WorldWideScience

Sample records for abort system pathfinder

  1. LISA Pathfinder: Optical Metrology System monitoring during operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Heather E.; LISA Pathfinder Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    The LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission has demonstrated excellent performance. In addition to having surpassed the main mission goals, data has been collected from the various subsystems throughout the duration of the mission. This data is a valuable resource, both for a more complete understanding of the LPF satellite and the differential acceleration measurements, as well as for the design of the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. Initial analysis of the Optical Metrology System (OMS) data was performed as part of daily system monitoring, and more in-depth analyses are ongoing. This contribution presents an overview of these activities along with an introduction to the OMS.

  2. Landsat Pathfinder tropical forest information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, W.; Chomentowski, W.; Harville, J.; Skole, D.; Vellekamp, K.

    1994-01-01

    A Tropical Forest Information Management System_(TFIMS) has been designed to fulfill the needs of HTFIP in such a way that it tracks all aspects of the generation and analysis of the raw satellite data and the derived deforestation dataset. The system is broken down into four components: satellite image selection, processing, data management and archive management. However, as we began to think of how the TFIMS could also be used to make the data readily accessible to all user communities we realized that the initial system was too project oriented and could only be accessed locally. The new system needed development in the areas of data ingest and storage, while at the same time being implemented on a server environment with a network interface accessible via Internet. This paper summarizes the overall design of the existing prototype (version 0) information management system and then presents the design of the new system (version 1). The development of version 1 of the TFIMS is ongoing. There are no current plans for a gradual transition from version 0 to version 1 because the significant changes are in how the data within the HTFIP will be made accessible to the extended community of scientists, policy makers, educators, and students and not in the functionality of the basic system.

  3. LISA Pathfinder drag-free control and system implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichter, Walter; Gath, Peter; Vitale, Stefano; Bortoluzzi, Daniele

    2005-01-01

    The top-level requirement of the LISA Pathfinder mission is the verification of pure relative free fall between two test masses with an accuracy of about 3 x 10 -14 m s -2 Hz -1/2 in a measurement bandwidth between 1 mHz and 30 mHz. The drag-free control system is one of the key technology elements that shall be verified. Its design is strongly connected to the overall system and experimental design, in particular, via the following issues: the differential test mass motion and thus the science measurements depend on the control system; design constraints, such as negative stiffness of test masses and electrostatic actuation cross-talk, have an impact on science and control system performance; derived requirements for control system components, in particular, the micro-propulsion system, must be within reasonable and feasible limits. In this paper, the control design approach is outlined and the system-related issues are addressed

  4. On the warm nearshore bias in Pathfinder monthly SST products over Eastern Boundary upwelling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dufois, F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using in situ sea surface temperature (SST) data and MODIS/TERRA SST, the monthly AVHRR Pathfinder (version 5.0 and 5.2) SST product was evaluated within the four main Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. A warm bias in the monthly Pathfinder data...

  5. The LISA Pathfinder interferometry-hardware and system testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audley, H; Danzmann, K; MarIn, A Garcia; Heinzel, G; Monsky, A; Nofrarias, M; Steier, F; Bogenstahl, J [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik und Universitaet Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Gerardi, D; Gerndt, R; Hechenblaikner, G; Johann, U; Luetzow-Wentzky, P; Wand, V [EADS Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Antonucci, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Armano, M [European Space Astronomy Centre, European Space Agency, Villanueva de la Canada, 28692 Madrid (Spain); Auger, G; Binetruy, P [APC UMR7164, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Benedetti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e Tecnologie Industriali, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Boatella, C, E-mail: antonio.garcia@aei.mpg.de [CNES, DCT/AQ/EC, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse, Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-05-07

    Preparations for the LISA Pathfinder mission have reached an exciting stage. Tests of the engineering model (EM) of the optical metrology system have recently been completed at the Albert Einstein Institute, Hannover, and flight model tests are now underway. Significantly, they represent the first complete integration and testing of the space-qualified hardware and are the first tests on an optical system level. The results and test procedures of these campaigns will be utilized directly in the ground-based flight hardware tests, and subsequently during in-flight operations. In addition, they allow valuable testing of the data analysis methods using the MATLAB-based LTP data analysis toolbox. This paper presents an overview of the results from the EM test campaign that was successfully completed in December 2009.

  6. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  7. [Abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, J P

    1998-01-01

    Abortion is the interruption of a dynamic process in a final and irreversible form. The legalization of abortion is applied to human ontogenesis, that is, the development of the human being. However, the embryo that is growing in the uterus is not a human being because a human being is a complex organism with differentiated systems, its own identity and intrinsic autonomy in its process of development. There are basically four levels of the analysis of the problem of abortion: 1) fundamental emotional arguments; 2) profound ignorance of technical and scientific facts; 3) rational positions obfuscated by the dramatic intensity of everyday situations; and 4) the conjunction of deliberated position where culpability is avoided with solidarity for all subjects of the process with a socially oriented view. The phenomenon of abortion from an epidemiological point of view summons the facts with which it is associated: poverty, illiteracy, shortage or lack of community health resources, absence of centers for adolescents, degradation of the environment, and precariousness of employment.

  8. The Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, David

    2003-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission is shown. The contents include: 1) Why CO2?; 2) What Processes Control CO2 Sinks?; 3) OCO Science Team; 4) Space-Based Measurements of CO2; 5) Driving Requirement: Precise, Bias-Free Global Measurements; 6) Making Precise CO2 Measurements from Space; 7) OCO Spatial Sampling Strategy; 8) OCO Observing Modes; 9) Implementation Approach; 10) The OCO Instrument; 11) The OCO Spacecraft; 12) OCO Will Fly in the A-Train; 13) Validation Program Ensures Accuracy and Minimizes Spatially Coherent Biases; 14) Can OCO Provide the Required Precision?; 15) O2 Column Retrievals with Ground-based FTS; 16) X(sub CO2) Retrieval Simulations; 17) Impact of Albedo and Aerosol Uncertainty on X(sub CO2) Retrievals; 18) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Seasonal Cycle; 19) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: The North-South Gradient in CO2; 20) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Effect of Diurnal Biases; 21) Project Status and Schedule; and 22) Summary.

  9. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine cavity...

  10. Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most health care providers advise counseling.

  11. Abort kicker power supply systems at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention will be given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades will be given for the two operational systems

  12. Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor "Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on abortion. The listing contains information on pending bills: the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) clinic licensing, e.g., requiring outpatient health care facilities in which abortions are performed, to have malpractice liability insurance; 2) comprehensive statues, which require parental notification before minor may obtain abortions, mandate abortion counseling to all women 24 hours before the abortion can be performed and prohibit disciplining or discharging a state employee for refusing to provide abortion counseling; 3) fetal personhood and rights, e.g. providing that life is vested in each person at fertilization; 4) fetal research and remains; 5) gender of fetus, which regulate abortions relative to sex selection in pregnancies; 6) harassment regulation; 7) informed consent and waiting periods detailing the risks and alternatives to abortion, and the 24-hour waiting period; 8) insurance coverage, e.g., eliminating language banning the coverage of abortions for state workers, and prohibiting disclosure by a health insurance carrier to the employer of a claimant that the claimant had a surgical abortion; 9) legality of abortion, urging Congress to reject he Freedom of Choice Act; 10) parental consent and notification; 11) postviability requirements; 12) public funding; 13) reporting requirements; 14) reproductive rights, and 15) spousal and paternal consent and notification.

  13. Abort kicker power supply systems at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.

    1985-06-01

    Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. The characteristics of this current waveform are defined by the requirements of the machine operation. The standard fixed target running mode calls for 12 booster batches of beam which leaves a rotating gap in the beams of approx.1.8 μs. The current waveform is required to rise to 90% of I/sub max/ in this time to avoid beam loss from partially deflected beam. Aperture limitations in both the accelerator and the abort channel demand that the current in the magnets stays above this 90% I/sub max/ for the 21 μs needed to ensure all the beam has left the machine. The 25 mm displacement needed to cleanly enter the abort channel at 1 TeV corresponds to a maximum current in each of the 4 modules of approx.20 kA. Similar constraints are needed for the Main Ring and Tevatron antiproton abort systems. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention is given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades are given for the two operational systems. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Abort kicker power supply systems at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. The characteristics of this current waveform are defined by the requirements of the machine operation. The standard fixed target running mode calls for 12 booster batches of beam which leaves a rotating gap in the beam of about1.8 μs. The current waveform is required to rise to 90% of I /SUB max/ in this time to avoid beam loss from partially deflected beam. Aperture limitations in both the accelerator and the abort channel demand that the current in the magnets stays above this 90% I for the 21 μs needed to ensure all the beam has /SUP max/ left the machine. The 25 mm displacement needed to cleanly enter the abort channel at 1 TeV corresponds to a maximum current in each of the 4 modules of about20 kA. Similar constraints are needed for the Main Ring and Tevatron antiproton abort systems. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention will be given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades will be given for the two operational systems

  15. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  16. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost

  17. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  18. Development of Slewing Mirror Telescope Optical System for the UFFO-pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, S.; Nam, J.W.; Ahn, K.-B.

    2013-01-01

    The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) is the UV/optical telescope of UFFO-pathfinder. The SMT optical system is a Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) telescope of 100 mm diameter pointed by means of a gimbal-mounted flat mirror in front of the telescope. The RC telescope has a 17 × 17arcmin2 in Field of View and ...

  19. Modeling to Mars: a NASA Model Based Systems Engineering Pathfinder Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Lee, Kristopher A.; Miller, Scott T.; Vorndran, Kenneth A.; Vaden, Karl R.; Ross, Eric P.; Powell, Bobby C.; Moses, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) Systems Engineering (SE) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) initiated the Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Pathfinder effort in FY16. The goals and objectives of the MBSE Pathfinder include developing and advancing MBSE capability across NASA, applying MBSE to real NASA issues, and capturing issues and opportunities surrounding MBSE. The Pathfinder effort consisted of four teams, with each team addressing a particular focus area. This paper focuses on Pathfinder team 1 with the focus area of architectures and mission campaigns. These efforts covered the timeframe of February 2016 through September 2016. The team was comprised of eight team members from seven NASA Centers (Glenn Research Center, Langley Research Center, Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center IV&V Facility, Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Stennis Space Center). Collectively, the team had varying levels of knowledge, skills and expertise in systems engineering and MBSE. The team applied their existing and newly acquired system modeling knowledge and expertise to develop modeling products for a campaign (Program) of crew and cargo missions (Projects) to establish a human presence on Mars utilizing In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Pathfinder team 1 developed a subset of modeling products that are required for a Program System Requirement Review (SRR)/System Design Review (SDR) and Project Mission Concept Review (MCR)/SRR as defined in NASA Procedural Requirements. Additionally, Team 1 was able to perform and demonstrate some trades and constraint analyses. At the end of these efforts, over twenty lessons learned and recommended next steps have been identified.

  20. THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.

    1999-01-01

    THE ENERGY STORED IN THE RHIC BEAM IS ABOUT 200 KJ PER RING AT DESIGN ENERGY AND INTENSITY. TO PREVENT QUENCHING OF THE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS OR MATERIAL DAMAGE, THE BEAM WILL BE SAFELY DISPOSED OF BY AN INTERNAL BEAM ABORT SYSTEM, WHICH INCLUDES THE KICKER MAGNETS, THE PULSED POWER SUPPLIES, AND THE DUMP ABSORBER. DISPOSAL OF HEAVY IONS, SUCH AS GOLD, IMPOSES DESIGN CONSTRAINTS MORE SEVERE THAN THOSE FOR PROTON BEAMS OF EQUAL INTENSITY. IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE THE THERMAL SHOCK IN THE CARBON-FIBER DUMP BLOCK, THE BUNCHES MUST BE LATERALLY DISPERSED

  1. Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E L

    1989-01-01

    If you are pregnant and near 40 years old there is 1/137 chance that your child may have Down's syndrome, or 1/65 chance he will have a physical or mental problem. There are tests that can indicate these problems but they increase the risk of spontaneous abortion. A woman should not be forced to carry an unwanted child, and the needs of childless couples should not be addressed in abortion discussions. The Roe v. Wade case made the distinction of not having to determine when life begins, but when it can be sustained outside the body. The Missouri statute states that human life begins at conception, an unborn child has protectable life interests and the parents of that child have protectable life interests of the unborn child in relation to life, health and its well being. States that are really concerned with the interests of unborn children should improve prenatal care, educate teens on contraception, AIDS, and be concerned about violent behavior and smoking. Voters in Michigan and Arkansas approved a law to stop the use of public funds for abortion, other than saving the mother's life. Pro- choice advocates are concerned that the conservative appointees to the supreme court will reverse the previous decision.

  2. The PEP-II abort kicker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamare, J de; Donaldson, A.; Kulikov, A. Lipari, J.

    1997-07-01

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of electron beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 uS (the beam transit time around the time). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% in 370 nS. This report discusses the design of the system controls, interlocks, power supplies, and modulator

  3. Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B

    1979-09-15

    Having read Professor Peter Huntingford's letter (25 August, p 496), I am more convinced than ever that reduction to the simplest possible terms will always clarify an issue, and I am at one with him in deploring the terms "serious," "grave," and "substantial." His last paragraph approximates to such clarify when he says "the right of women to choose freely whether or not they bear a child"--but I fear that the phrase is slanted and ignores an essential ingredient in the abortive act. Whereas the secondary effect of abortion is certainly that the woman will not bear a child, the primary effect is the killing of that child, admittedly small and defenceless. Maybe there are many who will seek to justify the killing of their fellow members of the human race on the grounds that they are not wanted, or might be handicapped; if so, let them proclaim these views "in good set terms." But if the principle of getting rid of the unwanted by killing them is to expand its application further, who among us will be safe when someone else can decide our fate? Even the advocates of euthanasia usually insist that it be voluntary. Who yet has asked a fetus whether it wants to live or be killed?

  4. The end-to-end testbed of the optical metrology system on-board LISA Pathfinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, F; Cervantes, F Guzman; Marin, A F GarcIa; Heinzel, G; Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Gerardi, D, E-mail: frank.steier@aei.mpg.d [EADS Astrium Satellites GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-05-07

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The main experiment on-board LISA Pathfinder is the so-called LISA Technology Package (LTP) which has the aim to measure the differential acceleration between two free-falling test masses with an accuracy of 3 x 10{sup -14} ms{sup -2} Hz{sup -1/2} between 1 mHz and 30 mHz. This measurement is performed interferometrically by the optical metrology system (OMS) on-board LISA Pathfinder. In this paper, we present the development of an experimental end-to-end testbed of the entire OMS. It includes the interferometer and its sub-units, the interferometer backend which is a phasemeter and the processing of the phasemeter output data. Furthermore, three-axes piezo-actuated mirrors are used instead of the free-falling test masses for the characterization of the dynamic behaviour of the system and some parts of the drag-free and attitude control system (DFACS) which controls the test masses and the satellite. The end-to-end testbed includes all parts of the LTP that can reasonably be tested on earth without free-falling test masses. At its present status it consists mainly of breadboard components. Some of those have already been replaced by engineering models of the LTP experiment. In the next steps, further engineering and flight models will also be inserted in this testbed and tested against well-characterized breadboard components. The presented testbed is an important reference for the unit tests and can also be used for validation of the on-board experiment during the mission.

  5. The Earth System Science Pathfinder VOLCAM Volcanic Hazard Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Arlin J.

    1999-01-01

    The VOLCAM mission is planned for research on volcanic eruptions and as a demonstration of a satellite system for measuring the location and density of volcanic eruption clouds for use in mitigating hazards to aircraft by the operational air traffic control systems. A requirement for 15 minute time resolution is met by flight as payloads of opportunity on geostationary satellites. Volcanic sulfur dioxide and ash are detected using techniques that have been developed from polar orbiting TOMS (UV) and AVHRR (IR) data. Seven band UV and three band IR filter wheel cameras are designed for continuous observation of the full disk of the earth with moderate (10 - 20 km) ground resolution. This resolution can be achieved with small, low cost instruments but is adequate for discrimination of ash and sulfur dioxide in the volcanic clouds from meteorological clouds and ozone. The false alarm rate is small through use of sulfur dioxide as a unique tracer of volcanic clouds. The UV band wavelengths are optimized to detect very small sulfur dioxide amounts that are present in pre-eruptive outgassing of volcanoes. The system is also capable of tracking dust and smoke clouds, and will be used to infer winds at tropopause level from the correlation of total ozone with potential vorticity.

  6. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Baird, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Fitzsimons, E; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter.The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper (paper)

  7. In-orbit performance of the LISA Pathfinder drag-free and attitude control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, A.; Ziegler, T.; Schubert, R.; Brandt, N.; Bergner, P.; Johann, U.; Fichter, W.; Grzymisch, J.

    2018-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstrator mission that was funded by the European Space Agency and that was launched on December 3, 2015. LISA Pathfinder has been conducting experiments to demonstrate key technologies for the gravitational wave observatory LISA in its operational orbit at the L1 Lagrange point of the Earth-Sun system until final switch off on July 18, 2017. These key technologies include the inertial sensors, the optical metrology system, a set of µ-propulsion cold gas thrusters and in particular the high performance drag-free and attitude control system (DFACS) that controls the spacecraft in 15 degrees of freedom during its science phase. The main goal of the DFACS is to shield the two test masses inside the inertial sensors from all external disturbances to achieve a residual differential acceleration between the two test masses of less than 3 × 10-14 m/s2/√Hz over the frequency bandwidth of 1-30 mHz. This paper focuses on two important aspects of the DFACS that has been in use on LISA Pathfinder: the DFACS Accelerometer mode and the main DFACS Science mode. The Accelerometer mode is used to capture the test masses after release into free flight from the mechanical grabbing mechanism. The main DFACS Science Mode is used for the actual drag-free science operation. The DFACS control system has very strong interfaces with the LISA Technology Package payload which is a key aspect to master the design, development, and analysis of the DFACS. Linear as well as non-linear control methods are applied. The paper provides pre-flight predictions for the performance of both control modes and compares these predictions to the performance that is currently achieved in-orbit. Some results are also discussed for the mode transitions up to science mode, but the focus of the paper is on the Accelerometer mode performance and on the performance of the Science mode in steady state. Based on the achieved results, some lessons learnt are formulated to extend

  8. Mars 2024/2026 Pathfinder Mission: Mars Architectures, Systems, and Technologies for Exploration and Resources Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Mueller, Robert; Muscatello, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Integrate In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) sub-systems and examine advanced capabilities and technologies to verify Mars 2024 Forward architecture precursor pathfinder options: Integrated spacecraft/surface infrastructure fluid architecture: propulsion, power, life support center dot Power system feed and propellant scavenging from propulsion system center dot High quality oxygen for life support and EVA Fluid/cryogenic zero-loss transfer and long-term storage center dot Rapid depot-to-rover/spacecraft center dot Slow ISRU plant-to-ascent vehicle Integration of ISRU consumable production center dot Oxygen only from Mars atmosphere carbon dioxide center dot Oxygen, fuel, water, from extraterrestrial soil/regolith Test bed to evaluate long duration life, operations, maintenance on hardware, sensors, and autonomy

  9. The A0 abort system for the Tevatron upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.

    1989-01-01

    The installation of electrostatic separator modules at B48 and C17 in the Tevatron necessitates changes to the Tevatron abort system. There will no longer be room for either the proton or antiproton kicker magnets used in the present system. The kickers at C17 will be permanently removed. The kickers at B48 will be temporarily removed for collider operation and will be replaced for fixed target operation. The existing proton abort system will remain unchanged during fixed target operation. This note describes a proposed abort system for operation in the collider mode for 22 on 22 bunches and provides details of specifications for the required components. In certain cases, for example in the case of the pulsers for the magnets and the absorber assembly, system components are designed with the option of upgrading to 44 on 44 bunch operation in mind. 8 refs., 14 figs

  10. Reverse Launch Abort System Parachute Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Daniel K.; O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Winski, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated a potential Launch Abort System (LAS) Concept of Operations and abort parachute architecture. The purpose of the study was to look at the concept of jettisoning the LAS tower forward (Reverse LAS or RLAS) into the free-stream flow rather than after reorienting to a heatshield forward orientation. A hypothesized benefit was that due to the compressed timeline the dynamic pressure at main line stretch would be substantially less. This would enable the entry parachutes to be designed and sized based on entry loading conditions rather than the current stressing case of a Pad Abort. Ultimately, concerns about the highly dynamic reorientation of the CM via parachutes, and the additional requirement of a triple bridle attachment for the RLAS parachute system, overshadowed the potential benefits and ended this effort.

  11. Principles, operations, and expected performance of the LISA Pathfinder charge management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, T [Astrium GmbH, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Fichter, W [iFR, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 7a, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schulte, M [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Vitale, S, E-mail: tobias.ziegler@astrium.eads.ne [Department of Physics, University of Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2009-03-01

    The test masses of LISA Pathfinder are free flying and therefore not grounded to the spacecraft by a wire. Because of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and unknown microscopic surface effects during initial test mass release, an unacceptable level of absolute charge might be present on the test masses. A charged test mass can endanger transition to high accuracy control modes which are required for science experiments. Furthermore, charged test masses introduce unwanted disturbance accelerations for example due to Coulomb interactions with surrounding conducting surfaces. The charge management system is designed to discharge the test masses up to a tolerable level of absolute charge such that the mission goal can be achieved. It is therefore an essential part of the experiments to be performed with the LISA Technology Package. The paper describes charge management tasks to be performed on board the spacecraft and summarizes the principles of charge measurement and discharge control. An overview of the experiment operations is given where the interconnection of operational charge management system modes and operational modes of the drag-free, suspension and attitude control system is considered. Simulated performance results are presented.

  12. Testing Strategies and Methodologies for the Max Launch Abort System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Dawn M.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked to develop an alternate, tower-less launch abort system (LAS) as risk mitigation for the Orion Project. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test in July 2009 of the "Max" launch abort system (MLAS) provided data critical to the design of future LASs, while demonstrating the Agency s ability to rapidly design, build and fly full-scale hardware at minimal cost in a "virtual" work environment. Limited funding and an aggressive schedule presented a challenge for testing of the complex MLAS system. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test was attributed to the project s systems engineering and integration process, which included: a concise definition of, and an adherence to, flight test objectives; a solid operational concept; well defined performance requirements, and a test program tailored to reducing the highest flight test risks. The testing ranged from wind tunnel validation of computational fluid dynamic simulations to component ground tests of the highest risk subsystems. This paper provides an overview of the testing/risk management approach and methodologies used to understand and reduce the areas of highest risk - resulting in a successful flight demonstration test.

  13. ADVANCEMENT OF THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHANG, W.; AHRENS, L.; MI, J.; OERTER, B.; SANDBERG, J.; WARBURTON, D.

    2003-01-01

    As one of the most critical system for RHIC operation, the beam abort kicker system has to be highly available, reliable, and stable for the entire operating range. Along with the RHIC commission and operation, consistent efforts have been spend to cope with immediate issues as well as inherited design issues. Major design changes have been implemented to achieve the higher operating voltage, longer high voltage hold-off time, fast retriggering and redundant triggering, and improved system protection, etc. Recent system test has demonstrated for the first time that both blue ring and yellow ring beam abort systems have achieved more than 24 hours hold off time at desired operating voltage. In this paper, we report break down, thyratron reverse arcing, and to build a fast re-trigger system to reduce beam spreading in event of premature discharge

  14. Slewing Mirror Telescope and the Data-Acquisition System for the UFFO-Pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) aims to detect the earliest moment of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) which is not well known, resulting into the enhancement of GRB mechanism understanding. The pathfinder mission was proposed to be a scaled-down version of UFFO, and only contains the UFFO Burst A...

  15. The readout system and the trigger algorithm implementation for the UFFO Pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Na, G.W.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2012-01-01

    ) Pathfinder, to take the sub-minute data for the early photons from GRB. The UFFO Pathfinder has a coded-mask X-ray camera to search the GRB location by the UBAT trigger algorithm. To determine the direction of GRB as soon as possible it requires the fast processing. We have ultimately implemented all...... have been measured within a minute after the gamma ray signal. This lack of sub-minute data limits the study for the characteristics of the UV-optical light curve of the short-hard type GRB and the fast-rising GRB. Therefore, we have developed the telescope named the Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO...

  16. Pathfinder-Plus on flight in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over Hawaii in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days

  17. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaii. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50

  18. High intensity beam dump for the Tevatron beam abort system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, J.; Mokhov, N.; Murphy, T.; Palmer, M.; Toohig, T.; Turkot, F.; VanGinneken, A.

    1981-01-01

    The beam abort system proposed for the Fermilab Tevatron Accelerator will extract the proton beam from the ring in a single turn (approximately 20/mu/s) and direct it to an external beam dump. It is the function of the beam dump to absorb the unwanted beam and limit the escaping radiation to levels that are acceptable to the surrounding populace and apparatus. A beam dump that is expected to meet these requirements has been designed and constructed. Detailed design of the dump, including considerations leading to the choice of materials, are given. 6 refs

  19. The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

  20. Pregnancy and the 40-Year Prison Sentence: How “Abortion Is Murder” Became Institutionalized in the Salvadoran Judicial System

    OpenAIRE

    Viterna, Jocelyn; Bautista, Jose Santos Guardado

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Using the case of El Salvador, this article demonstrates how the anti-abortion catchphrase “abortion is murder” can become embedded in the legal practice of state judicial systems. In the 1990s, a powerful anti-abortion movement in El Salvador resulted in a new legal context that outlawed abortion in all circumstances, discouraged mobilization for abortion rights, and encouraged the prosecution of reproduction-related “crimes.” Within this context, Salvadoran women initially charged ...

  1. Design of fast kickers for the ISABELLE beam abort system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Montemurro, P.A.; Baron, J.

    1981-01-01

    The ISA beam abort (extraction) system must be highly efficient, in the sense of producing minimum beam loss, and reliable to prevent serious damage to accelerator components by the circulating high-energy beams. Since the stored beams will be debunched, the low-loss requirement can be met only with ultra-thin extraction septa and/or fast-acting kickers. This paper examines the design of the ISA extraction kickers subject to a set of extraction channel constraints and a given maximum working voltage. Expressions are derived for determining system parameters for both a lumped parameter magnet and a delay-line magnet. Using these relationships, design parameters are worked out for several possible system configurations. The paper also describes the construction of a full-scale prototype module of the kicker and summarizes the preliminary test results obtained with the module

  2. RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM COMMISSIONING EXPERIENCE AND REMAINING ISSUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHANG, W.; AHRENS, L.A.; MI, J.; OERTER, B.; SANDERS, R.; SANDBERG, J.

    2001-01-01

    The RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems commissioning experience and the remaining issues will be reported in this paper. The RHIC Blue Ring Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply System initial commissioning took place in June 1999. Its identical system in Yellow Ring was brought on line during Spring 2000. Each of the RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems consists of five high voltage modulators and subsystems. These systems are critical devices for RHIC machine protection and environmental protection. They are required to be effective, reliable and operating with sufficient redundancy to safely abort the beam to its beam dump at the end of accumulation or at any time when they are commanded. To deflect 66 GeV ion beam to the beam absorbers, the RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems were operated at 22 kV level. The RHIC 2000 commissioning run was very successful

  3. School libraries Pathfinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shideh Taleban

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available School library represents one of the important locations suited for offering reference services. The skill set necessary in order to use information resources, is called information literacy. When discussing information literacy and means of enhancing it, the first thing that comes to mind is the classroom for it is in schools that the foundation for learning skills is laid. Pathfinders have been used by libraries and librarians for guiding patrons to the required sources and answering their research questions since 1970’s. It is far different from a bibliography in as much as it does not necessarily include a complete list of available resources on a given topic. Nevertheless it provides sufficient basic resources for research for the patrons. Nowadays pathfinders are prepared by teacher-librarian or with the help of teachers at school so as to assist students in searching their prescribed assignments. The present paper offers definition of pathfinder, creation of pathfinders in schools, type of pathfinders, pathfinders characteristics, pathfinder elements as well as how to design pathfinders for children and teenagers.

  4. Abortion - medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  5. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  6. Pregnancy and the 40-Year Prison Sentence: How "Abortion Is Murder" Became Institutionalized in the Salvadoran Judicial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Jocelyn; Bautista, Jose Santos Guardado

    2017-06-01

    Using the case of El Salvador, this article demonstrates how the anti-abortion catchphrase "abortion is murder" can become embedded in the legal practice of state judicial systems. In the 1990s, a powerful anti-abortion movement in El Salvador resulted in a new legal context that outlawed abortion in all circumstances, discouraged mobilization for abortion rights, and encouraged the prosecution of reproduction-related "crimes." Within this context, Salvadoran women initially charged with the crime of abortion were convicted of "aggravated homicide" and sentenced to up to 40 years in prison. Court documents suggest that many of these women had not undergone abortions, but had suffered naturally occurring stillbirths late in their pregnancies. Through analysis of newspaper articles and court cases, this article documents how El Salvador came to prosecute obstetrical emergencies as "murder," and concludes that activism on behalf of abortion rights is central to protecting poor pregnant women from prosecution for reproduction-related "crimes."

  7. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Pad Abort Test Vehicle (PATV) II Attitude Control System (ACS) Integration and Pressurization Subsystem Dynamic Random Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekrami, Yasamin; Cook, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to mitigate catastrophic failures on future generation space vehicles, engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have begun to integrate a novel crew abort systems that could pull a crew module away in case of an emergency at the launch pad or during ascent. The Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) is a recent test vehicle that was designed as an alternative to the baseline Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) to demonstrate the performance of a "tower-less" LAS configuration under abort conditions. The MLAS II test vehicle will execute a propulsive coast stabilization maneuver during abort to control the vehicles trajectory and thrust. To accomplish this, the spacecraft will integrate an Attitude Control System (ACS) with eight hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine liquid propulsion engines that are capable of operating in a quick pulsing mode. Two main elements of the ACS include a propellant distribution subsystem and a pressurization subsystem to regulate the flow of pressurized gas to the propellant tanks and the engines. The CAD assembly of the Attitude Control System (ACS) was configured and integrated into the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) design. A dynamic random vibration analysis was conducted on the Main Propulsion System (MPS) helium pressurization panels to assess the response of the panel and its components under increased gravitational acceleration loads during flight. The results indicated that the panels fundamental and natural frequencies were farther from the maximum Acceleration Spectral Density (ASD) vibrations which were in the range of 150-300 Hz. These values will direct how the components will be packaged in the vehicle to reduce the effects high gravitational loads.

  8. Pathfinder Climate Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/NASA Pathfinder climate data CD-ROM contains seven data sets: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)Land and Ocean, TIROS Operational Vertical...

  9. Pathfinder Innovation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pathfinder program supports high-risk, high-reward research ideas with funding and staff time. The goal is to feed a culture of innovation in the Agency and integrate innovative ideas in EPA research programs.

  10. Fundamental performance determining factors of the ultrahigh-precision space-borne optical metrology system for the LISA Pathfinder mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Flatscher, Reinhold

    2013-05-01

    The LISA Pathfinder mission to space employs an optical metrology system (OMS) at its core to measure the distance and attitude between two freely floating test-masses to picometer and nanorad accuracy, respectively, within the measurement band of [1 mHz, 30 mHz]. The OMS is based upon an ultra-stable optical bench with 4 heterodyne interferometers from which interference signals are read-out and processed by a digital phase-meter. Laser frequency noise, power fluctuations and optical path-length variations are suppressed to uncritical levels by dedicated control loops so that the measurement performance approaches the sensor limit imposed by the phasemeter. The system design is such that low frequency common mode noise which affects the read-out phase of all four interferometers is generally well suppressed by subtraction of a reference phase from the other interferometer signals. However, high frequency noise directly affects measurement performance and its common mode rejection depends strongly on the relative signal phases. We discuss how the data from recent test campaigns point towards high frequency phase noise as a likely performance limiting factor which explains some important performance features.

  11. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH BEAM ABORT SYSTEM FOR SUPERCONDUCTING UNDULATOR QUENCH MITIGATION*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkay, Katherine C.; Dooling, Jeffrey C.; Sajaev, Vadim; Wang, Ju

    2017-06-25

    A beam abort system has been implemented in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring. The abort system works in tandem with the existing machine protection system (MPS), and its purpose is to control the beam loss location and, thereby, minimize beam loss-induced quenches at the two superconducting undulators (SCUs). The abort system consists of a dedicated horizontal kicker designed to kick out all the bunches in a few turns after being triggered by MPS. The abort system concept was developed on the basis of single- and multi-particle tracking simulations using elegant and bench measurements of the kicker pulse. Performance of the abort system—kick amplitudes and loss distributions of all bunches—was analyzed using beam position monitor (BPM) turn histories, and agrees reasonably well with the model. Beam loss locations indicated by the BPMs are consistent with the fast fiber-optic beam loss monitor (BLM) diagnostics described elsewhere [1,2]. Operational experience with the abort system, various issues that were encountered, limitations of the system, and quench statistics are described.

  12. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the bovine abortion surveillance system in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to

  13. Coupling of relative intensity noise and pathlength noise to the length measurement in the optical metrology system of LISA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Andreas; the LPF Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the space-based gravitational wave observatory, LISA. It demonstrated that the performance requirements for the interferometric measurement of two test masses in free fall can be met. An important part of the data analysis is to identify the limiting noise sources. [1] This measurement is performed with heterodyne interferometry. The performance of this optical metrology system (OMS) at high frequencies is limited by sensing noise. One such noise source is Relative Intensity Noise (RIN). RIN is a property of the laser, and the photodiode current generated by the interferometer signal contains frequency dependant RIN. From this electric signal the phasemeter calculates the phase change and laser power, and the coupling of RIN into the measurement signal depends on the noise frequency. RIN at DC, at the heterodyne frequency and at two times the heterodyne frequency couples into the phase. Another important noise at high frequencies is path length noise. To reduce the impact this noise is suppressed with a control loop. Path length noise not suppressed will couple directly into the length measurement. The subtraction techniques of both noise sources depend on the phase difference between the reference signal and the measurement signal, and thus on the test mass position. During normal operations we position the test mass at the interferometric zero, which is optimal for noise subtraction purposes. This paper will show results from an in-flight experiment where the test mass position was changed to make the position dependant noise visible.

  14. Assessing the mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France using unilist capture-recapture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Vergne, Timothée; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Morignat, Eric; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Gay, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion, and among them, the proportion of farmers not reporting. We also applied a hurdle model to evaluate the effect of factors influencing the notification process. We found that the overall surveillance sensitivity was about 34%, and was higher in beef than dairy cattle farms. The observed increase in the proportion of notifying farmers from 2007 to 2009 resulted from an increase in the surveillance sensitivity in 2007/2008 and an increase in the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion in 2008/2009. These patterns suggest a raise in farmers' awareness in 2007/2008 when the Bluetongue Virus (BTV) was detected in France, followed by an increase in the number of abortions in 2008/2009 as BTV spread across the country. Our study indicated a lack of sensitivity of the mandatory bovine abortion notification system, raising concerns about the ability to detect brucellosis outbreaks early. With the increasing need to survey the zoonotic Rift Valley Fever and Q fever diseases that may also cause bovine abortions, our approach is of primary interest for animal health stakeholders to develop information programs to increase abortion notifications. Our framework combining hurdle and ZIP models may also be applied to estimate the completeness of other clinical surveillance systems.

  15. Assessing the mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France using unilist capture-recapture approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bronner

    Full Text Available The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion, and among them, the proportion of farmers not reporting. We also applied a hurdle model to evaluate the effect of factors influencing the notification process. We found that the overall surveillance sensitivity was about 34%, and was higher in beef than dairy cattle farms. The observed increase in the proportion of notifying farmers from 2007 to 2009 resulted from an increase in the surveillance sensitivity in 2007/2008 and an increase in the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion in 2008/2009. These patterns suggest a raise in farmers' awareness in 2007/2008 when the Bluetongue Virus (BTV was detected in France, followed by an increase in the number of abortions in 2008/2009 as BTV spread across the country. Our study indicated a lack of sensitivity of the mandatory bovine abortion notification system, raising concerns about the ability to detect brucellosis outbreaks early. With the increasing need to survey the zoonotic Rift Valley Fever and Q fever diseases that may also cause bovine abortions, our approach is of primary interest for animal health stakeholders to develop information programs to increase abortion notifications. Our framework combining hurdle and ZIP models may also be applied to estimate the completeness of other clinical surveillance systems.

  16. Actuation crosstalk in free-falling systems: Torsion pendulum results for the engineering model of the LISA pathfinder gravitational reference sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, M.; Cavalleri, A.; De Laurentis, M.; De Marchi, F.; De Rosa, R.; Di Fiore, L.; Dolesi, R.; Finetti, N.; Garufi, F.; Grado, A.; Hueller, M.; Marconi, L.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Pucacco, G.; Stanga, R.; Vetrugno, D.; Visco, M.; Vitale, S.; Weber, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we report on measurements on actuation crosstalk, relevant to the gravitational reference sensors for LISA Pathfinder and LISA. In these sensors, a Test Mass (TM) falls freely within a system of electrodes used for readout and control. These measurements were carried out on ground with a double torsion pendulum that allowed us to estimate both the torque injected into the sensor when a control force is applied and, conversely, the force leaking into the translational degree of freedom due to the applied torque.The values measured on our apparatus (the engineering model of the LISA Pathfinder sensor) agree to within 0.2% (over a maximum measured crosstalk of 1%) with predictions of a mathematical model when measuring force to torque crosstalk, while it is somewhat larger than expected (up to 3.5%) when measuring torque to force crosstalk. However, the values in the relevant range, i.e. when the TM is well centered ( ± 10 μm) in the sensor, remain smaller than 0.2%, satisfying the LISA Pathfinder requirements.

  17. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  18. Pathfinder-Plus on a flight in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight in 1998 over Hawaiian waters. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least

  19. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4

  20. Pathfinder-Plus takes off on flight in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over Hawaii in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days

  1. Mars 2024/2026 Pathfinder Mission: Mars Architectures, Systems, & Technologies for Exploration and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrate In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) sub-systems and examine advanced capabilities and technologies to verify Mars 2024 Forward architecture precursor...

  2. The Pathfinder Microrover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijevic, J. R.; Bickler, D. B.; Braun, D. F.; Eisen, H. J.; Matthies, L. H.; Mishkin, A. H.; Stone, H. W.; van Nieuwstadt, L. M.; Wen, L. C.; Wilcox, B. H.; hide

    1996-01-01

    An exciting scientific component of the Pathfinder mission is the rover, which will act as a mini-field geologist by providing us with access to samples for chemical analyses and close-up images of the Martian surface, performing active experiments to modify the surface and study the results, and exploring the landing site area.

  3. Assessing the mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France using unilist capture-recapture approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bronner, Anne-Christine; Hénaux, Viviane; Vergne, Timothée; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Morignat, Eric; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Gay, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the ...

  4. A Multi-Pathfinder for Developing Adaptive Robust Policies in System Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamarat, C.; Pruyt, E.; Loonen, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptivity is essential for dynamically complex and uncertain systems. Adaptive policymaking is an approach to design policies that can be adapted over time to how the future unfolds. It is crucial for adaptive policymaking to specify under what conditions and how to adapt the policy. The

  5. LISA Pathfinder: OPD loop characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Michael; LPF Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    The optical metrology system (OMS) of the LISA Pathfinder mission is measuring the distance between two free-floating test masses with unprecedented precision. One of the four OMS heterodyne interferometers reads out the phase difference between the reference and the measurement laser beam. This phase from the reference interferometer is common to all other longitudinal interferometer read outs and therefore subtracted. In addition, the phase is fed back via the digital optical pathlength difference (OPD) control loop to keep it close to zero. Here, we analyse the loop parameters and compare them to on-ground measurement results.

  6. Laser modulator for LISA pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voland, C.; Lund, G.; Coppoolse, W.; Crosby, P.; Stadler, M.; Kudielka, K.; Özkan, C.

    2017-11-01

    LISA Pathfinder is an ESA experiment to demonstrate the key technologies needed for the LISA mission to detect gravitational waves in space. The LISA Pathfinder spacecraft represents one arm of the LISA interferometer, containing an optical metrology system and two proof masses as inertial references for the drag-free control system. The LISA Pathfinder payload consists of two drag-free floating test masses located in the inertial sensors with their control electronics and an optical metrology subsystem. The optical metrology subsystem monitors the movement of both test masses relative to each other and to the spacecraft with very high sensitivity and resolution. This is achieved with a heterodyne Mach- Zehnder interferometer. This interferometer requires as input two coherent laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference of a few kHz. To generate the two laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference a Nd:YAG laser is used together with the Laser Modulator. The Nd:YAG laser generates a single coherent laser signal at a wavelength of 1064nm which is fibre coupled to the Laser Modulator. The Laser Modulator then generates the two optical beams with the required heterodyne frequency offset. In addition, the Laser Modulator is required to perform laser amplitude stabilization and optical path difference control for the two optical signals. The Laser Modulator consists of an optical unit - the LMU - and RF synthesiser, power amplification and control electronics. These electronics are all housed in the Laser Modulator Electronics (LME). The LMU has four primary functions: • Splitting of the input laser beam into two paths for later superposition in the interferometer. • Applying different frequency shifts to each of the beams. • Providing amplitude modulation control to each of the beams. • Providing active control of the optical path length difference between the two optical paths. The present paper describes the design and performance of the LMU

  7. Why do farmers and veterinarians not report all bovine abortions, as requested by the clinical brucellosis surveillance system in France?

    OpenAIRE

    Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Fortané, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2005, France has been officially free of brucellosis, an infectious disease that causes abortion in cattle and can be transmitted from cattle to humans. Recent animal and human cases have drawn attention to the need to prevent infection of humans and animals from any primary outbreaks. In order to detect any new outbreaks as soon as possible, a clinical surveillance system requires farmers and veterinarians to report each abortion and to test the aborting cow for brucello...

  8. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  9. Optimal Mission Abort Policy for Systems Operating in a Random Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Gregory; Finkelstein, Maxim

    2018-04-01

    Many real-world critical systems, e.g., aircrafts, manned space flight systems, and submarines, utilize mission aborts to enhance their survivability. Specifically, a mission can be aborted when a certain malfunction condition is met and a rescue or recovery procedure is then initiated. For systems exposed to external impacts, the malfunctions are often caused by the consequences of these impacts. Traditional system reliability models typically cannot address a possibility of mission aborts. Therefore, in this article, we first develop the corresponding methodology for modeling and evaluation of the mission success probability and survivability of systems experiencing both internal failures and external shocks. We consider a policy when a mission is aborted and a rescue procedure is activated upon occurrence of the mth shock. We demonstrate the tradeoff between the system survivability and the mission success probability that should be balanced by the proper choice of the decision variable m. A detailed illustrative example of a mission performed by an unmanned aerial vehicle is presented. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. CLOUD COMPUTING SOLUTION FOR ABORTION TRACKING SYSTEM USING FINGERPRINT & RFID AUTHENTICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Jaykar Priyanka; More Sharada; Thube Swapnil; Prof. Supriya Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    According to 2011 census there are decline in both rural and urban area of the country.This sex ratio decline in rural India is three times as compared to drop in urban area. A matter is great concern. In 2011 there is 914 girls for every 1000 boys under the age of seven , so that to stop sex selective abortion we have to developed ‘Cloud Computing solution for Abortion tracking system ’.When pregnant women comes to hospital she has to register using Fingerprint and RFID which is connected to...

  11. Free-flight experiments in LISA Pathfinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Baird, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Cutler, C; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    The LISA Pathfinder mission will demonstrate the technology of drag-free test masses for use as inertial references in future space-based gravitational wave detectors. To accomplish this, the Pathfinder spacecraft will perform drag-free flight about a test mass while measuring the acceleration of this primary test mass relative to a second reference test mass. Because the reference test mass is contained within the same spacecraft, it is necessary to apply forces on it to maintain its position and attitude relative to the spacecraft. These forces are a potential source of acceleration noise in the LISA Pathfinder system that are not present in the full LISA configuration. While LISA Pathfinder has been designed to meet it's primary mission requirements in the presence of this noise, recent estimates suggest that the on-orbit performance may be limited by this ‘suspension noise’. The drift-mode or free-flight experiments provide an opportunity to mitigate this noise source and further characterize the underlying disturbances that are of interest to the designers of LISA-like instruments. This article provides a high-level overview of these experiments and the methods under development to analyze the resulting data. (paper)

  12. Operations and Autonomy of the Mars Pathfinder Microrover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, A. H.; Morrison, J. C.; Nguyen, T. T.; Stone, H. W.; Cooper, B. K.

    1998-01-01

    The Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX) is a NSAS OACT (Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology) flight experiment which, integrated with the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) lander and spacecraft system, landed on Mars on July 4, 1997.

  13. The Hydrosphere State (Hydros) Satellite Mission: An Earth System Pathfinder for Global Mapping of Soil Moisture and Land Freeze/Thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entekhabi, D.; Njoku, E. G.; Spencer, M.; Kim, Y.; Smith, J.; McDonald, K. C.; vanZyl, J.; Houser, P.; Dorion, T.; Koster, R.; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Hydrosphere State Mission (Hydros) is a pathfinder mission in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science Pathfinder Program (ESSP). The objective of the mission is to provide exploratory global measurements of the earth's soil moisture at 10-km resolution with two- to three-days revisit and land-surface freeze/thaw conditions at 3-km resolution with one- to two-days revisit. The mission builds on the heritage of ground-based and airborne passive and active low-frequency microwave measurements that have demonstrated and validated the effectiveness of the measurements and associated algorithms for estimating the amount and phase (frozen or thawed) of surface soil moisture. The mission data will enable advances in weather and climate prediction and in mapping processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. The Hydros instrument is a combined radar and radiometer system operating at 1.26 GHz (with VV, HH, and HV polarizations) and 1.41 GHz (with H, V, and U polarizations), respectively. The radar and the radiometer share the aperture of a 6-m antenna with a look-angle of 39 with respect to nadir. The lightweight deployable mesh antenna is rotated at 14.6 rpm to provide a constant look-angle scan across a swath width of 1000 km. The wide swath provides global coverage that meet the revisit requirements. The radiometer measurements allow retrieval of soil moisture in diverse (nonforested) landscapes with a resolution of 40 km. The radar measurements allow the retrieval of soil moisture at relatively high resolution (3 km). The mission includes combined radar/radiometer data products that will use the synergy of the two sensors to deliver enhanced-quality 10-km resolution soil moisture estimates. In this paper, the science requirements and their traceability to the instrument design are outlined. A review of the underlying measurement physics and key instrument performance parameters are also presented.

  14. Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN and C) Design Overview and Flight Test Results from NASA's Max Launch Abort System (MLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lanzi, Raymond J.; Ward, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Engineering and Safety Center designed, developed and flew the alternative Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as risk mitigation for the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort system already in development. The NESC was tasked with both formulating a conceptual objective system design of this alternative MLAS as well as demonstrating this concept with a simulated pad abort flight test. Less than 2 years after Project start the MLAS simulated pad abort flight test was successfully conducted from Wallops Island on July 8, 2009. The entire flight test duration was 88 seconds during which time multiple staging events were performed and nine separate critically timed parachute deployments occurred as scheduled. This paper provides an overview of the guidance navigation and control technical approaches employed on this rapid prototyping activity; describes the methodology used to design the MLAS flight test vehicle; and lessons that were learned during this rapid prototyping project are also summarized.

  15. The health system cost of post-abortion care in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassoff, Michael; Musange, Sabine F; Kalisa, Ina R; Ngabo, Fidele; Sayinzoga, Felix; Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Based on research conducted in 2012, we estimate the cost to the Rwandan health-care system of providing post-abortion care (PAC) due to unsafe abortions, a subject of policy importance not studied before at the national level. Thirty-nine public and private health facilities representing three levels of health care were randomly selected for data collection from key care providers and administrators for all five regions. Using an ingredients approach to costing, data were gathered on drugs, supplies, material, personnel time and hospitalization. Additionally, direct non-medical costs such as overhead and capital costs were also measured. We found that the average annual PAC cost per client, across five types of abortion complications, was $93. The total cost of PAC nationally was estimated to be $1.7 million per year, 49% of which was expended on direct non-medical costs. Satisfying all demands for PAC would raise the national cost to $2.5 million per year. PAC comprises a significant share of total expenditure in reproductive health in Rwanda. Investing more resources in provision of contraceptive services to prevent unwanted or mistimed pregnancies would likely reduce health systems costs. PMID:24548846

  16. Pathfinder Innovation Projects: Awardees 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pathfinder program supports high-risk, high-reward research ideas with funding and staff time. The goal is to feed a culture of innovation in the Agency and integrate innovative ideas in EPA research programs.

  17. Pathfinder Innovation Projects: Awardees 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pathfinder program supports high-risk, high-reward research ideas with funding and staff time. The goal is to feed a culture of innovation in the Agency and integrate innovative ideas in EPA research programs.

  18. Why do farmers and veterinarians not report all bovine abortions, as requested by the clinical brucellosis surveillance system in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Fortané, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier

    2014-04-24

    Since 2005, France has been officially free of brucellosis, an infectious disease that causes abortion in cattle and can be transmitted from cattle to humans. Recent animal and human cases have drawn attention to the need to prevent infection of humans and animals from any primary outbreaks. In order to detect any new outbreaks as soon as possible, a clinical surveillance system requires farmers and veterinarians to report each abortion and to test the aborting cow for brucellosis. However, under-reporting limits the sensitivity of this system. Our objective was to identify the barriers and motivations influencing field actors in their decision to report or not to report bovine abortions. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews of 12 cattle farmers and their eight veterinarians. Our analysis showed that four main themes influence the decision-making process of farmers and veterinarians: 1) the perceived risk of brucellosis and other abortive diseases; 2) the definition of a suspected case of brucellosis and other abortive diseases adopted by field actors, which is less sensitive than the mandatory definition; 3) the cost-benefit analysis conducted by actors, taking into account regulatory and health aspects, economic and financial losses, technical and practical factors; 4) the level of cooperation within the socio-technical network. We discussed how early detection may be improved by revising the definition of abortion, extending the time frame for notification and generalising the differential diagnosis of the causes of abortion. In contrast to quantitative approaches, qualitative studies can identify the factors (including unknown factors) influencing the decision-making process of field actors and reveal why they take those factors into consideration. Our qualitative study sheds light on the factors underlying the poor sensitivity of clinical brucellosis surveillance system for cattle in France, and suggests that early detection may be

  19. Calculation of abort thresholds for the Beam Loss Monitoring System of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Nemcic, Martin; Dehning, Bernd

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is one of the most critical machine protection systems for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Switzerland. Its main purpose is to protect the superconducting magnets from quenches and other equipment from damage by requesting a beam abort when the measured losses exceed any of the predefined threshold levels. The system consist of circa 4000 ionization chambers which are installed around the 27 kilometres ring (LHC). This study aims to choose a technical platform and produce a system that addresses all of the limitations with the current system that is used for the calculation of the LHC BLM abort threshold values. To achieve this, a comparison and benchmarking of the Java and .NET technical platforms is performed in order to establish the most suitable solution. To establish which technical platform is a successful replacement of the current abort threshold calculator, comparable prototype systems in Java and .NET we...

  20. The Abort Kicker System for the PEP-II Storage Rings at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamare, Jeffrey E

    2003-01-01

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of election beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 (micro)S (the beam transit time around the ring). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% while there is no beam in the kicker magnet. Originally the kicker system was designed for a rise time of 370nS [1], but because the ion clearing gap was reduced in half, so was the rise time requirement for the kicker. This report discusses the design of the system interlocks, diagnostics, and modulator with the modifications necessary to accommodate an ion clearing gap of 185nS

  1. The Abort Kicker System for the PEP-II Storage Rings at SLAC.

    CERN Document Server

    Delamare, J E

    2003-01-01

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of election beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 (micro)S (the beam transit time around the ring). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% while there is no beam in the kicker magnet. Originally the kicker system was designed for a rise time of 370nS [1], but because the ion clearing gap was reduced in half, so was the rise time requirement for the kicker. This report discusses the des...

  2. Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non

  3. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non

  4. Pathfinder-Plus on flight near Hawaiian island N'ihau

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight with the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and

  5. Long Memory of Pathfinding Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Coleman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a new dynamic (i.e., space-time model to measure aesthetic values in pathfinding for videogames. The results we report are important firstly because the artificial intelligence literature has given relatively little attention to aesthetic considerations in pathfinding. Secondly, those investigators who have studied aesthetics in pathfinding have relied largely on anecdotal arguments rather than metrics. Finally, in those cases where metrics have been used in the past, they show only that aesthetic paths are different. They provide no quantitative means to classify aesthetic outcomes. The model we develop here overcomes these deficiencies using rescaled range (R/S analysis to estimate the Hurst exponent, . It measures long-range dependence (i.e., long memory in stochastic processes and provides a novel well-defined mathematical classification for pathfinding. Indeed, the data indicates that aesthetic and control paths have statistically significantly distinct signatures. Aesthetic paths furthermore have more long memory than controls with an effect size that is large, more than three times that of an alternative approach. These conclusions will be of interest to researchers investigating games as well as other forms of entertainment, simulation, and in general nonshortest path motion planning.

  6. Desert Pathfinder at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) project celebrates the inauguration of its outstanding 12-m telescope, located on the 5100m high Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert (Chile). The APEX telescope, designed to work at sub-millimetre wavelengths, in the 0.2 to 1.5 mm range, passed successfully its Science Verification phase in July, and since then is performing regular science observations. This new front-line facility provides access to the "Cold Universe" with unprecedented sensitivity and image quality. After months of careful efforts to set up the telescope to work at the best possible technical level, those involved in the project are looking with satisfaction at the fruit of their labour: APEX is not only fully operational, it has already provided important scientific results. "The superb sensitivity of our detectors together with the excellence of the site allow fantastic observations that would not be possible with any other telescope in the world," said Karl Menten, Director of the group for Millimeter and Sub-Millimeter Astronomy at the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) and Principal Investigator of the APEX project. ESO PR Photo 30/05 ESO PR Photo 30/05 Sub-Millimetre Image of a Stellar Cradle [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 627 pix - 200k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1254 pix - 503k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1539 x 2413 pix - 1.3M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 30/05 is an image of the giant molecular cloud G327 taken with APEX. More than 5000 spectra were taken in the J=3-2 line of the carbon monoxide molecule (CO), one of the best tracers of molecular clouds, in which star formation takes place. The bright peak in the north of the cloud is an evolved star forming region, where the gas is heated by a cluster of new stars. The most interesting region in the image is totally inconspicuous in CO: the G327 hot core, as seen in methanol contours. It is a truly exceptional source, and is one of the richest sources of emission from complex organic molecules in the

  7. Provokeret abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie; Schmidt, Garbi; Christoffersen, Mogens

    Gennem en række interview om kvinders oplevelse og erfaringer med provokert abort, samt ved at bruge data fra en stor forløbsundersøgelse af kvinder født i 1966, giver forfatterne bag denne rapport et præcist signalement af de kvinder, der vælger at få foretaget en provokeret abort og de eventuelle...... for sundhedspersonale og andre socialarbejdere. Den statistiske undersøgelse viser, at hver fjerde danske kvinde vil komme i den situation at skulle have en abort. Især kvinder med vanskelige opvækstvilkår er i risikogruppen. Tilgengæld er der næsten ingen langvarige fysiske og psykiske virkninger abort af abort, med...

  8. Was the French clinical surveillance system of bovine brucellosis influenced by the occurrence and surveillance of other abortive diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Post abortion syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    There is general agreement that uncertainty persists regarding the psychological sequelae of abortion. Inconsistencies of interpretation stem from a lack of consensus about the symptoms, severity, and duration of mental disorder. In addition, opinions differ based on individual case studies and there is no national reporting system or adequate follow up system. Frequently, reviews combine studies conducted prior to and after the 1973 Supreme Court decision, mix elective abortion with those induced for medical reasons, or fail to distinguish between abortions performed early or late in gestation. The literature reveals methodological problems, a lack of controls, and sampling inadequacies. A review of the available literature and the files of "Abortion Research Notes" suggests that women at particular risk for postabortion stress reactions are those who terminate an originally wanted pregnancy, are strongly ambivalent, come very late in their pregnancy, or lack the support of significant others.

  10. Mars Pathfinder Microrover- Implementing a Low Cost Planetary Mission Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijevic, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX) is a NASA Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT) flight experiment which has been delivered and integrated with the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) lander and spacecraft system. The total cost of the MFEX mission, including all subsystem design and development, test, integration with the MPF lander and operations on Mars has been capped at $25 M??is paper discusses the process and the implementation scheme which has resulted in the development of this first Mars rover.

  11. Detection of Micrometeoroids with LISA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Ira; Littenberg, Tyson; Janchez, Diego; Baker, John; The LISA Pathfinder Team Team

    2017-01-01

    The LISA Pathfinder mission (LPF), a joint ESA/NASA technology demonstration mission currently operating at the Sun-Earth L1 point, contains the most precise accelerometry system ever flown. Analysis suggests that LPF should have sufficient sensitivity to detect impacts of small micrometeoroids and dust through their transfer of momentum to the spacecraft. Moreover, LPF's ability to fully resolve both the linear and angular momentum transfer in three dimensions allows a magnitude, direction, and location to be estimated for each impact. We present preliminary results from a systematic search of the LISA Pathfinder data for such impacts and discuss the prospects for using these and future results to inform models of the formation and evolution of dust populations in the inner solar system. These models have wide applicability to both pure and applied space science, ranging from the physics of planet formation and dynamics of minor Solar System bodies to estimates of the micrometeorite hazard for future spacecraft. 2017 NASA Science Innovation Fund.

  12. LISA Pathfinder: A Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, Martin; LISA Pathfinder Team Team

    2016-03-01

    On December 3rd at 04:04 UTC, The European Space Agency launched the LISA Pathfinder satellite on board a VEGA rocket from Kourou in French Guiana. After a series of orbit raising manoeuvres and a 2 month long transfer orbit, LISA Pathfinder arrived at L1. Following a period of commissioning, the science operations commenced at the start of March, beginning the demonstration of technologies and methodologies which pave the way for a future large-scale gravitational wave observatory in space. This talk will present the scientific goals of the mission, discuss the technologies being tested, elucidate the link to a future space-based observatory, such as LISA, and present preliminary results from the in-orbit operations and experiments.

  13. Strategic Team AI Path Plans: Probabilistic Pathfinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tng C. H. John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method to generate strategic team AI pathfinding plans for computer games and simulations using probabilistic pathfinding. This method is inspired by genetic algorithms (Russell and Norvig, 2002, in that, a fitness function is used to test the quality of the path plans. The method generates high-quality path plans by eliminating the low-quality ones. The path plans are generated by probabilistic pathfinding, and the elimination is done by a fitness test of the path plans. This path plan generation method has the ability to generate variation or different high-quality paths, which is desired for games to increase replay values. This work is an extension of our earlier work on team AI: probabilistic pathfinding (John et al., 2006. We explore ways to combine probabilistic pathfinding and genetic algorithm to create a new method to generate strategic team AI pathfinding plans.

  14. Relating MBSE to Spacecraft Development: A NASA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othon, Bill

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has sponsored a Pathfinder Study to investigate how Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Model Based Engineering (MBE) techniques can be applied by NASA spacecraft development projects. The objectives of this Pathfinder Study included analyzing both the products of the modeling activity, as well as the process and tool chain through which the spacecraft design activities are executed. Several aspects of MBSE methodology and process were explored. Adoption and consistent use of the MBSE methodology within an existing development environment can be difficult. The Pathfinder Team evaluated the possibility that an "MBSE Template" could be developed as both a teaching tool as well as a baseline from which future NASA projects could leverage. Elements of this template include spacecraft system component libraries, data dictionaries and ontology specifications, as well as software services that do work on the models themselves. The Pathfinder Study also evaluated the tool chain aspects of development. Two chains were considered: 1. The Development tool chain, through which SysML model development was performed and controlled, and 2. The Analysis tool chain, through which both static and dynamic system analysis is performed. Of particular interest was the ability to exchange data between SysML and other engineering tools such as CAD and Dynamic Simulation tools. For this study, the team selected a Mars Lander vehicle as the element to be designed. The paper will discuss what system models were developed, how data was captured and exchanged, and what analyses were conducted.

  15. An analysis of an early-warning system to reduce abortions in dairy cattle in Denmark incorporating both financial and epidemiologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Tim E; Chrièl, Mariann; Greiner, Matthias

    2007-01-16

    Emergency preparedness relies on the ability to detect patterns in rare incidents in an early stage of an outbreak in order to implement relevant actions. Early warning of an abortion storm as a result of infection with a notifiable disease, e.g. brucellosis, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), is a significant surveillance tool. This study used data from 507 large Danish dairy herds. A modified two-stage method for detecting an unusual increase in the abortion incidence was applied to the data. An alarm was considered true if an abortion were detected in the month following the alarm month, otherwise false. The total number of abortions that could potentially be avoided if effective action were taken ranged from 769 (22.9%) to 10 (0.3%), as the number of abortions required to set the alarm increased from 1 to 6. The vast majority of abortions could, however, not be predicted, much less prevented, given this early-warning system. The false to true alarm ratio was reduced when the number of abortions that set the alarm increased. The financial scenarios evaluated demonstrated that the value of an abortion, the cost of responding to an alarm and the efficiency of the actions are important for decision making when reporting an alarm. The presented model can readily be extended to other disease problems and multiple-time periods.

  16. MOC's Highest Resolution View of Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (A) Mars Pathfinder site, left: April 1998; right: January 2000. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (B) top: April 1998; bottom: January 2000.Can Mars Global Surveyor's 1.5 meter (5 ft) per pixel camera be used to find any evidence as to the fate of the Mars Polar Lander that was lost on December 3, 1999? One way to find out is to look for one of the other Mars landers and determine what, if anything, can be seen. There have been three successful Mars lander missions: Viking 1 (July 1976), Viking 2 (September 1976), and Mars Pathfinder (July 1997). Of these, the location of Mars Pathfinder is known the best because there are several distinct landmarks visible in the lander's images that help in locating the spacecraft. The MGS MOC Operations Team at Malin Space Science Systems has been tasked since mid-December 1999 with looking for the lost Polar Lander. Part of this effort has been to test the capabilities of MOC by taking a picture of the landing site of Mars Pathfinder.An attempt to photograph the Pathfinder site was made once before, in April 1998, by turning the entire MGS spacecraft so that the camera could point at the known location of the Mars Pathfinder lander. Turning the MGS spacecraft like this is not a normal operation--it takes considerable planning, and disrupts the on-going, normal acquisition of science data. It took 3 attempts to succeed, but on April 22, 1998, MOC acquired the picture seen on the left side of Figure A, above. The three near-by major landmarks that were visible to the Pathfinder's cameras are labeled here (North Peak, Big Crater, Twin Peaks). It was known at the time that this image was not adequate to see the Pathfinder lander because the camera was not in focus and had a resolution of only 3.3 meters (11 ft) per pixel. In this and all other images shown here, north is up. All views of the 1998 MOC image are illuminated from the lower right, all views of the 2000 MOC

  17. Second trimester abortions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvie, Suchitra S

    2008-05-01

    This article gives an overview of what is known about second trimester abortions in India, including the reasons why women seek abortions in the second trimester, the influence of abortion law and policy, surgical and medical methods used, both safe and unsafe, availability of services, requirements for second trimester service delivery, and barriers women experience in accessing second trimester services. Based on personal experiences and personal communications from other doctors since 1993, when I began working as an abortion provider, the practical realities of second trimester abortion and case histories of women seeking second trimester abortion are also described. Recommendations include expanding the cadre of service providers to non-allopathic clinicians and trained nurses, introducing second trimester medical abortion into the public health system, replacing ethacridine lactate with mifepristone-misoprostol, values clarification among providers to challenge stigma and poor treatment of women seeking second trimester abortion, and raising awareness that abortion is legal in the second trimester and is mostly not requested for reasons of sex selection.

  18. Abortion ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  19. Integrating Subject Pathfinders into Online Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, William E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the integration of subject pathfinders into online public access catalogs (OPAC) through following features: within the OPAC, offline user guide manuals, remotely printed upon user request, or online as saved searches displayed in help screen format. Excerpts of a pathfinder display for biotechnology are presented. Four sources are…

  20. Development of the System Test for the LHC Tune Measurement and Abort Gap Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Beccati, B

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest accelerator in the world and it will collide opposing beams of 7 TV protons together. It is built inside a 27km tunnel on the border between France and Switzerland. Within the framework of the project IUSS- Ferrara, I collaborated with the members of the AB-BI section at CERN: Accelerator Beam - Beam Instrumentation. My degree thesis is the result of this cooperation. My project is made of two sections, one for each themes analyzed during this year at CERN: the first one concerns the Tune, the second one is about the Abort gap. LHC is a synchrotron, an accelerator using dipole magnets to bending and quadrupole magnets to transverse focusing. Passing through this pattern of magnets, particles make oscillations. We refer to these ones as Betatron oscillations. The number of such oscillations/turn is called Tune. The ability tomeasure the tune is important for many kinds of diagnostic. In the base band tune (BBQ) measurement system developed at CERN the signal is di...

  1. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet

  2. POST ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRS. ADESHIYUN

    Introduction. Septic sacroilitis is a rare complication of abortion. 1 . Pregnant women are often at risk of developing varying degree of sacroiliac joint dysfunction due to laxity of the ligaments; this laxity is hormonally induced. Pregnancy arthropathy, which is the commonest cause of hip and pelvic pain in pregnancy, must be ...

  3. Model Checking JAVA Programs Using Java Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Pressburger, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a translator called JAVA PATHFINDER from JAVA to PROMELA, the "programming language" of the SPIN model checker. The purpose is to establish a framework for verification and debugging of JAVA programs based on model checking. This work should be seen in a broader attempt to make formal methods applicable "in the loop" of programming within NASA's areas such as space, aviation, and robotics. Our main goal is to create automated formal methods such that programmers themselves can apply these in their daily work (in the loop) without the need for specialists to manually reformulate a program into a different notation in order to analyze the program. This work is a continuation of an effort to formally verify, using SPIN, a multi-threaded operating system programmed in Lisp for the Deep-Space 1 spacecraft, and of previous work in applying existing model checkers and theorem provers to real applications.

  4. LISA Pathfinder: An important first step towards a space-based gravitational wave observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James

    2017-08-01

    ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission was launched on Dec 3rd, 2015 and completed earlier this Summer. During this relatively short mission, Pathfinder at its two science payloads, Europe's LISA Technology Package and NASA's Disturbance Reduction System, demonstrated several techniques and technologies that enable development of a future space-based gravitational wave observatory. Most notably, Pathfinder demonstrated that the technique of drag-free flight could be utilized to place a test mass in near-perfect free-fall, with residual accelerations at the femto-g level in the milliHertz band. Additionally, technologies such as precision bonded optical structures for metrology, micropropulsion systems, and non-contact charge control, were successfully tested, retiring risk for LISA. In this talk, I will present an overview of Pathfinder's results to date and some perspective on how this success will be leveraged into realizing LISA.

  5. Acoustic-Modal Testing of the Ares I Launch Abort System Attitude Control Motor Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. Benjamin; Fischbach, Sean R.

    2010-01-01

    The Attitude Control Motor (ACM) is being developed for use in the Launch Abort System (LAS) of NASA's Ares I launch vehicle. The ACM consists of a small solid rocket motor and eight actuated pintle valves that directionally allocate.thrust_- 1t.has-been- predicted-that significant unsteady. pressure.fluctuations.will.exist. inside the-valves during operation. The dominant frequencies of these oscillations correspond to the lowest several acoustic natural frequencies of the individual valves. An acoustic finite element model of the fluid volume inside the valve has been critical to the prediction of these frequencies and their associated mode shapes. This work describes an effort to experimentally validate the acoustic finite model of the valve with an acoustic modal test. The modal test involved instrumenting a flight-like valve with six microphones and then exciting the enclosed air with a loudspeaker. The loudspeaker was configured to deliver broadband noise at relatively high sound pressure levels. The aquired microphone signals were post-processed and compared to results generated from the acoustic finite element model. Initial comparisons between the test data and the model results revealed that additional model refinement was necessary. Specifically, the model was updated to implement a complex impedance boundary condition at the entrance to the valve supply tube. This boundary condition models the frequency-dependent impedance that an acoustic wave will encounter as it reaches the end of the supply tube. Upon invoking this boundary condition, significantly improved agreement between the test data and the model was realized.

  6. Abortion legalized: challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Jha, R

    2007-01-01

    To see whether advocacy for abortion law and comprehensive abortion care (CAC) sites after legalization of abortion in Nepal is adequate among educated people (above school leaving certificate). 150 participants were assigned randomly who agreed to be in the survey and were given structured questionnaires to find out their perception of abortion and CAC sites. Majority know abortion is legalized and majority have positive attitude about legalization of abortion, however majority are not aware of abortion service in CAC sites and none knew the cost of abortion service. Proper and adequate advocacy of the new abortion law and CAC service is essential.

  7. Multiagent path-finding in strategic games

    OpenAIRE

    Mihevc, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis I worked on creating, comparing and improving algorithms for multi-agent path planning on a domain typical for real-time strategy games. I implemented and compared Multiagent pathfinding using clearance and Multiagent pathfinding using independence detection and operator decomposition. I discovered that they had problems maintaining group compactness and took too long to calculate the path. I considerably improved the efficiency of both algorithms.

  8. Youth often risk unsafe abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, B

    1993-10-01

    The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to

  9. Accounting for abortion: Accomplishing transnational reproductive governance through post-abortion care in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Siri

    2018-06-01

    Reproductive governance operates through calculating demographic statistics that offer selective truths about reproductive practices, bodies, and subjectivities. Post-abortion care, a global reproductive health intervention, represents a transnational reproductive regime that establishes motherhood as women's primary legitimate reproductive status. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Senegal between 2010 and 2011, I illustrate how post-abortion care accomplishes reproductive governance in a context where abortion is prohibited altogether and the US is the primary bilateral donor of population aid. Reproductive governance unfolds in hospital gynecological wards and the national health information system through the mobilization and interpretation of post-abortion care data. Although health workers search women's bodies and behavior for signs of illegal abortion, they minimize police intervention in the hospital by classifying most post-abortion care cases as miscarriage. Health authorities deploy this account of post-abortion care to align the intervention with national and global maternal health policies that valorize motherhood. Although post-abortion care offers life-saving care to women with complications of illegal abortion, it institutionalizes abortion stigma by scrutinizing women's bodies and masking induced abortion within and beyond the hospital. Post-abortion care reinforces reproductive inequities by withholding safe, affordable obstetric care from women until after they have resorted to unsafe abortion.

  10. LISA Pathfinder instrument data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Felipe

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is an ESA-launched demonstration mission of key technologies required for the joint NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in space, LISA. As part of the LPF interferometry investigations, analytic models of noise sources and corresponding noise subtrac-tion techniques have been developed to correct for effects like the coupling of test mass jitter into displacement readout, and fluctuations of the laser frequency or optical pathlength difference. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Optical Metrology Subsystem is currently ongoing at the Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. In collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the LPF mission data analysis tool LTPDA is being used to analyze the data product of these tests. Furthermore, the noise subtraction techniques and in-flight experiment runs for noise characterization are being defined as part of the mission experiment master plan. We will present the data analysis outcome of pre-flight hardware ground tests and possible noise subtraction strategies for in-flight instrument operations.

  11. Conceptualising abortion stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M. H.

    2009-01-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies

  12. Micrometeorite Science with LISA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagane, Nicole; Thorpe, James Ira; Littenberg, Tyson; Littenberg, Tyson; Baker, John; Slutsky, Jacob; Hourihane, Sophie; LISA Pathfinder Team

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) was to demonstrate drag-free control of test masses—along with the technology necessary to maintain the inertial motion—that LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) would later utilize as a space-based gravitational wave observatory. Due to the precise interferometry used during the mission, LPF could be employed as an accelerometer and used to detect micrometeorite impacts while in orbit about the Sun-Earth Lagrange Point L1. To infer micrometeorite impacts, the flight data was processed for event reconstruction to determine external acceleration of LPF; impact parameters were then estimated through a Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) tool via Bayesian analysis by fitting delta functions in the acceleration domain. As impact candidates were collected, a catalog of event data was curated with the reconstructed estimated parameters, among which were impact sky localizations that were later rotated into more intuitive reference frames. To infer the results of this dust modeling technique, current micrometeorite models were compared to the impact data. In the final reference frame common to the available micrometeorite models, the reconstructed impacts appear to cluster at (±90°, 0°)—where impacts prograde in this longitude-latitude frame were at (-90°, 0°), retrograde were (90°, 0°), and the sun was centered at the origin. The two available models used for comparison were of the Jupiter-family comets (JFC) and Halley-type comets (HTC), which clustered primarily around (±90°, 0°) and (0°, ±20°) respectively. This suggests that the JFC population seems to account for the majority of the impacts detected by LPF. The models’ expected rates given localization and velocity are currently being compared to the reconstructed data to further characterize the micrometeorite populations at L1. We will present our current analysis of this data set and discuss possibilities of extending such an analysis for LISA.

  13. Fractal Analysis of Stealthy Pathfinding Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Coleman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a fractal model to analyze aesthetic values of a new class of obstacle-prone or “stealthy” pathfinding which seeks to avoid detection, exposure, openness, and so forth in videogames. This study is important since in general the artificial intelligence literature has given relatively little attention to aesthetic outcomes in pathfinding. The data we report, according to the fractal model, suggests that stealthy paths are statistically significantly unique in relative aesthetic value when compared to control paths. We show furthermore that paths generated with different stealth regimes are also statistically significantly unique. These conclusions are supported by statistical analysis of model results on experimental trials involving pathfinding in randomly generated, multiroom virtual worlds.

  14. Abortion: Still Unfinished Agenda in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Dirgha Raj; Regmi, Shibesh Chandra; Dangal, Ganesh

    2018-03-13

    Unsafe abortion is affecting a lot, in health, socio-economic and health care cost of many countries. Despite invention of simple technology and scientifically approved safe abortion methods, women and girls are still using unsafe abortion practices. Since 2002, Nepal has achieved remarkable progress in developing policies, guidelines, task shifting, training human resources and increasing access to services. However, more than half of abortion in Nepal are performed clandestinely by untrained or unapproved providers or induced by pregnant woman herself. Knowledge on legalization and availability of safe abortion service among women is still very poor. Stigma on abortion still persists among community people, service providers, managers, and policy makers. Access to safe abortion, especially in remote and rural areas, is still far behind as compared to their peers from urban areas. The existing law is not revised in the spirit of current Constitution of Nepal and rights-based approach. The existence of abortion stigma and the shifting of the government structure from unitary system to federalism in absence of a complete clarity on how the safe abortion service gets integrated into the local government structure might create challenge to sustain existing developments. There is, therefore, a need for all stakeholders to make a lot of efforts and allocate adequate resources to sustain current achievements and ensure improvements in creating a supportive social environment for women and girls so that they will be able to make informed decisions and access to safe abortion service in any circumstances.

  15. Symbolic PathFinder v7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    We describe Symbolic PathFinder v7 in terms of its updated design addressing the changes of Java PathFinder v7 and of its new optimization when computing path conditions. Furthermore, we describe the Symbolic Execution Tree Extension; a newly added feature that allows for outputting the symbolic...... execution tree that characterizes the execution paths covered during symbolic execution. The new extension can be tailored to the needs of subsequent analyses/processing facilities, and we demonstrate this by presenting SPF-Visualizer, which is a tool for customizable visualization of the symbolic execution...

  16. Abortion Before & After Roe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  17. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Composite Crew Module Service Module/Alternate Launch Abort System (CCM SM/ALAS) Test Article Failure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Failure tests of CCM SM/ALAS (Composite Crew Module Service Module / Alternate Launch Abort System) composite panels were conducted during July 10, 2008 and July 24, 2008 at Langley Research Center. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests.

  18. LHC Abort Gap Monitoring and Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Meddahi, M; Boccardi, A; Butterworth, A; Fisher, A S; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, G H; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Jaussi, M; Kain, V; Lefevre, T; Shaposhnikova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D

    2010-01-01

    Unbunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC as it may quench the superconducting magnets during a beam abort. Unbunched particles, either not captured by the RF system at injection or leaking out of the RF bucket, will be removed by using the existing damper kickers to excite resonantly the particles in the abort gap. Following beam simulations, a strategy for cleaning the abort gap at different energies was proposed. The plans for the commissioning of the beam abort gap cleaning are described and first results from the beam commissioning are presented.

  19. Strengthening health systems capacity to monitor and evaluate programmes targeted at reducing abortion-related maternal mortality in Jessore district, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Fauzia Akhter; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Ford, Evelyn Rebecca; Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2015-09-28

    . Notable gaps were identified in providing post-abortion contraceptive services for women treated for PAC. By systematic implementation of the SMRAC model, health systems can track and measure progress and gaps in their implementation and identify strategies for further reduction of abortion-related morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh.

  20. Pathfinders on Black Dance in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Loriene, Ed.

    This is a compilation of 18 pathfinders (i.e., a bibliographic instruction aid) on black dance in America, prepared by graduate students in the "Information Resources in the Humanities" and the "Information Resources in the Social Sciences" classes in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of…

  1. Mechanical design of the Mars Pathfinder mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Howard Jay; Buck, Carl W.; Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Umland, Jeffrey W.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission and the Sojourner rover is reported on, with emphasis on the various mission steps and the performance of the technologies involved. The mechanical design of mission hardware was critical to the success of the entry sequence and the landing operations. The various mechanisms employed are considered.

  2. Charge Management in LISA Pathfinder: The Continuous Discharging Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Becca Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Test mass charging is a significant source of excess force and force noise in LISA Pathfinder (LPF). The planned design scheme for mitigation of charge induced force noise in LISA is a continuous discharge by UV light illumination. We report on analysis of a charge management experiment on-board LPF conducted during December 2016. We discuss the measurement of test mass charging noise with and without continuous UV illumination, in addition to the dynamic response in the continuous discharge scheme. Results of the continuous discharge system will be discussed for their application to operating LISA with lower test mass charge.

  3. Abortion patients' perceptions of abortion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrill, Kate; Weitz, Tracy A

    2010-01-01

    Most states regulate abortion differently than other health care services. Examples of these regulations include mandating waiting periods and the provision of state-authored information, and prohibiting private and public insurance coverage for abortion. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore abortion patients' perspectives on these regulations. We recruited 20 participants from three abortion providing facilities located in two states in the U.S. South and Midwest. Using a survey and semistructured interview, we collected information about women's knowledge of abortion regulation and policy preferences. During the interviews, women weighed the pros and cons of abortion regulations. We used grounded theory analytical techniques and matrix analysis to organize and interpret the data. We discovered five themes in these women's considerations of regulation: responsibility, empathy, safe and accessible health care, privacy, and equity. Women in the study generally supported policies that they felt protected women or informed decisions. However, most women also opposed laws mandating two-day abortion appointments for women who were traveling long distances. Women tended to favor financial coverage of abortion, arguing that it could help poor women afford abortion or reduce state expenditures. Overall the study participants' opinions on abortion policy reflect key values for advocates and policy makers to consider: responsibility, empathy, safe and accessible health care, privacy, and equity. Future work should examine abortion regulations in light of these shared values. Laws that promote misinformation or prohibit accommodations of unique circumstances are not consistent the positions articulated by the subjects in our study. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  4. Abortion - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) PDF Reproductive Health Access Project Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - English PDF Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - ...

  5. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  6. Update on abortion policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Jennifer A; Brant, Ashley R; Shumaker, Heather D; Reeves, Matthew F

    2016-12-01

    To review the status of antiabortion restrictions enacted over the last 5 years in the United States and their impact on abortion services. In recent years, there has been an alarming rise in the number of antiabortion laws enacted across the United States. In total, various states in the union enacted 334 abortion restrictions from 2011 to July 2016, accounting for 30% of all abortion restrictions since the legalization of abortion in 1973. Data confirm, however, that more liberal abortion laws do not increase the number of abortions, but instead greatly decrease the number of abortion-related deaths. Several countries including Romania, South Africa and Nepal have seen dramatic decreases in maternal mortality after liberalization of abortion laws, without an increase in the total number of abortions. In the United States, abortions are incredibly safe with very low rates of complications and a mortality rate of 0.7 per 100 000 women. With increasing abortion restrictions, maternal mortality in the United States can be expected to rise over the coming years, as has been observed in Texas recently. Liberalization of abortion laws saves women's lives. The rising number of antiabortion restrictions will ultimately harm women and their families.

  7. Abortion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  8. Trying to prevent abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, D R; Oloto, E J

    1997-06-01

    It is known that, since antiquity, women confronted with an unwanted pregnancy have used abortion as a means of resolving their dilemma. Although undoubtedly widely used in all historical ages, abortion has come to be regarded as an event preferably avoided because of the impact on the women concerned as well as considerations for fetal life. Policies to reduce numbers and rates of abortion must acknowledge certain observations. Criminalization does not prevent abortion but increases maternal risks. A society's 'openness' in discussing sexual matters inversely correlates with abortion rates. Correlation between contraceptive use and abortion is also inverse but relates most closely to the efficacy of contraceptive methods used. 'Revolution' in the range of contraceptive methods used will have an equivalent impact on abortion rates. Secondary or emergency contraceptive methods have a considerable role to play in the reduction of abortion numbers. Good sex (and 'relationships') education programs may delay sexual debut, increase contraceptive usage and be associated with reduced abortion. Finally, interaction between socioeconomic factors and the choice between abortion and ongoing pregnancy are complex. Abortion is not necessarily chosen by those least able to support a child financially.

  9. Clandestine abortions are not necessarily illegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J

    1991-01-01

    It is common to find the term illegal abortion misused. Often times this misuse is perpetrated by antiabortion advocates who wish to reinforce negative stereotypes and thus apply pressure on doctors to refrain from performing abortions. Until a practitioner is prosecuted and convicted of performing an abortion contrary to the law, the procedure should not be referred to as illegal. Instead the legally neutral term, abortion, should be used instead. This would better serve the interests of women's reproductive health. There is no legal system that makes abortion illegal in all circumstances. For example, abortion is often legal if the life of the mother in danger. This includes a perception on behalf of the practitioner that the women may be suicidal or attempt to terminate the pregnancy by herself. A practitioner performing an abortion in such circumstances is not doing so illegally. The use of the term illegal abortion ignores the fact that in criminal law one is presumed innocent until proven guilty. A prosecutor must prove 1st that an intervention was performed and 2nd that a criminal intent accompanied the intervention. It is this 2nd criterion that is often the hardest to prove, since the practitioner must only testify that the intervention was indicated by legally allowed circumstances to be innocent. The prosecutor must show bad faith in order to gain a justified conviction. Even abortion by unqualified practitioners may not be illegal if doctors refuse to perform the intervention because it is still indicated. Accurate description of abortions would clarify situations in which abortion can be legally provided.

  10. [[Abortion: An Unforgivable Sin?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Chiara

    Abortion has become something to hide, something you can't tell other people, something you have to expiate forever. Besides, abortion is more and more difficult to achieve because of the raising average of consciencious objection (from 70 to 90% of health care providers are conscientious objectors, 2014 data, Ministero della Salute) and illegal abortion is "coming back"from the 70s, when abortion was a crime (Italian law n. 194/1978). Abortion is often blamed as a murder, an unforgivenable sin, even as genocide. Silence against shouting "killers!" to women who are going to have an abortion: this is a common actual scenario. Why is it so difficult to discuss and even to mention abortion?

  11. LISA Pathfinder: hardware tests and their input to the mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Heather

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint ESA-NASA mission for the first space-borne gravitational wave detector. LISA aims to detect sources in the 0.1mHz to 1Hz range, which include supermassive black holes and galactic binary stars. Core technologies required for the LISA mission, including drag-free test mass control, picometre interferometry and micro-Newton thrusters, cannot be tested on-ground. Therefore, a precursor satellite, LISA Pathfinder, has been developed as a technology demonstration mission. The preparations for the LISA Pathfinder mission have reached an exciting stage. Tests of the engineering model of the optical metrology system have recently been completed at the Albert Einstein Institute, Hannover, and flight model tests are now underway. Significantly, they represent the first complete integration and testing of the space-qualified hardware and are the first tests on system level. The results and test procedures of these campaigns will be utilised directly in the ground-based flight hardware tests, and subsequently within in-flight operations. In addition, they allow valuable testing of the data analysis methods using the MatLab based LTP data analysis toolbox. This contribution presents an overview of the test campaigns calibration, control and perfor-mance results, focusing on the implications for the Experimental Master Plan which provides the basis for the in-flight operations and procedures.

  12. Pathfinder-Plus aircraft in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Pathfinder-Plus solar-powered aircraft is shown taking off from a runway, then flying at low altitude over the ocean. The vehicle, which looks like a flying ruler, operates at low airspeed. Among the missions proposed for a solar-powered aircraft are communications relay, atmospheric studies, pipeline monitoring and gas leak detection, environmental monitoring using thermal and radar images, and disaster relief and monitoring.

  13. Slewing mirror telescope of the UFFO-pathfinder: first report on performance in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaikov, G.; Jeong, S.; Agaradahalli, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    of the UFFO-pathfinder payload, which was launched on April 28, 2016, onboard the Lomonosov satellite. For the first time, the slewing mirror system has been proven for the precision tracking of astrophysical objects during space operation. We confirmed that the SMT has 1.4 seconds of response time to the X...

  14. Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

  15. Rapid Geometry Creation for Computer-Aided Engineering Parametric Analyses: A Case Study Using ComGeom2 for Launch Abort System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Veronica; Gage, Peter; Manning, Ted

    2007-01-01

    ComGeom2, a tool developed to generate Common Geometry representation for multidisciplinary analysis, has been used to create a large set of geometries for use in a design study requiring analysis by two computational codes. This paper describes the process used to generate the large number of configurations and suggests ways to further automate the process and make it more efficient for future studies. The design geometry for this study is the launch abort system of the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle.

  16. Induced abortion in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P D; Lin, R S

    1995-04-01

    Induced abortion is widely practised in Taiwan; however, it had been illegal until 1985. It was of interest to investigate induced abortion practices in Taiwan after its legalization in 1985 in order to calculate the prevalence rate and ratio of induced abortion to live births and to pregnancies in Taiwan. A study using questionnaires through personal interviews was conducted on more than seventeen thousand women who attended a family planning service in Taipei metropolitan areas between 1991 and 1992. The reproductive history and sexual behaviour of the subjects were especially focused on during the interviews. Preliminary findings showed that 46% of the women had a history of having had an induced abortion. Among them, 54.8% had had one abortion, 29.7% had had two, and 15.5% had had three or more. The abortion ratio was 379 induced abortions per 1,000 live births and 255 per 1,000 pregnancies. The abortion ratio was highest for women younger than 20 years of age, for aboriginal women and for nulliparous women. When logistic regression was used to control for confounding variables, we found that the number of previous live births is the strongest predictor relating to women seeking induced abortion. In addition, a significant positive association exists between increasing number of induced abortions and cervical dysplasia.

  17. LISA Pathfinder and eLISA news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James Ira; Mueller, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Two important gatherings of the space-based gravitational-wave detector community were held in Zurich, Switzerland this past March. The first was a meeting of the Science Working Team for LISA Pathfinder (LPF), a dedicated technology demonstrator mission for a future LISA-like gravitational wave observatory. LPF is entering an extremely exciting phase with launch less than 15 months away. All flight components for both the European science payload, known as the LISA Technology Package (LTP), and the NASA science payload, known as the Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System (ST7-DRS), have been delivered and are undergoing integration. The final flight component for the spacecraft bus, a cold-gas thruster based on the successful GAIA design, will be delivered later this year. Current focus is on completing integration of the science payload (see Figures 1 and 2) and preparation for operations and data analysis. After a launch in Summer 2015, LPF will take approximately 90 days to reach its operational orbit around the Earth-Sun Lagrange point (L1), where it will begin science operations. After 90 days of LTP operations followed by 90 days of DRS operations, LPF will have completed its prime mission of paving the way for a space-based observatory of gravitational waves in the milliHertz band. Immediately following the meeting of the LPF team, the eLISA consortium held its third progress meeting. The consortium (www.elisascience.org) is the organizing body of the European space-based gravitational-wave community, and it was responsible for the "The Gravitational Universe" whitepaper that resulted in the November 2013 election of a gravitational-wave science theme for ESA's Cosmic Visions L3 opportunity. In preparation for an L3 mission concept call, which is expected later this decade, and for launch in the mid 2030s, the eLISA consortium members are coordinating technology development and mission study activities which will build on the LPF results. The final

  18. Barriers to Rural Induced Abortion Services in Canada: Findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V.; Soon, Judith A.; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). Methods We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Results Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Conclusions Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians. PMID:23840578

  19. Uncoupling nicotine mediated motoneuron axonal pathfinding errors and muscle degeneration in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, Lillian; Tanguay, Robert L.; Svoboda, Kurt R.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos offer a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms by which nicotine exposure impacts early vertebrate development. Embryos exposed to nicotine become functionally paralyzed by 42 hpf suggesting that the neuromuscular system is compromised in exposed embryos. We previously demonstrated that secondary spinal motoneurons in nicotine-exposed embryos were delayed in development and that their axons made pathfinding errors (Svoboda, K.R., Vijayaraghaven, S., Tanguay, R.L., 2002. Nicotinic receptors mediate changes in spinal motoneuron development and axonal pathfinding in embryonic zebrafish exposed to nicotine. J. Neurosci. 22, 10731-10741). In that study, we did not consider the potential role that altered skeletal muscle development caused by nicotine exposure could play in contributing to the errors in spinal motoneuron axon pathfinding. In this study, we show that an alteration in skeletal muscle development occurs in tandem with alterations in spinal motoneuron development upon exposure to nicotine. The alteration in the muscle involves the binding of nicotine to the muscle-specific AChRs. The nicotine-induced alteration in muscle development does not occur in the zebrafish mutant (sofa potato, [sop]), which lacks muscle-specific AChRs. Even though muscle development is unaffected by nicotine exposure in sop mutants, motoneuron axonal pathfinding errors still occur in these mutants, indicating a direct effect of nicotine exposure on nervous system development.

  20. Abortion in the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Jennifer A; Cahill, Erica

    2017-12-01

    To review updates in how abortion care is depicted and analysed though various media outlets: news, television, film, and social media. A surge in recent media-related abortion research has recognized several notable and emerging themes: abortion in the news media is often inappropriately sourced and politically motivated; abortion portrayal in US film and television is frequently misrepresented; and social media has a new and significant role in abortion advocacy. The portrayal of abortion onscreen, in the news, and online through social media has a significant impact on cultural, personal, and political beliefs in the United States. This is an emerging field of research with wide spread potential impact across several arenas: medicine, policy, public health.

  1. Opportunities, challenges and systems requirements for developing post-abortion family planning services: Perceptions of service stakeholders in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Esther; Zhang, Weihong; Hu, Lina; Wu, Shangchun; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Post-abortion family planning (PAFP) has been proposed as a key strategy to decrease unintended pregnancy and repeat induced abortions. However, the accessibility and quality of PAFP services remain a challenge in many countries including China where more than 10 million unintended pregnancies occur each year. Most of these unwanted pregnancies end in repeated induced abortions. This paper aims to explore service providers’ perceptions of the current situation regarding family planning and abortion service needs, provision, utilization, and the feasibility and acceptability of high quality PAFP in the future. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, were used with family planning policy makers, health managers, and service providers. Three provinces—Zhejiang, Hubei and Yunnan—were purposively selected, representing high, medium and relatively undeveloped areas of China. A total of fifty-three in-depth interviews and ten focus-group discussions were conducted and analysed thematically. Increased numbers of abortions among young, unmarried women were perceived as a major reason for high numbers of abortions. Participants attributed this to increasing socio-cultural acceptability of premarital sex, and simultaneously, lack of understanding or awareness of contraception among young people. The majority of service stakeholders acknowledged that free family planning services were neither targeted at, nor accessible to unmarried people. The extent of PAFP provision is variable and limited. However, service providers expressed willingness and enthusiasm towards providing PAFP services in the future. Three main considerations were expressed regarding the feasibility of developing and implementing PAFP services: policy support, human resources, and financial resources. The study indicated that key service stakeholders show demand for and perceive considerable opportunities to develop PAFP in China. However, changes are needed to

  2. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  3. Misinformation on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Sam

    2011-08-01

    To find the latest and most accurate information on aspects of induced abortion. A literature survey was carried out in which five aspects of abortion were scrutinised: risk to life, risk of breast cancer, risk to mental health, risk to future fertility, and fetal pain. Abortion is clearly safer than childbirth. There is no evidence of an association between abortion and breast cancer. Women who have abortions are not at increased risk of mental health problems over and above women who deliver an unwanted pregnancy. There is no negative effect of abortion on a woman's subsequent fertility. It is not possible for a fetus to perceive pain before 24 weeks' gestation. Misinformation on abortion is widespread. Literature and websites are cited to demonstrate how data have been manipulated and misquoted or just ignored. Citation of non-peer reviewed articles is also common. Mandates insisting on provision of inaccurate information in some US State laws are presented. Attention is drawn to how women can be misled by Crisis Pregnancy Centres. There is extensive promulgation of misinformation on abortion by those who oppose abortion. Much of this misinformation is based on distorted interpretation of the scientific literature.

  4. Oral contraception following abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P abortion (P abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. PMID:27399060

  5. Optimal path-finding through mental exploration based on neural energy field gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihong; Wang, Rubin; Zhu, Yating

    2017-02-01

    Rodent animal can accomplish self-locating and path-finding task by forming a cognitive map in the hippocampus representing the environment. In the classical model of the cognitive map, the system (artificial animal) needs large amounts of physical exploration to study spatial environment to solve path-finding problems, which costs too much time and energy. Although Hopfield's mental exploration model makes up for the deficiency mentioned above, the path is still not efficient enough. Moreover, his model mainly focused on the artificial neural network, and clear physiological meanings has not been addressed. In this work, based on the concept of mental exploration, neural energy coding theory has been applied to the novel calculation model to solve the path-finding problem. Energy field is constructed on the basis of the firing power of place cell clusters, and the energy field gradient can be used in mental exploration to solve path-finding problems. The study shows that the new mental exploration model can efficiently find the optimal path, and present the learning process with biophysical meaning as well. We also analyzed the parameters of the model which affect the path efficiency. This new idea verifies the importance of place cell and synapse in spatial memory and proves that energy coding is effective to study cognitive activities. This may provide the theoretical basis for the neural dynamics mechanism of spatial memory.

  6. Environmental T4-Family Bacteriophages Evolve to Escape Abortive Infection via Multiple Routes in a Bacterial Host Employing "Altruistic Suicide" through Type III Toxin-Antitoxin Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bihe; Akusobi, Chidiebere; Fang, Xinzhe; Salmond, George P C

    2017-01-01

    Abortive infection is an anti-phage mechanism employed by a bacterium to initiate its own death upon phage infection. This reduces, or eliminates, production of viral progeny and protects clonal siblings in the bacterial population by an act akin to an "altruistic suicide." Abortive infection can be mediated by a Type III toxin-antitoxin system called ToxIN Pa consisting of an endoribonuclease toxin and RNA antitoxin. ToxIN Pa is a heterohexameric quaternary complex in which pseudoknotted RNA inhibits the toxicity of the toxin until infection by certain phages causes destabilization of ToxIN Pa , leading to bacteriostasis and, eventually, lethality. However, it is still unknown why only certain phages are able to activate ToxIN Pa . To try to address this issue we first introduced ToxIN Pa into the Gram-negative enterobacterium, Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 ( S 39006) and then isolated new environmental S 39006 phages that were scored for activation of ToxIN Pa and abortive infection capacity. We isolated three T4-like phages from a sewage treatment outflow point into the River Cam, each phage being isolated at least a year apart. These phages were susceptible to ToxIN Pa -mediated abortive infection but produced spontaneous "escape" mutants that were insensitive to ToxIN Pa . Analysis of these resistant mutants revealed three different routes of escaping ToxIN Pa , namely by mutating asiA (the product of which is a phage transcriptional co-activator); by mutating a conserved, yet functionally unknown, orf84 ; or by deleting a 6.5-10 kb region of the phage genome. Analysis of these evolved escape mutants may help uncover the nature of the corresponding phage product(s) involved in activation of ToxIN Pa .

  7. Bayesian statistics for the calibration of the LISA Pathfinder experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armano, M; Freschi, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Fitzsimons, E; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission is to estimate the acceleration noise models of the overall LISA Technology Package (LTP) experiment on-board. This will be of crucial importance for the future space-based Gravitational-Wave (GW) detectors, like eLISA. Here, we present the Bayesian analysis framework to process the planned system identification experiments designed for that purpose. In particular, we focus on the analysis strategies to predict the accuracy of the parameters that describe the system in all degrees of freedom. The data sets were generated during the latest operational simulations organised by the data analysis team and this work is part of the LTPDA Matlab toolbox. (paper)

  8. Hillary Clinton visits Pathfinder projects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In October 1995, US First Lady Hillary Clinton visited a maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil, in which a family planning (FP)/reproductive health program has been administered by Pathfinder International since 1981 with funding from USAID. During her tour of the facility, Clinton learned about the high degree of unmet need for FP in the region which results from a lack of sufficient resources to meet demand. Clinton, in turn, praised the state of Bahia for its emphasis on FP in low-income areas.

  9. The LISA Pathfinder DMU and Radiation Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canizares, P; Conchillo, A; Gesa, L; Lloro, I; Lobo, A; Mateos, I; Sopuerta, Carlos F [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5 parell, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Chmeissani, M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Edifici CN, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Diaz-Aguilo, M; GarcIa-Berro, E; Gibert, F [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Grimani, C [Universita degli Studi di Urbino, MFI Department, Via Santa Chiara 27, 61029 Urbino, and INFN Florence (Italy); Nofrarias, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Ramos-Castro, J [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, UPC, Campus Nord, Edifici C4, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Sanjuan, J [Department of Physics, University of Florida, NPB-22258 PO Box 118 440, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States); Araujo, H M; Wass, P, E-mail: lobo@ieec.fcr.es [High Energy Physics Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-07

    The LISA Pathfinder DMU (Data Management Unit) flight model was formally accepted by ESA and ASD on 11 February 2010, after all hardware and software tests had been successfully completed. The diagnostics items are scheduled to be delivered by the end of 2010. In this paper, we review the requirements and performance of this instrumentation, specially focusing on the Radiation Monitor and the DMU, as well as the status of their programmed use during mission operations, on which work is ongoing at the time of writing.

  10. Phase 2 pilot study of Pathfinders: a psychosocial intervention for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Amy P; Herndon, James E; Coan, April; Staley, Tina; Wheeler, Jane L; Rowe, Krista; Smith, Sophia K; Shaw, H; Lyerly, H Kim

    2010-07-01

    Pathfinders is a multi-faceted psychosocial care program for cancer patients; it was developed in community oncology and adapted to the academic oncology setting. This prospective, single-arm, phase 2 pilot study examined the acceptability and feasibility of Pathfinders for women with metastatic breast cancer. Over 3 months, participants completed patient-reported surveys including the Patient Care Monitor (PCM, review of systems), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Breast Cancer (FACT-B), Self Efficacy, and a single-item survey asking patients whether the program was helpful to them. A technology-based data collection system was used to capture electronic patient-reported outcomes at point of care, report symptoms in real time to clinicians, and collect warehouse data to provide a detailed longitudinal picture of the patient experience when receiving Pathfinders. Participants (n = 50) were: mean age 51 (SD 11); 76% white, 20% black; 74% married; 50% college degree. Forty-two (n = 42) patients completed baseline and 3-month assessments. Statistically significant improvements (all P < 0.05) occurred in PCM subscales for Distress (mean [SE] = -3.42 [1.21]), Despair (-4.53 [1.56]), and Quality of Life (2.88 [0.97]), and the FACT-B Emotional Wellbeing subscale (2.07 [0.46]). Of the 29 participants asked if Pathfinders was helpful, 27 (93%) responded positively and two did not respond. Other instruments measuring symptoms, quality of life, and self-efficacy showed improvement. In a phase 2 pilot study, Pathfinders was helpful to patients and is feasible in an academic medical center. Follow-up data collected at the 3-month assessment suggest that the program impacts various psychological outcomes, notably distress and despair.

  11. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  12. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  13. Abortion in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  14. [Demand for abortion. Pre-abortion discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiol, L

    1994-03-01

    The preabortion interview required by French law takes place between the medical consultation and the aspiration or administration of RU-486. The three marriage counselors at the Center for Social Gynecology in Marseilles have each undertaken a course of personal therapy to enable them to understand their own reactions and motivations as a way of improving their effectiveness with clients. The preabortion interview is an opportunity to listen to and support women who may be experiencing anguish, sadness, ambivalence, or aggressivity. Each client determines the content of the interview. Often the reason for the abortion is given, frequently in terms of economic problems, unemployment, or other justification. The women almost always state that they "cannot", not that they "do not want", to continue the pregnancy, as if external circumstances had made their decision. The decision is usually made with little discussion. Young adolescents are often astounded to find themselves pregnant. Among young girls, the pregnancy may represent an appeal to the parents for attention or understanding. Sometimes the abortion represents a repetition or a reminder of some difficult event in the past, such as a previous abortion or the death of a child. Often the abortion exacerbates problems in the couple's relationship. The mother often experiences rejection of the pregnancy by the father as rejection of herself. Repeat abortions raise questions about whether some aspect of counseling was neglected. The abortion request always occasions a great feeling of guilt, both for being pregnant and for refusing the pregnancy. The interview permits the client to express her feelings and may help her make sense of the experience.

  15. Abortion: a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, G

    1985-01-01

    This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap

  16. The Australian SKA Pathfinder: operations management and user engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the science operations model for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. ASKAP is a radio interferometer currently being commissioned in Western Australia. It will be operated by a dedicated team of observatory staff with the support of telescope monitoring, control and scheduling software. These tools, as well as the proposal tools and data archive will enable the telescope to operate with little direct input from the astronomy user. The paper also discusses how close engagement with the telescope user community has been maintained throughout the ASKAP construction and commissioning phase, leading to positive outcomes including early input into the design of telescope systems and a vibrant early science program.

  17. Risk factors and the choice of long-acting reversible contraception following medical abortion: effect on subsequent induced abortion and unwanted pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, Riina; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Mentula, Maarit

    2018-04-01

    To analyse the post-abortion effect of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) plans and initiation on the risk of subsequent unwanted pregnancy and abortion. retrospective cohort study of 666 women who underwent medical abortion between January-May 2013 at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. Altogether 159 (23.8%) women planning post-abortion use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) participated in a randomized study and had an opportunity to receive the LNG-IUS free-of-charge from the hospital. The other 507 (76.2%) women planned and obtained their contraception according to clinical routine. Demographics, planned contraception, and LARC initiation at the time of the index abortion were collected. Data on subsequent abortions were retrieved from the Finnish Abortion Register and electronic patient files until the end of 2014. During the 21 months ([median], IQR 20-22) follow-up, 54(8.1%) women requested subsequent abortions. When adjusted for age, previous pregnancies, deliveries, induced abortions and gestational-age, planning LARC for post-abortion contraception failed to prevent subsequent abortion (33 abortions/360 women, 9.2%) compared to other contraceptive plans (21/306, 6.9%) (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.68-2.17). However, verified LARC initiation decreased the abortion rate (4 abortions/177 women, 2.3%) compared to women with uncertain LARC initiation status (50/489, 10.2%) (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.48). When adjusted for LARC initiation status, age abortion (27 abortions/283 women, 9.5%) compared to women ≥25 years (27/383, 7.0%, HR1.95, 95% CI 1.04-3.67). Initiation of LARC as part of abortion service at the time of medical abortion is an important means to prevent subsequent abortion, especially among young women.

  18. Induced abortion in villages of Ballabgarh HDSS: rates, trends, causes and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Srivastava, Rahul; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Misra, Puneet; Charlette, Lena; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2015-05-29

    Induced abortion has been legal in India on a broad range of medical and social grounds since 1980s. Often, induced abortion is resorted to as a means for contraception, and has a potential to be misused for sex selective feticide. We assessed the rates, trends, causes and determinants of induced abortions from 2008-12 in a rural community of northern India. Present study is a secondary data analysis of pregnancy outcomes at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2008-12. The data was retrieved from the Health and Management Information System maintained at Ballabgarh. Cause of abortion was self-reported by the women who underwent abortion. Of the 11,102 pregnancies, 1,226 (11%) culminated as abortions of which 425 (3.8%) were induced abortions. Spontaneous abortion rate (7.2%) was twice that of induced abortion rate (3.8%). Both abortion rates had an increasing trend during the course of the study period. Self-reported reasons for opting for induced abortions were bleeding per vaginum (23%), unwanted pregnancy (16%), and unviable fetus diagnosed by ultrasonography (11%). Eight percent of the induced abortions were due to the female sex of the fetus. About 11% of the abortions were performed beyond 20 weeks of gestation which was the upper legal permissible gestational age for performing induced abortions in India. About 10% of the abortions were performed by unqualified practitioners. Caste, wealth index, birth order and size of the village population were the factors that were significantly associated with induced abortion. Though the abortion rate was low, the proportionate contribution of induced abortion was more than what could be expected. Unsafe and sex selective abortion, though illegal, was prevalent. Upper caste and higher socio-economic status families were more likely to opt for induced abortion.

  19. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  20. Narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the ...

  1. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers' education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post-abortion

  2. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this

  3. Pathfinder: multiresolution region-based searching of pathology images using IRM.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J. Z.

    2000-01-01

    The fast growth of digitized pathology slides has created great challenges in research on image database retrieval. The prevalent retrieval technique involves human-supplied text annotations to describe slide contents. These pathology images typically have very high resolution, making it difficult to search based on image content. In this paper, we present Pathfinder, an efficient multiresolution region-based searching system for high-resolution pathology image libraries. The system uses wave...

  4. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  5. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. The incidence of abortion worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, S K; Singh, S; Haas, T

    1999-01-01

    Accurate measurement of induced abortion levels has proven difficult in many parts of the world. Health care workers and policymakers need information on the incidence of both legal and illegal induced abortion to provide the needed services and to reduce the negative impact of unsafe abortion on women's health. Numbers and rates of induced abortions were estimated from four sources: official statistics or other national data on legal abortions in 57 countries; estimates based on population surveys for two countries without official statistics; special studies for 10 countries where abortion is highly restricted; and worldwide and regional estimates of unsafe abortion from the World Health Organization. Approximately 26 million legal and 20 million illegal abortions were performed worldwide in 1995, resulting in a worldwide abortion rate of 35 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Among the subregions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe to the lowest rate (11 per 1,000). Among countries where abortion is legal without restriction as to reason, the highest abortion rate, 83 per 1,000, was reported for Vietnam and the lowest, seven per 1,000, for Belgium and the Netherlands. Abortion rates are no lower overall in areas where abortion is generally restricted by law (and where many abortions are performed under unsafe conditions) than in areas where abortion is legally permitted. Both developed and developing countries can have low abortion rates. Most countries, however, have moderate to high abortion rates, reflecting lower prevalence and effectiveness of contraceptive use. Stringent legal restrictions do not guarantee a low abortion rate.

  7. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries for the Mars Pathfinder Microrover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deligiannis, F.; Frank, H.; Staniewicz, R.J.; Willson, J. [SAFT America, Inc., Cockeysville, MD (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A discussion of the power requirements for the Mars Pathfinder Mission is given. Topics include: battery requirements; cell design; battery design; test descriptions and results. A summary of the results is also included.

  8. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries for the Mars Pathfinder Microrover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Frank; Frank, Harvey; Staniewicz, R. J.; Willson, John

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of the power requirements for the Mars Pathfinder Mission is given. Topics include: battery requirements; cell design; battery design; test descriptions and results. A summary of the results is also included.

  9. CRED REA Algal Assessment, Pathfinder Bank 2003 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Random collections of algae were made at 2 sites at Pathfinder Bank in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in August and September, 2003 from the NOAA...

  10. Catholic attitudes toward abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T W

    1984-01-01

    In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics

  11. The Stratified Legitimacy of Abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A; Freedman, Lori

    2016-12-01

    Roe v. Wade was heralded as an end to unequal access to abortion care in the United States. However, today, despite being common and safe, abortion is performed only selectively in hospitals and private practices. Drawing on 61 interviews with obstetrician-gynecologists in these settings, we examine how they determine which abortions to perform. We find that they distinguish between more and less legitimate abortions, producing a narrative of stratified legitimacy that privileges abortions for intended pregnancies, when the fetus is unhealthy, and when women perform normative gendered sexuality, including distress about the abortion, guilt about failure to contracept, and desire for motherhood. This stratified legitimacy can perpetuate socially-inflected inequality of access and normative gendered sexuality. Additionally, we argue that the practice by physicians of distinguishing among abortions can legitimate legislative practices that regulate and restrict some kinds of abortion, further constraining abortion access. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  12. Unsafe abortion: the silent scourge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David A

    2003-01-01

    An estimated 19 million unsafe abortions occur worldwide each year, resulting in the deaths of about 70,000 women. Legalization of abortion is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health. Without skilled providers, adequate facilities and easy access, the promise of safe, legal abortion will remain unfulfilled, as in India and Zambia. Both suction curettage and pharmacological abortion are safe methods in early pregnancy; sharp curettage is inferior and should be abandoned. For later abortions, either dilation and evacuation or labour induction are appropriate. Hysterotomy should not be used. Timely and appropriate management of complications can reduce morbidity and prevent mortality. Treatment delays are dangerous, regardless of their origin. Misoprostol may reduce the risks of unsafe abortion by providing a safer alternative to traditional clandestine abortion methods. While the debate over abortion will continue, the public health record is settled: safe, legal, accessible abortion improves health.

  13. On the Wrongfulness of abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arosemena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abortion is seen as an immoral and unjust act by many. Nonetheless these views are under pressure to conform to the learned opinion on abortion. A variety of prestigious in the field of applied ethics support abortion in one way or another. And it is a dogma of modern liberalism that even if one is personally opposed to abortion, one must accept the neutral solution of its public permissibility. The present article defends the thesis that abortion is immoral and unjust against these contentions. With regards to the moral status of abortion, it argues that the prohibition of abortion is off a piece with the prohibition of killing generally, which is characterized by protecting all human beings equally. With regards to the compatibility of abortion permissibility with liberalism, the article argues that such a compromise is not neutral, but heavily rigged in favor of the interests and world-views of abortion proponents.

  14. A review of parameters and heuristics for guiding metabolic pathfinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sarah M; Peña, Matthew I; Moll, Mark; Bennett, George N; Kavraki, Lydia E

    2017-09-15

    Recent developments in metabolic engineering have led to the successful biosynthesis of valuable products, such as the precursor of the antimalarial compound, artemisinin, and opioid precursor, thebaine. Synthesizing these traditionally plant-derived compounds in genetically modified yeast cells introduces the possibility of significantly reducing the total time and resources required for their production, and in turn, allows these valuable compounds to become cheaper and more readily available. Most biosynthesis pathways used in metabolic engineering applications have been discovered manually, requiring a tedious search of existing literature and metabolic databases. However, the recent rapid development of available metabolic information has enabled the development of automated approaches for identifying novel pathways. Computer-assisted pathfinding has the potential to save biochemists time in the initial discovery steps of metabolic engineering. In this paper, we review the parameters and heuristics used to guide the search in recent pathfinding algorithms. These parameters and heuristics capture information on the metabolic network structure, compound structures, reaction features, and organism-specificity of pathways. No one metabolic pathfinding algorithm or search parameter stands out as the best to use broadly for solving the pathfinding problem, as each method and parameter has its own strengths and shortcomings. As assisted pathfinding approaches continue to become more sophisticated, the development of better methods for visualizing pathway results and integrating these results into existing metabolic engineering practices is also important for encouraging wider use of these pathfinding methods.

  15. Euso-Balloon: A pathfinder mission for the JEM-EUSO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osteria, Giuseppe, E-mail: osteria@na.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Scotti, Valentina [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy)

    2013-12-21

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, the near-UV telescope proposed to be installed on board the ISS in 2017. The main objective of this pathfinder mission is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies and instrumentation of JEM-EUSO detectors and to prove the entire detection chain. EUSO-Balloon will measure the atmospheric and terrestrial UV background components, in different observational modes, fundamental for the development of the simulations. Through a series of flights performed by the French Space Agency CNES, EUSO-Balloon also has the potential to detect Extensive Air Showers (EAS) from above. EUSO-Balloon will be mounted in an unpressurized gondola of a stratospheric balloon. We will describe the instrument and the electronic system which performs instrument control and data management in such a critical environment.

  16. Late induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, W

    1990-09-01

    In the UK in 1988, 13.3% of abortions were performed at 13 weeks' gestation or later. Reasons for this delay, in addition to the diagnosis through amniocentesis of a fetal abnormality, include late recognition of pregnancy, a change of mind about completing the pregnancy, a failure of primary care physicians to entertain the diagnosis of pregnancy, travel or financial problems, and referral difficulties and scheduling delays. Women with little education and very young women are most likely to present for late abortions. From 13-16 weeks, dilatation and evacuation is the safest method of pregnancy termination. The procedure can be made easier through preparation of the cervix with a prostaglandin pessary or Foley catheter. After 16 weeks, an instillation method is recommended; prostaglandin administration can be intro- or extra-amniotic. Complication rates at 13-19 weeks are 14.5/1000 for vaginal methods of abortion and 7.2/1000 for prostaglandin methods. The risk of complications is 3 times higher for women who have 2nd-trimester abortions through the National Health Service. Although it is not realistic to expect that late abortions ever can be eliminated, improved sex education and contraceptive reliability as well as reforms in the National Health Service could reduce the number substantially. To reduce delay, it is suggested that the National Health Service set up satellite day care units and 1-2 central units in each region to deal quickly with midtrimester abortions. Delays would be further reduced by legislation to allow abortion on request in at least the 1st trimester of pregnancy.

  17. [Abortion: towards worldwide legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access.

  18. Jewish views on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, I

    1968-01-01

    In Jewish law right and wrong, good and evil, are absolute values which transcend time, place, and environment. They defy definition by human intuition or expediency. Jewish law derives from the Divine revelation at Mount Sinai as expounded by sages faithful to, and authorized by, its writ. The Talmud rules that if a woman is in hard travail, and her life must be saved, the child must be aborted and extracted. The mother's life comes first. The fetus is not a human life until it is born. But 19th century Rabbinical works state that it is immoral to destroy a monster child. Modern rabbis are unanimous in condemning abortion, feticide, or infanticide as an unconscionable attack on human life. However, Jewish law allows abortion if the pregnancy will cause severe psychological damage to the mother. No civilized society could survive without laws which occasionally cause some suffering or personal anguish. One human life is worth a million lives, because each life is infinite in value. In cases of rape or incest Jewish law still does not sanction abortion. Man's procreative responsibilities are serious and carry rights and obligations which would be upset by liberalized abortion laws. If a person kills a person who is mortally wounded, the killer is guilty of a moral offense.

  19. Defining minors' abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1988-01-01

    The right to abortion is confirmed in the Roe versus Wade case, by the US Supreme Court. It is a fundamental right of privacy but not an absolute right, and must consider state interests. During the first trimester of pregnancy abortion is a decision of the woman and her doctor. During the second trimester of pregnancy the state may control the abortion practice to protect the mothers health, and in the last trimester, it may prohibit abortion, except in cases where the mother's life or health are in danger. The states enacted laws, including one that required parents to give written consent for a unmarried minor's abortion. This law was struck down by the US Court, but laws on notification were upheld as long as there was alternative procedures where the minor's interests are upheld. Many of these law have been challenged successfully, where the minor was judged mature and where it served her best interests. The state must enact laws on parental notification that take into consideration basic rights of the minor woman. Health professionals and workers should be aware of these laws and should encourage the minor to let parents in on the decision making process where possible.

  20. Disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, abortion mortality constitutes 11% of maternal mortality. Empirical studies on possible disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion services are however lacking. Based on a retrospective survey of 1,370 women aged 15-49 years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in ...

  1. PEDESTRIAN PATHFINDING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. López-Pazos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of urban population, many initiatives are focused upon the smart city concept, in which mobility of citizens arises as one of the main components. Updated and detailed spatial information of outdoor environments is needed to accurate path planning for pedestrians, especially for people with reduced mobility, in which physical barriers should be considered. This work presents a methodology to use point clouds to direct path planning. The starting point is a classified point cloud in which ground elements have been previously classified as roads, sidewalks, crosswalks, curbs and stairs. The remaining points compose the obstacle class. The methodology starts by individualizing ground elements and simplifying them into representative points, which are used as nodes in the graph creation. The region of influence of obstacles is used to refine the graph. Edges of the graph are weighted according to distance between nodes and according to their accessibility for wheelchairs. As a result, we obtain a very accurate graph representing the as-built environment. The methodology has been tested in a couple of real case studies and Dijkstra algorithm was used to pathfinding. The resulting paths represent the optimal according to motor skills and safety.

  2. Pedestrian Pathfinding in Urban Environments: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pazos, G.; Balado, J.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Arias, P.; Scaioni, M.

    2017-12-01

    With the rise of urban population, many initiatives are focused upon the smart city concept, in which mobility of citizens arises as one of the main components. Updated and detailed spatial information of outdoor environments is needed to accurate path planning for pedestrians, especially for people with reduced mobility, in which physical barriers should be considered. This work presents a methodology to use point clouds to direct path planning. The starting point is a classified point cloud in which ground elements have been previously classified as roads, sidewalks, crosswalks, curbs and stairs. The remaining points compose the obstacle class. The methodology starts by individualizing ground elements and simplifying them into representative points, which are used as nodes in the graph creation. The region of influence of obstacles is used to refine the graph. Edges of the graph are weighted according to distance between nodes and according to their accessibility for wheelchairs. As a result, we obtain a very accurate graph representing the as-built environment. The methodology has been tested in a couple of real case studies and Dijkstra algorithm was used to pathfinding. The resulting paths represent the optimal according to motor skills and safety.

  3. Data Analysis for the LISA Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James Ira

    2009-01-01

    The LTP (LISA Technology Package) is the core part of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder mission. The main goal of the mission is to study the sources of any disturbances that perturb the motion of the freely-falling test masses from their geodesic trajectories as well as 10 test various technologies needed for LISA. The LTP experiment is designed as a sequence of experimental runs in which the performance of the instrument is studied and characterized under different operating conditions. In order to best optimize subsequent experimental runs, each run must be promptly analysed to ensure that the following ones make best use of the available knowledge of the instrument ' In order to do this, all analyses must be designed and tested in advance of the mission and have sufficient built-in flexibility to account for unexpected results or behaviour. To support this activity, a robust and flexible data analysis software package is also required. This poster presents two of the main components that make up the data analysis effort: the data analysis software and the mock-data challenges used to validate analysis procedures and experiment designs.

  4. The Australian SKA Pathfinder: First Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a precursor and technology demonstrator for the Square Kilometre Array.A specialist wide-field survey instrument, ASKAP compises 36 x 12m dish antennas with a maximum separation of 6km. The array operates in the frequency range 700 - 1800 MHz and has an instantaneous bandwidth of 300 MHz. Each dish is mounted with a 'phased array feed', a radio receiver that dramatically enhances the telescope's field-of-view from 1 to 30 square degrees. ASKAP is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory, Australia's core site for the SKA.Ten Science Survey Projects have been established by teams of more than 600 astronomers from around the world. Astronomical research topics tackled by these teams include galaxy evolution, cosmic magnetism, the history of gas in galaxies and cosmology. A program of ASKAP Early Science will commence in late 2015. The 6-antenna Boolardy Engineering Test Array (BETA) is currently being used by the commissioning team and at the time of writing has produced its first scientific discovery paper.In this talk, hear the ASKAP Project Scientist report some of the exciting new capabilities demonstrated by ASKAP and learn about the first scientific discoveries made by the commissioning and early science team.

  5. Th·erapeutic Abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-08-14

    Aug 14, 1971 ... abortion on the demand of any pregnant woman. Although .... Of these abortions 55% were in single, widowed, divorced or separated women and the ... gists found reluctance in nursing staff for the performance of therapeutic ...

  6. [Abortion and crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.

  7. Abortion — facts and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Perinčić, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The author sets forth some of the most recent demographic data, important directions of legal documents as regards abortion, tackling medical and ethical problems of abortion. Some essentials particulars are also given as to the embryonic and foetal development. The whole paper concerns the problems of legal abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. The second part of the paper relates to the consequences of abortion affecting the physical and mental health of a woman as show...

  8. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmanová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  9. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  10. Model Checking Real Time Java Using Java PathFinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Gary; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Visser, Willem

    2005-01-01

    The Real Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) is an augmentation of Java for real time applications of various degrees of hardness. The central features of RTSJ are real time threads; user defined schedulers; asynchronous events, handlers, and control transfers; a priority inheritance based default scheduler; non-heap memory areas such as immortal and scoped, and non-heap real time threads whose execution is not impeded by garbage collection. The Robust Software Systems group at NASA Ames Research Center has JAVA PATHFINDER (JPF) under development, a Java model checker. JPF at its core is a state exploring JVM which can examine alternative paths in a Java program (e.g., via backtracking) by trying all nondeterministic choices, including thread scheduling order. This paper describes our implementation of an RTSJ profile (subset) in JPF, including requirements, design decisions, and current implementation status. Two examples are analyzed: jobs on a multiprogramming operating system, and a complex resource contention example involving autonomous vehicles crossing an intersection. The utility of JPF in finding logic and timing errors is illustrated, and the remaining challenges in supporting all of RTSJ are assessed.

  11. Effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian T Henderson

    Full Text Available Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion.We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001-2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001-2003, early implementation (2004-2006, and later implementation (2007-2010.23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85. Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75.Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women's health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance of concerted efforts to improve

  12. Effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jillian T; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D

    2013-01-01

    Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001-2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001-2003), early implementation (2004-2006), and later implementation (2007-2010). 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women's health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance of concerted efforts to improve access. Other

  13. Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance

  14. Abortion Law and Policy Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to provide a panoramic view of laws and policies on abortion around the world, giving a range of country-based examples. It shows that the plethora of convoluted laws and restrictions surrounding abortion do not make any legal or public health sense. What makes abortion safe is simple and irrefutable—when it is available on the woman’s request and is universally affordable and accessible. From this perspective, few existing laws are fit for purpose. However, the road to law reform is long and difficult. In order to achieve the right to safe abortion, advocates will need to study the political, health system, legal, juridical, and socio-cultural realities surrounding existing law and policy in their countries, and decide what kind of law they want (if any). The biggest challenge is to determine what is possible to achieve, build a critical mass of support, and work together with legal experts, parliamentarians, health professionals, and women themselves to change the law—so that everyone with an unwanted pregnancy who seeks an abortion can have it, as early as possible and as late as necessary. PMID:28630538

  15. SST, Pathfinder Ver 5.0, Day and Night, 4.4 km, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AVHRR Pathfinder Oceans Project seeks to create a long-term, continuous sea surface temperature data series for use in climate research. The Pathfinder SST data...

  16. SST, Pathfinder Ver 5.0, Day, 4.4 km, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AVHRR Pathfinder Oceans Project seeks to create a long-term, continuous sea surface temperature data series for use in climate research. The Pathfinder SST data...

  17. SST, Pathfinder Ver 5.0, Night, 4.4 km, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AVHRR Pathfinder Oceans Project seeks to create a long-term, continuous sea surface temperature data series for use in climate research. The Pathfinder SST data...

  18. ABORTION- A CASE REPORT.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presentation, she noticed coital bleeding; it was mildI self with no associated dizziness or dyspareunis. She had been treated with drugs on many occasions at hospitals as well as over the counter medicaiions with no improvement. Eight years prior to presentation, she had an induced abortion at about 14 weeks of gestaiion ...

  19. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  20. Abortion: The Insoluble Problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    14 Aug 1971 ... The literature on the pros and cons of therapeutic abortion must by now virtually fill an average- sized library. Every expert in every field has had his say, sometimes by invitation and sometimes unasked, yet we seem to be no nearer the answer than when we started. The legal boffins have put their case, the ...

  1. Abortion, Law and Ideology

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Escobar García

    2012-01-01

    This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.

  2. INDUCED ABORTION IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... 95% of women would have had an induced abortion. (10), which ... who were fluent in both English and the local language were chosen ... the woman and society. The Muslims ... that “traditional methods are only effective at the early stages of ... modern and traditional family planning services. However ...

  3. Radiation pressure calibration and test mass reflectivities for LISA Pathfinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsakova, Natalia; Kaune, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments which were carried out during the main operations of LISA Pathfinder. These experiments were performed by modulating the power of the measurement and reference beams. In one series of experiments the beams were sequentially switched on and off. In the other series of experiments the powers of the beams were modulated within 0.1% and 1% of the constant power. These experiments use recordings of the total power measured on the photodiodes to infer the properties of the Optical Metrology System (OMS), such as reflectivities of the test masses and change of the photodiode efficiencies with time. In the first case the powers are back propagated from the different photodiodes to the same place on the optical bench to express the unknown quantities in the measurement with the complimentary photodiode measurements. They are combined in the way that the only unknown left is the test mass reflectivities. The second experiment compared two estimates of the force applied to the test masses due to the radiation pressure that appears because of the beam modulations. One estimate of the force is inferred from the measurements of the powers on the photodiodes and propagation of this measurement to the test masses. The other estimation of the force is done by calculating it from the change in the main scientific output of the instrument – differential displacement of the two test masses. (paper)

  4. Radiation pressure calibration and test mass reflectivities for LISA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsakova, Natalia; Kaune, Brigitte; LPF Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments which were carried out during the main operations of LISA Pathfinder. These experiments were performed by modulating the power of the measurement and reference beams. In one series of experiments the beams were sequentially switched on and off. In the other series of experiments the powers of the beams were modulated within 0.1% and 1% of the constant power. These experiments use recordings of the total power measured on the photodiodes to infer the properties of the Optical Metrology System (OMS), such as reflectivities of the test masses and change of the photodiode efficiencies with time. In the first case the powers are back propagated from the different photodiodes to the same place on the optical bench to express the unknown quantities in the measurement with the complimentary photodiode measurements. They are combined in the way that the only unknown left is the test mass reflectivities. The second experiment compared two estimates of the force applied to the test masses due to the radiation pressure that appears because of the beam modulations. One estimate of the force is inferred from the measurements of the powers on the photodiodes and propagation of this measurement to the test masses. The other estimation of the force is done by calculating it from the change in the main scientific output of the instrument - differential displacement of the two test masses.

  5. Induced first-trimester abortion and risk of mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2011-01-27

    Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. We conducted a population-based cohort study that involved linking information from the Danish Civil Registration system to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Register of Patients. The information consisted of data for girls and women with no record of mental disorders during the 1995-2007 period who had a first-trimester induced abortion or a first childbirth during that period. We estimated the rates of first-time psychiatric contact (an inpatient admission or outpatient visit) for any type of mental disorder within the 12 months after the abortion or childbirth as compared with the 9-month period preceding the event. The incidence rates of first psychiatric contact per 1000 person-years among girls and women who had a first abortion were 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 15.6) before abortion and 15.2 (95% CI, 14.4 to 16.1) after abortion. The corresponding rates among girls and women who had a first childbirth were 3.9 (95% CI, 3.7 to 4.2) before delivery and 6.7 (95% CI, 6.4 to 7.0) post partum. The relative risk of a psychiatric contact did not differ significantly after abortion as compared with before abortion (P = 0.19) but did increase after childbirth as compared with before childbirth (P abortion does not support the hypothesis that there is an increased risk of mental disorders after a first-trimester induced abortion.

  6. The Status of the Ultra Fast Flash Observatory – Pathfinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, J.W.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, K.B.; Barrillon, P.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jrgensen, C.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Chang, C.-H.; Chang, C.-Y.; Chang, Y.Y.; Chen, C.R.; Chen, P.; Cho, M.; Choi, H.S.; Choi, Y.J.; Connel, P.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Eyles, C.; Grossan, B.; Huang, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Ultra Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a project to study early optical emissions from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The primary scientific goal of UFFO is to see if GRBs can be calibrated with their rising times, so that they could be used as new standard candles. In order to minimize delay in optical follow-up measurements, which is now about 100 sec after trigger from the Swift experiment, we rotate a mirror to redirect light path so that optical measurement can be performed within a second after the trigger. We have developed a pathfinder mission, UFFO-pathfinder to launch on board the Lomonosov satellite in 2012. In this talk, I will present scientific motivations and descriptions of the design and development of UFFO-pathfinder

  7. Martian Mixed Layer during Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G. M.; Valero, F.; Vazquez, L.

    2008-09-01

    In situ measurements of the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (MPBL) encompass only the sur- face layer. Therefore, in order to fully address the MPBL, it becomes necessary to simulate somehow the behaviour of the martian mixed layer. The small-scale processes that happen in the MPBL cause GCM's ([1], [2]) to describe only partially the turbulent statistics, height, convective scales, etc, of the surface layer and the mixed layer. For this reason, 2D and 3D martian mesoscale models ([4], [5]), and large eddy simulations ([4], [6], [7], [8]) have been designed in the last years. Although they are expected to simulate more accurately the MPBL, they take an extremely expensive compu- tational time. Alternatively, we have derived the main turbu- lent characteristics of the martian mixed layer by using surface layer and mixed layer similarity ([9], [10]). From in situ temperature and wind speed measurements, together with quality-tested simu- lated ground temperature [11], we have character- ized the martian mixed layer during the convective hours of Pathfinder mission Sol 25. Mean mixed layer turbulent statistics like tem- perature variance , horizontal wind speed variance , vertical wind speed variance , viscous dissipation rate , and turbu- lent kinetic energy have been calculated, as well as the mixed layer height zi, and the convective scales of wind w? and temperature θ?. Our values, obtained with negligible time cost, match quite well with some previously obtained results via LES's ([4] and [8]). A comparisson between the above obtained mar- tian values and the typical Earth values are shown in Table 1. Convective velocity scale w doubles its counterpart terrestrial typical value, as it does the mean wind speed variances and . On the other hand, the temperature scale θ? and the mean temperature variance are virtually around one order higher on Mars. The limitations of these results concern the va- lidity of the convective mixed layer similarity. This theory

  8. Future launcher demonstrator. Challenge and pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinau, W.; Guerra, L.; Parkinson, R. C.; Lieberherr, J. F.

    1996-02-01

    For future and advanced launch vehicles emphasis is focused on single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concepts and on completely reusable versions with the goal to reduce the recurrent launch cost, to improve the mission success probability and also safety for the space transportation of economically attractive payloads into Low Earth Orbit. Both issues, the SSTO launcher and the low cost reusability are extremely challenging and cannot be proven by studies and on-ground tests alone. In-flight demonstration tests are required to verify the assumptions and the new technologies, and to justify the new launcher-and operations-concepts. Because a number of SSTO launch vehicles are currently under discussion in terms of configurations and concepts such as winged vehicles for vertical or horizontal launch and landing (from ground or a flying platform), or wingless vehicles for vertical take-off and landing, and also in terms of propulsion (pure rockets or a combination of air breathing and rocket engines), an experimental demonstrator vehicle appears necessary in order to serve as a pathfinder in this area of multiple challenges. A suborbital Reusable Rocket Launcher Demonstrator (RRLD) has been studied recently by a European industrial team for ESA. This is a multipurpose, evolutionary demonstrator, conceived around a modular approach of incremental improvements of subsystems and materials, to achieve a better propellant mass fraction i.e. a better performance, and specifically for the accomplishment of an incremental flight test programme. While the RRLD basic test programme will acquire knowledge about hypersonic flight, re-entry and landing of a cryogenic rocket propelled launcher — and the low cost reusability (short turnaround on ground) in the utilization programme beyond basic testing, the RRLD will serve as a test bed for generic testing of technologies required for the realization of an SSTO launcher. This paper will present the results of the European RRLD study which

  9. Identification of the 1B vaccine strain of Chlamydia abortus in aborted placentas during the investigation of toxaemic and systemic disease in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargison, N D; Truyers, I G R; Howie, F E; Thomson, J R; Cox, A L; Livingstone, M; Longbottom, D

    2015-09-01

    One hundred and forty Cheviot and 100 Suffolk cross Mule primiparous 1-2-year-old ewes, from a flock of about 700 ewes, were vaccinated with an attenuated live 1B strain Chlamydia abortus vaccine about 4 weeks before ram introduction (September 2011). Between 08 March and 01 April 2012, 50 2-year-old ewes aborted and 29 of these died, despite antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory treatment and supportive care. Seven fetuses and three placentae from five 2-year-old ewes were submitted for pathological investigation. The aborted fetuses showed stages of autolysis ranging from being moderately fresh to putrefaction. Unusual, large multifocal regions of thickened membranes, with a dull red granular surface and moderate amounts of grey-white surface exudate were seen on each of the placentae. Intracellular, magenta-staining, acid fast inclusions were identified in Ziehl Neelsen-stained placental smears. Immunohistochemistry for Chlamydia-specific lipopolysaccharide showed extensive positive labelling of the placental epithelia. Molecular analyses of the aborted placentae demonstrated the presence of the 1B vaccine-type strain of C. abortus and absence of any wild-type field strain. The vaccine strain bacterial load of the placental tissue samples was consistent with there being an association between vaccination and abortion. Initial laboratory investigations resulted in a diagnosis of chlamydial abortion. Further investigations led to the identification of the 1B vaccine strain of C. abortus in material from all three of the submitted aborted placentae. Timely knowledge and understanding of any potential problems caused by vaccination against C. abortus are prerequisites for sustainable control of chlamydial abortion. This report describes the investigation of an atypical abortion storm in sheep, and describes the identification of the 1B vaccine strain of C. abortus in products of abortion. The significance of this novel putative association between the vaccine strain

  10. Religion and attitudes toward abortion and abortion policy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.

  11. The politicization of abortion and the evolution of abortion counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation--head and heart counseling--departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade.

  12. Abortion, Law and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Escobar García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.

  13. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.

  14. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal…

  15. GRS vs. OMS Calibration in LISA Pathfinder Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshksar, Neda; Ferraioli, Luigi; Mance, Davor; Zweifel, Peter; Giardini, Domenico; Ten Pierick, Jan

    2017-01-01

    On board LISA Pathfinder spacecraft the test mass displacement along the main measurement axis is sensed in two different ways: optically and electrostatically. We have monitored the relative calibration between the two measurements during the mission science phase. The trend sensitivity of the relative calibration has been computed for different physical parameters, such as temperature, magnetic field, test mass bias voltage and current. (paper)

  16. Sedimentary geomorphology of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James W., Jr.; Parker, Timothy Jay

    1997-01-01

    The first landing on Mars in over 20 years will take place July 4, 1997, near te mouth of the Ares Vallis outflow channel located in southeastern Chryse Planitia. Mars Pathfinder, unlike Viking 1, is expected to land on a surface that has a distinct and unambiguous fluvial signature.

  17. GRS vs. OMS Calibration in LISA Pathfinder Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshksar, Neda; Ferraioli, Luigi; Mance, Davor; ten Pierick, Jan; Zweifel, Peter; Giardini, Domenico; ">LISA Pathfinder colaboration, Pathfinder spacecraft the test mass displacement along the main measurement axis is sensed in two different ways: optically and electrostatically. We have monitored the relative calibration between the two measurements during the mission science phase. The trend sensitivity of the relative calibration has been computed for different physical parameters, such as temperature, magnetic field, test mass bias voltage and current.

  18. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645

  19. Abortion in a just society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  20. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. Access to abortion: what women want from abortion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen R; Sandhu, Supna

    2008-04-01

    Whether Canadian physicians can refuse to refer women for abortion and whether private clinics can charge for abortions are matters of controversy. We sought to identify barriers to access for women seeking therapeutic abortion and to have them identify what they considered to be most important about access to abortion services. Women presenting for abortion over a two-month period at two free-standing abortion clinics, one publicly funded and the other private, were invited to participate in the study. Phase I of the study involved administration of a questionnaire seeking information about demographics, perceived barriers to access to abortion, and what the women wanted from abortion services. Phase II involved semi-structured interviews of a convenience sample of women to record their responses to questions about access. Responses from Phase I questionnaires were compared between the two clinics, and qualitative analysis was performed on the interview responses. Of 423 eligible women, 402 completed questionnaires, and of 45 women approached, 39 completed interviews satisfactorily. Women received information about abortion services from their physicians (60.0%), the Internet (14.8%), a telephone directory (7.8%), friends or family (5.3%), or other sources (12.3%). Many had negative experiences in gaining access. The most important issue regarding access was the long wait time; the second most important issue was difficulty in making appointments. In the private clinic, 85% of the women said they were willing to pay for shorter wait times, compared with 43.5% in the public clinic. Physicians who failed to refer patients for abortion or provide information about obtaining an abortion caused distress and impeded access for a significant minority of women requesting an abortion. Management of abortion services should be prioritized to reflect what women want: particularly decreased wait times for abortion and greater ease and convenience in booking appointments

  2. Psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy

  3. Beam abort detection of SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chenxia; Zhou Weimin; Leng Yongbin

    2010-01-01

    Beam abort signal is a timing signal of the SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) storage ring. It is used to synchronize BPM processor Libera logging beam position data to identify beam abort source and improve the stability of accelerator. The concept design and engineering design of beam abort trigger module are introduced in this paper, and lab test results of this module using RF signal source also presented. Online beam test results show that this module has achieved design goal, could be used to log beam position data before beam abort. (authors)

  4. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  5. [Medical induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettahar, K; Pinton, A; Boisramé, T; Cavillon, V; Wylomanski, S; Nisand, I; Hassoun, D

    2016-12-01

    Updated clinical recommendations for medical induced abortion procedure. A systematic review of French and English literature, reviewing the evidence relating to the provision of medical induced abortion was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and international scientific societies recommendations. The effectiveness of medical abortion is higher than 95% when the protocols are adjusted to gestational age (EL1). Misoprostol alone is less effective than a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (EL1). Gemeprost is less effective than misoprostol (EL2). The dose of 200mg of mifepristone should be preferred to 600mg (NP1, Rank A). Mifepristone can be taken at home (professional agreement). The optimum interval between mifepristone and misoprostol intake should be 24 to 48 hours (EL1, grade A). Before 7 weeks LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol should be given orally (EL1, grade A) eventually repeated after 3hours if no bleeding occurs. For optimal effectiveness between 7 and 14 LMP, the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol should not be shortened to less than 8hours (grade 1). An interval of 24 to 48hours will not affect the effectiveness of the method provided misoprostol dosage is 800μg (EL1). Vaginal, sublingual or buccal routes of administration are more effective and better tolerated than the oral route, which should be abandoned (EL1). An amount of 800μg sublingual or buccal misoprostol route has the same effectiveness than the vaginal route but more gastrointestinal side effects (EL1, grade A). Between 7 and 9 LMP, it does not seem necessary to repeat misoprostol dose whereas it should be repeated beyond 9 SA (grade B). Between 9 and 14 LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol given either vaginally, buccally or sublingually should be repeated every 3hours if needed (with a maximum of 5 doses) (EL2, grade B). There is no strong evidence supporting routine antibiotic prophylaxis for medical abortion (professional agreement). Rare contraindications

  6. Accompaniment of second-trimester abortions: the model of the feminist Socorrista network of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Ruth; Keefe-Oates, Brianna; Gerdts, Caitlin

    2018-02-01

    Legal restrictions on abortion access impact the safety and timing of abortion. Women affected by these laws face barriers to safe care that often result in abortion being delayed. Second-trimester abortion affects vulnerable groups of women disproportionately and is often more difficult to access. In Argentina, where abortion is legally restricted except in cases of rape or threat to the health of the woman, the Socorristas en Red, a feminist network, offers a model of accompaniment wherein they provide information and support to women seeking second-trimester abortions. This qualitative analysis aimed to understand Socorristas' experiences supporting women who have second-trimester medication abortion outside the formal health care system. We conducted 2 focus groups with 16 Socorristas in total to understand experiences accompanying women having second-trimester medication abortion who were at 14-24 weeks' gestational age. We performed a thematic analysis of the data and present key themes in this article. The Socorristas strived to ensure that women had the power of choice in every step of their abortion. These cases required more attention and logistical, legal and medical risks than first-trimester care. The Socorristas learned how to help women manage the possibility of these risks and were comfortable providing this support. They understood their work as activism through which they aim to destigmatize abortion and advocate against patriarchal systems denying the right to abortion. Socorrista groups have shown that they can provide supportive, women-centered accompaniment during second-trimester medication abortions outside the formal health care system in a setting where abortion access is legally restricted. Second-trimester self-use of medication abortion outside of the formal health system supported by feminist activist groups could provide an alternative model for second-trimester care worldwide. More research is needed to document the safety and

  7. "These things are dangerous": Understanding induced abortion trajectories in urban Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan F

    2016-03-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of global maternal mortality and morbidity. Zambia has among the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, however this alone does not guarantee access to safe abortion, and 30% of maternal mortality is attributable to unsafe procedures. Too little is known about the pathways women take to reach abortion services in such resource-poor settings, or what informs care-seeking behaviours, barriers and delays. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2013 with 112 women who accessed abortion-related care in a Lusaka tertiary government hospital at some point in their pathway. The sample included women seeking safe abortion and also those receiving hospital care following unsafe abortion. We identified a typology of three care-seeking trajectories that ended in the use of hospital services: clinical abortion induced in hospital; clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital; and non-clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital. Framework analyses of 70 transcripts showed that trajectories to a termination of an unwanted pregnancy can be complex and iterative. Individuals may navigate private and public formal healthcare systems and consult unqualified providers, often trying multiple strategies. We found four major influences on which trajectory a woman followed, as well as the complexity and timing of her trajectory: i) the advice of trusted others ii) perceptions of risk iii) delays in care-seeking and receipt of services and iv) economic cost. Even though abortion is legal in Zambia, girls and women still take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Levels of awareness about the legality of abortion and its provision remain low even in urban Zambia, especially among adolescents. Unofficial payments required by some providers can be a major barrier to safe care. Timely access to safe abortion services depends on chance rather

  8. Mental health consequences of abortion and refused abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watter, W W

    1980-02-01

    There is no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis put forth by Dr. Philip Ney in a recent article published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry that induced abortion is associated with an increase in child abuse. There are, however, numerous studies which support the contention that mandatory motherhood adversely affects the mental health of both the mother and the offspring. Studies conducted in Sweden, Scotland, and Czechoslovakia revealed that women who were refused abortions frequently experienced serious psychosocial difficulties for long periods of time following abortion refusal. Case controlled follow-up studies, conducted in Sweden and Czechoslovakia, of offspring born to women who were refused abortions demonstrated that a higher proportion of the unwanted children required psychiatric services, engaged in criminal behavior, and did less well in school than the controlled children. These studies have implications for the current Canadian law which permits a woman to obtain an abortion if pregnancy continuation will endanger her health. In view of the above statistical evidence, and the fact that mortality and morbidity are known to be lower for abortion than for childbirth, any person who denies a woman the right to have an abortion is increasing the risk that the health of the woman will be endangered. By law, therefore, all abortion requests should be honored.

  9. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    John Donohue; Steven Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  10. Tackling unsafe abortion in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyong'o, D; Oodit, G

    1996-01-01

    Despite a contraceptive prevalence rate of 75% Mauritius has a high incidence of unsafe abortions because of unprotected intercourse experienced by many young women in a rapidly industrializing environment. The Mauritius Family Planning Association (MFPA) tackled the issue of unsafe abortion in 1993. Abortion is illegal in the country, and the Catholic Church also strongly opposes modern family planning methods, thus the use of withdrawal and/or calendar methods have been increasing. The MFPA organized an advocacy symposium in 1993 on unsafe abortion with the result of revealing the pressure the Church was exerting relative to abortion and contraceptives. The advocacy campaign of the MFPA consists of having abortion legalized on health grounds and improving family planning services, especially for young unmarried women and men. The full support of the media was secured on the abortion issue: articles appeared, meetings were attended by the press, and public relations support was also received from them. The MFPA worked closely with parliamentarians. A motion was tabled in 1994 in the National Assembly which called for legalization of abortion on health grounds, but the Church squelched its debate. In March 1994 MFPA hosted the IPPF African Regional Conference on Unsafe Abortion in Mauritius with the participation of over 100 representatives from 20 countries, and subsequently a second motion was tabled without parliamentary debate. The deliberations were covered by the media and the Ministry of Women's Rights recognized abortion as an urgent issue as outlined in a white paper prepared for the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995. The campaign changed the policy climate favorably making the public more conscious of unsafe abortion. The Ministry of Health decided to collect more data and the newly elected government seems to be more open about this issue.

  11. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A; Karasek, Deborah; Adler, Nancy E; Mortensen, Laust H

    2016-05-01

    Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk aversion, moreover, supposedly influences all decisions including those that individuals can and cannot report making. We argue that these circumstances, if real, would manifest in conscious and non-conscious decisions to invest in prospective offspring, and therefore affect incidence of induced and spontaneous abortion over time. Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995 through December 2009), yielded 1 351 800 gestations including 156 780 spontaneous as well as 233 280 induced abortions 9100 of which were clinically indicated. We use Box-Jenkins transfer functions to adjust the incidence of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions for autocorrelation (including seasonality), cohort size, and fetal as well as gestational anomalies over the 180-month test period. We use cross-correlation to test our hypothesized association. We find a positive association between spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions. This suggests, consistent with our theory, that mothers of conception cohorts that yielded more spontaneous abortions than expected opted more frequently than expected for non-clinically indicated induced abortion. Limitations of our work include that even the world's best registration system

  12. [Abortion explained by a nurse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastit i Costa, M A

    1983-01-01

    Abortion is the termination of pregnancy prior to the 180th day, during which time the fetus is not yet viable outside the womb. Spontaneous abortion is the body's expulsion of a fetus during the 1st months of pregnancy. It is usually not very painful, does not involve much bleeding, and is rarely complicated by infection. Spontaneous abortion is much more frequent at the outset of pregnancy and may occur unnoticed. Its causes are unknown in over half of cases. The most important causes are developmental problems in the products of conception. Causes of spontaneous abortions of maternal etiology are most frequently uterine malposition or malformation. Serious illness in the mother is a less common cause of spontaneous abortion than once believed. Induced abortion is caused by the destruction of a normally implanted and healthy embryo. Its complications are related to the amount of bleeding or the introduction of germs from outside which can spread rapidly. Placental retention is a danger of all induced abortions. Induced abortion is common and in some countries it even creates demographic problems. Abortion is legal in many countries as an expression of the right to choose, but in others it is only legal on therapeutic grounds. Defenders and detractors of abortion have written extensively about it, with some works being sincere and some only tactical. The great majority of moralists are opposed to abortion, while biologists and scientists are divided on the question. The Spanish penal code punishes all persons who cause the death of a fetus or impede the process of gestation. The Catholic Church has considered abortion a homicide and against divine and natural laws. Legal or illegal, it is certain that the number of abortions increases each day. In the face of this reality, the need is for measures to avoid abortion whenever possible. Sex education in schools, full information on contraceptive methods and creation of family planning centers are some means of

  13. Impact of the Voltage Transients after a Fast Power Abort on the Quench Detection System in the LHC Main Dipole Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Formenti, F; Montabonnet, V; Pojer, M; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, A; Steckert, J; Thiesen, H; Verweij, A

    2012-01-01

    A Fast Power Abort in the LHC superconducting main dipole circuit consists in the switch-off of the power converter and the opening of the two energy-extraction switches. Each energy-extraction unit is composed of redundant electromechanical breakers, which are opened to force the current through an extraction resistor. When a switch is opened arcing occurs in the switch and a voltage of up to 1 kV builds up across the extraction resistor with a typical ramp rate of about 80 kV/s. The subsequent voltage transient propagates through the chain of 154 dipoles and superposes on the voltage waves caused by the switch-off of the power converter. The resulting effect caused intermittent triggering of the quench protection systems along with heater firings in the magnets when the transient occurred during a ramp of the current. A delay between power converter switch-off and opening of the energy-extraction switches was introduced to prevent this effect. Furthermore, the output filters of the power converters were mod...

  14. Decriminalization and Women’s Access to Abortion in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article considers the relationship between the decriminalization of abortion and women’s access to abortion services. It focuses on the four Australian jurisdictions which are, with Canada, the only jurisdictions in the world where abortion has been removed from the criminal law. This paper draws on documentary evidence and an oral history project to give a “before and after” account of each jurisdiction. The paper assumes that the meaning and impact of decriminalization must be assessed in each local context. Understanding the conditions that shape access must incorporate analysis of the broader social, political and economic environment as well as the law. The article finds that decriminalization does not necessarily deliver any improvement in women’s access to abortion, at least in the short term. Further, it is not inconsistent with the neoliberal policy environment that characterizes the provision of abortion care in Australia, where most abortions are provided through the private sector at financial cost to women. If all women are to enjoy their human rights to full reproductive health care, the public health system must take responsibility for the adequate provision of abortion services; ongoing and vigilant activism is central if this is to be achieved. PMID:28630552

  15. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korejo, Razia; Noorani, Khurshid Jehan; Bhutta, Shereen

    2003-05-01

    To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identify the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Prospective observational study. The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi from January 1999 to June 2001. The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced contraception. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 women (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encountered in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion.

  16. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korejo, R.; Noorani, K.J.; Bhutta, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)

  17. [Organising an instrumental elective abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, Annie

    2015-12-01

    Family planning centres are structures designed to receive and care for women requesting elective abortions. Here the specially trained, dedicated teams offer personalised care. The instrumental elective abortion is prepared in the same way as a surgical procedure and is subject to the same monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Unconstitutionality of abortion laws affirmed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    A federal appeals court has affirmed lower court rulings that substantial portions of the Illinois' 1975 Abortion Act and 1977 Abortion Parental Consent Act are unconstitutional. The 7th Court adopted an April 12, 1978 district court opinion that invalidated several sections of the Illinois 1975 abortion statute, including parental and spousal consent requirements and provisions requiring that a woman be informed of the "physical competency" of the fetus at the time the abortion was to be performed. The appeals court specifically addressed the statute's provision making a liveborn fetus resulting from an abortion a ward of the state, unless the abortion was performed to save the woman's life. Regarding the 1977 Parental Consent Act, the 7th Circuit reaffirmed its August 1978 ruling that it is unconstitutional to require an unmarried minor to have the consent of both parents or, if they refused consent, a circuit court judge before undergoing an abortion. The appeals court also agreed with the lower court's November 2nd ruling that the Act's requirement of a 48-hour delay between the time the minor gives her consent and the performance of an abortion violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment.

  19. Attitudes toward abortion in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Awah, Paschal; Pearson, Erin

    2012-09-01

    Despite Zambia's relatively progressive abortion law, women continue to seek unsafe, illegal abortions. Four domains of abortion attitudes - support for legalization, immorality, rights, and access to services - were measured in 4 communities. A total of 668 people were interviewed. Associations among the 4 domains were inconsistent with expectations. The belief that abortion is immoral was widespread, but was not associated with lack of support for legalization. Instead, it was associated with belief that women need access to safe services. These findings suggest that increasing awareness about abortion law in Zambia may be important for encouraging more favorable attitudes. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Induced abortion: a world perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, S K

    1987-01-01

    This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries

  1. Dangertalk: Voices of abortion providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Hassinger, Jane A; Debbink, Michelle; Harris, Lisa H

    2017-07-01

    Researchers have described the difficulties of doing abortion work, including the psychosocial costs to individual providers. Some have discussed the self-censorship in which providers engage in to protect themselves and the pro-choice movement. However, few have examined the costs of this self-censorship to public discourse and social movements in the US. Using qualitative data collected during abortion providers' discussions of their work, we explore the tensions between their narratives and pro-choice discourse, and examine the types of stories that are routinely silenced - narratives we name "dangertalk". Using these data, we theorize about the ways in which giving voice to these tensions might transform current abortion discourse by disrupting false dichotomies and better reflecting the complex realities of abortion. We present a conceptual model for dangertalk in abortion discourse, connecting it to functions of dangertalk in social movements more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Abortion and the pregnant teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298

  3. Abortion in Croatia and Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive.

  4. Abortion Stigma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschmidt, Franz; Linde, Katja; Hilbert, Anja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Kersting, Anette

    2016-12-01

    Although stigma has been identified as a potential risk factor for the well-being of women who have had abortions, little attention has been paid to the study of abortion-related stigma. A systematic search of the databases Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed and Web of Science was conducted; the search terms were "(abortion OR pregnancy termination) AND stigma * ." Articles were eligible for inclusion if the main research question addressed experiences of individuals subjected to abortion stigma, public attitudes that stigmatize women who have had abortions or interventions aimed at managing abortion stigma. To provide a comprehensive overview of this issue, any study published by February 2015 was considered. The search was restricted to English- and German-language studies. Seven quantitative and seven qualitative studies were eligible for inclusion. All but two dated from 2009 or later; the earliest was from 1984. Studies were based mainly on U.S. samples; some included participants from Ghana, Great Britain, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Zambia. The majority of studies showed that women who have had abortions experience fear of social judgment, self-judgment and a need for secrecy. Secrecy was associated with increased psychological distress and social isolation. Some studies found stigmatizing attitudes in the public. Stigma appeared to be salient in abortion providers' lives. Evidence of interventions to reduce abortion stigma was scarce. Most studies had limitations regarding generalizability and validity. More research, using validated measures, is needed to enhance understanding of abortion stigma and thereby reduce its impact on affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  5. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  6. Discovery of H I gas in a young radio galaxy at z = 0.44 using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.; Moss, V. A.; Whiting, M. T.; Hunstead, R. W.; Pracy, M. B.; Curran, S. J.; Croom, S. M.; Glowacki, M.; Morganti, R.; Shabala, S. S.; Zwaan, M. A.; Allen, G.; Amy, S. W.; Axtens, P.; Ball, L.; Bannister, K. W.; Barker, S.; Bell, M. E.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bolton, R.; Bowen, M.; Boyle, B.; Braun, R.; Broadhurst, S.; Brodrick, D.; Brothers, M.; Brown, A.; Bunton, J. D.; Cantrall, C.; Chapman, J.; Cheng, W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Chung, Y.; Cooray, F.; Cornwell, T.; DeBoer, D.; Diamond, P.; Edwards, P. G.; Ekers, R.; Feain, I.; Ferris, R. H.; Forsyth, R.; Gough, R.; Grancea, A.; Gupta, N.; Guzman, J. C.; Hampson, G.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Haskins, C.; Hay, S.; Hayman, D. B.; Heywood, I.; Hotan, A. W.; Hoyle, S.; Humphreys, B.; Indermuehle, B. T.; Jacka, C.; Jackson, C.; Jackson, S.; Jeganathan, K.; Johnston, S.; Joseph, J.; Kendall, R.; Kesteven, M.; Kiraly, D.; Koribalski, B. S.; Leach, M.; Lenc, E.; Lensson, E.; Mackay, S.; Macleod, A.; Marquarding, M.; Marvil, J.; McClure-Griffiths, N.; McConnell, D.; Mirtschin, P.; Norris, R. P.; Neuhold, S.; Ng, A.; O'Sullivan, J.; Pathikulangara, J.; Pearce, S.; Phillips, C.; Popping, A.; Qiao, R. Y.; Reynolds, J. E.; Roberts, P.; Sault, R. J.; Schinckel, A.; Serra, P.; Shaw, R.; Shields, M.; Shimwell, T.; Storey, M.; Sweetnam, T.; Troup, E.; Turner, B.; Tuthill, J.; Tzioumis, A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Westmeier, T.; Wilson, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new 21-cm H I absorption system using commissioning data from the Boolardy Engineering Test Array of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). Using the 711.5-1015.5 MHz band of ASKAP we were able to conduct a blind search for the 21-cm line in a

  7. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouniq, C; Moron, P

    1982-06-01

    Results are presented of a literature review to identify social and psychological aspects of abortion. The literature does not provide a true profile of women requesting abortions, but some characteristics emerge. Reasons for requesting abortion include economic problems, difficult previous pregnancies, general medical contraindications to pregnancy, marital conflicts, feelings of loneliness, professional aspirations, problems with existing children, and feelings of insecurity about the future. However, the same feelings are found among women carrying their pregnancies to term. Unplanned pregnancies are more common during periods of depression. Most authors have found about 1/2 of women seeking abortions to be single and about 1/2 to be under 25 years old. Religion does not appear to be a determining factor. 1 study of psychological factors in abortion seekers found that a large number of single women seeking abortion had suffered traumatic experiences in childhood and were seeking security in inappropriate amorous relationships. Helene Deutsch stressed the destructive impulses latent in all pregnancies. Others have cited the ambivalence of the desire for pregnancy and feelings of loss after abortion. Studies published after legalization of abortion in the US and France however have stressed the nearly total absence of moderate or severe psychiatric symptoms after abortion. Responses immediately after the abortion may include feelings of relief, guilt, indifference, or ambivalence. Secondary affects appear minor to most authors. Psychological effects do not appear to be influenced by age, marital status, parity, intelligence, occupation, existence of a later pregnancy, or concommitant sterilization. "Premorbidity" and coercion by spouse or family were most closely associated with psychological symptoms. Numerous authors have found about twice as many negative reactions among women undergoing abortion for medical reasons. Most patients undergoing abortions for

  8. CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; FLILLER, R.III.; FU, W.; MICHNOFF, R.

    2004-01-01

    Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  9. Why do women have abortions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Forrest, J D

    1988-01-01

    Most respondents to a survey of abortion patients in 1987 said that more than one factor had contributed to their decision to have an abortion; the mean number of reasons was nearly four. Three-quarters said that having a baby would interfere with work, school or other responsibilities, about two-thirds said they could not afford to have a child and half said they did not want to be a single parent or had relationship problems. A multivariate analysis showed young teenagers to be 32 percent more likely than women 18 or over to say they were not mature enough to raise a child and 19 percent more likely to say their parents wanted them to have an abortion. Unmarried women were 17 percent more likely than currently married women to choose abortion to prevent others from knowing they had had sex or became pregnant. Of women who had an abortion at 16 or more weeks' gestation, 71 percent attributed their delay to not having realized they were pregnant or not having known soon enough the actual gestation of their pregnancy. Almost half were delayed because of trouble in arranging the abortion, usually because they needed time to raise money. One-third did not have an abortion earlier because they were afraid to tell their partner or parents that they were pregnant. A multivariate analysis revealed that respondents under age 18 were 39 percent more likely than older women to have delayed because they were afraid to tell their parents or partner.

  10. Abortion Incidence and Unintended Pregnancy in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Singh, Susheela; Sundaram, Aparna; Hussain, Rubina; Tamang, Anand; Crowell, Marjorie

    2016-12-01

    Although abortion has been legal under broad criteria in Nepal since 2002, a significant proportion of women continue to obtain illegal, unsafe abortions, and no national estimates exist of the incidence of safe and unsafe abortions. Data were collected in 2014 from a nationally representative sample of 386 facilities that provide legal abortions or postabortion care and a survey of 134 health professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Facility caseloads and indirect estimation techniques were used to calculate the national and regional incidence of legal and illegal abortion. National and regional levels of abortion complications and unintended pregnancy were also estimated. In 2014, women in Nepal had 323,100 abortions, of which 137,000 were legal, and 63,200 women were treated for abortion complications. The abortion rate was 42 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and the abortion ratio was 56 per 100 live births. The abortion rate in the Central region (59 per 1,000) was substantially higher than the national average. Overall, 50% of pregnancies were unintended, and the unintended pregnancy rate was 68 per 1,000 women of reproductive age. Despite legalization of abortion and expansion of services in Nepal, unsafe abortion is still common and exacts a heavy toll on women. Programs and policies to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, increase access to high-quality contraceptive care and expand safe abortion services are warranted.

  11. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each pregnant...

  12. New German abortion law agreed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit.

  13. Abortion: Defending Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Aldana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay will analyze some of the debates around abortion in the National Congress due to the Constitutional Amendment Bill – PEC25/95, by Deputy Severino Cavalcanti (PPB/PE, where the main issue was precisely life defense. The discursive blocks that present the debate in relation to pregnancy interruption, the religious principles or biological determinism on which those debates are based, and the ways in which such discourses are maintained will be identified. Distinct understandings of life, as a result of the points used in such discourses, which are aligned with the position of the Catholic Church and the Feminist Movement - the social actors of this debate- are also discussed here.

  14. Gynecologists and the abortion issue in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional inefficient contraception, incorporated to a large extent in the system of values, has become a natural part of sexual relations in Serbia and represents a rational preventive choice from the individual standpoint. However, when pregnancy is unwanted or cannot be accepted out of any reasons abortion is used as a resort. For this reason there is a long history of a large number of abortions in Serbia. Research findings in our country identify the following, as the most important factors for not accepting modern values in this sphere: traditional contraception and abortion have a firm social confirmation; there is a trans-generational transfer of psychological resistance towards the use of combined oral contraception pills and intrauterine devices; sexual education has never become a natural way of growing up in the family, nor is a constituent part of school programs and that distinct obstacles of various nature exist regarding contraception availability. A developed network of various types of family planning counseling is an important determinant of the accessibility of contraceptive means and methods. There are, however, numerous conditions which have to be fulfilled in order for the contraception counseling services to function properly. Among them, motivated personnel who acquired general and specific knowledge for work in this field are an especially important prerequisite. This theoretical assumption opens the question -whether gynecologists represent an important factor of slow transition of birth control in Serbia? We searched for the answer in the research analyses obtained through two in-depth surveys which either had to do with this theme or tried to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of gynecologists. The first research regarding the determination of the causes for a large number of abortions in our country, was directed towards women who decided on abortion. Gynecologists were the target group in the second

  15. Psychological sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans-Clarkson, S E

    1989-12-01

    This article reviews the scientific literature on the psychological sequelae of induced abortion. The methodology and results of studies carried out over the last twenty-two years are examined critically. The unanimous consensus is that abortion does not cause deleterious psychological effects. Women most likely to show subsequent problems are those who were pressured into the operation against their own wishes, either by relatives or because their pregnancy had medical or foetal contraindications. Legislation which restricts abortion causes problems for women with unwanted pregnancies and their doctors. It is also unjust, as it adversely most affects lower socio-economic class women.

  16. Medical abortion reversal: science and politics meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Khadijah Z; Nguyen, Antoinette T; Stuart, Gretchen S

    2018-03-01

    Medical abortion is a safe, effective, and acceptable option for patients seeking an early nonsurgical abortion. In 2014, medical abortion accounted for nearly one third (31%) of all abortions performed in the United States. State-level attempts to restrict reproductive and sexual health have recently included bills that require physicians to inform women that a medical abortion is reversible. In this commentary, we will review the history, current evidence-based regimen, and regulation of medical abortion. We will then examine current proposed and existing abortion reversal legislation. The objective of this commentary is to ensure physicians are armed with rigorous evidence to inform patients, communities, and policy makers about the safety of medical abortion. Furthermore, given the current paucity of evidence for medical abortion reversal, physicians and policy makers can dispel bad science and misinformation and advocate against medical abortion reversal legislation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative analysis of LISA pathfinder test-mass noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraioli, Luigi; Congedo, Giuseppe; Hueller, Mauro; Vitale, Stefano; Hewitson, Martin; Nofrarias, Miquel; Armano, Michele

    2011-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is a mission aiming to test the critical technology for the forthcoming space-based gravitational-wave detectors. The main scientific objective of the LPF mission is to demonstrate test masses free falling with residual accelerations below 3x10 -14 m s -2 /√(Hz) at 1 mHz. Reaching such an ambitious target will require a significant amount of system optimization and characterization, which will in turn require accurate and quantitative noise analysis procedures. In this paper, we discuss two main problems associated with the analysis of the data from LPF: i) excess noise detection and ii) noise parameter identification. The mission is focused on the low-frequency region ([0.1, 10] mHz) of the available signal spectrum. In such a region, the signal is dominated by the force noise acting on test masses. At the same time, the mission duration is limited to 90 days and typical data segments will be 24 hours in length. Considering those constraints, noise analysis is expected to deal with a limited amount of non-Gaussian data, since the spectrum statistics will be far from Gaussian and the lowest available frequency is limited by the data length. In this paper, we analyze the details of the expected statistics for spectral data and develop two suitable excess noise estimators. One is based on the statistical properties of the integrated spectrum, the other is based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The sensitivity of the estimators is discussed theoretically for independent data, then the algorithms are tested on LPF synthetic data. The test on realistic LPF data allows the effect of spectral data correlations on the efficiency of the different noise excess estimators to be highlighted. It also reveals the versatility of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, which can be adapted to provide reasonable results on correlated data from a modified version of the standard equations for the inversion of the test statistic. Closely related to excess noise

  18. Women's Awareness and Knowledge of Abortion Laws: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa R Assifi

    Full Text Available Incorrect knowledge of laws may affect how women enter the health system or seek services, and it likely contributes to the disconnect between official laws and practical applications of the laws that influence women's access to safe, legal abortion services.To provide a synthesis of evidence of women's awareness and knowledge of the legal status of abortion in their country, and the accuracy of women's knowledge on specific legal grounds and restrictions outlined in a country's abortion law.A systematic search was carried for articles published between 1980-2015. Quantitative, mixed-method data collection, and objectives related to women's awareness or knowledge of the abortion law was included. Full texts were assessed, and data extraction done by a single reviewer. Final inclusion for analysis was assessed by two reviewers. The results were synthesised into tables, using narrative synthesis.Of the original 3,126 articles, and 16 hand searched citations, 24 studies were included for analysis. Women's correct general awareness and knowledge of the legal status was less than 50% in nine studies. In six studies, knowledge of legalization/liberalisation ranged between 32.3%-68.2%. Correct knowledge of abortion on the grounds of rape ranged from 12.8%-98%, while in the case of incest, ranged from 9.8%-64.5%. Abortion on the grounds of fetal impairment and gestational limits, varied widely from 7%-94% and 0%-89.5% respectively.This systematic review synthesizes literature on women's awareness and knowledge of the abortion law in their own context. The findings show that correct general awareness and knowledge of the abortion law and legal grounds and restrictions amongst women was limited, even in countries where the laws were liberal. Thus, interventions to disseminate accurate information on the legal context are necessary.

  19. Women's Awareness and Knowledge of Abortion Laws: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assifi, Anisa R; Berger, Blair; Tunçalp, Özge; Khosla, Rajat; Ganatra, Bela

    2016-01-01

    Incorrect knowledge of laws may affect how women enter the health system or seek services, and it likely contributes to the disconnect between official laws and practical applications of the laws that influence women's access to safe, legal abortion services. To provide a synthesis of evidence of women's awareness and knowledge of the legal status of abortion in their country, and the accuracy of women's knowledge on specific legal grounds and restrictions outlined in a country's abortion law. A systematic search was carried for articles published between 1980-2015. Quantitative, mixed-method data collection, and objectives related to women's awareness or knowledge of the abortion law was included. Full texts were assessed, and data extraction done by a single reviewer. Final inclusion for analysis was assessed by two reviewers. The results were synthesised into tables, using narrative synthesis. Of the original 3,126 articles, and 16 hand searched citations, 24 studies were included for analysis. Women's correct general awareness and knowledge of the legal status was less than 50% in nine studies. In six studies, knowledge of legalization/liberalisation ranged between 32.3%-68.2%. Correct knowledge of abortion on the grounds of rape ranged from 12.8%-98%, while in the case of incest, ranged from 9.8%-64.5%. Abortion on the grounds of fetal impairment and gestational limits, varied widely from 7%-94% and 0%-89.5% respectively. This systematic review synthesizes literature on women's awareness and knowledge of the abortion law in their own context. The findings show that correct general awareness and knowledge of the abortion law and legal grounds and restrictions amongst women was limited, even in countries where the laws were liberal. Thus, interventions to disseminate accurate information on the legal context are necessary.

  20. Psychiatric aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L

    2011-08-01

    Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.

  1. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Abortion in Colombia. Medical, legal and socioeconomic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña, A O

    1973-01-01

    Abortion is a social problem and criminal sanctions are very ineffective in limiting it and are seldom applied (133 legal actions vs. 65,600 cases of induced abortion in 1965). Abortion is a social disease, as are prostitution, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and so far has been an insoluble problem. Colombian laws should be modified to reflect reality. Sex education must be emphasized, because ignorance is one of the main causes of abortion. Leniency should be applied toward women who cooperate with the authorities in identifying the person who performed an abortion. Legalization of abortion and enforcement of strict laws against it are considered as possible solutions, but both are rejected. The former is regarded as morally unacceptable and as imposing an excessive burden on scarce health services, the latter as even worse, imposing an equivalent burden on the court system, without s olving either health or social problems. The best and probably only solution is to improve education in family planning, to promote knowledge and motivation to enable the population to make sound and responsible decisions.

  3. Misperceptions about the risks of abortion in women presenting for abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen R; Littman, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Moshier, Erin L

    2014-03-01

    Misinformation about the risks and sequelae of abortion is widespread. The purpose of this study was to examine whether women having an abortion who believe that there should be restrictions to abortion (i.e., that some other women should not be allowed to have an abortion) also believe this misinformation about the health risks associated with abortion. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of women presenting consecutively for an abortion at an urban abortion clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, between February and September 2012. Of 1008 women presenting for abortion, 978 completed questionnaires (97% response rate), and 333 of these (34%) favoured abortion restrictions. More women who favoured restrictions believed that the health risk of an abortion was the same as or greater than the health risk of childbirth (84.2% vs. 65.6%, P abortion caused mental health problems (39.1% vs. 28.3%, P abortion caused infertility (41.7% vs. 21.9%, P abortion should not be restricted was found to be a significantly correlated with correct answers about health risks, mental health problems, and infertility. Misinformed beliefs about the risks of abortion are common among women having an abortion. Women presenting for abortion who favoured restrictions to abortion have more misperceptions about abortion risks than women who favour no restrictions.

  4. Review of A* (A Star Navigation Mesh Pathfinding as the Alternative of Artificial Intelligent for Ghosts Agent on the Pacman Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Zikky

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shortest pathfinding problem has become a populer issue in Game’s Artificial Intelligent (AI. This paper discussed the effective way to optimize the shortest pathfinding problem, namely Navigation Mesh (NavMesh. This method is very interesting because it has a large area of implementation, especially in games world. In this paper, NavMesh was implemented by using A* (A star algorithm and examined in Unity 3D game engine. A* was an effective algorithm in shortest pathfinding problem because its optimization was made with effective tracing using segmentation line. Pac-Man game was chosen as the example of the shortest pathfinding by using NavMesh in Unity 3D. A* algorithm was implemented on the enemies of Pac-Man (three ghosts,  which path was designed by using NavMesh concept. Thus, the movement of ghosts in catching Pac-Man was the result of this review of the effectiveness of this concept. In further research, this method could be implemented on several optimization programmes, such as Geographic Information System (GIS, robotics, and statistics.

  5. Launch Vehicle Abort Analysis for Failures Leading to Loss of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Hill, Ashley D.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2013-01-01

    Launch vehicle ascent is a time of high risk for an onboard crew. There is a large fraction of possible failures for which time is of the essence and a successful abort is possible if the detection and action happens quickly enough. This paper focuses on abort determination based on data already available from the Guidance, Navigation, and Control system. This work is the result of failure analysis efforts performed during the Ares I launch vehicle development program. The two primary areas of focus are the derivation of abort triggers to ensure that abort occurs as quickly as possible when needed, but that false aborts are avoided, and evaluation of success in aborting off the failing launch vehicle.

  6. Periodontal status among adolescents in Georgia. A pathfinder study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Levin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present pathfinder study was to screen and map the periodontal status of Georgian population in accordance with the guidelines of the World Health Organization for population based surveys. Methods. During 2012, a pathfinder study was conducted to collect this data. For the periodontal portion of the study, 15-year-old school children were examined in the capital city of Tbilisi as well as in two other large cities and 4 smaller villages. All participants were examined by a trained dental team in a classroom using a dental mirror and a periodontal probe. Periodontal examination included plaque scores, calculus scores, probing depth measurements and bleeding on probing. These measurements were recorded for the Ramfjord index teeth. Results. A total of 397 15-year-old participants were examined in this pathfinder study. There were 240 females (60.45% and 157 males (39.55%. Of the total participants 196 (49.37% were urban adolescents while 201 (50.63% were from rural communities. Mean probing depth was 3.34 ± 0.57 mm with a range of 1 to 10 mm; a relatively high proportion (34.26% of these subjects presented with at least one site with pockets of 5 mm or deeper. Males presented with greater plaque, calculus and probing depths than females. When urban and rural populations were compared, urban participants presented with more plaque, probing depths and bleeding on probing. Greater pocket depths were found to be related to the presence of plaque calculus and bleeding on probing. Conclusions. Overall, rather high incidences of periodontal pockets ≥ 5 mm were detected in this population. This data should serve to prepare further more detailed epidemiological studies that will serve to plan and implement prevent and treat strategies for periodontal diseases in Georgia and also help make manpower decisions.

  7. Periodontal status among adolescents in Georgia. A pathfinder study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Liran; Margvelashvili, Vladimer; Bilder, Leon; Kalandadze, Manana; Tsintsadze, Nino; Machtei, Eli E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present pathfinder study was to screen and map the periodontal status of Georgian population in accordance with the guidelines of the World Health Organization for population based surveys. Methods. During 2012, a pathfinder study was conducted to collect this data. For the periodontal portion of the study, 15-year-old school children were examined in the capital city of Tbilisi as well as in two other large cities and 4 smaller villages. All participants were examined by a trained dental team in a classroom using a dental mirror and a periodontal probe. Periodontal examination included plaque scores, calculus scores, probing depth measurements and bleeding on probing. These measurements were recorded for the Ramfjord index teeth. Results. A total of 397 15-year-old participants were examined in this pathfinder study. There were 240 females (60.45%) and 157 males (39.55%). Of the total participants 196 (49.37%) were urban adolescents while 201 (50.63%) were from rural communities. Mean probing depth was 3.34 ± 0.57 mm with a range of 1 to 10 mm; a relatively high proportion (34.26%) of these subjects presented with at least one site with pockets of 5 mm or deeper. Males presented with greater plaque, calculus and probing depths than females. When urban and rural populations were compared, urban participants presented with more plaque, probing depths and bleeding on probing. Greater pocket depths were found to be related to the presence of plaque calculus and bleeding on probing. Conclusions. Overall, rather high incidences of periodontal pockets ≥ 5 mm were detected in this population. This data should serve to prepare further more detailed epidemiological studies that will serve to plan and implement prevent and treat strategies for periodontal diseases in Georgia and also help make manpower decisions.

  8. Virtue theory and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursthouse, Rosalind

    1991-01-01

    The sort of ethical theory derived from Aristotle, variously described as virtue ethics, virtue-based ethics, or neo-Aristotelianism, is becoming better known, and is now quite widely recognized as at least a possible rival to deontological and utilitarian theories. With recognition has come criticism, of varying quality. In this article I shall discuss nine separate criticisms that I have frequently encountered, most of which seem to me to betray an inadequate grasp either of the structure of virtue theory or of what would be involved in thinking about a real moral issue in its terms. In the first half I aim particularly to secure an understanding that will reveal that many of these criticisms are simply misplaced, and to articulate what I take to be the major criticism of virtue theory. I reject this criticism, but do not claim that it is necessarily misplaced. In the second half I aim to deepen that understanding and highlight the issues raised by the criticisms by illustrating what the theory looks like when it is applied to a particular issue, in this case, abortion.

  9. Abortion - a philosophical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MN Jali

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman’s right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the arguments forwarded by each group in justification of its position are presented. Also discussed is the moderate developmental viewpoint which accepts that the genetic basis of an individual is established at conception. Some development, however, has to occur before the conceptus can be called a person. The fact that an entity is a potential person is a prima facie reason for not destroying it. On the other hand, we need not conclude that a person has a right to life by virtue of that potentiality. Simultaneously we should recognise that the right a potential entity has, may be nullified by the woman’s right to self-determination.

  10. Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.

  11. GCR flux 9-day variations with LISA Pathfinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimani, C; Benella, S; Fabi, M; Finetti, N; Telloni, D

    2017-01-01

    Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) energy spectra in the heliosphere vary on the basis of the level of solar activity, the status of solar polarity and interplanetary transient magnetic structures of solar origin. A high counting rate particle detector (PD) aboard LISA Pathfinder (LPF) allows for the measurement of galactic cosmic-ray and solar energetic particle (SEP) integral fluxes at energies > 70 MeV n −1 up to 6500 counts s −1 . Data are gathered with a sampling time of 15 s. A study of GCR flux depressions associated with the third harmonic of the Sun rotation period (∼ 9 days) is presented here. (paper)

  12. The Engineering of LISA Pathfinder – the quietest Laboratory ever flown in Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenkel, Christian; Wealthy, Dave; Dunbar, Neil; Warren, Carl; Schleicher, Alexander; Ziegler, Tobias; Brandt, Nico; Gerndt, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    We review the engineering approach adopted to ensure the required gravitational, magnetic, thermal and residual acceleration stability on-board LISA Pathfinder, and present the in-flight results that have been achieved. Arguably, this stability makes LISA Pathfinder the quietest laboratory ever flown in space. The implications for LISA are also discussed. (paper)

  13. Late Abortion: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chiang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Late termination of pregnancy (LTOP is defined as an abortion carried out beyond 24 gestational weeks, when the fetus has arguably attained viability. In Taiwan, the current abortion law, bearing a eugenic title, allows LTOP on certain medical grounds. However, the fetal and maternal conditions that constitute medical grounds are not clarified and remain legally untested. Professional debate on the abortion issue is also lacking in academia in Taiwan, despite societal concerns. With the advent of technology to detect fetal abnormalities, obstetricians are now confronted more frequently with acute dilemmas regarding LTOP. Quite often, they sail in an uncharted sea with no clinical guidelines from their professional societies or affiliated hospitals. Recently, LTOP at 35 gestational weeks for a fetus with Down syndrome, complicated with polyhydramnios and tetralogy of Fallot, triggered media scrutiny and aroused much public attention. Although the clinical decision making for pregnancies with fetal abnormalities entails increasingly balanced information and consideration in terms of the medical, ethical, legal, psychologic, and societal aspects, society at large is unaware of the complexity and intertwined nature of various abortion issues, especially LTOP. Obstetricians are now in a vulnerable position in Taiwanese society, where litigations relevant to the practice of early abortions are not rare. Therefore, a global and in-depth look into abortion issues from legal and ethical dimensions is indispensable for modern obstetric practice. This review considers the core issues in LTOP, including what conditions constitute a “serious” fetal abnormality to justify LTOP, the incidence of LTOP, legislation regarding LTOP in Western countries, and recent research on ambivalent fetal pain. It will also present procedures, some under the auspices of the ethical committee of a Presbyterian hospital in Taiwan, for clinical decision making, particularly

  14. "My friend who bought it for me, she has had an abortion before." The influence of Ghanaian women's social networks in determining the pathway to induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R; Morhe, Emmanuel Sk

    2017-07-01

    Even given the liberal abortion law in Ghana, abortion complications are a large contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. This study sought to understand why young women seeking an abortion in a legally enabling environment chose to do this outside the formal healthcare system. Women being treated for complications arising from a self-induced abortion as well as for elective abortions at three hospitals in Ghana were interviewed. Community-based focus groups were held with women as well as men, separately. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted until saturation was reached. A total of 18 women seeking care for complications from a self-induced abortion and 11 seeking care for an elective abortion interviewed. The women ranged in age from 13 to 35 years. There were eight focus groups; two with men and six with women. The reasons women self-induce are: (1) abortion is illegal; (2) attitudes of the healthcare workers; (3) keeping the pregnancy a secret; and (4) social network influence. The meta-theme of normalisation of self-inducing' an abortion was identified. When women are faced with an unplanned and unwanted pregnancy, they consult individuals in their social network whom they know have dealt with a similar situation. Misoprostol is widely available in Ghanaian cities and is successful at inducing an abortion for many women. In this way, self-inducing abortions using medication procured from pharmacists and chemical sellers has become normalised for women in Kumasi, Ghana. © Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Contraceptive Use among Women Seeking Repeat Abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives ... findings, the level of repeat abortions in Europe, .... and contraceptive history, and post-abortion ..... working women.

  16. Pathfinding the Flight Advanced Stirling Convertor Design with the ASC-E3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Kyle; Smith, Eddie; Collins, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) was initially developed by Sunpower, Inc. under contract to NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) as a technology development project. The ASC technology fulfills NASA's need for high efficiency power convertors for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). Early successful technology demonstrations between 2003 to 2005 eventually led to the expansion of the project including the decision in 2006 to use the ASC technology on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). Sunpower has delivered 22 ASC convertors of progressively mature designs to date to GRC. Currently, Sunpower with support from GRC, Lockheed Martin Space System Company (LMSSC), and the Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the flight ASC-F in parallel with the ASC-E3 pathfinders. Sunpower will deliver four pairs of ASC-E3 convertors to GRC which will be used for extended operation reliability assessment, independent validation and verification testing, system interaction tests, and to support LMSSC controller verification. The ASC-E3 and -F convertors are being built to the same design and processing documentation and the same product specification. The initial two pairs of ASC-E3 are built before the flight units and will validate design and processing changes prior to implementation on the ASC-F flight convertors. This paper provides a summary on development of the ASC technology and the status of the ASC-E3 build and how they serve the vital pathfinder role ahead of the flight build for ASRG. The ASRG is part of two of the three candidate missions being considered for selection for the Discovery 12 mission.

  17. Induced abortion and psychological sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon

    2010-10-01

    The decision to seek an abortion is never easy. Women have different reasons for choosing an abortion and their social, economic and religious background may influence how they cope. Furthermore, once pregnant, the alternatives of childbirth and adoption or keeping the baby may not be psychologically neutral. Research studies in this area have been hampered by methodological problems, but most of the better-quality studies have shown no increased risk of mental health problems in women having an abortion. A consistent finding has been that of pre-existing mental illness and subsequent mental health problems after either abortion or childbirth. Furthermore, studies have shown that only a minority of women experience any lasting sadness or regret. Risk factors for this include ambivalence about the decision, level of social support and whether or not the pregnancy was originally intended. More robust, definitive research studies are required on mental health after abortion and alternative outcomes such as childbirth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Disentangling the magnetic force noise contribution in LISA Pathfinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Baird, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Fitzsimons, E; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    Magnetically-induced forces on the inertial masses on-board LISA Pathfinder are expected to be one of the dominant contributions to the mission noise budget, accounting for up to 40%. The origin of this disturbance is the coupling of the residual magnetization and susceptibility of the test masses with the environmental magnetic field. In order to fully understand this important part of the noise model, a set of coils and magnetometers are integrated as a part of the diagnostics subsystem. During operations a sequence of magnetic excitations will be applied to precisely determine the coupling of the magnetic environment to the test mass displacement using the on-board magnetometers. Since no direct measurement of the magnetic field in the test mass position will be available, an extrapolation of the magnetic measurements to the test mass position will be carried out as a part of the data analysis activities. In this paper we show the first results on the magnetic experiments during an end- to-end LISA Pathfinder simulation, and we describe the methods under development to map the magnetic field on-board. (paper)

  19. Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor Outreach Compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    This videotape is a compilation of the best NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) videos of the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor missions. The mission is described using animation and narration as well as some actual footage of the entire sequence of mission events. Included within these animations are the spacecraft orbit insertion; descent to the Mars surface; deployment of the airbags and instruments; and exploration by Sojourner, the Mars rover. JPL activities at spacecraft control during significant mission events are also included at the end. The spacecraft cameras pan the surrounding Mars terrain and film Sojourner traversing the surface and inspecting rocks. A single, brief, processed image of the Cydonia region (Mars face) at an oblique angle from the Mars Global Surveyor is presented. A description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, instruments, landing and deployment process, Mars approach, spacecraft orbit insertion, rover operation are all described using computer animation. Actual color footage of Sojourner as well as a 360 deg pan of the Mars terrain surrounding the spacecraft is provided. Lower quality black and white photography depicting Sojourner traversing the Mars surface and inspecting Martian rocks also is included.

  20. Revised electrostatic model of the LISA Pathfinder inertial sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Nico [Astrium GmbH, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Fichter, Walter, E-mail: nico.brandt@astrium.eads.ne [iFR, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 7a, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    A comprehensive electrostatic finite-element (FE) analysis of the LISA Pathfinder Inertial Sensor (IS) has been carried out at Astrium GmbH. Starting with a detailed geometrical model of the IS housing and test mass (TM) flight units, FE results were derived from multiple analyses runs applying the Maxwell 3D field simulation software. The electrostatic forces and torques on the TM in 6DoF, as well as all non-negligible capacitances between the TM, the 18 electrodes, and the housing, have been extracted for different TM translations and rotations. The results of the FE analyses were expected to confirm the existing IS electrostatic model predictions used for performance analysis, simulations, and on-board algorithms. Major discrepancies were found, however, between the results and the model used so far. In general, FE results give considerably larger capacitance values than the equivalent infinite non-parallel plate estimates. In contrast, the FE derived forces and torques are in general significantly lower compared to the analytic IS electrostatic model predictions. In this paper, these results are discussed in detail and the reasons for the deviations are elaborated. Based on these results, an adapted analytic IS electrostatic model is proposed that reflects the electrostatic forces, torques, and stiffness values in the LISA Pathfinder IS significantly more accurate.

  1. Revised electrostatic model of the LISA Pathfinder inertial sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Nico; Fichter, Walter

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive electrostatic finite-element (FE) analysis of the LISA Pathfinder Inertial Sensor (IS) has been carried out at Astrium GmbH. Starting with a detailed geometrical model of the IS housing and test mass (TM) flight units, FE results were derived from multiple analyses runs applying the Maxwell 3D field simulation software. The electrostatic forces and torques on the TM in 6DoF, as well as all non-negligible capacitances between the TM, the 18 electrodes, and the housing, have been extracted for different TM translations and rotations. The results of the FE analyses were expected to confirm the existing IS electrostatic model predictions used for performance analysis, simulations, and on-board algorithms. Major discrepancies were found, however, between the results and the model used so far. In general, FE results give considerably larger capacitance values than the equivalent infinite non-parallel plate estimates. In contrast, the FE derived forces and torques are in general significantly lower compared to the analytic IS electrostatic model predictions. In this paper, these results are discussed in detail and the reasons for the deviations are elaborated. Based on these results, an adapted analytic IS electrostatic model is proposed that reflects the electrostatic forces, torques, and stiffness values in the LISA Pathfinder IS significantly more accurate.

  2. Hospital admission following induced abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea--a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D L; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.

  3. Hospital Admission following Induced Abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea – A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M.; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D. L.; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Methods Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Findings Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. Conclusion In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion. PMID:25329982

  4. LISA Pathfinder E2E performance simulation: optical and self-gravity stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, N.; Fichter, W.; Kersten, M.; Lucarelli, S.; Montemurro, F.

    2005-05-01

    End-to-end (E2E) modelling and simulation, i.e. verifying the science performance of LISA Pathfinder (spacecraft and payload), is mandatory in order to minimize mission risks. In this paper, focus is on two particular applications of the E2E performance simulator currently being developed at EADS Astrium GmbH: the opto-dynamical stability and the self-gravity disturbance stability analysis. The E2E models applied here comprise the opto-dynamical modelling of the optical metrology systems (OMS) laser interferometry, the thermo-elastic distortion modelling of the OMS optical elements and the self-gravity disturbance model accounting for structural distortions. Preliminary analysis results are presented in detail, identifying shortcomings of the current LISA technology package (LTP) mounting baseline. As a consequence, the design is now being revised.

  5. LISA Pathfinder E2E performance simulation: optical and self-gravity stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, N; Fichter, W; Kersten, M; Lucarelli, S; Montemurro, F

    2005-01-01

    End-to-end (E2E) modelling and simulation, i.e. verifying the science performance of LISA Pathfinder (spacecraft and payload), is mandatory in order to minimize mission risks. In this paper, focus is on two particular applications of the E2E performance simulator currently being developed at EADS Astrium GmbH: the opto-dynamical stability and the self-gravity disturbance stability analysis. The E2E models applied here comprise the opto-dynamical modelling of the optical metrology systems (OMS) laser interferometry, the thermo-elastic distortion modelling of the OMS optical elements and the self-gravity disturbance model accounting for structural distortions. Preliminary analysis results are presented in detail, identifying shortcomings of the current LISA technology package (LTP) mounting baseline. As a consequence, the design is now being revised

  6. Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort Controller Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Raney, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper covers the simulation and evaluation of a controller design for the Crew Module (CM) Launch Abort System (LAS), to measure its ability to meet the abort performance requirements. The controller used in this study is a hybrid design, including features developed by the Government and the Contractor. Testing is done using two separate 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer simulation implementations of the LAS/CM throughout the ascent trajectory: 1) executing a series of abort simulations along a nominal trajectory for the nominal LAS/CM system; and 2) using a series of Monte Carlo runs with perturbed initial flight conditions and perturbed system parameters. The performance of the controller is evaluated against a set of criteria, which is based upon the current functional requirements of the LAS. Preliminary analysis indicates that the performance of the present controller meets (with the exception of a few cases) the evaluation criteria mentioned above.

  7. Abortion in Brazil: A Search For Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Karla Ferraz dos; Santos, Vanessa Cruz; Souzas, Raquel; Eugênio, Benedito Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the abortion theme in Brazil is highly problematic since it involves ethical, moral and legal precepts. The criminalization of abortion in Brazil favors a clandestine and unsafe practice and can lead to serious consequences to women´s health. In this perspective, this research deals with the legal context in which the abortion problem is inscribed in Brazil, coupled to the specific aims in pinpointing complications caused by the criminalization of clandestine abortion besides deali...

  8. Assessing post-abortion care in health facilities in Afghanistan: a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansari, N.; Zainullah, P.; Kim, Y.M.; Tappis, H.; Kols, A.; Currie, S.; Haver, J; van Roosmalen, J.; Broerse, J.E.W.; Stekelenburg, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Complications of abortion are one of the leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide, along with hemorrhage, sepsis, and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. In Afghanistan little data exist on the capacity of the health system to provide post-abortion care (PAC). This paper presents

  9. Assessing post-abortion care in health facilities in Afghanistan : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansari, Nasratullah; Zainullah, Partamin; Kim, Young Mi; Tappis, Hannah; Kols, Adrienne; Currie, Sheena; Haver, Jaime; van Roosmalen, Jos; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Complications of abortion are one of the leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide, along with hemorrhage, sepsis, and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. In Afghanistan little data exist on the capacity of the health system to provide post-abortion care (PAC). This paper presents

  10. Maternal Near-Miss Due to Unsafe Abortion and Associated Short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, ... induced abortion procedures. ... cases of MNM were identified through a ... system was put in place in each hospital to help ... that were due to unsafe abortion we used a variant ... based on 13 cases that had provider's information.

  11. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  12. Legalized abortion: a public health success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M

    1999-06-01

    60% of more than 2000 women surveyed by the Picker Institute who underwent induced abortion procedures rated the quality of their care as excellent. Another third reported their care as being either very good or good. The survey also found that the quality of abortion care is comparable to other outpatient surgery. However, the high quality of care women receive from abortion providers is lost in the hostile anti-abortion climate created by threatening protesters outside of clinics and the murder of 7 clinic workers and physicians who performed abortions. Abortion opponents fail to acknowledge that legal abortion is a medical procedure which protects women's health and saves their lives. Before abortion was legalized in the US, countless women were either rendered unable to reproduce or died from abortion-related complications. Efforts to outlaw abortion persist despite it being widely recognized by medical experts as one of the most safe medical procedures currently performed in the US. When state legislatures target abortion providers with unduly strict regulations, abortion becomes prohibitively expensive and difficult to obtain.

  13. Protection of the LHC against Unsynchronised Beam Aborts

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Carlier, E; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Weterings, W

    2006-01-01

    An unsynchronised beam abort in the LHC could damage downstream accelerator components, in particular the extraction septum magnets, the experimental low-beta triplet magnet apertures and the tertiary collimators. Although the LHC beam dumping system includes design features to minimise their frequency, such unsynchronised aborts cannot be excluded. A system of protection devices comprising fixed and moveable diluters and collimators will protect the downstream LHC aperture from the misdirected bunches in case of such a failure. The sources of unsynchronised aborts are described, together with the requirements and design of the protection devices and their expected performance. The accompanying operational requirements and envisaged solutions are discussed, in particular the problem of ensuring the local orbit at the protection devices.

  14. Investigations concerning the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia abortus in sheep in correlation with management systems and abortion rate in Lower Saxony in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Martin; Binder, Alfred; Schotte, Ulrich; Ganter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular bacteria Coxiella (C) burnetii and Chlamydia (Chl) abortus induce abortion in sheep and also affect humans. While Chl. abortus only infrequently infects humans, C burnetii is the aetiological agent of numerous Q fever outbreaks during the last decades. There is only limited knowledge about the prevalence of both pathogens in sheep, although sheep are involved in almost all Q fever outbreaks in Germany. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of both pathogens in flocks located in Lower Saxony, Germany, in correlation to the management form and abortion rate. Serum samples of 1714 sheep from 95 flocks located in Lower Saxony were investigated by ELISA. 2.7% of these samples were positive, 1.3% showed inconclusive results in the C. burnetii-ELISA. Elevated intra-flock seroprevalences were only detected in three migrating flocks. Chlamydia-specific antibodies could be detected in 15.1% serum samples of mainly shepherded and migrating flocks. In one of these flocks with a high intra-flock seroprevalence for C burnetii (27%) and Chlamydia (44.9%), C burnetii was detected in 21.6% of the placenta samples of normal births and in 12.5% of the colostrum samples by PCR. Aborted fetuses and the corresponding placentas were negative in C burnetii-PCR, but in most of them and also in many other placenta samples Chl. abortus could be detected by PCR and DNA microarray. This survey shows a low overall prevalence of C. burnetii in sheep in Lower Saxony in the year 2004. However, three migrating flocks with a high intra-flock prevalence are localized in the southern parts of Lower Saxony. Spreading of C burnetii could occur, because of the large radius of grazing of all three flocks.

  15. Activation of mRNA translation by phage protein and low temperature: the case of Lactococcus lactis abortive infection system AbiD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich S Dusko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abortive infection (Abi mechanisms comprise numerous strategies developed by bacteria to avoid being killed by bacteriophage (phage. Escherichia coli Abis are considered as mediators of programmed cell death, which is induced by infecting phage. Abis were also proposed to be stress response elements, but no environmental activation signals have yet been identified. Abis are widespread in Lactococcus lactis, but regulation of their expression remains an open question. We previously showed that development of AbiD1 abortive infection against phage bIL66 depends on orf1, which is expressed in mid-infection. However, molecular basis for this activation remains unclear. Results In non-infected AbiD1+ cells, specific abiD1 mRNA is unstable and present in low amounts. It does not increase during abortive infection of sensitive phage. Protein synthesis directed by the abiD1 translation initiation region is also inefficient. The presence of the phage orf1 gene, but not its mutant AbiD1R allele, strongly increases abiD1 translation efficiency. Interestingly, cell growth at low temperature also activates translation of abiD1 mRNA and consequently the AbiD1 phenotype, and occurs independently of phage infection. There is no synergism between the two abiD1 inducers. Purified Orf1 protein binds mRNAs containing a secondary structure motif, identified within the translation initiation regions of abiD1, the mid-infection phage bIL66 M-operon, and the L. lactis osmC gene. Conclusion Expression of the abiD1 gene and consequently AbiD1 phenotype is specifically translationally activated by the phage Orf1 protein. The loss of ability to activate translation of abiD1 mRNA determines the molecular basis for phage resistance to AbiD1. We show for the first time that temperature downshift also activates abortive infection by activation of abiD1 mRNA translation.

  16. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Sarah C; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15-49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies.

  17. Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, J; Ellertson, C

    1999-09-01

    Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that efficacy has been analyzed. We then propose a standard conceptual approach and the accompanying statistical methods for analyzing clinical trials of medical abortion and to explain how clinical investigators can implement this approach. Our review reveals that research on the efficacy of medical abortion has closely followed the conceptual model used for analysis of surgical abortion. The problem, however, is that, whereas surgical abortion is a discrete event occurring in the space of a few minutes or less, medical abortion is a process typically lasting from several days to several weeks. In this process, two events may occur that are not possible with surgical abortion. First, the woman can opt out of the process before a fair determination of efficacy can be made. Second, the process of medical abortion allows time for surgical interventions that may be convenient for the clinician but not strictly necessary from a medical perspective. Another difference from surgical abortions is that, for medical abortions, different medical abortion protocols specify different waiting periods, giving the drugs less time to work in some studies than in others before a determination of efficacy is made. We argue that, when analyzing efficacy of medical abortion, researchers should abandon their close reliance on the analogy to surgical abortion. In fact, medical abortion is more appropriately analyzed by life table procedures developed for the study of another fertility regulation technology; contraception. As with medical abortion, a woman initiating use of a contraceptive method can

  18. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children

  19. The first mock data challenge for LISA Pathfinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsky, A; Hewitson, M; Wanner, G; Nofrarias, M; Diepholz, I; Danzmann, K [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik und Universitaet Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Ferraioli, L; Hueller, M; Cavalleri, A; Ciani, G; Dolesi, R [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Grynagier, A [Institut fuer Flugmechanik und Flugregelung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Armano, M [European Space Agency, ESAC, Villanueva de la Canada, 28692 Madrid (Spain); Benedetti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e Tecnologie Industriali, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Bogenstahl, J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Cristofolini, I [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Strutturale, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Brandt, N [Astrium GmbH, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Cruise, M, E-mail: anneke.monsky@aei.mpg.d [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-07

    The data analysis of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) will comprise a series of discrete experiments, each focusing on a particular noise measurement or characterization of the instrument in various operating modes. Each of these experiments must be analysed and planned in advance of the mission because the results of a given experiment will have an impact on those that follow. As such, a series of mock data challenges (MDCs) will be developed and carried out with the aim of preparing the analysis tools and optimizing the various planned analyses. The first of these MDCs (MDC1) is a simplified treatment of the dynamics along the axis joining the two test masses onboard LISA Pathfinder. The validation of the dynamical model by predicting the spectra of the interferometer output data is shown, a prediction for the data analysis is calculated and, finally, several simulated interferometer data sets are analysed and calibrated to equivalent out-of-loop test mass acceleration.

  20. Prediction and Validation of Mars Pathfinder Hypersonic Aerodynamic Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Braun, Robert D.; Weilmuenster, K. James; Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Engelund, Walter C.; Powell, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    Postflight analysis of the Mars Pathfinder hypersonic, continuum aerodynamic data base is presented. Measured data include accelerations along the body axis and axis normal directions. Comparisons of preflight simulation and measurements show good agreement. The prediction of two static instabilities associated with movement of the sonic line from the shoulder to the nose and back was confirmed by measured normal accelerations. Reconstruction of atmospheric density during entry has an uncertainty directly proportional to the uncertainty in the predicted axial coefficient. The sensitivity of the moment coefficient to freestream density, kinetic models and center-of-gravity location are examined to provide additional consistency checks of the simulation with flight data. The atmospheric density as derived from axial coefficient and measured axial accelerations falls within the range required for sonic line shift and static stability transition as independently determined from normal accelerations.

  1. Patterns of online abortion among teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, A.; Jacky, M.; Mudzakkir, M.; Deprita, R.

    2018-01-01

    An on-going debate of whether or not to legalize abortion has not stopped the number of abortion cases decreases. New practices of abortion such as online abortion has been a growing trend among teenagers. This study aims to determine how teenagers use social media such as Facebook, YouTube and Wikipedia for the practice of abortion. This study adopted online research methods (ORMs), a qualitative approach 2.0 by hacking analytical perspective developed. This study establishes online teen abortion as a research subject. This study finds patterns of online abortions among teenagers covering characteristics of teenagers as perpetrators, styles of communication, and their implication toward policy, particularly Electronic Transaction Information (ETI) regulation. Implications for online abortion behavior among teenagers through social media. The potential abortion client especially girls find practical, fast, effective, and efficient solutions that keep their secret. One of prevention patterns that has been done by some people who care about humanity and anti-abortion in the online world is posting a anti-abortion text, video or picture, anti-sex-free (anti -free intercourse before marriage) in an interesting, educative, and friendly ways.

  2. Enablers of and barriers to abortion training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiahi, Maryam; Lim, Sahnah; Westover, Corey; Gold, Marji; Westhoff, Carolyn L

    2013-06-01

    Since the legalization of abortion services in the United States, provision of abortions has remained a controversial issue of high political interest. Routine abortion training is not offered at all obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) training programs, despite a specific training requirement by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Previous studies that described Ob-Gyn programs with routine abortion training either examined associations by using national surveys of program directors or described the experience of a single program. We set out to identify enablers of and barriers to Ob-Gyn abortion training in the context of a New York City political initiative, in order to better understand how to improve abortion training at other sites. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 22 stakeholders from 7 New York City public hospitals and focus group interviews with 62 current residents at 6 sites. Enablers of abortion training included program location, high-capacity services, faculty commitment to abortion training, external programmatic support, and resident interest. Barriers to abortion training included lack of leadership continuity, leadership conflict, lack of second-trimester abortion services, difficulty obtaining mifepristone, optional rather than routine training, and antiabortion values of hospital personnel. Supportive leadership, faculty commitment, and external programmatic support appear to be key elements for establishing routine abortion training at Ob-Gyn residency training programs.

  3. Abortion surveillance--United States, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, L M; Smith, J C; Ramick, M

    1995-05-05

    From 1980 through 1991, the number of legal induced abortions reported to CDC remained stable, varying each year by 1969, CDC has compiled abortion data received from 52 reporting areas: 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. In 1991, 1,388,937 abortions were reported--a 2.8% decrease from 1990. The abortion ratio was 339 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and the abortion rate was 24 per 1,000 women 15-44 years of age. Women who were undergoing an abortion were more likely to be young, white, and unmarried; most had had no previous live births and had been obtaining an abortion for the first time. More than half (52%) of all abortions were performed at or before the 8th week of gestation, and 88% were before the 13th week. Younger women (i.e., women may partially account for this decline. An accurate assessment of the number and characteristics of women who obtain abortions in the United States is necessary both to monitor efforts to prevent unintended pregnancy and to identify and reduce preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions.

  4. Women's experiences with unplanned pregnancy and abortion in Kenya: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruvani T Jayaweera

    Full Text Available Safe and legal abortions are rarely practiced in the public health sector in Kenya, and rates of maternal mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion is high. Little is known about women's experiences seeking and accessing abortion in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.Seven focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 71 women and girls recruited from an informal settlement in Nairobi. The interview guide explored participants' perceptions of unplanned pregnancy, abortion, and access to sexual and reproductive health information in their community. Thematic analysis of the focus group transcripts was conducted using MAX QDA Release 12.Participants described a variety of factors that influence women's experiences with abortion in their communities. According to participants, limited knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information and lack of access to contraception led to unplanned pregnancy among women in their community. Participants cited stigma and loss of opportunities that women with unplanned pregnancies face as the primary reasons why women seek abortions. Participants articulated stigma as the predominant barrier women in their communities face to safe abortion. Other barriers, which were often interrelated to stigma, included lack of education about safe methods of abortion, perceived illegality of abortion, as well as limited access to services, fear of mistreatment, and mistrust of health providers and facilities.Women in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya face substantial barriers to regulating their fertility and lack access to safe abortion. Policy makers and reproductive health advocates should support programs that employ harm reduction strategies and increase women's knowledge of and access to medication abortion outside the formal healthcare system.

  5. Women's experiences with unplanned pregnancy and abortion in Kenya: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Ruvani T; Ngui, Felistah Mbithe; Hall, Kelli Stidham; Gerdts, Caitlin

    2018-01-01

    Safe and legal abortions are rarely practiced in the public health sector in Kenya, and rates of maternal mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion is high. Little is known about women's experiences seeking and accessing abortion in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Seven focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 71 women and girls recruited from an informal settlement in Nairobi. The interview guide explored participants' perceptions of unplanned pregnancy, abortion, and access to sexual and reproductive health information in their community. Thematic analysis of the focus group transcripts was conducted using MAX QDA Release 12. Participants described a variety of factors that influence women's experiences with abortion in their communities. According to participants, limited knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information and lack of access to contraception led to unplanned pregnancy among women in their community. Participants cited stigma and loss of opportunities that women with unplanned pregnancies face as the primary reasons why women seek abortions. Participants articulated stigma as the predominant barrier women in their communities face to safe abortion. Other barriers, which were often interrelated to stigma, included lack of education about safe methods of abortion, perceived illegality of abortion, as well as limited access to services, fear of mistreatment, and mistrust of health providers and facilities. Women in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya face substantial barriers to regulating their fertility and lack access to safe abortion. Policy makers and reproductive health advocates should support programs that employ harm reduction strategies and increase women's knowledge of and access to medication abortion outside the formal healthcare system.

  6. The Abortion Issue in the Development Agenda of Latin American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lamas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, which offers a regional overview of the feminist struggle for abortion rights in Latin America, begins by reminding the reader of the context, characterized by poverty and marginalization, in which the region's women become mothers, as well as the deadly consequences of illegal abortion. It subsequently outlines the political tension between some state governments and feminists, particularly the friction that results from interference by the Catholic church hierarchy. The article outlines a few paradigmatic cases that exemplify the Vatican's sensationalist strategy as well as feminist responses by means of networks and taking advantage of regional and international arenas. It argues that abortion rights are a question of social justice and public health and form part of aspirations for democracy. It also makes mention of the theoretical debate on how differences between the sexes are handled by legal systems.

  7. Mental health and abortion: review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, P G; Wickett, A R

    1989-11-01

    This survey of studies which relate to the emotional sequelae of induced abortion, draws attention to the need for more long-term, in-depth prospective studies. The literature to this point finds no psychiatric indications for abortion, and no satisfactory evidence that abortion improves the psychological state of those not mentally ill; abortion is contra-indicated when psychiatric disease is present, as mental ill-health has been shown to be worsened by abortion. Recent studies are turning up an alarming rate of post-abortion complications such as P.I.D., and subsequent infertility. The emotional impact of these complications needs to be studied. Other considerations looked at are the long-term demographic implications of abortion on demand and the effect on the medical professions.

  8. [Legal and illegal abortion in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, H

    1970-01-01

    Aspects of legal and illegal abortion in Switzerland are discussed. About 110,000 births, 25,000 therapeutic abortions (75% for psychiatric indications) and an estimated 50,000 illegal abortions occur annually in Switzerland. Although the mortality and morbidity of therapeutic aborti on are similar to those of normal births (1.4 per 1000 and 11%, respectively) the mortality and morbidity of criminal abortions are far greater (3 per 1000 and 73%, respectively). In the author's view, too strict an interpretatiok of Swiss abortion law (which permits abortion to avoid serious harm to the mother's health) does not take into account the severe and lasting emotional and psychological damage which may be caused by unwanted pregnancy, birth, and childraising. In the present social situation, the social and psychological support required by these women is not available; until it is, abortion is to be preferred.

  9. Unintended Pregnancy, Induced Abortion, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Sarah; Schreiber, Courtney A

    2017-09-14

    The early medical literature on mental health outcomes following abortion is fraught with methodological flaws that can improperly influence clinical practice. Our goal is to review the current medical literature on depression and other mental health outcomes for women obtaining abortions. The Turnaway Study prospectively enrolled 956 women seeking abortion in the USA and followed their mental health outcomes for 5 years. The control group was comprised of women denied abortions based on gestational age limits, thereby circumventing the major methodological flaw that had plagued earlier studies on the topic. Rates of depression are not significantly different between women obtaining abortion and those denied abortion. Rates of anxiety are initially higher in women denied abortion care. Counseling on decision-making for women with unintended pregnancies should reflect these findings.

  10. LHC Abort Gap Cleaning with the Transverse Damper

    CERN Document Server

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Höfle, Wolfgang; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Shaposhnikova, E; Koschik, A

    2010-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, particles not captured by the RF system at injection or leaking out of the RF bucket may quench the superconducting magnets during beam abort. The problem, common to other superconducting machines, is particularly serious for the LHC due to the very large stored energy in the beam. For the LHC a way of removing the unbunched beam has been studied and it uses the existing damper kickers to excite resonantly the particles travelling along the abort gap. In this paper we describe the results of simulations performed with MAD X for various LHC optics configurations, including the estimated multipolar errors.

  11. Design and test of the RHIC CMD10 abort kicker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Mi, J.; Meng, W.; Montag, C.; Pai, C.; Sandberg, J.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Zhang, W.

    2015-01-01

    In recent RHIC operational runs, planned and unplanned pre-fire triggered beam aborts have been observed that resulted in quenches of SC main ring magnets, indicating a weakened magnet kick strength due to beam-induced ferrite heating. An improvement program was initiated to reduce the longitudinal coupling impedance with changes to the ferrite material and the eddy-current strip geometry. Results of the impedance measurements and of magnet heating tests with CMD10 ferrite up to 190°C are reported. All 10 abort kickers in the tunnel have been modified and were provided with a cooling system for the RUN 15.

  12. Women's experiences seeking informal sector abortion services in Cape Town, South Africa: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, Caitlin; Raifman, Sarah; Daskilewicz, Kristen; Momberg, Mariette; Roberts, Sarah; Harries, Jane

    2017-10-02

    In settings where abortion is legally restricted, or permitted but not widely accessible, women face significant barriers to abortion access, sometimes leading them to seek services outside legal facilities. The advent of medication abortion has further increased the prevalence of informal sector abortion. This study investigates the reasons for attempting self-induction, methods used, complications, and sources of information about informal sector abortion, and tests a specific recruitment method which could lead to improved estimates of informal sector abortion prevalence among an at-risk population. We recruited women who have sought informal sector abortion services in Cape Town, South Africa using respondent driven sampling (RDS). An initial seed recruiter was responsible for initiating recruitment using a structured coupon system. Participants completed face-to-face questionnaires, which included information about demographics, informal sector abortion seeking, and safe abortion access needs. We enrolled 42 women, nearly one-third of whom reported they were sex workers. Thirty-four women (81%) reported having had one informal sector abortion within the past 5 years, 14% reported having had two, and 5% reported having had three. These women consumed home remedies, herbal mixtures from traditional healers, or tablets from an unregistered provider. Twelve sought additional care for potential warning signs of complications. Privacy and fear of mistreatment at public sector facilities were among the main reported reasons for attempting informal sector abortion. Most women (67%) cited other community members as their source of information about informal sector abortion; posted signs and fliers in public spaces also served as an important source of information. Women are attempting informal sector abortion because they seek privacy and fear mistreatment and stigma in health facilities. Some were unaware how or where to seek formal sector services, or believed the

  13. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  14. An exploratory study of what happens to women who are denied abortions in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Jane; Gerdts, Caitlin; Momberg, Mariette; Greene Foster, Diana

    2015-03-21

    Despite the change in legal status of abortion in South Africa in 1996, barriers to access remain. Stigma associated with abortion provision and care, privacy concerns, and negative provider attitudes often discourage women from seeking legal abortion services and sometimes force women outside of the legal system. What happens when women present for abortion at a designated abortion facility and are denied abortions due to gestational limits or other factors-is unknown. Whether women seek care at referral facilities, seek illegal abortion, or carry pregnancies to term has never been documented. This study, part of a multi-country Global Turnaway Study, explored the experiences of women after denial of legal abortion services. Qualitative research methods were used to collect data at two non-governmental organization health care facilities providing abortion services. In depth interviews were held with women 2 to 3 months after they were denied an abortion. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. The most common reason for being turned away was due to gestational age over 12 weeks with some women denied abortions that day because they did not have enough money to pay for the procedure. Almost all women were extremely upset at being denied an abortion on the day that they visited the health care facility. Some women were so distressed that they openly discussed the option of seeking an illegal provider or exploring the possibility of securing another health care professional who would assist them. Despite South Africa's liberal abortion law and the relatively widespread availability of abortion services in urban settings, women in South Africa are denied abortion services largely due to being beyond the legal limits to obtain an abortion. A high proportion of women who were initially denied an abortion at legal facilities went on to seek options for pregnancy termination outside of the legal system through internet searches--some of which could have

  15. Telling stories about abortion: abortion-related plots in American film and television, 1916-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Gretchen; Kimport, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Popular discourse on abortion in film and television assumes that abortions are under- and misrepresented. Research indicates that such representations influence public perception of abortion care and may play a role in the production of social myths around abortion, with consequences for women's experience of abortion. To date, abortion plotlines in American film and television have not been systematically tracked and analyzed. A comprehensive online search was conducted to identify all representations of pregnancy decision making and abortion in American film and television through January 2013. Search results were coded for year, pregnancy decision and mortality outcome. A total of 310 plotlines were identified, with an overall upward trend over time in the number of representations of abortion decision making. Of these plotlines, 173 (55.8%) resulted in abortion, 80 (25.8%) in parenting, 13 (4.2%) in adoption and 21 (6.7%) in pregnancy loss, and 16 (5.1%) were unresolved. A total of 13.5% (n=42) of stories ended with the death of the woman who considered an abortion, whether or not she obtained one. Abortion-related plotlines occur more frequently than popular discourse assumes. Year-to-year variation in frequency suggests an interactive relationship between media representations, cultural attitudes and policies around abortion regulation, consistent with cultural theory of the relationship between media products and social beliefs. Patterns of outcomes and rates of mortality are not representative of real experience and may contribute to social myths around abortion. The narrative linking of pregnancy termination with mortality is of particular note, supporting the social myth associating abortion with death. This analysis empirically describes the number of abortion-related plotlines in American film and television. It contributes to the systematic evaluation of the portrayal of abortion in popular culture and provides abortion care professionals and

  16. Devising an Indicator to Detect Mid-Term Abortions in Dairy Cattle: A First Step Towards Syndromic Surveillance of Abortive Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; H?naux, Viviane; Madouasse, Aur?lien; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI) data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy ca...

  17. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Polar Pathfinder Extended (APP-X) Cryosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of the extended AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP-x) cryosphere contains 19 geophysical variables over the Arctic and Antarctic for the...

  18. Gambling on the Protestants: the Pathfinder Fund and birth control in Peru, 1958-1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, L Necochea

    2014-01-01

    Among the agencies involved in population control activities in the mid-twentieth century, none scored as many early victories in Latin America as did the Pathfinder Fund, founded by Procter & Gamble scion Clarence Gamble. This article analyzes a style in the delivery of family planning assistance in the developing world through the work of the Pathfinder Fund in Peru, the organization's hub in South America, and shows how Pathfinder personnel collaborated with local Protestant institutions. Its Protestant allies helped Pathfinder set up and manage rapid interventions such as the production of pamphlets, the smuggling of contraceptives, and the enrollment of physicians as advocates of the use of intrauterine devices. Although these rapid interventions helped quickly disseminate information and certain technologies among a fortunate few, they also weakened legitimate state agencies, neglected the monitoring of the safety of the drugs supplied, and alienated allies with their high-handed boldness.

  19. A Web-Portal Based Approach for Knowledge Networks in Support of the Pathfinder Programme

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tolk, Andreas; Turnitsa, Charles D; Oehlund, Gunnar; Sursal, Gokay

    2006-01-01

    Technical activity program MSG-027 "Pathfinder Integration Environment" has the task of bringing the integration knowledge required to build a federation to whatever organization is charged with a federating task...

  20. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) Cryosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) contains the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) product. APP is a fundamental CDR comprised of calibrated and navigated AVHRR channel...

  1. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Pathfinder Reef, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA), Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, conducted at 2 sites at Pathfinder Reef...

  2. Primary Productivity, SeaWiFS and Pathfinder, 0.1 degrees, Global, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary Productivity is calculated from SeaWiFS Chl a, Pathfinder SST, and SeaWiFS PAR data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for scientific...

  3. Tensions between the (illegal and the (illegitimate in professional health practices regarding women who seek abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra López Gómez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a pre- and post-abortion health care strategy, adopted in 2004 in Uruguay within a restrictive legal context prior to the decriminalization of abortion in 2012, opened a window of opportunity to link women facing unwanted pregnancies and abortion to health services in order to prevent unsafe abortion practices. This article looks into the tensions generated by the change of focus from maternal-child health to health and sexual and reproductive rights, and how those tensions operate. Using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, the practices and perception and assessment frameworks of professionals in their care of women facing unwanted pregnancy and abortion in the National Integrated Health System in Montevideo are analyzed. The results offer insights into some of the barriers and difficulties that can currently be observed in the implementation of the new law.

  4. Anti-abortion policy leads to more abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L

    1988-01-01

    In 1984, the Reagan administration announced in Mexico City a reversal in the US international family planning policy. The new policy strictly forbids any international family planning group that receives US funds from providing abortion services or counseling. An immediate impact on family planning programs in developing countries was that it prevented the opening of much needed clinics in the poorest, most rapidly growing countries in the world, such as Bangladesh. The University of Michigan School of Public Health estimates an additional 380,000 unwanted pregnancies, resulting in 311,000 births, 69,000 abortions, and 1200 maternal deaths in the next 3 years. Not only did the US change its policy, but congress decreased funding for international family planning programs 20% between 1985 and 1987. The majority of the funding goes to the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and in 1988 the Reagan administration allowed USAID to funnel about $75 million of this money to other projects, e.g. general African development fund. Fewer contraceptives are available due to the reduced funding, and therefore more women seek an abortion as a last resort against unwanted pregnancy. An additional effect of this 1984 policy reversal is that fewer nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are eligible for grants, so USAID gives its family planning funds to government agencies who are not the most effective users of funds and are not always trusted by the people served.

  5. Motoneuron axon pathfinding errors in zebrafish: Differential effects related to concentration and timing of nicotine exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menelaou, Evdokia; Paul, Latoya T.; Perera, Surangi N.; Svoboda, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure during embryonic stages of development can affect many neurodevelopmental processes. In the developing zebrafish, exposure to nicotine was reported to cause axonal pathfinding errors in the later born secondary motoneurons (SMNs). These alterations in SMN axon morphology coincided with muscle degeneration at high nicotine concentrations (15–30 μM). Previous work showed that the paralytic mutant zebrafish known as sofa potato exhibited nicotine-induced effects onto SMN axons at these high concentrations but in the absence of any muscle deficits, indicating that pathfinding errors could occur independent of muscle effects. In this study, we used varying concentrations of nicotine at different developmental windows of exposure to specifically isolate its effects onto subpopulations of motoneuron axons. We found that nicotine exposure can affect SMN axon morphology in a dose-dependent manner. At low concentrations of nicotine, SMN axons exhibited pathfinding errors, in the absence of any nicotine-induced muscle abnormalities. Moreover, the nicotine exposure paradigms used affected the 3 subpopulations of SMN axons differently, but the dorsal projecting SMN axons were primarily affected. We then identified morphologically distinct pathfinding errors that best described the nicotine-induced effects on dorsal projecting SMN axons. To test whether SMN pathfinding was potentially influenced by alterations in the early born primary motoneuron (PMN), we performed dual labeling studies, where both PMN and SMN axons were simultaneously labeled with antibodies. We show that only a subset of the SMN axon pathfinding errors coincided with abnormal PMN axonal targeting in nicotine-exposed zebrafish. We conclude that nicotine exposure can exert differential effects depending on the levels of nicotine and developmental exposure window. - Highlights: • Embryonic nicotine exposure can specifically affect secondary motoneuron axons in a dose-dependent manner.

  6. Motoneuron axon pathfinding errors in zebrafish: Differential effects related to concentration and timing of nicotine exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menelaou, Evdokia; Paul, Latoya T. [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Perera, Surangi N. [Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53205 (United States); Svoboda, Kurt R., E-mail: svobodak@uwm.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53205 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine exposure during embryonic stages of development can affect many neurodevelopmental processes. In the developing zebrafish, exposure to nicotine was reported to cause axonal pathfinding errors in the later born secondary motoneurons (SMNs). These alterations in SMN axon morphology coincided with muscle degeneration at high nicotine concentrations (15–30 μM). Previous work showed that the paralytic mutant zebrafish known as sofa potato exhibited nicotine-induced effects onto SMN axons at these high concentrations but in the absence of any muscle deficits, indicating that pathfinding errors could occur independent of muscle effects. In this study, we used varying concentrations of nicotine at different developmental windows of exposure to specifically isolate its effects onto subpopulations of motoneuron axons. We found that nicotine exposure can affect SMN axon morphology in a dose-dependent manner. At low concentrations of nicotine, SMN axons exhibited pathfinding errors, in the absence of any nicotine-induced muscle abnormalities. Moreover, the nicotine exposure paradigms used affected the 3 subpopulations of SMN axons differently, but the dorsal projecting SMN axons were primarily affected. We then identified morphologically distinct pathfinding errors that best described the nicotine-induced effects on dorsal projecting SMN axons. To test whether SMN pathfinding was potentially influenced by alterations in the early born primary motoneuron (PMN), we performed dual labeling studies, where both PMN and SMN axons were simultaneously labeled with antibodies. We show that only a subset of the SMN axon pathfinding errors coincided with abnormal PMN axonal targeting in nicotine-exposed zebrafish. We conclude that nicotine exposure can exert differential effects depending on the levels of nicotine and developmental exposure window. - Highlights: • Embryonic nicotine exposure can specifically affect secondary motoneuron axons in a dose-dependent manner.

  7. The Challenges Procuring of Safe Abortion Care in Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Challenges Procuring of Safe Abortion Care in Botswana. Stephanie Samantha Smith. Abstract. Botswana's national healthcare system has experienced substantial investment as a result of a growing economy and stable government, and improvements in quality and access are notable. Despite these advances ...

  8. Effectiveness of the lactococcal abortive infection systems AbiA, AbiE, AbiF and AbiG against P335 type phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, Mark; Fitzgerald, Gerald F

    2002-04-23

    Four lactococcal abortive infection mechanisms were introduced into strains which were sensitive hosts for P335 type phages and plaque assay experiments performed to assess their effect on five lactococcal bacteriophages from this family. Results indicate that AbiA inhibits all five P335 phages tested, while AbiG affects phiP335 itself and phiQ30 but not the other P335 species phages. AbiA was shown to retard phage Q30 DNA replication as previously reported for other phages. It was also demonstrated that AbiG, previously shown to act at a point after DNA replication in the cases of c2 type and 936 type phages, acts at the level of, or prior to phage Q30 DNA replication. AbiE and AbiF had no effect on the P335 type phages examined.

  9. Summary of the abort gap cleaning tests performed on October 18, 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Bart Pedersen, S; Jeff, A; Roncarolo, F; Hofle, W; Shaposhnikova, E; Valuch, D; Kain, V; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M; Uythoven, J; Gianfelice, E

    2010-01-01

    After the first encouraging tests performed in 2009, machine time was allocated in 2010 to continue the commissioning of the abort gap cleaning systems. This note summarises the test performed in October 2010 at 450 GeV, using the vertical damper system in order to clean the particles located in the abort gap. The results showed that the particle population was indeed cleaned, without affecting in a measurable way the emittance of the bunches which were immediately adjacent to the abort gap. The system was declared operational and is now used with the LHC at injection energy.

  10. Is Induced Abortion Really Declining in Armenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-06-01

    As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  11. Outcome of pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongol, A; Mool, S; Tiwari, P

    2011-01-01

    Threatened abortion is the most common complication in the first half of pregnancy. Most of these pregnancies continue to term with or without treatment. Spontaneous abortion occurs in less than 30% of these women. Threatened abortion had been shown to be associated with increased incidence of antepartum haemorrhage, preterm labour and intra uterine growth retardation. This study was to asses the outcome of threatened abortion following treatment. This prospective study was carried out in Dhulikhel Hospital - Kathmandu University Hospital from January 2009 till May 2010. Total 70 cases of threatened abortion were selected, managed with complete bed rest till 48 hrs of cessation of bleeding, folic acid supplementation, uterine sedative, and hormonal treatment till 28 weeks of gestation. Ultrasonogram was performed for diagnosis and to detect the presence of subchorionic hematoma. Patients were followed up until spontaneous abortion or up to delivery of the fetus. The measures used for the analysis were maternal age, parity, gestational age at the time of presentation, previous abortions, presence of subchorionic hematoma, complete abortion, continuation of pregnancy, antepartum hemorrhage, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine death of fetus. Out of 70 cases subchorionic haematoma was found in 30 (42.9%) cases. There were 12 (17.1%) patients who spontaneously aborted after diagnosis of threatened abortion during hospital stay, 5 (7.1%) aborted on subsequent visits while 53 (75.8%) continued pregnancy till term. Among those who continued pregnancy intrauterine growth retardation was seen in 7 (13.2%), antepartum hemorrhage in 4 (7.5%), preterm premature rupture of membrane in 3 (5.66%) and IUD in 3 (5.66%). Spontaneous abortion was found more in cases with subchorionic hematoma of size more than 20 cm2. In cases of threatened abortion with or without the presence of subchorionic hematoma, prognostic outcome is better following treatment with bed rest

  12. Knowledge and Attitudes of a Number of Iranian Policy-makers towards Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourieh, Shamshiri-Milani; Abolghasem, Pourreza; Feizollah, Akbari

    2010-10-01

    Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights.

  13. Population Group Abortion Rates and Lifetime Incidence of Abortion: United States, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K; Jerman, Jenna

    2017-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of abortion among population groups and changes in rates between 2008 and 2014. We used secondary data from the Abortion Patient Survey, the American Community Survey, and the National Survey of Family Growth to estimate abortion rates. We used information from the Abortion Patient Survey to estimate the lifetime incidence of abortion. Between 2008 and 2014, the abortion rate declined 25%, from 19.4 to 14.6 per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years. The abortion rate for adolescents aged 15 to 19 years declined 46%, the largest of any group. Abortion rates declined for all racial and ethnic groups but were larger for non-White women than for non-Hispanic White women. Although the abortion rate decreased 26% for women with incomes less than 100% of the federal poverty level, this population had the highest abortion rate of all the groups examined: 36.6. If the 2014 age-specific abortion rates prevail, 24% of women aged 15 to 44 years in that year will have an abortion by age 45 years. The decline in abortion was not uniform across all population groups.

  14. Is "abortion culture" fading in the former Soviet Union? Views about abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor

    2002-09-01

    The Soviet legacy of widespread reliance on induced abortion is of critical importance to reproductive trends and policies in post-Soviet nations, especially as they strive to substitute contraception for abortion. Using data from two Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1999, this study analyzes and compares trends in abortion and contraception, women's attitudes toward abortion, and their perceptions of problems associated with abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. Despite an overall decline in abortion and an increase in contraceptive use since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, abortion has remained a prominent part of the country's reproductive culture and practices. This study shows how abortion-related views reflect the long-standing ethnocultural differences between the indigenous Kazakhs and Kazakhstan's residents of European roots, as the latter continue to have significantly higher levels of abortion. The study, however, also reveals the internal diversity among Kazakhs with respect to abortion experiences and views, stemming from decades of the Soviet sociocultural influence in Kazakhstan. In addition, the analysis points to some generational differences in views concerning abortion and contraception. Finally, the study demonstrates parallels in attitudes toward abortion and toward contraception, thereby questioning straightforward assumptions about the replacement of abortion with contraception.

  15. Rejoinder to Wisniewski on Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available I have published more than just a few papers on the abortion issue. Instead of taking either the pro choice or the pro life position, I offer a third alternative: evictionism. I claim that this perspective, which, as it happens is a principled compromise between the other two positions, is the only one compatible with libertarianism. Wisniewski (2010 offers several not unreasonable challenges to my thesis. The present paper is my attempt to refute each and every one of them.

  16. Politics and abortion in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirakova, K

    1992-01-01

    Political change in Bulgaria has meant the beginning of the recognition of the reproduction rights of women. Abortion, for example, was legalized in 1990. Women in Bulgaria, however, still lack the information they need on basic hygiene and sex. It is impossible to promulgate a progressive strategy in Bulgaria if one ignores the isolation of the Turkish and Gypsy ethnic communities. In addition, an economic crisis exists, and no real measures have been undertaken to mitigate the situation. The new democratic institutions have settled comfortably into the structures of the former communist rule, even to the point of adopting the same extensive demagogic terminology which perpetrates the old gap between words and deeds. For example, although a new birth control strategy and plan for sex education was announced 2 years ago, nothing definite has been done. One development, however, has been the legalization of abortion, which was accompanied by an immediate drop in the abortion rate (still 1.5 abortions/birth). Because of a lack of sex education, 900 children are born to girls under age 15 each year. Bulgaria is just starting to embrace modern values and must update its attitudes towards women. Bulgaria's formal institutions seem to be unable to face this issue, and many societies and foundations have emerged to work for women's rights, to protect out-of-wedlock children, and to fight disease (including AIDS) and drug addiction. However, these organizations are not producing real results and are simply providing shelter to representatives of the old nomenclature. Real efforts to overcome these problems will continue despite the current discouraging state of affairs.

  17. Abortion and the Nigerian woman: a select bibliography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abortion is a common and widespread form of fertility regulation the world over. Legal and illegal abortion is very common throughout the developing countries. Since abortions are often not legal in the developing countries, unsafe abortions are an important cause of female mortality. The widespread incidence of abortions ...

  18. [Abortion. Spain: the keys to the controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    For many years, illegal abortion has been denounced in Spain. The estimate of 300,000 abortions annually is widely quoted but poorly founded in fact. Weekend "charters" to London and Amsterdam for women seeking abortions have been commented upon, denounced, and caricatured. The evidence indicates that abortions occur in Spain despite their illegality, just as they occur in every other country and have always occurred. Poor women abort in a poor way, with traditional healers, while rich women abort in a rich way, with physicians. "Charters" are the solution of the middle class. Proposed legislation in Spain would permit abortion on 3 grounds: rape, fetal malformation, and risk to the woman's life if the pregnancy continued. Excesses have been committed both by those opposing abortion and by those struggling for liberalization of laws. Defenders of abortion, such as radical feminists, appear to forget that abortion is a medical procedure with possible dangerous psychophysical consequences, and that preventive measures such as sex education and diffusion of contraception or social measures such as assistance for unwed mothers and their children would be preferrable to abortion. There is the question of whether medical personnel should be excused from assisting in abortions on grounds of conscience and whether those who do assist in abortions automatically become "progressive" by doing so. The staunchest defenders of fetal life are not moved to contribute anything beyond words to improvement of the plight of the many millions of already born who live in miserable conditions of hunger and want. Abortion is a violent act against the fetus and the pregnant woman. Its criminalization is a violent act against the woman and a social intrusion into matters better left to personal ethics. The government which proposes abortion on a few grounds fails to initiate a program to promote life through social protection of single mothers and their children or of families in general

  19. Provision of intrauterine contraception in association with first trimester induced abortion reduces the need of repeat abortion: first-year results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoranta, Elina; Mentula, Maarit; Gissler, Mika; Suhonen, Satu; Heikinheimo, Oskari

    2015-11-01

    Can the need of subsequent abortion be reduced by providing intrauterine contraception as a part of the abortion service? Provision of intrauterine devices (IUDs) in association with first trimester abortion more than halved the incidence of repeat abortion during the first year of follow-up. Following abortion, the incidence of subsequent abortion is high, up to 30-40%. In cohort studies, intrauterine contraception has reduced the need of repeat abortion by 60-70%. A randomized controlled trial. The main outcome measure was the incidence of subsequent induced abortions during the follow-up. Altogether 751 women seeking first trimester induced abortion were recruited and randomized into two groups. Randomization was accomplished by computer-assisted permuted-block randomization with random block sizes of four to six. The investigators did not participate in randomization, which was done before commencing the study. The participants were recruited between 18 October 2010 and 21 January 2013. The inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years, duration of pregnancy ≤12 weeks, accepting intrauterine contraception, residence in Helsinki and signing the informed consent form. Women with contraindications to intrauterine contraception, such as uterine anomaly, acute genital infection or pap-smear change requiring surgical treatment were ineligible to participate.This study was conducted in collaboration between the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, and Centralized family planning of the City of Helsinki.The intervention group (n = 375) was provided with intrauterine contraception (either the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or copper-releasing intrauterine device) immediately following surgical abortion (18.1%) or at a follow-up 2-4 weeks after medical abortion (81.9%). Women in the control group were prescribed oral contraceptives and advised to contact their primary healthcare unit for a follow

  20. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Abortion studies in Iranian dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshavarzi, Hamideh; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, Ali; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2017-01-01

    Abortions, especially those occurring during late pregnancy, lead to considerable economic losses. To estimate the financial losses related to pregnancy loss, at first the influencing factors on abortion need to be identified. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and quantify the risk...... factors and their interactions for abortion in Iranian dairy herds. Based on data from 6 commercial herds, logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for abortion. The basic time unit used in the study was a 3-week period corresponding to an estrus cycle. Thus, stage of lactation...... factors were herd effect, pregnancy stage, previous abortion, calving month, cumulative fat corrected milk (FCM) yield level, mastitis in current 3-weeks in milk, accumulated number of mastitis and all 2-way interactions. Pregnancy tests were performed between 35 and 50 days after insemination. Abortion...

  2. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  3. A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Akter Jahan

    2012-07-01

    system in Bangladesh for improving treatment of incomplete abortion to reduce both maternal morbidity and mortality.

  4. [Criteria on the legalization of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Romero, H; González-González, A; Galicia, J; Garcia-Barrios, C

    2000-01-01

    We revised ethical concepts related to abortion from the points of view of the mothers; life, health, and considerations are made concerning the embryo or fetus as a biological, ontological, moral, and potential person. Certain religious matters on abortion are described and commented on. Effects of abortion penalization in Mexico and the legislation in the Mexican states are examined, as well as the motives of depenalization in certain countries.

  5. Prolonged grieving after abortion: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D; Elkins, T E; Larson, D B

    1993-01-01

    Although flawed by methodological problems, the research literature tends to provide support for the assumption that induced abortion in the 1st trimester is not accompanied by enduring negative psychological sequelae. In cases where such sequelae are reported, the morbidity is attributed to a pre-existing psychiatric condition or circumstances precipitating the choice of abortion. However, detailed descriptive letters from 45 women prepared in response to a request by a pastor of an upper-middle-class Protestant congregation in Florida indicate that prolonged grieving after abortion may be more widespread phenomenon than previously believed. Letter writers ranged in age from 25-60 years; 75% were unmarried at the time of the procedure and 29% aborted before the legalization of abortion in the US. The most frequently cited long-term sequela, especially among those who felt coerced to abort, was a continued feeling of guilt. Fantasies about the aborted fetus was the next most frequently mentioned experience. Half of the letter writers referred to their abortions, as "murder" and 44% voiced regret about their decision to abort. Other long-term effects included depression (44%), feelings of loss (31%), shame (27%), and phobic responses to infants (13%). For 42% of these women, the adverse psychological effects of abortion endured over 10 years. Since letter-writers came from a self-selected population group with a known bias against abortion and only negative experiences were solicited, these experiences must be regarded as subjectives and anecdotal. However, they draw attention to the need for methodologically sound studies of a possible prolonged grief syndrome among a small percentage of women who have abortions, especially when coercion is involved.

  6. Abortion checks at German-Dutch border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Baross, J

    1991-05-01

    The commentary on West German abortion law, particularly in illegal abortion in the Netherlands, finds the law restrictive and in violation of the dignity and rights of women. The Max-Planck Institute in 1990 published a study that found that a main point of prosecution between 1976 and 1986, as reported by Der Spiegal, was in border crossings from the Netherlands. It is estimated that 10,000 annually have abortions abroad, and 6,000 to 7,000 in the Netherlands. The procedure was for an official to stop a young person and query about drugs; later the woman would admit to an abortion, and be forced into a medical examination. The German Penal Code Section 218 stipulates abortion only for certain reasons testified to by a doctor other than the one performing the abortion. Counseling on available social assistance must be completed 3 days prior to the abortion. Many counseling offices are church related and opposed to abortions. Many doctors refuse legally to certify, and access to abortion is limited. The required hospital stay is 3-4 nights with no day care facilities. Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 allows prosecution for uncounseled illegal abortion. Abortion law reform is anticipated by the end of 1992 in the Bundestag due to the Treaty or the Unification of Germany. The Treaty states that the rights of the unborn child must be protected and that pregnant women relieve their distress in a way compatible with the Constitution, but improved over legal regulations from either West or East Germany, which permits abortion on request within 12 weeks of conception without counseling. It is hoped that the law will be liberalized and Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 will be abolished.

  7. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandová, A; Cifra, M; Pokorný, J; Nedbalová, M; Dohnalová, A; Kobilková, J; Cocek, A

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  8. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  9. Reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M

    2009-11-01

    There has been continued interest in the extent to which women have positive and negative reactions to abortion. To document emotional reactions to abortion, and to examine the links between reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. Abortion was associated with high rates of both positive and negative emotional reactions; however, nearly 90% of respondents believed that the abortion was the right decision. Analyses showed that the number of negative responses to the abortion was associated with increased levels of subsequent mental health disorders (Pabortion and reporting negative reactions had rates of mental health disorders that were approximately 1.4-1.8 times higher than those not having an abortion. Abortion was associated with both positive and negative emotional reactions. The extent of negative emotional reactions appeared to modify the links between abortion and subsequent mental health problems.

  10. Therapeutic abortion follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, A J; Davison, L A; Hanson, K H; Loos, S A; Mikkelsen, C M

    1971-05-15

    To determine the long-range psychological effects of therapeutic abortion, 50 women (aged from 13-44 years), who were granted abortions between 1967 and 1968 Because of possible impairment of mental and/or physical health, were analyzed by use of demographic questionnaires, psychological tests, and interviews. Testing revealed that 44 women had psychiatric problems at time of abortion. 43 patients were followed for 3-6 months. The follow-up interviews revealed that 29 patients reacted positively after abortion, 10 reported no significant change and 4 reacted negatively. 37 would definitely repeat the abortion. Women under 21 years of age felt substantially more ambivalent and guilty than older patients. A study of 36 paired pre- and post-abortion profiles showed that 15 initially abnormal tests had become normal. There was a significant increase in contraceptive use among the patients after the abortion, but 4 again became pregnant and 8 were apparently without consistent contraception. It is concluded that the abortions were therapeutic, but physicians are encouraged to be aware of psychological problems in abortion cases. Strong psychological and contraceptive counselling should be exercised.

  11. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  12. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  13. An economic approach to abortion demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, D S

    1992-01-01

    "This paper uses econometric multiple regression techniques in order to analyze the socioeconomic factors affecting the demand for abortion for the year 1985. A cross-section of the 50 [U.S.] states and Washington D.C. is examined and a household choice theoretical framework is utilized. The results suggest that average price of abortion, disposable personal per capita income, percentage of single women, whether abortions are state funded, unemployment rate, divorce rate, and if the state is located in the far West, are statistically significant factors in the determination of the demand for abortion." excerpt

  14. Attitudes of medical students to induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, G A B

    2002-05-01

    Unsafe abortion causes 13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Safe abortion can only be offered under conditions where legislation has been passed for legal termination of unwanted pregnancy. Where such legislation exists, accessibility of safe abortion depends on the attitudes of doctors and other healthcare workers to induced abortion. Medical students as future doctors may have attitudes to abortion that will affect the provision of safe abortion. Little is known about the attitudes of South African medical students to abortion. To assess sexual practices and attitudes of medical students to induced abortion and to determine some of the factors that may influence these attitudes. A cross-sectional analytic study involving the self-administration of an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to medical students at a small, but growing, medical school situated in rural South Africa. Demographic data, sexual practices and attitudes to induced abortion. Two hundred and forty seven out of 300 (82.3%) medical students responded. Their mean age was 21.81 +/- 3.36 (SD) years, and 78.8% were Christians, 17.1% Hindus and 2.6% Muslims. Although 95% of the respondents were single, 68.6% were already sexually experienced, and their mean age at coitarche was 17.24+/-3.14 (SD) years. Although overall 61.2% of the respondents felt abortion is murder either at conception or later, the majority (87.2%) would perform or refer a woman for abortion under certain circumstances. These circumstances, in descending order of frequency, include: threat to mother's life (74.1%), in case of rape (62.3%), the baby is severely malformed (59.5%), threat to mother's mental health (53.8%) and parental incompetence (21.0%). Only 12.5% of respondents would perform or refer for abortion on demand, 12.8% would neither perform nor refer for abortion under any circumstances. Religious affiliation and service attendance significantly influenced some of these attitudes and beliefs

  15. Trump's Abortion-Promoting Aid Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    On the fourth day of his presidency, Donald Trump reinstated and greatly expanded the "Mexico City policy," which imposes antiabortion restrictions on U.S. foreign health aid. In general, the policy has prohibited U.S. funding of any family-planning groups that use even non-U.S. funds to perform abortions; prohibited aid recipients from lobbying (again, even with non-U.S. money) for liberalization of abortion laws; prohibited nongovernment organizations from creating educational materials on abortion as a family-planning method; and prohibited health workers from referring patients for legal abortions in any cases other than rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother. The policy's prohibition on giving aid to any organization that performs abortions is aimed at limiting alleged indirect funding of abortions. The argument is that if U.S. money is used to fund nonabortion programs of an abortion-providing NGO, then the NGO can simply shift the money thus saved into its abortion budget. Outside the context of abortion, we do not reason this way. And the policy's remaining three prohibitions are deeply troubling. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  16. Backstreet abortion: Women’s experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Makorah

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This was a descriptive study aimed at exploring the personal experiences of women who induce abortion and the circumstances surrounding induced abortion. The study was conducted in six public hospitals in four different provinces: Baragwanath (Gauteng, Groote Schuur and Tygerberg (Western Cape, King Edward and R.K. Khan (Kwa-Zulu/Natal and Livingstone (Eastern Cape. In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 African, Indian and Coloured women admitted to the hospitals following backstreet abortions. The study gave women the opportunity to "speak for themselves" about "why" and "how" and the context in which the unscfe induced abortions occurred

  17. Women's existential experiences within Swedish abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Maria L; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja

    2011-03-01

    To explore Swedish women's experiences of clinical abortion care in relation to their need for existential support. Individual in-depth interviews with 24 women with previous experience of unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Participants were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Interviews were analysed by latent content analysis. Although the women had similar experiences of the abortion care offered, the needs they expressed differed. Swedish abortion care was described as rational and neutral, with physical issues dominating over existential ones. For some women, the medical procedures triggered existential experiences of life, meaning, and morality. While some women abstained from any form of existential support, others expressed a need to reflect upon the existential aspects and/or to reconcile their decision emotionally. As women's needs for existential support in relation to abortion vary, women can be disappointed with the personnel's ability to respond to their thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. To ensure abortion care personnel meet the physical, psychological and existential needs of each patient, better resources and new lines of education are needed to ensure abortion personnel are equipped to deal with the existential aspects of abortion care.

  18. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  19. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation

  20. Medical abortion practices: a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (NAF) members

  1. Abortion Stigma Among Low-Income Women Obtaining Abortions in Western Pennsylvania: A Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Amanda; Rosenfeld, Elian A; Nikolajski, Cara; Freedman, Lori R; Steinberg, Julia R; Borrero, Sonya

    2017-03-01

    Abortion stigma may cause psychological distress in women who are considering having an abortion or have had one. This phenomenon has been relatively underexplored in low-income women, who may already be at an increased risk for poor abortion-related outcomes because of difficulties accessing timely and safe abortion services. A qualitative study conducted between 2010 and 2013 used semistructured interviews to explore pregnancy intentions among low-income women recruited from six reproductive health clinics in Western Pennsylvania. Transcripts from interviews with 19 participants who were planning to terminate a pregnancy or had had an abortion in the last two weeks were examined through content analysis to identify the range of attitudes they encountered that could contribute to or reflect abortion stigma, the sources of these attitudes and women's responses to them. Women commonly reported that partners, family members and they themselves held antiabortion attitudes. Such attitudes communicated that abortion is morally reprehensible, a rejection of motherhood, rare and thus potentially deviant, detrimental to future fertility and an irresponsible choice. Women reacted to external and internal negative attitudes by distinguishing themselves from other women who obtain abortions, experiencing negative emotions, and concealing or delaying their abortions. Women's reactions to antiabortion attitudes may perpetuate abortion stigma. Further research is needed to inform interventions to address abortion stigma and improve women's abortion experiences. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  2. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. High birth rates despite easy access to contraception and abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hognert, Helena; Skjeldestad, Finn E; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe and compare contraceptive use, fertility, birth, and abortion rates in the Nordic countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: National data on births, abortions, fertility rate (1975-2013), redeemed prescriptions of hormonal contraceptives and sales figures...... contraception followed by the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system were the most common methods. During 1975-2013 abortion rates decreased in Denmark (from 27/1000 women to 15/1000 women aged 15-44/1000 women) and Finland (from 20 to 10/1000 women), remained stable in Norway (≈16) and Sweden (≈20......) and increased in Iceland (from 6 to 15/1000 women). Birth rates remained stable around 60/1000 women aged 15-44 in all countries except for Iceland where the birth rate decreased from 95 to 65/1000 women. Abortion rates were highest in the age group 20-24 years. In the same age group, Sweden had a lower...

  4. Launch Vehicle Failure Dynamics and Abort Triggering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Hill, Ashely D.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicle ascent is a time of high risk for an on-board crew. There are many types of failures that can kill the crew if the crew is still on-board when the failure becomes catastrophic. For some failure scenarios, there is plenty of time for the crew to be warned and to depart, whereas in some there is insufficient time for the crew to escape. There is a large fraction of possible failures for which time is of the essence and a successful abort is possible if the detection and action happens quickly enough. This paper focuses on abort determination based primarily on data already available from the GN&C system. This work is the result of failure analysis efforts performed during the Ares I launch vehicle development program. Derivation of attitude and attitude rate abort triggers to ensure that abort occurs as quickly as possible when needed, but that false positives are avoided, forms a major portion of the paper. Some of the potential failure modes requiring use of these triggers are described, along with analysis used to determine the success rate of getting the crew off prior to vehicle demise.

  5. Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

  6. Post legalisation challenge: minimizing complications of abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, N; Sharma, S; Paudel, J

    2004-01-01

    Abortion has been legalized in Nepal since September 2002 by 11th amendment to the Muluki Ain. The present study was conducted in Paropakar Shree Panch Indra Rajya Laxmi Devi Maternity Hospital to assess the magnitude of induced abortion, its causes and the types of complications, in the post legalization phase. Prospective descriptive analyses of the patients who were admitted with history of induced abortion from 16th Dec 2003 to 13th March 2004 was carried out. A total of 305 cases of abortion complications were admitted during the three-month study period, which is 39.7% of the total gynaecological admissions (768). Of these 31 (10.25%) patients had history of induced abortion. Half of the induced abortion cases (52%) were of age group 21-29 yrs and 42% had three or more children. 39% of the cases had history of induced abortion at more than 12 weeks and almost half of the cases (48%) had history of family planning. The most common reason for seeking abortion was too many children (59%) followed by illegitimate pregnancy (16%). Twenty-one patients gave history of abortion being performed by doctors and the most common method used was D and C (75%). 77% of cases presented as incomplete abortion and one case presented with uterine perforation, bowel injury and peritonitis. Twenty patients had evacuation under sedation while five had manual vacuum aspiration (MVA); one patient required laparatomy. In two third of the patients intravenous fluid and antibiotics were used. Four patients required blood transfusion. Abortion complications constitute almost 40% of the total gynaecological admissions. Ten percent of the abortion cases had history of induced abortion. Medical persons, mainly doctors, performed most of the cases of induced abortion and D and C was the most commonly used method. However the patients had faced various types of complications. Untrained provider, resulting in serious life threatening injuries, performed more than a third of the cases of

  7. The Roman Catholic position on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the history and grounds of the official position of the Roman Catholic Church that abortion under any circumstances, including abortion to save the life of the mother, should be prohibited. After an introduction that deplores the lack of mercy shown to killers of abortionists while Catholic priests threatened by pro-abortion forces are not offered protection, the article traces the historic development of the Catholic abortion policy and rebuts arguments that abortion was permitted in the early Christian Church. The next section explains Catholic views on the personhood of a conceptus and refutes the contentions of Joseph Donceel that early abortion should be permitted because of uncertainty about the nature of the conceptus and the possibility of delayed animation. The fourth section of the paper debates the points raised by Susan Teft Nicholson who maintains that the Catholic position regarding abortion rests on the Church's animosity towards sexual pleasure. The paper goes on to criticize Nicholson's claims that the Roman Catholic position on abortion is inconsistent with the Church's own understanding of the Principle of Double Effect because the Church fails to allow abortion in many cases where it would be permissible under the Principle. Section 6 describes the underlying motive of the Roman Catholic Church's abortion position as an attempt to protect the innocent fetus from deliberate death and to justify the Church's application of protection from deliberate killing to those who are innocent of aggressive action. This discussion is followed by a justification of the Church's prohibition of abortion in cases of aggression, such as the aggression ascribed to a fetus when a pregnancy imperials the life of a mother. It is concluded that the US will likely legalize suicide and mercy killing as it has the killing of innocent fetuses who are probably ensouled with personhood and are not formal aggressors.

  8. Irish women who seek abortions in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francome, C

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted.

  9. Do State-Based Policies Have an Impact on Teen Birth Rates and Teen Abortion Rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrette, Marianne; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2015-10-01

    The United States has one of the highest teen birth rates among developed countries. Interstate birth rates and abortion rates vary widely, as do policies on abortion and sex education. The objective of our study is to assess whether US state-level policies regarding abortion and sexual education are associated with different teen birth and teen abortion rates. We carried out a state-level (N = 51 [50 states plus the District of Columbia]) retrospective observational cross-sectional study, using data imported from the National Vital Statistics System. State policies were obtained from the Guttmacher Institute. We used descriptive statistics and regression analysis to study the association of different state policies with teen birth and teen abortion rates. The state-level mean birth rates, when stratifying between policies protective and nonprotective of teen births, were not statistically different-for sex education policies, 39.8 of 1000 vs 45.1 of 1000 (P = .2187); for mandatory parents' consent to abortion 45 of 1000, vs 38 of 1000 when the minor could consent (P = .0721); and for deterrents to abortion, 45.4 of 1000 vs 37.4 of 1000 (P = .0448). Political affiliation (35.1 of 1000 vs 49.6 of 1000, P births. Lower teen abortion rates were, however, associated with restrictive abortion policies, specifically lower in states with financial barriers, deterrents to abortion, and requirement for parental consent. While teen birth rates do not appear to be influenced by state-level sex education policies, state-level policies that restrict abortion appear to be associated with lower state teen abortion rates. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  11. Experimental and numerical study of the mars pathfinder vehicle; Etude experimentale et numerique sur le mars pathfinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bur, R.; Benay, R.; Chanetz, B.; Galli, A.; Pot, T. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Dept. Fundamental and Experimental Aerodynamics, 92 - Chatillon (France); Hollis, B.; Moss, J. [Aerothermodynamics Branch, NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia (United States)

    2002-07-01

    An experimental and numerical study on the Mars Pathfinder aero-shell vehicle has been carried out in the framework of an agreement between ONERA and NASA. The experimental work was performed in the ONERA R5Ch hypersonic wind tunnel. Flow-field visualizations and heat-flux measurements along the model have been obtained. Numerical simulations have been performed at ONERA with the RANS solver NASCA and at NASA with a DSMC code. The flow-field structure is correctly reproduced by both computations. The location of the bow shock is well predicted, as well as the expansion waves emanating from the end of the fore-body cone. Both computations also predict the same extension of the separation bubble in the base flow region of the model. Measured and calculated heat-flux distributions along the model have been compared. Both computations give similar results, excepted on the prediction of the heat-flux level on the after-body cone. But computations over-predict the measured heat-flux values on the fore-body and the sting of the model: the value of the stagnation point is overestimated of 28% and the averaged sting level of 35%. (authors)

  12. Conscientious objection and abortion: rights and duties of public sector physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora

    2011-10-01

    The paper analyzes conscientious objection by physicians, through the concrete situation of legal abortion in Brazil. It reviews the two main ethical frameworks about conscientious objection in public health, the incompatibility thesis and the integrity thesis, to analyze the reality of legal abortion services in the referral services of the Brazilian public health care system. From these two perspectives, a third perspective is proposed - the justification thesis, to manage the right to conscientious objection among physicians in referral services. This analysis may contribute to the organization of services for legal abortion and to the education of future physicians working in emergency obstetric care.

  13. The Gender Politics of Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Scavone

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The debates and feminist actions in favor of the legalization of abortion in Brazil were characterized by progresses and regressions, and above all by countless political negotiations. From the omission of the word “abortion”, in the mid-seventies, to the political choice of decriminalization and application of the cases foreseen by law, Brazilian feminism has been marked by the choice of negotiation. The article concludes that these negotiations have succeeded politically but failed to reach society and heighten public awareness at a large scale.

  14. Framing a 'social problem': Emotion in anti-abortion activists' depiction of the abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntontis, Evangelos; Hopkins, Nick

    2018-02-27

    Social psychological research on activism typically focuses on individuals' social identifications. We complement such research through exploring how activists frame an issue as a social problem. Specifically, we explore anti-abortion activists' representation of abortion and the abortion debate's protagonists so as to recruit support for the anti-abortion cause. Using interview data obtained with UK-based anti-abortion activists (N = 15), we consider how activists characterized women having abortions, pro-abortion campaigners, and anti-abortion campaigners. In particular, we consider the varied ways in which emotion featured in the representation of these social actors. Emotion featured in different ways. Sometimes, it was depicted as constituting embodied testament to the nature of reality. Sometimes, it was depicted as blocking the rational appraisal of reality. Our analysis considers how such varied meanings of emotion shaped the characterization of abortion and the abortion debate's protagonists such that anti-abortion activists were construed as speaking for women and their interests. We discuss how our analysis of the framing of issues as social problems complements and extends social psychological analyses of activism. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Legal abortion for mental health indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E

    2006-11-01

    Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.

  16. Female autonomy and reported abortion-seeking in Ghana, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominski, Sarah D; Gupta, Mira; Aborigo, Raymond; Adongo, Phillip; Engman, Cyril; Hodgson, Abraham; Moyer, Cheryl

    2014-09-01

    To investigate factors associated with self-reported pregnancy termination in Ghana and thereby appreciate the correlates of abortion-seeking in order to understand safe abortion care provision. In a retrospective study, data from the Ghana 2008 Demographic and Health Survey were used to investigate factors associated with self-reported pregnancy termination. Variables on an individual and household level were examined by both bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. A five-point autonomy scale was created to explore the role of female autonomy in reported abortion-seeking behavior. Among 4916 women included in the survey, 791 (16.1%) reported having an abortion. Factors associated with abortion-seeking included being older, having attended school, and living in an urban versus a rural area. When entered into a logistic regression model with demographic control variables, every step up the autonomy scale (i.e. increasing autonomy) was associated with a 14.0% increased likelihood of reporting the termination of a pregnancy (P health system barriers might play a role in preventing women from seeking safe abortion services, autonomy on an individual level is also important and needs to be addressed if women are to be empowered to seek safe abortion services. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Abortion and mental health: Evaluating the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-12-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects and updates the report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion (2008). Major methodological problems pervaded most of the research reviewed. The most rigorous studies indicated that within the United States, the relative risk of mental health problems among adult women who have a single, legal, first-trimester abortion of an unwanted pregnancy is no greater than the risk among women who deliver an unwanted pregnancy. Evidence did not support the claim that observed associations between abortion and mental health problems are caused by abortion per se as opposed to other preexisting and co-occurring risk factors. Most adult women who terminate a pregnancy do not experience mental health problems. Some women do, however. It is important that women's varied experiences of abortion be recognized, validated, and understood. 2009 APA.

  18. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.

  19. Opposition to legal abortion: challenges and questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the Roman Catholic Church's arguments against abortion rights suggests that its opposition is grounded more in outmoded views regarding women's roles than in concern for protecting fetal life. The 1st argument raised by Catholics and other anti-abortion forces is that abortion represents the unjustifiable destruction of a human life. A 2nd argument focuses on the status of the fetus as a person from the moment of conception, making abortion murder. A 3rd equates the fetus's potential for personhood with the pregnant woman's actual personhood. Despite the vehement sentiments expressed by Catholic leaders against abortion, the majority of Catholics support legal abortion. The assignment of personhood status to the fetus is contraindicated by actual practice in the Church, where aborted or miscarried products of early pregnancy are not baptized. Also, the Church does not forbid the taking of human life in war or to preserve political freedom. Finally, in countries such as Poland where abortion has been made illegal through religious pressure, there have been drastic cuts in health care and child care programs.

  20. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion. A randomised controlled trial. D. A. A. VERKUYL, C. A. CROWTHER .Abstract This randomised controlled trial of 357 patients who had had an incomplete abortion compared suction curettage with conventional curettage for evacuation ofthe uterus. The 179 patients ...

  1. Sundhedspersonales holdninger til sene provokerede aborter varierer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Petersson, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    tilknytning og fagligt tilhørsforhold påvirker holdningerne. Antallet af sene provokerede aborter stiger i takt med, at fosterdiagnostikken udvikles, og der er derfor behov for forskning, der kan kaste lys over, hvordan det danske sundhedspersonale forholder sig til sene provokerede aborter....

  2. Estimates of the Incidence of Induced Abortion And Consequences of Unsafe Abortion in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. METHODS Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. RESULTS In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. CONCLUSIONS Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion. PMID:25856233

  3. Estimates of the incidence of induced abortion and consequences of unsafe abortion in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif

    2015-03-01

    Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion.

  4. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  5. Self-Reports of Induced Abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the proportion of incomplete abortions that are induced in hospital-based settings in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 2 phases at 3 hospitals in Tanzania. Phase 1 included 302 patients with a diagnosis of incomplete abortion......, and phase 2 included 823 such patients. RESULTS: In phase 1, in which cases were classified by clinical criteria and information from the patient, 3.9% to 16.1% of the cases were classified as induced abortion. In phase 2, in which the structured interview was changed to an empathetic dialogue...... and previously used clinical criteria were omitted, 30.9% to 60.0% of the cases were classified as induced abortion. CONCLUSIONS: An empathetic dialogue improves the quality of data collected among women with induced abortion....

  6. The C. elegans histone deacetylase HDA-1 is required for cell migration and axon pathfinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovyeva, Anna Y; Graham, Serena M; Cloud, Veronica J; Forrester, Wayne C

    2006-01-01

    Histone proteins play integral roles in chromatin structure and function. Histones are subject to several types of posttranslational modifications, including acetylation, which can produce transcriptional activation. The converse, histone deacetylation, is mediated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) and often is associated with transcriptional silencing. We identified a new mutation, cw2, in the Caenorhabditis elegans hda-1 gene, which encodes a histone deacetylase. Previous studies showed that a mutation in hda-1, e1795, or reduction of hda-1 RNA by RNAi causes defective vulval and gonadal development leading to sterility. The hda-1(cw2) mutation causes defective vulval development and reduced fertility, like hda-1(e1795), albeit with reduced severity. Unlike the previously reported hda-1 mutation, hda-1(cw2) mutants are viable as homozygotes, although many die as embryos or larvae, and are severely uncoordinated. Strikingly, in hda-1(cw2) mutants, axon pathfinding is defective; specific axons often appear to wander randomly or migrate in the wrong direction. In addition, the long range migrations of three neuron types and fasciculation of the ventral nerve cord are defective. Together, our studies define a new role for HDA-1 in nervous system development, and provide the first evidence for HDAC function in regulating neuronal axon guidance.

  7. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  8. The abortion issue in the 1980 elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, D; Burlison, J

    1983-01-01

    The political opponents of legal abortion achieved considerable gains in the 1980 American elections. A president who was committed to a strong antiabortion position was elected, and antiabortion candidates prevailed in six out of seven Senate races that pitted supporters against opponents of legal abortion and in seven out of nine similar confrontations in the House races. However, it is not clear that abortion was an overriding or decisive factor in determining those outcomes. Democrats and Republicans, Carter voters and Reagan voters did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward abortion. The presidential voter groups were divided on several other issues, and along income and racial lines, to a far greater extent than they were on abortion. Voters were not likely to name abortion as one of the more important problems facing the nation. Carter supporters rated abortion as more important than did Reagan supporters. Although the party platforms and the presidential candidates were clearly differentiated in their abortion stands, these differences were not well communicated to the citizenry. When voters attempted to describe the position of each candidate on abortion, they displayed a great deal of uncertainty, error and confusion. In the key Senate races, those who voted for the prochoice candidates held more liberal abortion attitudes than those who voted for the right-to-life candidates. This difference, although statistically significant, was not great, and was smaller than the differences related to several other issues--such as attitudes toward the role of government, women's rights and economic policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. If war is "just," so is abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.

  10. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  11. Abortion-Related Mortality in the United States 1998–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Suzanne; Creanga, Andreea A.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Pazol, Karen; Suchdev, Danielle B.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Callaghan, William M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine characteristics and causes of legal induced abortion–related deaths in the United States between 1998 and 2010. METHODS Abortion-related deaths were identified through the national Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System with enhanced case-finding. We calculated the abortion mortality rate by race, maternal age, and gestational age and the distribution of causes of death by gestational age and procedure. RESULTS During the period from 1998–2010, of approximately 16.1 million abortion procedures, 108 women died, for a mortality rate of 0.7 deaths per 100,000 procedures overall, 0.4 deaths for non-Hispanic white women, 0.5 deaths for Hispanic women, and 1.1 deaths for black women. The mortality rate increased with gestational age, from 0.3 to 6.7 deaths for procedures performed at 8 weeks or less and at 18 weeks or greater, respectively. A majority of abortion-related deaths at 13 weeks of gestation or less were associated with anesthesia complications and infection, whereas a majority of abortion-related deaths at more than 13 weeks of gestation were associated with infection and hemorrhage. In 20 of the 108 cases, the abortion was performed as a result of a severe medical condition where continuation of the pregnancy threatened the woman’s life. CONCLUSION Deaths associated with legal induced abortion continue to be rare events—less than 1 per 100,000 procedures. Primary prevention of unintended pregnancy, including those in women with serious pre-existing medical conditions, and increased access to abortion services at early gestational ages may help to further decrease abortion-related mortality in the United States. PMID:26241413

  12. Determinants of abortions in Katete District of Zambia: A hospital based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibangu Katamba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at Saint Francis at Saint Francis Hospital over a period of four months (from September 22nd 2014 to January 23rd 2015. 168 women aged 12 to 46 years admitted and treated for incomplete abortion in Gynecology ward were interviewed. 63 participants (37.5% had induced abortions and 105 participants (62.5% had spontaneous abortions. All induced abortions were the results of unplanned pregnancies. The majority of all abortions (57.1% resulted from unplanned pregnancies as compared to only 42.9% resulting from planned pregnancies (p<0.05. Both married and single participants had increased unmet needs for family planning. 57.3% of women had used contraceptives in the past and also had unintended pregnancies resulting in abortions. A significant number of induced abortions (22.2% were incidentally caused by inappropriate use of contraceptives by providers. Sexual activities start as early as 9 years in Katete. Most youths with induced abortions were involved in unstable relationships, desired to continue with education, feared to ruin their future, and had limited knowledge and inconsistent use of contraceptive methods. The major determinants for induced abortions amongst participants were unplanned/unintended pregnancies. Other determinants such as illiteracy, lack of information, young age, poverty, and unsafe sex need to be addressed. There is need to promote consistent and correct use of contraceptives, to strengthen the health care delivery system and maintain the cold chain of contraceptive supply for sustainable availability and accessibility. Conjugated efforts by health care providers, community leaders, policy makers and politicians are needed to extirpate negative believes (on modern contraceptives and cultural norms that promote unhealthy sexual and reproductive life.

  13. RISKS, REASONS AND RIGHTS: THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ENGLISH ABORTION LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rosamund

    2016-01-01

    Although there is no right to abort in English law but rather abortion is a crime, the lawful grounds for which are instantiated in the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), the regulation of abortion is sometimes perceived as being fairly 'liberal'. Accordingly, the idea that aspects of English law could be criticised under the European Convention on Human Rights, with which the UK must comply following the Human Rights Act 1998, may seem unlikely. Indeed, English law is compatible with the consensus amongst contracting states that abortion should be available on maternal health grounds. However, analysis of the UK's negative obligations under Article 8 shows that section 1(1)(a) of the Act is problematic as it operates in the first trimester. Further, given the European Court of Human Rights' emphasis on the reduced margin of appreciation once a state has legalised abortion to some degree and its jurisprudence relating to a state's positive obligations, the analysis shows that, while English law may not be problematic in relation to the lack of guidelines relating to the lawful grounds for abortion, it may well be in relation to the lack of a formal system for the review of any two doctors' decision not to grant a termination. Notwithstanding the morally serious nature of the decision to abort, the analysis overall raises questions about the need for at least some degree of abortion law reform, particularly in relation to the first trimester, towards a more autonomy-focused, though time-limited, rights-based approach. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. RISKS, REASONS AND RIGHTS: THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ENGLISH ABORTION LAW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rosamund

    2016-01-01

    Although there is no right to abort in English law but rather abortion is a crime, the lawful grounds for which are instantiated in the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), the regulation of abortion is sometimes perceived as being fairly ‘liberal’. Accordingly, the idea that aspects of English law could be criticised under the European Convention on Human Rights, with which the UK must comply following the Human Rights Act 1998, may seem unlikely. Indeed, English law is compatible with the consensus amongst contracting states that abortion should be available on maternal health grounds. However, analysis of the UK's negative obligations under Article 8 shows that section 1(1)(a) of the Act is problematic as it operates in the first trimester. Further, given the European Court of Human Rights' emphasis on the reduced margin of appreciation once a state has legalised abortion to some degree and its jurisprudence relating to a state's positive obligations, the analysis shows that, while English law may not be problematic in relation to the lack of guidelines relating to the lawful grounds for abortion, it may well be in relation to the lack of a formal system for the review of any two doctors' decision not to grant a termination. Notwithstanding the morally serious nature of the decision to abort, the analysis overall raises questions about the need for at least some degree of abortion law reform, particularly in relation to the first trimester, towards a more autonomy-focused, though time-limited, rights-based approach. PMID:26546800

  15. Medical versus surgical abortion efficacy, complications and leave of absence compared in a partly randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    To provide optimal information to women choosing between early medical and surgical abortion, rigorous comparisons of the two methods are warranted. We compared the outcome of 1135 consecutive women with gestational age (GA) ... gemeprost) or a surgical abortion (vacuum aspiration in general anesthesia). One hundred eleven of these women were randomized for abortion method. Surgical interventions and complications leading to readmission within the following 15 weeks were identified through a computer system. Information about...... antibiotic treatment, leave of absence and number of contacts to the health care system were obtained from mailed questionnaires. The number of complications was identical after the two methods, but surgical abortion was associated with a higher success rate [97.7% (708/725) vs. 94.1% (386/410), p

  16. The health policy pathfinder: an innovative strategy to explore interest group politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Angela

    2009-10-01

    Moving a specific nursing health policy agenda forward depends on skill in building coalitions with other interest or stakeholder groups, including consumers. Often, nursing students study health policy in a discipline-specific environment without experiential opportunities to argue their views with other stakeholders in policy arenas. The health policy pathfinder, an innovative learning strategy for understanding interest group politics, will assist nursing students in meeting the following objectives: 1) analyze and articulate diverse policy arguments from various stakeholder groups; 2) identify opportunities for collaborations between stakeholder groups; 3) identify the influence of interest groups on the policy making process; and 4) critically evaluate evidence from a variety of sources ranging from peer-reviewed publications to grey literature to Internet blogs. This article describes the health policy pathfinder, including design, execution, and evaluation steps, and provides a brief excerpt from a student pathfinder. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Reducing abortion-related mortality in South Asia: a review of constraints and a road map for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, Bela; Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2002-01-01

    South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) is home to 28% of the world's people and accounts for about a third (30%) of the world's maternal deaths. Thirteen percent of all maternal deaths in South Asia are attributed to complications of unsafe abortion and are almost entirely preventable. This article reviews the legal, health system, and sociocultural barriers to safe abortion and suggests strategies to reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Restrictive laws hamper safe abortion in most of the region, but even where laws are more liberal, limited awareness of the law has been a barrier to access. Such health system barriers as an insufficient number of trained providers, inequitable distribution of services, and excessive costs have contributed to death from unsafe abortion. Sociocultural attitudes, including the right of male relatives to make reproductive decisions, the emphasis on male heirs, and the strong social stigma against extramarital pregnancy also put women at risk. Government and other institutions must strive to prevent abortion-related death and disability by making safe abortion services accessible to the fullest extent of the law. Health systems need to provide emergency care for complications and postabortion contraceptive counseling, use appropriate technology, and allow nonphysician providers to deliver care. Safe abortion care programs need to address the needs of the local community, particularly the needs of socially and economically vulnerable subgroups, such as the unmarried and adolescents.

  18. Evaluation of approved and non-approved requests for therapeutic abortion in cases referred to legal medicine organization of Lorestan province in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    peyman Astaraki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Authorizing abortion in some cases of fetal and maternal diseases which was implemented by passing its law in 2005, a major change in therapeutic abortion was performed in Iran,s health system. Although there may be cases of illegal abortion, but our study examined legal abortion of Lorestan province in 2013, which led to increase in awareness of health professionals about indications of therapeutic abortion, the time to do it and answer to related questions. Materials and Methods: In this epidemiological and cross-sectional study, all applications for abortion permission, received by Lorestan legal organization in 2013, were studied. The data were recorded in a questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software. Results: From 205 cases during a year, 144 of them obtained permission for abortion of which 88% issued for fetal abnormalities and 12% due to illness of the mother. The most common diseases in the fetus were, the brain and skull abnormalities, and in the mothers, cardiovascular diseases and hematologic abnormalities were the highest. In these cases, the most frequency belonged to the age group of 25-34 years. For 61 requests, permission for abortion had not been issued. High gestational age (26 cases and diseases of the brain and skull, were the most common reasons of request for abortion. Conclusion: Abortion means therapeutic abortion and with the increase in the authorized therapeutic abortion, the illegal abortion will be reduced and leads to increase in the health of pregnant women. By increasing awareness of the medical staff about permitted therapeutic abortion and related laws, a correct and better guidance of pregnant women, we can help them to have a healthy community. As well as the problems of obstetricians and gynecologists, in this field, will be decreased.

  19. Trends of abortion complications in a transition of abortion law revisions in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2009-03-01

    Evidence from developed countries has shown that abortion-related mortality and morbidity has decreased with the liberalization of the abortion law. This study aimed to assess the trend of hospital-based abortion complications during the transition of legalization in Ethiopia in May 2005. Medical records of women with abortion complications from 2003 to 2007 were reviewed (n = 773). Abortion and its complications with regard to legalization were described by rates and ratios, and predictors of fatal outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. The overall and abortion-related maternal mortality ratios (AMMRs) showed a non-statistically significant downward trend over the 5-year period. However, the case fatality rate of abortion increased from 1.1% in 2003 to 3.6% in 2007. Late gestational age, history of interference and presenting after new abortion legislation passed have been found to be significant predictors of mortality. Decreased trends of abortion ratio and the AMMR were identified, but the severity of abortion complications and the case fatality rate increased during the transition of legal revision.

  20. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.

  1. Post-abortion and induced abortion services in two public hospitals in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Blair G; Simancas-Mendoza, Willis; Edelman, Alison B; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Tolosa, Jorge E; Rodriguez, Maria I

    2014-07-01

    Until 2006, legal induced abortion was completely banned in Colombia. Few facilities are equipped or willing to offer abortion services; often adolescents experience even greater barriers of access in this context. We examined post abortion care (PAC) and legal induced abortion in two large public hospitals. We tested the association of hospital site, procedure type (manual vacuum aspiration vs. sharp curettage), and age (adolescents vs. women 20 years and over) with service type (PAC or legal induced abortion). Retrospective cohort study using 2010 billing data routinely collected for reimbursement (N=1353 procedures). We utilized descriptive statistics, multivariable logistic regression and predicted probabilities. Adolescents made up 22% of the overall sample (300/1353). Manual vacuum aspiration was used in one-third of cases (vs. sharp curettage). Adolescents had lower odds of documented PAC (vs. induced abortion) compared with women over age 20 (OR=0.42; 95% CI=0.21-0.86). The absolute difference of service type by age, however, is very small, controlling for hospital site and procedure type (.97 probability of PAC for adolescents compared with .99 for women 20 and over). Regardless of age, PAC via sharp curettage is the current standard in these two public hospitals. Both adolescents and women over 20 are in need of access to legal abortion services utilizing modern technologies in the public sector in Colombia. Documentation of abortion care is an essential first step to determining barriers to access and opportunities for quality improvement and better health outcomes for women. Following partial decriminalization of abortion in Colombia, in public hospitals nearly all abortion services are post-abortion care, not induced abortion. Sharp curettage is the dominant treatment for both adolescents and women over 20. Women seek care in the public sector for abortion, and must have access to safe, quality services. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Mineralogic and compositional properties of Martian soil and dust: results from Mars Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.F.; McSween, H.Y.; Crisp, J.A.; Morris, R.V.; Murchie, S.L.; Bridges, N.T.; Johnson, J. R.; Britt, D.T.; Golombek, M.P.; Moore, H.J.; Ghosh, A.; Bishop, J.L.; Anderson, R.C.; Brückner, J.; Economou, T.; Greenwood, J.P.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Hargraves, R.M.; Hviid, S.; Knudsen, J.M.; Madsen, M.B.; Reid, R.; Rieder, R.; Soderblom, L.

    2000-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder obtained multispectral, elemental, magnetic, and physical measurements of soil and dust at the Sagan Memorial Station during the course of its 83 sol mission. We describe initial results from these measurements, concentrating on multispectral and elemental data, and use these data, along with previous Viking, SNC meteorite, and telescopic results, to help constrain the origin and evolution of Martian soil and dust. We find that soils and dust can be divided into at least eight distinct spectral units, based on parameterization of Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) 400 to 1000 nm multispectral images. The most distinctive spectral parameters for soils and dust are the reflectivity in the red, the red/blue reflectivity ratio, the near-IR spectral slope, and the strength of the 800 to 1000 nm absorption feature. Most of the Pathfinder spectra are consistent with the presence of poorly crystalline or nanophase ferric oxide(s), sometimes mixed with small but varying degrees of well-crystalline ferric and ferrous phases. Darker soil units appear to be coarser-grained, compacted, and/or mixed with a larger amount of dark ferrous materials relative to bright soils. Nanophase goethite, akaganeite, schwertmannite, and maghemite are leading candidates for the origin of the absorption centered near 900 nm in IMP spectra. The ferrous component in the soil cannot be well-constrained based on IMP data. Alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) measurements of six soil units show little variability within the landing site and show remarkable overall similarity to the average Viking-derived soil elemental composition. Differences exist between Viking and Pathfinder soils, however, including significantly higher S and Cl abundances and lower Si abundances in Viking soils and the lack of a correlation between Ti and Fe in Pathfinder soils. No significant linear correlations were observed between IMP spectral properties and APXS elemental chemistry. Attempts at constraining

  3. A measured response: Koop on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, C E

    1989-01-01

    The available scientific literature on the health effects of abortion on women in the US neither supports nor refutes the premise that abortion contributes to psychological problems. The 250 studies that have considered the psychological aspects of abortion are all flawed methodologically. Needed to resolve this issue is a prospective study of a cohort of US women of childbearing age focused on the psychological effects of failure to conceive, as well as the physical and mental sequelae of pregnancy whether carried to delivery, miscarried, or terminated by abortion. The most desirable such study could be conducted for about US$100 million over a 5-year period; a less expensive yet satisfactory study could be conducted for $10 million over the same time frame. Before such a study can be undertaken, a survey instrument must be designed to eliminate the discrepancy between the number of abortions on record and the number of women who admit to having an abortion on survey. Another issue is that the health effects of abortion cannot easily be separated from the controversial social issues surrounding pregnancy termination.

  4. Executive Summary of Propulsion on the Orion Abort Flight-Test Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Brooks, Syri J.; Barnes, Marvin W.; McCauley, Rachel J.; Wall, Terry M.; Reed, Brian D.; Duncan, C. Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion Flight Test Office was tasked with conducting a series of flight tests in several launch abort scenarios to certify that the Orion Launch Abort System is capable of delivering astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment, away from a failed booster. The first of this series was the Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle, which was successfully flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This report provides a brief overview of the three propulsive subsystems used on the Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle. An overview of the propulsive systems originally planned for future flight-test vehicles is also provided, which also includes the cold gas Reaction Control System within the Crew Module, and the Peacekeeper first stage rocket motor encased within the Abort Test Booster aeroshell. Although the Constellation program has been cancelled and the operational role of the Orion spacecraft has significantly evolved, lessons learned from Pad Abort 1 and the other flight-test vehicles could certainly contribute to the vehicle architecture of many future human-rated space launch vehicles

  5. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  6. Why Women are dying from unsafe Abortion: Narratives of Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the ...

  7. The health impact of restricting public funds for abortion. October 10, 1977--June 10, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, W; Kimball, A M; Gold, J; Rubin, G L; Smith, J C; Rochat, R W; Tyler, C W

    1979-09-01

    The Center for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia implemented an eight-month prospective surveillance system in 24 hospitals distributed among states with and without public funding for abortion. Out of 3,157 visits for abortion-related complications, only 10 women gave a history of non-physician or self-induced abortion and none were Medicaid recipients. The small number of hospitals located in non-funded states and the smaller numbers of women served in these hospitals than in the funded states limited the power of out study. Women living along the Texas-Mexico border appeared more likely to have complications after illegal abortions than women from other areas of the country.

  8. Characteristic analysis and design of near moon abort trajectory for manned lunar landing mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The safety of astronauts would be severely threatened if the lunar-landing spacecraft were under an emergency during the near moon phase of flight, which was far from the Earth. For the problem of mission abort caused by the main engine (service propulsion system, SPS) failure during lunar orbit insertion, firstly, the family of trajectories resulted from SPS premature shutdown and corresponding abort trajectories were analyzed; then an algorithm that can be applied to the near moon abort trajectories was proposed using patched-conic technique. The characteristics of the abort trajectory, such as energy consumption and return time of flight, were analyzed and presented. Finally, simulation examples were given to demonstrate various cases of near moon SPS failure. The results of the simulation have validated the approach proposed.

  9. Adolescent males, fatherhood, and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, A A

    1978-06-01

    The event of elective abortion to terminate unplanned pregnancies brought to the fore and allowed exploration of issues of fatherliness normally latent and, therefore, not observable in adolescence. This is consistent with the psychoanalytic view that fatherly development is an ongoing process begun long before actual parenthood, encompassing an array of conflicts and themes which are conscious to varying degrees in different developmental stages. Issues expressed by the group of adolescent boys studied were compared with those described in the psychoanalytic literature. Most prominent were regressive wishes for nurturance, competition with one's own father, and efforts to meet paternal ego ideals of maturity and responsibility. Parturition envy and strivings for immortality through offspring were not expressed in this group. Themes of fatherliness were not exclusive; they became intertwined with normal tasks of adolescence and individual dynamics as is illustrated with a clinical case.

  10. A Simple Test of Abortion and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Ted Joyce

    2009-01-01

    I first replicate Donohue and Levitt's results for violent and property crime arrest rates. I apply their data and specification to an analysis of age-specific homicide rates and murder arrest rates. The coefficients on the abortion rate have the wrong sign for two of the four measures of crime and none is statistically significant at conventional levels. I then use the legalization of abortion in 1973 to exploit two sources of variation: between-state changes in abortion rates before and aft...

  11. Myths and misconceptions about abortion among marginalized underserved community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, K; Karki, Y; Bista, K P

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe abortion remains a huge problem in Nepal even after legalization of abortion. Various myths and misconceptions persist which prompt women towards unsafe abortive practices. A qualitative study was conducted among different groups of women using focus group discussions and in depth interviews. Perception and understanding of the participants on abortion, methods and place of abortion were evaluated. A number of misconceptions were prevalent like drinking vegetable and herbal juices, and applying hot pot over the abdomen could abort pregnancy. However, many participants also believed that health care providers should be consulted for abortion. Although majority of the women knew that they should seek medical aid for abortion, they were still possessed with various misconceptions. Merely legalizing abortion services is not enough to reduce the burden of unsafe abortion. Focus has to be given on creating awareness and proper advocacy in this issue.

  12. Immunoexpression of CD30 and CD30 ligand in deciduas from spontaneous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Trovato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, using immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of CD30 and CD30-L in 35 deciduas obtained from women following elective abortion during normal physiological gestation and in 60 deciduas obtained from women after spontaneous abortion with or without signs of inflammation. The main difference was noticed in the first trimester of gestation in which was found a decrease in CD30/CD30-L-positive decidual glandular and stromal cells in a greater number of cases of spontaneous abortions with respect to cases of physiological pregnancies (70% vs 50%, p<0.05. In addition, deciduas from spontaneous abortions with inflammation and without inflammation reacted similarly. The reduced expression of CD30 and CD30-L and their cellular pattern detected in the deciduas from spontaneous abortions suggest that the CD30/CD30-L system is crucial for preventing abortions in the first trimester. And furthermore, the distinctive expression of CD30/CD30- L in deciduas from physiological pregnancies may indicate that the CD30/CD30-L system exerts its main role in the first trimester.

  13. Evidence Supporting Broader Access To Safe Legal Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Faundes; Anibal; Shah; Iqbal H.

    2016-01-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal con...

  14. Abortion choices among women in Cambodia after introduction of a socially marketed medicated abortion product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotheary, Khim; Long, Dianna; Mundy, Gary; Madan, Yasmin; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether a social marketing initiative focusing on medicated abortion via a mifepristone/misoprostol "combipack" has contributed to reducing unsafe abortion in Cambodia. In a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, annual household surveys were conducted across 13 Cambodian provinces in 2010, 2011, and 2012. One married woman of reproductive age who was not pregnant and did not wish to be within the next 2 years in each randomly selected household was approached for inclusion. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 1843 women in 2010, 2068 in 2011, and 2059 in 2012. Manual vacuum aspiration was reported by 61 (72.6%) of 84 women surveyed in 2010 who reported an abortion in the previous 12 months, compared with only 28 (52.8%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.001). The numbers of women undergoing medicated abortion increased from 22 (26.2%) of 84 in 2010 to 27 (49.1%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.003), whereas the numbers undergoing unsafe abortion decreased from 4 (4.8%) in 2010 to 0 in 2012 (P=0.051). Social marketing of medication abortion coupled with provider training in clinical and behavioral change could have contributed to a reduction in the prevalence of unsafe abortion and shifted the types of abortion performed in Cambodia, while not increasing the overall number of abortions. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  15. [Tensions between the (il)legal and the (il)legitimate in professional health practices regarding women who seek abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gómez, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of a pre- and post-abortion health care strategy, adopted in 2004 in Uruguay within a restrictive legal context prior to the decriminalization of abortion in 2012, opened a window of opportunity to link women facing unwanted pregnancies and abortion to health services in order to prevent unsafe abortion practices. This article looks into the tensions generated by the change of focus from maternal-child health to health and sexual and reproductive rights, and how those tensions operate. Using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, the practices and perception and assessment frameworks of professionals in their care of women facing unwanted pregnancy and abortion in the National Integrated Health System in Montevideo are analyzed. The results offer insights into some of the barriers and difficulties that can currently be observed in the implementation of the new law.

  16. Dealing with abort kicker prefire in the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Baishev, I.S.; Mokhov, N.V.; Parker, B.; Richardson, R.D.; Zhou, J.

    1993-05-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider uses a single-turn extraction abort system to divert the circulating beam to a massive graphite absorber at normal termination of the operating cycle or in case of any of a number of predefined fault modes. The Collider rings must be designed to be tolerant to abort extraction kicker prefires and misfires because of the large circulating beam energy. We have studied the consequences of beam loss in the accelerator due to such prefires and misfires in terms of material heating and radiation generation using full scale machine simulations and Monte-Carlo energy deposition calculations. Some results from these calculations as well as possible protective measures for minimizing the damaging effects of kicker prefire and misfire are discussed in this paper

  17. Stigma and abortion complications in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lisa H

    2012-12-01

    Abortion is highly stigmatized in the United States and elsewhere. As a result, many women who seek or undergo abortion keep their decision a secret. In many regions of the world, stigma is a recognized contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion, even when abortion is legal. Women may self-induce abortion in ways that are dangerous, or seek unsafe clandestine abortion from inadequately trained health care providers out of fear that their sexual activity, pregnancy, or abortion will be exposed if they present to a safe, licensed facility. However, unsafe abortion rarely occurs in the United States, and accordingly, stigma as a cause of unsafe abortion in the United States context has not been described. I consider the relationship of stigma to two serious abortion complications experienced by U.S. patients. Both patients wished to keep their abortion decision a secret from family and friends, and in both cases, their inability to disclose their abortion contributed to life-threatening complications. The experiences of these patients suggest that availability of legal abortion services in the United States may not be enough to keep all women safe. The cases also challenge the rhetoric that "abortion hurts women," suggesting instead that abortion stigma hurts women.

  18. Induced abortion among Jimma comprehensive high school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Reproductive and other sexual health indicators among adolescent young ... intensification of sex education, and provision of family planning information and ..... subjects were aware of pregnancy induced abortion methods and the.

  19. Abortion care needs in Darfur and Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Fetters

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the prevalence of sexual and gender-basedviolence in Darfur, why are safe abortion services andtreatment of complications resulting from unsafeabortions or miscarriages not provided at all refugee/IDP health facilities?

  20. Ethnocultural identity and induced abortion in Kazakstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, V; Qian, Z

    1997-12-01

    This study analyzes ethnic differences in induced abortion among ever-married women in Kazakstan, drawing on data from the 1995 Kazakstan Demographic and Health Survey. Instead of conventional ethnic markers, such as "Kazak" or "Russian," it focuses on more complex ethnocultural identities that combine ascribed ethnicity with language use. Because of the history of russification in Kazakstan, three ethnocultural groups are defined and compared--Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Kazak, Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Russian, and women of European background interviewed in Russian. Whereas women of European origin were the most likely to undergo induced abortion, the Russian-interviewed Kazaks had higher abortion ratios and were more likely to terminate their pregnancies than were the Kazak-interviewed Kazaks, net of other characteristics. The implications of the results for induced abortion trends and family planning policy in Kazakstan are discussed in addition to other findings.

  1. Sex-Selective Abortions to Be Outlawed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is to outlaw the selective abortion of female fetuses to correct an imbalance in the ratio of boys to girls that has grown since the family planning policy was introduced more than 20 years ago.

  2. LHC Abort Gap Filling by Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, Stéphane David; Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Safe operation of the LHC beam dump relies on the possibility of firing the abort kicker at any moment during beam operation. One of the necessary conditions for this is that the number of particles in the abort gap should be below some critical level defined by quench limits. Various scenarios can lead to particles filling the abort gap. Time scales associated with these scenarios are estimated for injection energy and also coast where synchrotron radiation losses are not negligible for uncaptured particle motion. Two cases are considered, with RF on and RF off. The equilibrium distribution of lost particles in the abort gap defines the requirements for maximum tolerable relative loss rate and as a consequence the minimum acceptable longitudinal lifetime of the proton beam in collision.

  3. First in...Last Out: History of the U.S. Army Pathfinder (1942-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-21

    Brittany, it would seize the Port of Brest , and cover the south flank, while the First Army began an attack to the northeast toward Paris .63 87 On the......it will provide insights into Pathfinder doctrine, “tactics, techniques and procedures,” strategy, technology and lessons learned from their origin

  4. The Mars Pathfinder atmospheric structure investigation/meteorology (ASI/MET) experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schofield, J.T.; Barnes, J.R.; Crisp, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder atmospheric structure investigation/meteorology (ASI/MET) experiment measured the vertical density, pressure, and temperature structure of the martian atmosphere from the surface to 160 km, and monitored surface meteorology and climate for 83 sols (1 sol = 1 martian day = 24...

  5. Observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts with the Lomonosov / UFFO-pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, S.; Brandt, Søren; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    UFFO-pathfinder is a pioneering space mission to observe the early evolution of Gamma-ray Bursts using a fast slewing strategy. It consists of the Slewing Mirror Telescope, for rapid pointing at UV/optical wavelengths and the UFFO Burst Alert and Trigger Telescope. It has a total weight of ~ 20 k...

  6. Effective pathfinding for four-wheeled robot based on combining Theta* and hybrid A* algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Геннадійович Михалько

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective pathfinding algorithm based on Theta* and Hybrid A* algorithms was developed for four-wheeled robot. Pseudocode for algorithm was showed and explained. Algorithm and simulator for four-wheeled robot were implemented using Java programming language. Algorithm was tested on U-obstacles, complex maps and for parking problem

  7. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitative Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    The theory of System Health Management (SHM) and of its operational subset Fault Management (FM) states that FM is implemented as a "meta" control loop, known as an FM Control Loop (FMCL). The FMCL detects that all or part of a system is now failed, or in the future will fail (that is, cannot be controlled within acceptable limits to achieve its objectives), and takes a control action (a response) to return the system to a controllable state. In terms of control theory, the effectiveness of each FMCL is estimated based on its ability to correctly estimate the system state, and on the speed of its response to the current or impending failure effects. This paper describes how this theory has been successfully applied on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program to quantitatively estimate the effectiveness of proposed abort triggers so as to select the most effective suite to protect the astronauts from catastrophic failure of the SLS. The premise behind this process is to be able to quantitatively provide the value versus risk trade-off for any given abort trigger, allowing decision makers to make more informed decisions. All current and planned crewed launch vehicles have some form of vehicle health management system integrated with an emergency launch abort system to ensure crew safety. While the design can vary, the underlying principle is the same: detect imminent catastrophic vehicle failure, initiate launch abort, and extract the crew to safety. Abort triggers are the detection mechanisms that identify that a catastrophic launch vehicle failure is occurring or is imminent and cause the initiation of a notification to the crew vehicle that the escape system must be activated. While ensuring that the abort triggers provide this function, designers must also ensure that the abort triggers do not signal that a catastrophic failure is imminent when in fact the launch vehicle can successfully achieve orbit. That is

  8. A propulsion technology challenge — An abortable. Continuous use vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czysz, Paul A.; Froning, H. David

    1996-02-01

    Propulsion is the enabling technology for an abortable, continuous use vehicle. Propulsion performance purchases margin in the other material, structural, and system requirements. But what is abortability, and continuous use? Why is it necessary? What are its characteristics? And, what specifically is required in the propulsion system to enable these characteristics? Is the cost of the launcher really trivial, or is that the incomplete cost analysis limited to expendables and rebuilt, reusables. This paper identifies what constitutes an abortable, continuous use vehicle, the propulsion characteristics required, and the technology necessary to provide those characteristics. The proposition resulting is that this is not a technology issue, it is a concept of operation and a bureaucratic issue. The required goal is not as distant as some might propose, and the technology not as unprepared for commercial application as some assumed. The conclusion is that clearly we cannot continue to base the next century's orbital operations on an expendable rebuilt for reuse concept. What is required is a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine based on those now in space operation 1,2; not a combination of cycles that remains to be shown as a practical, achievable reality.

  9. Abortion Legalization and Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Stephens, Melvin, Jr

    2006-01-01

    We assess whether in utero exposure to legalized abortion in the early 1970's affected individuals' propensities to use controlled substances as adolescents. We exploit the fact that some states legalized abortion before national legalization in 1973 to compare differences in substance use for adolescents across birth cohorts in different states. We find that persons exposed to early legalization were, on average, much less likely to use controlled substances. We also assess how substance use...

  10. The Bad Mother: Stigma, Abortion and Surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Stigma taints individuals with a spoiled identity and loss of status or discrimination. This article is the first to examine the stigma attached to abortion and surrogacy and consider how law may stigmatize women for failing to conform to social expectations about maternal roles. Courts should consider evidence of stigma when evaluating laws regulating abortion or surrogacy to determine whether these laws are based on impermissible gender stereotyping. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  11. The triviality of abortion in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziri, D

    1991-09-01

    In Greece modern contraceptive methods are used only in a very limited manner and abortion is the primary form of birth control. There are several social and psychological issues that are considered to be responsible. A 1985 study done for the Family Planning Center of Thessaloniki found that the ratio of live births is 1.3 and the ratio of abortion is 1.8/woman. 88% of women in the study had had an abortion while practicing coitus interruptus. 90% of the women never bought condoms. In a 1989 study only 6% of women had a positive attitude about condoms. Abortion is used as the primary method of birth control regardless of a woman's socioeconomic status. Further it was found that abortion did not correlate with other modern attitudes or the emancipation of women. The decision to abort was related to difficulties and constraints inherent in bring up a child. However positive attitudes toward contraception were related to educational and occupational levels. To complicate matters the information concerning contraceptives was problematic and related to the women's own lack of initiative to find out, and a lack of correct information offered from gynecologists. A 1990 study on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices in relation to HIV infection indicated that the most favored method of contraception was condoms, but 60.8% of the men reported use versus 33.7% of the women. However these figures are not very representative because the survey was given in the context of HIV prevention and no attempt was made to distinguish between regular and irregular use patterns. Abortions is not a moral issue in Greece. It was legalized in 1986 only because it came to the attention of the government that the previous prohibition was being completely ignored. Abortion is strongly affected by social and psychological factors that are complex and result from cultural view points about fertility, maternal value, and life itself that are unique to the Greek culture.

  12. Opinion of women about elective abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Çakmak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of women who presented to the hospital for elective abortion. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was designed and conducted at our university hospital between March 2013-April 2013 by the method of face-to-face interviews with 500 women who presented to the hospital as patient or relatives of patients. Poll consisted of 6 questions about demographic characteristics and 14 questions evaluating the opinions and attitudes about abortion. Results: The age of the women who participated in the study was ranging between 18 and 75 years with the mean age of 31.5±11.9 years. Twenty-six women (5.2% were illiterate, while 109 (21.8% were university graduates. 70.8% of women stated that they were against elective abortion. Among the reasons against abortion on request were: “forbidden by the religion”-53.1% of women, “against human rights”-35.3%, and “unhealthy for the mother”-7.1% of women. About the prohibition of abortion, 82.4% of women said that “it may be performed under necessary conditions”, 9.6% “it should be completely forbidden”, and 8% stated that “it should never be forbidden”. Conclusion: A large number of respondents reported that they have negative attitude towards elective abortion, however, in case of medical necessity, abortion should be performed. During the legal arrangements done about situations that may affect the public health, such as abortion regulations, we believe it would be useful to assess the perspective of the society on this issue.

  13. Motherhood and induced abortion among teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the social background of teenagers before being teenage mothers or having an induced abortion. A discrete-time proportional hazard modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal observations of population-based registers covering all children born in Denmark in 1966...... and neglect, psychiatric disorder, and being in care during childhood. Results show a significant social gradient for teenage pregnancies. The teenage mothers were in a more disadvantaged position than pregnant teenagers who had an induced abortion...

  14. Backstreet abortion: Women’s experiences

    OpenAIRE

    F. Makorah; K. Wood; R. Jewkes

    1997-01-01

    This was a descriptive study aimed at exploring the personal experiences of women who induce abortion and the circumstances surrounding induced abortion. The study was conducted in six public hospitals in four different provinces: Baragwanath (Gauteng), Groote Schuur and Tygerberg (Western Cape), King Edward and R.K. Khan (Kwa-Zulu/Natal) and Livingstone (Eastern Cape). In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 African, Indian and Coloured women admitted to the hospitals following backstreet...

  15. Influential Factors in American Abortion Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history. The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors:the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s health.

  16. Influential Factors in American Abortion Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴培

    2015-01-01

    The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history.The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors: the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s healt

  17. Barriers to accessing abortion services and perspectives on using mifepristone and misoprostol at home in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail R A; Guthrie, Katherine A; Schellekens, Marlies; Trussell, James; Gomperts, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    To examine reasons for seeking abortion services outside the formal healthcare system in Great Britain, where abortion is legally available. We conducted a mixed-methods study among women resident in England, Scotland, and Wales who requested at-home medication abortion through online telemedicine initiative Women on Web (WoW) between November 22, 2016, and March 22, 2017. We examined the demographics and circumstances of all women requesting early medication abortion and conducted a content analysis of a sample of their anonymized emails to the service to explore their reasons for seeking help. Over a 4-month period, 519 women contacted WoW seeking medication abortion. These women were diverse with respect to age, parity, and circumstance. One hundred eighty women reported 209 reasons for seeking abortion outside the formal healthcare setting. Among all reasons, 49% were access barriers, including long waiting times, distance to clinic, work or childcare commitments, lack of eligibility for free NHS services, and prior negative experiences of abortion care; 30% were privacy concerns, including lack of confidentiality of services, perceived or experienced stigma, and preferring the privacy and comfort of using pills at home; and 18% were controlling circumstances, including partner violence and partner/family control. Despite the presence of abortion services in Great Britain, a diverse group of women still experiences logistical and personal barriers to accessing care through the formal healthcare system, or prefer the privacy of conducting their abortions in their own homes. Health services commissioning bodies could address existing barriers if supported by policy frameworks. The presence of multiple barriers to accessing abortion care in Great Britain highlights the need for future guidelines to recommend a more woman-centered approach to service provision. Reducing the number of clinic visits and designing services to meet the needs of those living in

  18. Women’s Awareness and Knowledge of Abortion Laws: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assifi, Anisa R.; Berger, Blair; Tunçalp, Özge; Khosla, Rajat; Ganatra, Bela

    2016-01-01

    Background Incorrect knowledge of laws may affect how women enter the health system or seek services, and it likely contributes to the disconnect between official laws and practical applications of the laws that influence women’s access to safe, legal abortion services. Objective To provide a synthesis of evidence of women’s awareness and knowledge of the legal status of abortion in their country, and the accuracy of women’s knowledge on specific legal grounds and restrictions outlined in a country’s abortion law. Methods A systematic search was carried for articles published between 1980–2015. Quantitative, mixed-method data collection, and objectives related to women’s awareness or knowledge of the abortion law was included. Full texts were assessed, and data extraction done by a single reviewer. Final inclusion for analysis was assessed by two reviewers. The results were synthesised into tables, using narrative synthesis. Results Of the original 3,126 articles, and 16 hand searched citations, 24 studies were included for analysis. Women’s correct general awareness and knowledge of the legal status was less than 50% in nine studies. In six studies, knowledge of legalization/liberalisation ranged between 32.3% - 68.2%. Correct knowledge of abortion on the grounds of rape ranged from 12.8% – 98%, while in the case of incest, ranged from 9.8% - 64.5%. Abortion on the grounds of fetal impairment and gestational limits, varied widely from 7% - 94% and 0% - 89.5% respectively. Conclusion This systematic review synthesizes literature on women’s awareness and knowledge of the abortion law in their own context. The findings show that correct general awareness and knowledge of the abortion law and legal grounds and restrictions amongst women was limited, even in countries where the laws were liberal. Thus, interventions to disseminate accurate information on the legal context are necessary. PMID:27010629

  19. Abortion: a technique for working through grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, N B

    1982-02-01

    Studies have shown that very few women experience significant depression in the weeks following abortion and most have strong feelings of relief and happiness; what mild feelings of guilt, regret, or remorse do exist immediately following abortion tend to diminish quickly. Traditionally attitudes were that abortion could even precipitate psychosis and cause infertility, depression, and sexual dysfunction. The findings of a 1963-65 study of 116 women who underwent abortions indicate that few women had regrets immediately. Studies done after the 1973 Supreme Court decision conclude that even psychiatrically disturbed women who undergo abortion remain stabilized or improved afterwards. Women who do have postabortion problems are usually those who were late aborters, who feel that the decision was not freely made, or that the pregnancy fulfilled certain needs. When working with these women clinicians use a variety of techniques, encouraging the women to express their feelings of loss and anger and supporting the choice that was made, while providing contraceptive and decision making education. The strategy in 3 cases described here involved the woman first saying goodbye to the fetus and her former relationship with it in a gestalt dialogue. The next part of the strategy is establishing positive remembrance of the significant meaning of the fetus to the woman. There are usually 5 sessions at the end of which the woman feels optimistic; the 6th session is a followup 6 months to 1 year later at which most women report no further symptoms.

  20. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  1. Abortion for fetal CNS malformations: religious aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2003-08-01

    Abortion is one of the most widely discussed medical-ethical subjects in medical, legal, philosophical, and religious literature as well as in the lay press. There is hardly a religion or country in the world that is not currently concerned about this issue. The complexity of the topic relates to the fact that it deals with a being that is close to us but not identical to us. On the other hand, the fetus is not like a plant or even like a living being in the animal kingdom. Yet the fetus is not a complete and independent human being either. There are strongly opposing philosophical/religious viewpoints on abortion. On the one hand, pro-life groups and the Roman Catholic Church absolutely oppose abortion. They view the fetus as a full and independent human being, with absolute rights equal to those of the mother. According to this view, the right of the fetus to life can never be disregarded, and abortion is viewed as murder. On the other hand, the permissive, feminist, liberal view, emphasizes the basic right of a woman over her body. This right justifies abortion on demand solely dependent on the woman's wishes at any stage of pregnancy and for any reason whatsoever. This view totally ignores the rights of the fetus and views it as a part of the mother's body. This article deals with some aspects of the approaches of various religions to abortion due to fetal indications, in particular the Jewish viewpoint.

  2. From abortion to contraception: Tbilisi, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1991-01-01

    Hoping to provide women other choice besides abortion as a way to regulate fertility, 220 experts from 27 mostly European countries met in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR to discuss ways of increasing access to modern contraceptives. Held last October, the conference was sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization European Regional Office (WHO/EURO), the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Europe, and the Zhordania Institute of Human Reproduction, Tbilisi. The meeting produced the Tbilisi Declaration, which -- among other things -- recognizes that unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions pose a serious health and social problem. Criminalization, the experts agreed, does little to reduce the number of abortions, and only increases the number of unsafe operations. The Tbilisi Declaration also affirms women's right to decide freely on the number and spacing of children, their right to reproductive health, their right to self-determination in their sexual and reproductive lives, and the right of every child to be a wanted child. The participants addressed the high incidents of abortion in some European countries -- particularly the Soviet Union. With the highest rate of abortion in Europe, the Soviet Union recorded 6 million legal abortions in 1988, and estimates that another 6 million were performed illegally. Nonetheless, perestroika has begun to facilitate access to contraceptives. Participants also discussed new methods of early pregnancy termination, RU486 and menstrual regulation procedures (MR), neither of which is readily available. Increasing access to these methods would help reduce suffering and unnecessary deaths.

  3. Contraceptive use among migrant women with a history of induced abortion in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Heini; Koponen, Päivikki; Gissler, Mika; Kontula, Osmo

    2018-06-25

    Women's contraceptive choices may change after an induced abortion, due to contraceptive counselling or a behavioural change prompted by the experience. The effect may vary between women; sociocultural background, for example, may affect their subsequent reproductive choices. We examined whether women's current contraceptive use was differently associated with a history of induced abortion among immigrant groups in Finland (Russian, Kurdish and Somali) and the general Finnish population. We analysed data from two surveys, the Migrant Health and Wellbeing study and the Health 2011 study, linked to the Finnish register of induced abortions. Propensity score weighted logistic regression was used to analyse the data. The likelihood of using contraceptives after an abortion varied depending on women's sociocultural background. A history of induced abortion increased contraceptive use among all groups, except Russian women, in whom there was no effect. The effect was particularly strong for Kurdish women. Sociocultural background was an important determinant of post-abortion contraceptive use. Some immigrants may struggle to navigate the Finnish health care system due to language or literacy issues. Attention should be paid to improving access to family planning among these groups.

  4. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M

    2017-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Unsafe abortion and postabortion care-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    countries where women do not have legal access to abortion. Postabortion care focuses on treatment of incomplete abortion and provision of postabortion contraceptive services. To enhance women's access to postabortion care, focus is increasingly being placed on upgrading midlevel providers to provide......Forty percent of the world's women are living in countries with restrictive abortion laws, which prohibit abortion or only allow abortion to protect a woman's life or her physical or mental health. In countries where abortion is restricted, women have to resort to clandestine interventions to have...... an unwanted pregnancy terminated. As a consequence, high rates of unsafe abortion are seen, such as in sub-Saharan Africa where unsafe abortion occurs at rates of 18-39/1 000 women. The circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on traditional methods known and type of providers...

  6. Management of abortion complications at a rural hospital in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Natja; Sørensen, Bjarke Lund; Kuriigamba, Gideon K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complications of unsafe abortion are a major contributor to maternal deaths in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical assessment for life-threatening complications and the following management in women admitted with complications from abortions at a rural...... abortion and by trimester. Actual management was compared to the audit criteria and presented by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Fifty six per cent of the women were in second trimester. Abortion complications were distributed as follows: 53 % incomplete abortions, 28 % threatened abortions, 12...... % inevitable abortions, 4 % missed abortions and 3 % septic abortions. Only one of 238 cases met all criteria of optimal clinical assessment and management. Thus, vital signs were measured in 3 %, antibiotic criteria was met in 59 % of the cases, intravenous fluid resuscitation was administered to 35...

  7. [The gynecologist and the problem of therapeutic abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundel, J P

    1972-01-01

    Most of this essay on the abortion problem in French-speaking western Europe concerns the Sermon of Hippocrates forbidding abortion; the discussion ends with an ethical discussion on abortion codes in a pluralist society. 1st, scholars question whether Hippocrates himself actually wrote the text of the Sermon, or whether his Pythagorean followers did. 2nd, probably abortion in Hippocrates' time was relegated to midwives and lithotomists. The meaning of the quotation "I do not give any abortive remedy" is obscure since in other contexts Hippocrates distinguished between abortive and contraceptive drugs and also abortive instruments. Finally, Hipoocrates specifically recommended abortion, e.g., to avoid pregnancy for prostitutes. Persons in authority, then, should not invoke Hippocrates or any other moral code to deprive a woman of medical abortion, especially in cases of rape, age, and failure of contraception. Divorce, for example, has been legalized in most countries, without forcing anyone to take advantage of it.

  8. Characteristics of private abortion services in Mexico City after legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Raffaela; Collado, Maria Elena; Troncoso, Erika; Soto Sánchez, José Ezequiel; Zorrilla, Gabriela Otero; Palermo, Tia

    2010-11-01

    In 2007, first trimester abortion was legalized in Mexico City, and the public sector rapidly expanded its abortion services. In 2008, to obtain information on the effect of the law on private sector abortion services, we interviewed 135 physicians working in private clinics, located through an exhaustive search. A large majority of the clinics offered a range of reproductive health services, including abortions. Over 70% still used dilatation and curettage (D&C); less than a third offered vacuum aspiration or medical abortion. The average number of abortions per facility was only three per month; few reported more than 10 abortions monthly. More than 90% said they had been offering abortion services for less than 20 months. Many women are still accessing abortion services privately, despite the availability of free or low-cost services at public facilities. However, the continuing use of D&C, high fees (mean of $157-505), poor pain management practices, unnecessary use of ultrasound, general anaesthesia and overnight stays, indicate that private sector abortion services are expensive and far from optimal. Now that abortions are legal, these results highlight the need for private abortion providers to be trained in recommended abortion methods and quality of private abortion care improved. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Abortion law in Nepal: the road to reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Shyam

    2004-11-01

    In 2002 Nepal's parliament passed a liberal abortion law, after nearly three decades of reform efforts. This paper reviews the history of the movement for reform and the combination of factors that contributed to its success. These include sustained advocacy for reform; the dissemination of knowledge, information and evidence; adoption of the reform agenda by the public sector and its leadership in involving other stakeholders; the existence of work for safe motherhood as the context in which the initiative could gain support; an active women's rights movement and support from international and multilateral organisations; sustained involvement of local NGOs, civil society and professional organisations; the involvement of journalists and the media; the absence of significant opposition; courageous government officials and an enabling democratic political system. The overriding rationale for reforming the abortion law in Nepal has been to ensure safe motherhood and women's rights. The first government abortion services officially began in March 2004 at the Maternity Hospital in Kathmandu; services will be expanded gradually to other public and private hospitals and private clinics in the coming years.

  10. Attitudes of Scottish abortion care providers towards provision of abortion after 16 weeks' gestation within Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Rosemary A; Cameron, Sharon T

    2013-06-01

    In Scotland, in contrast to the rest of Great Britain, abortion at gestations over 20 weeks is not provided, and provision of procedures above 16 weeks varies considerably between regions. Women at varying gestations above 16 weeks must travel outside Scotland, usually to England, for the procedure. To determine the views of professionals working within Scottish abortion care about a Scottish late abortion service. Delegates at a meeting for abortion providers in Scotland completed a questionnaire about their views on abortion provision over 16 weeks and their perceived barriers to service provision. Of 95 distributed questionnaires, 70 (76%) were analysed. Fifty-six respondents (80%) supported a Scottish late abortion service, ten (14%) would maintain current service arrangements, and five (7%) were undecided. Forty (57%) of the supporters of a Scottish service would prefer a single national service, and 16 (22%) several regional services. Perceived barriers included lack of trained staff (n = 39; 56%), accommodation for the service (n = 34; 48%), and perception of lack of support among senior management (n = 28; 40%). The majority of health professionals surveyed who work in Scottish abortion services support provision of abortion beyond 16 weeks within Scotland, and most favour a single national service. Further work on the feasibility of providing this service is required.

  11. Family Planning Evaluation. Abortion Surveillance Report--Legal Abortions, United States, Annual Summary, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…

  12. Abortion related stigma: a case study of abortion stigma in regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abortion accounts for 35% of maternal mortality in Kenya. Kenya has reported an increase in the rate of unsafe abortions from 32 to 48 per 1000 women of reproductive age in 2002 and 2012 respectively. During the same period, women presented in public health facilities with severe complications indicating ...

  13. Medical students' attitudes toward abortion education: Malaysian perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-peng Tey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. METHODS AND RESULTS: A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students' pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students' attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights.

  14. [Role of ultrasound in elective abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylomanski, S; Winer, N

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasound plays a fundamental role in the management of elective abortions. Although it can improve the quality of post-abortion care, it must not be an obstacle to abortion access. We thus studied the role of ultrasound in pregnancy dating and possible alternatives and analyzed the literature to determine the role of ultrasound in post-abortion follow-up. During an ultrasound scan, the date of conception is estimated by measurement of the crown-rump length (CRL), defined by Robinson, or of the biparietal diameter (BPD), as defined by the French Center for Fetal Ultrasound (CFEF) after 11 weeks of gestation (Robinson and CFEF curves) (grade B). Updated curves have been developed in the INTERGROWTH study. In the context of abortion, the literature recommends the application of a safety margin of 5 days, especially when the CRL and/or BPD measurement indicates a term close to 14 weeks (that is equal or below 80 and 27mm, respectively) (best practice agreement). Accordingly, with the ultrasound measurement reliable to±5 days when its performance meets the relevant criteria, an abortion can take place when the CRL measurement is less than 90mm or the BPD less than 30mm (INTERGROWTH curves) (best practice agreement). While a dating ultrasound should be encouraged, its absence is not an obstacle to scheduling an abortion for women who report that they know the date of their last menstrual period and/or of the at-risk sexual relations and for whom a clinical examination by a healthcare professional is possible (best practice agreement). In cases of intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability or of a pregnancy of unknown location, without any particular symptoms, the patient must be able to have a transvaginal ultrasound to increase the precision of the diagnosis (grade B). Various reviews of the literature on post-abortion follow-up indicate that the routine use of ultrasound during instrumental abortions should be avoided (best practice agreement). If it becomes

  15. High Levels of Post-Abortion Complication in a Setting Where Abortion Service Is Not Legalized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Tadele; Habte, Dereje; Tsima, Billy M.; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Chabaesele, Kesegofetse; Rankgoane, Goabaone; Keakabetse, Tshiamo R.; Masweu, Mabole; Mokotedi, Mosidi; Motana, Mpho; Moreri-Ntshabele, Badani

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. Methods A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients’ records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed. Result A total of 619 patients’ records were reviewed with a mean (SD) age of 27.12 (5.97) years. The majority of abortions (95.5%) were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%). Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%), tender uterus (11.3%), septic shock (3.9%) and pelvic peritonitis (2.4%) were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2%) of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%). There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively). Conclusion Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for

  16. High Levels of Post-Abortion Complication in a Setting Where Abortion Service Is Not Legalized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadele Melese

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications.A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients' records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed.A total of 619 patients' records were reviewed with a mean (SD age of 27.12 (5.97 years. The majority of abortions (95.5% were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%. Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%, tender uterus (11.3%, septic shock (3.9% and pelvic peritonitis (2.4% were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2% of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%. There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively.Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for clinical audit on post-abortion care

  17. Indberetning af provokerede aborter i 1994. En sammenligning mellem data i Registeret over Legalt Provokerede Aborter og Landspatientregistere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, L; Johansen, A M; Helweg-Larsen, K

    1997-01-01

    Up to 31st December 1994 all cases of legally induced abortions were notified by the physician responsible for the operation to the National Board of Health and recorded in the Register of Induced Abortions. Following this data, abortion statistics will rely on data concerning induced abortions...... in the Danish National Patient Register, which includes information based upon the unique personal number of all patients admitted to hospitals. The completeness of the Register of Induced Abortions and the National Patient Register as to induced abortions in 1994 was assessed to evaluate the impact...... of the change in method of monitoring on trends in the national and regional abortion rate. The complete number of induced abortions was estimated to be the sum of the number recorded in both registers, cases recorded only in the Register of Induced Abortions, cases recorded only in the National Patient...

  18. [Conscientious objection in the matter of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Gil, A; García Casado, M L

    1992-03-01

    The issue of conscientious objection in Spain has been used by pro-choice groups against objecting health personnel as one of the obstacles to the implementation of the abortion law, a misnomer. At present objection is massive in the public sector; 95% of abortions are carried out in private clinics with highly lucrative returns; abortion tourism has decreased; and false objection has proliferated in the public sector when the objector performs abortions in the private sector for high fees. The legal framework for conscientious objection is absent in Spain. Neither Article 417 of the Penal Code depenalizing abortion, nor the Ministerial Decree of July 31, 1985, nor the Royal Decree of November 21, 1986 recognize such a concept. However, the ruling of the Constitutional Court on April 11, 1985 confirmed that such objection can be exercised with independence. Some authors refer to the applicability of Law No. 48 of December 16, 1984 that regulates conscientious objection in military service to health personnel. The future law concerning the fundamental right of ideological and religious liberty embodied in Article 16.1 of the Constitution has to be revised. A draft bill was submitted in the Congress or Representatives concerning this issue on May 3, 1985 that recognizes the right of medical personnel to object to abortion without career repercussions. Another draft bill was introduced on April 17, 1985 that would allow the nonparticipation of medical personnel in the interruption of pregnancy, however, they would be prohibited from practicing such in the private hospitals. Neither of these proposed bills became law. Professional groups either object unequivocally, or do not object at all, or object on an ethical level but do not object to therapeutic abortion. The resolution of this issue has to be by consensus and not by imposition.

  19. The incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in India, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela; Shekhar, Chander; Acharya, Rajib; Moore, Ann M; Stillman, Melissa; Pradhan, Manas R; Frost, Jennifer J; Sahoo, Harihar; Alagarajan, Manoj; Hussain, Rubina; Sundaram, Aparna; Vlassoff, Michael; Kalyanwala, Shveta; Browne, Alyssa

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background Reliable information on the incidence of induced abortion in India is lacking. Official statistics and national surveys provide incomplete coverage. Since the early 2000s, medication abortion has become increasingly available, improving the way women obtain abortions. The aim of this study was to estimate the national incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy for 2015. Methods National abortion incidence was estimated through three separate components: abortions (medication and surgical) in facilities (including private sector, public sector, and non-governmental organisations [NGOs]); medication abortions outside facilities; and abortions outside of facilities and with methods other than medication abortion. Facility-based abortions were estimated from the 2015 Health Facilities Survey of 4001 public and private health facilities in six Indian states (Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh) and from NGO clinic data. National medication abortion drug sales and distribution data were obtained from IMS Health and six principal NGOs (DKT International, Marie Stopes International, Population Services International, World Health Partners, Parivar Seva Santha, and Janani). We estimated the total number of abortions that are not medication abortions and are not obtained in a health facility setting through an indirect technique based on findings from community-based study findings in two states in 2009, with adjustments to account for the rapid increase in use of medication abortion since 2009. The total number of women of reproductive age and livebirth data were obtained from UN population data, and the proportion of births from unplanned pregnancies and data on contraceptive use and need were obtained from the 2015–16 National Family Health Survey-4. Findings We estimate that 15·6 million abortions (14·1 million–17·3 million) occurred in India in 2015. The abortion rate was 47·0 abortions (42·2–52·1) per

  20. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from AVHRR Pathfinder, Version 5.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.2 Sea Surface Temperature data set (PFV52) is a collection of global, twice-daily 4km sea surface temperature data produced in a...

  1. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Cloud Properties from AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres - Extended (PATMOS-x), Version 5.3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of cloud products was produced by the University of Wisconsin using the AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres - Extended (PATMOS-X)...

  2. Induced abortion and adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L

    2011-10-01

    Induced abortion is widely believed - by the public, healthcare professionals, and policy-makers - to lead to adverse mental health sequelae. This belief is false, as it applies both to adult women and adolescents. However, it has been used to rationalize, and been quoted in, restrictive and intrusive legislation in several states and in proposed federal legislation. It is essential for gynecologists to have accurate information, as clinicians, for their patients, and, as key experts, for policy makers. New articles concluding that there are adverse psychological outcomes from induced abortion continue to be published. The methodological flaws in these articles are so serious as to invalidate those conclusions. Several recent scholarly analyses detail these flaws. Methodologically sound studies and reviews continue to demonstrate that psychosocial problems play a role in unwanted conception and the decision to abort unwanted pregnancies but are not the result of abortion. Clinicians may have to reassure patients making decisions about their pregnancies that abortion does not cause psychiatric illness. They can do so on the basis of recent analyses substantiating that finding. (C) 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  3. Early medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgatta, L; Burnhill, M S; Tyson, J; Leonhardt, K K; Hausknecht, R U; Haskell, S

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the introduction of an early medical abortion program with methotrexate and misoprostol, using a standardized protocol. A total of 1973 women at 34 Planned Parenthood sites participated in a case series of early medical abortion. Ultrasound was used to confirm gestational age of less than 49 days from the first day of the last menstrual period. Women were given intramuscular methotrexate 50 mg/m(2) of body surface area on day 1, and then they inserted misoprostol 800 microg vaginally at home on day 5, 6, or 7. Women were advised to have a suction curettage if the pregnancy appeared viable 2 weeks after methotrexate or if any gestational sac persisted 4 weeks after methotrexate. Outcomes were complete medical abortion and suction curettage. Sixteen hundred fifty-nine women (84.1%) had a complete medical abortion, and 257 (13.0%) had suction curettage. The most common reason for curettage was patient option (8.9%). At 2 weeks after methotrexate use, 1.4% of women had curettage because of a viable pregnancy; at 4 weeks, 1.6% of women had curettage because of a persistent but nonviable pregnancy. One percent of women had curettage because of physician recommendation, most commonly for bleeding. Suction curettage rates decreased with site experience (P <.006) and were lower at early gestational ages (P <.004) and in nulliparous women (P <.004). Medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol is safe and effective and can be offered in a community setting.

  4. The epidemiology of cattle abortion in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardjadj, Moustafa

    2018-02-01

    In Algeria, the epidemiology of cattle abortions is not well understood. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate the prevalence of abortion in 75 Algerian cattle herds and correlate its possible association with brucellosis positivity and some managerial risk factors. The cattle abortion herd prevalence was 41.33% [95% CI 30.16-52.5%]. As for brucellosis, the serological evidence of brucellosis exposure was observed in 9 out of 75 herds accounting for 12% [95% CI 4.65-19.35] herd seroprevalence. The risk factor analysis using the univariable analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression did confirm that brucellosis positivity (OR = 5.19), mixed herd (OR = 2.5), contact with other herd (OR = 2.91), presence of dog in the herd (OR = 2.89), imported cattle (OR = 1.91), and farmers with less than 2 years' experience (OR = 2.69) as risk factors for abortion in Algerian cattle herds. Targeting these factors using a comprehensive control measure is needed to improve animal welfare and reduce economic losses associated with abortion in dairy cattle.

  5. Devising an indicator to detect mid-term abortions in dairy cattle: a first step towards syndromic surveillance of abortive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Hénaux, Viviane; Madouasse, Aurélien; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI) data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy cattle herds in France. A mid-term abortion incidence rate (MAIR) was computed as the ratio of the number of mid-term abortions to the number of female-weeks at risk. A mid-term abortion was defined as a return-to-service (i.e., a new AI) taking place 90 to 180 days after the previous AI. Weekly variations in the MAIR in heifers and parous cows were modeled with a time-dependent Poisson model at the département level (French administrative division) during the period of 2004 to 2010. The usefulness of monitoring this indicator to detect a disease-related increase in mid-term abortions was evaluated using data from the 2007-2008 episode of bluetongue serotype 8 (BT8) in France. An increase in the MAIR was identified in heifers and parous cows in 47% (n = 24) and 71% (n = 39) of the departements. On average, the weekly MAIR among heifers increased by 3.8% (min-max: 0.02-57.9%) when the mean number of BT8 cases that occurred in the previous 8 to 13 weeks increased by one. The weekly MAIR among parous cows increased by 1.4% (0.01-8.5%) when the mean number of BT8 cases occurring in the previous 6 to 12 weeks increased by one. These results underline the potential of the MAIR to identify an increase in mid-term abortions and suggest that it is a good candidate for the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system for bovine abortions.

  6. Devising an indicator to detect mid-term abortions in dairy cattle: a first step towards syndromic surveillance of abortive diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bronner

    Full Text Available Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy cattle herds in France. A mid-term abortion incidence rate (MAIR was computed as the ratio of the number of mid-term abortions to the number of female-weeks at risk. A mid-term abortion was defined as a return-to-service (i.e., a new AI taking place 90 to 180 days after the previous AI. Weekly variations in the MAIR in heifers and parous cows were modeled with a time-dependent Poisson model at the département level (French administrative division during the period of 2004 to 2010. The usefulness of monitoring this indicator to detect a disease-related increase in mid-term abortions was evaluated using data from the 2007-2008 episode of bluetongue serotype 8 (BT8 in France. An increase in the MAIR was identified in heifers and parous cows in 47% (n = 24 and 71% (n = 39 of the departements. On average, the weekly MAIR among heifers increased by 3.8% (min-max: 0.02-57.9% when the mean number of BT8 cases that occurred in the previous 8 to 13 weeks increased by one. The weekly MAIR among parous cows increased by 1.4% (0.01-8.5% when the mean number of BT8 cases occurring in the previous 6 to 12 weeks increased by one. These results underline the potential of the MAIR to identify an increase in mid-term abortions and suggest that it is a good candidate for the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system for bovine abortions.

  7. [Use of contraception and reasons for choosing abortion among abortion applicants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S K; Birkebaek, J S; Husfeldt, C; Munck, C B; Nøddebo, S M; Petersson, B H

    1996-10-07

    The object of this study was to describe a group of women applying for legal abortion in relation to their use of contraception and reasons for choosing an abortion. During a period of 13 months (1991-92) a questionnaire was distributed to women applying for legal abortion at Hillerød Hospital in Denmark. Three hundred and thirty-nine women participated. Fifty-nine percent of the women had become pregnant although they had used contraception. As seen in other studies, women still state demographic factors as their most important reasons for choosing an abortion. Women with two or more children do not want to have more children. Single women do not want children without being in a stable relationship. Furthermore occupation and education were frequently stated as important reasons for having an abortion. Economy and housing were not main reasons but contributory factors. Thirty percent of the women expressed ambivalence about the choice of abortion at the time when the abort was due.

  8. No. 360-Induced Abortion: Surgical Abortion and Second Trimester Medical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costescu, Dustin; Guilbert, Édith

    2018-06-01

    This guideline reviews evidence relating to the provision of surgical induced abortion (IA) and second trimester medical abortion, including pre- and post-procedural care. Gynaecologists, family physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, and other health care providers who currently or intend to provide and/or teach IAs. Women with an unintended or abnormal first or second trimester pregnancy. PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Database were searched using the key words: first-trimester surgical abortion, second-trimester surgical abortion, second-trimester medical abortion, dilation and evacuation, induction abortion, feticide, cervical preparation, cervical dilation, abortion complications. Results were restricted to English or French systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational studies published from 1979 to July 2017. National and international clinical practice guidelines were consulted for review. Grey literature was not searched. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology framework. The summary of findings is available upon request. IA is safe and effective. The benefits of IA outweigh the potential harms or costs. No new direct harms or costs identified with these guidelines. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of AIF-1 and RANTES in Unexplained Spontaneous Abortion and Possible Association with Alloimmune Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong LI; Hai-lin WANG; Ya-juan ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of allograft inflammatory factor-1(AIF-1)and (RANTES) in sera and deciduas on unexplained early spontaneous abortion.Methods AIF-1 and RANTES were examined in sera and deciduas/endometria of 43 unexplained early spontaneous abortion women (group A),40 healthy women with early pregnancy(group B)and 20 healthy women with no pregnancy (group C). Immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used in this study. Results AIF-1 protein was expressed both in deciduas of group A and in endometria of group C.In group A, H scores in the recurrent abortion deciduas specimens were significantly greater than those in the first abortion;in endometrium,expression of AIF-1 was greater in the secretory than in proliferative phase of group C.In group B,concentrations of RANTES in sera were higher in 7th-8th week of pregnancy than in 6th-7th and >8th week of pregnancy;expression of AIF-1 protein showed a negative correlation with RASNTES concentration;a significant increase of the RANTES levels in sera and tissue was observed in group B. Conclusion These results demonstrate, for the first time,that AIF-1 are expressed in deciduas of unexplained spontaneous abortion suggesting that AIF-1 involve in alloimmune abortion; RANTES might act as a novel blocking antibody;AIF-1 and RANTES might act as reliable markers for diagnosis of early alloimmune abortion.

  10. A comparative study of induced abortions before and after legalization of abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, S; Devi, P K

    1979-06-01

    Abortion was legalized in many states in India in April 1972. This study deals with 2 groups of patients admitted to P.G.I., Chadigarh, with problems of induced septic abortion. Group 1 consisted of 88 patients admitted during the 2 1/2 year period from 1 July 1969 to 31 December 1971, before the legalization of abortion. Group 2 consists of 133 patients admitted during the 2 1/2 year period from 1 July 1973 to 31 December 1975. 1 year after the new abortion law had been in force. Not only has there been an increase in the total number of patients, there has been an increase in the severity of infection. Evidently, the liberalization of the law has encouraged more patients to seek abortions and has encouraged more doctors, lacking proper qualifications, to perform them. The morbidity and mortality with induced septic abortion can only be reduced if enough public propaganda makes the people especially in rural areas conscious of the hazards of induced abortion by "dais" and unqualified personnel, simultaneously making them aware of the provision of law and facilities available at different centers. Meanwhile, the law against unskilled and untrained personnel should be rigorously enforced.

  11. Constructing abortion as a social problem: “Sex selection” and the British abortion debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering “feminised” re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate and official documents, we focus on claims about grounds (evidence) made to sustain the case that sex selection abortion is a British social problem and highlight how abortion was problematised in new ways. Perhaps most notable, we argue, was the level of largely unchallenged vilification of abortion doctors and providers, on the grounds that they are both law violators and participants in acts of discrimination and violence against women, especially those of Asian heritage. We draw attention to the role of claims made by feminists in the media and in Parliament about “gendercide” as part of this process and argue that those supportive of access to abortion need to critically assess both this aspect of the events and also consider arguments about the problems of “medical power” in the light of what took place. PMID:28367000

  12. Constructing abortion as a social problem: "Sex selection" and the British abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellie

    2017-02-01

    Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering "feminised" re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate and official documents, we focus on claims about grounds (evidence) made to sustain the case that sex selection abortion is a British social problem and highlight how abortion was problematised in new ways. Perhaps most notable, we argue, was the level of largely unchallenged vilification of abortion doctors and providers, on the grounds that they are both law violators and participants in acts of discrimination and violence against women, especially those of Asian heritage. We draw attention to the role of claims made by feminists in the media and in Parliament about "gendercide" as part of this process and argue that those supportive of access to abortion need to critically assess both this aspect of the events and also consider arguments about the problems of "medical power" in the light of what took place.

  13. Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Cynthia; Darney, Philip; Henderson, JT; Puri, M; Blum, M; Harper, CC; Rana, A; Gurung, G; Pradhan, N; Regmi, K; Malla, K; Sharma, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe

  14. Pattern of Complicated Unsafe Abortions in Niger Delta University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    of cases of complicated unsafe abortion managed at the. Niger Delta University ... previous termination of pregnancy and 87.3% of the patients had ... and outcome were obtained. ... life-threatening complications, post- abortion family planning.

  15. Abortion politics: public policy in cross-cultural perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stetson, Dorothy M; Githens, Marianne

    1996-01-01

    " ... focuses on current abortion policy and practice in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan and aims to provide a comprehensive, stimulating, and balanced picture of current abortion politics...

  16. Uterine contraction induced by Tanzanian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Tine; Nielsen, Frank; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect.......Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect....

  17. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  18. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  19. Induced abortion and placenta complications in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Larsen, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Background. To study the risk of placenta complications following an induced abortion as a function of the interpregnancy interval. Methods. This study is based on three Danish national registries; the Medical Birth Registry, the Hospital Discharge Registry, and the Induced Abortion Registry. All...... primigravida women from 1980 to 1982 were identified in these three registries. A total of 15,727 women who terminated the pregnancy with a first trimester induced abortion were selected to the abortion cohort, and 46,026 women who did not terminate the pregnancy with an induced abortion constituted...... or the Medical Birth Registry records. Results. A slightly higher risk of placenta complications following an abortion was found. Retained placenta occurred more frequently in women with one, two or more previous abortions, compared with women without any previous abortion of similar gravidity. Adjusting...

  20. Medical abortion and the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Zhang, Jun; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term safety of surgical abortion in the first trimester is well established. Despite the increasing use of medical abortion (abortion by means of medication), limited information is available regarding the effects of this procedure on subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: We...... identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for nonmedical reasons between 1999 and 2004 and obtained information regarding subsequent pregnancies from national registries. Risks of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (at ... weight (abortion were compared with risks in women who had had a first-trimester surgical abortion. RESULTS: Among 11,814 pregnancies in women who had had a previous first-trimester medical abortion (2710 women...

  1. Legalization of abortion doubtful in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-09-03

    A proposal to legalize abortion has been presented to the Italian parliament by Representative Loris Fortuna. Thus far, the bill has the whole-hearted support of only the Radical Party. The Vatican has already voiced its strong opposition to this legislation. "The proposal to legalize abortion, even in certain circumstances, must inevitably be met with resistance and refusal," said Father Concetti, the Vatican representative. Professor Emanuele Lauricella, secretary of the Italian Obstetrics and Gynecology Society, on the other hand, claimed that abortion should be permitted, not only when an immediate danger to the mother's life exists, but also when there are other, simpler health risks. The passage of the bill in the near future, however, is very doubtful.

  2. The outcome of pregnancy after threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, J B; Heisterberg, L

    1985-01-01

    A prospectively collected group of 93 pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion was carefully monitored throughout pregnancy, during birth and in the perinatal period, and any deviation from a completely uneventful course was registered. Comparison was made with a selected group of 282 non-risk pregnant women. A significant association was found between threatened abortion and the overall number of complications in the second half of pregnancy requiring medical intervention and/or admission to hospital, impending pre-term birth requiring betamimetics, pre-term birth, retention of the placenta, birth weight below 2000 g, light-for-dates infants in case of pre-term birth or birth weight below 2000 g, and hyperbilirubinemia in infants with birth weight below 2000 g. The incidences of perinatal mortality and congenital malformations did not differ significantly from those of the control group. Pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion constitute a risk group requiring careful obstetric and perinatal supervision and follow-up.

  3. Access to abortion and secular liberties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Arriada Lorea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, facing an issue like abortion requires a secular perspective since the freedom of conscience assured by the Federal Constitution places upon the State the need to regard not only different viewpoints of different religions, but more specifically assure the right to diversity existing within a same religion, as well as the right to exercise different views from those of the hierarchy of his/her own religion. As such, there is no legal barrier for the decriminalization of abortion in the country. It is up to legislators to reform the present law and decriminalize abortion, assuming the commitments Brazil has assumed with international human-rights organizations, thus assuring the efficacy of civil liberties.

  4. Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. full text

  5. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine; Jakubcionyte, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.......Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal....

  6. Legal, Social and Psycho-Medical Effects of Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Mavrić, Bisera

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the relationship between induced abortion and mental health with a special focus on the area of political controversy. This article explores the historical background of the abortion and its legislative implications in Europe with special reference to Bosnia and Herzegovina. This work is based on etnographich, analitical and historical aproaches. It explains abortion in medical terms and analyzes the psychological effects of the abortion. This is a significant and challan...

  7. Factors associated with repeat induced abortion in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Beatrice W; Mutua, Michael M; Sidze, Estelle M

    2015-10-12

    Over six million induced abortions were reported in Africa in 2008 with over two million induced abortions occurring in Eastern Africa. Although a significant proportion of women in the region procure more than one abortion during their reproductive period, there is a dearth of research on factors associated with repeat abortion. Data for this study come from the Magnitude and Incidence of Unsafe Abortion Study conducted by the African Population and Health Research Center in Kenya in 2012. The study used a nationally-representative sample of 350 facilities (level II to level VI) that offer post-abortion services for complications following induced and spontaneous abortions. A prospective morbidity survey tool was used by health providers in 328 facilities to collect information on socio-demographic charateristics, reproductive health history and contraceptive use at conception for all patients presenting for post-abortion services. Our analysis is based on data recorded on 769 women who were classified as having had an induced abortion. About 16 % of women seeking post abortion services for an induced abortion reported to have had a previous induced abortion. Being separated or divorced or widowed, having no education, having unwanted pregnancy, having 1-2 prior births and using traditional methods of contraception were associated with a higher likelihood of a repeat induced abortion. The findings point to the need to address the reasons why women with first time induced abortion do not have the necessary information to prevent unintended pregnancies and further induced abortions. Possible explanations linked to the quality of post-abortion family planning and coverage of long-acting methods should be explored.

  8. Analysis of the Spontaneous Abortion in Chinese Married Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尔生; 邓新清; 何更生; 方可娟; 唐威; 楼超华

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous abortion is a common type of pregnant outcomes. The spontaneous abortion rate can be used to indicate the women's fecundity and the level of the reproductive health. It is also a sensitive indicator for determing the social, economic, and health status and prenatal care. To explore the preventive method for spontaneous abortion and improve women's health level, it is important to evaluate the status of spontaneous abortion and to determine the factors affecting

  9. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  10. Pathfinder irradiation of advanced fuel (Th/U mixed oxide) in a power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant Pinheiro, R.

    1993-01-01

    Within the joint Brazilian-German cooperative R and D Program on Thorium Utilization in Pressurized Water Reactors carried out from 1979 to 1988 by Nuclebras/CDTN, KFA-Juelich, Siemens/KWU and NUKEM, a pathfinder irradiation of Th/U mixed oxide fuel in the Angra 1 nuclear power reactor was planned. The objectives of this irradiation testing, the irradiation strategy, the work performed and the status achieved at the end of the joint Program are presented. (author)

  11. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    . The difference in short- and long-term success rates increased with increasing gestational age. The majority of failures (76%) were diagnosed more than 2 weeks after initiation of the abortion. At a 2-week follow-up visit, the women who turned out to be failures had a larger endometrial width, higher beta......-hCG values and smaller reductions of beta-hCG than those treated successfully. To optimize comparison of success rates after different medical abortion regimens, we suggest that the criteria for success are stated clearly, that the success rates are stratified according to gestational age...

  12. Fallacies in ethical argumentation on abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mazilu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a case study of the types of fallacies that may occur in the argumentation stage of an ethical dispute over abortion. The theoretical framework I use is the pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation (van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992, 2004 which conceives of fallacies as violations of the rules for critical discussion. I will focus on the fallacies resulting from the violation of the relevance rule in two fragments of argumentative texts illustrating opposing positions on abortion. I claim that these fallacies function as winning strategies in the ethical dispute in case.

  13. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  14. RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAHN, H.; DAVINO, D.

    2002-01-01

    Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit

  15. Predictors and Correlates of Abortion in the Fragile Families and Well-Being Study: Paternal Behavior, Substance Use, and Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Priscilla K.; Maxey, Charles David; Spence, Maria; Nixon, Charisse L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to identify predictors of the choice to abort or deliver a child within 18 months of a previous birth and to compare mothers who chose to abort or deliver relative to substance use and adverse partner behavior. Using a systems perspective, data from the Fragile Families and Well-Being Study were examined. The sample…

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Pathfinder Radar ISR and Synthetic Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radar (SAR) Systems Sandia National Laboratories Exceptional service in the national interest ; Technology Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios

  17. Atmosphere Processing Module Automation and Catalyst Durability Analysis for Mars ISRU Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Elspeth M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization Pathfinder was designed to create fuel using components found in the planet’s atmosphere and regolith for an ascension vehicle to return a potential sample return or crew return vehicle from Mars. The Atmosphere Processing Module (APM), a subunit of the pathfinder, uses cryocoolers to isolate and collect carbon dioxide from Mars simulant gas. The carbon dioxide is fed with hydrogen into a Sabatier reactor where methane is produced. The APM is currently undergoing the final stages of testing at Kennedy Space Center prior to process integration testing with the other subunits of the pathfinder. The automation software for the APM cryocoolers was tested and found to perform nominally. The catalyst used for the Sabatier reactor was investigated to determine the factors contributing to catalyst failure. The results from the catalyst testing require further analysis, but it appears that the rapid change in temperature during reactor start up or the elevated operating temperature is responsible for the changes observed in the catalyst.

  18. Induced abortion in Italy: levels, trends and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettarini, S S; D'Andrea, S S

    1996-01-01

    Subsequent to the legalization of abortion in Italy in 1978, abortion; rates among Italian women first rose and then declined steadily, from a peak of 16.9 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age in 1983 to 9.8 per 1,000 in 1993. Abortion rates vary considerably by geographic region, with rates typically highest in the more secular and modernized regions and lowest in regions where traditional values predominate. Data from 1981 and 1991 indicate that age-specific abortion rates decreased during the 1980s for all age-groups, with the largest declines occurring in regions with the highest levels of abortion. Moreover, a shift in the age distribution of abortion rates occurred during the 1980s, with women aged 30-34 registering the highest abortion rate in 1991, whereas in 1981 the highest level of abortion occurred among those aged 25-29. The abortion rate among adolescent women was low at both times (7.6 per 1,000 in 1981 and 4.6 per 1,000 in 1991). These data are based only on reported legal abortions; the number of clandestine abortions remains unknown.

  19. Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A Review. Stephanie S Smith. Abstract. The complications of unsafe, illegal abortions are a significant cause of maternal mortality in Botswana. The stigma attached to abortion leads some women to seek clandestine procedures, or alternatively, to carry the ...

  20. The Determinants and Outcomes of Second Trimester Abortion at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    abortion and 10(6.9%) with self-induced abortions. More women ..... 36%. 32%. I had this stigma associated with abortion so it delayed me. ... I faced pressure from family members and this delayed my decision to seek medical help. 3. 2. 2. 1.