Lockaby, B.; Krauss, Ken W.; Conner, William H.; Noe, Gregory; Ricker, Matthew C.

    2017-01-01

    Tidal freshwater wetlands are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change and rising sea levels. However salinification within these systems is poorly understood, therefore, productivity (litterfall, woody biomass, and fine roots) were investigated on three forested tidal wetlands [(1) freshwater, (2) moderately saline, and (3) heavily salt-impacted] and a marsh along the Waccamaw and Turkey Creek in South Carolina. Mean aboveground (litterfall and woody biomass) production on the freshwater, moderately saline, heavily salt-impacted, and marsh, respectively, was 1,061, 492, 79, and 0  g m−2 year−1 versus belowground (fine roots) 860, 490, 620, and 2,128  g m−2 year−1. Litterfall and woody biomass displayed an inverse relationship with salinity. Shifts in productivity across saline sites is of concern because sea level is predicted to continue rising. Results from the research reported in this paper provide baseline data upon which coupled hydrologic/wetland models can be created to quantify future changes in tidal forest functions.

  17. Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests

    Lewis, Simon L.; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Begne, Serge K.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Baker, Timothy R.; Banin, Lindsay; Bastin, Jean-François; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Collins, Murray; Djagbletey, Gloria; Djuikouo, Marie Noël K.; Droissart, Vincent; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Ewango, Cornielle E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Foli, Ernest G.; Gillet, Jean-François; Hamilton, Alan C.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; de Haulleville, Thales; Hladik, Annette; Hufkens, Koen; Huygens, Dries; Jeanmart, Philippe; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Leal, Miguel E.; Lloyd, Jon; Lovett, Jon C.; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marshall, Andrew R.; Ojo, Lucas; Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Pickavance, Georgia; Poulsen, John R.; Reitsma, Jan M.; Sheil, Douglas; Simo, Murielle; Steppe, Kathy; Taedoumg, Hermann E.; Talbot, Joey; Taplin, James R. D.; Taylor, David; Thomas, Sean C.; Toirambe, Benjamin; Verbeeck, Hans; Vleminckx, Jason; White, Lee J. T.; Willcock, Simon; Woell, Hannsjorg; Zemagho, Lise

    2013-01-01

    We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stem density and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha−1 (95% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha−1) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo- compared with neotropical forests. However, mean stem density is low (426 ± 11 stems ha−1 greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationships with C : N ratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus–AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes. PMID:23878327

  18. Estimating Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Stocks in Periurban Andean Secondary Forests Using Very High Resolution Imagery

    Nicola Clerici

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Periurban forests are key to offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions, but they are under constant threat from urbanization. In particular, secondary Neotropical forest types in Andean periurban areas have a high potential to store carbon, but are currently poorly characterized. To address this lack of information, we developed a method to estimate periurban aboveground biomass (AGB—a proxy for multiple ecosystem services—of secondary Andean forests near Bogotá, Colombia, based on very high resolution (VHR GeoEye-1, Pleiades-1A imagery and field-measured plot data. Specifically, we tested a series of different pre-processing workflows to derive six vegetation indices that were regressed against in situ estimates of AGB. Overall, the coupling of linear models and the Ratio Vegetation Index produced the most satisfactory results. Atmospheric and topographic correction proved to be key in improving model fit, especially in high aerosol and rugged terrain such as the Andes. Methods and findings provide baseline AGB and carbon stock information for little studied periurban Andean secondary forests. The methodological approach can also be used for integrating limited forest monitoring plot AGB data with very high resolution imagery for cost-effective modelling of ecosystem service provision from forests, monitoring reforestation and forest cover change, and for carbon offset assessments.

  19. Aboveground biomass and carbon stocks modelling using non-linear regression model

    Ain Mohd Zaki, Nurul; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Nazip Suratman, Mohd; Zainee Zainal, Mohd

    2016-06-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important source of uncertainty in the carbon estimation for the tropical forest due to the variation biodiversity of species and the complex structure of tropical rain forest. Nevertheless, the tropical rainforest holds the most extensive forest in the world with the vast diversity of tree with layered canopies. With the usage of optical sensor integrate with empirical models is a common way to assess the AGB. Using the regression, the linkage between remote sensing and a biophysical parameter of the forest may be made. Therefore, this paper exemplifies the accuracy of non-linear regression equation of quadratic function to estimate the AGB and carbon stocks for the tropical lowland Dipterocarp forest of Ayer Hitam forest reserve, Selangor. The main aim of this investigation is to obtain the relationship between biophysical parameter field plots with the remotely-sensed data using nonlinear regression model. The result showed that there is a good relationship between crown projection area (CPA) and carbon stocks (CS) with Pearson Correlation (p < 0.01), the coefficient of correlation (r) is 0.671. The study concluded that the integration of Worldview-3 imagery with the canopy height model (CHM) raster based LiDAR were useful in order to quantify the AGB and carbon stocks for a larger sample area of the lowland Dipterocarp forest.

  20. Correlation between soil characteristics and lead and cadmium content in the aboveground biomass of Virginia tobacco.

    Zaprjanova, Penka; Dospatliev, Lilko; Angelova, Violina; Ivanov, Krasimir

    2010-04-01

    The study was conducted on alluvial-meadow, maroon-forest soils and vertisols with Virginia tobacco. The total content of lead and cadmium is measured through decomposition by HF, HClO(4), and HNO(3) acids. A solution of 0.005 M diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid + 0.1 M triethanolamine, pH 7.3 was used for extraction of the elements' mobile forms from soils. The preparation of plant samples was made by means of dry ashing and dissolution in 3 M HCl. An atomic absorption spectrometer "Spektra AA 220" of the Australian company Varian was used for determination of Pb and Cd content in the soil and plant samples. Certified reference materials (three soils and tobacco leaves) were also analyzed for the verification of the accuracy of Pb and Cd determination. A correlation/regression analysis was conducted between pH, humus content, total and mobile forms of lead and cadmium in the soil, and the concentration of these elements in the aboveground biomass of Virginia tobacco. It was established that there are no statistically significant dependencies determined between soil pH and lead concentration in the plant organs of Virginia tobacco. Regressional dependencies of great significance were determined between the humus content, total and mobile lead and cadmium in the soil, and the element concentration in the leaves of the three harvesting zones.

  1. Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.

    Jos Barlow

    Full Text Available Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001 community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions.

  2. Impacts of Tree Height-Dbh Allometry on Lidar-Based Tree Aboveground Biomass Modeling

    Fang, R.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar has been widely used in tree aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation at plot or stand levels. Lidar-based AGB models are usually constructed with the ground AGB reference as the response variable and lidar canopy indices as predictor variables. Tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is the major variable of most allometric models for estimating reference AGB. However, lidar measurements are mainly related to tree vertical structure. Therefore, tree height-dbh allometric model residuals are expected to have a large impact on lidar-based AGB model performance. This study attempts to investigate sensitivity of lidar-based AGB model to the decreasing strength of height-dbh relationship using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. Striking decrease in R2 and increase in relative RMSE were found in lidar-based AGB model, as the variance of height-dbh model residuals grew. I, therefore, concluded that individual tree height-dbh model residuals fundamentally introduce errors to lidar-AGB models.

  3. Estimation of floodplain aboveground biomass using multispectral remote sensing and nonparametric modeling

    Güneralp, İnci; Filippi, Anthony M.; Randall, Jarom

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain forests serve a critical function in the global carbon cycle because floodplains constitute an important carbon sink compared with other terrestrial ecosystems. Forests on dynamic floodplain landscapes, such as those created by river meandering processes, are characterized by uneven-aged trees and exhibit high spatial variability, reflecting the influence of interacting fluvial, hydrological, and ecological processes. Detailed and accurate mapping of aboveground biomass (AGB) on floodplain landscapes characterized by uneven-aged forests is critical for improving estimates of floodplain-forest carbon pools, which is useful for greenhouse gas (GHG) life cycle assessment. It would also help improve our process understanding of biomorphodynamics of river-floodplain systems, as well as planning and monitoring of conservation, restoration, and management of riverine ecosystems. Using stochastic gradient boosting (SGB), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and Cubist, we remotely estimate AGB of a bottomland hardwood forest on a meander bend of a dynamic lowland river. As predictors, we use 30-m and 10-m multispectral image bands (Landsat 7 ETM+ and SPOT 5, respectively) and ancillary data. Our findings show that SGB and MARS significantly outperform Cubist, which is used for U.S. national-scale forest biomass mapping. Across all data-experiments and algorithms, at 10-m spatial resolution, SGB yields the best estimates (RMSE = 22.49 tonnes/ha; coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.96) when geomorphometric data are also included. On the other hand, at 30-m spatial resolution, MARS yields the best estimates (RMSE = 29.2 tonnes/ha; R2 = 0.94) when image-derived data are also included. By enabling more accurate AGB mapping of floodplains characterized by uneven-aged forests, SGB and MARS provide an avenue for improving operational estimates of AGB and carbon at local, regional/continental, and global scales.

  4. [Effects of different disturbance modes on the morphological characteristics and aboveground biomass of Alhagi sparsifolia in oasis-desert ecotone].

    Li, Hai-Feng; Zeng, Fan-Jiang; Gui, Dong-Wei; An, Gui-Xiang; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Li-Gang; Liu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Taking Cele oasis at the southern fringe of Taklimakan Desert as a case, this paper studied the effects of different disturbances (burning in spring, cutting in spring, and cutting in fall) on the morphological characteristics and aboveground biomass of natural vegetation Alhagi sparsifolia in the ecotone of oasis-desert. Burning in spring decreased the A. sparsifolia plant height, crown width, and biomass significantly, being harmful to the regeneration and growth of the vegetation. Cutting in spring decreased the A. sparsifolia plant height, crown width, and biomass but increased the leaf biomass, thorn length, and thorn diameter, whereas cutting in fall decreased the plant height and crown width but increased the ramification amount and biomass of A. sparsifolia. Moderate cutting in fall could benefit the protection of A. sparsifolia at the southern fringe of Taklimakan Desert.

  5. Development of Allometric Equations for Estimating Above-Ground Liana Biomass in Tropical Primary and Secondary Forests, Malaysia

    Patrick Addo-Fordjour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study developed allometric equations for estimating liana stem and total above-ground biomass in primary and secondary forests in the Penang National Park, Penang, Malaysia. Using biomass-diameter-length data of 60 liana individuals representing 15 species, allometric equations were developed for liana stem biomass and total above-ground biomass (TAGB. Three types of allometric equations were developed: models fitted to untransformed, weighted, and log-transformed (log10 data. There was a significant linear relationship between biomass and the predictors (diameter, length, and/or their combinations. The same set of models was developed for primary and secondary forests due to absence of differences in regression line slopes of the forests (ANCOVA: . The coefficients of determination values of the models were high (stem: 0.861 to 0.990; TAGB: 0.900 to 0.992. Generally, log-transformed models showed better fit (Furnival's index, FI 0.5. A comparison of the best TAGB model in this study (based on FI with previously published equations indicated that most of the equations significantly ( overestimated TAGB of lianas. However, a previous equation from Southeast Asia estimated TAGB similar to that of the current equation (. Therefore, regional or intracontinental equations should be preferred to intercontinental equations when estimating liana biomass.

  6. Tree diversity, composition, forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after single and repeated fire in a Bornean rain forest.

    Slik, J W Ferry; Bernard, Caroline S; Van Beek, Marloes; Breman, Floris C; Eichhorn, Karl A O

    2008-12-01

    Forest fires remain a devastating phenomenon in the tropics that not only affect forest structure and biodiversity, but also contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2. Fire used to be extremely rare in tropical forests, leaving ample time for forests to regenerate to pre-fire conditions. In recent decades, however, tropical forest fires occur more frequently and at larger spatial scales than they used to. We studied forest structure, tree species diversity, tree species composition, and aboveground biomass during the first 7 years since fire in unburned, once burned and twice burned forest of eastern Borneo to determine the rate of recovery of these forests. We paid special attention to changes in the tree species composition during burned forest regeneration because we expect the long-term recovery of aboveground biomass and ecosystem functions in burned forests to largely depend on the successful regeneration of the pre-fire, heavy-wood, species composition. We found that forest structure (canopy openness, leaf area index, herb cover, and stem density) is strongly affected by fire but shows quick recovery. However, species composition shows no or limited recovery and aboveground biomass, which is greatly reduced by fire, continues to be low or decline up to 7 years after fire. Consequently, large amounts of the C released to the atmosphere by fire will not be recaptured by the burned forest ecosystem in the near future. We also observed that repeated fire, with an inter-fire interval of 15 years, does not necessarily lead to a huge deterioration in the regeneration potential of tropical forest. We conclude that burned forests are valuable and should be conserved and that long-term monitoring programs in secondary forests are necessary to determine their recovery rates, especially in relation to aboveground biomass accumulation.

  7. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Köhler, P.; Huth, A.

    2010-01-01

    The canopy height of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or lidar. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degr...

  8. Structure, Aboveground Biomass, and Soil Characterization of Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park, Abu Dhabi

    Alsumaiti, Tareefa Saad Sultan

    Mangrove forests are national treasures of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and other arid countries with limited forested areas. Mangroves form a crucial part of the coastal ecosystem and provide numerous benefits to society, economy, and especially the environment. Mangrove trees, specifically Avicennia marina, are studied in their native habitat in order to characterize their population structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties. This study focused on Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park in Abu Dhabi, which was the first mangrove protected area to be designated in UAE. In situ measurements were collected to estimate Avicennia marina status, mortality rate (%), height (m), crown spread (m), stem number, diameter at breast height (cm), basal area (m), and aboveground biomass (t ha-1 ). Small-footprint aerial light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data acquired by UAE were processed to characterize mangrove canopy height and aboveground biomass density. This included extraction of LIDAR-derived height percentile statistics, segmentation of the forest into structurally homogenous units, and development of regression relationships between in situ reference and remote sensing data using a machine learning approach. An in situ soil survey was conducted to examine the soils' physical and chemical properties, fertility status, and organic matter. The data of soil survey were used to create soil maps to evaluate key characteristics of soils, and their influence on Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park. The results of this study provide new insights into Avicennia marina canopy population, structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties in Abu Dhabi, as data in such arid environments is lacking. This valuable information can help in managing and preserving this unique ecosystem.

  9. Modelling Growth and Partitioning of Annual Above-Ground Vegetative and Reproductive Biomass of Grapevine

    Meggio, Franco; Vendrame, Nadia; Maniero, Giovanni; Pitacco, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    In the current climate change scenarios, both agriculture and forestry inherently may act as carbon sinks and consequently can play a key role in limiting global warming. An urgent need exists to understand which land uses and land resource types have the greatest potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contributing to global change. A common believe is that agricultural fields cannot be net carbon sinks due to many technical inputs and repeated disturbances of upper soil layers that all contribute to a substantial loss both of the old and newly-synthesized organic matter. Perennial tree crops (vineyards and orchards), however, can behave differently: they grow a permanent woody structure, stand undisturbed in the same field for decades, originate a woody pruning debris, and are often grass-covered. In this context, reliable methods for quantifying and modelling emissions and carbon sequestration are required. Carbon stock changes are calculated by multiplying the difference in oven dry weight of biomass increments and losses with the appropriate carbon fraction. These data are relatively scant, and more information is needed on vineyard management practices and how they impact vineyard C sequestration and GHG emissions in order to generate an accurate vineyard GHG footprint. During the last decades, research efforts have been made for estimating the vineyard carbon budget and its allocation pattern since it is crucial to better understand how grapevines control the distribution of acquired resources in response to variation in environmental growth conditions and agronomic practices. The objective of the present study was to model and compare the dynamics of current year's above-ground biomass among four grapevine varieties. Trials were carried out over three growing seasons in field conditions. The non-linear extra-sums-of-squares method demonstrated to be a feasible way of growth models comparison to statistically assess significant differences among

  10. Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of warming and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.

    Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David

    2016-02-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of environmental change, including climate warming and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of warming on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and warming, and, in concert, warming (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground warming over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground warming effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of warming-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of warming-induced environmental conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with warming in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity warming had no detectable effect. This may be because warming increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative warming × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of warming on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that warming and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both

  11. Analysis of biophysical and anthropogenic variables and their relation to the regional spatial variation of aboveground biomass illustrated for North and East Kalimantan, Borneo

    Van der Laan, Carina; Verweij, Pita A.; Quiñones, Marcela J.; Faaij, André P C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Land use and land cover change occurring in tropical forest landscapes contributes substantially to carbon emissions. Better insights into the spatial variation of aboveground biomass is therefore needed. By means of multiple statistical tests, including geographically weighted regressio

  12. Allometric Equations for Estimating Tree Aboveground Biomass in Tropical Dipterocarp Forests of Vietnam

    Bao Huy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There are few allometric equations available for dipterocarp forests, despite the fact that this forest type covers extensive areas in tropical Southeast Asia. This study aims to develop a set of equations to estimate tree aboveground biomass (AGB in dipterocarp forests in Vietnam and to validate and compare their predictive performance with allometric equations used for dipterocarps in Indonesia and pantropical areas. Diameter at breast height (DBH, total tree height (H, and wood density (WD were used as input variables of the nonlinear weighted least square models. Akaike information criterion (AIC and residual plots were used to select the best models; while percent bias, root mean square percentage error, and mean absolute percent error were used to compare their performance to published models. For mixed-species, the best equation was AGB = 0.06203 × DBH 2.26430 × H 0.51415 × WD 0.79456 . When applied to a random independent validation dataset, the predicted values from the generic equations and the dipterocarp equations in Indonesia overestimated the AGB for different sites, indicating the need for region-specific equations. At the genus level, the selected equations were AGB = 0.03713 × DBH 2.73813 and AGB = 0.07483 × DBH 2.54496 for two genera, Dipterocarpus and Shorea, respectively, in Vietnam. Compared to the mixed-species equations, the genus-specific equations improved the accuracy of the AGB estimates. Additionally, the genus-specific equations showed no significant differences in predictive performance in different regions (e.g., Indonesia, Vietnam of Southeast Asia.

  13. Sensitivity of L-Band SAR Backscatter to Aboveground Biomass of Global Forests

    Yifan Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR backscatter measurements are sensitive to forest aboveground biomass (AGB, and the observations from space can be used for mapping AGB globally. However, the radar sensitivity saturates at higher AGB values depending on the wavelength and geometry of radar measurements, and is influenced by the structure of the forest and environmental conditions. Here, we examine the sensitivity of SAR at the L-band frequency (~25 cm wavelength to AGB in order to examine the performance of future joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Indian Space Research Organisation NASA-ISRO SAR mission in mapping the AGB of global forests. For SAR data, we use the Phased Array L-Band SAR (PALSAR backscatter from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS aggregated at a 100-m spatial resolution; and for AGB data, we use more than three million AGB values derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS LiDAR height metrics at about 0.16–0.25 ha footprints across eleven different forest types globally. The results from statistical analysis show that, over all eleven forest types, saturation level of L-band radar at HV polarization on average remains ≥100 Mg·ha−1. Fresh water swamp forests have the lowest saturation with AGB at ~80 Mg·ha−1, while needleleaf forests have the highest saturation at ~250 Mg·ha−1. Swamp forests show a strong backscatter from the vegetation-surface specular reflection due to inundation that requires to be treated separately from those on terra firme. Our results demonstrate that L-Band backscatter relations to AGB can be significantly different depending on forest types and environmental effects, requiring multiple algorithms to map AGB from time series of satellite radar observations globally.

  14. Quantification of uncertainty in aboveground biomass estimates derived from small-footprint LiDAR data

    Xu, Q.; Greenberg, J. A.; Li, B.; Ramirez, C.; Balamuta, J. J.; Evans, K.; Man, A.; Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A promising approach to determining aboveground biomass (AGB) in forests comes through the use of individual tree crown delineation (ITCD) techniques applied to small-footprint LiDAR data. These techniques, when combined with allometric equations, can produce per-tree estimates of AGB. At this scale, AGB estimates can be quantified in a manner similar to how ground-based forest inventories are produced. However, these approaches have significant uncertainties that are rarely described in full. Allometric equations are often based on species-specific diameter-at-breast height (DBH) relationships, but neither DBH nor species can be reliably determined using remote sensing analysis. Furthermore, many approaches to ITCD only delineate trees appearing in the upper canopy so subcanopy trees are often missing from the inventories. In this research, we performed a propagation-of-error analysis to determine the spatially varying uncertainties in AGB estimates at the individual plant and stand level for a large collection of LiDAR acquisitions covering a large portion of California. Furthermore, we determined the relative contribution of various aspects of the analysis towards the uncertainty, including errors in the ITCD results, the allometric equations, the taxonomic designation, and the local biophysical environment. Watershed segmentation was used to obtain the preliminary crown segments. Lidar points within the preliminary segments were extracted to form profiling data of the segments, and then mode detection algorithms were applied to identify the tree number and tree heights within each segment. As part of this analysis, we derived novel "remote sensing aware" allometric equations and their uncertainties based on three-dimensional morphological metrics that can be accurately derived from LiDAR data.

  15. Toward Aboveground Biomass Estimation with RADAR, Lidar and Optical Remote Sensing Data in Southern Mexico

    Urbazaev, M.; Thiel, C. J.; Schmullius, C.

    2014-12-01

    Information on the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) over large areas is needed (1) for understanding and managing the processes involved in the carbon cycle, and (2) supporting international policies for climate change mitigation and adaption. Using remote sensing techniques it is possible to provide spatially explicit information of AGB from local to global scales. In this work we present the first results on the use of multi-sensor remote sensing data to estimate AGB over three test sites in southern Mexico. In order to develop a set of AGB retrieval algorithms, we firstly compared different SAR parameters (e.g. multi-polarized backscatter intensities and interferometric coherence) obtained from ALOS PALSAR sensor and Landsat imagery with field-based AGB estimates using empirical regressions and analyzed the relationships between them. The next steps of the work will be development of a two-stage up-scaling approach: firstly, to enlarge the cal/val data, we propose to estimate AGB along airborne LiDAR (from G-LiHT sensor) transects using field-based AGB and LiDAR height metrics. With LiDAR-based AGB we will then calibrate SAR parameters in a non-parametric model (e.g., randomForest) to create AGB maps over the study areas. An overall aim of the study is the analysis of capabilities and limitations of SAR data for AGB mapping and the investigation of the potential synergistic use of SAR, LiDAR and optical systems.The proposed monitoring tool will facilitate quantitative estimations in loss of carbon storage and support the selection of terrestrial (e.g. tropical dry forests, shrublands) sites for conservation priorities with high value for the national carbon budget.

  16. Aboveground Biomass Modeling from Field and LiDAR Data in Brazilian Amazon Tropical Rain Forest

    Silva, C. A.; Hudak, A. T.; Vierling, L. A.; Keller, M. M.; Klauberg Silva, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forests are an important component of global carbon stocks, but tropical forest responses to climate change are not sufficiently studied or understood. Among remote sensing technologies, airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) may be best suited for quantifying tropical forest carbon stocks. Our objective was to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) using airborne LiDAR and field plot data in Brazilian tropical rain forest. Forest attributes such as tree density, diameter at breast height, and heights were measured at a combination of square plots and linear transects (n=82) distributed across six different geographic zones in the Amazon. Using previously published allometric equations, tree AGB was computed and then summed to calculate total AGB at each sample plot. LiDAR-derived canopy structure metrics were also computed at each sample plot, and random forest regression modelling was applied to predict AGB from selected LiDAR metrics. The LiDAR-derived AGB model was assessed using the random forest explained variation, adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj. R²), root mean square error (RMSE, both absolute and relative) and BIAS (both absolute and relative). Our findings showed that the 99th percentile of height and height skewness were the best LiDAR metrics for AGB prediction. The AGB model using these two best predictors explained 59.59% of AGB variation, with an Adj. R² of 0.92, RMSE of 33.37 Mg/ha (20.28%), and bias of -0.69 (-0.42%). This study showed that LiDAR canopy structure metrics can be used to predict AGC stocks in Tropical Forest with acceptable precision and accuracy. Therefore, we conclude that there is good potential to monitor carbon sequestration in Brazilian Tropical Rain Forest using airborne LiDAR data, large field plots, and the random forest algorithm.

  17. Quantifying variation in forest disturbance, and its effects on aboveground biomass dynamics, across the eastern United States.

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Coomes, David A; Purves, Drew W

    2013-05-01

    The role of tree mortality in the global carbon balance is complicated by strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity that arises from the stochastic nature of carbon loss through disturbance. Characterizing spatio-temporal variation in mortality (including disturbance) and its effects on forest and carbon dynamics is thus essential to understanding the current global forest carbon sink, and to predicting how it will change in future. We analyzed forest inventory data from the eastern United States to estimate plot-level variation in mortality (relative to a long-term background rate for individual trees) for nine distinct forest regions. Disturbances that produced at least a fourfold increase in tree mortality over an approximately 5 year interval were observed in 1-5% of plots in each forest region. The frequency of disturbance was lowest in the northeast, and increased southwards along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts as fire and hurricane disturbances became progressively more common. Across the central and northern parts of the region, natural disturbances appeared to reflect a diffuse combination of wind, insects, disease, and ice storms. By linking estimated covariation in tree growth and mortality over time with a data-constrained forest dynamics model, we simulated the implications of stochastic variation in mortality for long-term aboveground biomass changes across the eastern United States. A geographic gradient in disturbance frequency induced notable differences in biomass dynamics between the least- and most-disturbed regions, with variation in mortality causing the latter to undergo considerably stronger fluctuations in aboveground stand biomass over time. Moreover, regional simulations showed that a given long-term increase in mean mortality rates would support greater aboveground biomass when expressed through disturbance effects compared with background mortality, particularly for early-successional species. The effects of increased tree mortality on

  18. Applying ICESat/GLAS data to estimate forest aboveground biomass on Hokkaido, Japan

    Hayashi, M.; Saigusa, N.; Oguma, H.; Yamao, Y.; Yamagata, Y.; Takao, G.

    2013-12-01

    Spaceborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) has an ability to measure forest resources with high accuracy, therefore, it will contribute to evaluating global carbon cycle or addressing climate change. We then evaluated the potential of spaceborne LiDAR to measure forest resources, and used Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data obtained with the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) to develop an estimation methodology for forest biomass. The study area was the island of Hokkaido, Japan. We compared two estimation methods: (i) a direct method that uses some of the GLAS waveform parameters to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) directly, and (ii) an allometric method that uses an allometric equation to estimate AGB from the canopy height estimated from the GLAS waveform. We used two kinds of ground truth data: (i) field survey data in situ measurements of AGB by the Bitterlich method at 106 points within GLAS footprints, and (ii) airborne LiDAR data from maximum canopy height measurements at 481 points within GLAS footprints. We then used the field survey data to develop the AGB estimation equation of the direct method by carrying out a multiple regression analysis that related GLAS waveform parameters to AGB. For the allometric method, we also carried out a multiple regression analysis using the airborne LiDAR data to estimate canopy height from GLAS data. Two parameters were used as the explanatory variables: a 'terrain index' calculated from the ground elevation difference within a GLAS footprint, and a 'GLAS waveform extent'. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the canopy height estimates was 4.1 m. We used the allometric equation determined from the field survey data to relate canopy height to AGB and then estimated the AGB from the GLAS estimates of canopy height. The accuracy of the AGB estimates obtained by these two estimation methods was determined by comparison with the field survey data. The RMSEs of the direct and allometric

  19. Aboveground biomass mapping in French Guiana by combining remote sensing, forest inventories and environmental data

    Fayad, Ibrahim; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Guitet, Stéphane; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Hérault, Bruno; Gond, Valéry; El Hajj, Mahmoud; Tong Minh, Dinh Ho

    2016-10-01

    Mapping forest aboveground biomass (AGB) has become an important task, particularly for the reporting of carbon stocks and changes. AGB can be mapped using synthetic aperture radar data (SAR) or passive optical data. However, these data are insensitive to high AGB levels (>150 Mg/ha, and >300 Mg/ha for P-band), which are commonly found in tropical forests. Studies have mapped the rough variations in AGB by combining optical and environmental data at regional and global scales. Nevertheless, these maps cannot represent local variations in AGB in tropical forests. In this paper, we hypothesize that the problem of misrepresenting local variations in AGB and AGB estimation with good precision occurs because of both methodological limits (signal saturation or dilution bias) and a lack of adequate calibration data in this range of AGB values. We test this hypothesis by developing a calibrated regression model to predict variations in high AGB values (mean >300 Mg/ha) in French Guiana by a methodological approach for spatial extrapolation with data from the optical geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS), forest inventories, radar, optics, and environmental variables for spatial inter- and extrapolation. Given their higher point count, GLAS data allow a wider coverage of AGB values. We find that the metrics from GLAS footprints are correlated with field AGB estimations (R2 = 0.54, RMSE = 48.3 Mg/ha) with no bias for high values. First, predictive models, including remote-sensing, environmental variables and spatial correlation functions, allow us to obtain "wall-to-wall" AGB maps over French Guiana with an RMSE for the in situ AGB estimates of ∼50 Mg/ha and R2 = 0.66 at a 1-km grid size. We conclude that a calibrated regression model based on GLAS with dependent environmental data can produce good AGB predictions even for high AGB values if the calibration data fit the AGB range. We also demonstrate that small temporal and spatial mismatches between field data and GLAS

  20. Examining Spectral Reflectance Saturation in Landsat Imagery and Corresponding Solutions to Improve Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation

    Panpan Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data saturation problem in Landsat imagery is well recognized and is regarded as an important factor resulting in inaccurate forest aboveground biomass (AGB estimation. However, no study has examined the saturation values for different vegetation types such as coniferous and broadleaf forests. The objective of this study is to estimate the saturation values in Landsat imagery for different vegetation types in a subtropical region and to explore approaches to improving forest AGB estimation. Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, digital elevation model data, and field measurements in Zhejiang province of Eastern China were used. Correlation analysis and scatterplots were first used to examine specific spectral bands and their relationships with AGB. A spherical model was then used to quantitatively estimate the saturation value of AGB for each vegetation type. A stratification of vegetation types and/or slope aspects was used to determine the potential to improve AGB estimation performance by developing a specific AGB estimation model for each category. Stepwise regression analysis based on Landsat spectral signatures and textures using grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM was used to develop AGB estimation models for different scenarios: non-stratification, stratification based on either vegetation types, slope aspects, or the combination of vegetation types and slope aspects. The results indicate that pine forest and mixed forest have the highest AGB saturation values (159 and 152 Mg/ha, respectively, Chinese fir and broadleaf forest have lower saturation values (143 and 123 Mg/ha, respectively, and bamboo forest and shrub have the lowest saturation values (75 and 55 Mg/ha, respectively. The stratification based on either vegetation types or slope aspects provided smaller root mean squared errors (RMSEs than non-stratification. The AGB estimation models based on stratification of both vegetation types and slope aspects provided the most

  1. Investigating Appropriate Sampling Design for Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Bruneian Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest

    Lee, S.; Lee, D.; Abu Salim, K.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S.; Lee, W. K.; Davies, S. J.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed tropical forest structure is highly heterogeneous unlike plantation or mixed temperate forest structure, and therefore, different sampling approaches are required. However, the appropriate sampling design for estimating the above-ground biomass (AGB) in Bruneian lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to provide supportive information in sampling design for Bruneian forest carbon inventory. The study site was located at Kuala Belalong lowland MDF, which is part of the Ulu Tembulong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. Six 60 m × 60 m quadrats were established, separated by a distance of approximately 100 m and each was subdivided into quadrats of 10 m × 10 m, at an elevation between 200 and 300 m above sea level. At each plot all free-standing trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 1 cm were measured. The AGB for all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm was estimated by allometric models. In order to analyze changes in the diameter-dependent parameters used for estimating the AGB, different quadrat areas, ranging from 10 m × 10 m to 60 m × 60 m, were used across the study area, starting at the South-West end and moving towards the North-East end. The derived result was as follows: (a) Big trees (dbh ≥ 70 cm) with sparse distribution have remarkable contribution to the total AGB in Bruneian lowland MDF, and therefore, special consideration is required when estimating the AGB of big trees. Stem number of trees with dbh ≥ 70 cm comprised only 2.7% of all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm, but 38.5% of the total AGB. (b) For estimating the AGB of big trees at the given acceptable limit of precision (p), it is more efficient to use large quadrats than to use small quadrats, because the total sampling area decreases with the former. Our result showed that 239 20 m × 20 m quadrats (9.6 ha in total) were required, while 15 60 m × 60 m quadrats (5.4 ha in total) were required when estimating the AGB of the trees

  2. Carbon dynamics in aboveground biomass of co-dominant plant species in a temperate grassland ecosystem: same or different?

    Ostler, Ulrike; Schleip, Inga; Lattanzi, Fernando A; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of individual organisms in whole-ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes is probably the biggest current challenge in C cycle research. Thus, it is unknown whether different plant community members share the same or different residence times in metabolic (τmetab ) and nonmetabolic (i.e. structural) (τnonmetab ) C pools of aboveground biomass and the fraction of fixed C allocated to aboveground nonmetabolic biomass (Anonmetab ). We assessed τmetab , τnonmetab and Anonmetab of co-dominant species from different functional groups (two bunchgrasses, a stoloniferous legume and a rosette dicot) in a temperate grassland community. Continuous, 14-16-d-long (13) C-labeling experiments were performed in September 2006, May 2007 and September 2007. A two-pool compartmental system, with a well-mixed metabolic and a nonmixed nonmetabolic pool, was the simplest biologically meaningful model that fitted the (13) C tracer kinetics in the whole-shoot biomass of all species. In all experimental periods, the species had similar τmetab (5-8 d), whereas τnonmetab ranged from 20 to 58 d (except for one outlier) and Anonmetab from 7 to 45%. Variations in τnonmetab and Anonmetab were not systematically associated with species or experimental periods, but exhibited relationships with leaf life span, particularly in the grasses. Similar pool kinetics of species suggested similar kinetics at the community level.

  3. [Estimating individual tree aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest using airborne LiDAR technology].

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Lei, Pi-Feng

    2014-11-01

    Taking Wugang forest farm in Xuefeng Mountain as the research object, using the airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data under leaf-on condition and field data of concomitant plots, this paper assessed the ability of using LiDAR technology to estimate aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest. A semi-automated individual tree LiDAR cloud point segmentation was obtained by using condition random fields and optimization methods. Spatial structure, waveform characteristics and topography were calculated as LiDAR metrics from the segmented objects. Then statistical models between aboveground biomass from field data and these LiDAR metrics were built. The individual tree recognition rates were 93%, 86% and 60% for coniferous, broadleaf and mixed forests, respectively. The adjusted coefficients of determination (R(2)adj) and the root mean squared errors (RMSE) for the three types of forest were 0.83, 0.81 and 0.74, and 28.22, 29.79 and 32.31 t · hm(-2), respectively. The estimation capability of model based on canopy geometric volume, tree percentile height, slope and waveform characteristics was much better than that of traditional regression model based on tree height. Therefore, LiDAR metrics from individual tree could facilitate better performance in biomass estimation.

  4. Testing the generality of above-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types at the continent scale.

    Paul, Keryn I; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Chave, Jerome; England, Jacqueline R; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Specht, Alison; Lewis, Tom; Bennett, Lauren T; Baker, Thomas G; Adams, Mark A; Huxtable, Dan; Montagu, Kelvin D; Falster, Daniel S; Feller, Mike; Sochacki, Stan; Ritson, Peter; Bastin, Gary; Bartle, John; Wildy, Dan; Hobbs, Trevor; Larmour, John; Waterworth, Rob; Stewart, Hugh T L; Jonson, Justin; Forrester, David I; Applegate, Grahame; Mendham, Daniel; Bradford, Matt; O'Grady, Anthony; Green, Daryl; Sudmeyer, Rob; Rance, Stan J; Turner, John; Barton, Craig; Wenk, Elizabeth H; Grove, Tim; Attiwill, Peter M; Pinkard, Elizabeth; Butler, Don; Brooksbank, Kim; Spencer, Beren; Snowdon, Peter; O'Brien, Nick; Battaglia, Michael; Cameron, David M; Hamilton, Steve; McAuthur, Geoff; Sinclair, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground-based estimation of the carbon stored in terrestrial ecosystems is critical to quantifying the global carbon budget. Allometric models provide cost-effective methods for biomass prediction. But do such models vary with ecoregion or plant functional type? We compiled 15 054 measurements of individual tree or shrub biomass from across Australia to examine the generality of allometric models for above-ground biomass prediction. This provided a robust case study because Australia includes ecoregions ranging from arid shrublands to tropical rainforests, and has a rich history of biomass research, particularly in planted forests. Regardless of ecoregion, for five broad categories of plant functional type (shrubs; multistemmed trees; trees of the genus Eucalyptus and closely related genera; other trees of high wood density; and other trees of low wood density), relationships between biomass and stem diameter were generic. Simple power-law models explained 84-95% of the variation in biomass, with little improvement in model performance when other plant variables (height, bole wood density), or site characteristics (climate, age, management) were included. Predictions of stand-based biomass from allometric models of varying levels of generalization (species-specific, plant functional type) were validated using whole-plot harvest data from 17 contrasting stands (range: 9-356 Mg ha(-1) ). Losses in efficiency of prediction were biomass prediction in 92% of the 53 species tested. Further, overall efficiency of stand-level biomass prediction was 99%, with a mean absolute prediction error of only 13%. Hence, for cost-effective prediction of biomass across a wide range of stands, we recommend use of generic allometric models based on plant functional types. Development of new species-specific models is only warranted when gains in accuracy of stand-based predictions are relatively high (e.g. high-value monocultures).

  5. Aboveground forest biomass estimation using ICESat GLAS in Yunnan, China%基于ICESat GLAS的云南省森林地上生物量反演

    黄克标; 庞勇; 舒清态; 付甜

    2013-01-01

    结合机载、星载激光雷达对GLAS(地球科学激光测高系统)光斑范围内的森林地上生物量进行估测,并利用MODIS植被产品以及MERIS土地覆盖产品进行了云南省森林地上生物量的连续制图.机载LiDAR扫描的260个训练样本用于构建星载GLAS的森林地上生物量估测模型,模型的决定系数(R2)为0.52,均方根误差(RMSE)为31 Mg/ha.研究结果显示,云南省总森林地上生物量为12.72亿t,平均森林地上生物量为94 Mg/ha.估测的森林地上生物量空间分布情况与实际情况相符,森林地上生物量总量与基于森林资源清查数据的估测结果相符,表明了利用机载LiDAR与星载ICESatGLAS结合进行大区域森林地上生物量估测的可靠性.%Accurate estimates of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) could reduce uncertainties in the characterization of terrestrial carbon fluxes. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) provides an accurate measure of canopy height and vertical structure and information for the estimation of aboveground biomass of vegetation. Spaceborne large footprint LiDAR (ICESat GLAS) acquires over 250 million observations over forest regions globally and has been used successfully for forest height and biomass estimation in various sites. In this paper, airborne LiDAR and ICESat GLAS data were used to estimate aboveground biomass of forest at footprint level in Yunnan, China. Vegetation products from EOS MODIS and ENVISAT MERIS were used to expand these discrete estimations from GLAS data to a wall-to-wall map. The R2 between ICESat GLAS waveform parameters and airborne LiDAR estimated forest AGB is 0.52 after training with 260 footprints. Results showed that the total forest AGB in Yunnan Province was 1272 million ton and the average was 94 Mg/ha. The amount and distribution of predicted aboveground biomass were in good agreement with the reference data. The results showed that the predict model using GLAS data could be used to estimate

  6. [Transferability of remote sensing-based models for estimating moso bamboo forest aboveground biomass].

    Yu, Chao-Lin; Du, Hua-Qiang; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Gui, Zu-Yun

    2012-09-01

    Taking the moso bamboo production areas Lin'an, Anji, and Longquan in Zhejiang Province of East China as study areas, and based on the integration of field survey data and Landsat 5 Thematic Mappr images, five models for estimating the moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens) forest biomass were constructed by using linear, nonlinear, stepwise regression, multiple regression, and Erf-BP neural network, and the models were evaluated. The models with higher precision were then transferred to the study areas for examining the model's transferability. The results indicated that for the three moso bamboo production areas, Erf-BP neural network model presented the highest precision, followed by stepwise regression and nonlinear models. The Erf-BP neural network model had the best transferability. Model type and independent variables had relatively high effects on the transferability of statistical-based models.

  7. Spectroscopic determination of aboveground biomass in grasslands using spectral transformations, Support Vector Machine and Partial Least Squares Regression.

    Marabel, Miguel; Alvarez-Taboada, Flor

    2013-08-06

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) is one of the strategic biophysical variables of interest in vegetation studies. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) for estimating the AGB of grasslands from field spectrometer data and to find out which data pre-processing approach was the most suitable. The most accurate model to predict the total AGB involved PLSR and the Maximum Band Depth index derived from the continuum removed reflectance in the absorption features between 916-1,120 nm and 1,079-1,297 nm (R2 = 0.939, RMSE = 7.120 g/m2). Regarding the green fraction of the AGB, the Area Over the Minimum index derived from the continuum removed spectra provided the most accurate model overall (R2 = 0.939, RMSE = 3.172 g/m2). Identifying the appropriate absorption features was proved to be crucial to improve the performance of PLSR to estimate the total and green aboveground biomass, by using the indices derived from those spectral regions. Ordinary Least Square Regression could be used as a surrogate for the PLSR approach with the Area Over the Minimum index as the independent variable, although the resulting model would not be as accurate.

  8. Spectroscopic Determination of Aboveground Biomass in Grasslands Using Spectral Transformations, Support Vector Machine and Partial Least Squares Regression

    Miguel Marabel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground biomass (AGB is one of the strategic biophysical variables of interest in vegetation studies. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the Support Vector Machine (SVM and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR for estimating the AGB of grasslands from field spectrometer data and to find out which data pre-processing approach was the most suitable. The most accurate model to predict the total AGB involved PLSR and the Maximum Band Depth index derived from the continuum removed reflectance in the absorption features between 916–1,120 nm and 1,079–1,297 nm (R2 = 0.939, RMSE = 7.120 g/m2. Regarding the green fraction of the AGB, the Area Over the Minimum index derived from the continuum removed spectra provided the most accurate model overall (R2 = 0.939, RMSE = 3.172 g/m2. Identifying the appropriate absorption features was proved to be crucial to improve the performance of PLSR to estimate the total and green aboveground biomass, by using the indices derived from those spectral regions. Ordinary Least Square Regression could be used as a surrogate for the PLSR approach with the Area Over the Minimum index as the independent variable, although the resulting model would not be as accurate.

  9. [Aboveground biomass and nutrient distribution patterns of larch plantation in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    Yan, Tao; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yang, Kai; Yu, Li-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Larch is the main timber species of forest plantations in North China. Imbalance in nutrient cycling in soil emerged due to single species composition and mono system structure of plantation. Thus it is necessary to grasp its biomass and nutrients allocation for scientific management and nutrient cycling studies of larch plantation. We measured aboveground biomass (stem, branch, bark and leaf) and nutrient concentrations (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn), and analyzed the patterns of accumulation and distribution of 19-year-old larch plantation with diameter at breast height of 12. 8 cm, tree height of 15. 3 m, and density of 2308 trees · hm(-2), in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China. The results showed that aboveground biomass values were 70.26 kg and 162.16 t · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. There was a significant difference between biomass of the organs, and decreased in the order of stem > branch > bark > leaf. Nutrient accumulation was 749.94 g and 1730.86 kg · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. Nutrient accumulation of stem was significantly higher than that of branch, bark and leaf, whether it was macro-nutrient or micro-nutrient. Averagely, 749.94 g nutrient elements would be removed from the system when a 19-year-old larch tree was harvested. If only the stem part was removed from the system, the removal of nutrient elements could be reduced by 40.7%.

  10. Large trees drive forest aboveground biomass variation in moist lowland forests across the tropics

    Slik, J.W.Ferry; Paoli, Gary; McGuire, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Aim Large trees (d.b.h. ≥ 70 cm) store large amounts of biomass. Several studies suggest that large trees may be vulnerable to changing climate, potentially leading to declining forest biomass storage. Here we determine the importance of large trees for tropical forest biomass storage and explore...

  11. Above-ground woody biomass allocation and within tree carbon and nutrient distribution of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. – a case study

    Christopher Morhart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global search for new ways to sequester carbon has already reached agricultural lands. Such land constitutes a major potential carbon sink. The production of high value timber within agroforestry systems can facilitate an in-situ carbon storage function. This is followed by a potential long term ex- situ carbon sinkwithin long lasting products such as veneer and furniture. For this purpose wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is an interesting option for middle Europe, yielding high prices on the timber market. Methods: A total number of 39 wild cherry were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to assess the leafless above ground biomass. The complete trees including stem and branches were separated into 1 cm diameter classes. Wood and bark from sub-samples were analysed separately and nutrient content was derived. Models for biomass estimation were constructed for all tree compartments. Results: The smallest diameter classes possess the highest proportion of bark due to smaller cross sectional area. Tree boles with a greater amount of stem wood above 10 cm in diameter will have a more constant bark proportion. Total branch bark proportion also remains relatively constant above d1.3m measurements of 8 cm. A balance is evident between the production of new branches with a low diameter and high bark proportion offset by the thickening and a relative reduction in bark proportion in larger branches. The results show that a single tree with an age of 17 and 18 years can store up to 85 kg of carbon within the aboveground biomass portion, an amount that will increase as the tree matures. Branches display greater nutrient content than stem sections per volume unit which can be attributed to a greater bark proportion. Conclusions: Using the derived models the carbon and the nutrient content of above-ground woody biomass of whole trees can be calculated. Suggested values for carbon with other major and minor nutrients held within relatively immature trees

  12. Allometric relationship for estimating above-ground biomass of Aegialitis rotundifolia Roxb.of Sundarbans mangrove forest, in Bangladesh

    Mohammad Raqibul Hasan Siddique·Mahmood Hossain; M d.Rezaul Karim Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Tree biomass plays a key role in sustainable management by providing different aspects of ecosystem.Estimation of above ground biomass by non-destructive means requires the development of allometric equations.Most researchers used DBH (diameter at breast height) and TH (total height) to develop allometric equation for a tree.Very few species-specific allometric equations are currently available for shrubs to estimate of biomass from measured plant attributes.Therefore,we used some of readily measurable variables to develop allometric equations such as girth at collar-height (GCH) and height of girth measuring point (GMH) with total height (TH) for A.rotundifolia,a mangrove species of Sundarbans of Bangladesh,as it is too dwarf to take DBH and too irregular in base to take Girth at a fixed height.Linear,non-linear and logarithmic regression techniques were tried to determine the best regression model to estimate the above-ground biomass of stem,branch and leaf.A total of 186 regression equations were generated from the combination of independent variables.Best fit regression equations were determined by examining co-efficient of determination (R2),co-efficient of variation (Cv),mean-square of the error (Mserror),residual mean error (Rsme),and F-value.Multiple linear regression models showed more efficient over other types of regression equation.The performance of regression equations was increased by inclusion of GMH as an independent variable along with total height and GCH.

  13. QUANTIFYING FOREST ABOVEGROUND CARBON POOLS AND FLUXES USING MULTI-TEMPORAL LIDAR A report on field monitoring, remote sensing MMV, GIS integration, and modeling results for forestry field validation test to quantify aboveground tree biomass and carbon

    Lee Spangler; Lee A. Vierling; Eva K. Stand; Andrew T. Hudak; Jan U.H. Eitel; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2012-04-01

    Sound policy recommendations relating to the role of forest management in mitigating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) depend upon establishing accurate methodologies for quantifying forest carbon pools for large tracts of land that can be dynamically updated over time. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing is a promising technology for achieving accurate estimates of aboveground biomass and thereby carbon pools; however, not much is known about the accuracy of estimating biomass change and carbon flux from repeat LiDAR acquisitions containing different data sampling characteristics. In this study, discrete return airborne LiDAR data was collected in 2003 and 2009 across {approx}20,000 hectares (ha) of an actively managed, mixed conifer forest landscape in northern Idaho, USA. Forest inventory plots, established via a random stratified sampling design, were established and sampled in 2003 and 2009. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm was used to establish statistical relationships between inventory data and forest structural metrics derived from the LiDAR acquisitions. Aboveground biomass maps were created for the study area based on statistical relationships developed at the plot level. Over this 6-year period, we found that the mean increase in biomass due to forest growth across the non-harvested portions of the study area was 4.8 metric ton/hectare (Mg/ha). In these non-harvested areas, we found a significant difference in biomass increase among forest successional stages, with a higher biomass increase in mature and old forest compared to stand initiation and young forest. Approximately 20% of the landscape had been disturbed by harvest activities during the six-year time period, representing a biomass loss of >70 Mg/ha in these areas. During the study period, these harvest activities outweighed growth at the landscape scale, resulting in an overall loss in aboveground carbon at this site. The 30-fold increase in sampling density

  14. Fractal analysis of canopy architectures of Acacia angustissima, Gliricidia sepium, and Leucaena collinsii for estimation of aboveground biomass in a short rotation forest in eastern Zambia

    Martin.L.Kaonga

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted at Msekera Regional Agricultural Research Station in eastern Zambia to (1) describe canopy branching properties of Acacia angustissima,Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena collinsii in short rotation forests,(2) test the existence of self similarity from repeated iteration of a structural unit in tree canopies,(3) examined intra-speciflc relationships between functional branching characteristics,and (4) determine whether allometric equations for relating aboveground tree biomass to fractal properties could accurately predict aboveground biomass.Measurements of basal diameter (D10) at 10cm aboveground and total height (H),and aboveground biomass of 27 trees were taken,but only nine trees representative of variability of the stand and the three species were processed for functional branching analyses (FBA) of the shoot systems.For each species,fractal properties of three trees,including fractal dimension (Dfract),bifurcation ratios (p) and proportionality ratios (q) of branching points were assessed.The slope of the linear regression ofp on proximal diameter was not significantly different (P <0.01) from zero and hence the assumption that p is independent of scale,a pre-requisite for use of fractal branching rules to describe a fractal tree canopy,was fulfilled at branching orders with link diameters >1.5 cm.The proportionality ration q for branching patterns of all tree species was constant at all scales.The proportion ofq values >0.9 (fq) was 0.8 for all species.Mean fractal dimension (Dfract) values (1.5-1.7) for all species showed that branching patterns had an increasing magnitude of intricacy.Since Dfract values were >1.5,branching patterns within species were self similar.Basal diameter (D10),proximal diameter and Dfract described most of variations in aboveground biomass,suggesting that allometric equations for relating aboveground tree biomass to fractal properties could accurately predict aboveground biomass.Thus,assessed Acacia

  15. Net aboveground biomass declines of four major forest types with forest ageing and climate change in western Canada's boreal forests.

    Chen, Han Y H; Luo, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Biomass change of the world's forests is critical to the global carbon cycle. Despite storing nearly half of global forest carbon, the boreal biome of diverse forest types and ages is a poorly understood component of the carbon cycle. Using data from 871 permanent plots in the western boreal forest of Canada, we examined net annual aboveground biomass change (ΔAGB) of four major forest types between 1958 and 2011. We found that ΔAGB was higher for deciduous broadleaf (DEC) (1.44 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) , 95% Bayesian confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.68) and early-successional coniferous forests (ESC) (1.42, CI, 1.30-1.56) than mixed forests (MIX) (0.80, CI, 0.50-1.11) and late-successional coniferous (LSC) forests (0.62, CI, 0.39-0.88). ΔAGB declined with forest age as well as calendar year. After accounting for the effects of forest age, ΔAGB declined by 0.035, 0.021, 0.032 and 0.069 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) per calendar year in DEC, ESC, MIX and LSC forests, respectively. The ΔAGB declines resulted from increased tree mortality and reduced growth in all forest types except DEC, in which a large biomass loss from mortality was accompanied with a small increase in growth. With every degree of annual temperature increase, ΔAGB decreased by 1.00, 0.20, 0.55 and 1.07 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in DEC, ESC, MIX and LSC forests, respectively. With every cm decrease of annual climatic moisture availability, ΔAGB decreased 0.030, 0.045 and 0.17 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in ESC, MIX and LSC forests, but changed little in DEC forests. Our results suggest that persistent warming and decreasing water availability have profound negative effects on forest biomass in the boreal forests of western Canada. Furthermore, our results indicate that forest responses to climate change are strongly dependent on forest composition with late-successional coniferous forests being most vulnerable to climate changes in terms of aboveground biomass.

  16. Characterizing uncertainties of the national-scale forest gross aboveground biomass (AGB) loss estimate: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Modern remote sensing techniques enable the mapping and monitoring of aboveground biomass (AGB) carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where a national forest inventory (NFI) has yet to be established due to a lack of infrastructure and political instability. We demonstrate a method for producing national-scale gross AGB loss estimates and quantifying uncertainty of the estimates using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Forest cover type and loss were characterized using published Landsat-based data sets and related to LIDAR-derived biomass data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). We produced two gross AGB loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a conservative estimate accounting for classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a maximal estimate that also took into consideration omitted change at the 30m spatial resolution. Omitted disturbances were largely related to smallholder agriculture, the detection of which is scale-dependent. The use of LIDAR data as a substitute for NFI data to estimate AGB loss based on Landsat-derived activity data was demonstrated. Comparisons of our forest cover loss and AGB estimates with published studies raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and its impact on carbon stock change estimation using remotely sensed data.

  17. Above-ground biomass characteristics of young hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) plantations on former agricultural land in Estonia

    Tullus, Arvo; Tullus, Hardi; Soo, Tea; Paern, Linnar [Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2009-11-15

    Fifty biomass production model trees were analysed in 7-yr-old commercial hybrid aspen plantations established on abandoned agricultural land in Estonia. Above-ground leafless biomass (ALB) of the model trees varied from 0.1 to 9.8 kg DM. The ALB of plantations with a density of 880-1340 trees ha{sup -1} growing on former field soils was between 2.18 and 8.54 t DM ha{sup -1}. The amount of nitrogen accumulated in the ALB varied between 14.4 and 48.5 kg ha{sup -1}, the amount of phosphorus, between 1.7 and 5.9 kg ha{sup -1}, and the amount of potassium, between 6.5 and 21.9 kg ha{sup -1}. The removal of major mineral nutrients from the site with the removal of woody biomass in 7-yr-old plantations would be relatively small, constituting 0.5-3.4% of the nutrient pool in the humus layer of the previously fertilized field soils. The stembark content decreases rapidly until the DBH reaches 4 cm, which can be considered a target diameter for the hybrid aspen coppicing system. (author)

  18. Assessment of Aboveground Woody Biomass Dynamics Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner and L-Band ALOS PALSAR Data in South African Savanna

    Victor Onyango Odipo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of optical remote sensing data for savanna vegetation structure mapping is hindered by sparse and heterogeneous distribution of vegetation canopy, leading to near-similar spectral signatures among lifeforms. An additional challenge to optical sensors is the high cloud cover and unpredictable weather conditions. Longwave microwave data, with its low sensitivity to clouds addresses some of these problems, but many space borne studies are still limited by low quality structural reference data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS derived canopy cover and height metrics can improve aboveground biomass (AGB prediction at both plot and landscape level. To date, few studies have explored the strength of TLS for vegetation structural mapping, and particularly few focusing on savannas. In this study, we evaluate the potential of high resolution TLS-derived canopy cover and height metrics to estimate plot-level aboveground biomass, and to extrapolate to a landscape-wide biomass estimation using multi-temporal L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR within a 9 km2 area savanna in Kruger National Park (KNP. We inventoried 42 field plots in the wet season and computed AGB for each plot using site-specific allometry. Canopy cover, canopy height, and their product were regressed with plot-level AGB over the TLS-footprint, while SAR backscatter was used to model dry season biomass for the years 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 for the study area. The results from model validation showed a significant linear relationship between TLS-derived predictors with field biomass, p < 0.05 and adjusted R2 ranging between 0.56 for SAR to 0.93 for the TLS-derived canopy cover and height. Log-transformed AGB yielded lower errors with TLS metrics compared with non-transformed AGB. An assessment of the backscatter based on root mean square error (RMSE showed better AGB prediction with cross-polarized (RMSE = 6.6 t/ha as opposed to co-polarized data (RMSE = 6.7 t/ha, attributed to

  19. Evaluating land use and aboveground biomass dynamics in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Borneo using optical remote sensing

    Singh, Minerva; Malhi, Yadvinder; Bhagwat, Shonil

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study is to assess the efficacy of using optical remote sensing (RS) in evaluating disparities in forest composition and aboveground biomass (AGB). The research was carried out in the East Sabah region, Malaysia, which constitutes a disturbance gradient ranging from pristine old growth forests to forests that have experienced varying levels of disturbances. Additionally, a significant proportion of the area consists of oil palm plantations. In accordance with local laws, riparian forest (RF) zones have been retained within oil palm plantations and other forest types. The RS imagery was used to assess forest stand structure and AGB. Band reflectance, vegetation indicators, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) consistency features were used as predictor variables in regression analysis. Results indicate that the spectral variables were limited in their effectiveness in differentiating between forest types and in calculating biomass. However, GLCM based variables illustrated strong correlations with the forest stand structures as well as with the biomass of the various forest types in the study area. The present study provides new insights into the efficacy of texture examination methods in differentiating between various land-use types (including small, isolated forest zones such as RFs) as well as their AGB stocks.

  20. Estimating Forest Aboveground Biomass by Combining Optical and SAR Data: A Case Study in Genhe, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Shao, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Linjing

    2016-06-07

    Estimation of forest aboveground biomass is critical for regional carbon policies and sustainable forest management. Passive optical remote sensing and active microwave remote sensing both play an important role in the monitoring of forest biomass. However, optical spectral reflectance is saturated in relatively dense vegetation areas, and microwave backscattering is significantly influenced by the underlying soil when the vegetation coverage is low. Both of these conditions decrease the estimation accuracy of forest biomass. A new optical and microwave integrated vegetation index (VI) was proposed based on observations from both field experiments and satellite (Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and RADARSAT-2) data. According to the difference in interaction between the multispectral reflectance and microwave backscattering signatures with biomass, the combined VI (COVI) was designed using the weighted optical optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) and microwave horizontally transmitted and vertically received signal (HV) to overcome the disadvantages of both data types. The performance of the COVI was evaluated by comparison with those of the sole optical data, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, and the simple combination of independent optical and SAR variables. The most accurate performance was obtained by the models based on the COVI and optical and microwave optimal variables excluding OSAVI and HV, in combination with a random forest algorithm and the largest number of reference samples. The results also revealed that the predictive accuracy depended highly on the statistical method and the number of sample units. The validation indicated that this integrated method of determining the new VI is a good synergistic way to combine both optical and microwave information for the accurate estimation of forest biomass.

  1. Carbon dynamics in aboveground biomass of co-dominant plant species: related rather to leaf life span than to species

    Ostler, Ulrike; Schleip, Inga; Lattanzi, Fernando A.; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the role of individual organisms in whole ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes. It is currently unknown if different plant community members share the same or different kinetics of C pools in aboveground biomass, thereby adding (or not) variability to the first steps in ecosystem C cycling. We assessed the residence times in metabolic and non-metabolic (or structural) C pools and the allocation pattern of assimilated C in aboveground plant parts of four co-existing, co-dominant species from different functional groups in a temperate grassland community. For this purpose continuous, 14-16 day long 13CO2/12CO2-labeling experiments were performed in Sept. 2006, May 2007 and Sept. 2007, and the tracer kinetics were analysed with compartmental modeling. In all experimental periods, the species shared vastly similar residence times in metabolic C (5-8 d). In contrast, the residence times in non-metabolic C ranged from 20 to 58 d (except one outlier) and the fraction of fixed C allocated to the non-metabolic pool from 7 to 45%. These variations in non-metabolic C kinetics were not systematically associated with species or experimental periods, but exhibited close relationships with (independent estimates of) leaf life span, particularly in the grasses. This adds new meaning to leaf life span as a functional trait in the leaf and plant economics spectrum and its implication for C cycle studies in grassland and also forest systems. As the four co-dominant species accounted for ~80% of total community shoot biomass, we should also expect that the observed similarities in pool kinetics and allocation will scale up to similar relationships at the community level.

  2. Aboveground Biomass and Dynamics of Forest Attributes using LiDAR Data and Vegetation Model

    V V L, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, biomass estimation for tropical forests has received much attention because of the fact that regional biomass is considered to be a critical input to climate change. Biomass almost determines the potential carbon emission that could be released to the atmosphere due to deforestation or conservation to non-forest land use. Thus, accurate biomass estimation is necessary for better understating of deforestation impacts on global warming and environmental degradation. In this context, forest stand height inclusion in biomass estimation plays a major role in reducing the uncertainty in the estimation of biomass. The improvement in the accuracy in biomass shall also help in meeting the MRV objectives of REDD+. Along with the precise estimate of biomass, it is also important to emphasize the role of vegetation models that will most likely become an important tool for assessing the effects of climate change on potential vegetation dynamics and terrestrial carbon storage and for managing terrestrial ecosystem sustainability. Remote sensing is an efficient way to estimate forest parameters in large area, especially at regional scale where field data is limited. LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests. We estimated average tree canopy heights and AGB from GLAS waveform parameters by using a multi-regression linear model in forested area of Madhya Pradesh (area-3,08,245 km2), India. The derived heights from ICESat-GLAS were correlated with field measured tree canopy heights for 60 plots. Results have shown a significant correlation of R2= 74% for top canopy heights and R2= 57% for stand biomass. The total biomass estimation 320.17 Mt and canopy heights are generated by using random forest algorithm. These canopy heights and biomass maps were used in vegetation models to predict the changes biophysical/physiological characteristics of forest according to the changing climate. In our study we have

  3. Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models

    Johnson, Michelle O.; Galbraith, David; Gloor, Manuel; Deurwaerder, De Hannes; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Verbeeck, Hans; Randow, Von Celso; Monteagudo, Abel; Phillips, Oliver L.; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Fauset, Sophie; Quesada, Carlos A.; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; Sampaio, Gilvan; Kruijt, Bart; Meir, Patrick; Moorcroft, Paul; Zhang, Ke; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban; Alves De Oliveira, Atila; Amaral, Ieda; Andrade, Ana; Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J.M.M.; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jocely; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene; Camargo, Jose; Chave, Jerome; Cogollo, Alvaro; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando; Lola Da Costa, Antonio C.; Fiore, Di Anthony; Ferreira, Leandro; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Euridice N.; Killeen, Tim J.; Laurance, Susan G.; Laurance, William F.; Licona, Juan; Lovejoy, Thomas; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Bia; Marimon, Ben Hur; Matos, Darley C.L.; Mendoza, Casimiro; Neill, David A.; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pitman, Nigel C.A.; Poorter, Lourens; Prieto, Adriana; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Roopsind, Anand; Rudas, Agustin; Salomao, Rafael P.; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Steege, Ter Hans; Terborgh, John; Thomas, Raquel; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Heijden, van der Geertje M.F.; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Guimarães Vieira, Ima Cèlia; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A.; Baker, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that determine aboveground biomass (AGB) in Amazonian forests is important for predicting the sensitivity of these ecosystems to environmental change and for designing and evaluating dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). AGB is determined by inputs from woody producti

  4. Luxury consumption of soil nutrients: a possible competitive strategy in above-ground and below-ground biomass allocation and root morphology for slow-growing arctic vegetation?

    Wijk, van M.T.; Williams, M.; Gough, L.; Hobbie, S.E.; Shaver, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    1 A field-experiment was used to determine how plant species might retain dominance in an arctic ecosystem receiving added nutrients. We both measured and modelled the above-ground and below-ground biomass allocation and root morphology of non-acidic tussock tundra near Toolik Lake, Alaska, after 4

  5. Responses of plant community composition and biomass production to warming and nitrogen deposition in a temperate meadow ecosystem.

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Rui; Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental warming had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. Warming tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. Warming tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of warming on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental warming had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that warming had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of warming plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that environmental changes (warming and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China.

  6. [Effects of China future land use change on aboveground vegetation biomass].

    Sun, Xiao-Fang; Yue, Tian-Xiang

    2012-08-01

    Land use change has significant effects on vegetation biomass via altering ecosystem structure. By adopting a spatially explicit land use change model, this paper simulated the spatiotemporal pattern of land use change in China till 2030, based on the historical scenario (in this scenario, the land use trend in 1988-2005 was extrapolated to obtain the area of each land use type in the future) and the planned scenario (in this scenario, the area of each land use type in the future was based on the national scale land use planning). On the basis of this simulation and using a biomass density approach, the spatial pattern of vegetation biomass change in China was estimated. The simulation showed that under the historical scenario, the forest area would be decreased but the forest age would be in adverse, and accordingly, the forest biomass density would have an increase. Till 2030, the overall vegetation biomass in China would be 14619 Tg, with an increase of 251.19 Tg as compared to the situation in 2005. Under the planned scenario, the forest area would be increased, and the overall vegetation biomass in 2030 would be 15468 Tg, with an increase of 1100 Tg as compared to the situation in 2005. In the planned scenario, the planted forest area would be larger while the forest age would be younger, resulting in a much lower vegetation biomass density in 2030 than that in the historical scenario, and thus, the China's vegetation in the planned scenario would have a higher potential to act as a carbon sink.

  7. [Aboveground biomass input of Myristicaceae tree species in the Amazonian Forest in Peru].

    Ureta Adrianzén, Marisabel

    2015-03-01

    Amazonian forests are a vast storehouse of biodiversity and function as carbon sinks from biomass that accumulates in various tree species. In these forests, the taxa with the greatest contribution of biomass cannot be precisely defined, and the representative distribution of Myristicaceae in the Peruvian Amazon was the starting point for designing the present study, which aimed to quantify the biomass contribution of this family. For this, I analyzed the databases that corresponded to 38 sample units that were previously collected and that were provided by the TeamNetwork and RAINFOR organizations. The analysis consisted in the estimation of biomass using pre-established allometric equations, Kruskal-Wallis sample comparisons, interpolation-analysis maps, and nonparametric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The results showed that Myristicaceae is the fourth most important biomass contributor with 376.97 Mg/ha (9.92 Mg/ha in average), mainly due to its abundance. Additionally, the family shows a noticeable habitat preference for certain soil conditions in the physiographic units, such is the case of Virola pavonis in "varillales", within "floodplain", or Iryanthera tessmannii and Virola loretensis in sewage flooded areas or "igapo" specifically, and the preference of Virola elongata and irola surinamensis for white water flooded areas or "varzea" edaphic conditions of the physiographic units taken in the study.

  8. Volume and aboveground biomass models for dry Miombo woodland in Tanzania

    Mwakalukwa, Ezekiel Edward; Meilby, Henrik; Treue, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Tools to accurately estimate tree volume and biomass are scarce for most forest types in East Africa, including Tanzania. Based on a sample of 142 trees and 57 shrubs from a 6,065 ha area of dry miombo woodland in Iringa rural district in Tanzania, regression models were developed for volume...... and biomass of three important species, Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. (n=40), Combretum molle G. Don (n=41), and Dalbergia arbutifolia Baker (n=37) separately, and for broader samples of trees (28 species, n=72), shrubs (16 species, n=31), and trees and shrubs combined (44 species, n=104). Applied...... of the predictions tended to increase from general to species-specific models. Except for a few volume and biomass models developed for shrubs, all models had R2 values of 96–99%. Thus, the models appear robust and should be applicable to forests with similar site conditions, species, and diameter ranges....

  9. Above-ground biomass models for Seabuckthorn (Hippophae salicifolia) in Mustang District, Nepal

    Rajchal, Rajesh; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae salicifolia D. Don.), an important multi-purpose tree, is found at altitudes of 2000–3600 m amsl in Nepal, but so far no models have been developed for estimating the biomass of this species, thus hampering resource assessment and management planning. Hence, the objective...... of this study was to develop local biomass models for wood, fruit, and leaves of Seabuckthorn. In November 2006, a diameter-stratified sample of 30 trees was harvested in Lete and Kunjo Village Development Committees at an altitude of about 2300 m amsl in the lower part of Mustang District, Nepal. The fresh...... weight of fruit and oven-dry weight of wood (stem and branches) and leaves were measured and used as a basis for developing biomass models. Diameters of the trees were measured at 30 cm above ground whereas the heights were measured in terms of the total tree height (m). Among several models tested...

  10. Pathways of Leymus chinensis Individual Aboveground Biomass Decline in Natural Semiarid Grassland Induced by Overgrazing: A Study at the Plant Functional Trait Scale.

    Li, Xiliang; Liu, Zhiying; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xinhong; Li, Xinle; Hu, Jing; Shi, Hongxiao; Guo, Fenghui; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Natural grassland productivity, which is based on an individual plant's aboveground biomass (AB) and its interaction with herbivores, can obviously affect terrestrial ecosystem services and the grassland's agricultural production. As plant traits have been linked to both AB and ecosystem success, they may provide a useful approach to understand the changes in individual plants and grassland productivity in response to grazing on a generic level. Unfortunately, the current lack of studies on how plant traits affect AB affected by herbivores leaves a major gap in our understanding of the mechanism of grassland productivity decline. This study, therefore, aims to analyze the paths of overgrazing-induced decline in the individual AB of Leymus chinensis (the dominant species of meadow-steppe grassland in northern China) on a plant functional trait scale. Using a paired-sampling approach, we compared the differences in the functional traits of L. chinensis in long-term grazing-excluded and experimental grazing grassland plots over a continuous period of approximately 20 years (located in meadow steppe lands in Hailar, Inner Mongolia, China). We found a highly significant decline in the individual height and biomass (leaf, stem, and the whole plant) of L. chinensis as a result of overgrazing. Biomass allocation and leaf mass per unit area were significantly affected by the variation in individual size. Grazing clearly enhanced the sensitivity of the leaf-to-stem biomass ratio in response to variation in individual size. Moreover, using a method of standardized major axis estimation, we found that the biomass in the leaves, stems, and the plant as a whole had highly significant allometric scaling with various functional traits. Also, the slopes of the allometric equations of these relationships were significantly altered by grazing. Therefore, a clear implication of this is that grazing promotes an asymmetrical response of different plant functional traits to variation in

  11. Contrasting impacts of continuous moderate drought and episodic severe droughts on the aboveground-biomass increment and litterfall of three coexisting Mediterranean woody species.

    Liu, Daijun; Ogaya, Romà; Barbeta, Adrià; Yang, Xiaohong; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the aridity in the Mediterranean Basin and severely affect forest productivity and composition. The responses of forests to different timescales of drought, however, are still poorly understood because extreme and persistent moderate droughts can produce nonlinear responses in plants. We conducted a rainfall-manipulation experiment in a Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo in the Prades Mountains in southern Catalonia from 1999 to 2014. The experimental drought significantly decreased forest aboveground-biomass increment (ABI), tended to increase the litterfall, and decreased aboveground net primary production throughout the 15 years of the study. The responses to the experimental drought were highly species-specific. A. unedo suffered a significant reduction in ABI, Q. ilex experienced a decrease during the early experiment (1999-2003) and in the extreme droughts of 2005-2006 and 2011-2012, and P. latifolia was unaffected by the treatment. The drought treatment significantly increased branch litterfall, especially in the extremely dry year of 2011, and also increased overall leaf litterfall. The drought treatment reduced the fruit production of Q. ilex, which affected seedling recruitment. The ABIs of all species were highly correlated with SPEI in early spring, whereas the branch litterfalls were better correlated with summer SPEIs and the leaf and fruit litterfalls were better correlated with autumn SPEIs. These species-specific responses indicated that the dominant species (Q. ilex) could be partially replaced by the drought-resistant species (P. latifolia). However, the results of this long-term study also suggest that the effect of drought treatment has been dampened over time, probably due to a combination of demographic compensation, morphological and physiological acclimation, and epigenetic changes. However, the structure of community (e.g., species composition

  12. Effect of growth regulator Kelpak SL on the formation of aboveground biomass of Festulolium braunii (K. Richt. A. Camus

    Jacek Sosnowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on the cultivation of Festulolium braunii cv. 'Felopa' was carried out using polyurethane rings with a diameter of 36 cm and a height of 40 cm, which were sunk into the ground to a depth of 30 cm and filled with soil material. In this experiment, Kelpak SL was used as a bioregulator. It consists of natural plant hormones such as auxins (11 mg in dm3 and cytokinins (0.03 mg in dm3. The experimental factors were as follows: A1-control; A2 – 20% solution of the growth regulator; A3 – 40% solution; and A4 – 60% solution. The preparation was applied to all three regrowths in the form of spray, at a rate of 3 cm3 ring-1, at the stem elongation stage. The full period of this experiment was in the years 2010–2011. During this time, detailed investigations were carried out on aboveground biomass yield (g DM ring-1, number of shoots (pcs ring-1, leaf blade length (cm, width of the leaf blade base (mm, leaf greenness index (SPAD. The study showed a significant effect of the growth regulator on the formation of Festulolium braunii biomass. However, its highest effectiveness was observed when the 60% solution was applied.

  13. Photoinduced Biohydrogen Production from Biomass

    Yutaka Amao

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Photoinduced biohydrogen production systems, coupling saccharaides biomass such as sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, cellulose, or saccharides mixture hydrolysis by enzymes and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH, and hydrogen production with platinum colloid as a catalyst using the visible light-induced photosensitization of Mg chlorophyll-a (Mg Chl-a from higher green plant or artificial chlorophyll analog, zinc porphyrin, are introduced.

  14. Aboveground Biomass Estimation in a Tidal Brackish Marsh Using Simulated Thematic Mapper Spectral Data

    Hardisky, M.; Klemas, V.

    1984-01-01

    Spectral radiance data were collected from the ground and from a low altitude aircraft in an attempt to gain some insight into the potential utility of actual Thematic Mapper data for biomass estimation in wetland plant communities. No attempt was made to distinguish individual plant species within brackish marsh plant associations. Rather, it was decided to lump plant species with similar canopy morphologies and then estimate from spectral radiance data the biomass of the group. The rationale for such an approach is that plants with a similar morphology will produce a similar reflecting or absorping surface (i.e., canopy) for incoming electromagnetic radiation. Variations in observed reflectance from different plant communities with a similar canopy morphology are more likely to be a result of biomass differences than a result of differences in canopy architecture. If the hypothesis that plants with a similar morphology exhibit similar reflectance characteristics is true, then biomass can be estimated based on a model for the dominant plant morphology within a plant association and the need for species discrimination has effectively been eliminated.

  15. The Interpolation Method for Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass Using Terrestrial-Based Inventory

    I Nengah Surati Jaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined several methods for interpolating biomass on logged-over dry land forest using terrestrial-based forest inventory in Labanan, East Kalimantan and Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat, Central Kalimantan. The plot-distances examined was 1,000−1,050 m for Labanan and 1,000−899m for Lawanda. The main objective of this study was to obtain the best interpolation method having the most accurate prediction on spatial distribution of forest biomass for dry land forest. Two main interpolation methods were examined: (1 deterministic approach using the IDW method and (2 geo-statistics approach using Kriging with spherical, circular, linear, exponential, and Gaussian models. The study results at both sites consistently showed that the IDW method was better than the Kriging method for estimating the spatial distribution of biomass. The validation results using chi-square test showed that the IDW interpolation provided accurate biomass estimation. Using the percentage of mean deviation value (MD(%, it was also recognized that the IDWs with power parameter (p of 2 provided relatively low value , i.e., only 15% for Labanan, East Kalimantan Province and 17% for Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat Central Kalimantan Province. In general, IDW interpolation method provided better results than the Kriging, where the Kriging method provided MD(% of about 27% and 21% for Lamandau and Labanan sites, respectively.

  16. Estimating terrestrial aboveground biomass estimation using lidar remote sensing: a meta-analysis

    Zolkos, S. G.; Goetz, S. J.; Dubayah, R.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating biomass of terrestrial vegetation is a rapidly expanding research area, but also a subject of tremendous interest for reducing carbon emissions associated with deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The accuracy of biomass estimates is important in the context carbon markets emerging under REDD, since areas with more accurate estimates command higher prices, but also for characterizing uncertainty in estimates of carbon cycling and the global carbon budget. There is particular interest in mapping biomass so that carbon stocks and stock changes can be monitored consistently across a range of scales - from relatively small projects (tens of hectares) to national or continental scales - but also so that other benefits of forest conservation can be factored into decision making (e.g. biodiversity and habitat corridors). We conducted an analysis of reported biomass accuracy estimates from more than 60 refereed articles using different remote sensing platforms (aircraft and satellite) and sensor types (optical, radar, lidar), with a particular focus on lidar since those papers reported the greatest efficacy (lowest errors) when used in the a synergistic manner with other coincident multi-sensor measurements. We show systematic differences in accuracy between different types of lidar systems flown on different platforms but, perhaps more importantly, differences between forest types (biomes) and plot sizes used for field calibration and assessment. We discuss these findings in relation to monitoring, reporting and verification under REDD, and also in the context of more systematic assessment of factors that influence accuracy and error estimation.

  17. The Interpolation Method for Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass Using Terrestrial-Based Inventory

    I Nengah Surati Jaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined several methods for interpolating biomass on logged-over dry land forest using terrestrial-based forest inventory in Labanan, East Kalimantan and Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat, Central Kalimantan.  The plot-distances examined was 1,000−1,050 m for Labanan and 1,000−899m for Lawanda.  The main objective of this study was to obtain the best interpolation method having the most accurate prediction on spatial distribution of forest biomass for dry land forest. Two main interpolation methods were examined: (1 deterministic approach using the IDW method and (2 geo-statistics approach  using Kriging with spherical, circular, linear, exponential, and Gaussian models.   The study results at both sites consistently showed that the IDW method was better than the Kriging method for estimating the spatial distribution of biomass.  The validation results using chi-square test showed that the IDW interpolation provided accurate biomass estimation.   Using the percentage of mean deviation value (MD(%, it was also recognized that the IDWs with power parameter (p of 2 provided relatively low value , i.e., only 15% for Labanan, East Kalimantan Province and 17% for Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat Central Kalimantan Province. In general, IDW interpolation method provided better results than the Kriging, where the Kriging method provided MD(% of about 27% and 21% for Lamandau and Labanan sites, respectively.Keywords:  deterministic, geostatistics, IDW, Kriging, above-groung biomass

  18. The critical factors that affected the distribution of aboveground biomass in the alpine steppe and meadow, Tibetan Plateau

    J. Sun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan Plateau – the third pole of the world, with its extremly harsh and fragile ecological environment, is so sensitive to global change that it attracts many scientists' attention. Alpine grassland here is an important component of the global carbon cycle. Many studies have examined links between environmental factors and distribution of biomass, but little showed the critical environmental factors affecting the distribution of biomass. To document the general relationships between the habitat factors and aboveground biomass (AGB in Tibetan Plateau, and to identify the critical factors for the distribution of AGB in the alpine steppe and meadow, the data of AGB and habitat factors from 110 field sites across the widely distributed alpine steppe and meadow of the plateau were compiled and analyzed with the classification and regression tree (CART model, and the generalized additive model (GAM. The results showed that (1 the spatial pattern of AGB in alpine steppe was determined by six major environmental factors: soil organic carbon density of soil 0–30 cm depth (SOC1, longitude, mean annual precipitation (MAP, latitude, clay and soil moisture. As to the alpine meadow, the major factors were altitude, soil moisture, nitrogen, MAP and mean annual temperature (MAT. (2 As to the alpine steppe, increased SOC1, MAP and latitude were associated with increased AGB abundance, but increased longitude resulted in lower abundance of AGB. As to the alpine meadow, the distribution of AGB had strong negative relationships with altitude and soil moisture, but a positive correlation with soil nitrogen content across sites. The results suggested that the combined effects of meteorological factors, topographic factors, and soil factors were more significant for the spatial pattern of AGB in Tibetan Plateau. In addition, our work highlights the importance of further studies to seek effects of slope and aspect in alpine grassland.

  19. Volume and Aboveground Biomass Models for Dry Miombo Woodland in Tanzania

    Ezekiel Edward Mwakalukwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tools to accurately estimate tree volume and biomass are scarce for most forest types in East Africa, including Tanzania. Based on a sample of 142 trees and 57 shrubs from a 6,065 ha area of dry miombo woodland in Iringa rural district in Tanzania, regression models were developed for volume and biomass of three important species, Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. (n = 40, Combretum molle G. Don (n = 41, and Dalbergia arbutifolia Baker (n = 37 separately, and for broader samples of trees (28 species, n = 72, shrubs (16 species, n = 32, and trees and shrubs combined (44 species, n = 104. Applied independent variables were log-transformed diameter, height, and wood basic density, and in each case a range of different models were tested. The general tendency among the final models is that the fit improved when height and wood basic density were included. Also the precision and accuracy of the predictions tended to increase from general to species-specific models. Except for a few volume and biomass models developed for shrubs, all models had R2 values of 96–99%. Thus, the models appear robust and should be applicable to forests with similar site conditions, species, and diameter ranges.

  20. Field note: comparative efficacy of a woody evapotranspiration landfill cover following the removal of aboveground biomass.

    Schnabel, William; Munk, Jens; Byrd, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Woody vegetation cultivated for moisture management on evapotranspiration (ET) landfill covers could potentially serve a secondary function as a biomass crop. However, research is required to evaluate the extent to which trees could be harvested from ET covers without significantly impacting their moisture management function. This study investigated the drainage through a six-year-old, primarily poplar/cottonwood ET test cover for a period of one year following the harvest of all woody biomass exceeding a height of 30 cm above ground surface. Results were compared to previously reported drainage observed during the years leading up to the coppice event. In the first year following coppice, the ET cover was found to be 93% effective at redirecting moisture during the spring/summer season, and 95% effective during the subsequent fall/winter season. This was slightly lower than the 95% and 100% efficacy observed in the spring/summer and fall/winter seasons, respectively, during the final measured year prior to coppice. However, the post-coppice efficacy was higher than the efficacy observed during the first three years following establishment of the cover. While additional longer-term studies are recommended, this project demonstrated that woody ET covers could potentially produce harvestable biomass while still effectively managing aerial moisture.

  1. Improving estimation of tree carbon stocks by harvesting aboveground woody biomass within airborne LiDAR flight areas

    Colgan, M.; Asner, G. P.; Swemmer, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    The accurate estimation of carbon stored in a tree is essential to accounting for the carbon emissions due to deforestation and degradation. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has been successful in estimating aboveground carbon density (ACD) by correlating airborne metrics, such as canopy height, to field-estimated biomass. This latter step is reliant on field allometry which is applied to forest inventory quantities, such as stem diameter and height, to predict the biomass of a given tree stem. Constructing such allometry is expensive, time consuming, and requires destructive sampling. Consequently, the sample sizes used to construct such allometry are often small, and the largest tree sampled is often much smaller than the largest in the forest population. The uncertainty resulting from these sampling errors can lead to severe biases when the allometry is applied to stems larger than those harvested to construct the allometry, which is then subsequently propagated to airborne ACD estimates. The Kruger National Park (KNP) mission of maintaining biodiversity coincides with preserving ecosystem carbon stocks. However, one hurdle to accurately quantifying carbon density in savannas is that small stems are typically harvested to construct woody biomass allometry, yet they are not representative of Kruger's distribution of biomass. Consequently, these equations inadequately capture large tree variation in sapwood/hardwood composition, root/shoot/leaf allocation, branch fall, and stem rot. This study eliminates the "middleman" of field allometry by directly measuring, or harvesting, tree biomass within the extent of airborne LiDAR. This enables comparisons of field and airborne ACD estimates, and also enables creation of new airborne algorithms to estimate biomass at the scale of individual trees. A field campaign was conducted at Pompey Silica Mine 5km outside Kruger National Park, South Africa, in Mar-Aug 2010 to harvest and weigh tree mass. Since

  2. Lidar Estimation of Aboveground Biomass in a Tropical Coastal Forest of Gabon

    Meyer, V.; Saatchi, S. S.; Poulsen, J.; Clark, C.; Lewis, S.; White, L.

    2012-12-01

    Estimation of tropical forest carbon stocks is a critical yet challenging problem from both ground surveys and remote sensing measurements. However, with its increasing importance in global climate mitigation and carbon cycle assessment, there is a need to develop new techniques to measure forest carbon stocks at landscape scales. Progresses have been made in terms of above ground biomass (AGB) monitoring techniques using ground measurements, with the development of tree allometry techniques. Besides, studies have shown that new remote sensing technologies such as Lidar can give accurate information on tree height and forest structure at a landscape level and can be very useful to estimate AGB. This study examines the ability of small footprint Lidar to estimate above ground biomass in Mondah forest, Gabon. Mondah forest is a coastal tropical forest that is partially flooded and includes areas of mangrove. Its mean annual temperature is 18.8C and mean annual precipitation is 2631mm/yr. Its proximity to the capital of Gabon, Libreville, makes it particularly subject to environmental pressure. The analysis is based on small footprint Lidar waveform information and relative height (RH) metrics that correspond to the percentiles of energy of the signal (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). AGB estimation is calibrated with ground measurements. Ground-estimated AGB is calculated using allometric equations based on tree diameter, wood density and tree height. Lidar-derived AGB is calculated using a linear regression model between the four Lidar RH metrics and ground-estimated AGB and using available models developed in other tropical regions that use one height metric, average wood density, and tree stocking number. We present uncertainty of different approaches and discuss the universality of lidar biomass estimation models in tropical forests.

  3. Diversity and above-ground biomass patterns of vascular flora induced by flooding in the drawdown area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J H Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  4. Aboveground Net Primary Production of tree cover at the post-disturbance area in the Tatra National Park, Slovakia

    Konôpka Bohdan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale disturbances under the conditions of Slovakia, caused especially by storm and bark beetle, bring dramatic decline in carbon budget of the country, besides other negative consequences. The largest disturbance in modern history of the Slovak forestry was the storm damage that occurred in November 2004. The Tatra National Park (TNP was one of the most affected regions. Thus, in this territory, two transects (T1 – the Danielov dom site and T2 – near the Horný Smokovec village were established to survey basic dendrometric properties of trees in young stands established after the disaster. The standing stock of aboveground biomass in tree cover for the spring and autumn 2014 was calculated using the recorded variables, i.e. tree height and diameter measured at the stem base, together with the region-specific allometric relations. Then, the Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP in tree cover was estimated with respect to its components (stem, branches and foliage. ANPP was 315 g m−2 per year (Transect T1, and 391 g m−2 per year (Transect T2. The differences in the structure of ANPP, i.e. contribution of tree components, were found between transects T1 and T2. They were caused by the contrasting tree species composition, specifically the ratios between Norway spruce and broadleaved species. Broadleaves allocated more biomass production to foliage than spruce. This phenomenon together with higher turnover (once a year of foliage caused that broadleaves manifest higher share of fast-cycling carbon in comparison to the amount of carbon sequestrated in woody parts (stem and branches. High variability of ANPP was found within the transects, i.e. among the plots (microsites. As for the representative estimation of the standing stock of aboveground part of tree cover as well as ANPP at the post-disturbance area in the TNP territory, the survey should be performed on a net of research plots. Only this approach enables reliable estimates

  5. Relationships between major ownerships, forest aboveground biomass distributions, and landscape dynamics in the New England region of USA.

    Zheng, Daolan; Heath, Linda S; Ducey, Mark J; Butler, Brett

    2010-02-01

    This study utilizes remote sensing derived forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimates and ownership information obtained from the Protected Areas Database (PAD), combining landscape analyses and GIS techniques to demonstrate how different ownerships (public, regulated private, and other private) relate to the spatial distribution of AGB in New England states of the USA. "Regulated private" lands were dominated by lands in Maine covered by a Land Use Regulatory Commission. The AGB means between all pairs of the identified ownership categories were significantly different (P 200 Mg/ha were located outside the area designated in the PAD and concentrated in western MA, southern VT, southwestern NH, and northwestern CT. While relatively unfragmented and high-AGB forests (>200 Mg/ha) accounted for about 8% of total forested land, they were unevenly proportioned among the three major ownership groups across the region: 19.6% of the public land, 0.8% of the regulated private land, and 11.0% of the other private land. Mean disturbance rates (in absolute value) between 1992 and 2001 were 16, 66, and 19 percent, respectively, on public, regulated private, and other private land. This indicates that management practices from different ownerships have a strong impact on dynamic changes of landscape structures and AGB distributions. Our results may provide insight information for policy makers on issues regarding forest carbon management, conservation biology, and biodiversity studies at regional level.

  6. [Aboveground biomass of natural Castanopsis carlesii-Schima superba community in Xiaokeng of Nanling Mountains, South China].

    Xie, Ting-Ting; Li, Gen; Zhou, Guang-Yi; Wu, Zhong-Min; Zhao, Hou-Ben; Qiu, Zhi-Jun; Liang, Rui-You

    2013-09-01

    By the method of clear cutting, a measurement was made on the aboveground biomass (AGB) of 24-year old natural Castanopsis carlesii-Schima superba community in an 800 m2 plot in Xiaokeng of Nanling Mountains, South China. The distribution patterns of the total AGB in different forest layers, tree species, and tree layer organs were investigated, and the AGB regression models were constructed. The results showed that when constructing the AGB regression models, more than 12 samples would be feasible. Based on the measured AGB of 265 felled trees, the AGB models of mixed broadleaved species were AGB = 0. 128D(2.372) and AGB = 242.331(D2H)(0.947). The single tree's AGB model of C. carlesii, S. superba, and Cunninghamia lanceolata was also established. The total AGB of the forest community was 115.20 t x hm(-2), of which, the AGB of tree layer, understory layer, liana, and litter layer was 111.25, 1.01, 0.36, and 2.58 t x hm(-2), respectively. The AGB of C. carlesii and S. superba took up 39.1% and 28.7% of the tree layer AGB, respectively. The AGB of tree stem and branch-leaf occupied 81.0% and 19.0% of the tree layer AGB, respectively.

  7. Progress in the remote sensing of C3 and C4 grass species aboveground biomass over time and space

    Shoko, Cletah; Mutanga, Onisimo; Dube, Timothy

    2016-10-01

    The remote sensing of grass aboveground biomass (AGB) has gained considerable attention, with substantial research being conducted in the past decades. Of significant importance is their photosynthetic pathways (C3 and C4), which epitomizes a fundamental eco-physiological distinction of grasses functional types. With advances in technology and the availability of remotely sensed data at different spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal resolutions, coupled with the need for detailed information on vegetation condition, the monitoring of C3 and C4 grasses AGB has received renewed attention, especially in the light of global climate change, biodiversity and, most importantly, food security. This paper provides a detailed survey on the progress of remote sensing application in determining C3 and C4 grass species AGB. Importantly, the importance of species functional type is highlighted in conjunction with the availability and applicability of different remote sensing datasets, with refined resolutions, which provide an opportunity to monitor C3 and C4 grasses AGB. While some progress has been made, this review has revealed the need for further remote sensing studies to model the seasonal (cyclical) variability, as well as long-term AGB changes in C3 and C4 grasses, in the face of climate change and food security. Moreover, the findings of this study have shown the significance of shifting towards the application of advanced statistical models, to further improve C3 and C4 grasses AGB estimation accuracy.

  8. Remote sensing based shrub above-ground biomass and carbon storage mapping in Mu Us desert,China

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of above-ground biomass(AGB) and carbon storage is very important for arid and semi-arid ecosystems.HJ-1A/B satellite data combined with field measurement data was used for the estimation of shrub AGB and carbon storage in the Mu Us desert,China.The correlations of shrub AGB and spectral reflectance of four bands as well as their combined vegetation indexes were respectively analyzed and stepwise regression analysis was employed to establish AGB prediction equation.The prediction equation based on ratio vegetation index(RVI)was proved to be more suitable for shrub AGB estimation in the Mu Us desert than others.Shrub AGB and carbon storage were mapped using the RVI based prediction model in final.The statistics showed the western Mu Us desert has relatively high AGB and carbon storage,and that the gross shrub carton storage in Mu Us desert reaches 16 799 200 t,which has greatly contributed to the carbon fixation in northern China.

  9. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass in a Tropical Forest in Cambodia Using Canopy Textures Derived from Google Earth

    Minerva Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a modelling framework for utilizing very high-resolution (VHR aerial imagery for monitoring stocks of above-ground biomass (AGB in a tropical forest in Southeast Asia. Three different texture-based methods (grey level co-occurrence metric (GLCM, Gabor wavelets and Fourier-based textural ordination (FOTO were used in conjunction with two different machine learning (ML-based regression techniques (support vector regression (SVR and random forest (RF regression. These methods were implemented on both 50-cm resolution Digital Globe data extracted from Google Earth™ (GE and 8-cm commercially obtained VHR imagery. This study further examines the role of forest biophysical parameters, such as ground-measured canopy cover and vertical canopy height, in explaining AGB distribution. Three models were developed using: (i horizontal canopy variables (i.e., canopy cover and texture variables plus vertical canopy height; (ii horizontal variables only; and (iii texture variables only. AGB was variable across the site, ranging from 51.02 Mg/ha to 356.34 Mg/ha. GE-based AGB estimates were comparable to those derived from commercial aerial imagery. The findings demonstrate that novel use of this array of texture-based techniques with GE imagery can help promote the wider use of freely available imagery for low-cost, fine-resolution monitoring of forests parameters at the landscape scale.

  10. Using LiDAR to Estimate Total Aboveground Biomass of Redwood Stands in the Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California

    Rao, M.; Vuong, H.

    2013-12-01

    The overall objective of this study is to develop a method for estimating total aboveground biomass of redwood stands in Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California using airborne LiDAR data. LiDAR data owing to its vertical and horizontal accuracy are increasingly being used to characterize landscape features including ground surface elevation and canopy height. These LiDAR-derived metrics involving structural signatures at higher precision and accuracy can help better understand ecological processes at various spatial scales. Our study is focused on two major species of the forest: redwood (Sequoia semperirens [D.Don] Engl.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga mensiezii [Mirb.] Franco). Specifically, the objectives included linear regression models fitting tree diameter at breast height (dbh) to LiDAR derived height for each species. From 23 random points on the study area, field measurement (dbh and tree coordinate) were collected for more than 500 trees of Redwood and Douglas-fir over 0.2 ha- plots. The USFS-FUSION application software along with its LiDAR Data Viewer (LDV) were used to to extract Canopy Height Model (CHM) from which tree heights would be derived. Based on the LiDAR derived height and ground based dbh, a linear regression model was developed to predict dbh. The predicted dbh was used to estimate the biomass at the single tree level using Jenkin's formula (Jenkin et al 2003). The linear regression models were able to explain 65% of the variability associated with Redwood's dbh and 80% of that associated with Douglas-fir's dbh.

  11. Evaluation of Radiometric and Atmospheric Correction Algorithms for Aboveground Forest Biomass Estimation Using Landsat 5 TM Data

    Pablito M. López-Serrano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is affected by absorption and emission phenomena during its downward trajectory from the Sun to the Earth’s surface and during the upward trajectory detected by satellite sensors. This leads to distortion of the ground radiometric properties (reflectance recorded by satellite images, used in this study to estimate aboveground forest biomass (AGB. Atmospherically-corrected remote sensing data can be used to estimate AGB on a global scale and with moderate effort. The objective of this study was to evaluate four atmospheric correction algorithms (for surface reflectance, ATCOR2 (Atmospheric Correction for Flat Terrain, COST (Cosine of the Sun Zenith Angle, FLAASH (Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes and 6S (Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar, and one radiometric correction algorithm (for reflectance at the sensor ToA (Apparent Reflectance at the Top of Atmosphere to estimate AGB in temperate forest in the northeast of the state of Durango, Mexico. The AGB was estimated from Landsat 5 TM imagery and ancillary information from a digital elevation model (DEM using the non-parametric multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique. Field reference data for the model training were collected by systematic sampling of 99 permanent forest growth and soil research sites (SPIFyS established during the winter of 2011. The following predictor variables were identified in the MARS model: Band 7, Band 5, slope (β, Wetness Index (WI, NDVI and MSAVI2. After cross-validation, 6S was found to be the optimal model for estimating AGB (R2 = 0.71 and RMSE = 33.5 Mg·ha−1; 37.61% of the average stand biomass. We conclude that atmospheric and radiometric correction of satellite images can be used along with non-parametric techniques to estimate AGB with acceptable accuracy.

  12. Does species richness affect fine root biomass and production in young forest plantations?

    Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Dawud, Seid Muhie;

    2015-01-01

    species composition from fine root biomass samples with the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method. We did not observe higher biomass or production in mixed stands compared to monocultures. Neither did we observe any differences in tree root length or fine root turnover. One reason for this could......Tree species diversity has been reported to increase forest ecosystem above-ground biomass and productivity, but little is known about below-ground biomass and production in diverse mixed forests compared to single-species forests. For testing whether species richness increases below-ground biomass...... and production and thus complementarity between forest tree species in young stands, we determined fine root biomass and production of trees and ground vegetation in two experimental plantations representing gradients in tree species richness. Additionally, we measured tree fine root length and determined...

  13. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground life biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Köhler, P.; Huth, A.

    2010-01-01

    The canopy height h of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or LIDAR. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model...

  14. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition – a five-year experiment in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China

    He, Kejian; Qi, Yu; Huang, Yongmei; Chen, Huiying; Sheng, Zhilu; Xu, Xia; Duan, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the response of the plant community to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is helpful for improving pasture management in semi-arid areas. We implemented a 5-year N addition experiment in a Stipa krylovii steppe of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The aboveground biomass (AGB) and species richness were measured annually. Along with the N addition levels, the species richness declined significantly, and the species composition changed noticeably. However, the total AGB did not exhibit a noticeable increase. We found that compensatory effects of the AGB occurred not only between the grasses and the forbs but also among Gramineae species. The plant responses to N addition, from the community to species level, lessened in dry years compared to wet or normal years. The N addition intensified the reduction of community productivity in dry years. Our study indicated that the compensatory effects of the AGB among the species sustained the stability of grassland productivity. However, biodiversity loss resulting from increasing N deposition might lead the semi-arid grassland ecosystem to be unsustainable, especially in dry years.

  15. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, T.M.; Bloem, J.; Bonkowski, M.; Christensen, S.; Dubois, D.; Ekelund, F.; Fliessbach, A.; Gunst, L.; Hedlund, K.; Mäder, P.; Mikola, J.; Robin, C.; Setälä, H.; Tatin-Froux, F.; Putten, van der W.H.; Scheu, S.

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological param

  16. COMPONENTES DA PARTE AÉREA E RAÍZES DE PASTAGENS DE Brachiaria spp. EM DIFERENTES IDADES APÓS A REFORMA, COMO INDICADORES DE PRODUTIVIDADE EM AMBIENTE DE CERRADO ABOVEGROUND AND TOTAL ROOT BIOMASS COMPONENTS OF Brachiaria PASTURES IN DIFFERENT AGES AFTER RENOVATION AS A PRODUCTION INDICATOR UNDER SAVANNA VEGETATION

    Robert Michel Boddey

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a produção de componentes da parte aérea e raízes totais em pastagens de Brachiaria de diferentes idades após a reforma, em ecossistema de cerrado. Três pastagens eram de Brachiaria brizantha após um, sete e nove anos da reforma pelo sistema Barreirão, e outra de Brachiaria decumbens, após vinte anos de reforma pelo sistema convencional. As áreas estudadas localizam-se em Goiânia-GO (16º35'12"S, 49º21'14"W, 730 m. Observou-se que a pastagem mais nova apresentou uma taxa 197% superior, em produtividade, relativamente à pastagem com vinte anos. Com o aumento da idade das pastagens, houve decréscimo de produção e nas taxas de rebrota em decorrência do processo de degradação, o que foi atribuído ao manejo inadequado ao longo do tempo. Tal fato foi evidenciado pelo desenvolvimento do sistema radicular, pois a produtividade total de raízes até 100 cm de profundidade apresentou níveis de redução na ordem de 9,14 Mg ha-1, 4,87 Mg ha-1 e 2,90 Mg ha-1 para as pastagens de sete, nove e vinte anos, respectivamente. Na pastagem com um ano, ainda em fase de estabelecimento, não se observou grande contribuição radicular. A rebrota da pastagem foi dependente da disponibilidade de N no sistema; por isso, a produção de liteira mostrou ser indicadora do grau de degradação das pastagens, refletindo na ciclagem de N. O estoque de N até 100 cm de profundidade, das pastagens com um, sete e vinte anos foram de 7,54 Mg ha-1, 8,70 Mg ha-1 e 9,47 Mg ha-1, respectivamente, sendo muito inferiores ao encontrado na pastagem com nove anos da reforma (14,2 Mg ha-1.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Braquiária; pastagem; raízes; liteira.

    This study aimed to evaluate the production components of aboveground and total root stock biomass of Brachiaria

  17. Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation in the Greater Mekong, Subregion and Russian Siberia

    Schmullius, C.; Balling, J.; Schratz, P.; Thiel, C.; Santoro, M.; Wegmuller, U.; Li, Z.; Yong, P.

    2016-08-01

    In Forest DRAGON 3, synergy of Earth Observation products to derive information of decadal trends of forest in northeast China was investigated. Following up the results of Forest-DRAGON 1 and 2, Growing Stock Volume (GSV) products from different years were investigated to derive information on vegetational in north- east China. The BIOMASAR maps of 2005 and 2010, produced within the previous DRAGON projects, set the base for all analyses. We took a closer look at scale problems regarding GSV derivation, which are introduced by differing landcover within one pixel, to investigate differences throughout pixel classes with varying landcover class percentages. We developed an approach to select pixels containing forest only with the aim of undertaking a detailed analysis on retrieved GSV values for such pixels for the years 2005 and 2010. Using existing land cover products at different scales, the plausibility of changes in the BIOMASAR maps were checked.

  18. The evaluation of different forest structural indices to predict the stand aboveground biomass of even-aged Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Kunduz, Northern Turkey.

    Ercanli, İlker; Kahriman, Aydın

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effect of stand structural diversity, including the Shannon, improved Shannon, Simpson, McIntosh, Margelef, and Berger-Parker indices, on stand aboveground biomass (AGB) and developed statistical prediction models for the stand AGB values, including stand structural diversity indices and some stand attributes. The AGB prediction model, including only stand attributes, accounted for 85 % of the total variance in AGB (R (2)) with an Akaike's information criterion (AIC) of 807.2407, Bayesian information criterion (BIC) of 809.5397, Schwarz Bayesian criterion (SBC) of 818.0426, and root mean square error (RMSE) of 38.529 Mg. After inclusion of the stand structural diversity into the model structure, considerable improvement was observed in statistical accuracy, including 97.5 % of the total variance in AGB, with an AIC of 614.1819, BIC of 617.1242, SBC of 633.0853, and RMSE of 15.8153 Mg. The predictive fitting results indicate that some indices describing the stand structural diversity can be employed as significant independent variables to predict the AGB production of the Scotch pine stand. Further, including the stand diversity indices in the AGB prediction model with the stand attributes provided important predictive contributions in estimating the total variance in AGB.

  19. Assessment of Above-Ground Biomass of Borneo Forests through a New Data-Fusion Approach Combining Two Pan-Tropical Biomass Maps

    Andreas Langner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how two existing pan-tropical above-ground biomass (AGB maps (Saatchi 2011, Baccini 2012 can be combined to derive forest ecosystem specific carbon estimates. Several data-fusion models which combine these AGB maps according to their local correlations with independent datasets such as the spectral bands of SPOT VEGETATION imagery are analyzed. Indeed these spectral bands convey information about vegetation type and structure which can be related to biomass values. Our study area is the island of Borneo. The data-fusion models are evaluated against a reference AGB map available for two forest concessions in Sabah. The highest accuracy was achieved by a model which combines the AGB maps according to the mean of the local correlation coefficients calculated over different kernel sizes. Combining the resulting AGB map with a new Borneo land cover map (whose overall accuracy has been estimated at 86.5% leads to average AGB estimates of 279.8 t/ha and 233.1 t/ha for forests and degraded forests respectively. Lowland dipterocarp and mangrove forests have the highest and lowest AGB values (305.8 t/ha and 136.5 t/ha respectively. The AGB of all natural forests amounts to 10.8 Gt mainly stemming from lowland dipterocarp (66.4%, upper dipterocarp (10.9% and peat swamp forests (10.2%. Degraded forests account for another 2.1 Gt of AGB. One main advantage of our approach is that, once the best fitting data-fusion model is selected, no further AGB reference dataset is required for implementing the data-fusion process. Furthermore, the local harmonization of AGB datasets leads to more spatially precise maps. This approach can easily be extended to other areas in Southeast Asia which are dominated by lowland dipterocarp forest, and can be repeated when newer or more accurate AGB maps become available.

  20. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Köhler, P.; Huth, A.

    2010-05-01

    The canopy height of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or lidar. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground biomass (AGB) (and thus carbon content of vegetation) and leaf area index (LAI). The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a) undisturbed forest growth and (b) a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia) in South-East Asia. It is found that for undisturbed forest and a variety of disturbed forests situations AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB=a·hb) with an r2~60% for a spatial resolution of 20 m×20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size). The regression is becoming significant better for the hectare wide analysis of the disturbed forest sites (r2=91%). There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2~60%) between AGB and the area fraction in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a comparison of the simulations with permanent sampling plot data from the same region and with the large-scale forest inventory in Lambir. We conclude that the spaceborne remote sensing techniques have the potential to

  1. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    P. Köhler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy height of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or lidar. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground biomass (AGB (and thus carbon content of vegetation and leaf area index (LAI. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a undisturbed forest growth and (b a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia in South-East Asia. It is found that for undisturbed forest and a variety of disturbed forests situations AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB=a·hb with an r2~60% for a spatial resolution of 20 m×20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size. The regression is becoming significant better for the hectare wide analysis of the disturbed forest sites (r2=91%. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2~60% between AGB and the area fraction in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a comparison of the simulations with permanent sampling plot data from the same region and with the large-scale forest inventory in

  2. 黄柳地上生物量估测模型的构建%Construction of Aboveground Biomass Estimation Models of Salix gorde j evii

    汤军; 秦富仓; 王娟; 高玉寒; 张美丽; 姚云峰

    2015-01-01

    In order to screening out optimal aboveground biomass estimation model with biomass significantly correlated ,the highest accuracy and the best fitting degree ,taking typical shrubs Salix gordejevii in Chifeng Aohan as research object ,the individual Salix gordejevii aboveground biomass estimation model was construc‐ted using 6 kinds of functions and different independent variables .The results showed that there was the most significant correlation between DH (longitudinal section girth ) complex variables and Salix gordejevii aboveground biomass .Testing of the accuracy (RS <30% ;RM .A <20% ) obtained the best biomass estimation model was also based on DH as the independent variable power function model y=2 .193 x1 .291 (R2 =0 .915 ,P<0 .001) which hasd high accuracy compared to used independent variables D2 H (longitudinal section area) shrub biomass models .Ensuring the accuracy of Salix gordejevii estimation model ,D was recommended as the independent variable to build Salix gordejevii aboveground biomass model in practical applications ,.%为筛选出与生物量相关性显著、精度最高且拟合度最好的最优地上生物量估测模型,以赤峰敖汉旗北部沙地典型灌木黄柳(Salix gordejevii)为研究对象,利用6种函数和不同自变量来构建黄柳个体的地上生物量估测模型。结果表明:D H (纵断面周长)复合变量与黄柳地上生物量的相关性最显著,经精度检验(RS <30%;RM .A <20%)得出生物量的最优估测模型也是以D H 为自变量的幂函数模型 y=2.193 x1.291(R2=0.915,P<0.001),与灌木常用的自变量D2 H (纵断面面积)作为生物量模型相比,精度较高。实际的应用中,在保证黄柳估测模型精度的情况下,建议以D为自变量对黄柳地上生物量模型进行构建。

  3. [Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus addition on the aboveground biomass in Inner Mongo- lia temperate steppe, China].

    He, Li-yuan; Hu, Zhong-min; Guo, Qun; Li, Sheng-gong; Bai, Wen-ming; Li, Ling-hao

    2015-08-01

    The plants in arid environment are constrained not only by water availability, but also by soil nutrient conditions. In order to clarify to what extent nutrient addition would facilitate the growth of plants in semi-arid region, we conducted a nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition experiment in Inner Mongolia temperate grassland in 2012 and 2013. In our experiment, N was added at 10 and 40 g N · m(-2) · a(-1) alone or in combination with P addition (10 g P · m(-2) · a(-1)). N addition significantly improved plant aboveground biomass (AGB) during the two study years. AGB in the treatments of 10 and 40 g · m2 · a(-1) was enhanced by 50.8% and 65.9% in 2012, and 71.6% and 93.3% in 2013, respectively. However, no significant difference in AGB enhancement was found between two N addition treatments. Compared with N addition treatments at the rates of 10 and 40 g · m(-2) · a(-1), N plus P addition improved AGB by 98.4% and 186.8% in 2012, and 111.7% and 141.4% in 2013, respectively. N addition generally increased all the three main functional types (i.e., Gramineae, Asteraceae and others) , and the three functional types contributed nearly equally to the increase of the community AGB. In comparison, Asteraceae contributed largest to the increments of AGB under the N plus P addition treatments. Our results also indicated that N and P addition remarkably increased the ground coverage, resulting in improved surface soil moisture condition, which might be one important reason that N and P addition could facilitate plant growth in arid environment.

  4. Forest aboveground biomass estimation in Zhejiang Province using the integration of Landsat TM and ALOS PALSAR data

    Zhao, Panpan; Lu, Dengsheng; Wang, Guangxing; Liu, Lijuan; Li, Dengqiu; Zhu, Jinru; Yu, Shuquan

    2016-12-01

    In remote sensing-based forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation research, data saturation in Landsat and radar data is well known, but how to reduce this problem for improving AGB estimation has not been fully examined. Different vegetation types have their own species composition and stand structure, thus they have different data saturation values in Landsat or radar data. Optical and radar data also have different characteristics in representing forest stand structures, thus effective use of their features may improve AGB estimation. This research examines the effects of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and ALOS PALSAR L-band data and their integrations in forest AGB estimation of Zhejiang Province, China, and the roles of textural images from both datasets. The linear regression models of AGB were conducted by using (1) Landsat TM alone, (2) ALOS PALSAR data alone, (3) their combination as extra bands, and (4) their data fusion, based on non-stratification and stratification of vegetation types, respectively. The results show that (1) overall, Landsat TM data perform better than PALSAR data, but the latter can produce more accurate estimates for bamboo and shrub, and for forests with AGB values less than 60 Mg/ha; (2) the combination of TM and PALSAR data as extra bands can greatly improve AGB estimation performance, but their fusion using the modified high-pass filter resolution-merging technique cannot; (3) textures are indeed valuable in AGB estimation, especially for forests with complex stand structures such as mixed forests and pine forests with understories of broadleaf species; (4) stratification of vegetation types can improve AGB estimation performance; and (5) the results from the linear regression models are characterized by overestimation and underestimation for the smaller and larger AGB values, respectively, and thus, selecting non-linear models or non-parametric algorithms may be needed in future research.

  5. Detection of large above-ground biomass variability in lowland forest ecosystems by airborne LiDAR

    J. Jubanski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of tropical forest above-ground biomass (AGB over large areas as input for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ projects and climate change models is challenging. This is the first study which attempts to estimate AGB and its variability across large areas of tropical lowland forests in Central Kalimantan (Indonesia through correlating airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR to forest inventory data. Two LiDAR height metrics were analysed, and regression models could be improved through the use of LiDAR point densities as input (R2 = 0.88; n = 52. Surveying with a LiDAR point density per square metre of about 4 resulted in the best cost / benefit ratio. We estimated AGB for 600 km of LiDAR tracks and showed that there exists a considerable variability of up to 140% within the same forest type due to varying environmental conditions. Impact from logging operations and the associated AGB losses dating back more than 10 yr could be assessed by LiDAR but not by multispectral satellite imagery. Comparison with a Landsat classification for a 1 million ha study area where AGB values were based on site-specific field inventory data, regional literature estimates, and default values by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC showed an overestimation of 43%, 102%, and 137%, respectively. The results show that AGB overestimation may lead to wrong greenhouse gas (GHG emission estimates due to deforestation in climate models. For REDD+ projects this leads to inaccurate carbon stock estimates and consequently to significantly wrong REDD+ based compensation payments.

  6. Sensitivity of Above-Ground Biomass Estimates to Height-Diameter Modelling in Mixed-Species West African Woodlands.

    Rubén Valbuena

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that above-ground biomass (AGB inventories should include tree height (H, in addition to diameter (D. As H is a difficult variable to measure, H-D models are commonly used to predict H. We tested a number of approaches for H-D modelling, including additive terms which increased the complexity of the model, and observed how differences in tree-level predictions of H propagated to plot-level AGB estimations. We were especially interested in detecting whether the choice of method can lead to bias. The compared approaches listed in the order of increasing complexity were: (B0 AGB estimations from D-only; (B1 involving also H obtained from a fixed-effects H-D model; (B2 involving also species; (B3 including also between-plot variability as random effects; and (B4 involving multilevel nested random effects for grouping plots in clusters. In light of the results, the modelling approach affected the AGB estimation significantly in some cases, although differences were negligible for some of the alternatives. The most important differences were found between including H or not in the AGB estimation. We observed that AGB predictions without H information were very sensitive to the environmental stress parameter (E, which can induce a critical bias. Regarding the H-D modelling, the most relevant effect was found when species was included as an additive term. We presented a two-step methodology, which succeeded in identifying the species for which the general H-D relation was relevant to modify. Based on the results, our final choice was the single-level mixed-effects model (B3, which accounts for the species but also for the plot random effects reflecting site-specific factors such as soil properties and degree of disturbance.

  7. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  8. Aboveground Biomass Estimation of Individual Trees in a Coastal Planted Forest Using Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning Data

    Lin Cao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The accurate estimation of individual tree level aboveground biomass (AGB is critical for understanding the carbon cycle, detecting potential biofuels and managing forest ecosystems. In this study, we assessed the capability of the metrics of point clouds, extracted from the full-waveform Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS data, and of composite waveforms, calculated based on a voxel-based approach, for estimating tree level AGB individually and in combination, over a planted forest in the coastal region of east China. To do so, we investigated the importance of point cloud and waveform metrics for estimating tree-level AGB by all subsets models and relative weight indices. We also assessed the capability of the point cloud and waveform metrics based models and combo model (including the combination of both point cloud and waveform metrics for tree-level AGB estimation and evaluated the accuracies of these models. The results demonstrated that most of the waveform metrics have relatively low correlation coefficients (<0.60 with other metrics. The combo models (Adjusted R2 = 0.78–0.89, including both point cloud and waveform metrics, have a relatively higher performance than the models fitted by point cloud metrics-only (Adjusted R2 = 0.74–0.86 and waveform metrics-only (Adjusted R2 = 0.72–0.84, with the mostly selected metrics of the 95th percentile height (H95, mean of height of median energy (HOMEμ and mean of the height/median ratio (HTMRμ. Based on the relative weights (i.e., the percentage of contribution for R2 of the mostly selected metrics for all subsets, the metric of 95th percentile height (H95 has the highest relative importance for AGB estimation (19.23%, followed by 75th percentile height (H75 (18.02% and coefficient of variation of heights (Hcv (15.18% in the point cloud metrics based models. For the waveform metrics based models, the metric of mean of height of median energy (HOMEμ has the highest relative importance for AGB

  9. Above-ground woody carbon sequestration measured from tree rings is coherent with net ecosystem productivity at five eddy-covariance sites.

    Babst, Flurin; Bouriaud, Olivier; Papale, Dario; Gielen, Bert; Janssens, Ivan A; Nikinmaa, Eero; Ibrom, Andreas; Wu, Jian; Bernhofer, Christian; Köstner, Barbara; Grünwald, Thomas; Seufert, Günther; Ciais, Philippe; Frank, David

    2014-03-01

    • Attempts to combine biometric and eddy-covariance (EC) quantifications of carbon allocation to different storage pools in forests have been inconsistent and variably successful in the past. • We assessed above-ground biomass changes at five long-term EC forest stations based on tree-ring width and wood density measurements, together with multiple allometric models. Measurements were validated with site-specific biomass estimates and compared with the sum of monthly CO₂ fluxes between 1997 and 2009. • Biometric measurements and seasonal net ecosystem productivity (NEP) proved largely compatible and suggested that carbon sequestered between January and July is mainly used for volume increase, whereas that taken up between August and September supports a combination of cell wall thickening and storage. The inter-annual variability in above-ground woody carbon uptake was significantly linked with wood production at the sites, ranging between 110 and 370 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , thereby accounting for 10-25% of gross primary productivity (GPP), 15-32% of terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and 25-80% of NEP. • The observed seasonal partitioning of carbon used to support different wood formation processes refines our knowledge on the dynamics and magnitude of carbon allocation in forests across the major European climatic zones. It may thus contribute, for example, to improved vegetation model parameterization and provides an enhanced framework to link tree-ring parameters with EC measurements.

  10. Predicting the responses of forest distribution and aboveground biomass to climate change under RCP scenarios in southern China.

    Dai, Erfu; Wu, Zhuo; Ge, Quansheng; Xi, Weimin; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-11-01

    In the past three decades, our global climate has been experiencing unprecedented warming. This warming has and will continue to significantly influence the structure and function of forest ecosystems. While studies have been conducted to explore the possible responses of forest landscapes to future climate change, the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) scenarios under the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) have not been widely used in quantitative modeling research of forest landscapes. We used LANDIS-II, a forest dynamic landscape model, coupled with a forest ecosystem process model (PnET-II), to simulate spatial interactions and ecological succession processes under RCP scenarios, RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. We also modeled a control scenario of extrapolating current climate conditions to examine changes in distribution and aboveground biomass (AGB) among five different forest types for the period of 2010-2100 in Taihe County in southern China, where subtropical coniferous plantations dominate. The results of the simulation show that climate change will significantly influence forest distribution and AGB. (i) Evergreen broad-leaved forests will expand into Chinese fir and Chinese weeping cypress forests. The area percentages of evergreen broad-leaved forests under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5 and the control scenarios account for 18.25%, 18.71%, 18.85% and 17.46% of total forest area, respectively. (ii) The total AGB under RCP4.5 will reach its highest level by the year 2100. Compared with the control scenarios, the total AGB under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 increases by 24.1%, 64.2% and 29.8%, respectively. (iii) The forest total AGB increases rapidly at first and then decreases slowly on the temporal dimension. (iv) Even though the fluctuation patterns of total AGB will remain consistent under various future climatic scenarios, there will be certain responsive differences among various forest types.

  11. Biomass and fibre productivity evaluation of novel native warm season grasses

    Jefferson, P.G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current, SK (Canada); McElroy, A.R. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Grain and Oilseeds Branch; McCaughey, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Brandon, MB (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Biomass production and cellulose content of a range of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars was discussed. In 1991 the U.S. Department of Energy identified switchgrass, a native warm-season grass, as the model biomass crop for ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. A Canadian study was conducted in which 11 cultivars of switchgrass were seeded at small plots of dryland and irrigated sites in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. No switchgrass plants established themselves at the dryland site at Swift Current Saskatchewan. Biomass was determined by clipping above-ground biomass in September 1994 and 1996. Dry matter content and cellulose content was determined. Results showed that the biomass production of the cultivar Dacotah was less than cool-season grasses at test sites in Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. The high yields observed for cultivars adapted to southern or eastern regions were not sustainable in the semiarid prairie region of Canada. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Study on Aboveground Biomass Model of Natural Individual Trees of Quercus acutissima%天然麻栎单木地上生物量模型研究

    许剑辉; 汪茂林; 黄庆丰; 宫守飞

    2011-01-01

    Based on an investigation of aboveground biomasses of sample trees of Quercus acutissima in Yeshan Forest Farm of Tongling County,the relative growth style,power function and polynomial were selected to be the biomass regression models,with DBH and tree height as independent variables,and total aboveground biomass and biomasses of the tree trunks,branches and leaves as the dependent variables.The model parameters and correlative indexes,regression residual errors were fitted and biomass estimation errors were calculated.The results showed that there is significant power function relation between the biomasses of trunks,branches and leaves,and total aboveground part of the trees and their DBH and height.The equations are:Tree trunk biomass W=6.571×10-4D1.8473H2.411;Biomass of branches W=1.163×10-4D2.9497H1.3223;Biomass of leaves W=0.0032D1.5148H0.8821;Total aboveground biomass W=9.354×10-4D2.0825H2.1154.The precisions of the estimated trunk and total biomasses were more than 90%.%通过对铜陵叶山林场麻栎样木地上生物量调查,以胸径、树高为自变量,地上总生物量、树干、树枝、树叶生物量为因变量,选择相对生长式、幂函数式和多项式为生物量回归模型,拟合各模型参数、相关指数、回归剩余离差,并计算生物量估测误差。结果表明:麻栎树干、树枝、树叶和地上总生物量与胸径、树高存在显著幂函数关系,其方程分别为:树干W=6.571×10-4D1.8473H2.411、树枝W=1.163×10-4D2.9497H1.3223、树叶W=0.0032D1.5148H0.8821、总生物量W=9.354×10-4D2.0825H2.1154。树干与总生物量的预估精度均达90%以上。

  13. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar.

  14. Estimating above-ground biomass by fusion of LiDAR and multispectral data in subtropical woody plant communities in topographically complex terrain in North-eastern Australia

    Sisira Ediriweera; Sumith Pathirana; Tim Danaher; Doland Nichols

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a strategy to improve predicting capacity of plot-scale above-ground biomass (AGB) by fusion of LiDAR and Land-sat5 TM derived biophysical variables for subtropical rainforest and eucalypts dominated forest in topographically complex landscapes in North-eastern Australia. Investigation was carried out in two study areas separately and in combination. From each plot of both study areas, LiDAR derived structural parameters of vegetation and reflectance of all Landsat bands, vegetation indices were employed. The regression analysis was carried out separately for LiDAR and Landsat derived variables indi-vidually and in combination. Strong relationships were found with LiDAR alone for eucalypts dominated forest and combined sites compared to the accuracy of AGB estimates by Landsat data. Fusing LiDAR with Landsat5 TM derived variables increased overall performance for the eucalypt forest and combined sites data by describing extra variation (3% for eucalypt forest and 2% combined sites) of field estimated plot-scale above-ground biomass. In contrast, separate LiDAR and imagery data, and fusion of LiDAR and Landsat data performed poorly across structurally complex closed canopy subtropical rainforest. These findings reinforced that obtaining accurate estimates of above ground biomass using remotely sensed data is a function of the complexity of horizontal and vertical structural diversity of vegetation.

  15. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  16. Methane production from plant biomass

    Zauner, E.

    1985-01-01

    Methane fermentations of plant biomass were performed to increase basic knowledge necessary for development of suitable conversion technologies. Effects of bacterial inoculants, substrate compounds and varied process conditions were analyzed in batch and continuous fermentation experiments. Use of enriched bacterial populations precultured and adapted to plant materials was proved to be advantageous for inoculation. Methane yields and productivities as well as chemical and bacterial composition of digester fluids were determined at various loading rates and retention times during fermentation of different grass and maize silages. Recycling for favorable amounts of decomposed effluent for neutralization of supplied acid raw materials was important to achieve high methane yields. Quantity and composition of acido-, aceto- and methanogenic bacteria were not essentially influenced by changed fermentation conditions. Results of these laboratory examinations have to be completed by long run and scale up experiments to develop control parameters for plant biogas digesters.

  17. Impacts of cattle grazing on spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture and above-ground live plant biomass in mixed grasslands

    Virk, Ravinder

    Areas with relatively high spatial heterogeneity generally have more biodiversity than spatially homogeneous areas due to increased potential habitat. Management practices such as controlled grazing also affect the biodiversity in grasslands, but the nature of this impact is not well understood. Therefore this thesis studies the impacts of variation in grazing on soil moisture and biomass heterogeneity. These are not only important in terms of management of protected grasslands, but also for designing an effective grazing system from a livestock management point of view. This research is a part of the cattle grazing experiment underway in Grasslands National Park (GNP) of Canada since 2006, as part of the adaptive management process for restoring ecological integrity of the northern mixed-grass prairie region. An experimental approach using field measurements and remote sensing (Landsat) was combined with modelling (CENTURY) to examine and predict the impacts of grazing intensity on the spatial heterogeneity and patterns of above-ground live plant biomass (ALB) in experimental pastures in a mixed grassland ecosystem. The field-based research quantified the temporal patterns and spatial variability in both soil moisture (SM) and ALB, and the influence of local intra-seasonal weather variability and slope location on the spatio-temporal variability of SM and ALB at field plot scales. Significant impacts of intra-seasonal weather variability, slope position and grazing pressure on SM and ALB across a range of scales (plot and local (within pasture)) were found. Grazing intensity significantly affected the ALB even after controlling for the effect of slope position. Satellite-based analysis extended the scale of interest to full pastures and the surrounding region to assess the effects of grazing intensity on the spatio-temporal pattern of ALB in mixed grasslands. Overall, low to moderate grazing intensity showed increase in ALB heterogeneity whereas no change in ALB

  18. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass of Winter Oilseed Rape Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Data at Parcel Scale under Waterlogging Conditions

    Jiahui Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is one of the three most important oil crops in China, and is regarded as a drought-tolerant oilseed crop. However, it is commonly sensitive to waterlogging, which usually refers to an adverse environment that limits crop development. Moreover, crop growth and soil irrigation can be monitored at a regional level using remote sensing data. High spatial resolution optical satellite sensors are very useful to capture and resist unfavorable field conditions at the sub-field scale. In this study, four different optical sensors, i.e., Pleiades-1A, Worldview-2, Worldview-3, and SPOT-6, were used to estimate the dry above-ground biomass (AGB of oilseed rape and track the seasonal growth dynamics. In addition, three different soil water content field experiments were carried out at different oilseed rape growth stages from November 2014 to May 2015 in Northern Zhejiang province, China. As a significant indicator of crop productivity, AGB was measured during the seasonal growth stages of the oilseed rape at the experimental plots. Several representative vegetation indices (VIs obtained from multiple satellite sensors were compared with the simultaneously-collected oilseed rape AGB. Results showed that the estimation model using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI with a power regression model performed best through the seasonal growth dynamics, with the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.77, the smallest root mean square error (RMSE = 104.64 g/m2, and the relative RMSE (rRMSE = 21%. It is concluded that the use of selected VIs and high spatial multiple satellite data can significantly estimate AGB during the winter oilseed rape growth stages, and can be applied to map the variability of winter oilseed rape at the sub-field level under different waterlogging conditions, which is very promising in the application of agricultural irrigation and precision agriculture.

  19. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, TM; Bloem, J;

    2008-01-01

     Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological...... promoting negative environmental impacts of agriculture by reducing internal biological cycles and pest control. On the contrary, organic farming fosters microbial and faunal decomposers and this propagates into the aboveground system via generalist predators thereby increasing conservation biological...... control. However, grain and straw yields were 23% higher in systems receiving mineral fertilizers and herbicides reflecting the trade-off between productivity and environmental responsibility....

  20. Biomass production of young lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia stands in Latvia

    Jansons A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a source of renewable energy is gaining an increasing importance in the context of emission targets set by the European Union. Large areas of abandoned agricultural land with different soils are potentially available for establishment of biomass plantations in the Baltic states. Considering soil and climatic requirements as well as traits characteristic for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm and the scarcity of published knowledge, we assessed the above-ground biomass of Pinus contorta in comparison to that of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and factors affecting biomass production. Data were collected in 3 experimental trials, located in two sites in central part of Latvia: Zvirgzde and Kuldiga (56°41’ N, 24°28’ E and 57°03’ N, 21°57’ E, respectively. Trials were established with density 5000 tree ha-1, using seed material from Canada (50°08’-60°15’ N, 116°25’-132°50’ W and two Pinus contorta stands with unknown origin growing in Latvia. Results reveal that absolute dry aboveground biomass of Pinus contorta reaches 114 ± 6.4 t ha-1 at age 16 on a fertile former arable land, 48 ± 3.6 and 94 ± 9.4 t ha-1 at age 22 and 25, respectively, on a sandy forest land (Vacciniosa forest type. The biomass is significantly (p < 0.01 and considerably (more than two-fold higher than that of the native Pinus sylvestris and the productivity is similar (in fertile soils or higher (on poor soils than reported for other species in energy-wood plantations. Provenance was a significant factor affecting the above-ground biomass, and the ranking of provenances did not change significantly between different soil conditions. It provides opportunities for further improvement of productivity using selection.

  1. Engineering verification of the biomass production chamber

    Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M., III; Sager, J. C.; Jones, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for life support systems, both biological and physical-chemical, for long-term human attended space missions are under serious study throughout NASA. The KSC 'breadboard' project has focused on biomass production using higher plants for atmospheric regeneration and food production in a special biomass production chamber. This chamber is designed to provide information on food crop growth rate, contaminants in the chamber that alter plant growth requirements for atmospheric regeneration, carbon dioxide consumption, oxygen production, and water utilization. The shape and size, mass, and energy requirements in relation to the overall integrity of the biomass production chamber are under constant study.

  2. Fractal relationship between aboveground biomass and plant length or sheath height of Carex lasiocarpa population%毛果苔草种群地上生物量与株长或鞘高分形特征

    何池全; 赵魁义

    2003-01-01

    By using the principles and methods of fractal geometry theory,the relationship between aboveground biomass and plant length or sheath height of Carex lasiocarpa population was studied,The results showed that there was a good staic fractal relationship between them.and the resulted fractal dimension was an efficient description of the accumulation of aboveground biomass in each organ.The dynamic fractal relationship showed that during the whole growing season,the increase of aboveground biomass had a self-similarity,being a fractal growth process and the pattern of its increase was the fractal dimension D.Based on these results,a fractal growth model of Carex lasiocarpa population was established ,which regarded the bigger grass as the result of the amplification of seedling growth.

  3. Butanol production from renewable biomass by clostridia.

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-11-01

    Global energy crisis and limited supply of petroleum fuels have rekindled the worldwide focus towards development of a sustainable technology for alternative fuel production. Utilization of abundant renewable biomass offers an excellent opportunity for the development of an economical biofuel production process at a scale sufficiently large to have an impact on sustainability and security objectives. Additionally, several environmental benefits have also been linked with the utilization of renewable biomass. Butanol is considered to be superior to ethanol due to its higher energy content and less hygroscopy. This has led to an increased research interest in butanol production from renewable biomass in recent years. In this paper, we review the various aspects of utilizing renewable biomass for clostridial butanol production. Focus is given on various alternative substrates that have been used for butanol production and on fermentation strategies recently reported to improve butanol production.

  4. Soil C:N stoichiometry controls carbon sink partitioning between above-ground tree productivity and soil organic matter in high fertility forests

    Cotrufo, M.; Alberti, G.; Vicca, S.; Inglima, I.; Belelli-Marchesini, L.; Genesio, L.; Miglietta, F.; Marjanovic, H.; Martinez, C.; Matteucci, G.; Peressotti, A.; Petrella, L.; Rodeghiero, M.

    2013-12-01

    The release of organic compounds from roots is a key process influencing soil carbon (C) dynamics and nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems and is a process by which plants stimulate microbial activity and soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization thus releasing nitrogen (N) to sustain their gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP). Root inputs also contribute to soil organic matter (SOM) formation. In this study, we quantified the annual net root derived C input to soil (Net-Croot) across six high fertile forests using an in-growth core isotope technique. On the basis of Net-Croot, wood and coarse root biomass changes and eddy covariance data, we quantified net belowground C sequestration. This and GPP were inversely related to soil C:N, but not to climate or age. Because, at these high fertile sites, biomass growth did not change with soil C:N ratio, biomass growth-to-GPP ratio significantly increased with increasing soil C:N. This was true for both our six forest sites and for high fertile sites across a set of other 23 sites selected at global scale. We suggest that, at high fertile sites, the interaction between plant demand for nutrients, soil stoichiometry and microbial activity sustain higher ecosystem C-sink allocation to above ground tree biomass with increasing soil C:N ratio and that this clear and strong relationship can be used for modelling forest C sink partitioning between plant biomass and soil. When C:N is high, microbes have a low C use efficiency, respire more of the fresh C inputs by roots and prime SOM decomposition increasing N availability for tree uptake. Soil C sequestration would therefore decrease, whereas the extra N released during SOM decomposition can promote tree growth and ecosystem C sink allocation in aboveground biomass. Conversely, C is sequestered in soil when the low soil C:N promotes microbial C use efficiency and new SOM formation.

  5. Spatiotemporal dynamics of aboveground primary productivity along a precipitation gradient in Chinese temperate grassland

    2007-01-01

    Investigating the spatial and temporal variance in productivity along natural precipitation gradients is one of the most efficient approaches to improve understanding of how ecosystems respond to climate change. In this paper, by using the natural precipitation gradient of the Inner Mongolian Plateau from east to west determined by relatively long-term observations, we analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of the temperate grasslands covering this region. Across this grassland transect, ANPP increased exponentially with the increase of mean annual precipitation (MAP) (ANPP=24.47e0.005MAP, R2=0.48). Values for the three vegetation types desert steppe, typical steppe, and meadow steppe were: 60.86 gm-2a-1, 167.14 gm-2a-1 and 288.73 gm-2a-1 respectively. By contrast, temperature had negative effects on ANPP. The moisture index (K ), which takes into ac- count both precipitation and temperature could explain the spatial variance of ANPP better than MAP alone (ANPP=2020.34K1.24, R2=0.57). Temporally, we found that the inter-annual variation in ANPP (cal- culated as the coefficient of variation, CV) got greater with the increase of aridity. However, this trend was not correlated with the inter-annual variation of precipitation. For all of the three vegetation types, ANPP had greater inter-annual variation than annual precipitation (PPT). Their difference (ANPP CV/PPT CV) was greatest in desert steppe and least in meadow steppe. Our results suggest that in more arid regions, grasslands not only have lower productivity, but also higher inter-annual variation of production. Climate change may have significant effects on the productivity through changes in precipitation pattern, vegetation growth potential, and species diversity.

  6. Spatiotemporal dynamics of aboveground primary productivity along a precipitation gradient in Chinese temperate grassland

    HU ZhongMin; FAN JiangWen; ZHONG HuaPing; YU GuiRui

    2007-01-01

    Investigating the spatial and temporal variance in productivity along natural precipitation gradients is one of the most efficient approaches to improve understanding of how ecosystems respond to climate change. In this paper, by using the natural precipitation gradient of the Inner Mongolian Plateau from east to west determined by relatively long-term observations, we analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of the temperate grasslands covering this region. Across this grassland transect, ANPP increased exponentially with the increase of mean annual precipitation (MAP) (ANPP=24.47e0.005MAP,R2=0.48). Values for the three vegetation types desert steppe,typical steppe, and meadow steppe were: 60.86 gm-2a-1, 167.14 gm-2a-1 and 288.73 gm-2a-1 respectively.By contrast, temperature had negative effects on ANPP. The moisture index (K), which takes into account both precipitation and temperature could explain the spatial variance of ANPP better than MAP alone (ANPP=2020.34K1.24,R2=0.57). Temporally, we found that the inter-annual variation in ANPP (calculated as the coefficient of variation, CV) got greater with the increase of aridity. However, this trend was not correlated with the inter-annual variation of precipitation. For all of the three vegetation types,ANPP had greater inter-annual variation than annual precipitation (PPT). Their difference (ANPP CV/PPT CV) was greatest in desert steppe and least in meadow steppe. Our results suggest that in more arid regions, grasslands not only have lower productivity, but also higher inter-annual variation of production. Climate change may have significant effects on the productivity through changes in precipitation pattern, vegetation growth potential, and species diversity.

  7. Evaluating Generic Pantropical Allometric Models for the Estimation of Above-Ground Biomass in the Teak Plantations of Southern Western Ghats, India

    S. Sandeep

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of suitable tree biomass allometric equations is crucial for making precise and non- destructive estimation of carbon storage and biomass energy values. The aim of this research was to evaluate the accuracy of the most commonly used pantropical allometric models and site-specific models to estimate the above-ground biomass (AGB in different aged teak plantations of Southern Western Ghats of India. For this purpose, the AGB data measured for 70 trees with diameter >10 cm from different aged teak plantations in Kerala part of Southern Western Ghats following destructive procedure was used. The results show that site specific models based on a single predictor variable diameter at breast height (dbh, though simple, may grossly increase the uncertainty across sites. Hence, a generic model encompassing dbh, height and wood specific gravity with sufficient calibration taking into account different forest types is advised for the tropical forest systems. The study also suggests that the commonly used pantropical models should be evaluated for different ecosystems prior to their application at national or regional scales.

  8. Mapping aboveground biomass by integrating geospatial and forest inventory data through a k-nearest neighbor strategy in North Central Mexico

    Carlos A AGUIRRE-SALADO; Liliana MIRANDA-ARAGÓN; Eduardo J TREVIÑO-GARZA; Oscar A AGUIRRE-CALDERÓN; Javier JIMÉNEZ-PÉREZ; Marco A GONZÁLEZ-TAGLE; José R VALDÉZ-LAZALDE; Guillermo SÁNCHEZ-DÍAZ; Reija HAAPANEN; Alejandro I AGUIRRE-SALADO

    2014-01-01

    As climate change negotiations progress, monitoring biomass and carbon stocks is becoming an im-portant part of the current forest research. Therefore, national governments are interested in developing for-est-monitoring strategies using geospatial technology. Among statistical methods for mapping biomass, there is a nonparametric approach called k-nearest neighbor (kNN). We compared four variations of distance metrics of the kNN for the spatially-explicit estimation of aboveground biomass in a portion of the Mexican north border of the intertropical zone. Satellite derived, climatic, and topographic predictor variables were combined with the Mexican National Forest Inventory (NFI) data to accomplish the purpose. Performance of distance metrics applied into the kNN algorithm was evaluated using a cross validation leave-one-out technique. The results indicate that the Most Similar Neighbor (MSN) approach maximizes the correlation between predictor and response variables (r=0.9). Our results are in agreement with those reported in the literature. These findings confirm the predictive potential of the MSN approach for mapping forest variables at pixel level under the policy of Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+).

  9. Evaluating the utility of the medium-spatial resolution Landsat 8 multispectral sensor in quantifying aboveground biomass in uMgeni catchment, South Africa

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2015-03-01

    Aboveground biomass estimation is critical in understanding forest contribution to regional carbon cycles. Despite the successful application of high spatial and spectral resolution sensors in aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation, there are challenges related to high acquisition costs, small area coverage, multicollinearity and limited availability. These challenges hamper the successful regional scale AGB quantification. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the newly-launched medium-resolution multispectral Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) dataset with a large swath width, in quantifying AGB in a forest plantation. We applied different sets of spectral analysis (test I: spectral bands; test II: spectral vegetation indices and test III: spectral bands + spectral vegetation indices) in testing the utility of Landsat 8 OLI using two non-parametric algorithms: stochastic gradient boosting and the random forest ensembles. The results of the study show that the medium-resolution multispectral Landsat 8 OLI dataset provides better AGB estimates for Eucalyptus dunii, Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda especially when using the extracted spectral information together with the derived spectral vegetation indices. We also noted that incorporating the optimal subset of the most important selected medium-resolution multispectral Landsat 8 OLI bands improved AGB accuracies. We compared medium-resolution multispectral Landsat 8 OLI AGB estimates with Landsat 7 ETM + estimates and the latter yielded lower estimation accuracies. Overall, this study demonstrates the invaluable potential and strength of applying the relatively affordable and readily available newly-launched medium-resolution Landsat 8 OLI dataset, with a large swath width (185-km) in precisely estimating AGB. This strength of the Landsat OLI dataset is crucial especially in sub-Saharan Africa where high-resolution remote sensing data availability remains a challenge.

  10. The short term influence of aboveground biomass cover crops on C sequestration and β–glucosidase in a vineyard ground under semiarid conditions

    Fernando Peregrina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tillage and semiarid Mediterranean climatic conditions accelerate soil organic matter losses in Spanish vineyards. Previous studies showed that cover crops can increase soil organic carbon (SOC in Mediterranean vineyards. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of two different cover crops in the short term on soil C sequestration in a semiarid vineyard and to study the potential use of both β–glucosidase enzimatic activity (GLU and the GLU/SOC ratio in order to assess the SOC increase. The experiment was carried out in a cv. Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera L. vineyard on a Oxyaquic Xerorthent soil in Rioja winegrowing region (NE, Spain. The experimental design was established in 2009 with three treatments: conventional tillage; sown barley cover crop (Hordeum vulgare, L.; sown Persian clover cover crop (Trifolium resupinatum L.. Carbon in the aboveground biomass with each cover crop was monitored. Soil was sampled in June 2011 and June 2012, and SOC, GLU and the GLU/SOC ratio were determined. After 3 years both cover crops increased SOC at soil surface with C sequestration rates of 0.47 and 1.19 t C ha-1 yr-1 for BV and CV respectively. GLU and GLU/SOC ratio increased in both cover crops at 0-5 cm soil depth. The C sequestration rates and GLU were related to the cover crops aboveground biomass. In consequence, in semiarid vineyards under cover crops GLU could be an appropriate indicator to asses the increase of SOC and the soil quality improvement in the short-term (2-3 years.

  11. Closed photobioreactors for production of microalgal biomasses.

    Wang, Bei; Lan, Christopher Q; Horsman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Microalgal biomasses have been produced industrially for a long history for application in a variety of different fields. Most recently, microalgae are established as the most promising species for biofuel production and CO(2) bio-sequestration owing to their high photosynthesis efficiency. Nevertheless, design of photobioreactors that maximize solar energy capture and conversion has been one of the major challenges in commercial microalga biomass production. In this review, we systematically survey the recent developments in this field.

  12. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in a Riparian Wetland Following Restoration of Hydrology

    Melissa Koontz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the initial results of the effects of hydrological restoration on forested wetlands in the Mississippi alluvial plain near Memphis, Tennessee. Measurements were carried out in a secondary channel, the Loosahatchie Chute, in which rock dikes were constructed in the 1960s to keep most flow in the main navigation channel. In 2008–2009, the dikes were notched to allow more flow into the secondary channel. Study sites were established based on relative distance downstream of the notched dikes. Additionally, a reference site was established north of the Loosahatchie Chute where the dikes remained unnotched. We compared various components of vegetation composition and productivity at sites in the riparian wetlands for two years. Salix nigra had the highest Importance Value at every site. Species with minor Importance Values were Celtis laevigata, Acer rubrum, and Plantanus occidentalis. Productivity increased more following the introduction of river water in affected sites compared to the reference. Aboveground net primary productivity was highest at the reference site (2926 ± 458.1 g·m−2·year−1, the intact site; however, there were greater increase at the sites in the Loosahatchie Chute, where measurements ranged from 1197.7 ± 160.0 g m−2·year−1·to 2874.2 ± 794.0 g·m−2·year−1. The site furthest from the notching was the most affected. Pulsed inputs into these wetlands may enhance forested wetland productivity. Continued monitoring will quantify impacts of restored channel hydrology along the Mississippi River.

  13. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in a Riparian Wetland Following Restoration of Hydrology.

    Koontz, Melissa; Lundberg, Christopher; Lane, Robert; Day, John; Pezeshki, Reza

    2016-02-04

    This research presents the initial results of the effects of hydrological restoration on forested wetlands in the Mississippi alluvial plain near Memphis, Tennessee. Measurements were carried out in a secondary channel, the Loosahatchie Chute, in which rock dikes were constructed in the 1960s to keep most flow in the main navigation channel. In 2008-2009, the dikes were notched to allow more flow into the secondary channel. Study sites were established based on relative distance downstream of the notched dikes. Additionally, a reference site was established north of the Loosahatchie Chute where the dikes remained unnotched. We compared various components of vegetation composition and productivity at sites in the riparian wetlands for two years. Salix nigra had the highest Importance Value at every site. Species with minor Importance Values were Celtis laevigata, Acer rubrum, and Plantanus occidentalis. Productivity increased more following the introduction of river water in affected sites compared to the reference. Aboveground net primary productivity was highest at the reference site (2926 ± 458.1 g·m(-2)·year(-1)), the intact site; however, there were greater increase at the sites in the Loosahatchie Chute, where measurements ranged from 1197.7 ± 160.0 g m(-2)·year(-1)·to 2874.2 ± 794.0 g·m(-2)·year(-1). The site furthest from the notching was the most affected. Pulsed inputs into these wetlands may enhance forested wetland productivity. Continued monitoring will quantify impacts of restored channel hydrology along the Mississippi River.

  14. Inventory-based estimation of aboveground net primary production in Japan's forests from 1980 to 2005

    Y. Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies based on remote sensing and carbon process models have revealed that terrestrial net primary production (NPP in the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has increased significantly; this is crucial for explaining the increased terrestrial carbon sink in the past several decades. Regional NPP estimation based on significant field data, however, has been rare. In this study, we estimated the long-term changes in aboveground NPP (ANPP for Japan's forests from 1980 to 2005, using forest inventory data, direct field measurements, and an allometric method. The overall ANPP for all forest types averaged 10.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1, with a range of 9.6 to 11.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1, and ANPP for the whole country totaled 249.1 Tg yr−1 (range: 230.0 to 271.4 Tg yr−1 during the study period. Over the 25 years, the net effect of increased ANPP in needle-leaf forests and decreased ANPP in broadleaf forests has led to an increase of 1.9 Mg ha−1 yr−1 (i.e., 0.79% yr−1. This increase may be mainly due to the establishment of plantations and the rapid early growth of these planted forests.

  15. Inventory-based estimation of aboveground net primary production in Japan's forests from 1980 to 2005

    Y. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies based on remote sensing and carbon process models have revealed that terrestrial net primary production (NPP in the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has increased significantly; this is crucial for explaining the increased terrestrial carbon sink in the past several decades. Regional NPP estimation based on significant field data, however, has been rare. In this study, we estimated the long-term changes in aboveground NPP (ANPP for Japan's forests from 1980 to 2005 using forest inventory data, direct field measurements, and an allometric method. The overall ANPP for all forest types averaged 10.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1, with a range of 9.6 to 11.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1, and ANPP for the whole country totaled 249.1 Tg yr−1 (range: 230.0 to 271.4 Tg yr−1 during the study period. Over the 25 years, the net effect of increased ANPP in needle-leaf forests and decreased ANPP in broadleaf forests has led to an increase of 1.9 Mg ha−1 yr−1 (i.e., 0.79 % yr−1. This increase may be mainly due to the establishment of plantations and the rapid early growth of these planted forests.

  16. Uncertainty analysis for regional-level above-ground biomass estimates based on individual tree biomass model%单木生物量模型估计区域尺度生物量的不确定性

    傅煜; 雷渊才; 曾伟生

    2015-01-01

    采用系统抽样体系江西省固定样地杉木连续观测数据和生物量数据,通过Monte Carlo法反复模拟由单木生物量模型推算区域尺度地上生物量的过程,估计了江西省杉木地上总生物量。基于不同水平建模样本量n及不同决定系数R2的设计,分别研究了单木生物量模型参数变异性及模型残差变异性对区域尺度生物量估计不确定性的影响。研究结果表明:2009年江西省杉木地上生物量估计值为(19.84±1.27) t/hm2,不确定性占生物量估计值约6.41%。生物量估计值和不确定性值达到平稳状态所需的运算时间随建模样本量及决定系数R2的增大而减小;相对于模型参数变异性,残差变异性对不确定性的影响更小。%Above-ground forest biomass at regional-level is typically estimated by adding model predictions of biomass from individual trees in a plot, and subsequently aggregating predictions from plots to large areas. There are multiple sources of uncertainties in model predictions during this aggregated process. These uncertainties always affect the precision of large area biomass estimates, and the effects are generally overlooked; however, failure to account for these uncertainties will cause erroneously optimistic precision estimates. Monte Carlo simulation is an effective method for estimating large-scale biomass and assessing the uncertainty associated with multiple sources of errors and complex models. In this paper, we applied the Monte Carlo approach to simulate regional-level above-ground biomass and to assess uncertainties related to the variability from model residuals and parameters separately. A nonlinear model form was used. Data were obtained from permanent sample plots and biomass observation of Cunninghamia lanceolata in JiangXi Province, China. Overall, 70 individual trees were destructively sampled for biomass estimation from June to September, 2009. Based on the commonly used allometric model

  17. Biomass gasification and energy production

    Mahinpey, N.; Nikoo, M.B. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The ASPEN PLUS simulation program was used to model an atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The aim of the study was develop a simulation capable of accurately predicting steady state performance of the gasifier in relation to hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics. The influences of feed decomposition, volatile reactions, gas gasification and gas-solid separation were considered through modularized ASPEN PLUS models. The ASPEN PLUS yield reactor was used to simulate biomass feed decomposition. A separation column model was used to separate volatile materials and solids. Experimental data from a pine biomass gasification experiment conducted in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed gasifier was used to validate the simulation results. Good agreement was shown for gas composition, although carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) rates were slightly underestimated. The study also demonstrated that higher temperatures improved the gasification process and carbon conversion. The optimized gasification process produced more carbon monoxide (CO) and less CO{sub 2}. The introduction of lower temperature steam to the gasification process increased tar output. It was concluded that the conversion efficiency increased when the equivalence ratio was increased. 7 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  18. Aboveground Biomass of a Naturaly-regenerated Schima superba Community at Xiaokeng of the Nanling Mountain%南岭小坑木荷群落地上生物量

    李根; 周光益; 吴仲民; 梁瑞友

    2012-01-01

    Biomass of a naturally-regenerated Schima superba community was measured using the harvest method in an 800 mz plot at Xiaokeng of the Nanling Mountain, Southern China, where 20 tree species were recorded and S. superba was the dominant tree species. Dry weight of stem, branch and leaf, and tree height (H) and diameter at breast height (DBH or D) were measured for all 210 trees with DBH above 3.0 centimeter in the plot. Aboveground biomass (AGB) of the forest community and its distribution among different layers, tree species and organs of the tree layer were estimated, respectively. Regression models of biomass were established based on these AGB data. The results showed that total aboveground biomass of the S. superba community amounted to 118.472 t-hm 1. Biomass of the tree layer, understory layer, liana and litter layer were 114.085, 1. 126, 0.38, 2.881 t-hnT2, respectively. Tree stem, branch and leaf accounted for 78. 2% , 13. 1% and 8. 7% of total biomass in the tree layer, respectively. Biomass of dominant tree species, S. superba, occupied about 33. 3% of total biomass of the tree layer, suggesting that biomass of forest community in the early succession phase was mainly allocated to dominant tree species. The allocation of total aboveground biomass for each DBH class was about 0. 4% for 25 cm DBH classes, respectively. The distribution of biomass pattern among different DBH classes indicated that the forest community was in an early succession phase.

  19. Biomass production by freshwater and marine macrophytes

    North, W.J.; Gerard, V.A.; Kuwabara, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Research on aquatic macrophytes as producers of biomass has been undertaken at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) on the east coast and on the west coast by a group of collaborators in a joint effort known as the Marine Biomass Project. Studies at WHOI have focused on estuarine and coastal situations with some attention recently to freshwater plants. The Marine Farm Project has primarily been concerned with oceanic biomass production. A group at WHOI has undertaken a wide variety of studies concerning aquatic macrophytes including nutrient uptake, growth, yields, and environmental factors affecting yields. Aquatic biomass production systems have been surveyed on a worldwide basis and currently the role of carbon as a potential limiting nutrient in biomass culturing is being examined. The Marine Farm Project is presently attempting to grow giant kelp in offshore waters off southern California. Other work related to aquatic biomass production includes an investigation at the University of California, Berkeley, of microalgae in ponds. This paper will emphasize discussion of the kelp production phases of the Marine Farm Project. Activities by the WHOI are briefly summarized.

  20. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T. [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D. [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  1. Aboveground net primary production dynamics in a northern Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem.

    Muldavin, Esteban H; Moore, Douglas I; Collins, Scott L; Wetherill, Karen R; Lightfoot, David C

    2008-02-01

    Aboveground net primary production (ANPP) dynamics are a key element in the understanding of ecosystem processes. For semiarid environments, the pulse-reserve framework links ANPP to variable and unpredictable precipitation events contingent on surficial hydrology, soil moisture dynamics, biodiversity structure, trophic dynamics, and landscape context. Consequently, ANPP may be decoupled periodically from processes such as decomposition and may be subjected to complex feedbacks and thresholds at broader scales. As currently formulated, the pulse-reserve framework may not encompass the breadth of ANPP response to seasonal patterns of precipitation and heat inputs. Accordingly, we examined a 6-year (1999-2004), seasonal record of ANPP with respect to precipitation, soil moisture dynamics, and functional groups in a black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland and a creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) shrubland in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Annual ANPP was similar in the grassland (51.1 g/m(2)) and shrubland (59.2 g/m(2)) and positively correlated with annual precipitation. ANPP differed among communities with respect to life forms and functional groups and responses to abiotic drivers. In keeping with the pulse-reserve model, ANPP in black grama grassland was dominated by warm-season C(4) grasses and subshrubs that responded to large, transient summer storms and associated soil moisture in the upper 30 cm. In contrast, ANPP in creosotebush shrubland occasionally responded to summer moisture, but the predominant pattern was slower, non-pulsed growth of cool-season C(3) shrubs during spring, in response to winter soil moisture accumulation and the breaking of cold dormancy. Overall, production in this Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem reflected a mix of warm-temperate arid land pulse dynamics during the summer monsoon and non-pulsed dynamics in spring driven by winter soil moisture accumulation similar to that of cool-temperate regions.

  2. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...

  3. Forest aboveground biomass estimates in a tropical rainforest in Madagascar:new insights from the use of wood specific gravity data

    Tahiana Ramananantoandro; Herimanitra P. Rafidimanantsoa; Miora F. Ramanakoto

    2015-01-01

    To generate carbon credits under the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation program (REDD+), accurate estimates of forest carbon stocks are needed. Carbon accounting efforts have focused on carbon stocks in aboveground biomass (AGB). Although wood specific gravity (WSG) is known to be an important variable in AGB estimates, there is currently a lack of data on WSG for Malagasy tree species. This study aimed to determine whether estimates of carbon stocks calculated from literature-based WSG values differed from those based on WSG values measured on wood core samples. Carbon stocks in forest biomass were assessed using two WSG data sets: (i) values measured from 303 wood core samples extracted in the study area, (ii) values derived from international databases. Results suggested that there is difference between the field and literature-based WSG at the 0.05 level. The latter data set was on average 16% higher than the former. However, carbon stocks calculated from the two data sets did not differ significantly at the 0.05 level. Such findings could be attributed to the form of the allometric equation used which gives more weight to tree diameter and tree height than to WSG. The choice of dataset should depend on the level of accuracy (Tier II or III) desired by REDD+. As higher levels of accuracy are rewarded by higher prices, species-specific WSG data would be highly desirable.

  4. Estimation of aboveground biomass in alpine forests: a semi-empirical approach considering canopy transparency derived from airborne LiDAR data.

    Jochem, Andreas; Hollaus, Markus; Rutzinger, Martin; Höfle, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a semi-empirical model that was originally developed for stem volume estimation is used for aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation of a spruce dominated alpine forest. The reference AGB of the available sample plots is calculated from forest inventory data by means of biomass expansion factors. Furthermore, the semi-empirical model is extended by three different canopy transparency parameters derived from airborne LiDAR data. These parameters have not been considered for stem volume estimation until now and are introduced in order to investigate the behavior of the model concerning AGB estimation. The developed additional input parameters are based on the assumption that transparency of vegetation can be measured by determining the penetration of the laser beams through the canopy. These parameters are calculated for every single point within the 3D point cloud in order to consider the varying properties of the vegetation in an appropriate way. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is performed to evaluate the influence of the additional LiDAR derived canopy transparency parameters for AGB estimation. The study is carried out in a 560 km(2) alpine area in Austria, where reference forest inventory data and LiDAR data are available. The investigations show that the introduction of the canopy transparency parameters does not change the results significantly according to R(2) (R(2) = 0.70 to R(2) = 0.71) in comparison to the results derived from, the semi-empirical model, which was originally developed for stem volume estimation.

  5. Woody biomass production systems for Florida

    Rockwood, D.L.; Pathak, N.N.; Satapathy, P.C. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Forestry)

    1993-01-01

    Woody biomass production research in Florida has addressed genetic improvement, coppice productivity, clonal propagation, biomass properties, and economics of Eucalyptus and other species in short rotation, intensive culture systems. Improved E. grandis seedlings could more than double productivity, but exceptional clones offer more immediate potential in southern Florida. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis appear to have frost-resistance and good growth in central and southern Florida. For northern Florida, E. amplifolia has good frost-resilience and coppicing ability. Eucalytpus species are suitable for fermentation processes. Other promising species include Casuarina glauca and Taxodium distichum in southern Florida, and Sapium sebiferum state-wide. Break-even costs for biomass production systems with Eucalyptus range from approximately $2.00 to $4.00 GJ[sup -1]; short rotation culture appears feasible for slash pine in northern and central Florida but cannot yet be advised for sand pine. (author)

  6. Above-ground biomass models for Seabuckthorn (Hippophae salicifolia) in Mustang District, Nepal

    Rajchal, Rajesh; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae salicifolia D. Don.), an important multi-purpose tree, is found at altitudes of 2000–3600 m amsl in Nepal, but so far no models have been developed for estimating the biomass of this species, thus hampering resource assessment and management planning. Hence, the objective...

  7. Lidar-Based Estimates of Above-Ground Biomass in the Continental US and Mexico Using Ground, Airborne, and Satellite Observations

    Nelson, Ross; Margolis, Hank; Montesano, Paul; Sun, Guoqing; Cook, Bruce; Corp, Larry; Andersen, Hans-Erik; DeJong, Ben; Pellat, Fernando Paz; Fickel, Thaddeus; Kauffman, Jobriath; Prisley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Existing national forest inventory plots, an airborne lidar scanning (ALS) system, and a space profiling lidar system (ICESat-GLAS) are used to generate circa 2005 estimates of total aboveground dry biomass (AGB) in forest strata, by state, in the continental United States (CONUS) and Mexico. The airborne lidar is used to link ground observations of AGB to space lidar measurements. Two sets of models are generated, the first relating ground estimates of AGB to airborne laser scanning (ALS) measurements and the second set relating ALS estimates of AGB (generated using the first model set) to GLAS measurements. GLAS then, is used as a sampling tool within a hybrid estimation framework to generate stratum-, state-, and national-level AGB estimates. A two-phase variance estimator is employed to quantify GLAS sampling variability and, additively, ALS-GLAS model variability in this current, three-phase (ground-ALS-space lidar) study. The model variance component characterizes the variability of the regression coefficients used to predict ALS-based estimates of biomass as a function of GLAS measurements. Three different types of predictive models are considered in CONUS to determine which produced biomass totals closest to ground-based national forest inventory estimates - (1) linear (LIN), (2) linear-no-intercept (LNI), and (3) log-linear. For CONUS at the national level, the GLAS LNI model estimate (23.95 +/- 0.45 Gt AGB), agreed most closely with the US national forest inventory ground estimate, 24.17 +/- 0.06 Gt, i.e., within 1%. The national biomass total based on linear ground-ALS and ALS-GLAS models (25.87 +/- 0.49 Gt) overestimated the national ground-based estimate by 7.5%. The comparable log-linear model result (63.29 +/-1.36 Gt) overestimated ground results by 261%. All three national biomass GLAS estimates, LIN, LNI, and log-linear, are based on 241,718 pulses collected on 230 orbits. The US national forest inventory (ground) estimates are based on 119

  8. Changes in composition, structure and aboveground biomass over seventy-six years (1930-2006) in the Black Rock Forest, Hudson Highlands, southeastern New York State.

    Schuster, W S F; Griffin, K L; Roth, H; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D; Tissue, D T

    2008-04-01

    We sought to quantify changes in tree species composition, forest structure and aboveground forest biomass (AGB) over 76 years (1930-2006) in the deciduous Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York, USA. We used data from periodic forest inventories, published floras and a set of eight long-term plots, along with species-specific allometric equations to estimate AGB and carbon content. Between the early 1930s and 2000, three species were extirpated from the forest (American elm (Ulmus americana L.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (nigra) (Mill.) BSP)) and seven species invaded the forest (non-natives tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) and white poplar (Populus alba L.) and native, generally southerly distributed, southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides Walt.), cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli L.), red mulberry (Morus rubra L.), eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.)). Forest canopy was dominated by red oak and chestnut oak, but the understory tree community changed substantially from mixed oak-maple to red maple-black birch. Density decreased from an average of 1500 to 735 trees ha(-1), whereas basal area doubled from less than 15 m(2) ha(-1) to almost 30 m(2) ha(-1) by 2000. Forest-wide mean AGB from inventory data increased from about 71 Mg ha(-1) in 1930 to about 145 Mg ha(-1) in 1985, and mean AGB on the long-term plots increased from 75 Mg ha(-1) in 1936 to 218 Mg ha(-1) in 1998. Over 76 years, red oak (Quercus rubra L.) canopy trees stored carbon at about twice the rate of similar-sized canopy trees of other species. However, there has been a significant loss of live tree biomass as a result of canopy tree mortality since 1999. Important constraints on long-term biomass increment have included insect outbreaks and droughts.

  9. Influence of water level fluctuation on the mortality and aboveground biomass of the aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis interstincta (VAHL roemer et schults

    Santos Anderson Medeiros dos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to study the biometric alterations of Eleocharis interstincta in response to water level fluctuations in Cabiúnas Lagoon, located on the northern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, in the municipality of Macaé. Three quadrats of 0.0625 m² were harvested every two weeks from June/1997 to June/1998; samples were separated into stems, dead stems (detritus and rhizome; lenghted, dried and weighted. The water level fluctuated seasonally in the macrophyte stand with two periods of drawdown. The first period occurred naturally at the end of winter and beginning of spring, when rainfall in the area was normally lowest. The second period of drawdown was the result of an artificial breaching of the sandbar that isolate the lagoon from the sea. The breach was made in the summer, at the time of highest rainfall, when the water level in the lagoon reached the maximum value recorded during the study (1.35 m. There was a strongly positive correlation of the water level with stems mean height and aboveground biomass, indicating that water level played an important role in the determination of these parameters. There was a significant difference between stem height (ANOVA; p < 0.001 and biomass (ANOVA; p < 0.001 in each sampling period, ranging from 143.9 cm and 338.8 g dry wt.m-2, before the sandbar opening, to 16.3 cm and 20.2 g dry wt.m-2 respectively after the sandbar breaching. The drastic variation of the water level, leading mass mortality of the stems, together with the lowest mean biomass/stem (0.057 g dry wt.individual-1, recorded after the sandbar breaching, did not represent a strong disturbance for E. interstincta, since the resilience time estimated for this population was about 30 days.

  10. [Effect of opening degree regulation on diameter and height increment and aboveground biomass of Korean pine trees planted under secondary forest].

    Shen, Hai-Long; Cong, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Qun; Fan, Shao-Hui; Yang, Wen-Hua; Liu, Shi-Rong

    2011-11-01

    Taking mixed forest of artifical Pinus koraiensis and natural broad-leaved trees as test material, among which the P. koraiensis was 15 (stage I) and 22 (stage II) years old respectively, and was in the same succession layer, the height and diameter increment during 4 years experimental period and the aboveground biomass (AGB) at the 4th experimental year for P. koraiensis were measured in the opening degree (K = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) regulation experiment. The periodic increment of basal diameter (BD)/diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height and AGB of P. koraiensis trees were highest in the opening degree K = 1.0 treatment. The opening degree K = 1.5 and K = 2.0 treatments promoted the annual increment of P. koraiensis, with the effect increased along with the experimental period elongation and approached or exceeded that of K = 1.0 treatment. The stem biomass proportion of P. koraiensis trees was significantly higher in K = 1.0 treatment than that in the other treatments and the control in stage I, but no significant difference among treatments was found in stage II. The ratio of branch to needle biomass in all opening degree treatments was also significantly higher than that in control in stage I, but no significant difference in stage II. The proportion and distribution of needles in different ages differed in the two stages. It was concluded that opening degrees of 1.0-2.0 were all suitable for the growth of P. koraiensis of 15-22 years old trees planted under secondary forest.

  11. Hydrothermal pretreatment of biomass for pellet production

    Tooyserkani, Z. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Clean Energy Research Centre, Biomass and Bioenergy Research Group

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed innovative technologies for the production of wood pellets using the hydrothermal pre-treatment of biomass. Conventional techniques use low-cost mill residues, such as saw dust and shavings, as feedstock to produce durable, low-ash pellets. However, mill residues are becoming less available as a result of fewer saw mills, increased pellet production, and increased competition for saw dust. Advanced techniques use mixed biomass such as logging residue as feedstock, creating pellets that are durable for handling and long-term storage, of a higher energy density for transport and mixing with coal for co-firing, and a choice feedstock for biofuels. Advanced pellet production uses steam explosion/pre-treatment in which biomass receives a short-term high-pressure steam treatment followed by sudden decompression. Mild torrefaction seems to have positive feedback, and steam-treated pellets are durable with superior hydrophobicity. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Soil Moisture Content and Aboveground Biomass under Different Terrains in Desert Steppe%荒漠草原不同地形条件下土壤水分和地上生物量的时空分异

    方楷; 宋乃平; 魏乐; 安慧

    2012-01-01

    spatial heterogeneity of aboveground biomass was significant in whole growth season ; (2) Soil moisture content and its spatiotemporal distribution pattern were different among .the 3 different terrains, it means that terrain was the key factor affecting soil moisture content; (3) Terrain was not the main factor affecting the spatial variation of grassland productivity, and it affected significantly the dynamic vegetation growth but slightly the aboveground biomass; (4) The relationship between soil moisture content and aboveground biomass was differ- ent at different growth stages. Water consumption for vegetation growth at the initial growth stage was mainly from soil layer of 60 -100 cm; there was a weak correlation between soil moisture content and biomass at other growth stages, which may be related to the formation time of drought-tolerant organs of plants.

  13. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  14. The effect of wildfire and clear-cutting on above-ground biomass, foliar C to N ratios and fiber content throughout succession: Implications for forage quality in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Mallon, E. E.; Turetsky, M.; Thompson, I.; Noland, T. L.; Wiebe, P.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbance is known to play an important role in maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of boreal forest ecosystems. Moderate to low frequency disturbance is responsible for regeneration opportunities creating a mosaic of habitats and successional trajectories. However, large-scale deforestation and increasing wildfire frequencies exacerbate habitat loss and influence biogeochemical cycles. This has raised concern about the quality of the under-story vegetation post-disturbance and whether this may impact herbivores, especially those vulnerable to change. Forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are declining in several regions of Canada and are currently listed as a species at risk by COSEWIC. Predation and landscape alteration are viewed as the two main threats to woodland caribou. This has resulted in caribou utilizing low productivity peatlands as refuge and the impact of this habitat selection on their diet quality is not well understood. Therefore there are two themes in the study, 1) Forage quantity: above-ground biomass and productivity and 2) Forage quality: foliar N and C to N ratios and % fiber. The themes are addressed in three questions: 1) How does forage quantity and quality vary between upland forests and peatlands? 2) How does wildfire affect the availability and nutritional quality of forage items? 3) How does forage quality vary between sites recovering from wildfire versus timber harvest? Research sites were located in the Auden region north of Geraldton, ON. This landscape was chosen because it is known woodland caribou habitat and has thorough wildfire and silviculture data from the past 7 decades. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass, vascular green area and seasonal foliar fiber and C to N ratios were collected across a matrix of sites representing a chronosequence of time since disturbance in upland forests and peatlands. Preliminary findings revealed productivity peaked in early age stands (0-30 yrs) and biomass peaked

  15. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    Ahrenfeldt, J.; Birk Henriksen, U.; Muenster-Swendsen, J.; Fink, A.; Roengaard Clausen, L.; Munkholt Christensen, J.; Qin, K.; Lin, W.; Arendt Jensen, P.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-07-01

    In this project the production of DME/methanol from biomass has been investigated. Production of DME/methanol from biomass requires the use of a gasifier to transform the solid fuel to a synthesis gas (syngas) - this syngas can then be catalytically converted to DME/methanol. Two different gasifier types have been investigated in this project: 1) The Two-Stage Gasifier (Viking Gasifier), designed to produce a very clean gas to be used in a gas engine, has been connected to a lab-scale methanol plant, to prove that the gas from the gasifier could be used for methanol production with a minimum of gas cleaning. This was proved by experiments. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using the Two-Stage Gasification concept were created to show the potential of such plants. The models showed that the potential biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 51-58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). 2) A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal gasification, but little information exists on using these types of gasifiers for biomass gasification. The experiments performed provided quantitative data on product and gas composition as a function of operation conditions. Biomass can be gasified with less oxygen consumption compared to coal. The organic fraction of the biomass that is not converted to gas appears as soot. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using entrained flow gasification were created to show the potential of such plants. These models showed that the potential torrefied biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 65-71% (LHV). Different routes to produce liquid transport fuels from biomass are possible. They include production of RME (rapeseed oil

  16. Structural, physiognomic and above-ground biomass variation in savanna-forest transition zones on three continents - how different are co-occurring savanna and forest formations?

    Veenendaal, E. M.; Torello-Raventos, M.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Domingues, T. F.; Gerard, F.; Schrodt, F.; Saiz, G.; Quesada, C. A.; Djagbletey, G.; Ford, A.; Kemp, J.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Lenza, E.; Ratter, J. A.; Maracahipes, L.; Sasaki, D.; Sonke, B.; Zapfack, L.; Villarroel, D.; Schwarz, M.; Yoko Ishida, F.; Gilpin, M.; Nardoto, G. B.; Affum-Baffoe, K.; Arroyo, L.; Bloomfield, K.; Ceca, G.; Compaore, H.; Davies, K.; Diallo, A.; Fyllas, N. M.; Gignoux, J.; Hien, F.; Johnson, M.; Mougin, E.; Hiernaux, P.; Killeen, T.; Metcalfe, D.; Miranda, H. S.; Steininger, M.; Sykora, K.; Bird, M. I.; Grace, J.; Lewis, S.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2015-05-01

    Through interpretations of remote-sensing data and/or theoretical propositions, the idea that forest and savanna represent "alternative stable states" is gaining increasing acceptance. Filling an observational gap, we present detailed stratified floristic and structural analyses for forest and savanna stands located mostly within zones of transition (where both vegetation types occur in close proximity) in Africa, South America and Australia. Woody plant leaf area index variation was related to tree canopy cover in a similar way for both savanna and forest with substantial overlap between the two vegetation types. As total woody plant canopy cover increased, so did the relative contribution of middle and lower strata of woody vegetation. Herbaceous layer cover declined as woody cover increased. This pattern of understorey grasses and herbs progressively replaced by shrubs as the canopy closes over was found for both savanna and forests and on all continents. Thus, once subordinate woody canopy layers are taken into account, a less marked transition in woody plant cover across the savanna-forest-species discontinuum is observed compared to that inferred when trees of a basal diameter > 0.1 m are considered in isolation. This is especially the case for shrub-dominated savannas and in taller savannas approaching canopy closure. An increased contribution of forest species to the total subordinate cover is also observed as savanna stand canopy closure occurs. Despite similarities in canopy-cover characteristics, woody vegetation in Africa and Australia attained greater heights and stored a greater amount of above-ground biomass than in South America. Up to three times as much above-ground biomass is stored in forests compared to savannas under equivalent climatic conditions. Savanna-forest transition zones were also found to typically occur at higher precipitation regimes for South America than for Africa. Nevertheless, consistent across all three continents coexistence

  17. Structural, physiognomic and above-ground biomass variation in savanna–forest transition zones on three continents – how different are co-occurring savanna and forest formations?

    E. M. Veenendaal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Through interpretations of remote-sensing data and/or theoretical propositions, the idea that forest and savanna represent "alternative stable states" is gaining increasing acceptance. Filling an observational gap, we present detailed stratified floristic and structural analyses for forest and savanna stands located mostly within zones of transition (where both vegetation types occur in close proximity in Africa, South America and Australia. Woody plant leaf area index variation was related to tree canopy cover in a similar way for both savanna and forest with substantial overlap between the two vegetation types. As total woody plant canopy cover increased, so did the relative contribution of middle and lower strata of woody vegetation. Herbaceous layer cover declined as woody cover increased. This pattern of understorey grasses and herbs progressively replaced by shrubs as the canopy closes over was found for both savanna and forests and on all continents. Thus, once subordinate woody canopy layers are taken into account, a less marked transition in woody plant cover across the savanna–forest-species discontinuum is observed compared to that inferred when trees of a basal diameter > 0.1 m are considered in isolation. This is especially the case for shrub-dominated savannas and in taller savannas approaching canopy closure. An increased contribution of forest species to the total subordinate cover is also observed as savanna stand canopy closure occurs. Despite similarities in canopy-cover characteristics, woody vegetation in Africa and Australia attained greater heights and stored a greater amount of above-ground biomass than in South America. Up to three times as much above-ground biomass is stored in forests compared to savannas under equivalent climatic conditions. Savanna–forest transition zones were also found to typically occur at higher precipitation regimes for South America than for Africa. Nevertheless, consistent across all three

  18. Effect of Different Grazing Intensities on Aboveground Biomass in Stipa krylovii Typical Steppe%放牧强度对克氏针茅典型草原地上生物量的影响

    候伟峰; 乌恩; 敖特根; 王成杰; 金净

    2016-01-01

    The effect of different grazing intensities on aboveground biomass in Stipa krylovii typical steppe of six households at Eeelt ranch of Zhengxiangbai Banner in Inner Mongolian Xilingol League was studied in the three successive years 2011~2013 .The results showed that there were significant differences in both grazing in-tensities of households and aboveground biomass in growing season (P < 0.05),the differences of households grazing intensity were 5.4 ~ 6.5 times,but differences of aboveground biomass were only 1.8 ~ 2.1 times. Aboveground biomass decreased with the increase of grazing intensity.There was a significant negative correlation between the two variables (P<0.05).In the case of an increase in annual precipitation,aboveground biomass de-creased year by year,mainly because of the increase in grazing intensity of the pasture,therefore the grazing inten-sity was the main factor to determine aboveground biomass.%2011~2013年对内蒙古锡林郭勒盟正镶白旗额里图牧场克氏针茅典型草原的6个牧户进行了连续3年的放牧强度与生长季草场地上生物量的追踪调查研究。结果显示,6个牧户间放牧强度和生长季草场的地上生物量差异显著(P<0.05),放牧强度在牧户间的差异达5.4~6.5倍之多,但地上生物量的差异只有1.8~2.1倍。地上生物量随放牧强度的增加而降低,两个变量之间存在显著的负相关关系(P<0.05)。在年均降水量有所增加的情况下,地上生物量仍逐年下降,主要是草场的放牧强度逐年增加造成的,因此,放牧强度是决定草场地上生物量的最主要因素。

  19. Mortality as a key driver of the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass in Amazonian forest: results from a dynamic vegetation model

    N. Delbart

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs simulate energy, water and carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere, between the vegetation and the soil, and between plant organs. They also estimate the potential biomass of a forest in equilibrium having grown under a given climate and atmospheric CO2 level. In this study, we evaluate the Above Ground Woody Biomass (AGWB and the above ground woody Net Primary Productivity (NPPAGW simulated by the DVM ORCHIDEE across Amazonian forests, by comparing the simulation results to a large set of ground measurements (220 sites for biomass, 104 sites for NPPAGW. We found that the NPPAGW is on average overestimated by 63%. We also found that the fraction of biomass that is lost through mortality is 85% too high. These model biases nearly compensate each other to give an average simulated AGWB close to the ground measurement average. Nevertheless, the simulated AGWB spatial distribution differs significantly from the observations. Then, we analyse the discrepancies in biomass with regards to discrepancies in NPPAGW and those in the rate of mortality. When we correct for the error in NPPAGW, the errors on the spatial variations in AGWB are exacerbated, showing clearly that a large part of the misrepresentation of biomass comes from a wrong modelling of mortality processes.

    Previous studies showed that Amazonian forests with high productivity have a higher mortality rate than forests with lower productivity. We introduce this relationship, which results in strongly improved modelling of biomass and of its spatial variations. We discuss the possibility of modifying the mortality modelling in ORCHIDEE, and the opportunity to improve forest productivity modelling through the integration of biomass measurements, in particular from remote sensing.

  20. Mortality as a key driver of the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass in Amazonian forests: results from a Dynamic Vegetation Model

    N. Delbart

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs simulate energy, water and carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere, between the vegetation and the soil, and between plant organs. They also estimate the potential biomass of a forest in equilibrium having grown under a given climate and atmospheric CO2 level. In this study, we evaluate the above ground woody biomass (AGWB and the above ground woody Net Primary Productivity (NPPAGW simulated by the DVM ORCHIDEE across Amazonian forests, by comparing the simulation results to a large set of ground measurements (220 sites for biomass, 104 sites for NPPAGW. We found that the NPPAGW is on average overestimated by 63%. We also found that the fraction of biomass that is lost through mortality is 85% too high. These model biases nearly compensate each other to give an average simulated AGWB close to the ground measurement average. Nevertheless, the simulated AGWB spatial distribution differs significantly from the observations. Then, we analyse the discrepancies in biomass with regards to discrepancies in NPPAGW and those in the rate of mortality. When we correct for the error in NPPAGW, the errors on the spatial variations in AGWB are exacerbated, showing clearly that a large part of the misrepresentation of biomass comes from a wrong modelling of mortality processes.

    Previous studies showed that Amazonian forests with high productivity have a higher mortality rate than forests with lower productivity. We introduce this relationship, which results in strongly improved modelling of biomass and of its spatial variations. We discuss the possibility of modifying the mortality modelling in ORCHIDEE, and the opportunity to improve forest productivity modelling through the integration of biomass measurements, in particular from remote sensing.

  1. Does warming affect growth rate and biomass production of shrubs in the High Arctic?

    Campioli, Matteo; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Albert, Kristian Rost

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have assessed directly the impact of warming on plant growth and biomass production in the High Arctic. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of 7 years of warming (open greenhouses) on the aboveground relative growth rate (RGR) of Cassiope tetragona and Salix arctica in North......-Eastern Greenland. RGR was assessed for apical (leaves, stem, reproductive organs) and lateral meristems (secondary growth of stem and branches) and accompanied by measures of gross ecosystem production (GEP), branching and tissue carbon (C) concentration. Measurements were based on harvest and biometric methods...... limits the growth of Cassiope but not that of Salix in North-Eastern Greenland. Summer warming thus has the potential to stimulate biomass production in the High Arctic but major species-specific differences are expected....

  2. Phytoplankton diversity, biomass, and production

    Madondkar, S.G.P.; Gomes, H.; Parab, S.G.; Pednekar, S.; Goes, J.I.

    of the standing stock and organic productivity of an estuary. These variables have often been utilized to evaluate the overall health of an estuarine ecosystem and in management strategies to ensure sustainable use of the estuaries. Earlier investigations...) 2002. in the Zuari (1.02?3.07 ? 105 cellsl-1), suggesting that the phytoplankton species in the Zuari were more amenable to freshwater as compared to those in the Mandovi. The presence of a prominent community of freshwater phytoplankton was evident...

  3. Age-related and stand-wise estimates of carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    Schöngart, J.; Arieira, J.; Felfili Fortes, C.; Cezarine de Arruda, E.; Nunes da Cunha, C.

    2011-11-01

    In this study we use allometric models combined with tree ring analysis to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB) of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in central South America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer tree species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, D) have been performed and converted to estimates of AGWB by two allometric models using three independent parameters (D, tree height H and wood density ρ). We perform a propagation of measurement errors to estimate uncertainties in the estimates of AGWB. Carbon stocks of AGWB vary from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 97.2 ± 14.4 Mg C ha-1 between the four stands. From models relating tree ages determined by dendrochronological techniques to C-stocks in AGWB we derived estimates for C-sequestration which differs from 0.50 ± 0.03 to 3.34 ± 0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Maps based on geostatistic techniques indicate the heterogeneous spatial distribution of tree ages and C-stocks of the four studied stands. This distribution is the result of forest dynamics due to the colonizing and retreating of V. divergens and other species associated with pluriannual wet and dry episodes in the Pantanal, respectively. Such information is essential for the management of the cultural landscape of the Pantanal wetlands.

  4. Determining aboveground biomass of the forest successional chronosequence in a test-site of Brazilian Amazon through X- and L-band data analysis

    Santos, João. R.; Silva, Camila V. d. J.; Galvão, Lênio S.; Treuhaft, Robert; Mura, José C.; Madsen, Soren; Gonçalves, Fábio G.; Keller, Michael M.

    2014-08-01

    Secondary succession is an important process in the Amazonian region with implications for the global carbon cycle and for the sustainable regional agricultural and pasture activities. In order to better discriminate the secondary succession and to characterize and estimate the aboveground biomass (AGB), backscatter and interferometric SAR data generally have been analyzed through empirical-based statistical modeling. The objective of this study is to verify the capability of the full polarimetric PALSAR/ALOS (L-band) attributes, when combined with the interferometric (InSAR) coherence from the TanDEM-X (X-band), to improve the AGB estimates of the succession chronosequence located in the Brazilian Tapajós region. In order to perform this study, we carried out multivariate regression using radar attributes and biophysical parameters acquired during a field inventory. A previous floristic-structural analysis was performed to establish the chronosequence in three stages: initial vegetation regrowth, intermediate, and advanced regrowth. The relationship between PALSAR data and AGB was significant (pPv) and "anisotropy" (A) attributes were important to explain the biomass content of the successional chronosequence (R2adjusted = 0.67; RMSE = 32.29 Mg.ha-1). By adding the TanDEM-derived interferometric coherence (Υi) into the regression modeling, better results were obtained (R2adjusted = 0.75; RMSE = 28.78Mg.ha-1). When we used both the L- and X-band attributes, the stock density prediction improved to 10.8 % for the secondary succession stands.

  5. Estimation of Aboveground Biomass in Alpine Forests: A Semi-Empirical Approach Considering Canopy Transparency Derived from Airborne LiDAR Data

    Martin Rutzinger

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-empirical model that was originally developed for stem volume estimation is used for aboveground biomass (AGB estimation of a spruce dominated alpine forest. The reference AGB of the available sample plots is calculated from forest inventory data by means of biomass expansion factors. Furthermore, the semi-empirical model is extended by three different canopy transparency parameters derived from airborne LiDAR data. These parameters have not been considered for stem volume estimation until now and are introduced in order to investigate the behavior of the model concerning AGB estimation. The developed additional input parameters are based on the assumption that transparency of vegetation can be measured by determining the penetration of the laser beams through the canopy. These parameters are calculated for every single point within the 3D point cloud in order to consider the varying properties of the vegetation in an appropriate way. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA is performed to evaluate the influence of the additional LiDAR derived canopy transparency parameters for AGB estimation. The study is carried out in a 560 km2 alpine area in Austria, where reference forest inventory data and LiDAR data are available. The investigations show that the introduction of the canopy transparency parameters does not change the results significantly according to R2 (R2 = 0.70 to R2 = 0.71 in comparison to the results derived from, the semi-empirical model, which was originally developed for stem volume estimation.

  6. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Münster-Swendsen, Janus;

    -58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). • A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal...... gasification, but little information exists on using these types of gasifiers for biomass gasification. The experiments performed provided quantitative data on product and gas composition as a function of operation conditions. Biomass can be gasified with less oxygen consumption compared to coal. The organic...

  7. Modeling and analysis of biomass production systems

    Mishoe, J.W.; Lorber, M.N.; Peart, R.M.; Fluck, R.C.; Jones, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    BIOMET is an interactive simulation model that is used to analyze specific biomass and methane production systems. The system model is composed of crop growth models, harvesting, transportation, conversion and economic submodels. By use of menus the users can configure the structure and set selected parameters of the system to analyze the effects of variables within the component models. For example, simulations of a water hyacinth system resulted in yields of 63, 48 and 37 mg/ha/year for different harvest schedules. For napier grass, unit methane costs were $3.04, $2.86 and $2.98 for various yields of biomass. 10 references.

  8. Legacy effects of aboveground-belowground interactions.

    Kostenko, Olga; van de Voorde, Tess F J; Mulder, Patrick P J; van der Putten, Wim H; Martijn Bezemer, T

    2012-08-01

    Root herbivory can greatly affect the performance of aboveground insects via changes in plant chemistry. These interactions have been studied extensively in experiments where aboveground and belowground insects were feeding on the same plant. However, little is known about how aboveground and belowground organisms interact when they feed on plant individuals that grow after each other in the same soil. We show that feeding by aboveground and belowground insect herbivores on ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris) plants exert unique soil legacy effects, via herbivore-induced changes in the composition of soil fungi. These changes in the soil biota induced by aboveground and belowground herbivores of preceding plants greatly influenced the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content, biomass and aboveground multitrophic interactions of succeeding plants. We conclude that plant-mediated interactions between aboveground and belowground insects are also important when they do not feed simultaneously on the same plant.

  9. Assessing the influence of return density on estimation of lidar-based aboveground biomass in tropical peat swamp forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Manuri, Solichin; Andersen, Hans-Erik; McGaughey, Robert J.; Brack, Cris

    2017-04-01

    The airborne lidar system (ALS) provides a means to efficiently monitor the status of remote tropical forests and continues to be the subject of intense evaluation. However, the cost of ALS acquisition can vary significantly depending on the acquisition parameters, particularly the return density (i.e., spatial resolution) of the lidar point cloud. This study assessed the effect of lidar return density on the accuracy of lidar metrics and regression models for estimating aboveground biomass (AGB) and basal area (BA) in tropical peat swamp forests (PSF) in Kalimantan, Indonesia. A large dataset of ALS covering an area of 123,000 ha was used in this study. This study found that cumulative return proportion (CRP) variables represent a better accumulation of AGB over tree heights than height-related variables. The CRP variables in power models explained 80.9% and 90.9% of the BA and AGB variations, respectively. Further, it was found that low-density (and low-cost) lidar should be considered as a feasible option for assessing AGB and BA in vast areas of flat, lowland PSF. The performance of the models generated using reduced return densities as low as 1/9 returns per m2 also yielded strong agreement with the original high-density data. The use model-based statistical inferences enabled relatively precise estimates of the mean AGB at the landscape scale to be obtained with a fairly low-density of 1/4 returns per m2, with less than 10% standard error (SE). Further, even when very low-density lidar data was used (i.e., 1/49 returns per m2) the bias of the mean AGB estimates were still less than 10% with a SE of approximately 15%. This study also investigated the influence of different DTM resolutions for normalizing the elevation during the generation of forest-related lidar metrics using various return densities point cloud. We found that the high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) had little effect on the accuracy of lidar metrics calculation in PSF. The accuracy of

  10. Estimating aboveground forest biomass carbon and fire consumption in the U.S. Utah High Plateaus using data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program, Landsat, and LANDFIRE

    Chen, X.; Liu, S.; Zhu, Z.; Vogelmann, J.; Li, Z.; Ohlen, D.

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing and greatly affecting global climate and socio-economic systems. Actively growing forests are generally considered to be a major carbon sink, but forest wildfires lead to large releases of biomass carbon into the atmosphere. Aboveground forest biomass carbon (AFBC), an important ecological indicator, and fireinduced carbon emissions at regional scales are highly relevant to forest sustainable management and climate change. It is challenging to accurately estimate the spatial distribution of AFBC across large areas because of the spatial heterogeneity of forest cover types and canopy structure. In this study, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, Landsat, and Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Project (LANDFIRE) data were integrated in a regression tree model for estimating AFBC at a 30-m resolution in the Utah High Plateaus. AFBC were calculated from 225 FIA field plots and used as the dependent variable in the model. Of these plots, 10% were held out for model evaluation with stratified random sampling, and the other 90% were used as training data to develop the regression tree model. Independent variable layers included Landsat imagery and the derived spectral indicators, digital elevation model (DEM) data and derivatives, biophysical gradient data, existing vegetation cover type and vegetation structure. The cross-validation correlation coefficient (r value) was 0.81 for the training model. Independent validation using withheld plot data was similar with r value of 0.82. This validated regression tree model was applied to map AFBC in the Utah High Plateaus and then combined with burn severity information to estimate loss of AFBC in the Longston fire of Zion National Park in 2001. The final dataset represented 24 forest cover types for a 4 million ha forested area. We estimated a total of 353 Tg AFBC with an average of 87 MgC/ha in the Utah High

  11. Allocation of aboveground biomass and model optimization of Dendrocalamus latilforusmunro%麻竹地上器官生物量分配及其模型优化

    徐振国; 黄大勇; 郭起荣; 李忠国

    2016-01-01

    选择广西南宁市良庆区大塘镇横州村麻竹林为研究对象,采用方差分析、线形相关分析、主成分分析及回归分析等方法,探讨其地上器官生物量分配及模型优化。结果表明:立竹年龄对麻竹竹秆、竹枝的含水率有较大的影响,竹秆与竹叶、竹枝与竹叶的含水率差异显著,不同年龄年麻竹的竹秆与竹叶的含水率差异显著;胸径与竹秆、竹枝生物量的回归分析优化模型分别为:H=2.47+0.86D-0.029D2,R2=0.94;H =1.48+3.41D-0.11D2, R2=0.91。本研究建立的竹秆生物量与胸径的数学模型在一定程度上可以指导实践工作,并为麻竹林经营提供了理论依据。%Dendrocalamus latilforusMunro in Hengzhou village, Datang town, Liangqing district, Nanning city in Guangxi was chosen as the research object to study allocation of aboveground organs’ biomass and model optimization using the methods of variance analysis、linear correlation analysis、principal component analysis and regression analysis. The results showed that: it has a great influence of bamboo age on the moisture content of culm and branch ofDendrocalamus latilforusMunro; the difference of moisture content between bamboo culm and bamboo leaves is significant, the same as bamboo branches and bamboo leaves, the optimization model for regression analysis between diameter at breast height(DBH)and bamboo culm biomass isH=2.47+0.86D-0.029D2, R2=0.94; and the same model between DBH and bamboo branches biomass isH =1.48+3.41D-0.11D2,R2=0.91.the mathematical model of bamboo culm and DBH established in the study can guide the practical word to a certain extent, and provide a theoretical basis for management ofDendrocalamus latilforus Munro.

  12. Influence of tree size, taxonomy, and edaphic conditions on heart rot in mixed-dipterocarp Bornean rainforests: implications for aboveground biomass estimates

    K. D. Heineman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungal decay of heartwood creates hollows and areas of reduced wood density within the stems of living trees known as heart rot. Although heart rot is acknowledged as a source of error in forest aboveground biomass estimates, there are few datasets available to evaluate the environmental controls over heart rot infection and severity in tropical forests. Using legacy and recent data from drilled, felled, and cored stems in mixed dipterocarp forests in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, we quantified the frequency and severity of heart rot, and used generalized linear mixed effect models to characterize the association of heart rot with tree size, wood density, taxonomy, and edaphic conditions. Heart rot was detected in 55% of felled stems > 30 cm DBH, while the detection frequency was lower for stems of the same size evaluated by non-destructive drilling (45% and coring (23% methods. Heart rot severity, defined as the percent stem volume lost in infected stems, ranged widely from 0.1–82.8%. Tree taxonomy explained the greatest proportion of variance in heart rot frequency and severity among the fixed and random effects evaluated in our models. Heart rot frequency, but not severity, increased sharply with tree diameter, ranging from 56% infection across all datasets in stems > 50 cm DBH to 11% in trees 10–30 cm DBH. The frequency and severity of heart rot increased significantly in soils with low pH and cation concentrations in topsoil, and heart rot was more common in tree species associated with dystrophic sandy soils than with nutrient-rich clays. When scaled to forest stands, the percent of stem biomass lost to heart rot varied significantly with soil properties, and we estimate that 7% of the forest biomass is in some stage of heart rot decay. This study demonstrates not only that heart rot is a significant source of error in forest carbon estimates, but also that it strongly covaries with soil resources, underscoring the need to account for

  13. Forest biomass density, utilization and production dynamics in a western Himalayan watershed

    Rakesh Kumar Sharma; Prem Lall Sankhayan; Ole Hofstad

    2008-01-01

    There is enough evidence to show that the forest biomass has decreased significantly in the Indian Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh. The government has responded through restrictive measures to check this decline. Using tree biomass as proxy for degradation, we assessed the current state of biomass within dominant land use types and examined its implications for sustainability. The highest above-ground mean tree biomass density of 1158 t·ha-1 was recorded for the reserved forest followed by 728, 13, 11, 8, 5 and 3 t·ha-1 in the protected forest, fallow land, cultivated-unirrigated land, grassland, orchard land and cultivated-irrigated land respectively. Of the total accessible biomass, only 0.31% was extracted annually by the local people for fuel, fodder and other uses. Though, the current level of extraction may be sustainable in the short run, insufficient regeneration is observed for long term sustainability. Forest biomass production was simulated for the next 30 years with a logistic growth model and the relative significance of input variables in influencing system behaviour was analysed through sensitivity analysis. The model results highlighted the declining forest resources in the long run. Positive response through appropriate government policies can, however, change the scenario for the better.

  14. 1年生欧美107杨地上生物量水肥耦合效应%Coupling Effect of Water and Fertilizer on Aboveground Biomass of One-Year-Old Populus×euramericana cv.

    王梓; 马履一; 贾忠奎; 林平; 杨自立; 高卫东; 左海军; 秦超

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the aboveground biomass of one-year-old Populus × euramericana ‘ 74/76’ under different water and fertilizer conditions by split plot design, in order to make an optimal plan of irrigation and application for high quality P. ×euramericana '74/76'. Based on the quadratic regression of aboveground biomass, a regressionbased mathematical model was set up. Result showed that an increase in irrigation amount and nitrogen application rate could promote the aboveground biomass of P. ×euramericana ‘ 74/76’. Nitrogen fertilizer exhibited the most obvious effect on aboveground biomass, followed by the combination of water and nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation amount in sequence.The optimal combination of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer for the aboveground biomass greater than 900 g per tree was obtained as irrigation amount 35.14-41.35 kg per tree and nitrogen application rate 9.18-11.68 g per tree ( urea application rate 831.70-1058.24 kg/hm2 ).%为制定培育欧美107杨优质苗木的灌溉施肥方案,采用田问裂区试验设计,研究不同灌溉施肥下1年生欧美107杨地上生物量生长情况.通过对地上生物量结果进行二次回归拟合,建立了水肥回归数学模型.结果表明,增加灌溉量和氮肥施用量均有增产效应,水肥交互作用表现为正效应,对地上生物量影响作用由高到低依次为:氮肥施入量、水肥互作、灌溉量.欧美107杨地上生物量大于900 g/株的水肥方案为:灌溉量35.14~41.35kg/株,氮施入量9.18~11.68g/株,即施尿素831.70~1058.24 kg/hm2.

  15. 藏北高寒植被地上生物量与土壤环境因子的关系%Relationships between Aboveground Biomass and Soil Factors in Alpine Grasslands in North Tibet

    赵景学; 陈晓鹏; 曲广鹏; 多吉顿珠; 尚占环

    2011-01-01

    用样带法研究藏北高寒植被地上生物量与土壤环境因子之间的关系,对高寒植被地上生物量和7个土壤指标进行相关性分析和回归分析,结果表明:高寒草原到高寒荒漠植被,群落组成逐渐趋于简单化.土壤环境因子影响高寒植被地上生物量,0~10cm土层的土壤有机碳、有效氮、全磷和速效磷与高寒植被地上生物量极显著正相关(P<0.01);10~20cm土层的土壤总有机碳和全磷与高寒植被地上生物量极显著正相关(P<0.01);20~30cm土层的土壤各环境因子与高寒植被地上生物量的关系均未达到显著水平.%Relationships between aboveground biomass and the soil factors in alpine grassland were studied in north Tibet.Correlation and regression analysis was used to study the relationships between aboveground biomass and seven soil factors.The results indicated that community composition gradually tends to simplify from alpine grassland to alpine desert.Organic carbon, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus in soil in the 0~ 10cm soil layers were positively correlated to aboveground biomass significantly (P<0.01); organic carbon and total phosphorus in soil in the 10~20cm soil layers were positively correlated to aboveground biomass significantly (P<0.01); the relationships between soil factors in the 20~30cm soil layers and aboveground biomass were not significant.

  16. 渝北立地因子对篌竹地上生物量的影响%Effects of site factors on the aboveground biomass of Phyllostachys nidularia Munro in North of Chongqing

    黄甫昭; 范怡; 王福升; 丁雨龙

    2012-01-01

    按照典型抽样法,在重庆梁平篌竹产区设置28个样地,调查立竹度、胸径、竹高及主要立地因子;在标准地调查的基础上,应用多种数学模型对篌竹地上生物量进行相关性分析,建立了篌竹地上生物量回归模型,利用生物量模型计算各样地地上生物量,并分析各立地因子对篌竹地上生物量的影响.结果表明:坡向、坡度、土壤厚度及腐殖质层厚度对篌竹地上生物量具有显著或极显著影响;海拔、坡位对篌竹地上生物量有一定影响,但都未达到显著水平.篌竹更适合在背风向阳、土壤肥厚、低海拔斜坡上生长.%Using a method of the typical sampling, 28 plots of Phyllostachys nidularia Munro in north of Chongqing were surveyed. The items surveyed included bamboo number of per plot, DBH and height per bamboo, and main site factors. Based on the surveys of the standard bamboo, the correlation models of the aboveground biomass of Ph. nidularia were carried out by using many different mathematical models and corresponding correlation models were set up. The aboveground biomass of per plot was calculated by the optimum model. ANOVA of aboveground biomass of Ph.nidularia and site factors showed that aspect, slope degree, soil thickness and humus thickness had the significant effects on the aboveground biomass of Ph.nidularia. The elevation, slope position had influence on aboveground biomass of Ph.nidularia, but did not reach significant level. The forestation site of P. nidularia should be selected at the sunny slope and the slowly varied slope with lower elevation, and the soil thickness should kept above 40 cm.

  17. Study on Correlation of Aboveground Biomass with Canopy Reflectance Spectrum Parameters of Flue-cured Tobacco%烤烟冠层光谱参数与地上生物量的相关性研究

    贾保顺; 马宇; 李鹏; 张扬; 李树人

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to confirm the correlation of aboveground biomass with canopy reflectance spectrum parameters of flue -cured tobacco. [Method] Five nitrogen fertilizer amount was applied in field,the correlation between aboveground biomass and canopy reflectance parameters was analyzed. [ Method ] The results showed that to the specified extent, the increase of nitrogen fertilizer application amount showed significant promotion effect on aboveground biomass in spherical plant stage and fast growing stage. The single band reflectivity wavelength -with the highest correlation with aboveground biomass was 550 nm,R = - 0. 949 0, while the vegetation index with the highest correlation with aboveground biomass was RVI( 1 050,550) ,R =0.983 1. [Conclusion] The study provides a research basement and data support for development of growth vigor monitoring instrument.%[目的]明确烤烟(Nicotiana sanderae)地上生物量与冠层光谱参数的相关性.[方法]大田条件下设置5个氮肥施用梯度,利用相关分析对地上鲜生物量和冠层光谱参数的相关性进行分析.[结果]一定范围内,施氮量增加,对团棵期和旺长期的烤烟地上鲜生物量表现出较明显的促进效应.与地上鲜生物量相关性最强的单波段反射率波长均为550 nm,R=-0.949 0;相关性最强的植被指数为RVI(1 050,550),R=0.983 1.[结论]该研究可为开发基于冠层光谱的烤烟长势监测仪器提供研究基础和数据支撑.

  18. 放牧强度对高寒草地产草量及羊体质量增加的影响%Effects of different grazing intensities on aboveground biomass and body weight of sheep on Alpine grasslands

    邓潮洲; 储少林; 李瑞年; 李晓敏; 艾山江

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of grazing on the aboveground biomass of alpine grasslands and the gaining effect of sheep were investigated. Tuoyun pasture was selected as a study area. Three grazing plots were set as treatment plots and a natural growth grasslands was set as the control plot. The results showed that 1) Tuoyun pasture is an alpine meadow with Leucopoa all)ida, Fescue arioides, Androsace umbellata and Oxytropis falcatae as the dominant speeies; 2) aboveground biomass of alpine grassland was very low, even in the prohibited graze area in July, and the aboveground biomass (dry matter) was merely 830 kg . ha-1 ; 3) grazing activities have a great impact on the aboveground biomass of the pasture, and heavy grazing can significantly reduce the aboveground biomass; 4) using the effect of liveweight gain as an evaluation index, a better weight gain was obtained under the stocking rates of 1 sheep unit (i. e. an ewe and a lamb) per hectare in this alpine pasture.%以托云牧场高寒草地为研究对象,通过设置3个放牧样地,一个对照样地,研究不同强度放牧对草地地上生物量的影响以及在不同放牧压力下羊体质量增加的效果。结果表明,1)托云牧场是以银穗草(Leucopoa albida)、羊茅(Festuca arioides)、点地梅(Androsace umbellata)和棘豆(Oxytropis falcatae)为优势种的高山草地;2)高寒草地地上生物量较低,禁牧区7月地上生物量(干物质)仅830kg·hm-2;3)放牧活动对地上生物量有较大影响,重度放牧能显著降低牧场地上生物量;4)以羊体质量增加值为评价指标,该高寒牧场在载畜量为1.05羊单位·hm-2时能获得较好的体质量增加效果。

  19. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground life biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    P. Köhler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The canopy height h of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or LIDAR. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground life biomass (AGB (and thus carbon content of vegetation and leaf area index (LAI and identify how correlation and uncertainty vary for two different spatial scales. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a undisturbed forest growth and (b a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia in South-East Asia. In both undisturbed and disturbed forests AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB = a · hb with an r2 ~ 60% if data are analysed in a spatial resolution of 20 m × 20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size. The correlation coefficient of the regression is becoming significant better in the disturbed forest sites (r2 = 91% if data are analysed hectare wide. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2 ~ 60% between AGB and the area fraction of gaps in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a

  20. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground life biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Köhler, P.; Huth, A.

    2010-08-01

    The canopy height h of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or LIDAR. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground life biomass (AGB) (and thus carbon content of vegetation) and leaf area index (LAI) and identify how correlation and uncertainty vary for two different spatial scales. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a) undisturbed forest growth and (b) a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia) in South-East Asia. In both undisturbed and disturbed forests AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB = a · hb) with an r2 ~ 60% if data are analysed in a spatial resolution of 20 m × 20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size). The correlation coefficient of the regression is becoming significant better in the disturbed forest sites (r2 = 91%) if data are analysed hectare wide. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2 ~ 60%) between AGB and the area fraction of gaps in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a comparison of the simulations with permanent sampling plot (PSP) data from the same region and with the

  1. Random forest regression modelling for forest aboveground biomass estimation using RISAT-1 PolSAR and terrestrial LiDAR data

    Mangla, Rohit; Kumar, Shashi; Nandy, Subrata

    2016-05-01

    SAR and LiDAR remote sensing have already shown the potential of active sensors for forest parameter retrieval. SAR sensor in its fully polarimetric mode has an advantage to retrieve scattering property of different component of forest structure and LiDAR has the capability to measure structural information with very high accuracy. This study was focused on retrieval of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) using Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) based point clouds and scattering property of forest vegetation obtained from decomposition modelling of RISAT-1 fully polarimetric SAR data. TLS data was acquired for 14 plots of Timli forest range, Uttarakhand, India. The forest area is dominated by Sal trees and random sampling with plot size of 0.1 ha (31.62m*31.62m) was adopted for TLS and field data collection. RISAT-1 data was processed to retrieve SAR data based variables and TLS point clouds based 3D imaging was done to retrieve LiDAR based variables. Surface scattering, double-bounce scattering, volume scattering, helix and wire scattering were the SAR based variables retrieved from polarimetric decomposition. Tree heights and stem diameters were used as LiDAR based variables retrieved from single tree vertical height and least square circle fit methods respectively. All the variables obtained for forest plots were used as an input in a machine learning based Random Forest Regression Model, which was developed in this study for forest AGB estimation. Modelled output for forest AGB showed reliable accuracy (RMSE = 27.68 t/ha) and a good coefficient of determination (0.63) was obtained through the linear regression between modelled AGB and field-estimated AGB. The sensitivity analysis showed that the model was more sensitive for the major contributed variables (stem diameter and volume scattering) and these variables were measured from two different remote sensing techniques. This study strongly recommends the integration of SAR and LiDAR data for forest AGB estimation.

  2. Spatial Structure of Above-Ground Biomass Limits Accuracy of Carbon Mapping in Rainforest but Large Scale Forest Inventories Can Help to Overcome.

    Stéphane Guitet

    Full Text Available Precise mapping of above-ground biomass (AGB is a major challenge for the success of REDD+ processes in tropical rainforest. The usual mapping methods are based on two hypotheses: a large and long-ranged spatial autocorrelation and a strong environment influence at the regional scale. However, there are no studies of the spatial structure of AGB at the landscapes scale to support these assumptions. We studied spatial variation in AGB at various scales using two large forest inventories conducted in French Guiana. The dataset comprised 2507 plots (0.4 to 0.5 ha of undisturbed rainforest distributed over the whole region. After checking the uncertainties of estimates obtained from these data, we used half of the dataset to develop explicit predictive models including spatial and environmental effects and tested the accuracy of the resulting maps according to their resolution using the rest of the data. Forest inventories provided accurate AGB estimates at the plot scale, for a mean of 325 Mg.ha-1. They revealed high local variability combined with a weak autocorrelation up to distances of no more than10 km. Environmental variables accounted for a minor part of spatial variation. Accuracy of the best model including spatial effects was 90 Mg.ha-1 at plot scale but coarse graining up to 2-km resolution allowed mapping AGB with accuracy lower than 50 Mg.ha-1. Whatever the resolution, no agreement was found with available pan-tropical reference maps at all resolutions. We concluded that the combined weak autocorrelation and weak environmental effect limit AGB maps accuracy in rainforest, and that a trade-off has to be found between spatial resolution and effective accuracy until adequate "wall-to-wall" remote sensing signals provide reliable AGB predictions. Waiting for this, using large forest inventories with low sampling rate (<0.5% may be an efficient way to increase the global coverage of AGB maps with acceptable accuracy at kilometric resolution.

  3. Optimizing the number of training areas for modeling above-ground biomass with ALS and multispectral remote sensing in subtropical Nepal

    Rana, Parvez; Gautam, Basanta; Tokola, Timo

    2016-07-01

    Remote sensing-based inventories of above-ground forest biomass (AGB) require a set of training plots representative of the area to be studied, the collection of which is the most expensive part of the analysis. These are time-consuming and costly because the large variety in forest conditions requires more plots to adequately capture this variability. A field campaign in general is challenging and is hampered by the complex topographic conditions, limited accessibility, steep mountainous terrains which increase labor efforts and costs. In addition it is also depend on the ratio between size of study area and number of training plots. In this study, we evaluate the number of training areas (sample size) required to estimate AGB for an area in the southern part of Nepal using airborne laser scanning (ALS), RapidEye and Landsat data. Three experiments were conducted: (i) AGB model performance, based on all the field training plots; (ii) reduction of the sample size, based on the ALS metrics and the AGB distribution; and (iii) prediction of the optimal number of training plots, based on the correlation between the remote sensing and field data. The AGB model was fitted using the sparse Bayesian method. AGB model performance was validated using an independent validation dataset. The effect of the strategies for reducing the sample size was readily apparent for the ALS-based AGB prediction, but the RapidEye and Landsat sensor data failed to capture any such effect. The results indicate that adequate coverage of the variability in tree height and density was an important condition for selecting the training plots. In addition, the ALS-based AGB prediction required the smallest number of training plots and was also quite stable with a small number of field plots.

  4. Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass in Miombo Savanna Woodlands (Mozambique, East Africa Using L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    Maria J. Vasconcelos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of forest above-ground biomass (AGB is important for such broader applications as decision making, forest management, carbon (C stock change assessment and scientific applications, such as C cycle modeling. However, there is a great uncertainty related to the estimation of forest AGB, especially in the tropics. The main goal of this study was to test a combination of field data and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR backscatter intensity data to reduce the uncertainty in the estimation of forest AGB in the Miombo savanna woodlands of Mozambique (East Africa. A machine learning algorithm, based on bagging stochastic gradient boosting (BagSGB, was used to model forest AGB as a function of ALOS PALSAR Fine Beam Dual (FBD backscatter intensity metrics. The application of this method resulted in a coefficient of correlation (R between observed and predicted (10-fold cross-validation forest AGB values of 0.95 and a root mean square error of 5.03 Mg·ha−1. However, as a consequence of using bootstrap samples in combination with a cross validation procedure, some bias may have been introduced, and the reported cross validation statistics could be overoptimistic. Therefore and as a consequence of the BagSGB model, a measure of prediction variability (coefficient of variation on a pixel-by-pixel basis was also produced, with values ranging from 10 to 119% (mean = 25% across the study area. It provides additional and complementary information regarding the spatial distribution of the error resulting from the application of the fitted model to new observations.

  5. Structural, physiognomic and aboveground biomass variation in savanna-forest transition zones on three continents. How different are co-occurring savanna and forest formations?

    E. M. Veenendaal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Through interpretations of remote sensing data and/or theoretical propositions, the idea that forest and savanna represent "alternative stable states" is gaining increasing acceptance. Filling an observational gap, we present detailed stratified floristic and structural analyses for forest and savanna stands mostly located within zones of transition (where both vegetation types occur in close proximity in Africa, South America and Australia. Woody plant leaf area index variation was related in a similar way to tree canopy cover for both savanna and forest with substantial overlap between the two vegetation types. As total woody plant canopy cover increased, so did the contribution of middle and lower strata of woody vegetation to this total. Herbaceous layer cover also declined as woody cover increased. This pattern of understorey grasses and herbs being progressively replaced by shrubs as canopy closure occurs was found for both savanna and forests and on all continents. Thus, once subordinate woody canopy layers are taken into account, a less marked transition in woody plant cover across the savanna-forest species discontinuum is observed compared to that implied when trees of a basal diameter > 0.1m are considered in isolation. This is especially the case for shrub-dominated savannas and in taller savannas approaching canopy closure. An increased contribution of forest species to the total subordinate cover is also observed as savanna stand canopy closure occurs. Despite similarities in canopy cover characteristics, woody vegetation in Africa and Australia attained greater heights and stored a greater concentration of above ground biomass than in South America. Up to three times as much aboveground biomass is stored in forests compared to savannas under equivalent climatic conditions. Savanna/forest transition zones were also found to typically occur at higher precipitation regimes for South America than for Africa. Nevertheless, coexistence

  6. Estimation of the carbon pool in soil and above-ground biomass within mangrove forests in Southeast Mexico using allometric equations

    Jesús Jaime Guerra-Santos; Rosa María Cerón-Bretón; Julia Griselda Cerón-Bretón; Diana Lizett Damián-Hernández; Reyna Cristina Sánchez-Junco; Emma del Carmen Guevara Carrió

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of carbon stored in soil and aboveground biomass from the most important area of mangroves in Mexico, with dominant vegetation of Red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.), Black mangrove (Avicennia germinans L.), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn.) and button mangrove (Conocarpus erectus L.). We sampled soils with high fertility during the dry season in 2009 and 2010 at three sites on Atasta Peninsula, Campeche. We used allometric equations to estimate above ground biomass (AGB) of trees. AGB was higher in C. erectus (253.18±32.17 t⋅ha-1), lower in A. germinans (161.93±12.63 t⋅ha-1), and intermediate in R. mangle (181.70±16.58 t⋅ha-1) and L. racemosa (206.07±19.12 t⋅ha-1). Of the three studied sites, the highest absolute value for AGB was 279.72 t⋅ha-1 in button mangrove forest at any single site. Carbon stored in soil at the three sites ranged from 36.80±10.27 to 235.77±66.11 t⋅ha-1. The Tukey test (p <0.05) made for AGB was higher for black mangrove showed significant differences in soil carbon content between black mangrove and button mangrove. C. erectus had higher AGB compared with the other species. A. germinans trees had lower AGB because they grew in hypersaline environments, which reduced their development. C. erectus grew on higher ground where soils were richer in nutrients. AGB tended to be low in areas near the sea and increased with distance from the coast. A. germinans usually grew on recently deposited sediments. We assumed that all sites have the same potential to store carbon in soil, and then we found that there were no significant differences in carbon content between the three samples sites: all sites had potential to store carbon for long periods. Carbon storage at the three sampling sites in the state of Campeche, Mexico, was higher than that reported for other locations.

  7. Study of the Hydrothermal Condition and Aboveground Biomass in Typical Alpine Grassland in Tibetan Plateau%青藏高原典型高寒草地水热条件及地上生物量变化研究

    李晓东; 李凤霞; 周秉荣; 肖宏斌; 杨鑫光; 周万福

    2012-01-01

    利用海北州海晏县1979-2009年地面气象观测资料和1997-2009年地上生物量资料,分析了1979年以来青藏高原的气候变化和水热条件变化,以及气温和降水量与地上生物量之间的响应关系。结果表明,1979-2009年该地区的年平均气温和降雨量均呈增加趋势,年平均气温的增加速率达0.33℃·(10a)^-1,年降雨量增幅为33.1mm·(10a)^-1;〉0℃的有效积温、生物温度和实际蒸散量均呈明显的增加趋势,而湿润度则呈明显的减少趋势。海晏县高寒草地牧草草地地上生物量呈波动增加,且与冬季降雨量呈显著的正相关,与春季降雨量相关性不显著,与夏季平均气温相关性最高。%The climate change present situation, climatic factors and aboveground hiomass change are calculated, and the relationship among the rainfall, air temperature and aboveground biomass was ana- lyzed, using the surface meteorological data and aboveground biomass data in Haiyan county, Haibei dis- trict of Qinghai Province from 1979 to 2009. The results show that the annual mean temperature and rain- fall present the increase trend, the increase rate of annual mean air temperature is 0.33℃ (10 a)-1 and that of annual rainfall is 33. I mm (10 a)-a. The accumulated temperature 0 ℃, biological temperature and actual evapotranspiration show the increase trend, but the moisture index appears obvious decreasing tend. The total aboveground biomass from 1997 to 2009 appears the increasing trend in Haiyan county grassland, there is highly significant positive correlation between the rainfall in winter and the total aboveground biomass and there is highly correlation between the air temperature in summer and annual aboveground biomass. The increasing trends of air temperature, rainfall and the accumulated temperature 〉0℃ are obvious. It is found that the grassland aboveground biomass in alpine, winter rainfall and sum- mer air

  8. Altitudinal Variation in Aboveground Biomass of Abies georgei var.smithii at Timberline of the Sergyemla Mountains, Southeast Tibet%藏东南色季拉山急尖长苞冷杉林线地带地上生物量随海拔的变化特征

    刘新圣; 张林; 孔高强; 罗天祥

    2011-01-01

    Environment becomes harsh with increasing altitude, which has major effects on forest biomass accumulation and its allocation to woody and foliage components.In this study, we compared aboveground biomass and its allocation pattern of Abies georgei[var.smithii along a transect from sub-alpine forest to alpine timberline in the Sergyemla Mountain, southeast Tibet.We estimated different components of aboveground biomass for Abies trees and undergrowth Rhododendron shrubs by using allometric regressions.The aboveground biomass of undergrowth herbs was measured by harvesting in 0.5 m ×0.5 m quadrats.Aboveground biomasses were 181 ~284 t/hm2, 117 ~ 248 t/hm2, 35 ~ 62 t/hm2 and 0.9 ~ 1.5 t/hm2 for whole community, trees, undergrowth shrubs and herbs, respectively.Aboveground biomass of the whole community decreased significantly with increasing elevation, and the decreasing rate was 73.1 t/hm2 per 100 m.Furthermore, the Abies forest stand at higher elevation tended to reduce biomass allocation to non-photosynthesis organs (stem and branch), and to increase the allocation to longlived needles.The increased biomass allocation to long-lived needles at higher elevations may extend the mean residence time of nutrients in plants, and then enhance nutrient use efficiency of dry mass production to adapt to the low temperature environment at alpine timberlines.%从亚高山森林到高山林线,逐渐严酷的生长环境影响了生物量的积累和分配.本研究采用相对生长法和样方收获法估算了藏东南色季拉山急尖长苞冷杉林在禾同海拔(4 190 m,4 270 m和4 326 m)的地上生物量,分析了群落中不同层次地上生物量、各器官生物量及其分配比例随海拔的变化格局.结果表明:1.急尖长苞冷杉群落地上生物量在181~284 t/hm2之间,其中,乔木层在11~-248 t/hm2,灌木层为35~62 t/hm2,草本层为0.9~1.5 t/hm2;2.群落地上生物量随海拔升高急剧降低,降低的平均幅度为73.1 t/(hm2

  9. Hydrogen production from biomass over steam gasification

    Rauch, R.; Potetz, A.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Weber, G. [Bioenergy 2020+, Guessing (Austria)

    2010-12-30

    Renewable hydrogen is one option for a clean energy carrier in the future. There were several research programs in the past, to produce hydrogen on a renewable basis by electrolysis, direct conversion of water or by gasification of biomass. None of these options were developed to a stage, that they could be used on a commercial basis. At the moment almost all hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels and one main consumer of hydrogen are refineries. So a good option to demonstrate the production of renewable hydrogen and bring it later into the market is over refineries. The most economic option to produce renewable hydrogen at the moment is over gasification of biomass. In Austria an indirect gasification system was developed and is demonstrated in Guessing, Austria. The biomass CHP Guessing uses the allothermal steam dual fluidised bed gasifier and produces a high grade product gas, which is used at the moment for the CHP in a gas engine. As there is no nitrogen in the product gas and high hydrogen content, this gas can be also used as synthesis gas or for production of hydrogen. The main aim of this paper is to present the experimental and simulation work to convert biomass into renewable hydrogen. The product gas of the indirect gasification system is mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Within the ERA-Net project ''OptiBtLGas'' the reforming of methane and the CO-shift reaction was investigated to convert all hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to hydrogen. On basis of the experimental results the mass- and energy balances of a commercial 100 MW fuel input plant was done. Here 3 different cases of complexity of the overall plant were simulated. The first case was without reforming and CO-shift, only by hydrogen separation. The second case was by including steam - reforming and afterwards separation of hydrogen. The third case includes hydrocarbon reforming, CO-shift and hydrogen separation. In all cases the off-gases (CO

  10. 激光雷达GLAS与ETM联合反演森林地上生物量研究%Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass by Integrating GLAS and ETM Data

    董立新; 吴炳方; 唐世浩

    2011-01-01

    在实现大脚印激光雷达GLAS森林冠顶高度反演算法基础上,建立了复杂地形条件下森林地上生物量神经网络反演模型,制作了研究区森林地上生物量分布图。总体上,激光雷达GLAS森林冠顶高度和地上生物量估算精度较高。森林冠顶高度针叶林精度最好(R^2=0.692);阔叶林次之(R^2=0.5062);地上生物量反演结果与实测结果十分接近,在空间分布上与土地覆盖分布特征非常一致。更多还原%Based on the algorithm of forest canopy height for GLAS data,the neural net model of above ground biomass in complex terrain conditions was established.The map of forest aboveground biomass from BP neural net model was produced.Overall,forest canopy height and aboveground biomass have higher accuracy.The result of forest canopy height of needle-leaf forest has highest accuracy(R2=0.692).The result of broadleaf forest has higher accuracy(R2=0.5062).The results of forest aboveground biomass are very close to the fields measured results,and are consistent with land cover data in the spatial distribution.

  11. Biomass production in experimental grasslands of different species richness during three years of climate warming

    H. J. De Boeck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on the single and combined impacts of climate warming and species richness on the biomass production in experimental grassland communities. Projections of a future warmer climate have stimulated studies on the response of terrestrial ecosystems to this global change. Experiments have likewise addressed the importance of species numbers for ecosystem functioning. There is, however, little knowledge on the interplay between warming and species richness. During three years, we grew experimental plant communities containing one, three or nine grassland species in 12 sunlit, climate-controlled chambers in Wilrijk, Belgium. Half of these chambers were exposed to ambient air temperatures (unheated, while the other half were warmed by 3°C (heated. Equal amounts of water were added to heated and unheated communities, so that warming would imply drier soils if evapotranspiration was higher. Biomass production was decreased due to warming, both aboveground (–29% and belowground (–25%, as negative impacts of increased heat and drought stress in summer prevailed. Complementarity effects, likely mostly through both increased aboveground spatial complementarity and facilitative effects of legumes, led to higher shoot and root biomass in multi-species communities, regardless of the induced warming. Surprisingly, warming suppressed productivity the most in 9-species communities, which may be attributed to negative impacts of intense interspecific competition for resources under conditions of high abiotic stress. Our results suggest that warming and the associated soil drying could reduce primary production in many temperate grasslands, and that this will not necessarily be mitigated by efforts to maintain or increase species richness.

  12. Synthesis gas production from various biomass feedstocks

    Juan A. Conesa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of five different biomass samples was studied in a horizontal laboratory reactor. The samples consisted of esparto grass, straw, Posidonea Oceanic seaweed, waste from urban and agricultural pruning and waste from forest pruning. Both pyrolysis in inert atmosphere and combustion in the presence of oxygen were studied. Different heating rates were used by varying the input speed. Major gas compounds were analyzed. The experimental results show that the amount of CO formed is lower in less dense species. It is also found that there is an increase of hydrocarbons formed at increasing feeding rates, in particular methane, while there is a decrease in the production of hydrogen.

  13. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F.; Diaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil a

  14. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    Finegan, B.; Peña Claros, M.; Oliviera, de A.; Alarcón, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño-Rocabado, G.; Casanoves, F.; Díaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and Cos

  15. 塔里木河中游柽柳群落生物量研究%Estimation of the Above-ground Biomass of Tamarix Species along a Transect at the Tarirm River's Middle Reaches

    努尔比亚·阿布力米提; 努尔巴依·阿布都沙力克; 于苏云江·吗米提敏; Niels Thevs

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究塔里木河中游柽柳属地上生物量分布规律,并求出柽柳属地上生物量估算的最佳模型.[方法]利用最常用的取样方法-PCQ方法,在塔里木河中游的5个样带进行取样.在野外调查工作的基础上,利用Evangelista等的模型,建立了适合该地区柽柳属的线性回归模型,并分析了塔里木河中游柽柳属地上生物量分布规律.[结果]所建模型适合该研究区柽柳地上生物量的估算.从地上生物量分布规律可知,地下水是决定该地区柽柳地上生物量分布的关键生态因子.[结论]为柽柳属植物生物量估算研究提供了理论依据.%[ Objective ] The purpose was to research the distribution characteristics of Tamarix species above-ground biomass of Tarim River's middle reaches and to find out best-fit linear-regression model of Tamarix species in this area. [ Method ] By dint of the most common sampling method PCQ, five samples in the middle reaches of Tarim River were collected. The best-fit linear-regression model of Tamarix species of this area was set up, based on the fieldwork and the model of Evangelista and obtained the distribution rules of Tamarix species of Tarim River's middle reaches. [ Result] The result indicated that this model fitted for the estimation of aboveground biomass of the study area. According to the distribution rules of aboveground biomass, it was clear that underground water was the major element which decided the distribution of aboveground biomass. [ Conclusion ] The study provided theoretical basis for the calculation of biomass of Tamarix.

  16. Estimation of the Above-ground Biomass of Tamarix Species along a Transect at the Tarim River's Middle Reaches%塔里木河中游柽柳群落生物量研究

    努尔比亚·阿布力米提; 努尔巴依·阿布都沙力克; 于苏云江·吗米提敏; Niels Thevs

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究塔里木河中游柽柳属地上生物量分布规律,并求出柽柳属地上生物量估算的最佳模型.[方法]利用最常用的取样方法-PCQ方法,在塔里木河中游的5个样带进行取样.在野外调查工作的基础上,利用Evangelista等的模型,建立了适合该地区柽柳属的线性回归模型,并分析了塔里木河中游柽柳属地上生物量分布规律.[结果]所建模型适合该研究区柽柳地上生物量的估算.从地上生物量分布规律可知,地下水是决定该地区柽柳地上生物量分布的关键生态因子.[结论]为柽柳属植物生物量估算研究提供了理论依据.%[Objective] The purpose was to research the distribution characteristics of Tamarix species above-ground biomass of Tarim River's middle reaches and to find out best-fit linear-regression model of Tamarix species in this area. [Method] By dint of the most common sampling method PCQ, five samples in the middle reaches of Tarim River were collected. The best-fit linear-regression model of Tamarix species of this area was set up, based on the fieldwork and the model of Evangelista and obtained the distribution rules of Tamarix species of Tarim River's middle reaches. [Result] The result indicated that this model fitted for the estimation of aboveground biomass of the study area. According to the distribution rules of aboveground biomass, it was clear that underground water was the major element which decided the distribution of aboveground biomass. [Conclusion] The study provided theoretical basis for the calculation of biomass of Tamarix.

  17. An Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Production from Biomass

    吕鹏梅; 常杰; 付严; 王铁军; 陈勇; 祝京旭

    2003-01-01

    In gaseous products of biomass steam gasification, there exist a lot of CO, CH4 and other hydrocarbons that can be converted to hydrogen through steam reforming reactions. There exists potential hydrogen production from the raw gas of biomass steam gasification. In the present work, the characteristics of hydrogen production from biomass steam gasification were investigated in a small-scale fluidized bed. In these experiments, the gasifying agent (air) was supplied into the reactor from the bottom of the reactor and the steam was added into the reactor above biomass feeding location. The effects of reaction temperature, steam to biomass ratio, equivalence ratio (ER) and biomass particle size on hydrogen yield and hydrogen yield potential were investigated. The experimental results showed that higher reactor temperature, proper ER, proper steam to biomass ratio and smaller biomass particle size will contribute to more hydrogen and potential hydrogen yield.

  18. Estimation of Aboveground Biomass Change for Tropical Deciduous Forest in Bago Yoma, Myanmar between year 2000 and 2014 using Landsat Images and Ground Measurements

    Kim, H. S.; Wynn, K. Z.; Ryu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Even with recently increased awareness of the environmental conservation, the degradation of tropical forests are still one of the major sources of global carbon emission. Especially in Myanmar, the pressure to develop natural forest is growing rapidly after the change from socialism to capitalism in 2010. As the initial step of the forest conservation, the aboveground biomass(AGB) of South Zarmani Reserved Forest in Bago Yoma region were estimated using Landsat 8 OLI after the evaluation with 100 sample plot measurements. Multiple linear regression (MLR) model of band values and their principal component analysis (PCA) model were developed to estimate the AGB using the spectral reflectance from Landsat images and elevation as the input variables. The MLR model had r2 = 0.43, RMSE = 60.2 tons/ha, relative RMSE = 70.1%, Bias = -9.1 tons/ha, Bias (%) = -10.6%, and p < 0.0001, while the PCA model showed r2 = 0.45, RMSE = 55.1 tons/ha, relative RMSE = 64.1%, Bias = -8.3 tons/ha, Bias (%) = -9.7%, and p < 0.0001. The AGB maps of the study area were generated based on both MLR and PCA models. The estimated mean AGB values were 74.74±22.3 tons/ha and 73.04±17.6 tons/ha and the total AGB of the study area are about 5.7 and 5.6 million tons from MLR and PCA, respectively. Then, Landsat 7 ETM+ image acquired on 2000 was also used to compare the changing of AGB between year 2000 and 2014. The estimated mean AGB value generated from the Landsat 7 ETM+ image was 78.9±16.9 tons/ha, which is substantially decreased about 7.5% compared to year 2014. The reduction of AGB increased with closeness to village, however AGB in distant areas showed steady increases. In conclusion, we were able to generate solid regression models from Landsat 8 OLI image after ground truth and two regression models gave us very similar AGB estimation (less than 2%) of the study area. We were also able to estimate the changing of AGB from year 2000 to 2014 of South Zarmani Reserved Forest, Bago Yoma

  19. Modeling Forest Aboveground Biomass and Volume Using Airborne LiDAR Metrics and Forest Inventory and Analysis Data in the Pacific Northwest

    Ryan D. Sheridan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA Program provides a diverse selection of data used to assess the status of the nation’s forests using sample locations dispersed throughout the country. Airborne laser scanning (ALS systems are capable of producing accurate measurements of individual tree dimensions and also possess the ability to characterize forest structure in three dimensions. This study investigates the potential of discrete return ALS data for modeling forest aboveground biomass (AGBM and gross volume (gV at FIA plot locations in the Malheur National Forest, eastern Oregon utilizing three analysis levels: (1 individual subplot (r = 7.32 m; (2 plot, comprising four clustered subplots; and (3 hectare plot (r = 56.42 m. A methodology for the creation of three point cloud-based airborne LiDAR metric sets is presented. Models for estimating AGBM and gV based on LiDAR-derived height metrics were built and validated utilizing FIA estimates of AGBM and gV derived using regional allometric equations. Simple linear regression models based on the plot-level analysis out performed subplot-level and hectare-level models, producing R2 values of 0.83 and 0.81 for AGBM and gV, utilizing mean height and the 90th height percentile as predictors, respectively. Similar results were found for multiple regression models, where plot-level analysis produced models with R2 values of 0.87 and 0.88 for AGBM and gV, utilizing multiple height percentile metrics as predictor variables. Results suggest that the current FIA plot design can be used with dense airborne LiDAR data to produce area-based estimates of AGBM and gV, and that the increased spatial scale of hectare plots may be inappropriate for modeling AGBM of gV unless exhaustive tree tallies are available. Overall, this study demonstrates that ALS data can be used to create models that describe the AGBM and gV of Pacific Northwest FIA plots and highlights the potential of

  20. Quantifying Live Aboveground Biomass and Forest Disturbance of Mountainous Natural and Plantation Forests in Northern Guangdong, China, Based on Multi-Temporal Landsat, PALSAR and Field Plot Data

    Wenjuan Shen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit knowledge of aboveground biomass (AGB in large areas is important for accurate carbon accounting and quantifying the effect of forest disturbance on the terrestrial carbon cycle. We estimated AGB from 1990 to 2011 in northern Guangdong, China, based on a spatially explicit dataset derived from six years of national forest inventory (NFI plots, Landsat time series imagery (1986–2011 and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radars (PALSAR 25 m mosaic data (2007–2010. Four types of variables were derived for modeling and assessment. The random forest approach was used to seek the optimal variables for mapping and validation. The root mean square error (RMSE of plot-level validation was between 6.44 and 39.49 (t/ha, the normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE was between 7.49% and 19.01% and mean absolute error (MAE was between 5.06 and 23.84 t/ha. The highest coefficient of determination R2 of 0.8 and the lowest NRMSE of 7.49% were reported in 2006. A clear increasing trend of mean AGB from the lowest value of 13.58 t/ha to the highest value of 66.25 t/ha was witnessed between 1988 and 2000, while after 2000 there was a fluctuating ascending change, with a peak mean AGB of 67.13 t/ha in 2004. By integrating AGB change with forest disturbance, the trend in disturbance area closely corresponded with the trend in AGB decrease. To determine the driving forces of these changes, the correlation analysis was adopted and exploratory factor analysis (EFA method was used to find a factor rotation that maximizes this variance and represents the dominant factors of nine climate elements and nine human activities elements affecting the AGB dynamics. Overall, human activities contributed more to short-term AGB dynamics than climate data. Harvesting and human-induced fire in combination with rock desertification and global warming made a strong contribution to AGB changes. This study provides

  1. Conversion of biomass to selected chemical products.

    Gallezot, Pierre

    2012-02-21

    This critical review provides a survey illustrated by recent references of different strategies to achieve a sustainable conversion of biomass to bioproducts. Because of the huge number of chemical products that can be potentially manufactured, a selection of starting materials and targeted chemicals has been done. Also, thermochemical conversion processes such as biomass pyrolysis or gasification as well as the synthesis of biofuels were not considered. The synthesis of chemicals by conversion of platform molecules obtained by depolymerisation and fermentation of biopolymers is presently the most widely envisioned approach. Successful catalytic conversion of these building blocks into intermediates, specialties and fine chemicals will be examined. However, the platform molecule value chain is in competition with well-optimised, cost-effective synthesis routes from fossil resources to produce chemicals that have already a market. The literature covering alternative value chains whereby biopolymers are converted in one or few steps to functional materials will be analysed. This approach which does not require the use of isolated, pure chemicals is well adapted to produce high tonnage products, such as paper additives, paints, resins, foams, surfactants, lubricants, and plasticisers. Another objective of the review was to examine critically the green character of conversion processes because using renewables as raw materials does not exempt from abiding by green chemistry principles (368 references).

  2. Nutrient subsidies to belowground microbes impact aboveground food web interactions.

    Hines, Jes; Megonigal, J Patrick; Denno, Robert F

    2006-06-01

    Historically, terrestrial food web theory has been compartmentalized into interactions among aboveground or belowground communities. In this study we took a more synthetic approach to understanding food web interactions by simultaneously examining four trophic levels and investigating how nutrient (nitrogen and carbon) and detrital subsidies impact the ability of the belowground microbial community to alter the abundance of aboveground arthropods (herbivores and predators) associated with the intertidal cord grass Spartina alterniflora. We manipulated carbon, nitrogen, and detrital resources in a field experiment and measured decomposition rate, soil nitrogen pools, plant biomass and quality, herbivore density, and arthropod predator abundance. Because carbon subsidies impact plant growth only indirectly (microbial pathways), whereas nitrogen additions both directly (plant uptake) and indirectly (microbial pathways) impact plant primary productivity, we were able to assess the effect of both belowground soil microbes and nutrient availability on aboveground herbivores and their predators. Herbivore density in the field was suppressed by carbon supplements. Carbon addition altered soil microbial dynamics (net potential ammonification, litter decomposition rate, DON [dissolved organic N] concentration), which limited inorganic soil nitrogen availability and reduced plant size as well as predator abundance. Nitrogen addition enhanced herbivore density by increasing plant size and quality directly by increasing inorganic soil nitrogen pools, and indirectly by enhancing microbial nitrification. Detritus adversely affected aboveground herbivores mainly by promoting predator aggregation. To date, the effects of carbon and nitrogen subsidies on salt marshes have been examined as isolated effects on either the aboveground or the belowground community. Our results emphasize the importance of directly addressing the soil microbial community as a factor that influences

  3. Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars

    Cripps, R.

    2007-03-15

    This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

  4. Biomass production in experimental grasslands of different species richness during three years of climate warming

    H. J. De Boeck

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on the single and combined impacts of climate warming and species richness on the biomass production in experimental grassland communities. Projections of a future warmer climate have stimulated studies on the response of terrestrial ecosystems to this global change. Experiments have likewise addressed the importance of species numbers for ecosystem functioning. There is, however, little knowledge on the interplay between warming and species richness. During three years, we grew experimental plant communities containing one, three or nine grassland species in 12 sunlit, climate-controlled chambers in Wilrijk, Belgium. Half of these chambers were exposed to ambient air temperatures (unheated, while the other half were warmed by 3°C (heated. Equal amounts of water were added to heated and unheated communities, so that warming would imply drier soils if evapotranspiration was higher. Biomass production was decreased due to warming, both aboveground (−29% and belowground (−25%, as negative impacts of increased heat and drought stress in summer prevailed. Increased resource partitioning, likely mostly through spatial complementarity, led to higher shoot and root biomass in multi-species communities, regardless of the induced warming. Surprisingly, warming suppressed productivity the most in 9-species communities, which may be attributed to negative impacts of intense interspecific competition for resources under conditions of high abiotic stress. Our results suggest that warming and the associated soil drying could reduce primary production in many temperate grasslands, and that this will not necessarily be mitigated by efforts to maintain or increase species richness.

  5. 基于MOD09GA产品的草地生物量遥感估算模型%Modeling of aboveground biomass of grassland using remotely sensed MOD09GA data

    崔霞; 梁天刚; 刘勇

    2009-01-01

    利用忖南州2006-2008年的草地地上生物量外业实测数据和EOS Terra卫星中分辨率成像光谱仪MODIS每日地表反射率产品MOD09GA,提取了年实测点上的7个通道的光谱反射率值,计算了17种植被指数,综合研究了植被指数与生物量之间的相关性及草地地上生物量遥感反演模型,采用植被指数最大合成算法,计算了2005-2007年各旬、月及年最大植被指数及草地地上生物量密度时空变化动态特征.研究表明适宜甘南州草地地上生物量估产的植被指数EVI,其估产模型是乘幂模型(y=13583x~(1.6652),R=0.798),模型平均测产精度达76.72%.甘南州草地地上生物量密度除了2005年在7月上旬达到最大值外,其他年份均在7月下旬达到最大值.从月度变化可以看出,除了2005年温性草甸草原、2006年低平地草甸、2007年暖性草丛的月生物量密度分别在6,9,6月达到最大值外,甘南州不同类型草地基本上在7月达到最大值.2006年和2007年甘南草地地上生物量密度的年变化比较相近,但2005年的草地地上生物量密度与其他两年相比差异较大,且多高于三年的平均值.%The aboveground biomass of grassland in Gannan Prefecture, Gansu Province, China from 2006 to 2008 was measured and 17 vegetation indices were calculated from 7 bands of MOD09GA. The correlation between the vegetation indices and grassland aboveground biomass were analyzed, and the estimation models were established. The maximum vegetation composite method was used to calculate the ten-day, monthly and yearly maximum vegetation index maps from 2005 to 2007, and the spatio-temporal dynamic characteristics of grassland aboveground biomass were analyzed. The results show that EVI has the best correlation with the grassland aboveground biomass in Gannan Prefecture, power regression (y= 13583x~(1.6652), R= 0.798) is suitable for monitoring grassland aboveground biomass in Gannan Prefecture, and the average

  6. 闽江口湿地互花米草地上生物量的月动态特征%Monthly Dynamics of Aboveground Biomass of Spartina Alterniflora in Minjiang River Estuary Wetland

    李丽纯; 林瑞坤; 吴振海; 陈家金; 杨凯; 徐宗焕

    2009-01-01

    The Minjiang River estuary wetland, one of the most important wetlands in Fujian province, China, is currently being increasingly dominated by alien invasive species Spartina alterniflora, causing its native species such as Phragmites australis and habitats for animals to be dangerous. The S. alterniflora has been spreading rapidly since its invasion in year 2004. However, there are still no effective measures to deal with these problems, with showing little research about the treatment for protecting native species over this area. The authors carefully examined the invasive situation regarding S. alterniflora over the Minjiang river estuary wetland in Shanyu floodplain, whose edge was seriously dominated by S. alterniflora in year 2008. Based on observations of community characteristics including aboveground biomass, height and density of S. alterniflora in the Minjiang river estuary wetland from March to October in 2008, monthly dynamics of aboveground biomass, average height, average density, absolute growth rate and absolute growth rate of aboveground biomass of S. alterniflora were extensively investigated. A correlation analysis among aboveground biomass, average height and average density were also performed. Field investigations of aboveground biomass were conducted by a harvest method, randomly selecting four 0.5m×0.5m quadrats in the study site. Results indicated that: l) from March to October, the aboveground biomass first increased, peaked in the middle of July with a maximum of 2658.9g/m~2, thereafter decreased from late July to the middle of August, and slowly increased from the late August to the middle of October; 2) the absolute growth rate reached a maximum of 32.48g/(m~2·d) from May to June, fluctuating thereafter. A negative value of-21.63 g/(m~2·d) even occurred from July to August; 3) the relative growth rate reached a maximum of 0.043g/(g·d) from pril to May and a negative value of-0.009g/(g·d) was also observed from July to August; 4

  7. Storage of biomass and net primary productivity in desert shrubland of Artemisia ordosica on Ordos Plateau of Inner Mongolia,China

    JIN Zhao; QI Yu-chun; DONG Yun-she

    2007-01-01

    Biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) are two important parameters in determining ecosystem carbon pool and carbon sequestration. The biomass storage and NPP in desert shrubland of Artemisia ordosica on Ordos Plateau were investigated with method of harvesting standard size shrub in the growing season (June-October) of 2006. Results indicated that above- and belowground biomass of the same size shrubs showed no significant variation in the growing season (p>0.1), but annual biomass varied significantly (p< 0.01). In the A.ordosica community, shrub biomass storage was 699.76 1246.40 g·m-2 and annual aboveground NPP was 224.09 g·m-2·a-1. Moreover, shrub biomass and NPP were closely related with shrub dimensions (cover and height) and could be well predicted by shrub volume using power regression.

  8. Stand structural diversity rather than species diversity enhances aboveground carbon storage in secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China

    Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong; Chen, Han Y. H.; Chang, Scott X.; Zhao, Yan-Tao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ming-Shan

    2016-08-01

    Stand structural diversity, typically characterized by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height, plays a critical role in influencing aboveground carbon (C) storage. However, few studies have considered the multivariate relationships of aboveground C storage with stand age, stand structural diversity, and species diversity in natural forests. In this study, aboveground C storage, stand age, tree species, DBH and height diversity indices, were determined across 80 subtropical forest plots in Eastern China. We employed structural equation modelling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand structural diversity, species diversity, and stand age on aboveground C storage. The three final SEMs with different directions for the path between species diversity and stand structural diversity had a similar goodness of fit to the data. They accounted for 82 % of the variation in aboveground C storage, 55-59 % of the variation in stand structural diversity, and 0.1 to 9 % of the variation in species diversity. Stand age demonstrated strong positive total effects, including a positive direct effect (β = 0.41), and a positive indirect effect via stand structural diversity (β = 0.41) on aboveground C storage. Stand structural diversity had a positive direct effect on aboveground C storage (β = 0.56), whereas there was little total effect of species diversity as it had a negative direct association with, but had a positive indirect effect, via stand structural diversity, on aboveground C storage. The negligible total effect of species diversity on aboveground C storage in the forests under study may have been attributable to competitive exclusion with high aboveground biomass, or a historical logging preference for productive species. Our analyses suggested that stand structural diversity was a major determinant for variations in aboveground C storage in the secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China. Hence, maintaining tree DBH and

  9. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  10. Crop resistance traits modify the effects of an aboveground herbivore, brown planthopper, on soil microbial biomass and nematode community via changes to plant performance.

    Huang, J.; Liu, M.; Chen, F.; Griffiths, B.S.; Chen, X.; Johnson, S.N.; Hu, F.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-mediated effects of aboveground herbivory on the belowground ecosystem are well documented, but less attention has been paid to agro-ecosystems and in particular how crop cultivars with different traits (i.e. resistance to pests) shape such interactions. A fully factorial experiment was conduc

  11. Individual Tree Aboveground Biomass of Larix gmelinii Natural Forest in the Northern Greater Khingan Mountains%大兴安岭北部兴安落叶松天然林单木地上生物量

    肖生苓; 杨嘉龙

    2014-01-01

    基于大兴安岭北部林区19块样地内104株天然兴安落叶松实测生物量数据,建立兴安落叶松天然林地上总量和分量相容性生物量模型,分别采用权函数和联立线性方程组消除方程的异方差和度量误差。结果表明:1)含度量误差的单木生物量相容性模型能解决总量生物量模型和分量生物量模型不兼容的问题,而且模型的预估精度高于经验模型;2)所建模型参数的决定系数 R2和模型偏差统计量,估计值的标准差 SEE、平均估计误差MPE、平均相对偏差 ME、平均相对偏差绝对值 MAE 分别为0.907~0.947,1.887~17.368,1.011%~2.703%,-4.937%~6.998%,5.408%~10.886%;3)对大兴安岭北部兴安落叶松天然林样木实测值进行统计分析,得到兴安落叶松天然林单木干材生物量占地上生物量的60.37%~76.80%,所占比例随年龄增加先增加再减小。树皮生物量占地上生物量的7.15%~20.11%,所占比例随年龄增加而减小;树枝生物量占地上生物量的8.51%~14.29%,所占比例随年龄增加基本呈现增加趋势;树叶生物量占地上生物量的5.12%~7.09%,在低林龄期时所占比例最大。%Based on 104 sample tree trunk and branches parse biomass data in 19 sample plots,established the compatible model of aboveground total model and component of Larix gmelinii natural forest,by using weight function and simultaneous linear equations to eliminate heteroscedasticity and measurement error equation. The results showed that:1) Compatibility biomass model solved the total biomass model and component biomass model of incompatible problem,and the compatibility of biomass model prediction accuracy was higher than empirical model;2 ) Utilize modern built biomass model parameter determination coefficient R2 and compatibility model deviation statistics estimate the standard deviation SEE,mean estimated error MPE,mean relative deviation ME,mean relative

  12. DINÁMICA DE LA BIOMASA AÉREA EN UN BOSQUE PLUVIAL TROPICAL DEL CHOCÓ BIOGEOGRÁFICO DYNAMICS OF TREE ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS IN A TROPICAL RAIN FOREST OF THE CHOCÓ BIOGEOGRÁFICO

    Harley Quinto Mosquera

    2011-06-01

    sub-parcel. While in the U it was of 178.94 t·ha-1 and 179.17 t·ha-1 in the years 2005 and 2008; the differences of the aboveground biomass through the time were not significant. The increments annual averages in survivors' BA were of 4.42 and 3.18 t·ha-1 year-1 in the E and U sub-parcels respectively. Also, in sub-parcel E under conditions imperturbadas, the rate of net increment was presented in the AB (TINBA of 2.61 t·ha-1 year-1, in agreement with the hypothesis of the increment in the BA in the tropical humid forests. The PPNA of carbon in Salero was of 5.21 t·ha-1 year-1, therefore the results didn't support the hypothesis of the decrease in the productivity of the tropical forests with the increment in the precipitation.

  13. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  14. Shifts in biomass and productivity for a subtropical dry forest in response to simulated elevated hurricane disturbances

    Holm, Jennifer A.; Van Bloem, Skip J.; Larocque, Guy R.; Shugart, Herman H.

    2017-02-01

    Caribbean tropical forests are subject to hurricane disturbances of great variability. In addition to natural storm incongruity, climate change can alter storm formation, duration, frequency, and intensity. This model-based investigation assessed the impacts of multiple storms of different intensities and occurrence frequencies on the long-term dynamics of subtropical dry forests in Puerto Rico. Using the previously validated individual-based gap model ZELIG-TROP, we developed a new hurricane damage routine and parameterized it with site- and species-specific hurricane effects. A baseline case with the reconstructed historical hurricane regime represented the control condition. Ten treatment cases, reflecting plausible shifts in hurricane regimes, manipulated both hurricane return time (i.e. frequency) and hurricane intensity. The treatment-related change in carbon storage and fluxes were reported as changes in aboveground forest biomass (AGB), net primary productivity (NPP), and in the aboveground carbon partitioning components, or annual carbon accumulation (ACA). Increasing the frequency of hurricanes decreased aboveground biomass by between 5% and 39%, and increased NPP between 32% and 50%. Decadal-scale biomass fluctuations were damped relative to the control. In contrast, increasing hurricane intensity did not create a large shift in the long-term average forest structure, NPP, or ACA from that of historical hurricane regimes, but produced large fluctuations in biomass. Decreasing both the hurricane intensity and frequency by 50% produced the highest values of biomass and NPP. For the control scenario and with increased hurricane intensity, ACA was negative, which indicated that the aboveground forest components acted as a carbon source. However, with an increase in the frequency of storms or decreased storms, the total ACA was positive due to shifts in leaf production, annual litterfall, and coarse woody debris inputs, indicating a carbon sink into the

  15. Agroecology of Novel Annual and Perennial Crops for Biomass Production

    Manevski, Kiril; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    The agroecological potential of many crops under sustainable intensification has not been investigated. This study investigates such potential for novel annual and perennial crops grown for biomass production.......The agroecological potential of many crops under sustainable intensification has not been investigated. This study investigates such potential for novel annual and perennial crops grown for biomass production....

  16. Regional contingencies in the relationship between aboveground Bbomass and litter in the world’s grasslands

    O’Halloran, Lydia R.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Cleland, Elsa E.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Hobbie, Sarah; Harpole, W. Stan; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Davies, Kendi F.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hagenah, Nicole; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Li, Wei; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Stevens, Carly J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on regional-scale studies, aboveground production and litter decomposition are thought to positively covary, because they are driven by shared biotic and climatic factors. Until now we have been unable to test whether production and decomposition are generally coupled across climatically dissimilar regions, because we lacked replicated data collected within a single vegetation type across multiple regions, obfuscating the drivers and generality of the association between production and decomposition. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationships between production and decomposition rests heavily on separate meta-analyses of each response, because no studies have simultaneously measured production and the accumulation or decomposition of litter using consistent methods at globally relevant scales. Here, we use a multi-country grassland dataset collected using a standardized protocol to show that live plant biomass (an estimate of aboveground net primary production) and litter disappearance (represented by mass loss of aboveground litter) do not strongly covary. Live biomass and litter disappearance varied at different spatial scales. There was substantial variation in live biomass among continents, sites and plots whereas among continent differences accounted for most of the variation in litter disappearance rates. Although there were strong associations among aboveground biomass, litter disappearance and climatic factors in some regions (e.g. U.S. Great Plains), these relationships were inconsistent within and among the regions represented by this study. These results highlight the importance of replication among regions and continents when characterizing the correlations between ecosystem processes and interpreting their global-scale implications for carbon flux. We must exercise caution in parameterizing litter decomposition and aboveground production in future regional and global carbon models as their relationship is complex.

  17. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  18. 贡嘎山典型植被地上生物量与碳储量研究%Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Storage of Typical Forest Types in Gongga Mountain

    周鹏; 朱万泽; 罗辑; 陈有超; 杨阳; 谢静

    2013-01-01

    采用典型样地调查和异速生长模型相结合的方法,测定了贡嘎山东坡垂直带谱上常绿与落叶阔叶混交林、针阔叶混交林、亚高山暗针叶林、高山灌丛4种典型植被类型的地上部分生物量与碳储量.结果表明,(1)随着海拔的升高,植被地上生物量呈先上升后下降的趋势,其生物量分别为:常绿与落叶阔叶混交林233.49 t/hm2、针阔叶混交林524.55 t/hm2、暗针叶林415.81 t/hm2、高山灌丛20.86 t/hm2,而相应的单株树木平均地上生物量分别为320.11 kg、1 140.78 kg、623.15 kg、11.89 kg,显示出与植被垂直带生物量相一致的变化趋势.(2)不同树木器官的含碳率中,以叶片的平均含碳率(48.25%)最高,依次为树枝(4 6.29%)、树干(4 4.65%);海拔从低到高的4个垂直带植被碳储量分别为103.60 t/hm2、245.26 t/hm2、192.99 t/hm2、9.82 t/hm2.研究认为,年平均降水量与地上生物量显著相关,是影响贡嘎山植被垂直带地上生物量分异的重要气候因子.%The characteristic of "stereoscopic" climates is fairly clear in Gongga Mountain,and various types of vegetation altitudinal belts ranging from subtropical vegetation to frigid zones vegetation were shaped a-long altitude. In this research,typical sample plot investigation method and allometric models were used to study the aboveground biomass and carbon storage of four typical vegetation altitudinal belts including evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest belt, mixed coniferous broad leaved forest belt, dark coniferous forest belt and alpine scrub belt in eastern slope of Gongga Mountain. The results show that: (1 ) The aboveground biomass of natural vegetation increased from lower to higher altitudinal zones until the maximum was reached and then declined as the altitude continued to increase. The aboveground biomass of the four vegetation altitudinal belts from low altitude to high was 233. 49 t/hm2 ,524. 55 t/hm2 ,415. 81 t/hm2 , 20. 86 t/hm2

  19. The impact of integrating WorldView-2 sensor and environmental variables in estimating plantation forest species aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in uMgeni Catchment, South Africa

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2016-09-01

    Reliable and accurate mapping and extraction of key forest indicators of ecosystem development and health, such as aboveground biomass (AGB) and aboveground carbon stocks (AGCS) is critical in understanding forests contribution to the local, regional and global carbon cycle. This information is critical in assessing forest contribution towards ecosystem functioning and services, as well as their conservation status. This work aimed at assessing the applicability of the high resolution 8-band WorldView-2 multispectral dataset together with environmental variables in quantifying AGB and aboveground carbon stocks for three forest plantation species i.e. Eucalyptus dunii (ED), Eucalyptus grandis (EG) and Pinus taeda (PT) in uMgeni Catchment, South Africa. Specifically, the strength of the Worldview-2 sensor in terms of its improved imaging agilities is examined as an independent dataset and in conjunction with selected environmental variables. The results have demonstrated that the integration of high resolution 8-band Worldview-2 multispectral data with environmental variables provide improved AGB and AGCS estimates, when compared to the use of spectral data as an independent dataset. The use of integrated datasets yielded a high R2 value of 0.88 and RMSEs of 10.05 t ha-1 and 5.03 t C ha-1 for E. dunii AGB and carbon stocks; whereas the use of spectral data as an independent dataset yielded slightly weaker results, producing an R2 value of 0.73 and an RMSE of 18.57 t ha-1 and 09.29 t C ha-1. Similarly, high accurate results (R2 value of 0.73 and RMSE values of 27.30 t ha-1 and 13.65 t C ha-1) were observed from the estimation of inter-species AGB and carbon stocks. Overall, the findings of this work have shown that the integration of new generation multispectral datasets with environmental variables provide a robust toolset required for the accurate and reliable retrieval of forest aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in densely forested terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. 基于遥感的湄公河次区域森林地上生物量分析%Forest Aboveground Biomass Analysis Using Remote Sensing in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    庞勇; 黄克标; 李增元; 覃先林; 陈尔学

    2011-01-01

    森林对维护区域生态环境及全球碳平衡、缓解全球气候变化发挥着不可替代的作用,对森林地上生物量进行精确估测能够大大减小陆地生态系统碳储量的不确定性。本文结合机载激光雷达、星载激光雷达和成像光学遥感等数据进行大湄公河次区域的森林地上生物量估测,生成连续的森林地上生物量图。结果表明:①基于星机地协同观测数据可以有效地估测森林地上生物量,模型总体平均误差为34t/hm^2,相关系数为0.7;②估测结果与FAOFRA2010报告以及其它报告公布的结果相比,一致性较好,平均差异为13.3%;③根据本文的遥感反演结果,大湄公河次区域森林生物量总量为62.72亿t,其中常绿阔叶林占71%,落叶阔叶林占10%,常绿针叶林占16%,混交林占3%;④从各国(地区)的生物量总量来看,缅甸森林地上生物量总量最大,占22%,其次是中国云南省、老挝、泰国、越南、中国广西壮族自治区和柬埔寨。%Forests play a key role in maintaining the regional environment and global carbon balance and mitigating global climate change. Forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important indicator of forest carbon stocks. Accurately estimating forest aboveground biomass can significantly reduce uncertainties in investigating the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) is rich in forest resources; changes in forest resources can affect regional and even global climate change. It is therefore important to estimate forest AGB in this region. Remote sensing is an efficient way to estimate forest parameters over large areas, especially at regional scales where field data are scarce. Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests. Combining airborne LIDAR with spaceborne LIDAR for regional forest biomass estimation could

  1. Iron nutrition, biomass production, and plant product quality.

    Briat, Jean-François; Dubos, Christian; Gaymard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    One of the grand challenges in modern agriculture is increasing biomass production, while improving plant product quality, in a sustainable way. Of the minerals, iron (Fe) plays a major role in this process because it is essential both for plant productivity and for the quality of their products. Fe homeostasis is an important determinant of photosynthetic efficiency in algae and higher plants, and we review here the impact of Fe limitation or excess on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. We also discuss the agronomic, plant breeding, and transgenic approaches that are used to remediate Fe deficiency of plants on calcareous soils, and suggest ways to increase the Fe content and bioavailability of the edible parts of crops to improve human diet.

  2. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics.

  3. Early differentiation in biomass production and carbon sequestration of white poplar and its two hybrids in Central Iran

    Hormoz Sohrabi; Mohammad Kazem Parsapour; Ali Soltani; Yaghoub Iranmanesh

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the potential of white poplar (Populus alba L.) and its inter-sectional hybridization with euphrates poplar (P. euphratica Oliv.) for carbon storage and sequestration in central Iran. Trials were established at planting density of 2,500 trees per hectare in block ran-domized design with three replicates. After 6 years, we measured the above-ground biomass of tree components (trunk, branch, bark, twig and leaf), and assessed soil carbon at three depths. P. alba × euphratica plantation stored significantly more carbon (22.3 t ha-1) than P. alba (16.7 t ha-1) and P. euphratica × alba (13.1 t ha-1). Most of the carbon was accumulated in the above-ground biomass (61.1%in P. alba, 72.4%in P. alba × euphra-tica and 56.0% in P. euphratica × alba). There was no significant difference in soil carbon storage. Also, biomass allocation was different between white poplar P. alba and its inter-sectional hybridization. Therefore, there was a yield difference due to genomic imprinting, which increased the possibility that paternally and maternally inherited wood production alleles would be differentially expressed in the new crossing.

  4. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    Amanda N. Barry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the more environmentally sustainable ways to produce high energy density (oils feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS has also been proposed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass. To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to two-fold increases in biomass productivity.

  5. Levulinic acid production from waste biomass

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,; Claudia Antonetti; Valentina De Luise,; Domenico Licursi,; Nicoletta Nassi

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning) were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic perform...

  6. Chronic nitrogen deposition alters tree allometric relationships: implications for biomass production and carbon storage.

    Ibáñez, Inés; Zak, Donald R; Burton, Andrew J; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2016-04-01

    As increasing levels of nitrogen (N) deposition impact many terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the potential effects of higher N availability is critical for forecasting tree carbon allocation patterns and thus future forest productivity. Most regional estimates of forest biomass apply allometric equations, with parameters estimated from a limited number of studies, to forest inventory data (i.e., tree diameter). However most of these allometric equations cannot account for potential effects of increased N availability on biomass allocation patterns. Using 18 yr of tree diameter, height, and mortality data collected for a dominant tree species (Acer saccharum) in an atmospheric N deposition experiment, we evaluated how greater N availability affects allometric relationships in this species. After taking into account site and individual variability, our results reveal significant differences in allometric parameters between ambient and experimental N deposition treatments. Large trees under experimental N deposition reached greater heights at a given diameter; moreover, their estimated maximum height (mean ± standard deviation: 33.7 ± 0.38 m) was significantly higher than that estimated under the ambient condition (31.3 ± 0.31 m). Within small tree sizes (5-10 cm diameter) there was greater mortality under experimental N deposition, whereas the relative growth rates of small trees were greater under experimental N deposition. Calculations of stemwood biomass using our parameter estimates for the diameter-height relationship indicated the potential for significant biases in these estimates (~2.5%), with under predictions of stemwood biomass averaging 4 Mg/ha lower if ambient parameters were to be used to estimate stem biomass of trees in the experimental N deposition treatment. As atmospheric N deposition continues to increase into the future, ignoring changes in tree allometry will contribute to the uncertainty associated with aboveground carbon storage

  7. Impact of precipitation patterns on biomass and species richness of annuals in a dry steppe.

    Yan, Hong; Liang, Cunzhu; Li, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhongling; Miao, Bailing; He, Chunguang; Sheng, Lianxi

    2015-01-01

    Annuals are an important component part of plant communities in arid and semiarid grassland ecosystems. Although it is well known that precipitation has a significant impact on productivity and species richness of community or perennials, nevertheless, due to lack of measurements, especially long-term experiment data, there is little information on how quantity and patterns of precipitation affect similar attributes of annuals. This study addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing how quantity and temporal patterns of precipitation affect aboveground biomass, interannual variation aboveground biomass, relative aboveground biomass, and species richness of annuals using a 29-year dataset from a dry steppe site at the Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station. Results showed that aboveground biomass and relative aboveground biomass of annuals increased with increasing precipitation. The coefficient of variation in aboveground biomass of annuals decreased significantly with increasing annual and growing-season precipitation. Species richness of annuals increased significantly with increasing annual precipitation and growing-season precipitation. Overall, this study highlights the importance of precipitation for aboveground biomass and species richness of annuals.

  8. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests.

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Broadbent, Eben N; Chazdon, Robin L; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben H J; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans F M; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M A

    2016-02-11

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha(-1)) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  9. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  10. Diversity increases biomass production for trematode parasites in snails

    Hechinger, Ryan F.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing species diversity typically increases biomass in experimental assemblages. But there is uncertainty concerning the mechanisms of diversity effects and whether experimental findings are relevant to ecological process in nature. Hosts for parasites provide natural, discrete replicates of parasite assemblages. We considered how diversity affects standing-stock biomass for a highly interactive parasite guild: trematode parasitic castrators in snails. In 185 naturally occurring habitat replicates (individual hosts), diverse parasite assemblages had greater biomass than single-species assemblages, including those of their most productive species. Additionally, positive diversity effects strengthened as species segregated along a secondary niche axis (space). The most subordinate species—also the most productive when alone—altered the general positive effect, and was associated with negative diversity effects on biomass. These findings, on a previously unstudied consumer class, extend previous research to illustrate that functional diversity and species identity may generally both explain how diversity influences biomass production in natural assemblages of competing species.

  11. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  12. GENETICALLY MODIFIED LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Qijun Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feed-stocks is of growing interest worldwide in recent years. However, we are currently still facing significant technical challenges to make it economically feasible on an industrial scale. Genetically modified lignocellulosic biomass has provided a potential alternative to address such challenges. Some studies have shown that genetically modified lignocellulosic biomass can increase its yield, decreasing its enzymatic hydrolysis cost and altering its composition and structure for ethanol production. Moreover, the modified lignocellulosic biomass also makes it possible to simplify the ethanol production procedures from lignocellulosic feed-stocks.

  13. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Münster-Swendsen, Janus

    fraction of the biomass that is not converted to gas appears as soot. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using entrained flow gasification were created to show the potential of such plants. These models showed that the potential torrefied biomass to DME/methanol + net...... cleaning. This was proved by experiments. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using the Two-Stage Gasification concept were created to show the potential of such plants. The models showed that the potential biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 51......-58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). • A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal...

  14. Torrefaction of biomass for power production

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti

    .D. thesis focus on the following subjects: 1) the development of experimental procedures for a novel laboratory scale reactor (simultaneous torrefaction and grinding) and a study on the torrefaction of straw and wood; 2) study the influence of biomass chemical properties such as ash content, ash composition...... and grinding showed a swift grinding of the torrefied biomass which implies that the rate limiting step in the laboratory reactor is the heat transfer, and not the grinding process. Different torrefaction characteristics are observed from straw and wood chips, therefore an improved understanding and ability...... wheat straw, miscanthus, spruce, beech, pine, and spruce bark) with different chemical and physical properties were pyrolyzed by Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and torrefied in the simultaneous torrefaction and grinding reactor. The effect of biomass alkali content on torrefaction characteristics...

  15. Investigating combustion as a method of processing inedible biomass produced in NASA's biomass production chamber

    Dreschel, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hinkle, C. R.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project at the John F. Kennedy Space Center is a research program to integrate and evaluate biological processes to provide air, water, and food for humans in closed environments for space habitation. This project focuses on the use of conventional crop plants as grown in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) for the production and recycling of oxygen, food, and water. The inedible portion of these crops has the potential to be converted to edible biomass or directly to the elemental constituents for direct recycling. Converting inedible biomass directly, by combustion, to carbon dioxide, water, and minerals could provide a baseline for estimating partitioning of the mass balance during recycling in a CELSS. Converting the inedible biomass to carbon dioxide and water requires the same amount of oxygen that was produced by photosynthesis. The oxygen produced during crop growth is just equal to the oxygen required to oxidize all the biomass produced during growth. Thus, the amount of oxygen produced that is available for human consumption is in proportion to the amount of biomass actually utilized by humans. The remaining oxygen must be available to oxidize the rest of the biomass back to carbon dioxide and water or the system will not be a regenerative one.

  16. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  17. Fuels production by the thermochemical transformation of the biomass; La production de carburants par transformation thermochimique de la biomasse

    Claudet, G. [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The biomass is a local and renewable energy source, presenting many advantages. This paper proposes to examine the biomass potential in France, the energy valorization channels (thermochemical chains of thermolysis and gasification) with a special interest for the hydrogen production and the research programs oriented towards the agriculture and the forest. (A.L.B.)

  18. Climatically induced interannual variability in aboveground production in forest-tundra and northern taiga of central Siberia.

    Knorre, Anastasia A; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Vaganov, Eugene A

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the variability of primary production of boreal forest ecosystems under the current climatic changes, we compared the dynamics of annual increments and productivity of the main components of plant community (trees, shrubs, mosses) at three sites in the north of Siberia (Russia). Annual radial growth of trees and shrubs was mostly defined by summer temperature regime (positive correlation), but climatic response of woody plants was species specific and depends on local conditions. Dynamics of annual increments of mosses were opposite to tree growth. The difference in climatic response of the different vegetation components of the forest ecosystems indicates that these components seem to be adapted to use climatic conditions during the short and severe northern summer, and decreasing in annual production of one component is usually combined with the increase of other component productivity. Average productivity in the northern forest ecosystems varies from 0.05 to 0.14 t ha(-1) year(-1) for trees, from 0.05 to 0.18 t ha(-1) year(-1) for shrubs and from 0.54 to 0.66 t ha(-1) year(-1) for mosses. Higher values of tree productivity combined with lower annual moss productivity were found in sites in northern taiga in comparison with forest-tundra. Different tendencies in the productivity of the dominant species from each vegetation level (trees, shrubs, mosses) were indicated for the last 10 years studied (1990-1999): while productivity of mosses is increasing, productivity of trees is decreasing, but there is no obvious trend in the productivity of shrubs. Our results show that in the long term, the main contribution to changes in annual biomass productivity in forest-tundra and northern taiga ecosystems under the predicted climatic changes will be determined by living ground cover.

  19. Comparing the above-ground component biomass estimates of western junipers using airborne and full-waveform terrestrial laser scanning data

    Shrestha, R.; Glenn, N. F.; Spaete, L.; Hardegree, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    With the rapid expansion into shrub steppe and grassland ecosystems over the last century, western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis var. occidentalis Hook) is becoming a major component of the regional carbon pool in the Intermountain West. Understanding how biomass is allocated across individual tree components is necessary to understand the uncertainties in biomass estimates and more accurately quantify biomass and carbon dynamics in these ecosystems. Estimates of component biomass are also important for canopy fuel load assessment and predicting rangeland fire behavior. Airborne LiDAR can capture vegetation structure over larger scales, but the high crown penetration and sampling density of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) instruments can better capture tree components. In this study, we assessed the ability of airborne LiDAR to estimate biomass of tree components of western juniper with validation data from field measured tees and a full-waveform TLS. Sixteen juniper trees (height range 1.5-10 m) were randomly selected using a double sampling strategy from different height classes in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in the Owyhee Mountains, southwestern Idaho, USA. Each tree was scanned with a full-waveform TLS, and the dry biomass of each component (foliage, branches and main stem) were measured by destructive harvesting of the trees. We compare the allometric relationships of biomass estimates of the tree components obtained from field-measured trees and TLS-based estimates with the estimates from discrete-return airborne-LiDAR based estimates.

  20. Biomass gasification for the production of methane

    Nanou, P.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels. Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is a fuel used for heating, power generation and transportat

  1. Sustainable Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Energy

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 grass native to the North American tallgrass prairies, which historically extended from Mexico to Canada. It is the model perennial warm-season grass for biomass energy. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has studied switchgrass continuously since 1936. Plot-scale rese...

  2. Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Svane Bech, Karin;

    The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae...

  3. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from biomass derivatives and water.

    Lu, Xihong; Xie, Shilei; Yang, Hao; Tong, Yexiang; Ji, Hongbing

    2014-11-21

    Hydrogen, a clean energy carrier with high energy capacity, is a very promising candidate as a primary energy source for the future. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production from renewable biomass derivatives and water is one of the most promising approaches to producing green chemical fuel. Compared to water splitting, hydrogen production from renewable biomass derivatives and water through a PEC process is more efficient from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. Additionally, the carbon dioxide formed can be re-transformed into carbohydrates via photosynthesis in plants. In this review, we focus on the development of photoanodes and systems for PEC hydrogen production from water and renewable biomass derivatives, such as methanol, ethanol, glycerol and sugars. We also discuss the future challenges and opportunities for the design of the state-of-the-art photoanodes and PEC systems for hydrogen production from biomass derivatives and water.

  4. Regulation for Optimal Liquid Products during Biomass Pyrolysis: A Review

    Wang, F.; Hu, L. J.; Zheng, Y. W.; Huang, Y. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Liu, C.; Kang, J.; Zheng, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    The liquid product obtained from biomass pyrolysis is very valuable that it could be used for extraction of chemicals as well as for liquid fuel. The desire goal is to obtain the most bio-oil with desired higher heating value (HHV), high physicochemical stability. The yields and chemical composition of products from biomass pyrolysis are closely related to the feedstock, pyrolysis parameters and catalysts. Current researches mainly concentrated on the co-pyrolysis of different biomass and introduce of novel catalysts as well as the combined effect of catalysts and pyrolysis parameters. This review starts with the chemical composition of biomass and the fundamental parameters and focuses on the influence of catalysts on bio-oil. What is more, the pyrolysis facilities at commercial scales were also involved. The classic researches and the current literature about the yield and composition of products (mainly liquid products) are summarized.

  5. Biomass and Neutral Lipid Production in Geothermal Microalgal Consortia

    Kathryn Faye Bywaters

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems- in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011;Bird et al., 2012. Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 368 to 3246 mg C L-1 d-1. The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production ranged from zero to 38.74 mg free fatty acids and triacylglycerols L-1 d-1, the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment – all results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels.

  6. Biomass and neutral lipid production in geothermal microalgal consortia.

    Bywaters, Kathryn F; Fritsen, Christian H

    2014-01-01

    Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems - in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011, 2012). Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass, and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 39.0 to 344.1 mg C L(-1) day(-1). The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production) ranged from 0 to 38.74 mg free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) L(-1 )day(-1); the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio) decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment. All results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels.

  7. Sophorolipid production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks

    Samad, Abdul

    , the yield of SLs was 0.55 g/g carbon (sugars plus oil) for cultures with bagasse hydrolysates. Further, SL production was investigated using sweet sorghum bagasse and corn stover hydrolysates derived from different pretreatment conditions. For the former and latter sugar sources, yellow grease or soybean oil was supplemented at different doses to enhance sophorolipid yield. 14-day batch fermentation on bagasse hydrolysates with 10, 40 and 60 g/L of yellow grease had cell densities of 5.7 g/L, 6.4 g/L and 7.8 g/L, respectively. The study also revealed that the yield of SLs on bagasse hydrolysate decreased from 0.67 to 0.61 and to 0.44 g/g carbon when yellow grease was dosed at 10, 40 and 60 g/L. With aforementioned increasing yellow grease concentration, the residual oil left after 14 days was recorded as 3.2 g/L, 8.5 g/L and 19.9 g/L. For similar experimental conditions, the cell densities observed for corn stover hydrolysate combined with soybean oil at 10, 20 and 40 g/L concentration were 6.1 g/L, 5.9 g/L, and 5.4 g/L respectively. Also, in the same order of oil dose supplemented, the residual oil recovered after 14-day was 8.5 g/L, 8.9 g/L, and 26.9 g/L. Corn stover hydrolysate mixed with the 10, 20 and 40 g/L soybean oil, the SL yield was 0.19, 0.11 and 0.09 g/g carbon. Overall, both hydrolysates supported cell growth and sophorolipid production. The results from this research show that hydrolysates derived from the different lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks can be utilized by C. bombicola to achieve substantial yields of SLs. Based upon the results revealed by several batch-stage experiments, it can be stated that there is great potential for scaling up and industrial scale production of these high value products in future.

  8. Fire and the distribution and uncertainty of carbon sequestered as above-ground tree biomass in Yosemite and Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks

    Lutz, James A.; Matchett, John R.; Tarnay, Leland W.; Smith, Douglas F.; Becker, Kendall M.L.; Furniss, Tucker J.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2017-01-01

    Fire is one of the principal agents changing forest carbon stocks and landscape level distributions of carbon, but few studies have addressed how accurate carbon accounting of fire-killed trees is or can be. We used a large number of forested plots (1646), detailed selection of species-specific and location-specific allometric equations, vegetation type maps with high levels of accuracy, and Monte Carlo simulation to model the amount and uncertainty of aboveground tree carbon present in tree species (hereafter, carbon) within Yosemite and Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks. We estimated aboveground carbon in trees within Yosemite National Park to be 25 Tg of carbon (C) (confidence interval (CI): 23–27 Tg C), and in Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Park to be 20 Tg C (CI: 18–21 Tg C). Low-severity and moderate-severity fire had little or no effect on the amount of carbon sequestered in trees at the landscape scale, and high-severity fire did not immediately consume much carbon. Although many of our data inputs were more accurate than those used in similar studies in other locations, the total uncertainty of carbon estimates was still greater than ±10%, mostly due to potential uncertainties in landscape-scale vegetation type mismatches and trees larger than the ranges of existing allometric equations. If carbon inventories are to be meaningfully used in policy, there is an urgent need for more accurate landscape classification methods, improvement in allometric equations for tree species, and better understanding of the uncertainties inherent in existing carbon accounting methods.

  9. LEVULINIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM WASTE BIOMASS

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic performances were also improved by the adoption of microwave irradiation as an efficient heating method, allowing significant energy and time savings. The hydrothermal conversions of inulin and wheat straw were carried out in the presence of niobium phosphate, which up to now have never been employed in these reactions. The preliminary results appeared to be in need of further optimization.

  10. Mapping landscape scale variations of forest structure, biomass, and productivity in Amazonia

    S. Saatchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape and environmental variables such as topography, geomorphology, soil types, and climate are important factors affecting forest composition, structure, productivity, and biomass. Here, we combine a network of forest inventories with recently developed global data products from satellite observations in modeling the potential distributions of forest structure and productivity in Amazonia and examine how geomorphology, soil, and precipitation control these distributions. We use the RAINFOR network of forest plots distributed in lowland forests across Amazonia, and satellite observations of tree cover, leaf area index, phenology, moisture, and topographical variations. A maximum entropy estimation (Maxent model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of several key forest structure parameters: basal area, fraction of large trees, fraction of palms, wood density, productivity, and above-ground biomass at 5 km spatial resolution. A series of statistical tests at selected thresholds as well as across all thresholds and jackknife analysis are used to examine the accuracy of distribution maps and the relative contributions of environmental variables. The final maps were interpreted using soil, precipitation, and geomorphological features of Amazonia and it was found that the length of dry season played a key role in impacting the distribution of all forest variables except the wood density. Soil type had a significant impact on the wood productivity. Most high productivity forests were distributed either on less infertile soils of western Amazonia and Andean foothills, on crystalline shields, and younger alluvial deposits. Areas of low elevation and high density of small rivers of Central Amazonia showed distinct features, hosting mainly forests with low productivity and smaller trees.

  11. A comparative analysis of extended water cloud model and backscatter modelling for above-ground biomass assessment in Corbett Tiger Reserve

    Kumar, Yogesh; Singh, Sarnam; Chatterjee, R. S.; Trivedi, Mukul

    2016-04-01

    Forest biomass acts as a backbone in regulating the climate by storing carbon within itself. Thus the assessment of forest biomass is crucial in understanding the dynamics of the environment. Traditionally the destructive methods were adopted for the assessment of biomass which were further advanced to the non-destructive methods. The allometric equations developed by destructive methods were further used in non-destructive methods for the assessment, but they were mostly applied for woody/commercial timber species. However now days Remote Sensing data are primarily used for the biomass geospatial pattern assessment. The Optical Remote Sensing data (Landsat8, LISS III, etc.) are being used very successfully for the estimation of above ground biomass (AGB). However optical data is not suitable for all atmospheric/environmental conditions, because it can't penetrate through clouds and haze. Thus Radar data is one of the alternate possible ways to acquire data in all-weather conditions irrespective of weather and light. The paper examines the potential of ALOS PALSAR L-band dual polarisation data for the estimation of AGB in the Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR) covering an area of 889 km2. The main focus of this study is to explore the accuracy of Polarimetric Scattering Model (Extended Water Cloud Model (EWCM) with respect to Backscatter model in the assessment of AGB. The parameters of the EWCM were estimated using the decomposition components (Raney Decomposition) and the plot level information. The above ground biomass in the CTR ranges from 9.6 t/ha to 322.6 t/ha.

  12. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. 利用遥感技术建立墨西哥热带地上生物量模型%Construction of aboveground biomass models with remote sensing technology in the intertropical zone in Mexico

    AGUIRRE-SALADO Carlos Arturo; TREVI(N)O-GARZA Eduardo Javier; AGUIRRE-CALDER(O)N Oscar Alberto; JIM(E)NEZ-P(E)REZ Javier; GONZ(A)LEZ-TAGLE Marco Aurelio; VALDEZ-LAZALDE José René; MIRANDA-ARAG(O)N Liliana; AGUIRRE-SALADO Alejandro Iván

    2012-01-01

    @@%Spatially-explicit estimation of aboveground biomass (AGB) plays an important role to generate action policies focused in climate change mitigation,since carbon (C) retained in the biomass is vital for regulating Earth's temperature.This work estimates AGB using both chlorophyll (red,near infrared) and moisture (middle infrared) based normalized vegetation indices constructed with MCD43A4 MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and MOD44B vegetation continuous fields (VCF) data.The study area is located in San Luis Potosí,Mexico,a region that comprises a part of the upper limit of the intertropical zone.AGB estimations were made using both individual tree data from the National Forest Inventory of Mexico and allometric equations reported in scientific literature.Linear and nonlinear (exponential) models were fitted to find their predictive potential when using satellite spectral data as explanatory variables.Highly-significant correlations (p =0.01) were found between all the explaining variables tested.NDV162,linked to chlorophyll content and moisture stress,showed the highest correlation.The best model (nonlinear) showed an index of fit (Pseudo-r2) equal to 0.77 and a root mean square error equal to 26.00 Mg/ha using NDVI62 and VCF as explanatory variables.Validation correlation coefficients were similar for both models:linear (r =0.87**) and nonlinear (r =0.86**).

  14. Hydrothermal pretreatment conditions to enhance ethanol production from poplar biomass.

    Negro, Maria José; Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Cabañas, Araceli; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    Pretreatment has been recognized as a key step in enzyme-based conversion processes of lignocellulose biomass to ethanol. The aim of this study is to evaluate two hydrothermal pretreatments (steam explosion and liquid hot water) to enhance ethanol production from poplar (Populus nigra) biomass by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The composition of liquid and solid fractions obtained after pretreatment, enzymatic digestibility, and ethanol production of poplar biomass pretreated at different experimental conditions was analyzed. The best results were obtained in steam explosion pretreatment at 210 C and 4 min, taking into account cellulose recovery above 95%, enzymatic hydrolysis yield of about 60%, SSF yield of 60% of theoretical, and 41% xylose recovery in the liquid fraction. Large particles can be used for poplar biomass in both pretreatments, since no significant effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis and SSF was obtained.

  15. Production, characterization and utilization of the biomass from various sources

    Gojkovic, Živan

    2014-01-01

    Biomass management is one of the most important issues in modern natural science as it is the basic category which spans through various disciplines of biotechnology. Whether animal, plant or microbial by its origin, biomass presents a vast source of food components, fine chemicals and bioactive molecules, which extraction, characterization and formulation can result in interesting new products destined for human consumption or as new materials in biomedicine. In the scope of t...

  16. Production of distillate fuels from biomass-derived polyoxygenates

    Kania, John; Blommel, Paul; Woods, Elizabeth; Dally, Brice; Lyman, Warren; Cortright, Randy

    2017-03-14

    The present invention provides methods, reactor systems and catalysts for converting biomass and biomass-derived feedstocks to C.sub.8+ hydrocarbons using heterogenous catalysts. The product stream may be separated and further processed for use in chemical applications, or as a neat fuel or a blending component in jet fuel and diesel fuel, or as heavy oils for lubricant and/or fuel oil applications.

  17. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  18. Fertilization Affects Biomass Production of Suaeda salsa and Soil Organic Carbon Pool in East Coastal Region of China

    MENG Qing-feng; YANG Jing-song; YAO Rong-jiang; LIU Guang-ming; YU Shi-peng

    2013-01-01

    Land use practice significantly affects soil properties. Soil is a major sink for atmospheric carbon, and soil organic carbon (SOC) is considered as an essential indicator of soil quality. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of N and P applied to Suaeda salsa on biomass production, SOC concentration, labile organic carbon (LOC) concentration, SOC pool and carbon management index (CMI) as well as the effect of the land use practice on soil quality of coastal tidal lands in east coastal region of China. The study provided relevant references for coastal exploitation, tidal land management and related study in other countries and regions. The field experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design, consisting of four N-fertilization rates (0 (N0), 60 (N1), 120 (N2) and 180 kg ha-1 (N3)), three P-fertilization rates (0 (P0), 70 (P1) and 105 kg ha-1 (P2)) and bare land without vegetation. N and P applied to S. salsa on coastal tidal lands significantly affected biomass production (above-ground biomass and roots), bulk density (ρb), available N and P, SOC, LOC, SOC pool and CMI. Using statistical analysis, significantly interactions in N and P were observed for biomass production and the dominant factor for S. salsa production was N in continuous 2-yr experiments. There were no significant interactions between N and P for SOC concentration, LOC concentration and SOC pool. However, significant interaction was obtained for CMI at the 0-20 cm depth and N played a dominant role in the variation of CMI. There were significant improvements for soil measured attributes and parameters, which suggested that increasing the rates of N and P significantly decreasedρb at the 0-20 cm depth and increased available N and P, SOC, LOC, SOC pool as well as CMI at both the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depth, respectively. By correlation analysis, there were significantly positive correlations between biomass (above-ground biomass and roots) and SOC as well as LOC in

  19. Aboveground biomass of an invasive tree Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) before and after herbivory by adventive and introduced natural enemies: a temporal case-study in Florida

    Invasive plants may respond to injury from natural enemies by altering the quantity and distribution of biomass among woody materials, foliage, fruits, and seeds. Melaleuca, an Australian tree that has naturalized in south Florida, USA, has been reunited with two natural enemies: a weevil introduce...

  20. Superstructure optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...... for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case study. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed and their significances are discussed....

  1. Community assembly and biomass production in regularly and never weeded experimental grasslands

    Roscher, Christiane; Temperton, Vicky M.; Buchmann, Nina; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2009-03-01

    We studied the natural colonisation of new species in experimental grasslands varying in plant species richness (from 1 to 60) and plant functional group richness (from 1 to 4) in either regularly or never weeded subplots during the first 3 years after establishment. Sown species established successfully, with no differences in species richness or their relative abundances between the regularly and never weeded subplots during the study period. Aboveground biomass of sown species increased with increasing sown species richness in both treatments. While a positive relationship between sown species richness and total aboveground biomass (including colonising species) existed in the 2nd year after sowing in the regularly and never weeded subplots, this positive relationship decayed in the 3rd year in the never weeded subplots because of a higher biomass of colonising species in species-poor mixtures. Total aboveground biomass varied independently of total species richness 3 years after sowing in both treatments. Jaccard similarity of coloniser species composition between regularly and never weeded subplots decreased from the 2nd to the 3rd year, indicating a divergence in coloniser species composition. Coloniser immigration and turnover rates were higher in regularly weeded subplots, confirming that weeding counteracts species saturation and increases the chance that new colonisers would establish. Although our study shows that low diversity plant communities are unstable and converge to higher levels of biodiversity, the effects of initially sown species on community composition persisted 3 years after sowing even when allowing for succession, suggesting that colonising species mainly filled empty niche space.

  2. Production of Spirulina biomass in closed photobioreactors

    Torzillo, G.; Pushparaj, B.; Bocci, F.; Balloni, W.; Materassi, R.; Florenzano, G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of six years investigation on the outdoor mass culture of Spirulina platensis and S. maxima in closed tubular photobioreactors are reported. On average, under the climatic conditions of central Italy, the annual yield of biomass obtained from the closed culture units was equivalent to 33 t dry weight/ha per year. In the same climatic conditions the yield of the same organisms grown in open ponds was about 18 t/ha per year. This considerable difference is due primarily to better temperature conditions in the closed culture system. The main problems encountered relate to the control of temperature and oxygen concentration in the culture suspension. This will require an appropriate design and management of the photobioreactor as well as the selection of strains specifically adapted to grow at high temperature and high oxygen concentration. 8 references.

  3. Selection of Willows (Salix sp. for Biomass Production

    Davorin Kajba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Willows compared with other species are the most suitable for biomass production in short rotations because of their very abundant growth during the first years. Nowadays, in Croatia, a large number of selected and registered willow clones are available. The main objective of the research should be to find genotypes which, with minimum nutrients, will produce the maximum quantity of biomass. Material and Methods: Clonal test of the arborescent willows include the autochthonous White Willow (Salix alba, interracial hybrids of the autochthonous White Willow and the English ‘cricket’ Willow (S. alba var. calva, interspecies hybrids (S. matsudana × S. alba, as well as multispecies hybrids of willows. Average production of dry biomass (DM∙ha-1∙a-1 per hectare was estimated in regard to the clone, survival, spacing and the number of shoots per stump. Results: The highest biomass production as well as the best adaptedness and phenotypic stability on testing site was shown by clones (‘V 374’, ‘V 461’, ‘V 578’ from 15.2 - 25.0 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1 originated from backcross hybrid S. matsudana × (S. matsudana × S. alba and by one S. alba clone (‘V 95’, 23.1 - 25.7 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1. These clones are now at the stage of registration and these results indicate significant potential for further breeding aimed at biomass production in short rotations. Conclusions: Willow clones showed high biomass production on marginal sites and dry biomass could be considerably increased with the application of intensive silvicultural and agro technical measures. No nutrition or pest control measures were applied (a practice otherwise widely used in intensive cultivation system, while weed vegetation was regulated only at the earliest age.

  4. Modelling biomass production and yield of horticultural crops: a review.

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Goudriaan, J.

    1998-01-01

    Descriptive and explanatory modelling of biomass production and yield of horticultural crops is reviewed with special reference to the simulation of leaf area, light interception, dry matter (DM) production, DM partitioning and DM content. Most models for prediction of harvest date (timing of produc

  5. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Biomass Torrefaction is gaining attention as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties and chemical composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of approximately 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-280 C. Thus, the process can be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. The present review work looks into (a) torrefaction process and different products produced during the process and (b) solid torrefied material properties which include: (i) physical properties like moisture content, density, grindability, particle size distribution and particle surface area and pelletability; (ii) chemical properties like proximate and ultimate composition; and (iii) storage properties like off-gassing and spontaneous combustion.

  6. Aboveground biomass estimation using SAR-optical (Lidar, RapidEye) and field inventory datasets in Skukuza, Kruger National Park in South Africa

    Onyango Odipo, Victor; Hüttich, Christian; Luck, Wolfgang; Schmullius, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    African savanna covers approximately two-thirds of sub-saharan Africa, playing important roles as a carbon pool, habitat for mankind and wildlife, source of livelihood, an important tropical climate modifier, among other ecological roles. Sub-saharan Africa alone accounts for 25% of the tropical aboveground carbon stock (193 Gt C). Global and national level AGB estimates rely on extrapolations with regression models from few field inventories, leading in some cases, up to 100% uncertainty. Remote sensing has proven to provide reliable vegetation structural mapping, given the high spatial and temporal resolution allowing datasets to be availed in areas where ground based inventories are infeasible due to time and financial constraints. The availability of freely accessible optical remotely-sensed datasets has made this feat attainable. However, the heterogeneity of tropical savannas (co-existence of trees and grasses), coupled with erratic rainfall events and atmospheric clouds and aerosol in the tropics has made it difficult to extract biophysical properties of the savannas by solely using optical datasets. This has necessitated an assessment of synergies between active and passive remotely sensed datasets to benefit from the complementarities. In this study we assess the extent to which multi-level sub-centimeter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Lidar, high resolution RapidEye and microwave (ALOS PALSAR L-band and Sentinel-1 C-band) remotely sensed datasets can be used together with tree census datasets to estimate AGB within the complex southern Africa savanna ecosystem. A random forest (RF) regression model is produced which relates the Lidar canopy-height metrics (CHM) with both synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and high resolution RapidEye datasets. As a validation, we compare our results with both national and global level ABG estimates.

  7. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by ‘‘microwave...... dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  8. Contribution of aboveground plant respiration to carbon cycling in a Bornean tropical rainforet

    Katayama, Ayumi; Tanaka, Kenzo; Ichie, Tomoaki; Kume, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ohashi, Mizue; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2014-05-01

    Bornean tropical rainforests have a different characteristic from Amazonian tropical rainforests, that is, larger aboveground biomass caused by higher stand density of large trees. Larger biomass may cause different carbon cycling and allocation pattern. However, there are fewer studies on carbon allocation and each component in Bornean tropical rainforests, especially for aboveground plant respiration, compared to Amazonian forests. In this study, we measured woody tissue respiration and leaf respiration, and estimated those in ecosystem scale in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Then, we examined carbon allocation using the data of soil respiration and aboveground net primary production obtained from our previous studies. Woody tissue respiration rate was positively correlated with diameter at breast height (dbh) and stem growth rate. Using the relationships and biomass data, we estimated woody tissue respiration in ecosystem scale though methods of scaling resulted in different estimates values (4.52 - 9.33 MgC ha-1 yr-1). Woody tissue respiration based on surface area (8.88 MgC ha-1 yr-1) was larger than those in Amazon because of large aboveground biomass (563.0 Mg ha-1). Leaf respiration rate was positively correlated with height. Using the relationship and leaf area density data at each 5-m height, leaf respiration in ecosystem scale was estimated (9.46 MgC ha-1 yr-1), which was similar to those in Amazon because of comparable LAI (5.8 m2 m-2). Gross primary production estimated from biometric measurements (44.81 MgC ha-1 yr-1) was much higher than those in Amazon, and more carbon was allocated to woody tissue respiration and total belowground carbon flux. Large tree with dbh > 60cm accounted for about half of aboveground biomass and aboveground biomass increment. Soil respiration was also related to position of large trees, resulting in high soil respiration rate in this study site. Photosynthesis ability of top canopy for large trees was high and leaves for

  9. Production d'éthanol a partir de biomasse lignocellulosique Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Ogier J. C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude fait le point des connaissances scientifiques et techniques dans le domaine de la production alcoolique à partir de susbstrats lignocellulosiques. Ce travail, réalisé dans le cadre d'Agrice (Agriculture pour la chimie et l'énergie, est une synthèse bibliographique qui a cherché à identifier les avancées capables de débloquer certains verrous technologiques et économiques liés à ce type de procédé. La biomasse lignocellulosique est un substrat complexe, constitué des trois principales fractions que sont la cellulose, les hémicelluloses et la lignine. Le procédé de production d'éthanol consiste à récupérer par hydrolyse le maximum de sucres issus à la fois des fractions cellulosiques et hémicellulosiques, puis de fermenter ces sucres en éthanol. Les premiers procédés d'hydrolyse utilisés étaient surtout chimiques, mais ils sont peu compétitifs à l'heure actuelle, en raison notamment du coût des réactifs et de la formation de nombreux sous-produits et de composés inhibiteurs rendant les hydrolysats peu fermentescibles. Ils sont désormais concurrencés par les procédés enzymatiques, plus spécifiques et qui permettent de meilleurs rendements d'hydrolyse dans des conditions moins sévères. Cependant, la biomasse lignocellulosique n'est pas directement accessible aux enzymes, et elle doit subir au préalable une phase de prétraitement dont l'objectif est d'améliorer la susceptibilité à l'hydrolyse enzymatique de la cellulose et éventuellement d'hydrolyser la fraction hémicellulosique en sucres monomères. Parmi les nombreuses méthodes de prétraitement qui ont été étudiées, nous en avons identifié trois répondant au mieux aux objectifs précédemment cités : le prétraitement à l'acide dilué, l'explosion à la vapeur avec utilisation d'un catalyseur, et la thermohydrolyse. Ces trois méthodes permettraient d'atteindre des rendements d'hydrolyse enzymatique de la cellulose proches de

  10. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  11. Ethanol production from biomass: technology and commercialization status.

    Mielenz, J R

    2001-06-01

    Owing to technical improvements in the processes used to produce ethanol from biomass, construction of at least two waste-to-ethanol production plants in the United States is expected to start this year. Although there are a number of robust fermentation microorganisms available, initial pretreatment of the biomass and costly cellulase enzymes remain critical targets for process and cost improvements. A highly efficient, very low-acid pretreatment process is approaching pilot testing, while research on cellulases for ethanol production is expanding at both enzyme and organism level.

  12. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  13. An Integrated Biomass Production and Conversion Process for Sustainable Bioenergy

    Weidong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not enough land for the current bioenergy production process because of its low annual yield per unit land. In the present paper, an integrated biomass production and conversion process for sustainable bioenergy is proposed and analyzed. The wastes from the biomass conversion process, including waste water, gas and solid are treated or utilized by the biomass production process in the integrated process. Analysis of the integrated process including the production of water hyacinth and digestion for methane in a tropical area demonstrates several major advantages of the integrated process. (1 The net annual yield of methane per unit land can reach 29.0 and 55.6 km3/h for the present and future (2040 respectively, which are mainly due to the high yield of water hyacinth, high biomethane yield and low energy input. The land demand for the proposed process accounts for about 1% of the world’s land to meet the current global automobile fuels or electricity consumption; (2 A closed cycle of nutrients provides the fertilizer for biomass production and waste treatment, and thus reduces the energy input; (3 The proposed process can be applied in agriculturally marginal land, which will not compete with food production. Therefore, it may be a good alternative energy technology for the future.

  14. Marginal land-based biomass energy production in China.

    Tang, Ya; Xie, Jia-Sui; Geng, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Fast economic development in China has resulted in a significant increase in energy demand. Coal accounts for 70% of China's primary energy consumption and its combustion has caused many environmental and health problems. Energy security and environmental protection requirements are the main drivers for renewable energy development in China. Small farmland and food security make bioenergy derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to China: the focus should be on generating bioenergy from ligno-cellulosic feedstock sources. As China cannot afford biomass energy production from its croplands, marginal lands may play an important role in biomass energy production. Although on a small scale, marginal land has already been used for various purposes. It is estimated that some 45 million hm(2) of marginal land could be brought into high potential biomass energy production. For the success of such an initiative, it will likely be necessary to develop multipurpose plants. A case study, carried out on marginal land in Ningnan County, Sichuan Province with per capita cropland of 0.07 ha, indicated that some 380,000 tons of dry biomass could be produced each year from annual pruning of mulberry trees. This study supports the feasibility of producing large quantities of biomass from marginal land sources.

  15. Spirogyra biomass a renewable source for biofuel (bioethanol Production

    Fuad Salem Eshaq

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels refer to renewable fuels from biological sources that can be used for heat, electricity and fuel. The fuels obtained from algae are termed as third generation fuels. The production of fuel from algae provides many advantages when compared to the fuel produced from other sources like agrobased raw materials. Other than environmental pollution control the algal biofuel will help in reduction of the fuel cost when compared to the agrobased and fossil fuels. In the present study algae specifically Spirogyra was used for the production of bioethanol by the fermentative process. A comparative study was carried out by using chemically pre-treated anduntreated Spirogyra biomass. The Spirogyra has a very simple cell wall made up of cellulose and starch that can be converted to ethanol by the fermentation process. The Spirogyra biomass was subjected to saccharification process by the fungal organism Aspergillus niger MTCCC 2196 for the hydrolysis, this process was followed by the fermentation using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC170 for the production of alcohol. A high yield of ethanol was recorded for untreated Spirogyra biomass when compared to chemically pre-treated biomass. The yield of alcohol using algal biomass is more when compared to alcohol produced from other sources like agrobased rawmaterials.

  16. Feasibility of Bioethanol Production From Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Aunina, Zane; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Karlis

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to discuss the potential of cellulosic ethanol production processes and compare them, to find the most appropriate production method for Latvia's situation, to perform theoretical calculations and to determine the potential ethanol price. In addition, price forecasts for future cellulosic and grain ethanol are compared. A feasibility estimate to determine the price of cellulosic ethanol in Latvia, if production were started in 2010, was made. The grain and cellulosic ethanol price comparison (future forecast) was made through to the year 2018.

  17. Biomass Performance : Monitoring and Control in Pharmaceutical Production

    Neeleman, R.

    2002-01-01

    The primary concern in the pharmaceutical industry is not the optimisation of product yield or the reduction of manufacturing cost, but the production of a product of consistently high quality. This has resulted in 'process monitoring' becoming an integral part of process operation. In this thesis process monitoring is one of the central themes, from monitoring the environment of the micro-organisms to monitoring the micro-organisms themselves. The latter is called monitoring biomass performa...

  18. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  19. Energy-efficient photobioreactor configuration for algal biomass production.

    Pegallapati, Ambica Koushik; Arudchelvam, Yalini; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2012-12-01

    An internally illuminated photobioreactor (IIPBR) design is proposed for energy-efficient biomass production. Theoretical rationale of the IIPBR design and its advantages over the traditional bubble column photobioreactors (PBRs) are presented, followed by experimental results from prototype scale cultivation of freshwater and marine algal strains in an 18L IIPBR. Based on theoretical considerations, the proposed IIPBR design has the potential to support 160% higher biomass density and higher biomass productivity per unit energy input, B/E, than a bubble column PBR of equal incident area per unit culture volume. Experimental B/E values recorded in this study with fresh water algae and marine algae (1.42 and 0.37 gW(-1)d(-1), respectively) are at least twice as those reported in the literature for comparable species cultivated in bubble column and airlift PBRs.

  20. Algal biomass production and carbon fixation from flue gas

    WANG Ling; ZHU Jing

    2016-01-01

    Algal biofuel has established as one of renewable energy. In this study, Nannochloropsis salina was cultured to test feasibility of biomass production and CO2 fixation from flue gas. Firstly, cultivation was conducted under different light intensity. Results showed that the highest dry biomass of 1.25±0.061 g/L was achieved at light intensity of 10klux, while the highest total lipids was 33.677±1.9% at light intensity of 15klux. The effect of mercury on algae growth was also investigated, the algae growth was serious limited at the presence of mercury, and there was no any difference at the range of 10-50 ug/m3. These results provide useful information for algal biomass production and CO2 fixation from flue gas.

  1. Biohydrogen Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Technology and Sustainability

    Anoop Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the various renewable energy sources, biohydrogen is gaining a lot of traction as it has very high efficiency of conversion to usable power with less pollutant generation. The various technologies available for the production of biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass such as direct biophotolysis, indirect biophotolysis, photo, and dark fermentations have some drawbacks (e.g., low yield and slower production rate, etc., which limits their practical application. Among these, metabolic engineering is presently the most promising for the production of biohydrogen as it overcomes most of the limitations in other technologies. Microbial electrolysis is another recent technology that is progressing very rapidly. However, it is the dark fermentation approach, followed by photo fermentation, which seem closer to commercialization. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass is particularly suitable for relatively small and decentralized systems and it can be considered as an important sustainable and renewable energy source. The comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA of biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass and its comparison with other biofuels can be a tool for policy decisions. In this paper, we discuss the various possible approaches for producing biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass which is an globally available abundant resource. The main technological challenges are discussed in detail, followed by potential solutions.

  2. 长江口淡水潮滩芦苇地上与地下部分月生物量变化比较研究%Comparisons of Monthly Biomass Dynamics between Aboveground and Belowground Parts of Phragmites australis in Freshwater Tidal Flat in Yangtze Estuary

    张佳蕊; 张海燕; 陆健健

    2013-01-01

    during March 2010 to February 2011. Five quadrats of 0.25 m× 0.25 m were harvested from a section for the aboveground standing shoots and belowground material. After counting and measuring the height, the standing shoots were cut off level with the sediment. Belowground materials were extracted from a depth of 0.8 m. Then, all of the materials were taken to laboratories in Chongxi Wetland Research Center for pretreatment, about 2 km away from study site. Live, aboveground shoots were separated into leaf, rhizome, sheath, stem and panicle. Belowground materials were usually washed within two days of harvesting. Washed material was sorted into live and dead parts, where the live structures were separated into rhizome and root. Plant material was dried to a constant weight at 80 ℃ in an oven, and then was weighed by an electronic balance with precision of 0.1 g. The results showed that the dynamic curves of aboveground-belowground biomass of common reed could be divided into three stages: aboveground increase and belowground decrease (from March to May), both aboveground and belowground increase (from June to September) and then decrease synchronously (October and November). The biomasses of leaves, sheath and stems increased gradually from late March until leaves and sheath got the highest values of (808.3±30.2) g/m2 and (671.9±19.2) g/m2 in August, respectively, and stem had a value of (3 193.0±93.9) g/m2 in September. The biomass of panicle showed an increasing tendency, which bloomed in August. Both dynamic curves of living rhizome and root biomass were S-shape, and the biomass ranged from (1 933.3±93.1) g/m2 to (3 679.2±202.7) g/m2 and (695.8±7.2) g/m2 to (1 017.2±60.6) g/m2, respectively. In late September, the total biomass of common reed reached the highest value of (9 351.0±381.5) g/m2. From March to November, the root-shoot ratio ranged from 0.89 to 19.19. The results indicated the aboveground accumulation and production of common reed in the Chongxi

  3. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  4. Biomass-based hydrogen production: A review and analysis

    Kalinci, Yildiz [Department of Technical Programs, Izmir Vocational High School, Dokuz Eylul University, Education Campus Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Hepbasli, Arif [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    In this study, various processes for conversion of biomass into hydrogen gas are comprehensively reviewed in terms of two main groups, namely (i) thermo-chemical processes (pyrolysis, conventional gasification, supercritical water gasification (SCWG)), and (ii) biological conversions (fermentative hydrogen production, photosynthesis, biological water gas shift reactions (BWGS)). Biomass-based hydrogen production systems are discussed in terms of their energetic and exergetic aspects. Literature studies and potential methods are then summarized for comparison purposes. In addition, a biomass gasification process via oxygen and steam in a downdraft gasifier is exergetically studied for performance assessment as a case study. The operating conditions and strategies are really important for better performance of the system for hydrogen production. A distinct range of temperatures and pressures is used, such as that the temperatures may vary from 480 to 1400 C, while the pressures are in the range of 0.1-50 MPa in various thermo-chemical processes reviewed. For the operating conditions considered the data for steam biomass ratio (SBR) and equivalence ratio (ER) range from 0.6 to 10 and 0.1 to 0.4, respectively. In the study considered, steam is used as the gasifying agent with a product gas heating value of about 10-15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, compared to an air gasification of biomass process with 3-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The exergy efficiency value for the case study system is calculated to be 56.8%, while irreversibility and improvement potential rates are found to be 670.43 and 288.28 kW, respectively. Also, exergetic fuel and product rates of the downdraft gasifier are calculated as 1572.08 and 901.64 kW, while fuel depletion and productivity lack ratios are 43% and 74.3%, respectively. (author)

  5. Phytoplankton biomass, production and potential export in the North Water

    Klein, Bert; LeBlanc, Bernard; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Beret, Rachel; Michaud, Josée; Mundy, C.-J.; von Quillfeldt, Cecilie H.; Garneau, Marie-Ève; Roy, Suzanne; Gratton, Yves; Cochran, J. Kirk; Bélanger, Simon; Larouche, Pierre; Pakulski, J. Dean; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    The seasonal patterns of phytoplankton biomass and production were determined in the North Water, located between Greenland and Ellesmere Island (Canadian Arctic), in August 1997, April-July 1998, and August-September 1999. The patterns differed among the four defined regions of this large polynya, i.e. North (>77.5°N), East (>75°W), West (5 μm) fraction dominated the biomass and production during the bloom. During July, August, and September, biomass and production decreased over the whole region, with the highest biomass, dominated by large cells, occurring in the North. The annual particulate and dissolved phytoplankton production were the highest ever reported for the high Arctic, reaching maximum values of 254 and 123 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively, in the East. Rates in the North and West were considerably lower than in the East (ca. two- and three-fold, respectively). The f-ratios (i.e. ratio of new to total production), derived from the size structure of phytoplankton, were high north of 76°N (0.4-0.7). Regionally, this indicated a high potential export of particulate organic carbon ( EPOC) from the phytoplankton community to other trophic compartments and/or downwards in the East (155 g C m -2 yr -1), with lower values in the North and West (i.e. 77 and 42 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively). The seasonal and spatial patterns of EPOC were consistent with independent estimates of potential carbon export. Phytoplankton biomass and production were generally dominated by the large size fraction, whereas EPOC seemed to be dominated by the large size fraction early in the season and by the small size fraction (<5 μm) from June until the end of the growing season.

  6. Estimating woody aboveground biomass in an area of agroforestry using airborne light detection and ranging and compact airborne spectrographic imager hyperspectral data: individual tree analysis incorporating tree species information

    Wang, Zhihui; Liu, Liangyun; Peng, Dailiang; Liu, Xinjie; Zhang, Su; Wang, Yingjie

    2016-07-01

    Until now, there have been only a few studies that have made estimates of the woody aboveground biomass (AGB) in an area of agroforestry using remote sensing technology. The woody AGB density was estimated using individual tree analysis (ITA) that incorporated tree species information using a combination of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and compact airborne spectrographic imagery acquired over a typical agroforestry in northwestern China. First, a series of improved LiDAR processing algorithms was applied to achieve individual tree segmentation, and accurate plot-level canopy heights and crown diameters were obtained. The individual tree species were then successfully classified using both spectral and shape characteristics with an overall accuracy of 0.97 and a kappa coefficient of 0.85. Finally, the tree-level AGB (kg) was estimated based on the ITA; the AGB density (Mg/ha) was then upscaled based on the tree-level AGB values. It is concluded that, compared with the commonly used area-based method combining LiDAR and spectral metrics [root mean square error (RMSE)=19.58 Mg/ha], the ITA method performs better at estimating AGB density (RMSE=10.56 Mg/ha). The tree species information also improved the accuracy of the AGB estimation even though the species are not well diversified in this study area.

  7. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  8. Recovery of phenolic compounds from biomass during ethanol production

    Biomass to ethanol conversion represents an alternative liquid fuel technology that does not need to compete with food crops. Maintaining agricultural production of commodity crops such as corn and soybeans for the food supply and using agricultural waste or low input energy crops grown on marginal ...

  9. Progress on optimizing miscanthus biomass production for the european bioeconomy

    Lewandowski, Iris; Clifton-Brown, John; Trindade, Luisa M.; Linden, van der Gerard C.; Schwarz, Kai Uwe; Müller-Sämann, Karl; Anisimov, Alexander; Chen, C.L.; Dolstra, Oene; Donnison, Iain S.; Farrar, Kerrie; Fonteyne, Simon; Harding, Graham; Hastings, Astley; Huxley, Laurie M.; Iqbal, Yasir; Khokhlov, Nikolay; Kiesel, Andreas; Lootens, Peter; Meyer, Heike; Mos, Michal; Muylle, Hilde; Nunn, Chris; Özgüven, Mensure; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Schüle, Heinrich; Tarakanov, Ivan; Weijde, van der Tim; Wagner, Moritz; Xi, Qingguo; Kalinina, Olena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and s

  10. Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  11. Optimization of a photobioreactor biomass production using natural light

    Grognard, Frédéric; Pierre, Masci; Bernard, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    We address the question of optimization of the biomass long term productivity in the framework of microalgal biomass production in photobioreactors under the influence of day/night cycles. For that, we propose a simple bioreactor model accounting for light attenuation in the reactor due to biomass density and obtain the control law that optimizes productivity over a single day through the application of Pontryagin's maximum principle, with the dilution rate being the control. An important constraint on the obtained solution is that the biomass in the reactor should be at the same level at the beginning and at the end of the day so that the same control can be applied everyday and optimizes the long term productivity. Several scenarios are possible depending on the microalgae's strain parameters and the maximal admissible value of the dilution rate: bang-bang or bang-singular-bang control or, if the growth rate of the algae is very strong in the presence of light, constant maximal dilution. A bifurcation diagr...

  12. Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass : HYVOLUTION

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.

    2006-01-01

    HYVOLUTION is the acronym of an Integrated Project ¿Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass¿ which has been granted in the Sixth EU Framework Programme on Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Priority 6.1.ii, Sustainable Energy Systems. The aim of HYVOLUTION: ¿Developm

  13. Wood products biomass gasification: technological and economic assessment

    Bonino, G.; Scarzella, L.

    In this paper, a design lay-out is presented for the gasification of wood products biomass. Regarding this alternative energy form, the paper discusses historical aspects and recent technological developments made by Italian industry. The design, construction, performance, efficiency, present and future applications of a twin-feeding system are described.

  14. Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: A comparative study

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Budde, M.A.W.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of employing biomass resources from different origin as feedstocks for fermentative hydrogen production. Mild-acid pretreated and hydrolysed barley straw (BS) and corn stalk (CS), hydrolysed barley grains (BG) and corn grains (CG), and sugar beet ex

  15. Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass: HYVOLUTION

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.; Koukios, E.G.; Niel, van E.W.J.; Eroglu, I.; Modigell, M.; Friedl, A.; Wukovits, W.; Ahrer, W.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives and methodology of the EU-funded research project HYVOLUTION devoted to hydrogen production from biomass are reviewed. The main scientific objective of this project is the development of a novel two-stage bioprocess employing thermophilic and phototrophic bacteria, for the cost-effect

  16. Photosynthetic pathway and biomass energy production.

    Marzola, D L; Bartholomew, D P

    1979-08-10

    The current interest in locating new or alternative sources of energy has focused attention on solar energy capture by crops that can be subsequently utilized as a substitute for fossil fuels. The very high productivity of sugarepane and the fact that it accumulates sugars that are directly fermentable to alcohol may have caused seemingly less productive crops to be overlooked. We show here that recoverable alcohol from achievable commercial yields of pineapple can actually equal that of sugarcane, with the pineapple crop requiring only a fraction of the water used by sugarcane. Pineapple is well adapted to the subhumid or semiarid tropics and thus is particularly well suited for exploiting large areas not now under cultivation with any crop of commercial value.

  17. Effects of Overseeding Grass on Aboveground Biomass of Different Economic Group in Maqu Alpine Desertified Meadow Pasture%补播禾草对玛曲高寒沙化草地各经济类群地上生物量的影响

    陈子萱; 田福平; 武高林; 牛俊义

    2011-01-01

    The effects of overseeding on aboveground biomass of different economic group in Maqu alpine desertified meadow were studied from 2006 to 2007. The results showed that overseeding grass can increase vegetation height and coverage. Aboveground biomass of sedges decreased and grasses biomass increased in 2006. In 2007 aboveground biomass of all economic groups increased and grasses biomass increased significantly, which accounted for about 50% of the total aboveground biomass. Grasses and legumes in mixed sowing grassland of Festuca sinensis, Poa pratensis and Elymus natans (ZCP) were higher by 34. 56% and 96. 37% than control respectively, which was a better overseeding treatment for Maqu alpine desertified grassland. It showed that overseeding was the effective management measure for alpine desertified meadow, which had positive effect on increasing vegetation height, coverage and aboveground biomass.%为研究补播禾草对玛曲高寒沙化草地各经济类群地上生物量的影响,于2006年和2007年在甘肃玛曲高寒沙化草地进行了禾草补播试验.结果表明:补播禾草可增加高寒沙化草地草群高度和植被盖度.补播当年,莎草类地上生物量降低,禾草类地上生物量增加.补播第二年,各经济类群地上生物量都增加,禾草类的地上生物量增加最多,占到总生物量的50%左右.其中,中华羊茅(Festuca sinensis)、草地早熟禾(Poa pratensis)和垂穗披碱草(Elymus natans)混播的处理,禾草类和豆科类比对照分别高出34.56%和96.37%,是玛曲高寒沙化草地较好补播处理.补播作为改良天然草场的有效措施,对增加草群高度、覆盖度和提高草地地上生物量具有积极作用.

  18. Potential of various fungi for biomass production of castor.

    Sawant, V S; Bansode, K G; Bavachkar, S N; Bhale, U N

    2013-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate biomass production of castor (Ricinus communis) with inoculation of native Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF), Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger. In castor, dual treatment of mycorrhiza and T. harzianum was better for shoot length (29.5 cm), root length (40.3 cm), fresh shoot weight (4.90 g), fresh root weight (1.13 g), number of leaves (10) and leaf area (75.5 cm2) than dual treatment of mycorrhiza and A. niger or mycorrhiza alone. These findings established the potential of the fungi for increase in biomass of castor.

  19. Alkane production from biomass: chemo-, bio- and integrated catalytic approaches.

    Deneyer, Aron; Renders, Tom; Van Aelst, Joost; Van den Bosch, Sander; Gabriëls, Dries; Sels, Bert F

    2015-12-01

    Linear, branched and cyclic alkanes are important intermediates and end products of the chemical industry and are nowadays mainly obtained from fossil resources. In search for alternatives, biomass feedstocks are often presented as a renewable carbon source for the production of fuels, chemicals and materials. However, providing a complete market for all these applications seems unrealistic due to both financial and logistic issues. Despite the very large scale of current alkane-based fuel applications, biomass definitely has the potential to offer a partial solution to the fuel business. For the smaller market of chemicals and materials, a transition to biomass as main carbon source is more realistic and even probably unavoidable in the long term. The appropriate use and further development of integrated chemo- and biotechnological (catalytic) process strategies will be crucial to successfully accomplish this petro-to-bio feedstock transition. Furthermore, a selection of the most promising technologies from the available chemo- and biocatalytic tool box is presented. New opportunities will certainly arise when multidisciplinary approaches are further explored in the future. In an attempt to select the most appropriate biomass sources for each specific alkane-based application, a diagram inspired by van Krevelen is applied, taking into account both the C-number and the relative functionality of the product molecules.

  20. Catalytic Production of Ethanol from Biomass-Derived Synthesis Gas

    Trewyn, Brian G. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Ryan G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been developed for the conversion of biomass-derived synthetic gas (syngas) to ethanol. The objectives of this project were to develop a clean synthesis gas from biomass and develop robust catalysts with high selectivity and lifetime for C2 oxygenate production from biomass-derived syngas and surrogate syngas. During the timeframe for this project, we have made research progress on the four tasks: (1) Produce clean bio-oil generated from biomass, such as corn stover or switchgrass, by using fast pyrolysis system, (2) Produce clean, high pressure synthetic gas (syngas: carbon monoxide, CO, and hydrogen, H2) from bio-oil generated from biomass by gasification, (3) Develop and characterize mesoporous mixed oxide-supported metal catalysts for the selective production of ethanol and other alcohols, such as butanol, from synthesis gas, and (4) Design and build a laboratory scale synthesis gas to ethanol reactor system evaluation of the process. In this final report, detailed explanations of the research challenges associated with this project are given. Progress of the syngas production from various biomass feedstocks and catalyst synthesis for upgrading the syngas to C2-oxygenates is included. Reaction properties of the catalyst systems under different reaction conditions and different reactor set-ups are also presented and discussed. Specifically, the development and application of mesoporous silica and mesoporous carbon supports with rhodium nanoparticle catalysts and rhodium nanoparticle with manganese catalysts are described along with the significant material characterizations we completed. In addition to the synthesis and characterization, we described the activity and selectivity of catalysts in our micro-tubular reactor (small scale) and fixed bed reactor (larger scale). After years of hard work, we are proud of the work done on this project, and do believe that this work will provide a solid

  1. Aboveground net primary productivity and rainfall use efficiency of grassland on three soils after two years of exposure to a subambient to superambient CO2 gradient.

    Fay, P. A.; Polley, H. W.; Jin, V. L.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (CA) have increased by about 100 μL L-1 over the last 250 years to ~ 380 μL L-1, the highest values in the last half-million years, and CA is expected to continue to increase to greater than 500 μL L-1 by 2100. CO2 enrichment has been shown to affect many ecosystem processes, but experiments typically examine only two or a few levels of CA, and are typically constrained to one soil type. However, soil hydrologic properties differ across the landscape. Therefore, variation in the impacts of increasing CA on ecosystem function on different soil types must be understood to model and forecast ecosystem function under future CA and climate scenarios. Here we evaluate the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of grassland plots receiving equal rainfall inputs (from irrigation) and exposed to a continuous gradient (250 to 500 μL L-1) of CA in the Lysimeter CO2 Gradient Experiment in central Texas, USA. Sixty intact soil monoliths (1 m2 x 1.5 m deep) taken from three soil types (Austin silty clay, Bastrop sandy loam, Houston clay) and planted to seven native tallgrass prairie grasses and forbs were exposed to the CA gradient beginning in 2006. Aboveground net primary productivity was assessed by end of season (November) harvest of each species in each monolith. Total ANPP of all species was 35 to 50% greater on Bastrop and Houston soils compared to Austin soils in both years (p Desmanthus illinoensis, and the forb Salvia azurea, and these showed no detectable response to CA. No species switched the sign of its response to CA among the soils. Thus, four of the seven species determined the ANPP and rainfall use efficiency responses to CA among the three soils. Interactions between soils and CA have important consequences for the productivity, rainfall use efficiency, and species composition of grassland under future atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  2. Aboveground nutrient components of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. grandis in semiarid Brazil under the nature and the mycorrhizal inoculation conditions

    Marcela C. Pagano; Antonio F. Bellote; Maria R. Scotti

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the aboveground biomass, nutrient content and the percentages of mycorrhizal colonization in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis plantations in the semiarid region (15° 09' S 43° 49' W) in the north of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. Results show that the total above-ground biomass (dry matter) was 33.6 Mg·ha-1 for E. camaldulensis and 53.1 Mg·ha-1 for E. grandis. The biomass of the stem wood, leaves, branches, and stem bark for E. camaldulensis accounted for 64.4%, 19.6%, 15.4%, and 0.6% of the total biomass, respectively (Table 2); meanwhile a similar partition of the total above-ground biomass was also found for E. grandis. The dry matter of leaves and branches of E. camaldulensis accounted for 35% of total biomass, and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S in leaves and branches accounted for 15.5%, 0.7%, 12.3%, 22.6%, 1.9%, and 1.4% of those in total above-ground biomass, respectively. In the trunk (bark and wood), nutrient accumulation in general was lower. Nutrient content of E. grandis presented little variation compared with that of E. camaldulensis. Wood localized in superior parts of trunk presented a higher concentration of P and bark contained significant amounts of nutrients, especially in E. grandis. This indicated that leaving vegetal waste is of importance on the site in reducing the loss of tree productivity in this semi-arid region. The two species showed mycotrophy.

  3. A hyperspectral approach to estimating biomass and plant production in a heterogeneous restored temperate peatland

    Byrd, K. B.; Schile, L. M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Kelly, M.; Hatala, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Restoration of drained peatlands that are managed to reverse subsidence through organic accretion holds significant potential for large-scale carbon storage and sequestration. This potential has been demonstrated in an experimental wetland restoration site established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1997 on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, where soil carbon storage is up to 1 kg C m-2 and root and rhizome production can reach over 7 kg m-2 annually. Remote sensing-based estimation of biomass and productivity over a large spatial extent helps to monitor carbon storage potential of these restored peatlands. Extensive field measurements of plant biophysical characteristics such as biomass, leaf area index, and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) [an important variable in light-use efficiency (LUE) models] have been collected for agricultural systems and forests. However the small size and local spatial variability of U.S. Pacific Coast wetlands pose new challenges for measuring these variables in the field and generating estimates through remote sensing. In particular background effects of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), floating aquatic vegetation, and inundation of wetland vegetation influence the relationship between field measurements and multispectral or hyperspectral indices. Working at the USGS experimental wetland site, characterized by variable water depth and substantial NPV, or thatch, we collected field data on hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and cattail (Typha spp.) coupled with reflectance data from a field spectrometer (350-2500 nm) every two to three weeks during the summers of 2011 and 2012. We calculated aboveground biomass with existing allometric relationships, and fAPAR was measured with line and point quantum sensors. We analyzed reflectance data to develop hyperspectral and multispectral indices that predict biomass and fAPAR and account for background effects of water

  4. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  5. Soil, biomass, and management of semi-natural vegetation. II. Factors controlling species diversity

    Schaffers, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Using a wide range of conditions and plant community types, species diversity was investigated in relation to edaphic and non-edaphic site conditions, management, and biomass characteristics. Both standing biomass and aboveground production were investigated, and their effects compared. Three taxono

  6. Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

    Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

    Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

  7. Biomass storage for further energy use through biogas production

    Atem, A.D. [Instituto CEDIAC, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas - CONICET, Mendoza (Argentina); Indiveri, M.E. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Llamas, S. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The present work approaches the residual biomass conservation for later digestion in an anaerobic batch reactor. Twenty 4 L capacity PET reactors were used. A measuring device was constructed to quantify the biogas production. As substrate were used tomato wastes from local industry and rumen fluid as inoculum. Digestion start up was able to be controlled by varying the temperature, during a period of 118 days was not verified biogas production. After re-inoculated with rumen fluid stabilized for 34 days, biogas production was verified. They were obtained 0.10 m{sup 3} of biogas per kilogram of volatile solids, with 50% of methane content. (author)

  8. Research in biomass production and utilization: Systems simulation and analysis

    Bennett, Albert Stewart

    There is considerable public interest in developing a sustainable biobased economy that favors support of family farms and rural communities and also promotes the development of biorenewable energy resources. This study focuses on a number of questions related to the development and exploration of new pathways that can potentially move us toward a more sustainable biobased economy. These include issues related to biomass fuels for drying grain, economies-of-scale, new biomass harvest systems, sugar-to-ethanol crop alternatives for the Upper Midwest U.S., biomass transportation, post-harvest biomass processing and double cropping production scenarios designed to maximize biomass feedstock production. The first section of this study considers post-harvest drying of shelled corn grain both at farm-scale and at larger community-scaled installations. Currently, drying of shelled corn requires large amounts of fossil fuel energy. To address future energy concerns, this study evaluates the potential use of combined heat and power systems that use the combustion of corn stover to produce steam for drying and to generate electricity for fans, augers, and control components. Because of the large capital requirements for solid fuel boilers and steam turbines/engines, both farm-scale and larger grain elevator-scaled systems benefit by sharing boiler and power infrastructure with other processes. The second and third sections evaluate sweet sorghum as a possible "sugarcane-like" crop that can be grown in the Upper Midwest. Various harvest systems are considered including a prototype mobile juice harvester, a hypothetical one-pass unit that separates grain heads from chopped stalks and traditional forage/silage harvesters. Also evaluated were post-harvest transportation, storage and processing costs and their influence on the possible use of sweet sorghum as a supplemental feedstock for existing dry-grind ethanol plants located in the Upper Midwest. Results show that the concept

  9. Carbonaceous residues from biomass gasification as catalysts for biodiesel production

    Rafael Luque; Antonio Pineda; Juan C. Colmenares; Juan M. Campelo; Antonio A. Romero; Juan Carlos Serrano-Ruiz; Luisa F. Cabeza; Jaime Cot-Gores

    2012-01-01

    Tars and alkali ashes from biomass gasification processes currently constitute one of the major problems in biomass valorisation,generating clogging of filters and issues related with the purity of syngas production.To date,these waste residues find no useful applications and they are generally disposed upon generation in the gasification process.A detailed analysis of these residues pointed out the presence of high quantities of Ca (>30 wt%).TG experiments indicated that a treatment under air at moderate temperatures (400-800 ℃) decomposed the majority of carbon species,while XRD indicated the presence of a crystalline CaO phase.CaO enriched valorized materials turned out to be good heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from vegetable oils,providing moderate to good activities (50%-70% after 12 h) to fatty acid methyl esters in the transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol.

  10. [Moraxella bovis biomass production in a bench-top fermentor].

    González, R D; Oberti, E R

    1994-01-01

    A Moraxella bovis strain was isolated from a kerato-conjunctivities lesion of a calf in Villa Valeria (Córdoba); it was used to establish improved cultural conditions, such as nature and concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources, and pH control in shaken flasks. The selected conditions were assayed for biomass production in a bench-top fermentor. The strain is used by the pharmaceutical industry to produce vaccines and adjuvants. In the initial condition (48 h culture on blood agar) 0.019 g biomass/l.h-1 was obtained. With the use of liquid defined medium with pH control, productivity was increased to 0.153g/l.h-1, with optimum harvest time of 32 h.

  11. Sustainability of biofuels and renewable chemicals production from biomass.

    Kircher, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    In the sectors of biofuel and renewable chemicals the big feedstock demand asks, first, to expand the spectrum of carbon sources beyond primary biomass, second, to establish circular processing chains and, third, to prioritize product sectors exclusively depending on carbon: chemicals and heavy-duty fuels. Large-volume production lines will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission significantly but also low-volume chemicals are indispensable in building 'low-carbon' industries. The foreseeable feedstock change initiates innovation, securing societal wealth in the industrialized world and creating employment in regions producing biomass. When raising the investments in rerouting to sustainable biofuel and chemicals today competitiveness with fossil-based fuel and chemicals is a strong issue. Many countries adopted comprehensive bioeconomy strategies to tackle this challenge. These public actions are mostly biased to biofuel but should give well-balanced attention to renewable chemicals as well.

  12. Biomass Accumulation and Net Primary Production during the Early Stage of Secondary Succession after a Severe Forest Disturbance in Northern Japan

    Tomotsugu Yazaki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluations of biomass accumulation after disturbances in forests are crucially important for elucidating and predicting forest carbon dynamics in order to understand the carbon sink/source activities. During early secondary succession, understory vegetation often affects sapling growth. However, reports on biomass recovery in naturally-regenerating sites are limited in Japan. Therefore, we traced annual or biennial changes in plant species, biomass, and net primary production (NPP in a naturally regenerating site in Japan after windthrow and salvage-logging plantation for nine years. The catastrophic disturbance depleted the aboveground biomass (AGB from 90.6 to 2.7 Mg·ha−1, changing understory dominant species from Dryopteris spp. to Rubus idaeus. The mean understory AGB recovered to 4.7 Mg·ha−1 in seven years with the dominant species changing to invasive Solidago gigantea. Subsequently, patches of deciduous trees (mainly Betula spp. recovered whereas the understory AGB decreased. Mean understory NPP increased to 272 g·C·m−2·year−1 within seven years after the disturbance, but decreased thereafter to 189 g·C·m−2·year−1. Total NPP stagnated despite increasing overstory NPP. The biomass accumulation is similar to that of naturally regenerating sites without increase of trees in boreal and temperate regions. Dense ground vegetation and low water and nutrient availability of the soil in the study site restrict the recovery of canopy-forming trees and eventually influence the biomass accumulation.

  13. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  14. Lignocellulosic biomass utilization toward biorefinery : technologies, products and perspectives

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass wastes (LBW) are generated and accumulated in large amounts around the world every year. The disposal of large amounts of such wastes in the nature may cause environmental problems, affecting the quality of the soil, lakes and rivers. In order to avoid these problems, efforts have been directed to use LBW in a biorefinery to maximize the reutilization of these wastes with minimal or none production of residual matter. Through biorefiner...

  15. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  16. NET ABOVEGROUND PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND BIOMASS DYNAMICS OF SCHOENOPLECTUS CALIFORNICUS (CYPERACEAE MARSHES GROWING UNDER DIFFERENT HYDROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Paula Pratolongo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron diferentes atributos funcionales de 2 pajonales de Schoenoplectus californicus (C. A. Mey Sójak que son muy similares en su estructura y especie dominante, pero aparecen en los extremos opuestos a lo largo de un gradiente de influencia fluvial-mareal en el Bajo Delta del río Paraná. Los resultados mostraron una productividad primaria neta aérea (PPNA significativamente más alta en el pajonal afectado directamente por la marea (1999.41 ± 211.97 g m-2 año-1. En el sitio aguas arriba, menos proclive a la inundación por mareas, S. californicus tuvo una menor PPNA (1299.17 ± 179.48 g m-2 año-1 y el sistema mostró una mayor capacidad para retener la biomasa producida dentro del pajonal, con cantidades significativamente mayores de biomasa muerta en pie (1316.00 ± 336.01 vs. 112.40 ± 55.05 g m-2 y mayores contenidos de materia orgánica en el suelo (16.20 ± 0.12 % vs. 0.70 ± 0.08 %. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo sugieren que los flujos superficiales de alta energía pueden cambiar el funcionamiento de estos pajonales, de un sistema estable acumulador de materia orgánica a un pajonal de rápido crecimiento, con altas tasas de acumulación de sedimentos minerales.

  17. Cover Crop Biomass Harvest Influences Cotton Nitrogen Utilization and Productivity

    F. Ducamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a potential in the southeastern US to harvest winter cover crops from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fields for biofuels or animal feed use, but this could impact yields and nitrogen (N fertilizer response. An experiment was established to examine rye (Secale cereale L. residue management (RM and N rates on cotton productivity. Three RM treatments (no winter cover crop (NC, residue removed (REM and residue retained (RET and four N rates for cotton were studied. Cotton population, leaf and plant N concentration, cotton biomass and N uptake at first square, and cotton biomass production between first square and cutout were higher for RET, followed by REM and NC. However, leaf N concentration at early bloom and N concentration in the cotton biomass between first square and cutout were higher for NC, followed by REM and RET. Seed cotton yield response to N interacted with year and RM, but yields were greater with RET followed by REM both years. These results indicate that a rye cover crop can be beneficial for cotton, especially during hot and dry years. Long-term studies would be required to completely understand the effect of rye residue harvest on cotton production under conservation tillage.

  18. Best Available Techniques (BAT) in solid biomass fuel processing, handling, storage and production of pellets from biomass

    Lindberg, J.P.; Tana, J. [AaF-Industri Ab, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    With the increasing use of biomass fuels the varieties of sources for biomass have expanded to almost all possible combustible matter with biological origin. The increasing scale in solid biomass fuel production and utilization at the combustion plants of the wide variety of biomass fuels have contributed to littering, dust, odor and noise emissions of the production chain. The report aims to provide information for operators, environmental consultants and competent environmental authorities on what is considered BAT, as defined in the IPPC directive (2008/1/EC), in biomass processing and handling as well as the production of pellets from biomass. The project gives a brief description of commonly used solid biomass fuels and the processes, handling and storage of these biomasses in the Nordic countries covering processes from production site to the point of use. Environmental emissions, sources of waste and other relevant environmental aspects from commonly used processes, included raw material and energy use, chemical use and emissions to soil are also included in the report. (Author)

  19. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  20. Interrelated effects of mycorrhiza and free-living nitrogen fixers cascade up to aboveground herbivores.

    Khaitov, Botir; Patiño-Ruiz, José David; Pina, Tatiana; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Aboveground plant performance is strongly influenced by belowground microorganisms, some of which are pathogenic and have negative effects, while others, such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, usually have positive effects. Recent research revealed that belowground interactions between plants and functionally distinct groups of microorganisms cascade up to aboveground plant associates such as herbivores and their natural enemies. However, while functionally distinct belowground microorganisms commonly co-occur in the rhizosphere, their combined effects, and relative contributions, respectively, on performance of aboveground plant-associated organisms are virtually unexplored. Here, we scrutinized and disentangled the effects of free-living nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum (DB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae (AMF) on host plant choice and reproduction of the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on common bean plants Phaseolus vulgaris. Additionally, we assessed plant growth, and AMF and DB occurrence and density as affected by each other. Both AMF alone and DB alone increased spider mite reproduction to similar levels, as compared to the control, and exerted additive effects under co-occurrence. These effects were similarly apparent in host plant choice, that is, the mites preferred leaves from plants with both AMF and DB to plants with AMF or DB to plants grown without AMF and DB. DB, which also act as AMF helper bacteria, enhanced root colonization by AMF, whereas AMF did not affect DB abundance. AMF but not DB increased growth of reproductive plant tissue and seed production, respectively. Both AMF and DB increased the biomass of vegetative aboveground plant tissue. Our study breaks new ground in multitrophic belowground-aboveground research by providing first insights into the fitness implications of plant-mediated interactions between interrelated belowground fungi

  1. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  2. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The kinetic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into primary products (tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  3. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    陈冠益; 方梦祥; ANDRIES,J.; 骆仲泱; SPLIETHOFF,H.; 岑可法

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The ki-netic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into pri-mary products ( tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  4. Ethanol, biomass and enzyme production for whey waste abatement

    Maiorella, B.L.; Castillo, F.J.

    1984-08-01

    Methods of ethanol, biomass, and lactase production are evaluated for the treatment of whey waste. These processes can all reduce the whey BOD load of 35,000 ppm by at least 90%. Plant designs are evaluated at the scale of 25,000 l whey per day, corresponding to the output of a typical independent cheese factory. Ethanol production is the most practical of the alternatives evaluated and the waste treatment would add 7.3 US cents per kilogramme to the cost of cheese manufacture. 57 references.

  5. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology.

  6. Additive effects of aboveground polyphagous herbivores and soil feedback in native and range-expanding exotic plants

    Morrien, W.E.; Engelkes, T.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Plant biomass and plant abundance can be controlled by aboveground and belowground natural enemies. However, little is known about how the aboveground and belowground enemy effects may add up. We exposed 15 plant species to aboveground polyphagous insect herbivores and feedback effects from the soil

  7. Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass

    Nguyen, Quang A

    2013-10-01

    The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

  8. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to

  9. Production of Bioethanol From Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    Georgieva, Tania I.

    2006-01-01

    xylose conversion, effective glucose/xylose co-fermentation, and ethanol productivity of 1 g/l/h required for an economically viable bioethanol process. Furthermore, the fermentation of two undetoxified feed streams of industrial interest (acid hydrolyzed corn stover and wet-exploded wheat straw...... steps, various inhibitors towards microbial fermentation are generated along with the monomeric sugars. The inhibitors can be removed by various detoxification methods but the inclusion of this extra process step increases significantly the ethanol production cost. Compared with glucose, which can....... In order to keep ethanol production cost at a minimum, the major sugars in lignocellulosic biomass (glucose and xylose) must be converted into ethanol due to high raw material cost, typically about 40% of the total ethanol production cost. The need for a microorganism able to utilize both glucose...

  10. Aboveground tree growth varies with belowground carbon allocation in a tropical rainforest environment.

    James W Raich

    Full Text Available Young secondary forests and plantations in the moist tropics often have rapid rates of biomass accumulation and thus sequester large amounts of carbon. Here, we compare results from mature forest and nearby 15-20 year old tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica to evaluate differences in allocation of carbon to aboveground production and root systems. We found that the tree plantations, which had fully developed, closed canopies, allocated more carbon belowground - to their root systems - than did mature forest. This increase in belowground carbon allocation correlated significantly with aboveground tree growth but not with canopy production (i.e., leaf fall or fine litter production. In contrast, there were no correlations between canopy production and either tree growth or belowground carbon allocation. Enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can enhance plant nutrient uptake, providing nutrients beyond those required for the production of short-lived tissues such as leaves and fine roots, and thus enabling biomass accumulation. Our analyses support this deduction at our site, showing that enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can be an important mechanism promoting biomass accumulation during forest growth in the moist tropics. Identifying factors that control when, where and for how long this occurs would help us to improve models of forest growth and nutrient cycling, and to ascertain the role that young forests play in mitigating increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  11. On-line catalytic upgrading of biomass fast pyrolysis products

    LU Qiang; ZHU XiFeng; LI WenZhi; ZHANG Ying; CHEN DengYu

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was employed to achieve fast pyrolysis of biomass and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Four biomass materials (poplar wood, fir wood, cotton straw and rice husk) were pyrolyzed to reveal the difference among their products. Moreover, catalytic cracking of the pyrolysis vapors from cotton straw was performed by using five catalysts, including two microporous zeolites (HZSM-5 and HY) and three mesoporous catalysts (ZrO2&TiO2, SBA-15 and AI/SBA-15). The results showed that the distribution of the pyrolytic products from the four materials differed a little from each other, while catalytic cracking could significantly alter the pyrolytic products. Those important primary pyrolytic products such as levoglucosen, hydroxyacetaldehyde and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone were decreased greatly after catalysis. The two microporous zeolites were ef-fective to generate high yields of hydrocarbons, while the three mesoporous materials favored the formation of furan, furfural and other furan compounds, as well as acetic acid.

  12. Microbial biodiesel production by direct methanolysis of oleaginous biomass.

    Thliveros, Panagiotis; Uçkun Kiran, Esra; Webb, Colin

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel is usually produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with methanol, catalyzed by strong acids or bases. This study introduces a novel biodiesel production method that features direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of the cellular biomass of oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4. NaOH was used as catalyst for transesterification reactions and the variables affecting the esterification level including catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent loading (methanol) and moisture content were investigated using the oleaginous yeast biomass. The most suitable pretreatment condition was found to be 4gL(-1) NaOH and 1:20 (w/v) dried biomass to methanol ratio for 10h at 50°C and under ambient pressure. Under these conditions, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was 97.7%. Therefore, the novel method of direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of R. toruloides is a much simpler, less tedious and time-consuming, process than the conventional processes with higher FAME (biodiesel) conversion yield.

  13. Sampling of contaminants from product gases of biomass gasifiers

    Staahlberg, P.; Lappi, M.; Kurkela, E.; Simell, P.; Oesch, P.; Nieminen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1998-12-01

    Reliable sampling and analysis of products from biomass gasification are essential for the successful process development and economical operation of commercial gasifiers. One of the most important and most difficult analytical tasks is to characterise the emissions from the gasifiers. This report presents a review of the sampling and analytical systems employed and developed when doing research on coal and biomass gasification. In addition to the sampling systems published in the literature, experiences obtained in various biomass gasification R and D projects of VTT in 1985-1995 are described. The present sampling methods used for different gas contaminants at VTT are also briefly presented. This report focuses mainly on the measurement of tars, nitrogen compounds and sulphur gases. Isokinetic and non-isokinetic sampling train systems are described and, in addition, special sampling apparatus based on liquid-quenched probe and gas dilution is briefly outlined. Sampling of tars with impinger systems and sampling of heavy tars with filter techniques are described in detail. Separate sampling of particulates is briefly discussed. From inorganic compounds the sampling systems used for H{sub 2}S and other sulphur gases, NH{sub 3} and HCN and HCl are presented. Proper storage of the samples is also included in the report. (orig.) 90 refs.

  14. Biomass production, nutrient cycling, and carbon fixation by Salicornia brachiata Roxb.: A promising halophyte for coastal saline soil rehabilitation.

    Rathore, Aditya P; Chaudhary, Doongar R; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-08-02

    In order to increase our understanding of the interaction of soil-halophyte (Salicornia brachiata) relations and phytoremediation, we investigated the aboveground biomass, carbon fixation, and nutrient composition (N, P, K, Na, Ca, and Mg) of S. brachiata using six sampling sites with varying characteristics over one growing season in intertidal marshes. Simultaneously, soil characteristics and nutrient concentrations were also estimated. There was a significant variation in soil characteristics and nutrient contents spatially (except pH) as well as temporally. Nutrient contents in aboveground biomass of S. brachiata were also significantly differed spatially (except C and Cl) as well as temporally. Aboveground biomass of S. brachiata ranged from 2.51 to 6.07 t/ha at maturity and it was positively correlated with soil electrical conductivity and available Na, whereas negatively with soil pH. The K/Na ratio in plant was below one, showing tolerance to salinity. The aboveground C fixation values ranged from 0.77 to 1.93 C t/ha at all six sampling sites. This study provides new understandings into nutrient cycling-C fixation potential of highly salt-tolerant halophyte S. brachiata growing on intertidal soils of India. S. brachiata have a potential for amelioration of the salinity due to higher Na bioaccumulation factor.

  15. Leaf expansion and biomass allocation in wild wheat (Aegilops) species

    Bultynck, L.J.A. (Lieve Jenny Alfons)

    2002-01-01

    Fast expansion of leaf area is an important trait to select for in cereal crop species, especially in arid environments. It is associated with higher crop water-use efficiency, higher above-ground biomass production and yield, and increased competitive ability. This thesis examined the physiological

  16. Production of yeast biomass using waste Chinese cabbage

    Min Ho Choi; Yun Hee Park [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea). Dept. of Molecular Science and Technology

    2003-08-01

    The possibility of using waste Chinese cabbage as a substrate for microbial biomass production was investigated. Cell mass and the protein content of four species of yeast, Candida utilis, Pichia stipitis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were determined when cultured in juice extracted from cabbage waste. Compared to YM broth containing the same level of sugar, all the strains except C. utilis showed higher total protein production in cabbage juice medium (CJM). Cell mass production was lower for all four strains in heat-treated CJM than in membrane-filtered medium, and this adverse effect was pronounced when the CJM was autoclaved at 121{sup o}C for 15 min. As a source of inorganic nitrogen, only ammonium sulfate added at a concentration of 0.5 g nitrogen per liter of CJM increased cell growth. Of the seven organic nitrogen sources tested, only corn steep powder was effective in increasing cell mass (by about 11%). As a micronutrient, the addition of 0.5 mM zinc increased cell mass. The results suggest that juice from waste Chinese cabbages can be used to produce microbial biomass protein without substantial modification, after preliminary heat treatment at temperatures below those required for sterilization. (Author)

  17. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environmental contribution (emergy for the commercial forest in the Sao Paulo, Brazil. Energy analyses and emergy synthesis were accomplished for the eucalyptus production cycles. It was determined that emergy synthesis of eucalyptus production and sensibility analysis for three scenarios to adjust soil acidity (lime, ash, and sludge. For both, energy analysis and emergy synthesis, harvesting presented the highest input demand. Results show the differences between energy analysis and emergy synthesis are in the conceptual underpinnings and accounting procedures. Both evaluations present similar trends and differ in the magnitude of the participation of an input due to its origin. For instance, inputs extracted from ores, which represent environmental contribution, are more relevant for emergy synthesis. On the other hand, inputs from industrial processes are more important for energy analysis.

  18. Sustainable Production of Asphalt using Biomass as Primary Process Fuel

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The production of construction materials is very energy intensive and requires large quantities of fossil fuels.Asphalt is the major road paving material in Europe and is being produced primarily in stationary batch mixasphalt factories. The production process requiring the most energy...... is the heating and drying of aggregate,where natural gas, fuel oil or LPG is burned in a direct-fired rotary dryer. Replacing this energy source with amore sustainable one presents several technical and economic challenges, as high temperatures, short startuptimes and seasonal production variations are required....... This paper analyses different pathways for the useof biomass feedstock as a primary process fuel. The analysed cases consider the gasification of straw andwood chips and the direct combustion of wood pellets. The additional use of syngas from the gasifier for theproduction of heat or combined heat and power...

  19. Estimativas da área foliar e da biomassa aérea da pupunheira por meio de relações alométricas Leaf area and aboveground biomass estimates in peach palm using allometric relationships

    Adriana Ramos

    2008-06-01

    Kunth are found in literature and are very useful especially in plant physiology research. However, leaf and biomass area parameters are quite variable as a function of genetics and environment. The objective of this work was to identify the most adjustable equations for peach palm leaf area and biomass area, in restricted by hydric and thermic factors. 14 peach palms (Putumayo landrace from Yurimaguas, Peru were planted in 2 x 1 m spacing. The parameters measured in the field were: main stem height, main stem diameter, leaf number and rachis length and thickness. Fresh and dry mass of rachis, leaflets, palm heart and stem were obtained. Plants selected for this study presented main stem height varying from 0.37 to 2.00 m, with two plants by length. In the laboratory were measured the leaf area and dry matter weight. Equations were fitted using regression analysis. The equation for peach palm leaf area was obtained by regression of leaflets dry weight. Among the tested models, non linear equations of the type Y= ax b and Y= a bx presented better fit (R²>0.88. The values of leaf area, leaf biomass and total leaf biomass varied between 0,84 - 14,06 m², 0,78 2,45 kg planta-1 and 0,14 a 4,44 kg planta-1. Among the parameters studied, plant height and rachis thickness were the most suitable for best indirect estimation of leaf area and aboveground biomass in peach palm plants.

  20. Drivers of aboveground wood production in a lowland tropical forest of West Africa: teasing apart the roles of tree density, tree diversity, soil phosphorus, and historical logging.

    Jucker, Tommaso; Sanchez, Aida Cuni; Lindsell, Jeremy A; Allen, Harriet D; Amable, Gabriel S; Coomes, David A

    2016-06-01

    Tropical forests currently play a key role in regulating the terrestrial carbon cycle and abating climate change by storing carbon in wood. However, there remains considerable uncertainty as to whether tropical forests will continue to act as carbon sinks in the face of increased pressure from expanding human activities. Consequently, understanding what drives productivity in tropical forests is critical. We used permanent forest plot data from the Gola Rainforest National Park (Sierra Leone) - one of the largest tracts of intact tropical moist forest in West Africa - to explore how (1) stand basal area and tree diversity, (2) past disturbance associated with past logging, and (3) underlying soil nutrient gradients interact to determine rates of aboveground wood production (AWP). We started by statistically modeling the diameter growth of individual trees and used these models to estimate AWP for 142 permanent forest plots. We then used structural equation modeling to explore the direct and indirect pathways which shape rates of AWP. Across the plot network, stand basal area emerged as the strongest determinant of AWP, with densely packed stands exhibiting the fastest rates of AWP. In addition to stand packing density, both tree diversity and soil phosphorus content were also positively related to productivity. By contrast, historical logging activities negatively impacted AWP through the removal of large trees, which contributed disproportionately to productivity. Understanding what determines variation in wood production across tropical forest landscapes requires accounting for multiple interacting drivers - with stand structure, tree diversity, and soil nutrients all playing a key role. Importantly, our results also indicate that logging activities can have a long-lasting impact on a forest's ability to sequester and store carbon, emphasizing the importance of safeguarding old-growth tropical forests.

  1. 高寒退化草地狼毒种群地上生物量空间格局对地形的响应%Responses of the spatial pattern of Stellera chamaejasme's aboveground biomass to topography in degraded alpine grassland

    侯兆疆; 赵成章; 李钰; 张茜; 马小丽

    2013-01-01

    地上生物量的空间格局是物种分布格局的重要内容,在小尺度范围内因地形差异导致的环境异质性是这种格局形成和演变的环境基础.在2011年8月野外调查的基础上,借助ArcGIS和S-PLUS软件,利用广义相加模型(GAM)对退化高寒草地狼毒(Stellera chamaejasme)种群的空间分布格局进行了研究,定量分析了狼毒地上生物量空间格局对主要地形因子的响应机制.结果表明:狼毒种群地上生物量受地形因子影响的顺序为坡向>坡度>海拔>平面曲率>剖面曲率;坡向和坡度两种地形因子对狼毒的地上生物量空间格局的贡献率分别为3.75和1.48,其余因子则相对较小;狼毒地上生物量在海拔、平面曲率和剖面曲率梯度上的分布比较均衡,在坡向梯度上呈开口向下的抛物线趋势,在坡度梯度上则呈现开口向上的抛物线趋势.狼毒地上生物量空间异质性及其与地形因子之间的关系,反映了狼毒在地形因子对水热条件重分配影响下的响应机制及生长策略.%The spatial pattern of aboveground biomass is an important content of species distribu-tion pattern, whereas the environmental heterogeneity caused by the topographical differences in the scope of small scales is the environmental basis for the formation and evolution of this pattern. Based on the field survey in August 2011 and with the help of GIS and S-PLUS software, the gen-eralized additive model ( GAM) was applied to study the spatial distribution pattern of S. chamaejasme population in degraded alpine grassland, and to quantitatively analyze the re-sponse mechanisms of the spatial pattern of S. chamaejasme' s aboveground biomass to topograph-ical factors. Topographical factors had definite effects on the aboveground biomass of S. chamae-jasme , with the sequence of aspect > slope > elevation > plane curvature > profile curvature. The contribution degree of aspect and slope to the spatial pattern of

  2. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition.

  3. Assessment of potential biomass energy production in China towards 2030 and 2050

    Zhao, Guangling

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a more detailed picture of potential biomass energy production in the Chinese energy system towards 2030 and 2050. Biomass for bioenergy feedstocks comes from five sources, which are agricultural crop residues, forest residues and industrial wood waste......, energy crops and woody crops, animal manure, and municipal solid waste. The potential biomass production is predicted based on the resource availability. In the process of identifying biomass resources production, assumptions are made regarding arable land, marginal land, crops yields, forest growth rate......, and meat consumption and waste production. Four scenarios were designed to describe the potential biomass energy production to elaborate the role of biomass energy in the Chinese energy system in 2030. The assessment shows that under certain restrictions on land availability, the maximum potential biomass...

  4. Biomass. Energy carrier and biobased products; Biomasse. Energietraeger und biobasierte Produkte

    Muecke, W. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene; Groeger, G. (eds.) [BioRegionUlm Foerderverein Biotechnologie e.V., Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Within the scope of the 3rd Reivensburg Environmental Biotechnology Meeting at 29th June, 2007, at Castle Reivensburg near Guenzburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Challenges according to materials management, land use and power generation in the background of precarious economical situation in the Federal Republic of Germany (H.-G. Petersen); (b) Regenerative raw materials in Germany: Plant sources and potentials (W. Luehs, W. Friedt); (c) Biobased industrial products and bioraffinery systems (B. Kamm, M. Kamm); (d) Potential of biomass materials conversion in chemical industries (R. Busch); (e) Environmental compatible processes and low-priced ecological materials from the processing of biotechnological poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (H. Seliger, H. Haeberlein, R. Kohler, P. Sulzberger); (f) New starch from potatoes - a regenerative raw material (T. Servay); (g) Fuels from renewable energy sources: potential, production, perspectives (M. Specht, U. Zuberbuehler, A. Bandi); (h) Application of biogas as a fuel from the view of a car manufacturer (S. Schrahe); (i) Large-scale production of bioethanol (P. Johne, C. Sauter); (j) Environmental political evaluation of the use of biofuels and politics of biofuels of selected countries (J.M. Henke).

  5. Influence of the Wax Lake Delta sediment diversion on aboveground plant productivity and carbon storage in deltaic island and mainland coastal marshes

    DeLaune, R. D.; Sasser, C. E.; Evers-Hebert, E.; White, J. R.; Roberts, H. H.

    2016-08-01

    Coastal Louisiana is experiencing a significant loss of coastal wetland area due to increasing sea level rise, subsidence, sediment starvation and marsh collapse. The construction of large scale Mississippi River sediment diversions is currently being planned in an effort to help combat coastal wetlands losses at a rate of >50 km-2 y-1. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) is currently being used as a model for evaluating potential land gain from large scale diversions of Mississippi River water and sediment. In this study, we determine the impact of the WLD diversion on plant production at newly formed islands within the delta and adjacent, mainland freshwater marshes. Plant aboveground productivity, sediment nutrient status and short term accretion were measured at three locations on a transect at each of three fresh water marsh sites along Hog Bayou and at six newly formed emerging island sites in the delta. Spring flooding has resulted in a greater increase in plant production and consequently, greater carbon sequestration potential in adjacent mainland marshes compared to the newly formed island sites, which contain less total carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in the sediment. While sediment diversions are predicted to create land, as seen in island formation in the WLD, the greatest benefit of river sediment diversions from a carbon credit perspective might be to the adjacent freshwater mainland marshes for several reasons. Both greater plant production and sediment C accumulation are two important factors for marsh stability, while perhaps even more critical, is the prevention of the loss of stored sediment C in the marsh profile. This stored C would be lost without the introduction of freshwater, nutrients and sediment through river sediment diversion efforts.

  6. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  7. Biomass for bioethanol production and technological process in Georgia

    Nadiradze, K.; Phirosmanashvili, N. [Association for Farmers Rights Defence, Tbilisi (Georgia)

    2010-07-01

    This study discussed the use of biomass for bioethanol production in Georgia and its potential impacts on the country's rural economy. Eighty-five per cent of the country's lands are forested or used for agricultural purposes, and more than 56 per cent of the adult population is involved in the agricultural sector. The privatization of land in post-Soviet Georgia has resulted in the creation of a new social class of land-owners. The use of biofuel in petroleum fuel has significantly lowered greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the country. The biofuel is produced using local agricultural and forest wastes. Use of the biofuel has lowered the country's reliance on imported oil and has increased its energy security. The production of ethanol in Georgia has resulted in significant socio-economic benefits in the country.

  8. Estimation of Aboveground Biomass in Arid Region with ASAR Data and TM Data:A Case Study over the Reed Vegetation of Wutumeiren Prairie, Qinghai Province%干旱区草原地上植被生物量估算--以乌图美仁大草原芦苇植被为例

    行敏锋; 何彬彬

    2014-01-01

    Grasslands are important renewable resources in ecosystems of arid areas. As one of the important components of prairie ecosystems, aboveground biomass is the key indicator of health status of the prairie eco-systems. Comparing to the significant limitations of the traditional method of biomass, the satellite remote sens-ing provides a unique effective and efficient means in biomass monitoring and assessment. In this paper, we pro-posed a retrieval methodology for herbaceous vegetation biomass based on the vegetation structure characteristic and Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS) model using the ASAR and TM data. A two-layer cano-py reflectance model (ACRM) was used to inverse the Leaf Area Index (LAI) which can be easily retrieved from the optical remote sensing data. Then LAI was used to get the number of plants per unit area. The aboveground biomass served as an input parameter was input into the adaption of MIMICS model which adopted for character-izing the backscatter from herbaceous vegetation by deleting the scatter component associated with ground-trunks. Then, based on established equations which used the dual-polarized radar data, the aboveground biomass was calculated using the lookup table. The method was applied to retrieve the biomass of Wutumeiren prairie, Qinghai Province. Results indicated that the method was of the operational potential in aboveground bio-mass of the herbaceous vegetation in arid region. And a good accuracy of the biomass retrieval was achieved (R2=0.8562, RMSD=0.6263). Finally, we analyzed the error sources of biomass estimation using this method. The sources of error might be come from two aspects, i.e. error of the input model parameters, and the ill-posed inversion problem, for which, the mean value was used as the inverse results when the solution is not unique.%草原是干旱区生态系统中重要的可再生资源。本文基于草本植被的结构特征,利用ASAR和TM数据,结合MIMICS模型,提出

  9. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration

  10. 天宝岩不同类型泥炭沼泽物种多样性与地上生物量关系%Relationship between Species Diversity and Aboveground Biomass of Plant Community among Different Types of Peat Swamp in Tianbaoyan

    陈花丹; 何东进; 游巍斌; 张中瑞; 蔡昌棠; 刘进山; 肖石红; 邓滨

    2014-01-01

    Biomass of plant community,species diversity characteristics of each community and the relationship between aboveground biomass and species diversity among four different types of peat swamps were studied in Tianbaoyan National Nature Reserve. The results reveal that:the aboveground biomass of Sphagnum in community and biomass Sphagnum magellanicum were significantly higher than those of others ( P0. 05),while aboveground biomass of community Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum was the lowest. Species diversity order among different types of peat swamp was as follows:community Palhinhaea cernua+Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum >community Juncus effusu-Sphagnum magellanicum >commu-nity Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum>community Sphagnum magellanicum. Correlation analysis showed that:relationship between species diversity and aboveground biomass of community among different types of Sphagnum mire in Tianbaoyan is not obvious,almost no correlation (r≈0),aboveground biomass of Sphagnum mire in subtropical zone were mainly determined by the dominant species, the species diversity was mainly decided by the non-dominant species, long-term flooding and cold weather caused spatial heterogeneity of resources and environment reduce,“Niche complementary” effect is not obvious.%以天宝岩国家级自然保护区为研究对象,研究4种不同类型泥炭沼泽群落生物量、物种多样性分布特征以及地上生物量与物种多样性间的关系.结果表明:泥炭藓群落( Comm. Sphagnum magellanicum)地上生物量和泥炭藓生物量均显著高于其他3类群落(P0.05),其中水竹-泥炭藓群落(Comm. Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum)的地上生物量最低.不同泥炭沼泽类型群落物种多样性排序为垂穗石松+水竹-泥炭藓群落( Comm. Palhinhaea cernua+Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum)>灯芯草-泥炭藓群落( Comm. Juncus effusu-Sphagnum magellanicum

  11. Atmospheric CO2 concentration effects on rice water use and biomass production.

    Kumar, Uttam; Quick, William Paul; Barrios, Marilou; Sta Cruz, Pompe C; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have addressed effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on rice biomass production and yield but effects on crop water use are less well understood. Irrigated rice evapotranspiration (ET) is composed of floodwater evaporation and canopy transpiration. Crop coefficient Kc (ET over potential ET, or ETo) is crop specific according to FAO, but may decrease as CO2 concentration rises. A sunlit growth chamber experiment was conducted in the Philippines, exposing 1.44-m2 canopies of IR72 rice to four constant CO2 levels (195, 390, 780 and 1560 ppmv). Crop geometry and management emulated field conditions. In two wet (WS) and two dry (DS) seasons, final aboveground dry weight (agdw) was measured. At 390 ppmv [CO2] (current ambient level), agdw averaged 1744 g m-2, similar to field although solar radiation was only 61% of ambient. Reduction to 195 ppmv [CO2] reduced agdw to 56±5% (SE), increase to 780 ppmv increased agdw to 128±8%, and 1560 ppmv increased agdw to 142±5%. In 2013WS, crop ET was measured by weighing the water extracted daily from the chambers by the air conditioners controlling air humidity. Chamber ETo was calculated according to FAO and empirically corrected via observed pan evaporation in chamber vs. field. For 390 ppmv [CO2], Kc was about 1 during crop establishment but increased to about 3 at flowering. 195 ppmv CO2 reduced Kc, 780 ppmv increased it, but at 1560 ppmv it declined. Whole-season crop water use was 564 mm (195 ppmv), 719 mm (390 ppmv), 928 mm (780 ppmv) and 803 mm (1560 ppmv). With increasing [CO2], crop water use efficiency (WUE) gradually increased from 1.59 g kg-1 (195 ppmv) to 2.88 g kg-1 (1560 ppmv). Transpiration efficiency (TE) measured on flag leaves responded more strongly to [CO2] than WUE. Responses of some morphological traits are also reported. In conclusion, increased CO2 promotes biomass more than water use of irrigated rice, causing increased WUE, but it does not help saving water. Comparability

  12. Atmospheric CO2 concentration effects on rice water use and biomass production

    Kumar, Uttam; Quick, William Paul; Barrios, Marilou; Sta Cruz, Pompe C.; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have addressed effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on rice biomass production and yield but effects on crop water use are less well understood. Irrigated rice evapotranspiration (ET) is composed of floodwater evaporation and canopy transpiration. Crop coefficient Kc (ET over potential ET, or ETo) is crop specific according to FAO, but may decrease as CO2 concentration rises. A sunlit growth chamber experiment was conducted in the Philippines, exposing 1.44-m2 canopies of IR72 rice to four constant CO2 levels (195, 390, 780 and 1560 ppmv). Crop geometry and management emulated field conditions. In two wet (WS) and two dry (DS) seasons, final aboveground dry weight (agdw) was measured. At 390 ppmv [CO2] (current ambient level), agdw averaged 1744 g m-2, similar to field although solar radiation was only 61% of ambient. Reduction to 195 ppmv [CO2] reduced agdw to 56±5% (SE), increase to 780 ppmv increased agdw to 128±8%, and 1560 ppmv increased agdw to 142±5%. In 2013WS, crop ET was measured by weighing the water extracted daily from the chambers by the air conditioners controlling air humidity. Chamber ETo was calculated according to FAO and empirically corrected via observed pan evaporation in chamber vs. field. For 390 ppmv [CO2], Kc was about 1 during crop establishment but increased to about 3 at flowering. 195 ppmv CO2 reduced Kc, 780 ppmv increased it, but at 1560 ppmv it declined. Whole-season crop water use was 564 mm (195 ppmv), 719 mm (390 ppmv), 928 mm (780 ppmv) and 803 mm (1560 ppmv). With increasing [CO2], crop water use efficiency (WUE) gradually increased from 1.59 g kg-1 (195 ppmv) to 2.88 g kg-1 (1560 ppmv). Transpiration efficiency (TE) measured on flag leaves responded more strongly to [CO2] than WUE. Responses of some morphological traits are also reported. In conclusion, increased CO2 promotes biomass more than water use of irrigated rice, causing increased WUE, but it does not help saving water. Comparability

  13. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    None