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Sample records for aboriginal infants comparison

  1. Pneumococcal vaccination and otitis media in Australian Aboriginal infants: comparison of two birth cohorts before and after introduction of vaccination

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    Mackenzie Grant

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal children in remote Australia have high rates of complicated middle ear disease associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogens. We assessed the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination for prevention of otitis media in this setting. Methods We compared two birth cohorts, one enrolled before (1996–2001, and the second enrolled after introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate and booster 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (2001–2004. Source populations were the same for both cohorts. Detailed examinations including tympanometry, video-recorded pneumatic otoscopy and collection of discharge from tympanic membrane perforations, were performed as soon as possible after birth and then at regular intervals until 24 months of life. Analyses (survival, point prevalence and incidence were adjusted for confounding factors and repeated measures with sensitivity analyses of differential follow-up. Results Ninety-seven vaccinees and 51 comparison participants were enrolled. By age 6 months, 96% (81/84 of vaccinees and 100% (41/41 of comparison subjects experienced otitis media with effusion (OME, and by 12 months 89% and 88% experienced acute otitis media (AOM, 34% and 35% experienced tympanic membrane perforation (TMP and 14% and 23% experienced chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM. Age at the first episode of OME, AOM, TMP and CSOM was not significantly different between the two groups. Adjusted incidence of AOM (incidence rate ratio: 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69–1.13] and TMP (incidence rate ratio: 0.63 [0.36–1.11] was not significantly reduced in vaccinees. Vaccinees experienced less recurrent TMP, 9% (8/95 versus 22% (11/51, (odds ratio: 0.33 [0.11–1.00]. Conclusion Results of this study should be interpreted with caution due to potential bias and confounding. It appears that introduction of pneumococcal vaccination among Aboriginal infants was not associated with significant changes

  2. A Review of Aboriginal Infant Mortality Rates in Canada: Striking and Persistent Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal Inequities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janet Smylie; Deshayne Fell; Arne Ohlsson

    2010-01-01

    ... of national Aboriginal organizations and federal and provincial/territorial stakeholders. Our objective was to better understand what is currently known about Aboriginal infant mortality rates (IMR) in Canada. Methods...

  3. A review of Aboriginal infant mortality rates in Canada: striking and persistent Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequities.

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    Smylie, Janet; Fell, Deshayne; Ohlsson, Arne

    2010-01-01

    The Joint Working Group on First Nations, Indian, Inuit, and Métis Infant Mortality of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System is a collaboration of national Aboriginal organizations and federal and provincial/territorial stakeholders. Our objective was to better understand what is currently known about Aboriginal infant mortality rates (IMR) in Canada. As part of a larger international systematic review of Indigenous IMR calculation, we searched the published literature for original research regarding the calculation of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis infant mortality rates at the national and provincial/territorial level. We identified major deficiencies in the coverage and quality of infant mortality data for Aboriginal populations in Canada. The review of provincial and territorial reporting of infant mortality for Aboriginal populations revealed substantial provincial and territorial variation in the way that birth and death data were collected. With respect to coverage, high-quality IMRs were available only for Status Indians and communities with a high proportion of Inuit residents. No rates were available for Métis or non-Status Indians. Striking and persistent disparities persist in the IMRs for Status Indians and in communities with a high proportion of Inuit residents, compared to the general Canadian population. There is an urgent need to work in partnership with First Nations, Indian, Inuit, and Métis stakeholder groups to improve the quality and coverage of Aboriginal IMR information and to acquire information that would help to better understand and address the underlying causes of disparities in infant mortality between the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal population in Canada.

  4. Stillbirth and infant mortality in Aboriginal communities in Quebec.

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    Gilbert, Nicolas L; Auger, Nathalie; Tjepkema, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Infant mortality and stillbirth rates among Aboriginal people are higher than in the rest of Canada, but little is known on the perinatal health status of First Nations people living on reserves. This study examines stillbirth and infant mortality rates among Aboriginal people in Quebec, notably, First Nations people living on reserves, and compares these rates with those of the province's non-Aboriginal population. Data on live births and stillbirths in Quebec from 1989 to 2008 were extracted from Statistics Canada's Infant Birth-Death Linked File. Postal codes were used to identify births and stillbirths on First Nations reserves, in the Cree and Naskapi communities (not on reserves), and in Inuit communities. Associations between type of community and mortality were measured using logistic regression models. Aboriginal people had a higher stillbirth rate than non-Aboriginal people in Quebec, but this difference was not significant after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics (mothers' age and education, community size and isolation). Neonatal mortality was also higher among the Inuit. Post-neonatal mortality was higher among Aboriginal people, and was unrelated to differences in the mothers' age and education or to community size and isolation. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for post-neonatal mortality on reserves, in the Cree and Naskapi communities, and in Inuit communities were, respectively, 1.57 (1.16 - 2.12), 3.01 (2.14 - 4.24) and 4.29 (3.09 - 5.97). Stillbirth and infant mortality are higher among Aboriginal people than non-Aboriginal people in Quebec. The differences in post-neonatal mortality are particularly pronounced.

  5. Sudden infant death syndrome in an urban Aboriginal community.

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    Knight, Jennifer; Webster, Vana; Kemp, Lynn; Comino, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    The study aims to understand sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk and preventive practices in an urban Aboriginal community, through exploration of mothers' knowledge and practices and examination of coroner case records. Data were collected from the mothers of Aboriginal infants participating in the Gudaga Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study. At 2-3 weeks post-natal, mothers were asked about SIDS risk-reduction practices, infant sleeping position and smoking practices within the home. Questions were repeated when study infants were 6 months of age. During the first 18 months of the study, three infants within the cohort died. All deaths were identified as SIDS related. The Coroner reports for these infants were reviewed. At the 2-3 weeks data collection point, approximately 66.2% (n = 98) of mothers correctly identified two or more SIDS risk-reduction strategies. At this same data point, approximately 82% (n = 122) of mothers were putting their infants to sleep on their backs (supine). Higher maternal education was significantly associated (P infants who had been sleeping in an unsafe sleeping environment. Rates of SIDS deaths within the study community were much higher than the national average. Most mothers were putting their infant to sleep correctly even though they may be unaware that their practice was in accordance with recommended guidelines. Best practice safe sleeping environments are difficult to achieve for some families living in low socio-economic settings. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. Disparities and Trends in Birth Outcomes, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in Aboriginal vs. Non-Aboriginal Populations: A Population-Based Study in Quebec, Canada 1996-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Chen

    Full Text Available Aboriginal populations are at substantially higher risks of adverse birth outcomes, perinatal and infant mortality than their non-Aboriginal counterparts even in developed countries including Australia, U.S. and Canada. There is a lack of data on recent trends in Canada.We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study (n = 254,410 using the linked vital events registry databases for singleton births in Quebec 1996-2010. Aboriginal (First Nations, Inuit births were identified by mother tongue, place of residence and Indian Registration System membership. Outcomes included preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age, large-for-gestational-age, low birth weight, high birth weight, stillbirth, neonatal death, postneonatal death, perinatal death and infant death.Perinatal and infant mortality rates were 1.47 and 1.80 times higher in First Nations (10.1 and 7.3 per 1000, respectively, and 2.37 and 4.46 times higher in Inuit (16.3 and 18.1 per 1000, respectively relative to non-Aboriginal (6.9 and 4.1 per 1000, respectively births (all p<0.001. Compared to non-Aboriginal births, preterm birth rates were persistently (1.7-1.8 times higher in Inuit, large-for-gestational-age birth rates were persistently (2.7-3.0 times higher in First Nations births over the study period. Between 1996-2000 and 2006-2010, as compared to non-Aboriginal infants, the relative risk disparities increased for infant mortality (from 4.10 to 5.19 times in Inuit, and for postneonatal mortality in Inuit (from 6.97 to 12.33 times or First Nations (from 3.76 to 4.25 times infants. Adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, marital status, parity, education and rural vs. urban residence attenuated the risk differences, but significantly elevated risks remained in both Inuit and First Nations births for the risks of perinatal mortality (1.70 and 1.28 times, respectively, infant mortality (3.66 and 1.47 times, respectively and postneonatal mortality (6.01 and 2.28 times

  7. Disparities and Trends in Birth Outcomes, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in Aboriginal vs. Non-Aboriginal Populations: A Population-Based Study in Quebec, Canada 1996–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Xiao, Lin; Auger, Nathalie; Torrie, Jill; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Zoungrana, Hamado; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Aboriginal populations are at substantially higher risks of adverse birth outcomes, perinatal and infant mortality than their non-Aboriginal counterparts even in developed countries including Australia, U.S. and Canada. There is a lack of data on recent trends in Canada. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study (n = 254,410) using the linked vital events registry databases for singleton births in Quebec 1996–2010. Aboriginal (First Nations, Inuit) births were identified by mother tongue, place of residence and Indian Registration System membership. Outcomes included preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age, large-for-gestational-age, low birth weight, high birth weight, stillbirth, neonatal death, postneonatal death, perinatal death and infant death. Results Perinatal and infant mortality rates were 1.47 and 1.80 times higher in First Nations (10.1 and 7.3 per 1000, respectively), and 2.37 and 4.46 times higher in Inuit (16.3 and 18.1 per 1000, respectively) relative to non-Aboriginal (6.9 and 4.1 per 1000, respectively) births (all prates were persistently (1.7–1.8 times) higher in Inuit, large-for-gestational-age birth rates were persistently (2.7–3.0 times) higher in First Nations births over the study period. Between 1996–2000 and 2006–2010, as compared to non-Aboriginal infants, the relative risk disparities increased for infant mortality (from 4.10 to 5.19 times) in Inuit, and for postneonatal mortality in Inuit (from 6.97 to 12.33 times) or First Nations (from 3.76 to 4.25 times) infants. Adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, marital status, parity, education and rural vs. urban residence) attenuated the risk differences, but significantly elevated risks remained in both Inuit and First Nations births for the risks of perinatal mortality (1.70 and 1.28 times, respectively), infant mortality (3.66 and 1.47 times, respectively) and postneonatal mortality (6.01 and 2.28 times, respectively) in Inuit and

  8. Disparities and Trends in Birth Outcomes, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in Aboriginal vs. Non-Aboriginal Populations: A Population-Based Study in Quebec, Canada 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Xiao, Lin; Auger, Nathalie; Torrie, Jill; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Zoungrana, Hamado; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal populations are at substantially higher risks of adverse birth outcomes, perinatal and infant mortality than their non-Aboriginal counterparts even in developed countries including Australia, U.S. and Canada. There is a lack of data on recent trends in Canada. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study (n = 254,410) using the linked vital events registry databases for singleton births in Quebec 1996-2010. Aboriginal (First Nations, Inuit) births were identified by mother tongue, place of residence and Indian Registration System membership. Outcomes included preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age, large-for-gestational-age, low birth weight, high birth weight, stillbirth, neonatal death, postneonatal death, perinatal death and infant death. Perinatal and infant mortality rates were 1.47 and 1.80 times higher in First Nations (10.1 and 7.3 per 1000, respectively), and 2.37 and 4.46 times higher in Inuit (16.3 and 18.1 per 1000, respectively) relative to non-Aboriginal (6.9 and 4.1 per 1000, respectively) births (all prates were persistently (1.7-1.8 times) higher in Inuit, large-for-gestational-age birth rates were persistently (2.7-3.0 times) higher in First Nations births over the study period. Between 1996-2000 and 2006-2010, as compared to non-Aboriginal infants, the relative risk disparities increased for infant mortality (from 4.10 to 5.19 times) in Inuit, and for postneonatal mortality in Inuit (from 6.97 to 12.33 times) or First Nations (from 3.76 to 4.25 times) infants. Adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, marital status, parity, education and rural vs. urban residence) attenuated the risk differences, but significantly elevated risks remained in both Inuit and First Nations births for the risks of perinatal mortality (1.70 and 1.28 times, respectively), infant mortality (3.66 and 1.47 times, respectively) and postneonatal mortality (6.01 and 2.28 times, respectively) in Inuit and First Nations infants (all pinfant

  9. Describing the growth and rapid weight gain of urban Australian Aboriginal infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Vana; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Knight, Jennifer; Comino, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this paper are to describe the growth of urban Australian Aboriginal infants from birth to 24 months of age and to identify the proportion of these infants experiencing rapid weight gain (RWG) and overweight/obesity. The Gudaga Study is a longitudinal birth cohort of 159 Australian Aboriginal children born on the urban fringe of Sydney. Birthweight and length were extracted from hospital data. Children with a birthweight >1500 grams were included in the analysis (n = 157). Weight, length and head circumference were measured at 2-3 weeks and then six-monthly until 24 months of age. Age- and gender-specific Z-scores were determined from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 2000 growth charts for weight, length, head circumference and body mass index (BMI). The proportion of children experiencing RWG (an increase in weight-for-age Z-scores ≥0.67 between birth and 12 months) was calculated. The association between RWG and ≥85th CDC percentile for BMI at 24 months was tested using Pearson's χ². The mean weight of Gudaga infants was less than the CDC mean length-for-age at birth and 2-3 weeks of age but greater than CDC mean length-for-age and weight-for-age at 18 and 24 months of age. Overall, 42 infants (34.4%) experienced RWG, and 45 infants (36.9%) were overweight/obese at 24 months of age. A greater proportion of those who experienced RWG (61.9%) were overweight/obese at 24 months than those who did not experience RWG (23.8%). Our study suggests a concerning proportion of urban Indigenous infants experience RWG and overweight/obesity in early childhood.

  10. Closing the gap in Australian Aboriginal infant immunisation rates -- the development and review of a pre-call strategy.

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    Cashman, Patrick M; Allan, Natalie A; Clark, Katrina K; Butler, Michelle T; Massey, Peter D; Durrheim, David N

    2016-06-16

    Improving timely immunisation is key to closing the inequitable gap in immunisation rates between Aboriginal children and non-Indigenous children. Aboriginal Immunisation Officers were employed in Hunter New England Local Health District (HNELHD), New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to telephone the families of all Aboriginal infants prior to the due date for their first scheduled vaccination. Aboriginal Immunisation Officers contacted the families of Aboriginal children born in the Hunter New England Local Health District (HNELHD) by telephone before their due immunisation date (pre-call) to provide the rationale for timely immunisation, and to facilitate contact with culturally safe local immunisation services if this was required. The impact of this strategy on immunisation coverage rates is reviewed. For the period March 2010 to September 2014 there was a significant increase in immunisation coverage rate for Aboriginal children at 12 months of age in HNELHD (p immunisation coverage gap between Aboriginal children and non-Indigenous children in HNELHD (p immunisation coverage gap between Aboriginal and non-Indigenous infants decreased at a significantly faster rate in HNELHD than the rest of NSW (p = 0.0001). By the end of the study period in 2014, immunisation coverage in HNELHD Aboriginal infants had surpassed that of non-Indigenous infants by 0.8 %. The employment of Aboriginal immunisation officers may be associated with closing of the gap between Aboriginal and non-Indigenous infants' immunisation coverage in HNELHD and NSW. The pre-call telephone strategy provided accelerated benefit in closing this gap in HNELHD.

  11. Emotional labour and aboriginal maternal infant care workers: The invisible load.

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    Kirkham, R; Rumbold, A; Hoon, E; Stuart-Butler, D; Moore, V

    2017-07-14

    The term 'emotional labour' has been used to describe the competing demands on midwives to empathize with clients whilst maintaining a level of professional detachment. Previous research indicates that when individuals experience difficulty managing these emotions, burnout may result. Aboriginal health care workers often have roles with large emotional demands, as they are relied upon heavily to engage clients in care. However, the concept of emotional labour has received little attention in relation to this group. To explore potential sources of emotional labour for Aboriginal Maternal Infant Care workers in a maternity care program for Aboriginal women in South Australia. The program involves these workers providing care for women in partnership with midwives. We employed a phenomenological approach. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with staff and clients of the program. Recorded interviews were transcribed and coded and emerging themes identified. This workforce undertakes extensive emotional labour. Key sources include the cultural and family obligations they have to clients, complex social needs of many clients, and potential for community backlash when poor perinatal outcomes occur. A lack of respect for the role within the workplace further contributes to these experiences. This study found that the responsibilities inherent to the role as both cultural broker and carer create significant emotional labour for workers. Recommendations to address this and enhance the sustainability of this workforce include: recognition and valuing of emotional work by management and other staff, enhancing cultural awareness training, and building stress-relieving activities into the workplace. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of coping strategies and supports between aboriginal and non-aboriginal people living with HIV in Ontario.

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    Jaworsky, Denise; Benoit, Anita; Raboud, Janet; O'Brien-Teengs, Doe; Blitz, Sandra; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N; Loutfy, Mona R

    2016-01-01

    Complex historical and cultural factors have contributed to the HIV epidemic among Aboriginal populations in Canada. This study assesses social supports, adaptive and maladaptive coping mechanisms, stress, and mastery of Canadian-born Aboriginal and Canadian-born Caucasian people living with HIV in Ontario and posits that coping and social support are important micro- and meso-level factors associated with the epidemic. This cross-sectional analysis included questionnaire data collected from 2007 to 2011 at HIV clinics in Toronto. Categorical and continuous variables were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, respectively. Correlates of social support and coping were determined using univariate and multivariable linear regression. The analysis included 70 Aboriginal and 665 Caucasian participants. Aboriginal participants had lower levels of employment, education, and annual household income. Aboriginal participants reported more overall (7 vs. 4, p = 0.0003), ongoing (4 vs. 2, p = 0.0004), and early childhood (2 vs. 1, p = 0.02) stressors. Maladaptive coping, adaptive coping, and mastery scores were similar between Aboriginal and Caucasian participants. In multivariable analysis, injection drug use and lower education levels were significant correlates of higher maladaptive coping and lower overall support scores. Despite numerous socioeconomic challenges and personal stressors, Aboriginal people living with HIV who are accessing care exhibited comparable coping and mastery scores to Canadian-born Caucasian people living with HIV, suggesting remarkable strengths within Aboriginal people living with HIV and their communities.

  13. A comparison of the effectiveness of an adult nutrition education program for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians.

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    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I; Moore, Sarah; Pratt, Iain S

    2015-11-01

    Adult nutrition education is an important component of broader societal efforts to address the high prevalence of nutrition-related diseases. In Australia, Aboriginal people are a critical target group for such programs because of their substantially higher rates of these diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the relative effectiveness of an adult nutrition education program for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Pre-and post-course evaluation data were used to assess changes in confidence in ability to buy healthy foods on a budget, nutrition knowledge, and dietary behaviours among individuals attending FOODcents nutrition education courses. The total sample of 875 Western Australians included 169 who self-identified as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. Perceptions of course usefulness were very high and comparable between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Significantly larger improvements in confidence, nutrition knowledge, and reported consumption behaviours were evident among Aboriginal participants. The findings suggest that adult nutrition education programs that address specific knowledge and skill deficits that are common among disadvantaged groups can be effective for multiple target groups, and may also assist in reducing nutrition-related inequalities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional status of haemodialysis patients: comparison of Australian cohorts of Aboriginal and European descent.

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    Todd, Alwyn; Carroll, Robert; Gallagher, Meghan; Meade, Anthony

    2013-12-01

    It is not known whether nutritional status differs between Australian Aboriginal and non Aboriginal haemodialysis subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal haemodialysis subjects at satellite dialysis centres. Seventy-six (25 Aboriginal, 51 non-Aboriginal) prevalent haemodialysis patients were enrolled in a 3-month cross-sectional study. Each month anthropometric and biochemical measurements were collected. Nutritional status (diet history, patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), handgrip strength) was assessed by a dietitian. PG-SGA detected mild to moderate malnutrition in 35% of Aboriginal patients and 25% of non-Aboriginal patients. The overall physical rating on the PG-SGA was significantly higher in Aboriginal patients, indicating the presence of a greater deficit in muscle mass in this population. Inter-dialytic weight gain was significantly greater in Aboriginal subjects (median [range] 3.0 [2.1-5.7] vs 2.5 [-0.3-5.0] kg, P1.6 and median normalized protein catabolic rate 1.5). Difficulties were encountered in obtaining dietary information from Aboriginal subjects using the diet history method. Subjects had acceptable parameters of dialysis adequacy; however, 35% had evidence of malnutrition. Further research should focus on establishing a knowledge base for the nutritional management for Aboriginal dialysis subjects, and the development of a validated individual dietary assessment method for use in this population group. © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  15. A cost-consequences analysis of a midwifery group practice for Aboriginal mothers and infants in the top end of the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Gold, Lisa; Josif, Cath; Bar-Zeev, Sarah; Steenkamp, Malinda; Barclay, Lesley; Zhao, Yuejen; Tracy, Sally; Kildea, Sue

    2014-04-01

    to compare the cost-effectiveness of two models of service delivery: Midwifery Group Practice (MGP) and baseline cohort. a retrospective and prospective cohort study. a regional hospital in Northern Territory (NT), Australia. baseline cohort included all Aboriginal mothers (n=412), and their infants (n=416), from two remote communities who gave birth between 2004 and 2006. The MGP cohort included all Aboriginal mothers (n=310), and their infants (n=315), from seven communities who gave birth between 2009 and 2011. The baseline cohort mothers and infant's medical records were retrospectively audited and the MGP cohort data were prospectively collected. All the direct costs, from the Department of Health (DH) perspective, occurred from the first antenatal presentation to six weeks post partum for mothers and up to 28 days post births for infants were included for analysis. analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0 and Stata 12.1. Independent sample of t-tests and χ2 were conducted. women receiving MGP care had significantly more antenatal care, more ultrasounds, were more likely to be admitted to hospital antenatally, and had more postnatal care in town. The MGP cohort had significantly reduced average length of stay for infants admitted to Special Care Nursery (SCN). There was no significant difference between the two cohorts for major birth outcomes such as mode of birth, preterm birth rate and low birth weight. Costs savings (mean A$703) were found, although these were not statistically significant, for women and their infants receiving MGP care compared to the baseline cohort. for remote dwelling Aboriginal women of all risk who travelled to town for birth, MGP was likely to be cost effective, and women received better care and resulting in equivalent birth outcomes compared with the baseline maternity care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparison of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Students on the Inter-Related Dimensions of Self-Concept, Strengths and Achievement

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    Whitley, Jessica; Rawana, Edward; Brownlee, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. In this study, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the…

  17. Disparities and Trends in Birth Outcomes, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in Aboriginal vs. Non-Aboriginal Populations: A Population-Based Study in Quebec, Canada 1996-2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Lu; Xiao, Lin; Auger, Nathalie; Torrie, Jill; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Zoungrana, Hamado; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    .... Outcomes included preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age, large-for-gestational-age, low birth weight, high birth weight, stillbirth, neonatal death, postneonatal death, perinatal death and infant death...

  18. A comparison of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students on the inter-related dimensions of self-concept, strengths and achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Whitley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. The current study explored the relationships between multidimensional self-concept, perceived strengths and academic achievement among a sample Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students. Results indicated that perceived self-concept and strengths were largely similar across groups. However, students in the two groups drew on different strengths to comprise their general self-concept. Findings are explored within the context of existing research and theory.

  19. A comparison of two models of dental care for Aboriginal communities in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, K; McCowen, D; Cripps, S; Lincoln, M; Irving, M; Blinkhorn, A

    2017-06-01

    Aboriginal people, and particularly those in rural areas, continue to suffer very high levels of dental disease despite significant reductions in the wider Australian population in the past 30 years. Until recently, there has been a shortage of oral health clinicians and the majority have provided care in major cities. The NSW Government funded various models of care for rural and regional areas and vulnerable population groups including Aboriginal people. This study utilizes a comparative retrospective analysis to compare two models of oral health care for Aboriginal people including those living in rural NSW to inform future policy decisions. Two models (Model A - Fly in Fly out and Model B - Collective impact) of public oral health care for Aboriginal patients in NSW were examined using publicly available descriptive information. Two years of funding and Dental Weighted Activity Units (DWAUs) data were analysed for the two different models and regression analysis was used to compare the trends of monthly time series of DWAUs. Based on the standardized national weighted pricing for public dentistry, model B offers significantly more services for less financial resources. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Improving Aboriginal maternal and infant health services in the 'Top End' of Australia; synthesis of the findings of a health services research program aimed at engaging stakeholders, developing research capacity and embedding change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lesley; Kruske, Sue; Bar-Zeev, Sarah; Steenkamp, Malinda; Josif, Cathryn; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Wardaguga, Molly; Belton, Suzanne; Gao, Yu; Dunbar, Terry; Kildea, Sue

    2014-06-02

    Health services research is a well-articulated research methodology and can be a powerful vehicle to implement sustainable health service reform. This paper presents a summary of a five-year collaborative program between stakeholders and researchers that led to sustainable improvements in the maternity services for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women and their infants in the Top End (TE) of Australia. A mixed-methods health services research program of work was designed, using a participatory approach. The study area consisted of two large remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End of Australia and the hospital in the regional centre (RC) that provided birth and tertiary care for these communities. The stakeholders included consumers, midwives, doctors, nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHW), managers, policy makers and support staff. Data were sourced from: hospital and health centre records; perinatal data sets and costing data sets; observations of maternal and infant health service delivery and parenting styles; formal and informal interviews with providers and women and focus groups. Studies examined: indicator sets that identify best care, the impact of quality of care and remoteness on health outcomes, discrepancies in the birth counts in a range of different data sets and ethnographic studies of 'out of hospital' or health centre birth and parenting. A new model of maternity care was introduced by the health service aiming to improve care following the findings of our research. Some of these improvements introduced during the five-year research program of research were evaluated. Cost effective improvements were made to the acceptability, quality and outcomes of maternity care. However, our synthesis identified system-wide problems that still account for poor quality of infant services, specifically, unacceptable standards of infant care and parent support, no apparent relationship between volume and acuity of presentations and staff numbers with the

  1. Hospital use in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients with chronic disease.

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    Whyatt, David; Yap, Matthew; Tenneti, Raji; Pearson, Glenn; Vickery, Alistair

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare rates of hospital utilisation in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples before and after hospital admission for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus. This was a longitudinal cohort study from 2002 to 2014, which was conducted in all hospitals in Western Australia. The participants of this study were Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients with a principal diagnosis of heart failure, type 2 diabetes or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, on admission to hospital, where such an event had not occurred in the previous 3 years. Inpatient days and ED presentations were the main outcome measures. Among the patients with chronic disease, Aboriginal people have similar inpatient days for all causes compared to non-Aboriginal people. However, they have much higher ED presentations in comparison. Age of onset of cardinal events occurs 15-20 years earlier in Aboriginal patients with chronic disease. Although age has little influence on ED presentations in non-Aboriginal chronic disease patients, younger Aboriginal people with chronic disease present far more often to ED than older Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people use health services in a different manner when compared to non-Aboriginal people. In a subset of patients with chronic disease, high use may be reduced with better access to primary healthcare. Policy-makers and healthcare providers should examine healthcare use from primary to tertiary care among the Aboriginal population, with a particular focus on ED presentations; investigate the underlying causes driving specific patterns of health service utilisation among Aboriginal people; and develop interventions to reduce potential deleterious impacts, and enhance the potential benefits, of specific patterns of healthcare use. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  2. Aboriginal migration and labour market programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J

    1992-05-01

    "Despite the potential for government employment policies both to encourage and preclude migration among the Aboriginal workforce, little is known about the impacts of such policies. This paper seeks to construct a base line for identifying these impacts by establishing the spatial structure of labour migration among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. It makes use of 1986 Census data to describe the volume and pattern of net and gross flows of working-age Aborigines and Islanders through the national settlement system, distinguishing between movements in remote and closely settled parts of the country. Full determination of the links between policy and migration flows awaits comparison with 1991 Census results." excerpt

  3. What is the impact of diabetes for Australian Aboriginal women when pregnant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cynthia, Porter; Timothy, Skinner; Isabelle, Ellis

    2011-01-01

    The impact differential of diabetes for Aboriginal maternal and infant health outcomes is different to Caucasian outcomes. With maternal diabetes, Aboriginal infant's birth weight increases and stillbirth rate is 22/1000 for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 53/1000 for pre-existing diabete...

  4. Labels Facilitate Infants' Comparison of Action Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the actions of others depends on the insight that these actions are structured by intentional relations. In a number of conceptual domains, comparison with familiar instances has been shown to support children's and adults' ability to discern the relational structure of novel instances. Recent evidence suggests that this process…

  5. Oral health comparisons between children attending an Aboriginal health service and a Government school dental service in a regional location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eleanor J; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2007-01-01

    ; while the SiC 10 is the mean dmft/DMFT of the one-tenth of the sample with the highest caries score. In the 5 year observation period, 760 children were seen at the Pika Wiya Dental Service while over 6800 were seen at the Port Augusta SDS. A higher proportion of pre-school children attended for care at Pika Wiya, while proportionally more children aged > or = 11 years attended for care at the Port Augusta SDS. More females attended for care at Pika Wiya. Almost all children (99%) attending for care at Pika Wiya lived in the most disadvantaged areas according to the SEIFA scale. Children attending for care at Pika Wiya had three-times the mean number of decayed deciduous and permanent teeth than their counterparts attending the Port Augusta SDS. Over 75% of children attending for care at Pika Wiya aged 10 years or less had dental caries experience in the primary dentition compared with just over 50% of children attending for care at the Port Augusta SDS. Children attending for dental care at Pika Wiya aged 10 years or less had 1.8 times the mean dmft, 1.4 times the SiC and 1.4 times the Sic 10 of their counterparts attending for care at Port Augusta SDS. Over half the children aged > or = 6 years who attended Pika Wiya for dental care had caries experience in the permanent dentition compared with 38% of their Port Augusta SDS-attending counterparts. Children aged > or = 6 years who attended Pika Wiya for dental care had 1.9 times the mean DMFT, 1.8 times the SiC and 1.6 times the SiC 10 of their similarly-aged Port Augusta SDS-attending counterparts. Children attending for care at the Pika Wiya Dental Service were more likely to be pre-school-aged, female, Indigenous and living in a socially disadvantaged area, in comparison with children attending the Port Augusta SDS. Pika Wiya-attending children had 1.5-3 times the dental caries prevalence and severity in both the primary and permanent dentition of children attending for care at the Port Augusta SDS. The higher

  6. Earnings implications of person years lost life expectancy among Canada's aboriginal peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Maxim

    2003-12-01

    life expectancy approximately seven years less than the general population. The Aboriginal population also differs in that it has a higher fertility rate and higher mortality rates among infants and young adults. One of the consequences of the mortality differential is that the number of person years of lost life (PYLL expectancy is large for the Aboriginal community in comparison to the general population. While several studies have focused on the causes of differential mortality, this study examines some of the socio-economic consequences of differences in PYLL. Examining wage labor income, for example, we determine that the PYLL differential translates into an expected wage and salary loss of approximately $1.56 billion.

  7. Comparison of infants with jaundice due to maternal diabetes and infants with unknown jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2017-07-01

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, among 2,800 infants with jaundice in Ghaem hospital in Mashhad during the 2007 to 2014, features of 59 infants of diabetic mother's (case group and 78 infants with unknown jaundice (control group were analyzed. After confirming of jaundice (Bilirubin ≥ 17 mg/dl in newborns based on examination of pediatrician and laboratory results, a researcher made questionnaire containing maternal demographic data, (maternal age, parity, maternal problems during pregnancy, route of delivery. Also neonatal characteristics including age, sex, birth weight, current weight, duration of hospitalization, current age, age of recovery and laboratory data (Bilirubin, direct bilirubin, hematocrit, platelet, sodium, potassium, blood urea nitrogen, Cr, TSH, T4 were assessed. After data collection and recording information in SPSS software, version 19.5 (IBM SPSS, Armonk, NY, USA, by using tables, charts and statistical indices, the study was evaluated. Data were analyzed using statistical tests such as Mann-Whitney, Chi-square tests after normality control. Comparison of the two groups in normal distribution with t-test and for non-standard data with Mann-Whitney test. Also for definitive variables Chi-square test was used. P-value less than 0.50 was the significant level minimum. Results: In this study, the prevalence of jaundice due to maternal diabetes was 2.10 percent. Birth weight (P=0.02, current age (P=0.003, parity (P=0.000, maternal age (P=0.000, age of recovery (P=0.04, cesarean section (P=0.001, prematurity (P=0.000, maternal problems during pregnancy (P=0.000, abnormal physical examinations (P=0.001 in diabetic mother's infants and Bilirubin (P=0.000, length of hospitalization (P=0.003, in infants with unknown jaundice were higher. Conclusion: The infant of diabetic mother are at increased risk of maternal and neonatal complications. Neonatal complications consist of high birth weight, preterm labor, more jaundice and late recovery

  8. Aboriginal English. PEN 93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Diana

    This report focuses on the teaching of English to Aboriginal children in primary schools in Australia. A definition and analysis of dialectal differences between Aboriginal (Australian) English and Standard (Australian) English is offered that includes the phonological, morpho-syntactic, lexico-semantic, and pragmatic differences of the Aboriginal…

  9. Aboriginal Review 2003/2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents information on Syncrude's efforts and achievements in working with Aboriginal communities and leaders in Alberta since 2002 through its Aboriginal Development Program. The report discusses the six key commitment areas of the Program. First, the report provides an overview of Syncrude's achievements in the area of corporate leadership including participation in the Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Industry Advisory Committee; recognition by the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business as a leader in Aboriginal relations through the Aboriginal Relations program; supporting the National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation; championing the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Council of Canada; membership of the Alberta Chamber of Resources Aboriginal Programs Project; Conference Board of Canada's Council on Corporate Aboriginal Relations; and, chairing the Mining Association of Canada. The report discusses business development of Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business owners including Syncrude's employment targets for Aboriginal employment in the Syncrude workforce. It discusses community development in Aboriginal communities such as long distance learning; the Fort Chipewyan day care centre; the Chipewyan Prairie Dene First Nation Multi-Purpose Community Centre in Janvier; and, an elder care facility in Fort McKay First Nation community. It discusses education and training including the Alberta Aboriginal Apprenticeship Project; Syncrude Aboriginal/Women Education Awards Program; University of Alberta Aboriginal Careers Initiative; and, the Aboriginal Financial Management Internship. The report also discusses Syncrude's consultations with Aboriginal communities on environmental issues such as end-land use, air quality and how further expansion can occur without long-term impacts on traditional land uses. The report also contains questions and answers with Aboriginal leaders to discuss the impact of oil sands

  10. Staphylococcal enterotoxin genes are common in Staphylococcus aureus intestinal flora in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and live comparison infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, Amanda R; Goldwater, Paul N

    2009-11-01

    Pathological and epidemiological findings in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) suggest an infectious aetiology with indications of involvement of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). While SEA, SEB and SEC have been found in the sera and tissues of SIDS cases, little is known about the role of intestinal Staphylococcus aureus or the roles of later-described toxins SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI and SEJ in SIDS. We used a molecular-based approach to define whether the intestinal tract could be a source of SEs to support the staphylococcal toxic shock hypothesis for SIDS. Intestinal contents from 57 SIDS infants and faeces from 79 age- and gender-matched live comparison infants were cultured and tested for S. aureus and sea-b-c-e-g-h-j and TSST using PCR. High proportions of infants in both groups carried toxigenic and nontoxigenic S. aureus. Significantly greater proportions of SIDS compared with comparison babies were positive for S. aureus (68.4% vs. 40.5%) and for SE genes (43.8% vs. 21.5%), suggesting a possible role in SIDS. The results indicate that colonization by S. aureus with SE genes is common in infants; however, their detection is unlikely to be a strong predictive tool for SIDS. Other factors (including immune response) may reveal a specific susceptibility to SEs in SIDS infants.

  11. Two Are Better Than One: Comparison Influences Infants' Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Lisa M.; Kovack-Lesh, Kristine A.; Horst, Jessica S.

    2009-01-01

    Despite a large literature on infants' memory for visually presented stimuli, the processes underlying visual memory are not well understood. Two studies with 4-month-olds (N = 60) examined the effects of providing opportunities for comparison of items on infants' memory for those items. Experiment 1 revealed that 4-month-olds failed to show…

  12. Wideband absorbance in Australian Aboriginal and Caucasian neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, Sreedevi; Kei, Joseph; Driscoll, Carlie

    2014-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of otitis media in Australian Aboriginal infants and children, the conductive mechanism of the outer and middle ear of Aboriginal neonates remains unclear. Differences in characteristics of the conductive pathway (outer and middle ear) between Aboriginal and Caucasian neonates have not been systematically investigated by using wideband acoustic immittance measures. The objective of this study was to compare wideband absorbance (WBA) in Australian Aboriginal and Caucasian neonates who passed or failed a screening test battery containing high-frequency tympanometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). A cross-sectional study design was used. The mean WBA as a function of frequency was compared between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal neonates who passed or failed the test battery. A total of 59 ears from 32 Aboriginal neonates (mean age, 51.9 h; standard deviation [SD], 18.2 h; range, 22-86 h) and 281 ears from 158 Caucasian neonates (mean age, 42.4 h; SD, 23.0 h; range, 8.1-152 h) who passed or failed 1000-Hz tympanometry and DPOAEs were included in the study. WBA results were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and t tests with Bonferroni adjustment. An analysis of variance with repeated measures was applied to the data. Aboriginal and Caucasian neonates had almost identical pass rates of 61%, as determined by the test battery. Despite the apparently equal pass rates, the mean WBA of Aboriginal neonates who passed the test battery was significantly lower than that of their Caucasian counterparts at frequencies between 0.4 and 2 kHz. The mean WBA of Aboriginal neonates who failed the test battery was significantly lower than that of their Caucasian counterparts who also failed the test battery at frequencies between 1.5 and 3 kHz. Both Aboriginal and Caucasian neonates who failed the test battery had significantly lower WBA values than their counterparts who passed the test battery. This study provided convincing

  13. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role a...

  14. [Breast- and bottle-feeding in preterm infants: a comparison of behavioral cues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Chun; Lin, Chen-Hsiu; Zhang, Jia-Wen; Chen, Siao-Min; Chen, Chih-Ling; Huang, Mei-Chih

    2013-12-01

    Developmental care has been broadly applied to identify the behavioral cues and care needs of preterm infants. Past studies indicate a significantly higher level of physical distress in bottle-fed preterm infants than in preterm infants who are breastfed. However, no evidence has yet been reported that supports the influence of feeding methods on behavioral cues. This study compares differences in the type and frequency of behavioral cues between breast- and bottle-fed preterm infants. A comparison study design and secondary data analysis method were used to assess data from two previous research projects. Infant feeding behavioral cues were observed and compared between two groups: 7 preterm infants who were breastfed and 7 preterm infants who were bottle-fed. After cases were matched by infant gestational age, behavioral responses were coded according to the preterm feeding cues coding system (PFCCS) from 7 paired maternal-infant feeding videos that featured preterm infants of 25 to 32 weeks gestational age at birth. The PFCCS classifies 24 feeding behavioral cues into hunger cues, self-regulatory cues, stress cues, and satiety cues. Infants in the breastfeeding group had a higher hunger cue frequency than their bottle-fed peers (p = .013), while bottle-fed infants had a higher stress cue frequency than their breastfed peers (p = .041). Other significant differences in behavioral cues between the two feeding methods included "fluid spillage" (bottle- >breast-, p = .008), "central cyanosis" (bottle- >breast-, p = .024) and "hand pushing" (breast- >bottle-, p = .034). Preterm infants in this study who breastfed showed significantly fewer stress cues than those who bottle fed. These findings support the importance of enhancing care provider sensitivity with regard to behavioral-cue observation. Findings further support breastfeeding rather than bottle-feeding for preterm infants.

  15. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  16. Infant Development in Fragile X Syndrome: Cross-Syndrome Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jane E.; McCary, Lindsay M.; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the developmental profile of male infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and its divergence from typical development and development of infants at high risk for autism associated with familial recurrence (ASIBs). Participants included 174 boys ranging in age from 5 to 28 months. Cross-sectional profiles on the Mullen Scales of…

  17. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  18. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  19. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  20. Supporting Aboriginal Women to Quit Smoking: Antenatal and Postnatal Care Providers' Confidence, Attitudes, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzelepis, Flora; Daly, Justine; Dowe, Sarah; Bourke, Alex; Gillham, Karen; Freund, Megan

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco use during pregnancy is substantially higher among Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women in Australia. However, no studies have investigated the amount or type of smoking cessation care that staff from Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal services provide to clients who smoke or staff confidence to do so. This study examined Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal staff confidence, perceived role and delivery of smoking cessation care to Aboriginal women and characteristics associated with provision of such care. Staff from 11 Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Services and eight Aboriginal Child and Family Health services in the Hunter New England Local Health District in Australia completed a cross-sectional self-reported survey (n = 67, response rate = 97.1%). Most staff reported they assessed clients' smoking status most or all of the time (92.2%). However, only a minority reported they offered a quitline referral (42.2%), provided follow-up support (28.6%) or provided nicotine replacement therapy (4.7%) to most or all clients who smoked. Few staff felt confident in motivating clients to quit smoking (19.7%) and advising clients about using nicotine replacement therapy (15.6%). Staff confident with talking to clients about how smoking affected their health had significantly higher odds of offering a quitline referral [OR = 4.9 (1.7-14.5)] and quitting assistance [OR = 3.9 (1.3-11.6)] to clients who smoke. Antenatal and postnatal staff delivery of smoking cessation care to pregnant Aboriginal women or mothers with young Aboriginal children could be improved. Programs that support Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal providers to deliver smoking cessation care to clients are needed. Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal service staff have multiple opportunities to assist Aboriginal women to quit smoking during pregnancy and postpartum. However, staff confidence and practices of offering various forms of smoking cessation support to pregnant Aboriginal

  1. Breastfeeding Duration and Residential Isolation amid Aboriginal Children in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Zubrick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in urban, rural and remote settings across Western Australia. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using survey weights to produce unbiased estimates for the population of Aboriginal children. Data on demographic, maternal and infant characteristics were collected from 3932 Aboriginal birth mothers about their children aged 0–17 years (representing 22,100 Aboriginal children in Western Australia. Results: 71% of Aboriginal children were breastfed for three months or more. Accounting for other factors, there was a strong gradient for breastfeeding duration by remoteness, with Aboriginal children living in areas of moderate isolation being 3.2 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or more (p < 0.001 compared to children in metropolitan Perth. Those in areas of extreme isolation were 8.6 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or longer (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Greater residential isolation a protective factor linked to longer breastfeeding duration for Aboriginal children in our West Australian cohort.

  2. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Robitaille

    2010-12-01

    Aboriginal person and a non-Aboriginal person, the Aboriginal identity prevails over the non-Aboriginal identity. If Aboriginal identities were “not attractive” identities when declaring the ethnic affiliation of children in situations of exogamous unions, then the size of the Aboriginal population in Canada would be significantly smaller.

  3. Respiratory function among Malaysian aboriginals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A. E.; Bolton, J. M.; Ganendran, A.

    1971-01-01

    Respiratory function tests have been performed on 43 Malaysian aboriginals. The forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were considerably below, and the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) slightly below, the predicted values. The FEV1 and PEFR decreased more rapidly with advancing age than predicted from western standards. These findings may be due to physiological differences or may be the result of chronic purulent bronchitis which is common among the aboriginals. Images PMID:5144653

  4. Comparison of Infant Car Seat grip orientations and lift strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamann, Michael; Zhu, Biwen; Beaver, Leah; Taylor, Kinley; Kaber, David

    2012-07-01

    The rear-facing Infant Car Seat (ICS) is designed to meet federal requirements for transporting children less than 1 year old. Typical use includes transfer in and out of a vehicle, which is shown to be a difficult lift. Despite the frequency of this lift, manufacturers provide little guidance for users. Review of relevant literature suggested an ICS featuring an angled handle, promoting a neutral wrist posture, would increase grip stability and decrease lifting effort. Popular press suggested a foot-in-car stance for the ICS lift would do the same. An experiment was conducted in which wrist deviations from neutral posture were recorded along with lifting muscle activation levels (multiple flexor muscles and biceps brachii) and overall perceived exertion for straight versus a new bent handle design and conventional stance versus foot-in-car. Foot position was examined to test the recommendations in the popular press. Surprisingly, wrist deviation was not significantly affected by the new bent handle design (due to compensatory behavior with the straight handle) but was related to foot placement (p=0.04). Results revealed the bent handle to significantly reduce flexor activation compared with the straight handle (p=0.0003); however, the level of biceps activation increased. Biceps activation also significantly increased for foot-in-car stance (p=0.035) but not flexor activation. In general, the bent handle enabled the user to lift the ICS with a steadier grip and less effort. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning through an Aboriginal Language: The Impact on Students' English and Aboriginal Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…

  6. Preliminary comparison of infants speech with and without hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Richard S.; Nittrouer, Susan; Chenausky, Karen

    2005-04-01

    The speech of ten children with hearing loss and ten children without hearing loss aged 12 months is examined. All the children with hearing loss were identified before six months of age, and all have parents who wish them to become oral communicators. The data are from twenty minute sessions with the caregiver and child, with their normal prostheses in place, in semi-structured settings. These data are part of a larger test battery applied to both caregiver and child that is part of a project comparing the development of children with hearing loss to those without hearing loss, known as the Early Development of Children with Hearing Loss. The speech comparisons are in terms of number of utterances, syllable shapes, and segment type. A subset of the data was given a detailed acoustic analysis, including formant frequencies and voice quality measures. [Work supported by NIDCD R01 006237 to Susan Nittrouer.

  7. Iron status at birth and at 4 weeks in preterm-SGA infants in comparison with preterm and term-AGA infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Yadav, Ramesh Kumar; Kishore, Sai Sunil; Garewal, Gurjeevan; Jain, Vanita; Narang, Anil

    2012-08-01

    To determine the iron status at birth in preterm small for gestational age (SGA) in comparison with preterm appropriate for gestation (AGA) and term-AGA infants. Mother-infant pairs with gestation of SGA, and preterm-AGA and term-AGA as control were enrolled. Maternal, cord blood and infant blood samples at 4 weeks were obtained for various iron indices - cord serum ferritin, proportion of infants with "low" serum ferritin, serum ferritin at 4 weeks and correlation among maternal and neonatal iron indices - hemoglobin,serum ferritin and total iron-binding capacity. There were 50 mother-infant pairs in each group. Cord serum ferritin levels were less in preterm-SGA group as compared to preterm-AGA group (median [interquartile range]: 68 [30 113] vs. 120 [73 127], p = 0.002) and preterm-AGA had less cord ferritin than term-AGA (141 [63 259], p = 0.006). The proportion of the infants with "low" serum ferritin was more in preterm-SGA than in preterm-AGA (16 [32%] vs. 5 [10%], p = 0.01). The serum ferritin levels at follow-up were also less in preterm-SGA as compared to preterm-AGA (143.5 ± 101 vs. 235.1 ± 160, p = 0.004). Other cord blood iron indices and follow-up serum ferritin levels were similar. There was no correlation among various maternal and neonatal cord iron parameters. Preterm-SGA infants have lesser total iron stores as compared to gestation-matched AGA infants, which is again lesser than term infants. Future studies can be planned to look at iron status at 12 months as well as their neurodevelopmental outcome.

  8. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  9. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Malaspinas, A-S; Westaway, M. C.; Muller, C.; Sousa, V. C.; Lao, O; Alves, I.; Bergstrom, A.; Athanasiadis, G.; Cheng, J Y; Crawford, J.E.; Heupink, T. H.; Macholdt, E.; Peischl, S; S. Rasmussen; Schiffels, S

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama–Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25–40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Austral...

  10. Comparison of neonatal outcomes in macrosomic infants of diabetic and non-diabetic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opati, P; Zheng, R; Wang, J; Xin, Y; Zhao, H; Bi, D

    2015-03-10

    To compare the neonatal outcomes in macrosomic term infants of diabetic mothers and non-diabetic mothers. This is a retrospective survey of all live-born term singletons with a birth weight ≥4000 g, admitted at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital between 2010 and 2013. Data collected for the mothers included age, parity, gestational age, method of glycemic control and mode of delivery. Data for the infants included sex, birth weight, birth length, duration of hospital stay and laboratory tests. Outcomes were compared between infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) and infants of non-diabetic mothers (Non-IDMs). All data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 17.0. One hundred and eleven infant-mother pairs met the inclusion criteria. Fifty-seven were IDMs while 54 were non-IDMs. Seven (12.28%) of the IDMs were delivered vaginally while 50 (87.72%) were delivered via Caesarian section (CS). Seventeen (31.48%) of the non-IDMs were delivered vaginally while 37 (68.51%) were delivered by CS. Respiratory distress was the most common morbidity affecting 52.6% of the IDMs and 40.7% of the non-IDMs. Hyperbilirubinemia was observed in 49.1% of the IDMs and 14.8% of the non-IDMs. Hypoglycemia affected 38.6% of the IDMs and 7.4% of the non-IDMs. Cardiac enzymes were higher in IDMs than in non-IDMs. On average, IDMs had a longer duration of hospital stay. Macrosomic IDMs in comparison to macrosomic non-IDMs are at an increased risk for adverse neonatal outcomes.

  11. Exploring the expression of depression and distress in aboriginal men in central Australia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression, experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia. Methods Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods. Results Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation. Conclusions Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa, which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression.

  12. A comparison of foetal and infant mortality in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Cande V; Liu, Shiliang; Joseph, K S; Kramer, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    Infant mortality rates are higher in the United States than in Canada. We explored this difference by comparing gestational age distributions and gestational age-specific mortality rates in the two countries. Stillbirth and infant mortality rates were compared for singleton births at >or=22 weeks and newborns weighing>or=500 g in the United States and Canada (1996-2000). Since menstrual-based gestational age appears to misclassify gestational duration and overestimate both preterm and postterm birth rates, and because a clinical estimate of gestation is the only available measure of gestational age in Canada, all comparisons were based on the clinical estimate. Data for California were excluded because they lacked a clinical estimate. Gestational age-specific comparisons were based on the foetuses-at-risk approach. The overall stillbirth rate in the United States (37.9 per 10,000 births) was similar to that in Canada (38.2 per 10,000 births), while the overall infant mortality rate was 23% (95% CI 19-26%) higher (50.8 vs 41.4 per 10,000 births, respectively). The gestational age distribution was left-shifted in the United States relative to Canada; consequently, preterm birth rates were 8.0 and 6.0%, respectively. Stillbirth and early neonatal mortality rates in the United States were lower at term gestation only. However, gestational age-specific late neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortality rates were higher in the United States at virtually every gestation. The overall stillbirth rates (per 10,000 foetuses at risk) among Blacks and Whites in the United States, and in Canada were 59.6, 35.0 and 38.3, respectively, whereas the corresponding infant mortality rates were 85.6, 49.7 and 42.2, respectively. Differences in gestational age distributions and in gestational age-specific stillbirth and infant mortality in the United States and Canada underscore substantial differences in healthcare services, population health status and health policy between the two

  13. Wind power projects and Aboriginal consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, T. [McCarthy Tetrault LLP, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation outlined some of the legal aspects related to Aboriginal involvement in wind power development consultation processes and disputes. Aboriginal rights are rights held by Aboriginal people that are an element of a practice, custom, or tradition integral to the culture of groups claiming such rights. Wind power developers should understand that Aboriginal rights claims may include fishing; whaling; transportation; and cultural and spiritual activities. Aboriginal title is a subcategory of Aboriginal rights, and is a right to land itself, and an encumbrance on the Crown's underlying title to land. Weak Aboriginal claims where potential infringement by energy developers is minor may only require notice and information. Strong prima facie cases for Aboriginal rights and title where the potential for infringement is of high significance may result in more extensive consultation involving interim solutions; formal Aboriginal participation in decision-making processes; and written responses demonstrating how Aboriginal concerns have been considered. There are a number of circumstances requiring a case-by-case approach, and the Crown may make decisions in the face of Aboriginal disagreement. However, energy developers should ensure that consultation processes are fair and reasonable. Conflicting interests can often be successfully resolved through consultation, and accommodation to Aboriginal rights may include mitigation, avoiding interference, and agreeing to as little infringement as possible. Aboriginal title may attach to private land but only to the Crown's underlying title. The Crown has no duty to consult respecting Aboriginal title on private land because title has already been infringed. In these cases, duty to consult and accommodate may be discharged through other regulatory processes such as environmental impact assessments. It was concluded that wind power project proponents should build a relationship with the Crown, as avoiding

  14. ABORIGINALITY AND TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E. Korstanje

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural tourism seems to be a buzz-word applied on a widest contexts and studies. The importance West has given to this term is linked to a new process of acceptance of diversity as never before. However, in the core of this discourse, the spirit of colonialism remains. In this conceptual paper, not only the main assumptions of cultural tourism are discussed in depth, but also its connection with colonization. One of main problems of cultural tourism is the conceptual basis on where this theory lies. For one hand, this term is strictly applied on local communities (aboriginals or ethnic minorities that have not sustained the progress on their own. On another one, this type of new paternalism closes the door for a real opportunity of dialogue between centre and periphery. As things being, cultural tourism not only is a concept very hard to be applied on research but also follow to nourish the ethnocentrism of nineteen-century racism.

  15. Dietary habits of Aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Kellie A; Findlay, Leanne C; Kohen, Dafna E

    2013-04-01

    Based on the results of Statistics Canada's 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey, this article presents an overview of how often First Nations children living off reserve, Métis children and Inuit children aged 2 to 5 consume various types of food, including foods considered traditional or country among Aboriginal people. The frequency with which First Nations children living off reserve and Métis children consumed items from major food groups tended to be similar. While lower percentages of Inuit children were reported to regularly consume items from these food groups, relatively high percentages of Inuit children consumed traditional or country foods. Around two-thirds of all Aboriginal children ate fast food and processed foods at least once a week, and just over half had salty snacks, sweets and desserts at least once a day. Consumption patterns varied, depending on whether children lived in a Census Metropolitan Area/Census Agglomeration.

  16. Aboriginal Art: Who was interested?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the common assumption that Aboriginal art has been absent from Australian art histories and demonstrates how this is not so. It criticises the notion that art history should be represented by specialised art-history books and argues for the important of art museum displays as texts. It also examines the ways in which Aboriginal art has been examined in literature devoted to Australian history and anthropology. It foregrounds the idea that arts history is not necessarily best represented by official art historical texts.

  17. Understanding Race and Racism in Nursing: Insights from Aboriginal Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukic, Adele; Jesty, Charlotte; Mathews, Sr. Veronica; Etowa, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Indigenous Peoples are underrepresented in the health professions. This paper examines indigenous identity and the quality and nature of nursing work-life. The knowledge generated should enhance strategies to increase representation of indigenous peoples in nursing to reduce health inequities. Design. Community-based participatory research employing Grounded Theory as the method was the design for this study. Theoretical sampling and constant comparison guided the data collection and analysis, and a number of validation strategies including member checks were employed to ensure rigor of the research process. Sample. Twenty-two Aboriginal nurses in Atlantic Canada. Findings. Six major themes emerged from the study: Cultural Context of Work-life, Becoming a Nurse, Navigating Nursing, Race Racism and Nursing, Socio-Political Context of Aboriginal Nursing, and Way Forward. Race and racism in nursing and related subthemes are the focus of this paper. Implications. The experiences of Aboriginal nurses as described in this paper illuminate the need to understand the interplay of race and racism in the health care system. Our paper concludes with Aboriginal nurses' suggestions for systemic change at various levels. PMID:22778991

  18. Aboriginal Representation: Conflict or Dialogue in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leane, Jeanine

    2010-01-01

    This research begins with the premise that non-Aboriginal students are challenged by much Aboriginal writing and also challenge its representations as they struggle to re-position themselves in relation to possible meanings within Aboriginal writing. Many non-Aboriginal students come to read an Aboriginal narrative against their understanding of…

  19. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf…

  20. Aboriginal talking circle: Aboriginal perspectives on caribou conservation - Overview by the Aboriginal Talking Circle Coordinating Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Simmons

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The 13th North American Caribou Workshop in 2010 was the venue for a remarkable forum of Aboriginal knowledge holders in which experiences and ideas about caribou research and stewardship were shared in a Talking Circle format. Facilitated by Danny Beaulieu (Denesųłıné /Deninu Kųę First Nation and Walter Bayha (Dé lįnęgotı˛nę/Dé lı˛nę First Nation, the Aboriginal Talking Circle took place over a full day as well as a half day, totalling more than ten hours. At least thirty-six Aboriginal people contributed to the discussion, representing thirty organisations and nearly as many First Nation, Inuit and Métis nations. Delegates converged from a geographical area spanning caribou ranges in six provinces and all three territories of northern Canada.

  1. Distinct modes of transmission of tuberculosis in aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ≤20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR = 5.98, p<0.0001. MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9% among southern people, and Beijing (62.5% and Haarlem (52.9% among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (≥15% than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05; MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ≤20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p = 0.01 and aboriginal ethnicity (p = 0.04 were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy.

  2. Breastfeeding experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers in an urban setting in Brisbane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Wendy; Schubert, Lisa; Denaro, Tara

    2013-11-01

    This study examined urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers' breastfeeding experiences to inform support for mothers and their families. The research took a strengths approach, using qualitative methodology. Twenty semi-structured in-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted and analysed thematically. Indigenous mothers of infants 3 to 12 months were recruited through a Brisbane Indigenous health service. All mothers recounted considerable physical and emotional energy invested in breastfeeding. Although early introduction of formula made sense for some mothers under stressful circumstances, timely pro-breastfeeding support from family and health professionals facilitated continued breastfeeding. Professional and social/family contacts play key roles in steering infant feeding outcomes. Mothers' experiences strongly influence infant feeding strategies. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community strengths are underutilised in supporting breastfeeding mothers. FUTURE IMPLICATIONS: Indigenous mothers, family and community strengths present points for engagement in future breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives.

  3. Bioethics for clinicians: 18. Aboriginal cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, Jonathan H.; McKenzie, John; McKay, Stanley; Gariépy, Gilbert J.; Kaufert, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Although philosophies and practices analogous to bioethics exist in Aboriginal cultures, the terms and categorical distinctions of "ethics" and "bioethics" do not generally exist. In this article we address ethical values appropriate to Aboriginal patients, rather than a preconceived "Aboriginal bioethic." Aboriginal beliefs are rooted in the context of oral history and culture. For Aboriginal people, decision-making is best understood as a process and not as the correct interpretation of a unified code. Aboriginal cultures differ from religious and cultural groups that draw on Scripture and textual foundations for their ethical beliefs and practices. Aboriginal ethical values generally emphasize holism, pluralism, autonomy, community- or family-based decision-making, and the maintenance of quality of life rather than the exclusive pursuit of a cure. Most Aboriginal belief systems also emphasize achieving balance and wellness within the domains of human life (mental, physical, emotional and spiritual). Although these bioethical tenets are important to understand and apply, examining specific applications in detail is not as useful as developing a more generalized understanding of how to approach ethical decision-making with Aboriginal people. Aboriginal ethical decisions are often situational and highly dependent on the values of the individual within the context of his or her family and community. PMID:11033715

  4. Earnings implications of person years lost life expectancy among Canada's aboriginal peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White, Jerry P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishOverall, Canada has one of the world's highest national life expectancies.This benefit is not shared by Canada's aboriginal population, however, which has a life expectancyapproximately seven years less than the general population. The Aboriginal population also differs inthat it has a higher fertility rate and higher mortality rates among infants and young adults. One ofthe consequences of the mortality differential is that the number of person years of lost life (PYLLexpectancy is large for the Aboriginal community in comparison to the general population. Whileseveral studies have focused on the causes of differential mortality, this study examines some of thesocioeconomic consequences of differences in PYLL. Examining wage labor income, for example, wedetermine that the PYLL differential translates into an expected wage and salary loss of approximately$1.56 billion.FrenchDans l’ensemble, l’espérance de vie au Canada est une des plus longues aumonde. Cependant, la population autochtone du Canada ne partage pas cetavantage, son espérance de vie étant d’environ sept ans inférieure à celle de lapopulation générale. La population autochtone se distingue aussi par le faitqu’elle a un taux de fertilité supérieur et un taux de mortalité supérieur chez lesenfants et les jeunes adultes. En conséquence, l’espérance du nombre d’annéespotentielles de vie perdues (APVP est considérable pour la communautéautochtone par rapport à la population générale. Alors qu’il existe déjà plusieursétudes sur les causes de la différence du taux de mortalité, cette étude enexamine certaines des conséquences socio-économiques. En examinant lerevenu provenant d’un salaire par exemple, nous pouvons établir que ladifférence en APVP se traduit en une perte salariale prévue d’environ 1,56million $.

  5. In Search of the Aboriginal Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Hawkeye Robertson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Notions of aboriginal cultural reclamation and healing presuppose the existence of distinctly aboriginal selves that were damaged or lost in a process of colonization and that those selves can be “restored” in some meaningful way. Such aboriginal healing has been done without a detailed examination of the selves of individuals to be assisted in this manner. This article examines the selves of four contemporary individuals with varying relationships to the concept of aboriginality using a method of mapping the self with elemental units of culture called “memes.” It is suggested that a spectrum of healthy selves is possible for people who either identify with aboriginality culturally or satisfy a racial definition of the concept. The co-evolution of the self and culture is discussed along with the utility of various definitions of what it means to be aboriginal in a North American context.

  6. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C.; Muller, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors...... diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population...

  7. International Comparisons of Infant Mortality and Related Factors : United States and Europe, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    MacDorman, M. F.; Mathews, T.J.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Zeitlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific infant mortality rates. METHODS: Infant mortality and preterm birth data are compared between the United States and European countries. The percent contribution of the two factors to infant mortalit...

  8. A randomised comparison of the i-gel™ and the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic™ in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M-S; Oh, J-T; Min, J Y; Lee, K-H; Lee, J-R

    2014-04-01

    We performed a randomised comparison of the i-gel™ and the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Classic™ in children aged less than a year who were undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgery. Fifty-four infants were randomly allocated to either the i-gel or the LMA Classic. We measured performance characteristics, fibreoptic views through the device and complications. Success rate at first insertion attempt was 100% (27/27) in the i-gel group compared with 88% (23/26) in the LMA Classic group. Insertion of the device was considered easy in 26/27 (96%) patients in the i-gel group compared with 18/26 (69%) patients in the LMA Classic group (p = 0.009). There were no differences between the groups in insertion times, fibreoptic views through the device, airway leak pressures or complications. We conclude that the i-gel was considered easier to insert than the LMA Classic in infants. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Forming mutually beneficial Aboriginal partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, L.; Shaw, M. [ATCO Frontec, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The Alberta-based ATCO Group is engaged in power generation, utilities logistics and energy services and technologies in Alaska, Canada's north, and around the world. In 2001, 56 per cent of ATCO's revenue came from Aboriginal joint ventures. ATCO's foundation for successful partnerships is a mutual trust, an understanding of the environment, and constant communication. The partnerships begin with a long term vision, resulting in community-based northern businesses that benefit Aboriginal partners, shareholders, customers and local staff. This paper described 2 unique joint venture case studies: (1) the north warning system in Cambridge Bay, a radar and communication service for government, and (2) Yellowknife's Tli Cho logistics site for support and municipal services to the mining industry. The north warning system joint venture includes Pan Arctic Inuit Logistics (PAIL), representing Inuvialuit, Labrador, Nunavik and Nunavut, while the Tli Cho joint venture includes participation of the Dog Rib Rae band. Management practices in all joint ventures reflect cultural differences, and Aboriginal people are involved in long term jobs relating to northern pipeline development. 21 figs.

  10. Comparison of formula-fed infants with and without colic revealed significant differences in total bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and faecal ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Quartieri, Andrea; De Marco, Angela; Garro, Maria; Amaretti, Alberto; Raimondi, Stefano; Simone, Marta; Rossi, Maddalena

    2017-04-01

    This study compared the faecal microbial composition of formula-fed infants who did and did not have colic. Faecal samples from formula-fed infants under 16 weeks of age with (n = 38) and without (n = 39) colic were collected at Department of Pediatrics in Turin, Italy, between February 2014 and October 2015. The pH and faecal ammonia were determined and total bacteria, bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria and coliforms were quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Faecal ammonia was significantly higher in the colicky infants than in the controls (483 vs. 216 μg/g, p bacteria were lower in colicky infants (1.8E10 ± 1.5E10) than in the controls (3.4E10 ± 3.0E10) (p coliform bacteria was significantly higher in colicky infants (p bacteria counts between the two groups. Our comparison of formula-fed infants with and without colic revealed significant differences in total bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and faecal ammonia. This study provides the stimulus for further studies of the gut microbiome, using new methods of analysis such as 16S metagenomics sequencing in order to lead to more tailored dietary approaches. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. International comparisons of infant mortality and related factors: United States and Europe, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Matthews, T J; Mohangoo, Ashna D; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2014-09-24

    This report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific infant mortality rates. Infant mortality and preterm birth data are compared between the United States and European countries. The percent contribution of the two factors to infant mortality differences is computed using the Kitagawa method, with Sweden as the reference country. In 2010, the U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.1 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, and the United States ranked 26th in infant mortality among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. After excluding births at less than 24 weeks of gestation to ensure international comparability, the U.S. infant mortality rate was 4.2, still higher than for most European countries and about twice the rates for Finland, Sweden, and Denmark. U.S. infant mortality rates for very preterm infants (24-31 weeks of gestation) compared favorably with most European rates. However, the U.S. mortality rate for infants at 32-36 weeks was second-highest, and the rate for infants at 37 weeks of gestation or more was highest, among the countries studied. About 39% of the United States' higher infant mortality rate when compared with that of Sweden was due to a higher percentage of preterm births, while 47% was due to a higher infant mortality rate at 37 weeks of gestation or more. If the United States could reduce these two factors to Sweden's levels, the U.S. infant mortality rate would fall by 43%, with nearly 7,300 infant deaths averted annually. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  12. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  13. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  14. Placement Decisions and Disparities among Aboriginal Children: Further Analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect Part A: Comparisons of the 1998 and 2003 Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Chabot, Martin; Fluke, John; Blackstock, Cindy; MacLaurin, Bruce; Tonmyr, Lil

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Fluke et al. (2010) analyzed Canadian Incidence Study on Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) data collected in 1998 to explore the influence of clinical and organizational characteristics on the decision to place Aboriginal children in an out-of-home placement at the conclusion of a child maltreatment investigation. This study…

  15. Temporal trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in rural and northern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, Fabienne; Wilkins, Russell; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to assess trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in the rural and northern regions of Quebec. Study design and methods In a birth cohort-based study of all births to residents of rural and northern Quebec from 1991 through 2000 (n = 177,193), we analyzed birth outcomes and infant mortality for births classified by maternal mother tongue (Inuit, First Nations or non-Aboriginal) and by community type (predominantly First Nations, Inuit or non-Aboriginal). Results From 1991–1995 to 1996–2000, there was a trend of increasing rates of preterm birth for all 6 study groups. In all rural and northern areas, low birth weight rates increased significantly only for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.45 (95% CI 1.05–2.01)]. Stillbirth rates showed a non-significant increase for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.76 (0.64–4.83)]. Neonatal mortality rates decreased significantly in the predominantly non-Aboriginal communities and in the non-Aboriginal mother tongue group [RR0.78 (0.66–0.92)], and increased non-significantly for the First Nations mother tongue group [RR2.17 (0.71–6.62)]. Perinatal death rates increased for the First Nations mother tongue grouping in northern areas [RR2.19 (0.99–4.85)]. Conclusion There was a disconcerting rise of some mortality outcomes for births to First Nations and Inuit mother tongue women and to women in predominantly First Nations and Inuit communities, in contrast to some improvements for births to non-Aboriginal mother tongue women and to women in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities in rural or northern Quebec, indicating a need for improving perinatal and neonatal health for Aboriginal populations in rural and northern regions. PMID:22973566

  16. Temporal trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in rural and northern Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, Fabienne; Wilkins, Russell; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to assess trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in the rural and northern regions of Quebec. In a birth cohort-based study of all births to residents of rural and northern Quebec from 1991 through 2000 (n = 177,193), we analyzed birth outcomes and infant mortality for births classified by maternal mother tongue (Inuit, First Nations or non-Aboriginal) and by community type (predominantly First Nations, Inuit or non-Aboriginal). From 1991-1995 to 1996-2000, there was a trend of increasing rates of preterm birth for all 6 study groups. In all rural and northern areas, low birth weight rates increased significantly only for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.45 (95% CI 1.05-2.01)]. Stillbirth rates showed a non-significant increase for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.76 (0.64-4.83)]. Neonatal mortality rates decreased significantly in the predominantly non-Aboriginal communities and in the non-Aboriginal mother tongue group [RR0.78 (0.66-0.92)], and increased non-significantly for the First Nations mother tongue group [RR2.17 (0.71-6.62)]. Perinatal death rates increased for the First Nations mother tongue grouping in northern areas [RR2.19 (0.99-4.85)]. There was a disconcerting rise of some mortality outcomes for births to First Nations and Inuit mother tongue women and to women in predominantly First Nations and Inuit communities, in contrast to some improvements for births to non-Aboriginal mother tongue women and to women in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities in rural or northern Quebec, indicating a need for improving perinatal and neonatal health for Aboriginal populations in rural and northern regions.

  17. Temporal trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in rural and northern Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Simonet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective was to assess trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in the rural and northern regions of Quebec. Study design and methods. In a birth cohort-based study of all births to residents of rural and northern Quebec from 1991 through 2000 (n = 177,193, we analyzed birth outcomes and infant mortality for births classified by maternal mother tongue (Inuit, First Nations or non-Aboriginal and by community type (predominantly First Nations, Inuit or non-Aboriginal. Results. From 1991–1995 to 1996–2000, there was a trend of increasing rates of preterm birth for all 6 study groups. In all rural and northern areas, low birth weight rates increased significantly only for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.45 (95% CI 1.05–2.01]. Stillbirth rates showed a non-significant increase for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.76 (0.64–4.83]. Neonatal mortality rates decreased significantly in the predominantly non-Aboriginal communities and in the non-Aboriginal mother tongue group [RR0.78 (0.66–0.92], and increased non-significantly for the First Nations mother tongue group [RR2.17 (0.71–6.62]. Perinatal death rates increased for the First Nations mother tongue grouping in northern areas [RR2.19 (0.99–4.85]. Conclusion. There was a disconcerting rise of some mortality outcomes for births to First Nations and Inuit mother tongue women and to women in predominantly First Nations and Inuit communities, in contrast to some improvements for births to non-Aboriginal mother tongue women and to women in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities in rural or northern Quebec, indicating a need for improving perinatal and neonatal health for Aboriginal populations in rural and northern regions.

  18. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Lee Carlson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into how Aboriginal peoples utilise and interact on social media, and how these technologies can assist with suicide prevention strategies. It found that Aboriginal people are engaging with Facebook to both seek and offer help for issues relating to suicide and self-harm. An existing continuum of suicide prevention strategies was evident—from light emotional support to direct suicide intervention involving health services. These strategies can be leveraged to implement effective and appropriate suicide prevention programs.

  19. Reconstructing the Star Knowledge of Aboriginal Tasmanians

    CERN Document Server

    Gantevoort, Michelle; Lischick, Savannah

    2016-01-01

    The canopy of stars is a central presence in the daily and spiritual lives of Aboriginal Tasmanians. With the arrival of European colonists, Tasmanian astronomical knowledge and traditions were interrupted and dispersed. Fragments can be found scattered in the ethnographic and historical record throughout the nineteenth century. We draw from ethnohistorical documents to analyse and reconstruct Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania. This analysis demonstrates that stars, the Milky Way, constellations, dark nebula, the Sun, Moon, meteors, and aurorae held cultural, spiritual, and subsistence significance within the Aboriginal cultures of Tasmania. We move beyond a monolithic view of Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania, commonly portrayed in previous research, to lay the groundwork for future ethnographic and archaeological fieldwork with Aboriginal elders and communities.

  20. Comparison between infants receiving traditional supplements (camel thorn, flix weed, and sugar water and exclusively breast fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Although breast milk is considered the best nutritional option for neonates, use of traditional supplements such as sugar water, camel thorn, and flix weed in the first week of life of infants is quite common in Iran and many other countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether consuming such supplements has any impact on infant’s breastfeeding behavior. Materials and Methods: Four hundred fifty four term infants who were referred to the neonatal clinic of Ghaem hospital were enrolled and divided into two groups. Control (exclusively breastfed infants, N=243 and case (breast milk feeding plus traditional remedies such as sugar water, camel thorn, and flix weed, N=211. Spss 19.5 was used for statistical analysis. T-test and Man-Whitney tests were used. A p-value of Results: The two groups were similar in their baseline data. Regarding duration of breastfeeding and breastfeeding frequency, use of these supplements resulted in a reduction in both breastfeeding frequency and duration (p

  1. Explaining aboriginal/non-aboriginal inequalities in postseparation violence against Canadian women: application of a structural violence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jeanette Somlak; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Pulkingham, Jane

    2013-08-01

    Adopting a structural violence approach, we analyzed 2004 Canadian General Social Survey data to examine Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequalities in postseparation intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Aboriginal women had 4.12 times higher odds of postseparation IPV than non-Aboriginal women (p violence, especially colonialism and its negative consequences.

  2. Kangaroo care by fathers and mothers: comparison of physiological and stress responses in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, B K; Shah, J; Kumar, P; Shah, P S

    2016-05-01

    To compare physiological and biochemical responses in stable preterm neonates and their parents following kangaroo mother care (KMC) and kangaroo father care (KFC). We conducted a prospective cross-over design study of stable preterm neonates of KFC for 1 h on consecutive days in a random order. Heart rate, temperature, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and salivary cortisol in infants before and after kangaroo care and heart rate, temperature and salivary cortisol in parents before and after kangaroo care were measured. Pairwise comparisons of changes in these measures were analyzed. Twenty-six sets of neonates and their parents were studied for physiological parameters, of which 19 had adequate samples for salivary cortisol assessment. The infants had a mean birth weight of 1096 g (s.d.=217) and a mean postmenstrual age at study of 32 weeks (s.d.=2). There were no significant differences in the changes in mean heart rate (P=0.51), temperature (P=0.37), oxygen saturation (P=0.50), systolic blood pressure (P=0.32), mean blood pressure (0.10) and salivary cortisol (P=0.50) before and after KMC or KFC in the neonates. The changes in mean heart rate (P=0.62), temperature (P=0.28) and salivary cortisol (P=0.59) before and after kangaroo care were similar between mothers and fathers. No significant differences in physiological and stress responses were identified following KMC or KFC in preterm neonates. KFC may be as safe and as effective as KMC.

  3. Anogenital Distance and Penile Length in Infants with Hypospadias or Cryptorchidism: Comparison with Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankamony, Ajay; Lek, Ngee; Carroll, Dan; Williams, Martyn; Dunger, David B.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Ong, Ken K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anogenital distance (AGD) in animals is a sensitive biomarker of fetal endocrine disruption and the associated testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). However, AGD in human infants with cryptorchidism and hypospadias, which are potential manifestations of TDS during childhood, is not clearly described. Objective: Our aim was to compare AGD in boys with cryptorchidism or hypospadias against normative data. Methods: Boys with isolated cryptorchidism (n = 71, age 13.4 ± 5.8 months) or hypospadias (n = 81, age 11.4 ± 6.2 months) were recruited from a tertiary center for measurement of AGD and penile length; they were compared with 487 healthy full-term boys from a birth cohort by deriving age-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). Results: Boys with cryptorchidism were older (p = 0.048) compared with boys with hypospadias. Boys with hypospadias had shorter mean AGD and penile length SDS than healthy boys (both p hypospadias (both p hypospadias increased (ptrend = 0.078). Conclusions: In the study population, AGD and penile length were reduced in boys with hypospadias or cryptorchidism relative to normative data derived from a longitudinal birth cohort. The findings support the use of AGD as a quantitative biomarker to examine the prenatal effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors on the development of the male reproductive tract. Citation: Thankamony A, Lek N, Carroll D, Williams M, Dunger DB, Acerini CL, Ong KK, Hughes IA. 2014. Anogenital distance and penile length in infants with hypospadias or cryptorchidism: comparison with normative data. Environ Health Perspect 122:207–211; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307178 PMID:24316680

  4. Unintentional injuries among children and adolescents in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghehbandan, Reza; Sikdar, Khokan C; MacDonald, Don; Collins, Kayla D; Rossignol, Annette M

    2010-02-01

    To compare epidemiologic characteristics of unintentional injuries among children and adolescents in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada. A comparative population-based study of unintentional injuries among individuals 0-19 years was conducted among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities in NL. The provincial hospital discharge and mortality data were analyzed for a 6-year period, April 1995 to March 2001. Rates and rate ratios related to hospital discharge and mortality due to unintentional injuries were calculated to assess variation of rates. The 2-independent sample binomial proportion test was used to compare rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities. The overall hospital discharge rates of unintentional injury in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities were 1,132.0 and 614.2 per 100,000 population, respectively (p(2)<0.001). For both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities, the rate among males was higher than that of females (p(2)<0.001). The mortality rate was found to be higher in Aboriginal communities than non-Aboriginal communities (84.3 vs. 10.2 per 100,000 population) (p(2)<0.001). The rate of unintentional injury among children and adolescents in Aboriginal communities is higher than non-Aboriginal communities. Sex (male) and place of residence (Aboriginal communities) were strong predictors of unintentional injury in NL.

  5. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Corrine Hanson; Elizabeth Lyden; Jeremy Furtado; Matthew Van Ormer; Ann Anderson-Berry

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12...

  6. [Health system and aboriginal communities in the province of Formosa, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirassou, Cristina S

    2013-01-01

    The author comments her experience in the practice of medicine and public health among aborigines in Formosa, a long neglected province in northeast Argentina. Her experience goes through a span of 34 years, 11 in a small community in a far off region. The province has 530162 inhabitants, 43358 (6.5%) aborigines of the Wichí, Qom, and Pilagá ethnicities. Some particular public health problems of these aborigines are due to the great distance between communities and the regular medical assistance while others are related to cultural differences. The situation has gradually improved in the last 30 years due to government awareness in providing easy and close access to medical care, making the most of the abilities of local aborigines midwifes, teaching health assistants and conventional measures. The most apparent results are the decrease in infant mortality rates and the lower incidence of tuberculosis, with no deaths due to tuberculous meningitis since 1999. No less important was the opening of new opportunities for education and the teaching of both native and Spanish language in the schools retaining local customs. The changes have brought about new risks and challenges such as: traffic accidents involving youngsters riding motorcycles, alcoholism, obesity, diabetes (undiagnosed beforehand), high rate of adolescence pregnancy, and crisis of leadership within the communities.

  7. No official identity: a data linkage study of birth registration of Aboriginal children in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberd, Alison J; Simpson, Judy M; Eades, Sandra J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence of identity, particularly a birth certificate, is essential to access many rights. However, the births of many Aboriginal Australians are not registered when they are infants. We examined factors related to birth registration among Western Australian children born to Aboriginal mothers. All births to Aboriginal mothers in the Midwives Notification System in Western Australia (WA) from 1980 to 2010 were linked to birth registrations. Associations between registration and maternal and child characteristics were examined for children aged under 16 years in 2012. Among 49,694 births between 1980 and 2010, 18% of those aged under 16 years had unregistered births, compared to 3% of those aged 16-32 years. Unregistered births were most strongly associated with young maternal age at first birth (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.22; 95%CI 3.07-8.86; for 16 years or younger vs 30 years or older, among non-smokers), remoteness (AOR 2.17; 95%CI 1.87-2.52; very remote vs major cities), mothers whose own birth was unregistered (AOR 3.00; 95%CI 1.78-5.07) and no private hospital insurance (AOR 0.19; 95%CI 0.11-0.31; insured vs uninsured). Unregistered births are common among WA Aboriginal children, particularly in disadvantaged families. Assistance before discharge from hospital may increase birth registrations. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Comparison of oral paracetamol versus ibuprofen in premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Dang

    Full Text Available TRIAL DESIGN: Oral ibuprofen has demonstrated good effects on symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA but with many contraindications and potential side-effects. In the past two years, oral paracetamol administration to several preterm infants with PDA has been reported. Here, a randomized, non-blinded, parallel-controlled and non-inferiority trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of oral paracetamol to those of standard ibuprofen for PDA closure in premature infants. METHODS: One hundred and sixty infants (gestational age ≤ 34 weeks with echocardiographically confirmed PDA were randomly assigned to receive either oral paracetamol (n = 80 or ibuprofen (n = 80. After the initial treatment course in both groups, the need for a second course was determined by echocardiographic evaluation. The main outcome was rate of ductal closure, and secondary outcomes were adverse effects and complications. RESULT: The ductus was closed in 65 (81.2% infants of the paracetamol group compared with 63 (78.8% of the ibuprofen group. The 95% confidence interval of the difference between these groups was [-0.080,0.128], demonstrating that the effectiveness of paracetamol treatment was not inferior to that of ibuprofen. In fact, the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia or gastrointestinal bleeding in the paracetamol group was significantly lower than that of the ibuprofen group. No significant differences in other clinical side effects or complications were noted. CONCLUSION: This comparison of drug efficacy and safety profiles in premature infants with PDA revealed that oral paracetamol was comparable to ibuprofen in terms of the rate of ductal closure and even showed a decreased risk of hyperbilirubinemia or gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, paracetamol may be accepted as a first-line drug treatment for PDA in preterm infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR.org ChiCTR-TRC-12002177.

  9. Comparison of oral paracetamol versus ibuprofen in premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Dan; Wang, Dongxuan; Zhang, Chuan; Zhou, Wenli; Zhou, Qi; Wu, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Oral ibuprofen has demonstrated good effects on symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) but with many contraindications and potential side-effects. In the past two years, oral paracetamol administration to several preterm infants with PDA has been reported. Here, a randomized, non-blinded, parallel-controlled and non-inferiority trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of oral paracetamol to those of standard ibuprofen for PDA closure in premature infants. One hundred and sixty infants (gestational age ≤ 34 weeks) with echocardiographically confirmed PDA were randomly assigned to receive either oral paracetamol (n = 80) or ibuprofen (n = 80). After the initial treatment course in both groups, the need for a second course was determined by echocardiographic evaluation. The main outcome was rate of ductal closure, and secondary outcomes were adverse effects and complications. The ductus was closed in 65 (81.2%) infants of the paracetamol group compared with 63 (78.8%) of the ibuprofen group. The 95% confidence interval of the difference between these groups was [-0.080,0.128], demonstrating that the effectiveness of paracetamol treatment was not inferior to that of ibuprofen. In fact, the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia or gastrointestinal bleeding in the paracetamol group was significantly lower than that of the ibuprofen group. No significant differences in other clinical side effects or complications were noted. This comparison of drug efficacy and safety profiles in premature infants with PDA revealed that oral paracetamol was comparable to ibuprofen in terms of the rate of ductal closure and even showed a decreased risk of hyperbilirubinemia or gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, paracetamol may be accepted as a first-line drug treatment for PDA in preterm infants. ChiCTR.org ChiCTR-TRC-12002177.

  10. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  11. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-10-28

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%-53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk-fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  12. International Comparisons of Infant Mortality and Related Factors : United States and Europe, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDorman, M.F.; Mathews, T.J.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Zeitlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific

  13. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergström, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Crawford, Jacob E; Heupink, Tim H; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Levkivskyi, Ivan P; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Søren; Campos, Paula F; Clark, Warren; Ellingvåg, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; McAllister, Peter J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma'run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-10-13

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert.

  14. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo

    2016-09-20

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  15. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  16. Aboriginal premature mortality within South Australia 1999-2006: a cross-sectional analysis of small area results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Robyn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper initially describes premature mortality by Aboriginality in South Australia during 1999 to 2006. It then examines how these outcomes vary across area level socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness. Methods The retrospective, cross-sectional analysis uses estimated resident population by sex, age and small areas based on the 2006 Census, and Unit Record mortality data. Premature mortality outcomes are measured using years of life lost (YLL. Subsequent intrastate comparisons are based on indirect sex and age adjusted YLL results. A multivariate model uses area level socio-economic disadvantage rank, geographic remoteness, and an interaction between the two variables to predict premature mortality outcomes. Results Aboriginal people experienced 1.1% of total deaths but 2.2% of YLL and Aboriginal premature mortality rates were 2.65 times greater than the South Australian average. Premature mortality for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people increased significantly as area disadvantage increased. Among Aboriginal people though, a significant main effect for area remoteness was also observed, together with an interaction between disadvantage and remoteness. The synergistic effect shows the social gradient between area disadvantage and premature mortality increased as remoteness increased. Conclusions While confirming the gap in premature mortality rates between Aboriginal South Australians and the rest of the community, the study also found a heterogeneity of outcomes within the Aboriginal community underlie this difference. The results support the existence of relationship between area level socio-economic deprivation, remoteness and premature mortality in the midst of an affluent society. The study concludes that vertically equitable resourcing according to population need is an important response to the stark mortality gap and its exacerbation by area socio-economic position and remoteness.

  17. Knowing, Being, and Doing: Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Collaboration in Cancer Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Joanna; Shipp, Rick; Jones, Victoria

    2017-07-01

    This qualitative inquiry explored the processes and practices of collaboration as experienced by a group of Australian multidisciplinary Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal health workers. Each worker had participated, for a period of 2 to 5 years, in an Australian Government-funded project in which a range of health initiatives led to improved access to cancer services by Aboriginal communities in a rural region of South Eastern Australia. Initiatives which addressed high rates of mortality from cancer, poor access to cancer screening, and engagement with cancer treatment were developed through the formation of close working relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal health workers. These relationships were regarded as personally and professionally transformative. Through the sharing of knowledge, skills, and experiences, new ways of knowing, being, and doing emerged. Developing a deeper understanding of cross-cultural collaboration is one way of addressing complex health problems and building the capacity of the health workforce.

  18. Hammock position and nesting: comparison of physiological and behavioral effects in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Kassandra Silva Falcão; Beleza, Ludmylla de Oliveira; Souza, Lissandra Martins; Ribeiro, Laiane Medeiros

    2017-03-30

    To compare the effects of the use of hammocks versus nesting in preterm infants, after diaper changing. quasi-experimental study, a cross-over trial with 30 preterm newborns in an intermediate care nursery (ICN) in a public hospital in Brasilia-DF, conducted from November 2011 to March 2012. The effects of the two interventions (nesting and hammock) after diaper changing were assessed. Student's t test with a confidence level of 95% (p position the preterm infants were found to be less stressed (p = 0.002), had fewer defining characteristics indicating nursing diagnosis "Disorganized Infant Behavior" (p = 0.05) and remained in a more suitable position for receiving intensive care compared to nesting (p = 0.04). Preterm infants in hammock position, compared to nesting, were less stressed, with a more organized behavior and in a better position for receiving intensive care.

  19. Comparison of different definitions of acute kidney injury in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Vikas; Vajpeyajula, Ramya; Jain, Mohit; Maqsood, Syeda; Raina, Rupesh; Kumar, Deepak; Mhanna, Maroun J

    2017-06-14

    The definition of acute kidney injury (AKI) has evolved over the years, and three definitions have been adapted including pediatric risk injury failure, loss of kidney function (pRIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN), and Neonatal Modified Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). We sought to report the prevalence and outcome of (AKI) according to the three existing definitions in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. In a retrospective cohort study, medical records of all ELBW infants (unit (NICU) between Jan 2002 and Dec 2011 were reviewed. Infants' demographics, anthropometric measurements, and clinical characteristics were collected at the time of birth and at discharge from the NICU. Infants were staged according to the three different definitions. During the study period, 483 ELBW infants met our inclusion criteria. The incidence of AKI was 56, 59, and 60% according to pRIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO, respectively. Mortality, NICU length of stay, and serum creatinine (SCr) at NICU discharge were higher in infants with advanced AKI stages regardless of the definition. In addition, discharge NICU weight and length z scores were lower in infants with advanced AKI stages. SCr at 72 h of life and SCr peak were predictable of NICU mortality [AUC 0.667 (95% CI 0.604-0.731), p < 0.001 and AUC 0.747 (95% CI 0.693-0.801), p < 0.001, respectively]. Regardless of the definition, advanced AKI is associated with increased mortality, prolonged NICU length of stay, and poor growth in ELBW infants. SCr at 72 h of life and SCr peak may be predictable of NICU mortality.

  20. Comparison of Neutrophil Apoptosis by the Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Exotoxins between Healthy Individuals and Term Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Khazaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be colonized in different human tissues and result in some infections potentially. Thus, considering that these bacteria are resistance to most of the current antibiotics, an examination on pathogenesis mechanisms of such bacteria can be effective in controlling the infections developed by it.Materials and Methods: In this project, among 40 blood samples (20 healthy persons, 20 infants, an amount of 5 ml (2 ml in the infants heparinized blood was collected form each and then neutrophils were isolated by a standard method and were counted by neubauer lam. After culturing Pseudomonas bacteria in broth medium, some tubes with densities of 1, 2, 3 and 4 McFarland were prepared and the bacteria were isolated by centrifuge method with 3000rpm for 10 minutes and then its exotoxin were exposed to neutrophils of the groups under study. The effect of time and the bacteria count on the amount of the secreted toxin and in adjacency to neutrophils was measured.Results: There were 11 men and 9 women in the health group and the infants group consisted of 12 boys and 8 girls. Death cell percentage of neutrophils was 100% in the health group and 8.90% in the infants group. Percentage of bacterial growth in the medium 1 and 2 McFarland was zero; in the medium 3 McFarland, it was 12.5% in the healthy group and 1% in the infants group (p<0.10. The average rate of cell death in the minute 15th was different in two groups (68.5% in health group vs. 92.5% in the infants (p<0.0005. Conclusion: This study showed the effect of Pseudomonas bacteria on the development of early cell death in the infants very well. As it was shown, this effect is time-dependent and this cell death (apoptosis is occurred in the infants earlier than health people.

  1. Goniometer Measurements of Oral Labial Angle and Evaluation of Oral Motor Reflexes in Preterm Infants: Comparison to Findings in Term Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Deniz Anuk; Tugcu, Ali Ulas; Ecevit, Ayşe; Ciyiltepe, Muzeyyen; Kurt, Abdullah; Abbasoğlu, Aslıhan; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah; Tarcan, Aylin

    2015-10-01

    To date, no study has evaluated changes in oral labial angle as preterm infants mature. The main purpose of this study was to document goniometer measurements of the labial angle of the mouth in preterm infants, to assess changes with development, to compare to findings in healthy term infants, and also evaluate oral motor reflexes in these groups. Seventy-eight preterm infants and 45 healthy term infants were recruited for the prospective study. Labial angle was assessed via goniometer, and oral motor reflexes and the volume of milk ingested were evaluated. There was significant difference between term and preterm infants' labial angles (P Goniometer measurements of the oral labial angle may reveal oral motor performance in preterm infants and may be relevant for feeding skills assessment in this group of infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Comparison of the phospholipid classes in human milk in Japanese mothers of term and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Kaneko, Noritsugu; Shinohara, Koichi; Shiga, Seigo; Saito, Masami; Oshida, Kyoichi; Shimizu, Takashi; Takase, Mitsunori; Yamashiro, Yuichiro

    2006-08-01

    Phospholipids (PLs) play an essential role in the growth and brain development of infants. To investigate PL composition in human milk (HM), including lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM), from healthy Japanese mothers. Analyses were performed on colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk from mothers of preterm and term infants. HM samples were collected from mothers of 15 term infants (term group) and of 19 preterm infants (preterm group). PL composition was determined by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography in conjunction with phosphorus analysis. In both groups, the PL content (% of total lipid) of mature milk was significantly lower than in colostrum. SM and PC were the main PLs in HM, but in the preterm group, the percentage of SM in mature milk was significantly higher and PC in mature milk was significantly lower than in the term group. The transition from colostrum to mature milk leads to an increase in SM and a decrease in PC in the HM of preterm infants, along with a decrease in PL content. This is the first report to demonstrate the differences in PL composition in HM between mothers of preterm and term infants.

  3. Schema-Based Processing in Australian Speakers of Aboriginal English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2001-01-01

    Explores features of Aboriginal English discourse that appear to be associated with some distinctive roles played by schemas in processing and formation of discourse by Aboriginal children. Examines the complexity of intercultural communication between Australian aborigines and the dominant class of white Australians. (Author/VWL)

  4. Woman dancing dreaming: Psychosocial benefits of the aboriginal outstation movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, R D

    The establishment of an Aboriginal outstation, or small autonomous community, is described. Some of the beneficial psychosocial changes observed during an eighteen-month period are described, and some possible reasons for them outlined. The outstation movement is presented as a viable, Aboriginal-initiated solution to some of the dilemmas facing present-day Australian Aborigines.

  5. Non-timber forest products and Aboriginal traditional knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin J. Marles

    2001-01-01

    Ethnobotanical research was conducted in over 30 Aboriginal communities within Canada's boreal forest region. Specific methods for the research were developed that involved a high degree of participation by Aboriginal people in every stage of the project, with the result that well over 100 Aboriginal elders contributed information on the uses of more that 200...

  6. Aboriginal Students' Perspectives on the Factors Influencing High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIver, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The Canadian education system is failing its Aboriginal students as evidenced by the significant proportion not completing high school. The Aboriginal population has experienced a significantly greater proportion of people living in poverty and higher rates of unemployment than has the non-Aboriginal population. These factors can be linked to the…

  7. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  8. Comparison of Risk Factors in Necrotizing Enterocolitis among Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Ozlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Necrotizing enterocolitis is one of the important problems of premature infants. The incidence is about 1-5% in infants followed in neonatal care units and inversely related to gestational age and birth weight. Materials and Methods: In this study, 31 infants with necrotizing enterocolitis and 31 infants with similar gestational age and birth weight as control group hospitalized in Cukurova University Neonatal Care Unit between 1 January 2001-31 January 2004 were evaluated. Results: The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in this period was 1.4 (31/2214 admission. Mean gestational age was 30.5  3.2 weeks (25-36, mean birth weight was 1331  384 (730-2150 grams while 71% was younger than 32 gestational weeks and 67.7% was under 1500 grams. The signs of NEC were detected at a mean of 11.2  10. (2-38 days. Twenty-six (83.9% were being fed at the time of the necrotizing enterocolitis signs appeared. According to the Walsh and Kliegman classification, 19 (61.3% infants were in stage 1 (17 were 1a, 2 were 1b; 3 (9.6% infants were in stage 2a, 9 (%29.1 infants were in stage 3 (7 were in 3b. Blood culture was positive in 7 (%22.6 infants with predominance of gram negative microorganisms (5 infants. Eleven (%35.5 infants were exitus, 12 were discharged. Hypoxia, respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage and umbilical catheterization were significant risk factors in necrotizing enterocolitis . Thrombocytopenia, leucopenia and high C-reactive protein levels were significantly high in necrotizing enterocolitis group. Breast feeding is significantly high in control group. Conclusion: Necrotizing enterocolitis, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. Early breast feeding with small amounts, increasing amount of milk slowly, antenatal steroids, caring hygiene rules can prevent the development of it. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 642-647

  9. Smoking and Other Drug Characteristics of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Prisoners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn L. Richmond

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Although tobacco and alcohol use have declined substantially in the Australian community, substance use among prisoners remains high. The aim was to compare the smoking, drug, and alcohol characteristics, sociodemographic profile, and general health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male prisoners in a smoking cessation intervention. Design and Methods. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of data from 425 male prisoners who joined a quit smoking trial conducted at 18 correctional centres in NSW and Queensland using data collected by standardised self-report instruments. Results. Average age was 33 years with 15% from Aboriginal descent. Compared to non-Aboriginal prisoners, Aboriginal prisoners were significantly more likely to have left school with no qualifications, to have been institutionalised as a child, to be previously incarcerated, and commenced smoking at a younger age. The tobacco use profile of both groups was similar; most of them had a medium to high level of nicotine dependence, smoked roll your own tobacco, and were “serious” about quitting. Discussion and Conclusion. Despite differences in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and offending history, the smoking characteristics of Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal prisoners were similar. Incarceration offers an opportunity to encourage smoking cessation and reduction of drug use.

  10. Smoking and other drug characteristics of aboriginal and non-aboriginal prisoners in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robyn L; Indig, Devon; Butler, Tony G; Wilhelm, Kay A; Archer, Vicki A; Wodak, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Although tobacco and alcohol use have declined substantially in the Australian community, substance use among prisoners remains high. The aim was to compare the smoking, drug, and alcohol characteristics, sociodemographic profile, and general health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male prisoners in a smoking cessation intervention. Design and Methods. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of data from 425 male prisoners who joined a quit smoking trial conducted at 18 correctional centres in NSW and Queensland using data collected by standardised self-report instruments. Results. Average age was 33 years with 15% from Aboriginal descent. Compared to non-Aboriginal prisoners, Aboriginal prisoners were significantly more likely to have left school with no qualifications, to have been institutionalised as a child, to be previously incarcerated, and commenced smoking at a younger age. The tobacco use profile of both groups was similar; most of them had a medium to high level of nicotine dependence, smoked roll your own tobacco, and were "serious" about quitting. Discussion and Conclusion. Despite differences in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and offending history, the smoking characteristics of Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal prisoners were similar. Incarceration offers an opportunity to encourage smoking cessation and reduction of drug use.

  11. High frequency tympanometry (1000Hz) in young infants and its comparison with otoacoustic emissions, otomicroscopy and 226Hz tympanometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Domínguez, Eduardo A; Benito-Orejas, José I; Ramírez-Cano, Beatriz; Morais-Pérez, Darío; Muñoz-Moreno, M Fe

    In the first 6 months of life, 226Hz tympanometry is considered an ineffective procedure for the diagnosis of otitis media with effusion. With the introduction of universal hearing screening, the use of high frequency 1000Hz (1kHz) tympanometry has been recommended. To optimise the diagnosis of neonatal hearing loss, we present this comparison, from the clinical point of view, of the results of 226Hz and 1kHz tympanometry in infants. We designed a prospective study of 100 children under 9 months of age proceeding from our hearing screening program. We compare the result of tympanometry with binocular microscopy and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. The application of transient otoacoustic emissions, otomicroscopy and 226Hz and 1kHz tympanometry has shown its usefulness in the management of otitis media with effusion of young infants, with a similar effectiveness between the 4 tests. The joint use of otomicroscopy, transient otoacoustic emissions and 226Hz and 1kHz tympanometry, has allowed us to diagnose otitis media with effusion in young infants more accurately than each test separately. We recommend initial use of 1kHz tympanometry, at least in children younger than 7 months, but in the presence of hearing loss or an unclear result, 226Hz tympanometry is a good diagnostic complement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of two tools to assess dyad feeding interaction in infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Meredith; Fehringer, Karen; Neu, Madalynn

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the Mother-Infant/Toddler Feeding Scale (MITFS) and the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS). Specific questions were as follows: (1) Are there differences between the results of the MITFS and the NCAFS tools in terms of rating infant feeding interactions? And (2) does one tool provide a more detailed, nuanced overview of the quality of feeding interactions than the other? This comparative descriptive study is a secondary analysis of a study evaluating a massage intervention for infants with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A feeding observation for each dyad was scored using both the NCAFS and MITFS. Infants were 6-18 weeks of age. There were moderate correlations (r = 0.3-0.8) between 11 of 20 possible NCAFS and MITFS mother-related subscales, and between 3 of 10 possible NCAFS and the MITFS infant-related subscales. A total of 19 dyads (83%) had one or more NCAFS subscale scores that were at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below normative scores, and 21 dyads (91%) had one or more MITFS subscale T-scores that deviated 1 SD from the normative T-scores. Agreement between the two instruments on scores deviating from the norm was 78%. Both instruments discussed in this paper are standardized ways of assessing an infant feeding. Use of a standardized feeding tool is an objective way to evaluate feedings and can potentially identify specific areas of concern to guide an individualized intervention for a mother-infant dyad. Thus, nurses and other health professionals working with mothers and babies, whether in the hospital, pediatrician offices, or clinics would benefit from learning how to use a standardized feeding tool. Use of a feeding tool also provides the opportunity for nurses to understand the basis of important qualities of a feeding interaction, and a way for nurses who regularly feed infants to self-evaluate their feeding methods. This may minimize less than optimal interactions and allow

  13. Comparison between oscillometric and invasive blood pressure measurements in critically ill premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takci, Sahin; Yigit, Sule; Korkmaz, Ayse; Yurdakök, Murat

    2012-02-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement techniques in neonates generally involve noninvasive measurements with a cuff (oscillometric) or invasive measurements through an arterial catheter. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the noninvasive oscillometric method in critically ill preterm infants when results were compared with the invasive technique. Twenty-seven premature infants with a mean birth weight of 1138 ± 552 g were enrolled in the prospective study. Invasive and noninvasive mean arterial pressure (MAP) levels were recorded simultaneously at each measurement in all patients. Low or lower range mean invasive MAP values (MAP ≤30) were evaluated separately as we aimed to assess the value of noninvasive measurements in hypotensive sick premature infants. Totally, 431 paired BP measurements were taken during the first week of life. There was no statistically significant difference between invasive and noninvasive readings. However, noninvasive measurements were found significantly higher compared with invasive measurements in the presence of hypotension (p oscillometric and invasive readings in critically ill premature infants, and further, comparable mean MAP values were found with the two methods. However, the accuracy of the oscillometric BP measurement technique fails in preterm infants with BP within the lower limits. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  14. A research review: exploring the health of Canada's Aboriginal youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Ning

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the current state of health research on Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youth in Canada. Design. A search of published academic literature on Canadian Aboriginal youth health, including a comprehensive review of both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal youth research, was conducted using MEDLINE and summarized. Methodology. A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published over a 10-year period (2000–2010. The search was limited to research articles pertaining to Canadian youth, using various synonyms for “Canada,” “youth,” and “Aboriginal.” Each article was coded according to 4 broad categories: Aboriginal identity, geographic location, research topic (health determinants, health status, health care, and the 12 key determinants of health proposed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC. Results. Of the 117 articles reviewed, only 34 pertained to Aboriginal youth, while the remaining 83 pertained to non-Aboriginal youth. The results revealed major discrepancies within the current body of research with respect to the geographic representation of Aboriginal youth, with several provinces missing from the literature, including the northern territories. Furthermore, the current research is not reflective of the demographic composition of Aboriginal youth, with an under-representation of Métis and urban Aboriginal youth. Health status of Aboriginal youth has received the most attention, appearing in 79% of the studies reviewed compared with 57% of the non-Aboriginal studies. The number of studies that focus on health determinants and health care is comparable for both groups, with the former accounting for 62 and 64% and the latter comprising 26 and 19% of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal studies, respectively. However, this review reveals several differences with respect to specific focus on health determinants between the two populations. In non-Aboriginal youth studies, all the 12 key determinants of health of PHAC

  15. Comparison of haematology and biochemistry parameters in healthy South African infants with laboratory reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B-M; Tameris, M; Geldenhuys, H; Luabeya, A; Bunyasi, E; Hawkridge, T; McClain, J B; Mahomed, H; Scriba, T J; McShane, H; Hatherill, M

    2018-01-01

    Paediatric laboratory reference intervals used in Africa and Asia may be derived from historical intervals of predominantly Caucasian infants in Europe or North America. These intervals may therefore not be compatible with the range of normality for developing country populations. We aimed to compare haematology and biochemistry parameters in healthy South African infants with local laboratory reference intervals. We compared the baseline haematology and biochemistry results of 634 (316 male and 318 female) HIV-unexposed infants, aged 3-6 months, living in a rural area of the Western Cape Province, South Africa, against laboratory reference intervals supplied by the South African National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS). We calculated the percentage of observed values out of bound (in terms of lower and upper limits) compared to laboratory reference intervals. Of the 634 healthy infants screened, 316 (49.84%) were male and 318 (50.16%) female. A majority (91.05%) had platelet counts above the laboratory reference interval upper limit (350 × 109 cells/l), while over half, 54.85% and 56.98% had mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) values below the lower limits of 77.0-105.0 fl and 26.0-34.0 pg, respectively. A small proportion were outside the reference limits for haematocrit, namely 15.71% below and 7.14% above the normal limits of 0.31-0.38 l/l. For male and female infants, 33.65% and 18.04% of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values and 7.01% and 14.56% of alanine transaminase (ALT) values were above the upper limits, respectively. For male infants, 10.83% of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) values, and for female infants, 31.11% of GGT values were below the lower limits of 12 U/l for males and 15 U/l for females. We observed no significant deviations (>10% out of bound) from NHLS reference intervals in the remaining haematology and biochemistry parameters measured. Haematology and biochemistry parameters in apparently healthy South

  16. Communication disorders after stroke in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists on acquired communication disorders (ACD) in Aboriginal Australians despite their high rates of stroke. Their uptake of rehabilitation services is low, and little information is available on functional consequences for this population. This pilot study explored consequences of ACD for Aboriginal Australians after stroke, including their experiences of services received. Semi-structured interviews were collected with 13 Aboriginal people with ACD, and family members, in Perth. Ages ranged from 30 to 78 years and time post stroke from 0.5 to 29 years. A qualitative, thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken. The key themes which emerged were "getting on with life", coping with change, independence/interdependence, the importance of communication for maintaining family and community connection, role and identity issues and viewing the stroke consequences within the broader context of co-morbidities. While similar life disruptions were found to those previously reported in the general stroke population, this study highlighted differences, which reflect the particular context of ACD for Aboriginal people and which need to be considered when planning future services. While implications are limited due to small numbers, the findings emphasise the importance of a holistic approach, and integration of communication treatments into community-led social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation Aboriginal Australians frequently experience a range of concurrent and complex co-morbidities and demanding social or family circumstances at the same time as coping with communication disorders post-stroke. A holistic approach to post stroke rehabilitation may be appropriate with services that accommodate communication disorders, delivered in collaboration with Aboriginal organisations, emphasising positive attitudes and reintegration into community as fully as possible. Communication and yarning are important for maintaining family and

  17. Health sciences research and Aboriginal communities: pathway or pitfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Kaplan-Myrth, Nili; Tait, Caroline; Martin, Carmel Mary; Chartrand, Larry; Hogg, William; Tugwell, Peter; Valaskakis, Gail; Macaulay, Ann C

    2004-03-01

    To provide health researchers and clinicians with background information and examples regarding Aboriginal health research challenges, in an effort to promote effective collaborative research with Aboriginal communities. An interdisciplinary team of experienced Aboriginal-health researchers conducted a thematic analysis of their planning meetings regarding a community-based Aboriginal health research training project and of the text generated by the meetings and supplemented the analysis with a literature review. Four research challenges are identified and addressed: (1) contrasting frameworks of Western science and indigenous knowledge systems; (2) the impact of historic colonialist processes upon the interface between health science research and Aboriginal communities; (3) culturally relevant frameworks and processes for knowledge generation and knowledge transfer; and (4) Aboriginal leadership, governance, and participation. Culturally appropriate and community-controlled collaborative research can result in improved health outcomes in Aboriginal communities and contribute new insights and perspectives to the fields of public health and medicine in general.

  18. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  19. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  20. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C.; Muller, Craig

    2016-01-01

    diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population...... expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya...

  1. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  2. Infants Prefer the Musical Meter of Their Own Culture: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Gaye; Hannon, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Infants prefer native structures such as familiar faces and languages. Music is a universal human activity containing structures that vary cross-culturally. For example, Western music has temporally regular metric structures, whereas music of the Balkans (e.g., Bulgaria, Macedonia, Turkey) can have both regular and irregular structures. We…

  3. Comparison of infant-feeding practices in two health subdistricts with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of the study was to compare the infant-feeding practices of two subdistricts with different baby-friendly status in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study with an analytical component. Eighteen fieldworkers assisted with the data ...

  4. Comparison of Breast Crawl Between Infants Delivered by Vaginal Delivery and Cesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Hakimi, Sevil; Habibelahi, Abbas; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Shahrak, Shakiba Pourasad

    2016-05-12

    Exclusive breastfeeding is the single most cost-effective intervention to reduce infant mortality. Breast crawl (BC) is deemed a natural way for the baby to behave immediately after delivery. BC is the method that may help initiation of breastfeeding in the most natural way. The aim of this study is to compare successful BC between neonates born through vaginal delivery and those born through cesarean section (CS) and factors associated with a positive outcome. Participants were mothers who delivered their babies during the period of October 2012 to December 2013 in Alzahra Hospital in Tabriz, through cesarean or vaginal delivery. Infants were placed prone on their mothers' abdomen after delivery. Data show that babies delivered through vaginal delivery had significantly more success in BC than babies born through the cesarean delivery (88.01% versus 11.21%). Moreover, babies in the CS group used significantly less time to achieve BC (45 versus 28 minutes). There is a remarkable difference in completion and length of time used to achieve BC between infants with regard to the delivery mode. Encouraging BC in all dyads, especially in cesarean births, may unduly delay the infant's first breastfeed.

  5. Growth of Czech Breastfed Infants in Comparison with the World Health Organization Standards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vignerová, J.; Shriver, L.; Paulová, M.; Brabec, Marek; Schneidrová, D.; Růžková, R.; Procházka, B.; Riedlová, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2015), s. 32-38 ISSN 1210-7778 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NS9974; Pedagogická fakulta UK(CZ) PRVOUK P02 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : breastfeeding * Czech * growth standards * infants * national references * WHO standards Subject RIV: FG - Pediatrics Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2015

  6. A Claw Is like My Hand: Comparison Supports Goal Analysis in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the intentional relations in others' actions is critical to human social life. Origins of this knowledge exist in the first year and are a function of both acting as an intentional agent and observing movement cues in actions. We explore a new mechanism we believe plays an important role in infants' understanding of new actions:…

  7. A comparison of i-gel™ and Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™ during general anesthesia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Kyoung Seop; Park, Sang Yoong; Choi, So Ron; Chung, Chan Jong

    2018-02-01

    The i-gel™ (i-gel) and Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™ (LMA Supreme) have been safely used in children. We compared the airway performance of the i-gel and LMA Supreme in infants undergoing general anesthesia. Sixty infants with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II were randomly assigned to place either the i-gel or the LMA Supreme. The size 1 or 1.5 of each airway was selected by the weight of infants. The primary outcome variable was oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP). We also assessed insertion success rate, insertion time, fiberoptic view of the larynx, airway quality, airway manipulations, and perioperative complications. Demographic data did not differ between the two groups. Insertion success rate was similar in both groups. OLP for the i-gel (26.0 ± 3.8 cmH 2 O) was higher than for the LMA Supreme (23.7 ± 3.2 cmH 2 O) (P = 0.016). Insertion time for the i-gel (16.4 ± 2.8 s) was shorter than for the LMA Supreme (18.5 ± 2.7 s) (P = 0.002). There were no differences in fiberoptic view of the larynx, airway quality, airway manipulations, and complications between the two groups. This study demonstrated that the i-gel and LMA Supreme provided a similar performance of airway in infants. Compared with the LMA Supreme, the i-gel provided shorter insertion time and higher OLP in infants.

  8. Comparison between rigid and flexible laser supraglottoplasty in the treatment of severe laryngomalacia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Wen-Jue; Shiao, An-Suey; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Tsao, Pei-Chen; Yang, Chia-Feng; Soong, Yen-Hui

    2011-06-01

    Traditionally, laser supraglottoplasty for the treatment of severe laryngomalacia (SLM) is via rigid endoscopy (RE). Potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser fiber can pass through a flexible endoscopy (FE) and cauterize tissue. This study is designed to evaluate and compare clinical variables between these two techniques in the treatment of SLM in infants. A retrospective study includes four-year period of consecutive infants who received laser supraglottoplasty. In the first two years (2006-2007), conventional RE CO(2)-laser with general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were used. In the latter two years (2008-2009), a novel technique of FE KTP-laser with intravenous sedation, nasopharyngeal oxygen and a noninvasive respiratory support (if indicated), without any artificial airway was used immediately after the diagnostic FE. After laser surgery, infants were followed for three months. Clinical variables were analyzed and compared. A total of 57 infants (27 in RE group, 30 in FE group) were enrolled. Basic variables were similar between both groups. Clinical improvement was comparable with 88.9% and 93.3% in the RE and FE groups, respectively. There are no significant differences in mean number of laser surgery, major complications, duration of post-laser respiratory support and hospitalization days, body weight percentile between the two groups. However, the durations of waiting time, operation, ET intubation and total hospital days were significantly less in the FE group. FE technique has similar success rate but more convenient and cost-effective than the RE technique. It may to be a practical alternative therapy for infants with SLM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustainability of a successful health and nutrition program in a remote aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A J; Bonson, A P; Yarmirr, D; O'Dea, K; Mathews, J D

    1995-06-19

    To assess the long term effect of a nutrition program in a remote Aboriginal community (Minjilang). Evaluation of nutritional outcomes over the three years before and the three years after a health and nutrition program that ran from June 1989 to June 1990. Turnover of food items at the community store was used as a measure of dietary intake at Minjilang and a comparison community. A community of about 150 Aboriginal people live at Minjilang on Croker Island, 240 km north-east of Darwin. A similar community of about 300 people on another island was used as the comparison. The program produced lasting improvements in dietary intake of most target foods (including fruit, vegetables and wholegrain bread) and nutrients (including folate, ascorbic acid and thiamine). Sugar intake fell in both communities before the program, but the additional decrease in sugar consumption during the program at Minjilang "rebounded" in the next year. Dietary improvements in the comparison community were delayed and smaller than at Minjilang. The success of the program at Minjilang was linked to an ongoing process of social change, which in turn provided a stimulus for dietary improvement in the comparison community. When Aboriginal people themselves control and maintain ownership of community-based intervention programs, nutritional improvements can be initiated and sustained.

  10. Comparison of the microstructure and composition of aboriginal ceramics, from indigenous site Caninhas, with the obtained ones in the region; Comparacao da microestrutura e da composicao de ceramicas indigenas provenientes do sitio arqueologico Caninhas, com as obtidas atualmente na regiao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, C.C.; Nakano, F.P.; Taguchi, S.P.; Camargo-Vernilli, D., E-mail: cristhian@alunos.eel.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Ribeiro, R.B.; Rosa, S.J. L. [Faculdades Integradas Teresa D' Avila (FATEA), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Rede Salesianas. Dept. de Desenho Industrial

    2009-07-01

    The archaeological site of Caninhas is made of funeral and combustion structures and various objects of aboriginal daily use. These parts and fragments were safe and inventoried, constituting approximately 4000 units. The objective of this project was to analyze the microstructure and composition of archaeological ceramics, and ceramics made of argil current of the zone. The crystalline phases were identified by X-Rays Diffraction (XRD), elementary composition was obtained by X-Rays Fluorescence (XRF) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS), and the microstructure was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Composition and microstructure of archaeological ceramics are different of current ceramics, indicating the effect of lixiviation in function of the time and the microstructural evolution due different ceramic processing. These results are valuable for the archaeological area studies, mainly for the cultural denoting which represents. The relation between some studies is basic to add knowledge: use of the ceramic materials engineering for archaeology application. (author)

  11. Primary health care for Aboriginal women and children in the year after birth: findings from a population-based study in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Jane; Weetra, Donna; Stuart-Butler, Deanna; Deverix, Janiene; Leane, Cathy; Ah Kit, Jackie; Glover, Karen; Gartland, Deirdre; Newbury, Jonathan; Brown, Stephanie

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the extent to which Aboriginal women access primary care for themselves and their infant in the year after childbirth. Cross sectional population-based survey of women giving birth to Aboriginal babies in South Australia between July 2011 and June 2013. A total of 344 women took part in the study 4-9 months after giving birth. The majority had seen a primary health care practitioner since the birth: 86% had seen a Child and Family Health Service (CaFHS) nurse, 81% a general practitioner (GP), and 61% an Aboriginal health worker (AHW). Women living in remote areas were more likely to have seen primary care practitioners than women living in Adelaide (GP: OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2; CaFHS: OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0-5.8; AHW: OR 5.2, 95% CI 2.8-9.8). Around 16% of women with gestational diabetes and 10% with hypertension had not seen a GP since the birth, and 24% of women who had a low birthweight infant had not seen a CaFHS nurse. Despite high prevalence of maternal and infant morbidity, a sizeable minority of women did not access primary care practitioners postpartum. Implications for public health: Stronger efforts are needed to ensure Aboriginal women and families receive appropriate postnatal follow-up. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Psychopathology of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents Living in the Mountainous Region of Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents who live in the same mountainous region of southern Taiwan, and to test the hypothesis by controlling other individual and environmental factors. In this study, a total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal Taiwanese adolescents were enrolled. Their psychopathology was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale; demographic and family characteristics, and their affinity with their peer group and with their school were also assessed. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents, and indicated that females and adolescents perceiving higher levels of family conflict and lower family support were more likely to experience more severe psychopathology than those perceiving the contrary. Those who devise strategies to improve the mental health of adolescents living in impoverished regions must take into consideration their ethnicity, gender, and family context when devising such treatment strategies.

  13. Comparison of animal-derived surfactants for the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Halliday, Henry L; Stevens, Timothy P; Suresh, Gautham; Soll, Roger; Rojas-Reyes, Maria Ximena

    2015-12-21

    0.13, 95% 0.03 to 0.23; NNTH 7, 95% CI 4 to 33) was limited to higher initial dose of porcine minced lung surfactant (> 100 mg/kg). Other comparisons: No difference in outcome was noted between bovine lung lavage surfactant extract versus porcine minced lung surfactant extract. There were no studies comparing bovine lung lavage surfactant extract versus porcine lung lavage surfactant; or porcine minced lung surfactant extract versus porcine lung lavage surfactant. Significant differences in clinical outcome were noted in the comparison trials of modified minced lung surfactant extract (beractant) compared with porcine minced lung surfactant extract (poractant alfa) including a significant increase in the risk of mortality prior to discharge, death or oxygen requirement at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, PDA requiring treatment and "receiving > 1 dose of surfactant" in infants treated with modified bovine minced lung surfactant extract compared with porcine minced lung surfactant extract. The difference in these outcomes was limited to studies using a higher initial dose of porcine minced lung surfactant extract. It is uncertain whether the observed differences are from differences in dose or from source of extraction (porcine vs. bovine) because of the lack of dose-equivalent comparison groups with appropriate sample size. No differences in clinical outcomes were observed in comparative trials between bovine lung lavage surfactant and modified bovine minced lung surfactants.

  14. Comparison of airway measurements during influenza-induced tachypnea in infant and adult cotton rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Gregory A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased respiratory rate (tachypnea is frequently observed as a clinical sign of influenza pneumonia in pediatric patients admitted to the hospital. We previously demonstrated that influenza infection of adult cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus also results in tachypnea and wanted to establish whether this clinical sign was observed in infected infant cotton rats. We hypothesized that age-dependent differences in lung mechanics result in differences in ventilatory characteristics following influenza infection. Methods Lung tidal volume, dynamic elastance, resistance, and pleural pressure were measured in a resistance and compliance system on mechanically-ventilated anesthestized young (14–28 day old and adult (6–12 week old cotton rats. Animals at the same age were infected with influenza virus, and breathing rates and other respiratory measurements were recorded using a whole body flow plethysmograph. Results Adult cotton rats had significantly greater tidal volume (TV, and lower resistance and elastance than young animals. To evaluate the impact of this increased lung capacity and stiffening on respiratory disease, young and adult animals were infected intra-nasally with influenza A/Wuhan/359/95. Both age groups had increased respiratory rate and enhanced pause (Penh during infection, suggesting lower airway obstruction. However, in spite of significant tachypnea, the infant (unlike the adult cotton rats maintained the same tidal volume, resulting in an increased minute volume. In addition, the parameters that contribute to Penh were different: while relaxation time between breaths and time of expiration was decreased in both age groups, a disproportionate increase in peak inspiratory and expiratory flow contributed to the increase in Penh in infant animals. Conclusion While respiratory rate is increased in both adult and infant influenza-infected cotton rats, the volume of air exchanged per minute (minute volume is

  15. Developmental milestones among Aboriginal children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne; Kohen, Dafna; Miller, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Windows of achievement provide age ranges for the attainment of early developmental skills. Group-specific research is warranted given that development may be influenced by social or cultural factors. To examine developmental milestones for Inuit, Métis and off-reserve First Nation children in Canada, based on developmental domains collected from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey. Sociodemographic and health predictors of risk for developmental delay were also examined. The ranges in which children achieve certain developmental milestones are presented. Gross motor and self-help skills were found to be achieved earlier (across the three Aboriginal groups), whereas language skills were achieved slightly later than in Canadian children in general. Furthermore, health factors (eg, low birth weight, chronic health conditions) were associated with late achievement of developmental outcomes even when sociodemographic characteristics were considered. Findings suggest that the timing of milestone achievement may differ for Aboriginal children, highlighting the importance of establishing culturally specific norms and standards rather than relying on those derived from general populations. This information may be useful for practitioners and parents interested in identifying the age ranges for development, as well as age ranges indicating potential for developmental risk and opportunities for early intervention among Aboriginal children.

  16. Insulin resistance syndrome in Australian aboriginal people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, K G; Best, J D; McDermott, R; Green, E A; Piers, L S; O'Dea, K

    1997-01-01

    1. Like many indigenous populations, Australian Aboriginal people have developed high rates of obesity, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and cardiovascular and renal disease following the transition from a traditional to an 'urbanized' lifestyle. These conditions tend to cluster as part of the insulin resistance syndrome. 2. The prevalence of overweight people and obesity in Australian Aboriginal populations ranges from 0% in communities with a traditionally orientated lifestyle to well over 50% in the worst affected communities. There is a predominantly central pattern of fat deposition in both men and women, which is associated with greater insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk than is peripheral fat deposition. 3. Data from four previously published, population-based surveys in Aboriginal communities were combined to give a cohort of 1079 subjects of 15 years and older. Several conditions of the insulin resistance syndrome had a strong, positive association with increasing body mass index (BMI): NIDDM (both cross-sectionally and longitudinally), hypertension, dyslipidaemia and albuminuria. Remaining lean (BMI physical activity and improve dietary quality are likely to be the major means by which conditions associated with insulin resistance can be prevented in Aboriginal populations.

  17. Brothers Inside: Fathering Workshops with Aboriginal Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Craig

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a fathering program that has been operating for a number of years for Aboriginal men in the corrective system. The discussion groups focus on how the men see their role as fathers whilst in jail. The discussions examine ways of changing and developing new skills for them on release. The basis of the program is that just…

  18. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendron, R.; Hille, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are

  19. Comparison of 2 Dosages of Stretching Treatment in Infants with Congenital Muscular Torticollis: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lu; Yan, Xiaohua; Li, Jinling; Guan, Buyun; Ma, Liying; Chen, Ying; Mai, Jianning; Xu, Kaishou

    2017-05-01

    To compare the short-term efficacy of 2 dosages of stretching treatment on the clinical outcomes in infants with congenital muscular torticollis. This was a prospective randomized controlled study. Fifty infants with congenital muscular torticollis who were randomly assigned to 100-times stretching group and 50-times stretching group received stretching treatment for the affected sternocleidomastoid muscle. The outcomes including the head tilt, the cervical passive range of motion, and the muscle function of cervical lateral flexors determined by the muscle function scale were assessed at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. The sternocleidomastoid muscle growth analyzed by the thickness ratio of sternocleidomastoid muscles was measured using ultrasonography at baseline and 8 weeks after treatment. Except the ratio of muscle function scale scores, the postintervention outcomes were all significantly improved in both groups compared with baseline (P stretching group showed greater improvement compared with 50-times stretching group in head tilt and cervical passive range of motion at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment (P Stretching treatment of 2 dosages may effectively improve head tilt, cervical passive range of motion, and sternocleidomastoid muscle growth in infants with congenital muscular torticollis. The stretching treatment of 100 times per day is likely to associate with greater improvement in head tilt and cervical passive range of motion.

  20. Identification of respiratory virus in infants with congenital heart disease by comparison of different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mitiko Kanashiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory virus infections are the main cause of infant hospitalization and are potentially severe in children with congenital heart disease (CHD. Rapid and sensitive diagnosis is very important to early introduction of antiviral treatment and implementation of precautions to control transmission, reducing the risk of nosocomial infections. In the present study we compare different techniques in the diagnosis of respiratory viruses in CHD infants. Thirty-nine samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate were obtained from CHD infants with symptoms of respiratory infection. The Multiplex PCR (Seeplex® RV 12 ACE Detection driven to the detection of 12 respiratory viruses was compared with the direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA and PCR, both targeting seven respiratory viruses. The positivity found by DFA, Multiplex and PCR was 33.3%, 51.3% and 48.7%, respectively. Kappa index comparing DFA and Multiplex, DFA and PCR and PCR and Multiplex PCR was 0.542, 0.483 and 0.539, respectively. The concordance between techniques was considered moderate. Both Multiplex PCR (p = 0.001 and PCR (p = 0.002 detected significantly more respiratory virus than DFA. As the performance of the tests may vary, the combination of two or more techniques may increase diagnostic sensitivity favoring the diagnosis of co-infections, early introduction of antiviral therapy and implementation of appropriate measures.

  1. [WELL-CHILD VISITS REGARDING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS: A CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraga, Yana; Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie; Reuveni, Haim

    2016-07-01

    1. To examine the rate of WCV among mothers in four ethno-cultural groups: native-born Jewish, Bedouin and immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Ethiopia; 2. to test the relationship between WCV in the first and second year of the infant's life; 3. to assess the effect of sociodemographic variables on WCV. Consistent infant well-child visits (WCV) have been found to be related to better health status and a decrease in visits to the emergency room and hospitalizations. The data were collected in the Beer Sheva district among community-dwelling women in the years 2010-2012. The quota sample comprised of 400 mothers: 100 from each group. The inclusion criteria were: age (18-35 years old), either first or second child, or age of the youngest child between 18- 24 months. Immigrant mothers lived in Israel for at least 10 years. The monitoring of WCV was evaluated according to the registered number of visits in the well-baby clinic registration card. Mothers from all groups completed fewer WCV than the recommended number. The highest rate of visits was observed among the immigrants from the FSU, and the lowest rate among the Bedouin mothers (peconomic status had a higher rate of WCV (b = 0.38, p economic background of mothers. It is important to give mothers information about preventive medicine at an early stage in the infant's life and to encourage mothers in general and Bedouin mothers in particular to comply with recommendations regarding WCV.

  2. Modified Blalock Taussig shunt: Comparison between neonates, infants and older children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh Pal Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to compare various pre-and post-operative parameters and to identify the predictors of mortality in neonates, infants, and older children undergoing Modified Blalock Taussig shunt (MBTS. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 134 children who underwent MBTS over a period of 2 years through thoracotomy were reviewed. Children were divided into three groups-neonates, infants, and older children. For analysis, various pre-and post-operative variables were recorded, including complications and mortality. Results: The increase in PaO 2 and SaO 2 levels after surgery was similar and statistically significant in all the three groups. The requirement of adrenaline, duration of ventilation and mortality was significantly higher in neonates. The overall mortality and infant mortality was 4.5% and 8%, respectively. Conclusion: Neonates are at increased risk of complications and mortality compared with older children. Age (6 ml/kg, mechanical ventilation >24 h and post shunt increase in PaO 2 (P Diff <25% of baseline PaO 2 are independent predictors of mortality in children undergoing MBTS.

  3. Comparison of the fatty acid profile of Spanish infant formulas and Galician women breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, Rocío; Regal, Patricia; López-Racamonde, Olga; Cepeda, Alberto; Fente, Cristina A

    2018-02-01

    The importance of dietary lipids during childhood is evident, as they are necessary for correct growth and development of the newborn. When breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas are designed to mimic human milk as much as possible to fulfill infant's requirements. However, the composition of these dairy products is relatively constant, while human milk is not a uniform bio-fluid and changes according to the requirements of the baby. In this study, breast milk samples were donated by 24 Spanish mothers in different lactation stages and different infant formulas were purchased in supermarkets and pharmacies. Gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection was used for the fatty acid determination. Compared to breast milk, first-stage formulas are apparently very similar in composition; however, no major differences were observed in the fatty acid profiles between formulas of different lactation stages. The Galician women breast milk has a fatty acid profile rich in oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. When comparing human milk with formulas, it becomes evident that the manufacturers tend to enrich the formulas with essential fatty acids (especially with α-linolenic acid), but arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid levels are lower than in breast milk. Additionally, the obtained results demonstrated that after 1 year of lactation, human milk is still a good source of energy, essential fatty acids, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for the baby.

  4. Comparison of INSURE method with conventional mechanical ventilation after surfactant administration in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, Fatemeh Sadat; Esmaeilnia Shirvani, Tahereh; Aminnezhad, Majid; Amini, Elaheh; Dalili, Hossein; Moghimpour Bijani, Faezeh

    2014-01-01

    Administration of endotracheal surfactant is potentially the main treatment for neonates suffering from RDS (Respiratory Distress Syndrome), which is followed by mechanical ventilation. Late and severe complications may develop as a consequence of using mechanical ventilation. In this study, conventional methods for treatment of RDS are compared with surfactant administration, use of mechanical ventilation for a brief period and NCPAP (Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure), (INSURE method ((Intubation, Surfactant administration and extubation)). A randomized clinical trial study was performed, including all newborn infants with diagnosed RDS and a gestational age of 35 weeks or less, who were admitted in NICU of Valiasr hospital. The patients were then divided randomly into two CMV (Conventional Mechanical Ventilation) and INSURE groups. Surfactant administration and consequent long-term mechanical ventilation were done in the first group (CMV group). In the second group (INSURE group), surfactant was administered followed by a short-term period of mechanical ventilation. The infants were then extubated, and NCPAP was embedded. The comparison included crucial duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy, IVH (Intraventricular Hemorrhage), PDA (Patent Ductus Arteriosus), air-leak syndromes, BPD (Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia) and mortality rate. The need for mechanical ventilation in 5th day of admission was 43% decreased (P=0.005) in INSURE group in comparison to CMV group. A decline (P=0.01) in the incidence of IVH and PDA was also achieved. Pneumothorax, chronic pulmonary disease and mortality rates, were not significantly different among two groups. (P=0.25, P=0.14, P=0.25, respectively). This study indicated that INSURE method in the treatment of RDS decreases the need for mechanical ventilation and oxygen-therapy in preterm neonates. Moreover, relevant complications as IVH and PDA were observed to be reduced. Thus, it seems rationale to perform

  5. Comparison of INSURE method with conventional mechanical ventilation after surfactant administration in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: therapeutic challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Nayeri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Administration of endotracheal surfactant is potentially the main treatment for neonates suffering from RDS (Respiratory Distress Syndrome, which is followed by mechanical ventilation. Late and severe complications may develop as a consequence of using mechanical ventilation. In this study, conventional methods for treatment of RDS are compared with surfactant administration, use of mechanical ventilation for a brief period and NCPAP (Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, (INSURE method ((Intubation, Surfactant administration and extubation. A randomized clinical trial study was performed, including all newborn infants with diagnosed RDS and a gestational age of 35 weeks or less, who were admitted in NICU of Valiasr hospital. The patients were then divided randomly into two CMV (Conventional Mechanical Ventilation and INSURE groups. Surfactant administration and consequent long-term mechanical ventilation were done in the first group (CMV group. In the second group (INSURE group, surfactant was administered followed by a short-term period of mechanical ventilation. The infants were then extubated, and NCPAP was embedded. The comparison included crucial duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy, IVH (Intraventricular Hemorrhage, PDA (Patent Ductus Arteriosus, air-leak syndromes, BPD (Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia and mortality rate. The need for mechanical ventilation in 5th day of admission was 43% decreased (P=0.005 in INSURE group in comparison to CMV group. A decline (P=0.01 in the incidence of IVH and PDA was also achieved. Pneumothorax, chronic pulmonary disease and mortality rates, were not significantly different among two groups. (P=0.25, P=0.14, P=0.25, respectively. This study indicated that INSURE method in the treatment of RDS decreases the need for mechanical ventilation and oxygen-therapy in preterm neonates. Moreover, relevant complications as IVH and PDA were observed to be reduced. Thus, it seems rationale to

  6. The Structure of Aboriginal Child Welfare in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandna Sinha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal children are currently overrepresented in out-of-home care in Canada; this extends a historical pattern of child removal that began with the residential school system. The overrepresentation of Aboriginal children persists despite legislative and structural changes intended to reduce the number of Aboriginal children in care. Several recent developments suggest potential for improvement in services for Aboriginal children and families in the near future. However, greater information about the structure of Aboriginal child welfare in Canada is needed to support program and policy development. We present a broad overview of the variation in Aboriginal child welfare legislation and standards, service delivery models, and funding formulas across Canadian provinces and territories. We draw on this review to suggest specific priorities for future research.

  7. Parental behaviors and sleep outcomes in infants and toddlers: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Kohyama, Jun; How, Ti Hwei

    2010-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of parental behaviors and other factors of sleep ecology and to analyze their relationships with sleep outcomes in a large sample of children ages birth to 36months in multiple countries/regions. Parents of 29,287 infants and toddlers (48% boys; Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Vietnam) completed an internet-based expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Overall, there is a high level of parental involvement in sleep onset and sleep maintenance for young children, with significant differences in parenting behaviors across cultural groups. For predominantly-Caucasian, the most common behavior occurring at bedtime is falling asleep independently in own crib/bed (57%), compared to just 4% of those children living in predominantly-Asian regions. Parental behaviors and sleep ecology, including parental presence at sleep onset, bedtime, and bedtime routine, significantly explain a portion of the variance in sleep patterns. Overall, parental behaviors are more highly predictive of nighttime sleep outcomes in predominantly-Caucasian regions. Finally, parental involvement in sleep onset mediates the relationship between cosleeping and sleep outcomes. Overall, the best predictors of nighttime sleep are related to parental behaviors at bedtime and during the night. Furthermore, sleep disruption and decreased total sleep associated with bed sharing and room sharing are mediated by parental presence at bedtime. These findings provide additional support for addressing parental behaviors in behavioral interventions for infant and toddler sleep problems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of nursing care associated with infants born to mothers with drugs abuse and its comparison with the standards in selected hospitals in Kerman 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi Khaki, Z; AbbasZadeh, A; Rassoli, M; Zayeri, F

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy of women addicted to drugs is a public health problem in most countries, leading to various problems in the mother, the fetus, and the newborn. Since these babies are at risk of various complications and even death, competent and appropriate care of these children is needed. The present study aimed to assess the quality of nursing care provided to newborns and its comparison with the existing standards in infants and neonatal intensive care units of the selected Hospitals in Kerman. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive conducted study, 400 nursing cares, provided to infants born to mothers with drugs abuse, observed and were compared to standard checklists provided by the latest resources and the world's scientific papers. The checklist provided was based on the evaluation of infants and included two distinct categories: non-drug therapy and drug treatment. Finally, the data were analyzed. Results. The consistency quality of the nursing cares provided to infants born to mothers with drugs abuse was evaluated with the existing standards in children, 73% receiving non-drug therapy and 81% of the infants receiving drug treatment. Conclusion. Compared to standards in the normal state, nursing care was associated with babies born to mothers with drugs abuse. The reduction in the incidence of morbidity and mortality in this group of infants was expected in the case of familiarity and training of nursing and the use of caring standards, particularly when applying non-drug therapy.

  9. 'Stereotypes are reality': addressing stereotyping in Canadian Aboriginal medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Anh; Crowshoe, Lynden

    2015-06-01

    Efforts are underway in many parts of the world to develop medical education curricula that address the health care issues of indigenous populations. The topic of stereotypes and their impact on such peoples' health, however, has received little attention. An examination of stereotypes will shed light on dominant cultural attitudes toward Aboriginal people that can affect quality of care and health outcomes in Aboriginal patients. This study examines the views of undergraduate medical students regarding Canadian Aboriginal stereotypes and how they potentially affect Aboriginal people's health. The goal of this study was to gain insight into how medical learners perceive issues related to racism, discrimination and social stereotypes and to draw attention to gaps in Aboriginal health curricula. This study involved a convenience sample of medical learners drawn from one undergraduate medical programme in western Canada. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we conducted a total of seven focus group interviews with 38 first- and second-year undergraduate medical students. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. Medical students recognise that stereotypes are closely related to processes of racism and discrimination. However, they generally feel that stereotypes of Aboriginal people are rooted in reality. Students also identified medical school as one of the environments in which they are commonly exposed to negative views of Aboriginal people. Student responses suggest they see the cultural gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people as being both a cause and a consequence of discrimination against Aboriginal people. The results of this study suggest that teaching medical students about the realities and impacts of stereotypes on Aboriginal peoples is a good starting point from which to address issues of racism and health inequities affecting the health of Aboriginal people. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The missing link in Aboriginal care: resource accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, C W; Duffie-Ashton, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles.

  11. Comparison of Amplitude-Integrated EEG and Conventional EEG in a Cohort of Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meledin, Irina; Abu Tailakh, Muhammad; Gilat, Shlomo; Yogev, Hagai; Golan, Agneta; Novack, Victor; Shany, Eilon

    2017-03-01

    To compare amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) and conventional EEG (EEG) activity in premature neonates. Biweekly aEEG and EEG were simultaneously recorded in a cohort of infants born less than 34 weeks gestation. aEEG recordings were visually assessed for lower and upper border amplitude and bandwidth. EEG recordings were compressed for visual evaluation of continuity and assessed using a signal processing software for interburst intervals (IBI) and frequencies' amplitude. Ten-minute segments of aEEG and EEG indices were compared using regression analysis. A total of 189 recordings from 67 infants were made, from which 1697 aEEG/EEG pairs of 10-minute segments were assessed. Good concordance was found for visual assessment of continuity between the 2 methods. EEG IBI, alpha and theta frequencies' amplitudes were negatively correlated to the aEEG lower border while conceptional age (CA) was positively correlated to aEEG lower border ( P EEG to aEEG. aEEG recordings in high-risk premature neonates reflect reliably EEG background information related to continuity and amplitude.

  12. Closing the Aboriginal child injury gap: targets for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Holger; Falster, Kathleen; Ivers, Rebecca; Falster, Michael O; Clapham, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa

    2017-02-01

    To describe the leading mechanisms of hospitalised unintentional injury in Australian Aboriginal children and identify the injury mechanisms with the largest inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. We used linked hospital and mortality data to construct a whole of population birth cohort including 1,124,717 children (1,088,645 non-Aboriginal and 35,749 Aboriginal) born in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012. Injury hospitalisation rates were calculated per person years at risk for injury mechanisms coded according to the ICD10-AM classification. The leading injury mechanisms in both groups of children were falls from playground equipment. For 66 of the 69 injury mechanisms studied, Aboriginal children had a higher rate of hospitalisation compared with non-Aboriginal children. The largest relative inequalities were observed for injuries due to exposure to fire and flame, and the largest absolute inequalities for injuries due to falls from playground equipment. Aboriginal children in NSW experience a significant higher burden of unintentional injury compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Implications for Public Health: We suggest the implementation of targeted injury prevention measures aimed at injury mechanism and age groups identified in this study. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Conceptualizing food security or aboriginal people in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Elaine M

    2008-01-01

    Food insecurity is an urgent public health issue for Aboriginal people in Canada because of high rates of poverty; the effects of global climate change and environmental pollution on traditional food systems; and high rates of diet-related diseases. However, to date, public health has operated with conceptualizations of food security that were developed in non-Aboriginal contexts; they do not take full account of the traditional food practices of Aboriginal people or Aboriginal conceptualizations of food security. In this paper, I argue that there are unique food security considerations for Aboriginal people related to the harvesting, sharing and consumption of country or traditional foods, which impact the four pillars of food security: access, availability, supply and utilization. Thus food security conceptualizations, policies, and programs for Aboriginal people must consider both the market food system and traditional food system. Given the centrality of traditional food practices to cultural health and survival, I propose that cultural food security is an additional level of food security beyond individual, household and community levels. Conceptualizations of food security for Aboriginal people will be incomplete without qualitative research to understand Aboriginal perspectives; such research must take account of the diversity of Aboriginal people.

  14. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Abori......We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show...

  15. Disparities in healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Albertan residents, 1997-2006: a population database study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Chung

    Full Text Available It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities.Healthcare utilisation data over a nine-year period were analysed for a cohort of nearly two million individuals to determine the rates at which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations utilised two specialties (Cardiology and Ophthalmology in Alberta, Canada. Unadjusted and adjusted healthcare utilisation rates obtained by mixed linear and Poisson regressions, respectively, were compared amongst three population groups - federally registered Aboriginals, individuals receiving welfare, and other Albertans.Healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginals were substantially lower than those of non-Aboriginals and welfare recipients at each time point and subspecialty studied [e.g. During 2005/06, unadjusted Cardiology utilisation rates were 0.28% (Aboriginal, n = 97,080, 0.93% (non-Aboriginal, n = 1,720,041 and 1.37% (Welfare, n = 52,514, p = <0.001]. The age distribution of the Aboriginal population was markedly different [2.7%≥65 years of age, non-Aboriginal 10.7%], and comparable utilisation rates were obtained after adjustment for fiscal year and estimated life expectancy [Cardiology: Incidence Rate Ratio 0.66, Ophthalmology: IRR 0.85].The analysis revealed that Aboriginal people utilised subspecialty healthcare at a consistently lower rate than either comparatively economically disadvantaged groups or the general population. Notably, the differences were relatively invariant between the major provincial centres and over a nine year period. Addressing the causes of these discrepancies is

  16. Theoretical and practical issues in the definition of health: insights from Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddington, Paula; Räisänen, Ulla

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses attempts to define health within a public policy arena and practical and conceptual difficulties that arise. An Australian Aboriginal definition of health is examined. Although there are certain difficulties of translation, this definition is prominent in current Australian health policy and discourse about health. The definition can be seen as broadly holistic in comparison to other holistic definitions such as that of the World Health Organization. The nature of this holism and its grounding within the context of Aboriginal Australia is discussed. In particular, its implications for the phenomenon of medicalization, which may be associated with a holistic notion of health, is critically explored, as is the link of notions of health to culture and the question of the possibility of a universal definition of health. The question of to what extent a definition of health is inspirational or operational is also raised.

  17. Comparison of three dose regimens of aprotinin in infants undergoing the arterial switch operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Yashwant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the most effective dose regimen of aprotinin for infants undergoing arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries in reducing blood loss and postoperative packed red blood cell (PRBC requirements. A total of 24 infants scheduled for arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries were included in the study. The infants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Group I (n = 8 patients received aprotinin in a dose of 20,000 kallikrein inhibiting units (KIU/kg after induction of anesthesia, 20,000 KIU/kg was added to the pump prime, and 20,000 KIU/kg/hour infusion for three hours after weaning from bypass; group II (n = 8 patients received aprotinin 30,000 KIU/kg after induction of anesthesia, 30,000 KIU/kg was added to the pump prime and 30,000 KIU/Kg/hour infusion for three hours after weaning from bypass; group III patients (n = 8 received aprotinin 40,000 KIU/kg after induction of anesthesia, 40,000 KIU/kg was added to the pump prime and 40,000 KIU/kg/hour infusion for three hours after weaning from bypass. Postoperatively, the cumulative hourly blood loss and PRBC requirements were noted up to 24 hours from the time of admission in the intensive care unit (ICU. Use of blood and blood products were noted. Coagulation parameters such as hematocrit, activated clotting time (ACT, fibrinogen, prothrombin time (PT, international normalized ratio (INR, platelet count, and fibrin degradation products (FDP were investigated before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, after protamine administration, and at four hours postoperatively in the ICU. The number of infants reexplored for increased mediastinal drainage was recorded. Renal functions were monitored by measuring urine output (hourly and serum urea (mg% and serum creatinine (mg% at 24 hours. The sternal closure time was comparable in all the three groups. Cumulative blood loss (ml/kg/24 hours was greatest in group I (17.30 ± 7.7, least in group

  18. Comparison of cortisol samples in the first two weeks of life in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tiffany A; Schmid, Kendra K; French, Jeffrey A

    2015-03-01

    Growing literature on negative childhood stress emphasizes the need to understand cortisol values from varying biomarker samples. This work aimed to examine cortisol samples for usability, associations, and individual stability in neonates. The sample consisted of preterm infants (n=31). Analyses on cortisol collected from cord blood and from saliva and urine samples on days 1, 7, and 14 included Spearman correlations and paired t-tests. Usability rates were 80.6% (cord blood), 85.9% (saliva), and 93.5% (urine). Salivary and urinary cortisol levels had significant correlation on day 1 only (p=0.004). Significant differences in individual stability of cortisol concentrations existed except in urine on days 1 and 7 and in saliva on days 7 and 14. Usability was highest for urine samples. We found little correlation between cortisol sample levels at each time; individual stability of cortisol concentrations was minimal. Interpretation of cortisol findings in all studies should be performed cautiously.

  19. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants: comparison of infants with and without diffuse excessive high signal intensity on MR images at near-term-equivalent age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, So-Young; Eo, Hong; Kwon, Jeong-Yi; Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Munhyang; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2012-05-01

    To compare the neurodevelopmental outcomes between preterm infants with diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) and those without DEHSI on magnetic resonance (MR) images, in association with other white matter lesions. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. High-risk preterm infants (n = 126) who underwent screening brain MR imaging at near-term-equivalent age were classified into two groups according to the presence of DEHSI. Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, presence of cerebral palsy, and neurosensory impairment between 18 and 24 months of age were compared between the two groups. The associations of MR findings of other white matter lesions (cystic encephalomalacia, punctate lesions, loss of volume, ventricular dilatation, and delayed myelination) and subsequent outcomes were also analyzed. Outcome data were evaluated by using exact logistic regression analyses and Fisher exact test. DEHSI was present in 75% (95 of 126) of infants. Subsequent neurodevelopmental outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. Severe motor delay and cerebral palsy were more common in infants with both DEHSI and other white matter lesions as compared with infants with normal white matter (P = .001 and P cystic encephalomalacia (odds ratio, 19.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 333.3) and punctate lesions (odds ratio, 90.9; 95% confidence interval: 6.4, 1000) were significant predictors of cerebral palsy. Although the incidence of DEHSI was high (75%) in preterm infants at near-term-equivalent age MR imaging, DEHSI was not predictive of following adverse outcomes. Cystic encephalomalacia and punctate lesions were more significant predictors of cerebral palsy.

  20. Organ volume measurements: comparison between MRI and autopsy findings in infants following sudden unexpected death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhomme, Olivier; Seguret, Fabienne; Martrille, Laurent; Pidoux, Odile; Cambonie, Gilles; Couture, Alain; Rouleau, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    To assess the accuracy of a semiautomated 3D volume reconstruction method for organ volume measurement by postmortem MRI. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and the infants' parents gave their consent. Postmortem MRI was performed in 16 infants (1 month to 1 year of age) at 1.5 T within 48 h of their sudden death. Virtual organ volumes were estimated using the Myrian software. Real volumes were recorded at autopsy by water displacement. The agreement between virtual and real volumes was quantified following the Bland and Altman's method. There was a good agreement between virtual and real volumes for brain (mean difference: -0.03% (-13.6 to +7.1)), liver (+8.3% (-9.6 to +26.2)) and lungs (+5.5% (-26.6 to +37.6)). For kidneys, spleen and thymus, the MRI/autopsy volume ratio was close to 1 (kidney: 0.87±0.1; spleen: 0.99±0.17; thymus: 0.94±0.25), but with a less good agreement. For heart, the MRI/real volume ratio was 1.29±0.76, possibly due to the presence of residual blood within the heart. The virtual volumes of adrenal glands were significantly underestimated (p=0.04), possibly due to their very small size during the first year of life. The percentage of interobserver and intraobserver variation was lower or equal to 10%, but for thymus (15.9% and 12.6%, respectively) and adrenal glands (69% and 25.9%). Virtual volumetry may provide significant information concerning the macroscopic features of the main organs and help pathologists in sampling organs that are more likely to yield histological findings.

  1. Consulting Whom? Lessons from the Toronto Urban Aboriginal Strategy

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    Mai T. Nguyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted here looks at the current Urban Aboriginal Strategy (UAS in Toronto. The purpose of this Strategy is to provide long-term investments to support Aboriginal communities in urban settings by focusing on three priority areas: improving life skills; promoting job training, skills, and entrepreneurship; and supporting Aboriginal women, children, and families. This article seeks to answer the following question: Does the UAS provide Aboriginal participants with the ability to effectively participant in the consultation process? It argues that the UAS process of consulting with the urban Aboriginal community does not allow for the effective participation of Aboriginal peoples because of problematics related to consulting in an urban setting and despite the language of partnership, the federal government still reserves the right to make final decisions. These problems diminish the ability to build renewed Aboriginal-State relations based on mutual respect and trust, which has been absent within the Aboriginal-State apparatus and resulted in the political exclusion of Aboriginals in Canada. Though consultation can be a vehicle for empowering participants with decision-making authority, this is not the case in Toronto. The lack of a common vision, political buy-in, and the aura of secrecy leads to a political relationship built on mistrust. Mistrust between members and government renders the consultation process ineffective. This article combines the literature on public consultations with official government documents to identify critical components that must be evident for consultations to be fruitful and participation effective. These criteria are the benchmarks upon which to measure effectiveness. Based on interviews with the Steering Committee, this article finds that the UAS process of consulting with the Toronto Aboriginal community does not enable Aboriginal participants to effectively participate in the democratic process.

  2. Attitudes and characteristics of health professionals working in Aboriginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Annabelle M; Magarey, Anthea M; Jones, Michelle; O'Donnell, Kim; Kelly, Janet

    2015-01-01

    There is an unacceptable gap in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Australia. Linked to social inequalities in health and political and historical marginalisation, this health gap must be urgently addressed. It is important that health professionals, the majority of whom in Australia are non-Aboriginal, are confident and equipped to work in Aboriginal health in order to contribute towards closing the health gap. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and characteristics of non-Aboriginal health professionals working in Aboriginal health. The research was guided and informed by a social constructionist epistemology and a critical theoretical approach. It was set within a larger healthy eating and physical activity program delivered in one rural and one metropolitan community in South Australia from 2005 to 2010. Non-Aboriginal staff working in the health services where the program was delivered and who had some experience or an interest working in Aboriginal health were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview. Dietitians working across South Australia (rural and metropolitan locations) were also invited to participate in an interview. Data were coded into themes that recurred throughout the interview and this process was guided by critical social research. Thirty-five non-Aboriginal health professionals participated in a semi-structured interview about their experiences working in Aboriginal health. The general attitudes and characteristics of non-Aboriginal health professionals were classified using four main groupings, ranging from a lack of practical knowledge ('don't know how'), a fear of practice ('too scared'), the area of Aboriginal health perceived as too difficult ('too hard') and learning to practice regardless ('barrier breaker'). Workers in each group had different characteristics including various levels of willingness to work in the area; various understandings of Australia's historical

  3. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  4. Comparisons of a chicken-based formula with soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapinyo, Pipop; Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Wongarn, Renu; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether chicken-based formula can replace soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy. Thirty-eight infants with cow's milk allergy, aged between 2-24 months of age were randomized to receive either chicken-based formula or soy-based formula for 14 days. In the group of soy-based formula, 12 out of 18 infants had evidence of intolerance and could not continue with the formula. However, only 4 out of 20 infants in the chicken-based formula group had evidence of clinical intolerance. All other 16 infants were fed the chicken-based formula with success. The number of infants who were intolerant to chicken formula was significantly lower than the number of those fed soy-based formula (p = 0.009). Chicken-based formula can be used more effectively than soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy.

  5. Assessing Self-Efficacy in Infant Care: A Comparison of Two Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassanee Prasopkittikun, RN, PhD

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that correlations between SICS and two different response formats do not reach the criteria for use as alternatives to each other. However, further research is needed, with particular emphasis on the investigation of construct validity and comparisons between the two scales.

  6. Aboriginal English in the Classroom: An Asset or a Liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of Australian Aboriginal English in the classroom in the light of a recent survey. Aboriginal English is often correlated with low academic performance and poor school attendance. The paper argues that in any discussion of the school role of students' home talk, a range of factors need to be…

  7. The Ancestor Project: Aboriginal Computer Education through Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Marla; Biin, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the ANCESTOR program is to use digital storytelling as a means of promoting an interest in technology careers for Aboriginal learners, as well as increasing cultural literacy. A curriculum was developed and first tested with Aboriginal students at the LÁU,WELNEW Tribal School near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Based on feedback…

  8. Task Force on Aboriginal Peoples in Federal Corrections. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Canadian Task Force on the Reintegration of Aboriginal Offenders as Law-Abiding Citizens. This task force was established in March 1987 by the Canadian federal government to examine and recommend changes for improving services to help incarcerated Aboriginals achieve successful social…

  9. Learning Mathematics: Perspectives of Australian Aboriginal Children and Their Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Peter; Perry, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Two key stakeholders in enhancing and building Aboriginal children's capacity to learn mathematics are teachers and the Aboriginal children themselves. In Australian schools it is often the case that the two groups come from different cultural backgrounds with very differing life experiences. This paper reports on an ethnographic study and focuses…

  10. Cultures and Transitions--Aboriginal Art Now and Then.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowcliffe, Rosemary; Miller, Olga

    This paper discusses the pre-colonial aboriginal societies that in part established laws, customs, and history through art. The paper cites their artistic mediums and methods and explains that art among the aborigines was used for learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together, and learning to be. The paper describes the role of art…

  11. An Exploratory Study of Binge Drinking in the Aboriginal Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardman, Dennis; Quantz, Darryl

    2005-01-01

    There is little research available on binge drinking among the Aboriginal population. Between March and June 2004, 15 Aboriginal persons participated in a semi-structured interview related to their binge drinking behaviors. The majority of participants were women and described a family history of alcoholism and childhood abuse. Factors that…

  12. How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T.M. Schreiner (Agnes)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The article How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art will discuss two events at the Aboriginal Art Museum Utrecht from the perspective of a meeting between two artistic and legal cultures. The first event, on the art and law of the Spinifex people,

  13. Australian Engineering Educators' Attitudes towards Aboriginal Cultures and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinch, Thomas; Prpic, Juliana Kaya; Jolly, Lesley; Leigh, Elyssebeth; Kennedy, Jade

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, representation of Aboriginal populations within the engineering profession is very low despite participation targets set by Government departments, professional bodies and Universities. Progressing the Aboriginal inclusion agenda within Australian Engineering Education requires a clearer understanding of engineering educators'…

  14. Becoming Aboriginal: Experiences of a European Woman in Kamchatka's Wilderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churikova, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    A Russian woman describes how living in remote Kamchatka helped her develop an aboriginal perspective. Chopping wood, hauling water, gathering food, alternately homeschooling her children and sending them to an ecological school, and interacting with local aboriginal people taught her the importance of conserving natural resources and living in…

  15. Seeding Success: Schools That Work for Aboriginal Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Geoff; O'Rourke, Virginia; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a large mixed methods research project that investigated the conditions of success for Aboriginal school students. The article presents the qualitative case study component of the research. It details the work of four schools identified as successful for Aboriginal students with respect to social and academic outcomes, and…

  16. Left Visual Field Biases when Infants Process Faces: A Comparison of Infants at High- and Low-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Eva; Gastgeb, Holly; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    While it is well-known that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties processing faces, very little is known about the origins of these deficits. The current study focused on 6- and 11-month-old infants who were at either high-risk (n = 43) or low-risk (n = 31) for developing ASD based on having a sibling already diagnosed…

  17. Association between breastfeeding support and breastfeeding rates in the UK: a comparison of late preterm and term infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayfield, Sarah; Oakley, Laura; Quigley, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between breastfeeding support and breastfeeding among late preterm (gestation 34–36 weeks) and term (gestation ≥37 weeks) infants. Methods Secondary analysis of the UK 2010 Infant Feeding Survey. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of breastfeeding support with breastfeeding at 10 days and 6 weeks in late preterm and term infants. Results The study included 14 525 term and 579 late preterm infants. A total of 11 729 infants initiated breastfeeding (11 292 (81.1%) term, 437 (79.4%) late preterm infants, p=0.425). Of these, 9230 (84.3%) term and 365 (85.6%) late preterm infants were breastfeeding at 10 days (p=0.586); of these 7547 (82.0%) term and 281 (75.4%) late preterm infants were still breastfeeding at 6 weeks (p=0.012). Mothers who reported receiving contact details for breastfeeding support groups had a higher likelihood of breastfeeding late preterm (adjusted ORs, aOR 3.14, 95% CI 1.40 to 7.04) and term infants (aOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.86 to 2.68) at 10 days and term infants at 6 weeks (aOR 1.83, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.22). Those who reported that they did not receive enough help with breastfeeding in hospital had a lower likelihood of breastfeeding late preterm at 10 days and term infants at 10 days and 6 weeks, compared to those who reported having enough help. Conclusions Receiving sufficient help with breastfeeding in hospital and the contact details for breastfeeding support groups is associated with breastfeeding term infants up to 6 weeks and late preterm infants at 10 days. PMID:26567257

  18. The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

  19. Comparison of strategies for grading retinal images of premature infants for referral warranted retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David L; Bremer, Don L; Fellows, Rae R; Baumritter, Agnieshka; Daniel, Ebenezer; Pastilli, Max; Ying, Gui-Shang; Quinn, Graham E

    2017-04-01

    To determine the accuracy of identifying referral-warranted retinopathy of prematurity (RW-ROP, defined as any zone I ROP, stage 3 or worse, or plus disease) from retinal image sets using three grading protocols: a single optic disk-centered image, a set of 3 horizontal images, and a 5-image set. In this secondary analysis of images from the e-ROP study, a weighted sample of 250 image sets from 250 infants (125 with RW-ROP and 125 without RW-ROP) was randomly selected. The sensitivities and specificities for detecting RW-ROP and its components from a single disk center image, along with nasal and temporal retinal images, were calculated and compared with the e-ROP grading of RW-ROP of all 5 retinal images (disk center and nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior retinal images). RW-ROP was identified with a sensitivity of 11.2% (95% CI, 6.79%-17.9%) using a single disk center image, with a sensitivity of 70.4% (95% CI, 61.9%-77.9%) using 3 horizontal images, and a statistically higher sensitivity of 82.4% (95% CI, 75.0%-89.0%) using all 5 images (P = 0.002). The specificities were 100%, 86.4%, and 90.4%, respectively. For grading using 3 horizontal images, sensitivity was 14.3% for plus disease, 25% for zone I ROP, and 71.2% for stage 3 or worse compared to 40.8%, 50%, and 79.8% for grading using 5-image sets, respectively. Both a single, disk-centered, posterior pole image and 3 horizontal images were less effective than a 5-image set in determining the presence of RW-ROP on qualitative grading by trained readers. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Physician consultation and antibiotic prescription in Swedish infants: population-based comparison of group daycare and home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Katarina; Andre, Malin; Håkansson, Anders; Mölstad, Sigvard; Rodhe, Nils; Petersson, Christer

    2007-07-01

    Daycare infants have more infectious episodes, see a physician more often, and are prescribed antibiotics more often than home care infants. To compare physician consultations and antibiotic prescription in daycare children and home care children taking number of symptom days, sociodemographic factors, concern about infectious illness and antibiotic knowledge into account. For a cohort of Swedish 18-month-old children all infectious symptoms, physician consultation and antibiotic prescriptions were registered during 1 month. 561 infants with daycare outside the home and 278 with daycare at home were included. Of the daycare infants, 23.2% saw a physician and 11.4% were prescribed antibiotics, as compared with 10.8% physician consultations and 5.0% antibiotic prescription for the home care infants. For daycare infants the crude odds ratio for physician consultation were 2.49 (1.63-3.82) and for antibiotic prescription 2.43 (1.34-4.41) compared with home care infants. However, these differences were no longer statistically significant when background data, concern about infectious illness and reported symptoms were taken into account. When background data, concern about infectious illness and reported infectious symptoms were taken into account daycare infants saw a physician and was prescribed antibiotics in the same way as home care infants.

  1. Comparison of the compositions of the stool microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula, cow milk-based formula, or breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained.

  2. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  3. Macrosomia, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in Cree Communities in Quebec, 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Zhang, Dan-Li; Torrie, Jill; Auger, Nathalie; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Cree births in Quebec are characterized by the highest reported prevalence of macrosomia (~35%) in the world. It is unclear whether Cree births are at greater elevated risk of perinatal and infant mortality than other First Nations relative to non-Aboriginal births in Quebec, and if macrosomia may be related. This was a population-based retrospective birth cohort study using the linked birth-infant death database for singleton births to mothers from Cree (n = 5,340), other First Nations (n = 10,810) and non-Aboriginal (n = 229,960) communities in Quebec, 1996-2010. Community type was ascertained by residential postal code and municipality name. The primary outcomes were perinatal and infant mortality. Macrosomia (birth weight for gestational age >90th percentile) was substantially more frequent in Cree (38.0%) and other First Nations (21.9%) vs non-Aboriginal (9.4%) communities. Comparing Cree and other First Nations vs non-Aboriginal communities, perinatal mortality rates were 1.52 (95% confidence intervals 1.17, 1.98) and 1.34 (1.10, 1.64) times higher, and infant mortality rates 2.27 (1.71, 3.02) and 1.49 (1.16, 1.91) times higher, respectively. The risk elevations in perinatal and infant death in Cree communities attenuated after adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, education, marital status, parity), but became greater after further adjustment for birth weight (small, appropriate, or large for gestational age). Cree communities had greater risk elevations in perinatal and infant mortality than other First Nations relative to non-Aboriginal communities in Quebec. High prevalence of macrosomia did not explain the elevated risk of perinatal and infant mortality in Cree communities.

  4. Macrosomia, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in Cree Communities in Quebec, 1996-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xiao

    Full Text Available Cree births in Quebec are characterized by the highest reported prevalence of macrosomia (~35% in the world. It is unclear whether Cree births are at greater elevated risk of perinatal and infant mortality than other First Nations relative to non-Aboriginal births in Quebec, and if macrosomia may be related.This was a population-based retrospective birth cohort study using the linked birth-infant death database for singleton births to mothers from Cree (n = 5,340, other First Nations (n = 10,810 and non-Aboriginal (n = 229,960 communities in Quebec, 1996-2010. Community type was ascertained by residential postal code and municipality name. The primary outcomes were perinatal and infant mortality.Macrosomia (birth weight for gestational age >90th percentile was substantially more frequent in Cree (38.0% and other First Nations (21.9% vs non-Aboriginal (9.4% communities. Comparing Cree and other First Nations vs non-Aboriginal communities, perinatal mortality rates were 1.52 (95% confidence intervals 1.17, 1.98 and 1.34 (1.10, 1.64 times higher, and infant mortality rates 2.27 (1.71, 3.02 and 1.49 (1.16, 1.91 times higher, respectively. The risk elevations in perinatal and infant death in Cree communities attenuated after adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, education, marital status, parity, but became greater after further adjustment for birth weight (small, appropriate, or large for gestational age.Cree communities had greater risk elevations in perinatal and infant mortality than other First Nations relative to non-Aboriginal communities in Quebec. High prevalence of macrosomia did not explain the elevated risk of perinatal and infant mortality in Cree communities.

  5. Imperialism, ANZAC nationalism and the Aboriginal experience of warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padraic John Gibson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal protest played a key role in undermining the celebratory settler-nationalism of the bicentennial in 1988. In the lead up to another major nationalist mobilisation, the centenary of the Gallipoli invasion on ANZAC Day 2015, extensive official efforts are being made to incorporate Aboriginal experiences into the day, through celebration of the role of Aboriginal people who served in Australia’s armed forces.   This article provides a critical analysis of the 2014 NAIDOC theme as a way of exploring some of the tensions in this process. The NAIDOC theme, ‘Serving Country: Centenary and Beyond’, presented a continuity between Aboriginal soldiers in WW1 and Aboriginal warriors who fought in defence of their land during the 19th Century Frontier Wars.   In contrast, this article argues that the real historical continuity is between the massacres on the frontier, which often involved Aboriginal troopers fighting for the colonial powers, and the invasions undertaken by Australian soldiers in WW1. New research documenting the horrific scale on which Aboriginal people were killed by Native Police in Queensland in the second half of the 19th Century is integrated with studies of the political economy of Australian settler-capitalism in this period. This analysis is used to demonstrate how capitalist class interests drove both the Frontier Wars and the development of an Australian regional empire, which was consolidated by the mobilisation of Australian troops in WW1.

  6. The Representation of Aboriginality in the Novels of Peter Temple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identity politics is fraught with difficulties. Of few places is this truer than in Australia when it comes to the representation of Aboriginality. On the one hand the absence or invisibility of Aboriginality in Australian life and culture maybe interpreted as a deliberate exclusion of a people whose presence is uncomfortable or inconvenient for many Australians of immigrant origin. Equally, the representation of Aboriginality by non-Aboriginals may be seen as an appropriation of identity, an inexcusable commercial exploitation or an act of neocolonialism. Best-selling and prize-winning South African-born author Peter Temple appears to be very much aware of these pitfalls. In his crime novels, written between 1996 and 2009, he has obviously made the decision to grasp the nettle and attempt to represent Aboriginality in a way that would be as acceptable as possible. This paper traces the evolution of Temple's representation of Aboriginality through the three major Aboriginal characters present in his novels: Cameron Delray (Bad Debts, 1996; Black Tide, 1999; Dead Point, 2000; and White Dog, 2003, Ned Lowey (An Iron Rose, 1998 and Detective Sergeant Paul Dove (The Broken Shore, 2005 and Truth, 2009.

  7. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury : comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Harris, Polly A.; Ball, Gareth; Zubiaurre Elorza, Leire; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Merchant, Nazakat; Porter, Emma; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A. David; Rutherford, Mary A.; Cowan, Frances M.; Counsell, Serena J.

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor

  8. Comparison of Fecal Calprotectin in Exclusively Breastfed and Formula or Mixed Fed Infants in the First Six Months of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Asgarshirazi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this study to compare fecal calprotectin between exclusively breastfed and formula or mixed fed infants aged one month and six months. Sixty term infants were enrolled from the labor ward of Valiasr Hospital between Oct 2011 and July 2015 and their fecal calprotectin was checked by the ELISA method and Hycult biotech kits. The enrolled infants had a birth weight of 2500-4000 g and no perinatal insults or hospitalization. Stool sampling was done at 1±1 week and at 6n±1 months. The six-month infants had no recent disease, antibiotic use or vaccination. The mean fecal calprotectin was higher in exclusively breastfed infants at first and sixth months than formula and mixed fed infants (368.85±204.49 and 283.21±381.41 µg/g versus 152.59±139.13 and 113.62±92.75 µg/g respectively. (P=0.0001 and 0.018 Fecal calprotectin was higher in infants with GERD than healthy babies in the first and sixth months (P=0.0001 and 0.004. Based on the role of calprotectin in inflammation, its higher levels in exclusively breastfed infants is contrary to breast milk benefits and may be a sign of enhanced mucosal immune maturity in them.

  9. Evolutionists and Australian Aboriginal art: 1885-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines key examples of writing about Australian Aboriginal art in the decades around 1900 specifically in relation to the way in which it is used to provide evidence for theories concerning the evolution of art. Analysis of published works by late nineteenth-century men of science reveals the main influences shaping their perceptions of Aboriginal art during this time and provides an early working definition of this emerging category. This paper confirms that turn-of-the-century European understandings of Aboriginal art were based on limited evidence mediated through a specifically ethnographic notion of ‘decorative art’.

  10. Comparison of antibiotic resistance of bacterial agents associated in septicaemia in children and infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Sharifi Yazdi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Septicaemia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality of infant’s and childerens espicially in first week of their life, both in developed and underdeveloped countries.The aim of this research was to study of bacterial agents causing septicaemia and to determine their antibiotic suseptibility patternes. Materials and Methods : This was a descriptive study, it was performed during eight months from October 2011 till May 2011.In total 216 blood culture samples of children suspected of septicaemia in children health centre hospital were send to the laboratory for investigation. The bacterial identification was carried out by culturing and conventional biomedical tests. The antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed by disk diffusion method. These data are analyzed by SPSS and the results Expressed as relative frequencies. Results: Out of 216 tested samples 55(25.6% were positive and 161 (74.54% negative. The dominated bacteria was Escherichia coli (31.42%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (22.86 %, Klebsiella pneumonia (20%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.28%, Streptococcus pneumonia (2.86%, Salmonella typhi (2.86%, Enterobacter cloacae (2.86% and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (2.86%. In general gram-negative bacteria were isolated more than gram-positive. Staphylococcus bacteria were more resistant to antibiotics than other isolated bacteria, and were 100% resistant to penicillin. The enterobacteriaceae were more sensitive to norfloxacin, amikacin, tobramycin, and they were 100% resistant to ampicillin. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study showed that gram-negative bacteria are more responsible in septicaemia in children ward, and norfloxacin is the more effective antibiotic in comparison with others.

  11. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury: comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roze, Elise [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); University Medical Center Groningen, Division of Neonatology, Beatrix Children' s Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Harris, Polly A.; Ball, Gareth; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Counsell, Serena J. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Elorza, Leire Zubiaurre [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); University of Barcelona, Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A.D.; Cowan, Frances M. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Porter, Emma [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Rutherford, Mary A. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor function. We studied 20 infants with focal lesions and 23 controls using MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD) of the CSTs were determined. Asymmetry indices (AIs) were calculated by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral CSTs. Motor outcome was assessed using a standardized neurological examination. Conventional MRI was able to predict normal motor development (n = 9) or hemiplegia (n = 6). In children who developed a mild motor asymmetry (n = 5), conventional MRI predicted a hemiplegia in two and normal motor development in three infants. The AIs for tract volume, FA, ADC and RD showed a significant difference between controls and infants who developed a hemiplegia, and RD also showed a significant difference in AI between controls and infants who developed a mild asymmetry. Conventional MRI was able to predict subsequent normal motor development or hemiplegia following focal injury in newborn infants. Measures of RD obtained from diffusion tractography may offer additional information for predicting a subsequent asymmetry in motor function. (orig.)

  12. The pitch of maternal voice: a comparison of mothers suffering from depressed mood and non-depressed mothers reading books to their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissland, Nadja; Shepherd, John; Herrera, Eisquel

    2003-02-01

    Research suggests that storybook reading promotes language development and that there is a relationship between maternal affective responses in relation to infant affect and language development. The purpose of this study is to relate maternal paralinguistic and verbal behaviour during storybook reading to maternal mood state. Mothers (n = 32) reporting depressed mood (as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were matched on age of baby (mean age = 6 months, mean age = 10 months), sex of baby, educational status of mother and parity with 32 non-depressed mothers. They were video- and audio-taped in their homes while reading a picture-book to their infants. Maternal textual and extra-textual utterances were transcribed and analysed in terms of mean length utterance (MLU), fundamental frequency and pitch modulation. There was an interaction between psychological well being and age group with regard to MLU for text read. Non-depressed mothers had a smaller MLU for younger babies in comparison with older babies, while depressed mothers showed no difference in their MLU. There was a main effect of psychological well being with depressed mothers speaking with a higher mean pitch and more modulations in their pitch, in comparison with non-depressed mothers. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction of the psychological well being of the mother and the mean fundamental frequency used when reading the text and when speaking to their child during the picture-book session. These differences in maternal speech indicate that mothers who are depressed are less attuned to their infants which might force the infant into self-regulatory patterns that eventually compromise the child's development.

  13. Efficacy and safety of intravenous paracetamol in comparison to ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Carlo; Poggi, Chiara; Mosca, Fabio; Schena, Federico; Lista, Gianluca; Ramenghi, Luca; Romagnoli, Costantino; Salvatori, Enrica; Rosignoli, Maria Teresa; Lipone, Paola; Comandini, Alessandro

    2016-04-02

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of most common complications in preterm infants. Although ibuprofen represents the first choice for the closure of PDA, this treatment can cause severe gastrointestinal and adverse renal effects and worsen platelet function. The successful closure of the PDA with paracetamol has been recently reported in several preterm infants, and the safety of paracetamol for this use has been suggested by the available data. We present the design of a randomized, multicenter, controlled study, whose aim is to assess the effectiveness and safety of intravenous paracetamol in comparison to intravenous ibuprofen for the treatment of PDA in preterm infants. A total of 110 infants born at 25(+0) to 31(+6) weeks of gestational age will be enrolled and randomized to receive paracetamol or ibuprofen (55 patients per group) starting at 24-72 h of life. The primary endpoint of the study is the comparison of the PDA closing rate observed after a 3-day course with paracetamol or ibuprofen. The secondary endpoints include the closure rate of PDA after the second course of treatment with ibuprofen, the re-opening rate of the PDA, the incidence of surgical ligation, and the occurrence of adverse effects. The results of this study will provide new information about the possible use of paracetamol in the treatment of PDA. Paracetamol could offer several important therapeutic advantages over current treatment options, and it could become the treatment of choice for the management of PDA, mainly due to its more favorable side effect profile. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02422966 . Eudract no. 2013-003883-30.

  14. Aboriginal Perspectives on Social-Emotional Competence in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Tremblay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaining an understanding of how best to support the development of Aboriginal children is important in promoting positive social, emotional, educational, and health outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to identify the most important elements of healthy development for Aboriginal children, with a particular focus on social-emotional development. Focus groups were conducted with 37 Aboriginal Canadians, including parents, service providers, adolescents, and young adults. Five inter-connected themes emerged: cultural wellness, emotional wellness, mental wellness, social wellness, and strong identity, with strong identity described as central and foundational to the other themes. This study strengthens the assertion that Aboriginal children require an additional set of social-emotional skills to successfully navigate different cultural contexts during development. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  15. Decolonizing employment: Aboriginal inclusion in Canada's labour market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacKinnon, Shauna

    2015-01-01

    ... is a critical source of future labour. Shauna MacKinnon's Decolonizing Employment: Aboriginal Inclusion in Canada's Labour Market is a case study with lessons applicable to communities throughout North America...

  16. An Aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R; Ricaut, François-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Gallego Romero, Irene; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M; Brunak, Søren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta M; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2011-10-07

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.

  17. In Search of the Aboriginal Self: Four Individual Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, Lloyd Hawkeye

    2014-01-01

    .... This article examines the selves of four contemporary individuals with varying relationships to the concept of aboriginality using a method of mapping the self with elemental units of culture called “memes...

  18. [Mental health for the Aboriginals: a transcultural response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Denise

    2006-01-01

    This article examines how the issue of clinical intervention with the Aboriginals presents itself within Montreal's transcultural psychiatric services. The cultural consultation service at Montreal Jewish Hospital created by Dr. Kirmayer as well as the transcultural psychiatric clinic at Montreal Children's Hospital founded by Dr. Rousseau are relatively recent settings of care. Their mandate being to provide care and services to Montreal's cultural diversity, the author questions the place and response given to the demands of a minority unlike the others, the Aboriginals.

  19. Exploring Australian Aboriginal women's experiences of menopause: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgenson, Janelle R; Jones, Emma K; Haynes, Emma; Green, Charmaine; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-03-20

    Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women's understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term "change of life" was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current services. While this study is with a select

  20. [Rehospitalization of very preterm infants in the first year of life. Comparison of 2 groups: 1997 and 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, O; Babre, F; Pedespan, L; Feghali, H; Esquerré, F; Sarlangue, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the rehospitalization rate in the first year of life between 2 groups of very preterm infants born on 1997 and 2002; then we compared the very preterm infants' rehospitalization rate between our retrospective 1997 group and literature (including French cohort Epipage). Our retrospective study included all neonates born1997 and 2002 and rehospitalized during their first year of life. Respectively 29.1% and 30.1% premature infants were rehospitalized (at least once) in 1997 and 2002 (38.2% in Epipage cohort, no statistical difference). Mean number of rehospitalizations was 1.66 in 1997 and 1.77 in 2002. Mean duration of rehospitalization was 11.8 days in 1997 and 16.8 days in 2002. These data showed no statistical difference between 1997 and 2002. Respiratory disease was the first reason of rehospitalization. Several factors were correlated with an increase risk of rehospitalization: birth weight less than 1000 g, chronic lung disease and gestational age less than 28 weeks at birth (only in 2002 cohort). Rehospitalization rate remained stable between 1997 and 2002 whereas during this period of time, the gravity of these preterm infants had increased. The use of specific hospital discharge procedure represents a real benefit for premature infants. It must be continued after the discharge with the establishment of a strong network with the implication of parents, infants, hospital and city health workers. It may contribute to limit the very premature babies' rehospitalization rate.

  1. Parental Brain: Cerebral Areas Activated By Infant Cries And Faces. A Comparison Between Different Populations Of Parents And Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia ePiallini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature about parenting traditionally focused on caring behaviors and parental representations. Nowadays, an innovative line of researches, interested in evaluating the neural areas and hormones implicated in the nurturing and caregiving responses, has developed. The only way to permit a newborn to survive and grow up is to respond to his needs and in order to succeed it is necessary, first of all, that the adults around him understand what his needs are. That’s why adults’ capacity of taking care of infants cannot disregard from some biological mechanisms, which allow them to be more responsive to the progeny and to infants in general. Many researches have proved that exist specific neural basis activating in response to infant evolutionary stimuli, such as infant cries and infant emotional facial expression. There is a sort of innate predisposition in human adults to respond to infants’ signals, in order to satisfy their need and allow them to survive and become young adults capable of taking care of themselves. This article focuses on those researches that have investigated, in the last decade, which are the neural circuits underlying parental behavioral responses.Moreover, the paper compares the results of those studies that investigated the neural responses to infant stimuli under different conditions: familiar versus unknown children, parents versus non-parents and normative versus clinical samples (depression, addiction, adolescence and PTSD.

  2. End-of-life issues for aboriginal patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Len; Minty, Alana

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand some of the cross-cultural issues in providing palliative care to aboriginal patients. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE (1966 to 2005), CINAHL, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and the Aboriginal Health Collection at the University of Manitoba were searched. Studies were selected based on their focus on both general cross-cultural caregiving and, in particular, end-of-life decision making and treatment. Only 39 relevant articles were found, half of which were opinion pieces by experienced nonaboriginal professionals; 14 were qualitative research projects from nursing and anthropologic perspectives. MAIN MESSAGE All patients are unique. Some cultural differences might arise when providing palliative care to aboriginal patients, who value individual respect along with family and community. Involvement of family and community members in decision making around end-of-life issues is common. Aboriginal cultures often have different approaches to telling bad news and maintaining hope for patients. Use of interpreters and various communication styles add to the challenge. CONCLUSION Cultural differences exist between medical caregivers and aboriginal patients. These include different assumptions and expectations about how communication should occur, who should be involved, and the pace of decision making. Aboriginal patients might value indirect communication, use of silence, and sharing information and decision making with family and community members. PMID:17872874

  3. Development and feasibility testing of an education program to improve knowledge and self-care among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robyn A; Fredericks, Bronwyn; Buitendyk, Natahlia J; Adams, Michael J; Howie-Esquivel, Jill; Dracup, Kathleen A; Berry, Narelle M; Atherton, John; Johnson, Stella

    2015-01-01

    There is a 70% higher age-adjusted incidence of heart failure (HF) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, three times more hospitalisations and twice as many deaths as among non-Aboriginal people. There is a need to develop holistic yet individualised approaches in accord with the values of Aboriginal community health care to support patient education and self-care. The aim of this study was to re-design an existing HF educational resource (Fluid Watchers-Pacific Rim) to be culturally safe for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, working in collaboration with the local community, and to conduct feasibility testing. This study was conducted in two phases and utilised a mixed-methods approach (qualitative and quantitative). Phase 1 used action research methods to develop a culturally safe electronic resource to be provided to Aboriginal HF patients via a tablet computer. An HF expert panel adapted the existing resource to ensure it was evidence-based and contained appropriate language and images that reflects Aboriginal culture. A stakeholder group (which included Aboriginal workers and HF patients, as well as researchers and clinicians) then reviewed the resources, and changes were made accordingly. In Phase 2, the new resource was tested on a sample of Aboriginal HF patients to assess feasibility and acceptability. Patient knowledge, satisfaction and self-care behaviours were measured using a before and after design with validated questionnaires. As this was a pilot test to determine feasibility, no statistical comparisons were made. Phase 1: Throughout the process of resource development, two main themes emerged from the stakeholder consultation. These were the importance of identity, meaning that it was important to ensure that the resource accurately reflected the local community, with the appropriate clothing, skin tone and voice. The resource was adapted to reflect this, and members of the local community voiced the recordings for the

  4. Knowledge Building in an Aboriginal Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander McAuley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The report on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996, the Kelowna Accord announced in 2005 (five-billion dollars followed by its demise in 2006, and the settlement in 2006 for Aboriginal survivors of residential schools (1.9 billion dollars, are but some of the recent high-profile indicators of the challenges to Canada in dealing with the 500-year history of European contact with North America’s original inhabitants. While not without its challenges, the creation of Nunavut in 1999 stands apart from this history as a landmark for Inuit self-determination in Canada and a beacon of hope for other Aboriginal peoples. Building on the idea that educational change takes place within the intersecting socio-cultural contexts of the school and the larger world around it, and drawing on data from an eight-year series of design experiments in classrooms in the Baffin (now Qikiqtani region of Nunavut, this paper explores the potential of knowledge building and knowledge-building technologies to support powerful bilingual (Inuktitut/English and bicultural learning experiences for Aboriginal students. Résumé : Le rapport de la Commission royale sur les peuples autochtones (1996, l’Accord de Kelowna annoncé en 2005 (cinq milliards de dollars, suivi de son annulation en 2006, de même que le règlement de 2006 visant à indemniser les victimes de sévices infligés dans les pensionnats indiens (1,9 milliard de dollars, ne sont que quelques-uns des événements marquants récents qui témoignent des défis que le Canada doit relever en ce qui a trait à son histoire de 500 ans de contact entre les Européens et les Premières nations d’Amérique du Nord. Bien qu’elle ait comporté sa part de défis, la création du Nunavut en 1999 se démarque dans le cours de l’histoire en tant que point de repère pour l’autodétermination des Inuits au Canada et représente une lueur d’espoir pour les autres nations autochtones. S

  5. Comparison of a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer (Bilimed®) with serum bilirubin measurements in preterm and full-term infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The gold standard to assess hyperbilirubinemia in neonates remains the serum bilirubin measurement. Unfortunately, this is invasive, painful, and costly. Bilimed®, a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer, suggests more accuracy compared to the existing non-invasive bilirubinometers because of its new technology. It furthermore takes into account different skin colours. No contact with the skin is needed during measurement, no additional material costs occur. Our aim was to assess the agreement between the Bilimed® and serum bilirubin in preterm and term infants of different skin colours. Methods The transcutaneous bilirubin measurements were performed on the infant's sternum and serum bilirubin was determined simultaneously. The agreement between both methods was assessed by Pearson's correlation and by Bland-Altman analysis. Results A total of 117 measurement cycles were performed in 99 term infants (group1), further 47 measurements in 38 preterm infants born between 34 - 36 6/7 gestational weeks (group 2), and finally 21 measurements in 13 preterm infants born between 28 - 33 6/7 gestational weeks (group 3). The mean deviation and variability (+/- 2SD) of the transcutaneous from serum bilirubin were: -14 (+/- 144) μmol/l; -0.82 (+/- 8.4) mg/dl in group 1, +16 (+/- 91) μmol/l;+0.93(+/- 5.3) mg/dl in group 2 and -8 (+/- 76) μmol/l; -0.47 (+/- 4.4) mg/dl in group 3. These limits of agreement are too wide to be acceptable in a clinical setting. Moreover, there was to be a trend towards less good agreement with increasing bilirubin values. Conclusion Despite its new technology the Bilimed® has no advantages, and more specifically no better agreement not only in term and near-term Caucasian infants, but also in non-Caucasian and more premature infants. PMID:19909530

  6. Comparison of a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer (Bilimed) with serum bilirubin measurements in preterm and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen, Tanja; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Fauchère, Jean-Claude

    2009-11-12

    The gold standard to assess hyperbilirubinemia in neonates remains the serum bilirubin measurement. Unfortunately, this is invasive, painful, and costly. Bilimed, a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer, suggests more accuracy compared to the existing non-invasive bilirubinometers because of its new technology. It furthermore takes into account different skin colours. No contact with the skin is needed during measurement, no additional material costs occur. Our aim was to assess the agreement between the Bilimed and serum bilirubin in preterm and term infants of different skin colours. The transcutaneous bilirubin measurements were performed on the infant's sternum and serum bilirubin was determined simultaneously. The agreement between both methods was assessed by Pearson's correlation and by Bland-Altman analysis. A total of 117 measurement cycles were performed in 99 term infants (group1), further 47 measurements in 38 preterm infants born between 34 - 36 6/7 gestational weeks (group 2), and finally 21 measurements in 13 preterm infants born between 28 - 33 6/7 gestational weeks (group 3). The mean deviation and variability (+/- 2SD) of the transcutaneous from serum bilirubin were: -14 (+/- 144) micromol/l; -0.82 (+/- 8.4) mg/dl in group 1, +16 (+/- 91) micromol/l;+0.93(+/- 5.3) mg/dl in group 2 and -8 (+/- 76) micromol/l; -0.47 (+/- 4.4) mg/dl in group 3. These limits of agreement are too wide to be acceptable in a clinical setting. Moreover, there was to be a trend towards less good agreement with increasing bilirubin values. Despite its new technology the Bilimed has no advantages, and more specifically no better agreement not only in term and near-term Caucasian infants, but also in non-Caucasian and more premature infants.

  7. Comparison of a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer (Bilimed® with serum bilirubin measurements in preterm and full-term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucher Hans

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gold standard to assess hyperbilirubinemia in neonates remains the serum bilirubin measurement. Unfortunately, this is invasive, painful, and costly. Bilimed®, a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer, suggests more accuracy compared to the existing non-invasive bilirubinometers because of its new technology. It furthermore takes into account different skin colours. No contact with the skin is needed during measurement, no additional material costs occur. Our aim was to assess the agreement between the Bilimed® and serum bilirubin in preterm and term infants of different skin colours. Methods The transcutaneous bilirubin measurements were performed on the infant's sternum and serum bilirubin was determined simultaneously. The agreement between both methods was assessed by Pearson's correlation and by Bland-Altman analysis. Results A total of 117 measurement cycles were performed in 99 term infants (group1, further 47 measurements in 38 preterm infants born between 34 - 36 6/7 gestational weeks (group 2, and finally 21 measurements in 13 preterm infants born between 28 - 33 6/7 gestational weeks (group 3. The mean deviation and variability (+/- 2SD of the transcutaneous from serum bilirubin were: -14 (+/- 144 μmol/l; -0.82 (+/- 8.4 mg/dl in group 1, +16 (+/- 91 μmol/l;+0.93(+/- 5.3 mg/dl in group 2 and -8 (+/- 76 μmol/l; -0.47 (+/- 4.4 mg/dl in group 3. These limits of agreement are too wide to be acceptable in a clinical setting. Moreover, there was to be a trend towards less good agreement with increasing bilirubin values. Conclusion Despite its new technology the Bilimed® has no advantages, and more specifically no better agreement not only in term and near-term Caucasian infants, but also in non-Caucasian and more premature infants.

  8. Comparison of the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 with the parent-rated Kinder Infant Development Scale (KIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sayaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Ikeda, Natsuha; Takekoh, Makoto; Fujiwara, Takeo; Morisaki, Naho; Mezawa, Hidetoshi; Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to extend our understanding of the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development (KSPD) by comparison with a parent-rated scale, the Kinder Infant Development Scale (KIDS). The participants of this study were 229 children aged 0-4, who were referred to the Developmental Evaluation Center of the National Center for Child Health and Development, due to a suspected developmental disorder/delay. The participants were divided into subgroups, depending on age and overall DQ. For each group separately, correlation analyses were conducted between the Developmental Quotient (DQ) of each KSPD domain and DQ of each KIDS subscale. For high DQ group, in all ages, the KSPD Postural-Motor (P-M) domain DQ demonstrated a high correlation with the KIDS Physical-Motor DQ, and at young ages, it was also found to be moderately or strongly associated with the KIDS Manipulation DQ. For high DQ group, the KSPD Cognitive-Adaptive (C-A) domain DQ was most consistently related to the KIDS Manipulation DQ, and was also moderately correlated with the KIDS Physical-Motor DQ, Receptive Language DQ, Social Relationship with Adults DQ, Discipline DQ, and Feeding DQ, depending on age. For high DQ group, the KSPD Language-Social (L-S) DQ most consistently showed a moderate or high correlation with the KIDS Receptive Language DQ and the Manipulation DQ, and also related to Physical-Motor DQ, Expressive Language DQ, Language Conception DQ, Social Relationship with Adults DQ, and Social Relationship with Children DQ for some age groups. The low DQ group demonstrated stronger relationships on many of the pairs of the DQ of a KSPD subdomain and the DQ of a KIDS subscale, regardless of the type of subdomains and subscales. For high DQ group, the KSPD P-M domain was consistently related to parent-reported physical/motor development, the C-A domain primarily reflected a child's fine motor skills and his/her ability to understand and follow verbal instructions provided by adults

  9. Calretinin-Immunoreactive Hypoinnervation in Down Syndrome (DS): Report of an Infant with Very Short-Segment Hirschsprung Disease and Comparison to Biopsy Findings in 20 Normal Infants and 11 Infants with DS and Chronic Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Mikako; Kaul, Ajay; Bove, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    In Down syndrome (DS) constipation is common, and the incidence of Hirschsprung disease (HD) is 1-2%. Rectal suction biopsies (RSBs) in DS may show discordant features; calretinin immunoreactivity (CRir) often helps resolve discrepancies. We report a case of unequivocal very short-segment HD (vsHD) in an infant with DS who had aganglionosis with abnormal acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity in 3 RSBs. The CRir patterns were scanty positive rather than the expected absent CRir innervation in the lamina propria (LP). The resection specimen was grossly typical for short-segment HD, with a 5.5-cm, narrow but normally ganglionated segment proximal to the verified very short distal anganglionic zone. Unequivocal calretinin hypoinnervation was limited to the distal 2 cm, substantiating the warning of Kapur that small numbers of CRir nerves in the LP do not exclude a diagnosis of vsHD. We evaluated RSBs from 11 DS and 20 randomly selected normal infants <6 months of age with chronic constipation. The normal infants had abundant mucosal calretinin innervation and AChE histochemistry. We observed variable CRir hypoinnervation in RSBs in DS infants (including 6/7 with "normal" original diagnosis and 1/4 with HD). Our findings caution against overdependence on "normal" calretinin immunohistochemistry and suggest that AChE may be more reliable than CRir in the context of DS. An unknown number of patients with DS may have enteric nervous system disorders functionally similar to HD, which are possibly related to abnormal or imbalanced autonomic innervation, of which distal calretinin hypoinnervation is one manifestation, despite the presence of ganglia.

  10. Recent epidemiologic trends of diabetes mellitus among status Aboriginal adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Richard T.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; King, Malcolm; Balko, Stephanie U.; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Crowshoe, Lindsay; Toth, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about longitudinal trends in diabetes mellitus among Aboriginal people in Canada. We compared the incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and its impact on mortality, among status Aboriginal adults and adults in the general population between 1995 and 2007. Methods: We examined de-identified data from Alberta Health and Wellness administrative databases for status Aboriginal people (First Nations and Inuit people with treaty status) and members of the general public aged 20 years and older who received a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus from Apr. 1, 1995, to Mar. 31, 2007. We calculated the incidence and prevalence of diabetes and mortality rate ratios by sex and ethnicity in 2007. We examined the average relative changes per year for longitudinal trends. Results: The average relative change per year in the prevalence of diabetes showed a smaller increase over time in the Aboriginal population than in the general population (2.39 v. 4.09, p < 0.001). A similar finding was observed for the incidence of diabetes. In the Aboriginal population, we found that the increase in the average relative change per year was greater among men than among women (3.13 v. 1.88 for prevalence, p < 0.001; 2.60 v. 0.02 for incidence, p = 0.001). Mortality among people with diabetes decreased over time to a similar extent in both populations. Among people without diabetes, mortality decreased in the general population but was unchanged in the Aboriginal population (−1.92 v. 0.11, p = 0.04). Overall, mortality was higher in the Aboriginal population than in the general population regardless of diabetes status. Interpretation: The increases in the incidence and prevalence of diabetes over the study period appeared to be slower in the status Aboriginal population than in the general population in Alberta, although the overall rates were higher in the Aboriginal population. Mortality decreased among people with diabetes in both populations but was higher overall in

  11. International comparison of care for very low birth weight infants: parents' perceptions of counseling and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, J Colin; Martinez, Alma M; Nishida, Hiroshi; Boo, Nem-Yun; Tan, Keng Wee; Yeung, Chap-Yung; Lu, Jen-Her; Yu, Victor Y H

    2005-08-01

    To characterize parent perceptions and satisfaction with physician counseling and delivery-room resuscitation of very low birth weight infants in countries with neonatal intensive care capacity. Convenience sample of 327 parents of 379 inborn very low birth weight infants (care in 9 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in 6 Pacific Rim countries and in 2 California hospitals. The sample comprised mostly parents whose infants survived, because in some centers interviews of parents of nonsurviving infants were culturally inappropriate. Of 359 survivors for whom outcome data were asked of parents, 29% were reported to have long-term sequelae. Half-hour structured interviews were performed, using trained interpreters as necessary, at an interval of 13.7 months after the infant's birth. We compared responses to interview questions that detailed counseling patterns, factors taken into consideration in decisions, and acceptance of parental decision-making. Parents' recall of perinatal counseling differed among centers. The majority of parents assessed physician counseling on morbidity and mortality as adequate in most, but not all, centers. They less commonly perceived discussions of other issues as adequate to their needs. The majority (>65%) of parents in all centers felt that they understood their infant's prognosis after physician counseling. The proportion of parents who expected long-term sequelae in their infant varied from 15% (in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) to 64% (in Singapore). The majority (>70%) of parents in all centers, however, perceived their infant's outcome to be better than they expected from physician counseling. A majority of parents across all centers feared that their infant would die in the NICU, and approximately one third continued to fear that their infant might die at home after nursery discharge. The parents' regard for physicians' and, to a lesser extent, partners' opinions was important in decision-making. Less than one quarter of parents

  12. Gut microbiome in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs from that in healthy comparison babies and offers an explanation for the risk factor of prone position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, Amanda R; Berry, Anne M; Bettelheim, Karl A; Goldwater, Paul N

    2014-07-01

    The role of bacteria in the causation of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is gaining acceptance. Mainstream research favouring respiratory compromise has failed to provide a plausible pathogenetic mechanism despite many years of investigation and thousands of research papers. Bacterial colonisation of the colon of the human infant is influenced by many factors including age, mode of delivery, diet, environment, and antibiotic exposure. The gut microbiome influences development of the immune system. The gut microflora could be important in protection against the bacteria and/or their toxins purportedly involved in SIDS pathogenesis. The aim was to perform a preliminary investigation of the gut microflora in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) compared with live comparison babies. The intestinal contents from 52 SIDS, and 102 faecal samples from age-matched live comparison infants were screened by PCR to target 16s RNA genes of Clostridium innocuum, Cl. Perfringens, Cl. difficile, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Staphylococcus aureus. Gut colonisation of the babies with these bacteria was analysed in relation to age, gender and type of feeding; and for SIDS babies sleeping position. Cl. difficile, Cl. innocuum and B. thetaiotaomicron were significantly associated with SIDS with 25%, 46% and 30% of cases PCR positive for these respective bacteria compared with only 6%, 23% and 8.8% respectively in the comparison group. SIDS babies had dual colonisation by both Cl. perfringens and Cl. difficile significantly more often than comparison babies and also with triple colonisation by Cl. perfringens, Cl. difficile and Cl. innocuum. SIDS babies were more often colonised by S. aureus than comparison babies. In addition, SIDS babies found prone were significantly more likely to be colonised by S. aureus than for other positions recorded (OR = ∞; CI = 2·04 - ∞). No significant differences between breast and bottle-fed SIDS babies was observed in regard to each

  13. A Comparison between APGAR Scores and Birth Weight in Infants of Addicted and Non-Addicted Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Esmat; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Mirkamandar, Ehsan; Haji Maghsoudi, Saiedeh; Rastegari, Azam

    2011-01-01

    Addiction in pregnant women causes complications such as abortion, asphyxia and cerebral and physical problems. APGAR score assesses vital signs and birth weight and represents the physical and brain growth of newborns. In this study, the effects of opium addiction in mothers on birth weight and APGAR scores of neonates were discussed. This study analytic, descriptive study was conducted on 49 pregnant women addicted to oral consumption of opium (0.5-0.8 grams daily) and 49 non-addicted women who referred to Afzalipour Hospital associated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Information including various personal characteristics, history of addiction and drug consumption, and the possibility of taking other drugs was collected by a researcher and recorded confidentially in a checklist. Birth weight and APGAR score t first, fifth and tenth minutes were also recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson correlation test, independent t-test, and repeated measure to evaluate the APGAR scores and other characteristics of the two groups of infants. Average birth weight of infants with addicted mothers was 2255 grams which had a significant difference with infants born by non-addicted mothers (P APGAR scores at the first minute were 7.6 ± 1.1 and 8.6 ± 1.1 among infants from addicted and non-addicted mothers, respectively. Average APGAR scores over time (at minutes 1, 5 and 10) had a significant difference (P APGAR score and birth weight of infants.

  14. Sense of Belonging in the Urban School Environments of Aboriginal Youth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chantelle A M Richmond; Dawn Smith

    2012-01-01

    .... In collaboration with The Wabano Centre for Aboriginal Health (Ottawa, Canada), we undertook focus groups with urban Aboriginal youth at-risk to examine perceptions of their urban school environments, including access to social support...

  15. Research methods of Talking About The Smokes: an International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project study with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David P; Briggs, Viki L; Couzos, Sophia; Davey, Maureen E; Hunt, Jennifer M; Panaretto, Kathryn S; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron

    2015-06-01

    To describe the research methods and baseline sample of the Talking About The Smokes (TATS) project. The TATS project is a collaboration between research institutions and Aboriginal community-controlled health services (ACCHSs) and their state and national representative bodies. It is one of the studies within the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project, enabling national and international comparisons. It includes a prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent ex-smokers; a survey of non-smokers; repeated cross-sectional surveys of ACCHS staff; and descriptions of the tobacco policies and practices at the ACCHSs. Community members completed face-to-face surveys; staff completed surveys on paper or online. We compared potential biases and the distribution of variables common to the main community baseline sample and unweighted and weighted results of the 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS). The baseline survey (Wave 1) was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. 2522 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in 35 locations (the communities served by 34 ACCHSs and one community in the Torres Strait), and 645 staff in the ACCHSs. Sociodemographic and general health indicators, smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day and quit attempts. The main community baseline sample closely matched the distribution of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in the weighted NATSISS by age, sex, jurisdiction and remoteness. There were inconsistent differences in some sociodemographic factors between our sample and the NATSISS: our sample had higher proportions of unemployed people, but also higher proportions who had completed Year 12 and who lived in more advantaged areas. In both surveys, similar percentages of smokers reported having attempted to quit in the past year, and daily smokers reported similar numbers of cigarettes smoked per day. The

  16. Trends in the study of Aboriginal health risks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furgal, Chris M; Garvin, Theresa D; Jardine, Cynthia G

    2010-09-01

    To identify trends in the study of health risk in peer-reviewed and grey literature in Canadian Aboriginal populations from 1960 to 2007. Systematic literature review and analysis. Peer-reviewed literature was searched using 5 electronic library databases. The grey literature was searched using 3 online search engines, 4 agency websites and 2 online compiled databases. The search terms used were "Canada," synonyms for Canadian Aboriginal peoples and "risk." Citations were screened for relevance to Aboriginal populations and risks to aspects of human health. Both literatures show an exponential growth in risk-focused study of Canadian Aboriginal health issues over time. There is a geographic foci in the North with the Prairies and the West under-represented. Risk is most commonly used in relation to general health, environmental, zoonotic infections and chronic diseases in the peer-reviewed literature, and general health or environment in the grey literature. Most publications in both literatures are on generalized Aboriginal populations. When specified, a larger proportion of the publications relate to First Nations people, followed by Inuit. Little literature exists on Métis health risks in Canada. There has been an increase in publications about Aboriginal health risk in Canada over time. Trends reflect a research focus on the North and an increased interest in environment and health issues. Greater attention to mental health, addictions and Métis health is required. The increasing use of a risk-based analytical focus has potential implications for understanding the nature of Aboriginal health today and in the future.

  17. Comparison of the Supreme™ and ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airways in infants: a prospective randomised clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Sibel; Turk, Hacer Sebnem; Isil, Canan Tulay; Erdogan, Huseyin; Sayin, Pinar; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2017-09-05

    The Supreme™ and ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airways (LMAs) are widely used in paediatric anaesthesia; however, LMA use in infants is limited because many anaesthesiologists prefer to use tracheal intubation in infants. In this study, we compared the Supreme and ProSeal LMAs in infants by measuring their performance characteristics, including insertion features, ventilation parameters, induced changes in haemodynamics and rates of postoperative complications. Infants of ASA physical status I scheduled for elective, minor, lower abdominal surgery were divided into two groups: the Supreme LMA group and the ProSeal LMA group. Times and ease of LMA insertion were noted. The percentages of tidal volume leakage as well as peak, mean and leakage pressures for all infants were measured. Heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2) and end tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) values were recorded before and after LMA insertion and before and after extubation. After extubation, complications and adverse effects were noted. Demographic and surgical data were similar between the two groups. LMA insertion times were shorter for the ProSeal group than for the Supreme group (P < 0.002). The mean HR value for the ProSeal group was lower than for the Supreme group (P < 0.011). Both the peak pressure and the leakage percentage for the ProSeal group were statistically lower than for the Supreme group. The leakage pressure for the ProSeal group was statistically higher than for the Supreme group (P < 0.001). The ProSeal LMA is superior to the Supreme LMA for use in infants due to the ease of insertion, high oropharyngeal leakage pressure and fewer induced changes in haemodynamics. ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT03251105 , retrospectively registered on 15 Aug 2017.

  18. Post-mortem computed tomography findings of the lungs: Retrospective review and comparison with autopsy results of 30 infant cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke, E-mail: ssu@rad.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Usui, Akihito, E-mail: t7402r0506@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosokai, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: hosokai@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Igari, Yui, E-mail: igari@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosoya, Tadashi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Yoshie, E-mail: yoshie@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Saito, Haruo, E-mail: hsaito@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Ishibashi, Tadashi, E-mail: tisibasi@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Funayama, Masato, E-mail: funayama@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). •In this study, twenty-two of the thirty sudden infant death cases showed increasing concentration in the entire lung field. •Based on the autopsy results, the lungs simply collapsed and no other abnormal lung findings were identified. •The radiologist should not consider increasing concentration in all lung fields as simply a pulmonary disorder when diagnosing the cause of infant death using PMCT. -- Abstract: Objectives: Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). However, the lungs often show simply atelectasis at autopsy in the absence of any other abnormal changes. Thus, we retrospectively reviewed the PMCT findings of lungs following sudden infant death and correlated them with the autopsy results. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed infant cases (0 year) who had undergone PMCT and a forensic autopsy at our institution between May 2009 and June 2013. Lung opacities were classified according to their type; consolidation, ground-glass opacity and mixed, as well as distribution; bilateral diffuse and areas of sparing. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the relationships among lung opacities, causes of death and resuscitation attempt. Results: Thirty infant cases were selected, which included 22 sudden and unexplained deaths and 8 other causes of death. Resuscitation was attempted in 22 of 30 cases. Bilateral diffuse opacities were observed in 21 of the 30 cases. Of the 21 cases, 18 were sudden and unexplained deaths. Areas of sparing were observed in 4 sudden and unexplained deaths and 5 other causes of death. Distribution of opacities was not significantly associated with causes of death or resuscitation attempt. The 21 cases with bilateral diffuse opacities included 6 consolidations (4 sudden and unexplained

  19. Sweating it Out: Facilitating Corrections and Parole in Canada Through Aboriginal Spiritual Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Milward

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal peoples continue to be subjected to drastic over-incarceration. Much of the existing literature explores contemporary adaptations of Aboriginal justice traditions that resemble restorative justice as a solution. There is by comparison a lack of literature that considers searching for solutions during the correctional phase of the justice system, after Aboriginal persons have already been convicted and imprisoned. The objective of this paper is to explore a number of reforms in order to better facilitate rehabilitation, reintegration, and parole for Aboriginal inmates. One is to invest greater resources into culturally sensitive programming that emphasizes spiritual healing for Aboriginal inmates. This is premised on the theme of “spend now, save later” with the idea that increasing the chances for Aboriginal re-integration may represent the better long term investment than simply warehousing large numbers of Aboriginal inmates year after year. Another problem is that many Aboriginal inmates are classified as higher security risks, which results in them being cut off from needed programming. The suggestion here is that criminal history as a static factor for determining security classifications may have little predictive value for the actual security risk posed by Aboriginal inmates, and therefore should be de-emphasized. Correctional Services of Canada should seriously consider developing an Aboriginal-specific classification scale that de-emphasizes criminal history, and emphasizes instead offender participation in culturally appropriate programs and spiritual healing, and behavioural progress while in prison. Risk assessment to re-offend for purposes of granting parole may also represent a form of systemic discrimination since criminal history represents a static factor that encumbers parole for many Aboriginal inmates. Risk assessment should instead emphasize dynamic risk factors by assessing Aboriginal participation in

  20. Dancing with Ethnic Identities: An Aboriginal Dance Club in a Taiwanese Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shwu-Meei; Lee, Young Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research in Taiwan has shown that aboriginal students often have low self-esteem and a negative view of their life due to their heritage. This research studied 14 Taiwan aboriginal students to understand how the experience of an aboriginal dance club influenced the development of their ethnic identity. The results showed that the experiences of…

  1. "But it Was All a Bit Confusing ?": Comprehending Aboriginal English Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Farzad; Rochecouste, Judith; Malcolm, Ian G.

    2004-01-01

    The study reported in this paper explored the schemas that Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal educators bring to the task of comprehending oral narratives produced by Aboriginal children. During each data collection session, a participant listened to a series of eight passages and tried to recall each passage immediately after listening. The…

  2. The Process of Coping with Changes: A Study of Learning Experiences for the Aboriginal Nursing Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruo Lan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the increasing presence of aborigines in Taiwan higher education, especially in nursing institutes, the retention and adaptation of aboriginal students is a critical issue for research. Understanding the adjustment and transformation process of aboriginal nursing freshmen is very important for improving their learning, but very…

  3. Role, Impacts and Implications of Dedicated Aboriginal Student Space at a Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Natasha L.; Varghese, Jeji

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on a case study of the University of Guelph's Aboriginal Resource Centre (ARC) to identify the role that dedicated spaces have in the lives of Aboriginal students. Three roles that were identified include how these spaces build a sense of community, foster and enhance Aboriginal identity, and provide a safe space for Aboriginal…

  4. Non-Standard Assessment Practices in the Evaluation of Communication in Australian Aboriginal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…

  5. Food Perceptions and Concerns of Aboriginal Women Coping with Gestational Diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Hannah Tait

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe how Aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Semi-structured explanatory model interviews explored Aboriginal women's illness experiences with GDM. Setting and Participants: Twenty-nine self-declared Aboriginal women who had…

  6. Comparison of the Effects of Attachment Training for Mothers on the Behavioral Responses of Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Edraki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature infants are among high-risk groups in community who need to be hospitalized at intensive care units for survival and receiving basic or special care. Hospitalization at neonatal intensive care units (NICUs unsettles the family and leads to the separation of parents from their infants. This study aimed to determine the effects of maternal attachment behaviors on the behavioral responses of premature infants, hospitalized at NICUs. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 64 premature infants, who were hospitalized at NICUs and were eligible for the study, were randomly allocated to study and control groups. Attachment behaviors including touching, massage and kangaroo care were applied for the study group, while the conventional attachment method was adopted for the control group. Behavioral responses were evaluated two hours before and two hours after training attachment behaviors. Data were analyzed, using Chi-square and student’s t-test. Results: The mean difference in the duration of deep sleep and consciousness was more significant in the study group, compared to the control group. Furthermore, the duration of drowsiness was significantly less in the study group, compared to the control group. Conclusion: The implementation of attachment training at NICUs decreased the time of drowsiness and improved behavioral responses, deep sleep time and consciousness.

  7. A comparison between the effects of swaddled and conventional bathing methods on some behavioral responses in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Paran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The newborn’s first bath, performed in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU, is believed to be a stressful situation, especially for the premature infants. As a developmental care approach, swaddle bathing is a low-stress bathing method for vulnerable preterm neonates. Given the limited number of the studies examining this bathing method, the present study was conducted with the aim of comparing the effects of swaddle and conventional bathing methods on some behavioral responses in premature infants. Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 50 premature neonates admitted to NICU. The neonates, who met the inclusion criteria, were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The infants in the experimental group received swaddle bathing and those in the control group were given conventional bathing. To record the behavioral responses, the infants' faces were filmed in close-up during the bathing. The data were analyzed, using Chi-squared test, independent samples t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The results demonstrated that the occurrence rates of such behaviors as facial grimace (P

  8. Comparison of complications of pentavalent and DTP vaccination in infants aged 2-6 months in Anzali, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sharafi

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, application of pentavalent vaccination not only minimizes the local reactions, but it also diminishes local discomfort through reducing the number of injections. Therefore, infants receiving this type of vaccination encounter minimum local reactions. It is recommended that further investigation be conducted on larger sample sizes in multiple healthcare centers.

  9. Effects of GSM-like radiofrequency on distortion product otoacoustic emissions of rabbits: comparison of infants versus adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Gürer G; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Budak, Bilgehan; Oztürk, Göknur Güler; Apan, Alpaslan; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential hazardous effects of 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications-like (GSM-like) Radiofrequency (RF) exposure on the cochlear functions of female infant and adult rabbits by measuring Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAE) response amplitudes. Eighteen each one-month-old New Zealand White female rabbits and eighteen each 13-month-old adult rabbits were included into the study. They were randomly divided into four groups. Nine infant rabbits (Group 1) were not exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF (Infant Control, C-In). Nine infant rabbits (Group 2) were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 7 days after they reached one-month of age (Infant RF, RF-In). Nine adult rabbits were not exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 7 (Adult Control, C-Ad). Nine adult rabbits were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 7 days (Adult RF, RF-Ad). Cochlear functions were assessed by DPOAEs at 1.0-8.0 kHz. At 1.0-2.0 and 6.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 2 were significantly higher than that of Group 1. At 3.0-8.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 4 were significantly lower than that of Group 1. At 6.0-8.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 2 were significantly higher than that of Group 3. At 1.0-8.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 4 were significantly lower than that of Group 2. At 1.0-8.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 4 were significantly lower than that of Group 3. Harmful effects of GSM-like 1800 MHz RF exposure was detected more in the adult female rabbits than infant female rabbits by DPOAE measurement. Prolonged exposure and hyperthermia related to the power density of applied RFR, increasing the temperature in the ear canal, may decrease the DPOAE amplitudes. Water containing medium in the middle ear of infant rabbits may play the protective role **from the RF damage.

  10. Aboriginal urbanization and rights in Canada: examining implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Laura C; Wilson, Kathi

    2013-08-01

    Urbanization among Indigenous peoples is growing globally. This has implications for the assertion of Indigenous rights in urban areas, as rights are largely tied to land bases that generally lie outside of urban areas. Through their impacts on the broader social determinants of health, the links between Indigenous rights and urbanization may be related to health. Focusing on a Canadian example, this study explores relationships between Indigenous rights and urbanization, and the ways in which they are implicated in the health of urban Indigenous peoples living in Toronto, Canada. In-depth interviews focused on conceptions of and access to Aboriginal rights in the city, and perceived links with health, were conduced with 36 Aboriginal people who had moved to Toronto from a rural/reserve area. Participants conceived of Aboriginal rights largely as the rights to specific services/benefits and to respect for Aboriginal cultures/identities. There was a widespread perception among participants that these rights are not respected in Canada, and that this is heightened when living in an urban area. Disrespect for Aboriginal rights was perceived to negatively impact health by way of social determinants of health (e.g., psychosocial health impacts of discrimination experienced in Toronto). The paper discusses the results in the context of policy implications and future areas of research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aboriginal groups taking leadership positions in power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2009-09-15

    First Nations and Metis communities are now initiating and managing projects in the Canadian energy sector. Federal and provincial governments are now developing training programs to ensure that Aboriginal communities develop the skills needed to successfully manage energy projects. The Supreme Court of Canada has issued a number of rulings ensuring that companies and government agencies have a duty to consult with Aboriginal people when Crown decisions impact Treaty or Aboriginal rights. The Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure has now set up a unit to provide advice and guidance to facilitate partnership opportunities with First Nations and Metis communities. Major companies in Ontario have also developed consultation policies that focus on relationship building, internal education, and promoting business and workforce development. The Pic River First Nation group now owns a minority interest in the Wawatay generating station. A 23 MW facility is fully owned by the First Nations group. The province of Ontario has made a provision for up to $250 million to serve as loan guarantees for First Nations groups. It was concluded that the Electricity Sector Council (ESC) has developed an Aboriginal participation engagement project designed to increase Aboriginal awareness of opportunities within the electricity and renewable energy sector. 3 figs.

  12. Influence of definition based versus pragmatic birth registration on international comparisons of perinatal and infant mortality: population based retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Liu, Shiliang; Rouleau, Jocelyn; Lisonkova, Sarka; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Sauve, Reg; Allen, Alexander C; Kramer, Michael S

    2012-02-17

    To examine variations in the registration of extremely low birthweight and early gestation births and to assess their effect on perinatal and infant mortality rankings of industrialised countries. Retrospective population based study. Australia, Canada, European countries, and the United States for 2004; Australia, Canada, and New Zealand for 2007. National data on live births and on fetal, neonatal, and infant deaths. Reported proportions of live births with birth weight/gestational age of less than 500 g, less than 1000 g, less than 24 weeks, and less than 28 weeks; crude rates of fetal, neonatal, and infant mortality; mortality rates calculated after exclusion of births under 500 g, under 1000 g, less than 24 weeks, and less than 28 weeks. The proportion of live births under 500 g varied widely from less than 1 per 10,000 live births in Belgium and Ireland to 10.8 per 10,000 live births in Canada and 16.9 in the United States. Neonatal deaths under 500 g, as a proportion of all neonatal deaths, also ranged from less than 1% in countries such as Luxembourg and Malta to 29.6% in Canada and 31.1% in the United States. Rankings of countries based on crude fetal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates differed substantially from rankings based on rates calculated after exclusion of births with a birth weight of less than 1000 g or a gestational age of less than 28 weeks. International differences in reported rates of extremely low birthweight and very early gestation births probably reflect variations in registration of births and compromise the validity of international rankings of perinatal and infant mortality.

  13. Infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infant less than 12 months of age. The illness results from absorption of botulinum toxin produced in situ by neurotoxigenic clostridia that can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants. To date, all inhabited continents except Africa have reported cases of infant botulism. Recognition of cases seem directly related to physician awareness and clinical suspicion. This review summarizes microbiological, clinical and epidemiological features of infant botulism.

  14. The unique impact of abolition of Jim Crow laws on reducing inequities in infant death rates and implications for choice of comparison groups in analyzing societal determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T; Coull, Brent; Waterman, Pamela D; Beckfield, Jason

    2013-12-01

    We explored associations between the abolition of Jim Crow laws (i.e., state laws legalizing racial discrimination overturned by the 1964 US Civil Rights Act) and birth cohort trends in infant death rates. We analyzed 1959 to 2006 US Black and White infant death rates within and across sets of states (polities) with and without Jim Crow laws. Between 1965 and 1969, a unique convergence of Black infant death rates occurred across polities; in 1960 to 1964, the Black infant death rate was 1.19 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.20) in the Jim Crow polity than in the non-Jim Crow polity, whereas in 1970 to 1974 the rate ratio shrank to and remained at approximately 1 (with the 95% CI including 1) until 2000, when it rose to 1.10 (95% CI = 1.08, 1.12). No such convergence occurred for Black-White differences in infant death rates or for White infants. Our results suggest that abolition of Jim Crow laws affected US Black infant death rates and that valid analysis of societal determinants of health requires appropriate comparison groups.

  15. Evaluations of child transgressions, disciplinary choices, and expected child compliance in a no-cry and a crying infant condition in physically abusive and comparison mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselles, C E; Milner, J S

    2000-04-01

    Several components of a social information processing model of child physical abuse were tested. Abusive and comparison mothers' evaluations of children's transgressions, choices of disciplinary techniques, expectations for children's compliance following discipline, and appraisals of the appropriateness of disciplinary choice were examined in a no-cry and a crying-infant condition. Thirty physically abusive and 30 matched comparison mothers were individually matched on ethnic background, age, education, marital status, number of children, and cognitive ability. Mothers were asked to respond to questions related to vignettes describing children engaging in moral, conventional, and personal transgressions. As predicted, abusive, relative to comparison, mothers evaluated conventional and personal, but not moral, transgressions as more wrong, used more power assertion (physical and verbal force), expected less compliance from their own children, and appraised their own disciplinary responses as less appropriate. In contrast to expectations, there were no group by cry condition interaction effects on any of the study measures. The findings provide additional support for the view that abusive, relative to comparison, mothers are different in their evaluations and expectations of their own children's behaviors and that they more frequently select aversive disciplinary techniques. However, given the lack of an expected differential impact of a stressful condition on the cognitions and disciplinary choices in abusive mothers, additional research is needed.

  16. Washing machine usage in remote aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, C R

    1998-10-01

    The use of washing machines was investigated in two remote Aboriginal communities in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara homelands. The aim was to look both at machine reliability and to investigate the health aspect of washing clothes. A total of 39 machines were inspected for wear and component reliability every three months over a one-year period. Of these, 10 machines were monitored in detail for water consumption, hours of use and cycles of operation. The machines monitored were Speed Queen model EA2011 (7 kg washing load) commercial units. The field survey results suggested a high rate of operation of the machines with an average of around 1,100 washing cycles per year (range 150 and 2,300 cycles per year). The results were compared with available figures for the average Australian household. A literature survey, to ascertain the health outcomes relating to washing clothes and bedding, confirmed that washing machines are efficient at removal of bacteria from clothes and bedding but suggested that recontamination of clothing after washing often negated the prior removal. High temperature washing (> 60 degrees C) appeared to be advantageous from a health perspective. With regards to larger organisms, while dust mites and body lice transmission between people would probably be decreased by washing clothes, scabies appeared to be mainly transmitted by body contact and thus transmission would be only marginally decreased by the use of washing machines.

  17. An epidemiologic study of aboriginal adolescent risk in Canada: the meaning of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Melanie S

    2008-02-01

    Current rates of Aboriginal youth suicide suggest that an epidemiologic review is needed to understand the impact of culture, community, and environment specific to suicide within this population. This paper aims to (a) examine the literature on the incidence of suicide with special attention to that of adolescents in Aboriginal communities in Canada, (b) review factors hypothesized to place Aboriginals at risk, and (c) explore research directions that would contribute to our understanding of an Aboriginal perspective of suicide. A clear description of the meaning of adolescent Aboriginal suicide and an understanding of the factors that create risk is needed.

  18. A concise culture review of Aboriginal and Australian fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the Australian fiction, we have suggested that some blossoming of this Australian genre happened during the nineteenth century, so in this review we have to start with some earlier works to express the cultural and poetical picture just unpretentious but completely. Firstly, it ought to be the Aboriginal literature which is of great importance to many both within Australia and internationally. This culture review will relate to the Aboriginal writing in English. The transformative survey of Aboriginal writing presents the stories and patterns of Australian culture and society in new ways, foregrounding and celebrating Indigenous experience and expression. It introduces powerful and creative individual voices as it also reveals a larger history of struggle, suffering and strength.

  19. Aboriginal cultural awareness training: policy v. accountability - failure in reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Barbara; Westwood, Geoff

    2010-11-01

    Despite 42 years progress since the 1967 referendum enabling laws to be made covering Aboriginal Australians their poor health status remains and is extensively documented. This paper presents results of a study into Cultural Awareness Training (CAT) in New South Wales and specifically South West Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS) with the aim of improving long-term health gains. The evidence demonstrates poor definition and coordination of CAT with a lack of clear policy direction and accountability for improving cultural awareness at government level. In SWSAHS staff attendance at training is poor and training is fragmented across the Area. The paper proposes actions to improve Aboriginal cultural awareness for health professionals including incorporating Aboriginal CAT into broader based Cross Cultural Training (CCT).

  20. Gambling and Problem Gambling among Canadian Urban Aboriginals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Belanger, Yale D; Prusak, S Yvonne

    2016-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of gambling and problem gambling in urban Aboriginals in the Canadian Prairie provinces and to determine the predictors of problem gambling. In total, 1114 Aboriginals living in 15 cities in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba were recruited via posters and direct solicitation at Native Friendship Centres, shopping malls, and other locations where Aboriginals congregated. They each completed a self-administered 5- to 10-minute survey. Urban Aboriginals in the present sample were found to have a much higher level of gambling participation than the general Canadian public, especially for electronic gambling machines, instant lotteries, and bingo. Their intensity of participation in terms of number of formats, frequency of play, and gambling expenditure was also very high. This, in turn, is an important contributing factor to their very high rate of problem gambling, which was found to be 27.2%. Problem gambling was higher in males, unemployed people, and cities having the highest proportion of their population consisting of urban Aboriginals. Urban Aboriginal people appear to have some of the highest known rates of problem gambling of any group in Canada. This is attributable to having many more risk factors for problem gambling, such as a greater level of participation in gambling, greater participation in continuous forms of gambling (e.g., electronic gambling machines), younger average age, higher rates of substance abuse and mental health problems, and a range of disadvantageous social conditions (e.g., poverty, unemployment, poor education, cultural stress) that are conducive to the development of addictive behaviour. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Comparison Of Hormonal And Non-Hormonal Contraceptive Method Effects On The Mothers Milk And Infants Growth Among Lactating Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Poor H R

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was conducted for the purpose of determining the effect of hormonal and non-hormonal contraception on the mother milk and infants growth among lactating women received by south Tehran’s Health Centers. In this regard a broad spectrum study from December 2000 until February 2001 was done by Tehran university. Materials and Methods: By sampling method, 200 lactating women were chosen randomly. They were divided into two groups according to their preferred method of contraception: 67 women chose hormonal method and 133 women chose non –hormonal method. Results&Conclusion: During the time of the study on infants growth (increase in head circumstances, increase in height, increase in weight, There was no significant difference between the two groups. If we take the effect of contraceptive methods into consideration, the Triglyceride levels in non-hormonal group were increased considerably compared to the other group. Other ingredients were almost the same.

  2. Improving forensic mental health care for Aboriginal Australians: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Barr, Lesley; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-06-01

    Mental illnesses constitute a major burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders (hereafter Aboriginal Australians), who are also overrepresented in the prison system. A legacy of colonization compounds such prevalence, and is further exacerbated by the persistence of racial discrimination and insensitivity across many sectors, including health. This research completed in a Western Australian forensic mental health setting identifies non-Aboriginal health professionals' support needs to deliver high-quality, culturally-safe care to Aboriginal patients. Data were collected from health professionals using an online survey and 10 semistructured interviews. Survey and interview results found that ongoing education was needed for staff to provide culturally-safe care, where Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values were respected. The findings also support previous research linking Aboriginal health providers to improved health outcomes for Aboriginal patients. In a colonized country, such as Australia, education programmes that critically reflect on power relations privileging white Anglo-Australian cultural dominance and subjugating Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values are important to identify factors promoting or compromising the care of Aboriginal patients and developing a deeper understanding of 'cultural safety' and its clinical application. Organizational commitment is needed to translate the findings to support non-Aboriginal health professionals deliver high-quality care to Aboriginal patients that is respectful of cultural differences. © 2013 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. A comparison between the effects of swaddled and conventional bathing methods on some behavioral responses in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Paran; Mitra Edraki; Sedigheh Montaseri; Mostajab Razavi Nejad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The newborn’s first bath, performed in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU), is believed to be a stressful situation, especially for the premature infants. As a developmental care approach, swaddle bathing is a low-stress bathing method for vulnerable preterm neonates. Given the limited number of the studies examining this bathing method, the present study was conducted with the aim of comparing the effects of swaddle and conventional bathing methods on some behavioral responses i...

  4. Comparison of power Doppler and color Doppler ultrasonography in the detection of intrasticular blood flow of normal infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Ran; Lee, Ho Kyoung; Lee, Won Gyun; Youk, Dong Joon; Rho, Taek Soo; Lee, Min Jin; Lee, Sang Chun [Seoul Red Cross Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To compare color Doppler ultrasonography (US) and power Doppler US in the detection of intratesticular blood flow in normal infants and to asses the symmetry of blood flow. Testicular blood flow was assessed prospectively in 100 testes of 50 infants with both power and color Doppler US. We compared the power Doppler with color Doppler to detect intratesticular blood. When the flow was detected, intratesticular blood flow was graded as follows: grade 1: single intratesticular Doppler signal ; grade 2: multiple intratesticular Doppler signals. The symmetry of intratesticular flow was assessed by using the same method. Intratesticular flow was detected in 72 (72%) and 68 (68%) testes on power and color Doppler US, respectively. In 76 testes (76%), intratesticular flow was detected in either one or both techniques. On power Doppler US, grade 1 was seen in 40 tests and grade 2 in 32 testes. On color Doppler US, grade 1 was noted in 52 testes and grade 2 in 16 testes. Testicular blood flow was symmetric on both power and color Doppler US in each patient. There was no difference between power Doppler and color Doppler ultrasonography in detecting intratesticular blood flow in normal infants.

  5. Setting the scene: early writing on Australian Aboriginal art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings together some of the earliest writings on Australian Aboriginal art. It examines references to specific examples of this unique art in a range of sources including journals of early British and French explorers, the field reports of naturalists and ethnologists, early Royal Society papers and newspaper articles of the day. By tracing the impact of important texts and images, certain connections, collaborations and disagreements over the meaning, worth and ability of Australias first art and artists are revealed. An analysis of these previously unrelated accounts contributes to an understanding of early European perceptions and attitudes towards Aboriginal art.

  6. Canadian Aboriginal people's experiences with HIV/AIDS as portrayed in selected English language Aboriginal media (1996-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne N; Friedman, Daniela B; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the portrayal of HIV/AIDS in 14 mass print newspapers directed towards the Canadian Aboriginal population and published between 1996 and 2000. Based on qualitative content analysis the research examines both manifest and latent meanings. Manifest results of this study indicate that women and youth are under represented as persons with HIV/AIDS. The latent results note the frequent references to Aboriginal culture, and the political and economic position of Aboriginal Canadians when discussing the disease, the person with the disease, the fear of the disease and the reaction of the community to the person with the disease. Unlike mainstream media where the medical frame is dominant, HIV/AIDS are here contextualized by culture, identity, spirituality and political-economic issues.

  7. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the stomach. In very premature or sick infants, nutrition may be given through a vein until the baby is stable enough to receive all nutrition through the stomach. If the infant has breathing problems: A tube may be placed ...

  8. Comparison in outcomes at two-years of age of very preterm infants born in 2000, 2005 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénaïg Abily-Donval

    Full Text Available To investigate alteration in 2-year neurological/behavioral outcomes of very preterm infants born in a French level three neonatal intensive care unit.We conducted a prospective, comparative study of very preterm infants born before 33 weeks' gestation at 5-year intervals in 2000, 2005 and 2010 at Rouen University Hospital. Neonatal mortality/morbidities, ante- and neonatal treatments, and at age 2 years motor, cognitive and behavioral data were collected by standardized questionnaires.We included 536 very preterm infants. Follow-up rates at two years old were 78% in 2000, 93% in 2005 and 92% in 2010 respectively. No difference in gestational age, birthweight, neonatal mortality/morbidities was observed except a decrease in low grade subependymal/intraventricular hemorrhages. Care modifications concerned use of antenatal magnesium sulfate, breast-feeding and post-natal corticosteroid therapy. Significant improvement in motor outcome and dramatic decrease in cerebral palsy rates (12% in 2000, 6% in 2005, 1% in 2010, p<0.001 were observed, as were improvements in feeding behavior. Although a non significant difference to better psychosocial behavior was reported, there was no difference in cognitive outcome.Improvement in neuromotor outcome and behavior was reported. This could be due to multiple modifications in care: including administration of magnesium sulfate to women at risk of preterm birth, increase in breast-feeding, decrease in low grade subependymal/intraventricular hemorrhages, and decrease in post-natal corticosteroid therapy, all of which require further investigation in other studies. Extended follow-up until school age is mandatory for better detection of cognitive, learning and behavioral disorders.

  9. Partnering with an Aboriginal Community for Health and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Cultural awareness is a concept that is gaining much attention in health and education settings across North America. This article describes how the concepts of cultural awareness shaped the process and the curriculum of an online health education project called Interprofessional Collaboration: Culturally-informed Aboriginal Health Care. The…

  10. Evaluation of a sealant intervention program among Taiwanese aboriginal schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ju Hsieh

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The application of pit-and-fissure sealants was 94.54% effective in preventing caries on newly erupted permanent molars among Taiwanese aboriginal schoolchildren. Complete sealant failure demonstrated a high risk for caries, and such teeth should immediately be resealed.

  11. Aboriginal Students Engaging and Struggling with Critical Multiliteracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhai-Illich, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a school-based action research project with aboriginal adolescent students attending an alternative school in Canada. As a Freirean response to these marginalized students' school failures, the researcher engaged students in a critical multiliteracies approach to language and literacy learning. Based on…

  12. Book Review: Aboriginal Customary Law: A Source of Common Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Aboriginal Customary Law: A Source of Common Law Title to Land. Book Author: U Secher. (2014 Hart Publishing Oxford and Portland Oregon) ISBN 978-1-84946-553-3. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  13. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2016-08-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aboriginal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, and are an efficient way of transmitting oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. The study of Aboriginal astronomy has had an impact extending beyond mere academic curiosity, facilitating cross-cultural understanding, demonstrating the intimate links between science and culture, and helping students to engage with science.

  14. "Try to Understand Us":Aboriginal Elders’ Views on Exceptionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Phillips

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This article provides an analysis of the views of four Elders at the “A Window to Seeing the World Differently, National Symposium on Aboriginal Special Education” that was held in October 2005 at First Nations University of Canada in Regina.  The symposium was an opportunity to provide educators, students, parents, and community members with information on Aboriginal views on special education.  Concern had been expressed over the high numbers of Aboriginal students being identified as “special needs” attending schools on reserves throughout Canada.  There was also concern over difficulties with the current special education system, e.g., funding, assessment, and service issues.  It was believed that the Aboriginal worldview of students with special needs as having special gifts from the Creator was not integrated into the curriculum or into teaching practices.  The article concludes with suggestions for educators on how to address exceptionalities in Aboriginal communities. Keywords: Aboriginal education, Elders, exceptionality, special education, Aboriginal special   education.

  15. Maturational changes in the feeding behaviour of infants - a comparison between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, M; Mizuno, K; Murase, M; Nishida, Y; Itabashi, K; Mukai, Y

    2010-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the changes in feeding behaviour from 1 to 6 months of age. By comparing breast- and bottle-feeding, we intended to clarify the difference in longitudinal sucking performance. Sucking variables were consecutively measured for 16 breast-fed and eight bottle-fed infants at 1, 3 and 6 months of age. For breast-feeding, number of sucks per burst (17.8 +/- 8.8, 23.8 +/- 8.3 and 32.4 +/- 15.3 times), sucking burst duration (11.2 +/- 6.1, 14.7 +/- 8.0 and 17.9 +/- 8.8 sec) and number of sucking bursts per feed (33.9 +/- 13.9, 28.0 +/- 18.2 and 18.6 +/- 12.8 times) at 1, 3 and 6 months of age respectively showed significant differences between 1 and 6 months of age (p feed did not differ among different ages. Bottle-feeding resulted in longer sucking bursts and more sucks per burst compared with breast-feeding in each month (p bottle-fed infants.

  16. Comparison of outcomes of two skills-teaching methods on lay-rescuers' acquisition of infant basic life support skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, Itai; Peled, Shuny; Steiner, Ivan P; Harley, Dwight D; Ross, Shelley; Tal-Or, Eran; Lemire, April

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to determine if lay-rescuers' acquisition of infant basic life support (BLS) skills would be better when skills teaching consisted of videotaping practice and providing feedback on performances, compared to conventional skills-teaching and feedback methods.   This pilot-exploratory, single-blind, prospective, controlled, randomized study was conducted on November 12, 2007, at the Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. The population under study consisted of all first-year medical students enrolled in the 2007-2008 year. BLS training is part of their mandatory introductory course in emergency medicine. Twenty-three students with previous BLS training were excluded. The remaining 71 were randomized into four and then two groups, with final allocation to an intervention and control group of 18 and 16 students, respectively. All the students participated in infant BLS classroom teaching. Those in the intervention group practiced skills acquisition independently, and four were videotaped while practicing. Tapes were reviewed by the group and feedback was provided. Controls practiced using conventional teaching and feedback methods. After 3 hours, all subjects were videotaped performing an unassisted, lone-rescuer, infant BLS resuscitation scenario. A skills assessment tool was developed. It consisted of 25 checklist items, grouped into four sections: 6 points for "categories" (with specific actions in six categories), 14 points for "scoring" (of accuracy of performance of each action), 4 points for "sequence" (of actions within a category), and 1 point for "order" of resuscitation (complete and well-sequenced categories). Two blinded expert raters were given a workshop on the use of the scoring tool. They further refined it to increase scoring consistency. The main outcome of the study was defined as evidence of better skills acquisition in overall skills in the four sections and in the specific skills

  17. Taiwanese aborigines: genetic heterogeneity and paternal contribution to Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhaoshu; Rowold, Diane J; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Regueiro, Maria; Li, Li; Zhong, Mingxia; Herrera, Rene J

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, for the first time, 293 Taiwanese aboriginal males from all nine major tribes (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Rukai, Paiwan, Saisat, Puyuma, Tsou, Yami) were genotyped with 17 YSTR loci in a attend to reveal migrational patterns connected with the Austronesian expansion. We investigate the paternal genetic relationships of these Taiwanese aborigines to 42 Asia-Pacific reference populations, geographically selected to reflect various locations within the Austronesian domain. The Tsou and Puyuma tribes exhibit the lowest (0.1851) and the highest (0.5453) average total genetic diversity, respectively. Further, the fraction of unique haplotypes is also relatively high in the Puyuma (86.7%) and low in Tsou (33.3%) suggesting different demographic histories. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed several notable findings: 1) the Taiwan indigenous populations are highly diverse. In fact, the level of inter-population heterogeneity displayed by the Taiwanese aboriginal populations is close to that exhibited among all 51 Asia-Pacific populations examined; 2) the asymmetrical contribution of the Taiwanese aborigines to the Oceanic groups. Ami, Bunun and Saisiyat tribes exhibit the strongest paternal links to the Solomon and Polynesian island communities, whereas most of the remaining Taiwanese aboriginal groups are more genetically distant to these Oceanic inhabitants; 3) the present YSTR analyses does not reveal a strong paternal affinity of the nine Taiwanese tribes to their continental Asian neighbors. Overall, our current findings suggest that, perhaps, only a few of the tribes were involved in the migration out of Taiwan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Why should Aboriginal peoples learn to write?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Serra Pagès

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultures and worldviews are inscribed by means of ‘writing’, or what Derrida calls ‘the perdurable inscription of a sign’ (Of Grammatology. A sign is the union between signifier and signified. The signifier may be natural (clouds indicate that it is going to rain or artificial. All cultures are made up of relations that stay at the level of signs, that is, everything that belongs to culture is empirical and conventional. In this regard, both Aboriginal and Western culture remain at the same level. Moreover, both cultures produce objectivity by means of contrast and experimentation, in the design of a sharp object, for example an arrow or a knife. In Ancient Greece, Havelock contends that the invention of writing dramatically increased the possibilities of objective thought (The Muse Learns To Write, but it also created a logic of binaries that transcended the objectivity of science and transpired into the ideology behind colonialism. In this context, the role of writing is analyzed in David Malouf’s Remembering Babylon. How does writing affect Gemmy all throughout the book? Already in the first Chapter, the teacher and the minister of the colony analyze Gemmy ‘in writing’. Gemmy knows what writing is but hasn’t learnt its ‘trick’: he does not know how to read or write. All he can see is that what he tells about his life, all his pain and suffering, is translated into marks and magic squiggles on the paper: only the spirit of the story he tells is captured. But little by little, the cognitive effects of writing get hold of Gemmy, until he starts to understand his life within the framework of the logic of binaries and identity upon which all reflective thought and science rest. All in all, this deconstructive reading can be seen as a critique of Europe’s modern idea of the autonomy of reason, in the name of a heteronymous rationality in the form of writing.

  19. Natural-Series Radionuclides in Traditional Aboriginal Foods in Tropical Northern Australia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of available information on natural-series radionuclides in traditional Aboriginal foods of northern Australia. Research on this topic has been carried out primarily for radiological impact assessment purposes in relation to uranium mining activities in the region. Many of the studies have concentrated on providing purely concentration data or concentration ratios, although more detailed uptake studies have been undertaken for freshwater mussels, turtles, and water lilies. The most-studied radionuclides are 238U and 226Ra. However, dose estimates based on current data highlight the importance of 210Po, particularly for the natural (nonmining-related dose. Data on uptake by terrestrial flora and fauna are scarce in comparison with aquatic organisms, and this knowledge gap will need to be addressed in relation to planning for uranium minesite rehabilitation.

  20. Comparison of air-Q and Ambu Aura-i for controlled ventilation in infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlong, Vanlal; Biyani, Ghansham; Baidya, Dalim K; Pandey, Ravindra; Chandralekha; Punj, Jyotsna; Upadhyay, Ashish D

    2015-08-01

    The air-Q is a new supraglottic airway device (SAD) and has been increasingly used as a primary airway device and as a conduit for tracheal intubation in children as well as in adults. This device has either performed equally or better than other SADs in children. The Ambu Aura-i is a commonly used SAD in children undergoing various short surgical procedures. However, limited literature is available evaluating the safety and efficacy of the air-Q and the Ambu Aura-i in small children. We, therefore, conducted this study to compare the clinical performance of these two airway devices in infants weighing up to 10 kg. Our hypothesis is that air-Q, due to its improved and larger cuff design will yield better airway seal pressures as compared with the Ambu Aura-i. Sixty-four ASA I-II infants weighing Aura-i. After induction of general anesthesia (GA) and muscle relaxation, we measured oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) as the primary outcome. The secondary end points measured were time to insert, first insertion success rate, fiberoptic grade (FO) of laryngeal view and any other airway complications like trauma, laryngospasm, and desaturation. The air-Q ILA provided significantly higher OLP as compared with the Ambu Aura-i [20.2 ± 4.6 cm H2 O, CI 18.55-21.88; vs 16.2 ± 5.6 cmH2 O, CI 14.27-18.25, P = 0.003; mean difference 4 ± 1.29 cm H2 O, CI 1.41-6.58]. However, the Ambu Aura-i required significantly less time for its insertion (14.6 ± 2.8 s, CI 13.66-15.70; vs 16.3 ± 1.5 s, CI 15.75-16.86, P = 0.005; mean difference 1.625 ±  0.56 s, CI 0.48-2.76). There were no differences in first insertion success rate, FO view, and postoperative complications. We conclude that air-Q may be considered superior to Ambu Aura-i in infants for controlled ventilation as it provides higher airway sealing pressures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Disparities experienced by Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal metropolitan Western Australians in receiving coronary angiography following acute ischaemic heart disease: the impact of age and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Derrick; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Woods, John A; Hobbs, Michael S T; Knuiman, Matthew W; Briffa, Tom G; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-10-21

    Aboriginal Australians have a substantially higher frequency of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) events than their non-Aboriginal counterparts, together with a higher prevalence of comorbidities. The pattern of health service provision for IHD suggests inequitable delivery of important diagnostic procedures. Published data on disparities in IHD management among Aboriginal Australians are conflicting, and the role of comorbidities has not been adequately delineated. We compared the profiles of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients in the metropolitan area undergoing emergency IHD admissions at Western Australian metropolitan hospitals, and investigated the determinants of receiving coronary angiography. Person-linked administrative hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD emergency admission events (n =20,816) commencing at metropolitan hospitals in 2005-09. The outcome measure was receipt of angiography. The Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal risk ratio (RR) was estimated from a multivariable Poisson log-linear regression model with allowance for multiple IHD events in individuals. The subgroup of myocardial infarction (MI) events was modelled separately. Compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts, Aboriginal IHD patients were younger and more likely to have comorbidities. In the age- and sex-adjusted model, Aboriginal patients were less likely than others to receive angiography (RRIHD 0.77, 95% CI 0.72-0.83; RRMI 0.81, 95% CI 0.75-0.87) but in the full multivariable model this disparity was accounted for by comorbidities as well as IHD category and MI subtype, and private health insurance (RRIHD 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-1.01; RRMI 0.94, 95% CI 0.88-1.01). When stratified by age groups, this disparity was not significant in the 25-54 year age group (RRMI 0.95, 95% CI 0.88-1.02) but was significant in the 55-84 year age group (RRMI 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99). The disproportionate under-management of older Aboriginal IHD patients is of

  2. Determination of Total Selenium in Infant Formulas: Comparison of the Performance of FIA and MCFA Flow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Pistón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two flow methods, based, respectively, on flow-injection analysis (FIA and on multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA, were compared with regard to their use for the determination of total selenium in infant formulas by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The method based on multicommutation provided lower detection and quantification limits (0.08 and 0.27 μg L−1 compared to 0.59 and 1.95 μ L−1, resp., higher sampling frequency (160 versus. 70 samples per hour, and reduced reagent consumption. Linearity, precision, and accuracy were similar for the two methods compared. It was concluded that, while both methods proved to be appropriate for the purpose, the MCFA-based method exhibited a better performance.

  3. A comparison of infant and toddler feeding practices of mothers with and without histories of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Bentley, Margaret E; Hamer, Robert M; Hodges, Eric A; Ward, Dianne S; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2014-07-01

    This preliminary study surveyed the feeding practices of mothers with eating disorder histories through evaluation of mothers' reported feeding styles, child diet composition and restrictive special approaches to feeding. For this non-randomised cohort study, 25 mothers with eating disorder histories and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group and child sex. Mothers were compared on self-reported feeding style using the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire and on child diet composition and special feeding approaches using a modified version of the Toddler Diet Questionnaire from the Women, Infants, and Children program. Mothers with eating disorder histories scored lower on the restrictive feeding style subscale than controls. No significant differences were detected between groups in child diet including the percentage of mothers who breastfed, duration of breastfeeding, age at solid food introduction, daily number of meals or snacks or daily frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables or protein foods. Mothers with eating disorder histories were more likely to report taking a restrictive special approach to feeding such as limiting processed foods or feeding organic foods only. Although mothers with eating disorder histories may not differ greatly from control mothers in terms of child diet composition (smaller effects may not have been detected due to limited sample size), they may be more likely to take restrictive special approaches to feeding which mirror dietary rules common in individuals with eating disorders. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The use of joint ventures to accomplish aboriginal economic development: Two examples from British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Boyd

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available “Aboriginal economic development” differs from other forms of development by emphasizing aboriginal values and community involvement. Joint ventures, while providing business advantages, may not be able to contribute to aboriginal economic development. This paper examines two joint ventures in the interior of British Columbia to examine their ability or inability to contribute the extra dimensions of development desired by aboriginal communities. The AED framework examines business structure; profitability; employment; aboriginal capacity in education, experience, and finance; preservation of traditional values, culture and language; control of forest management over traditional territory; and community support. Established in the context of unresolved land claims, both enterprises partially contribute to aboriginal economic development, but in different ways and with different overall results.

  5. “We Are Not Being Heard”: Aboriginal Perspectives on Traditional Foods Access and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K.

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike. PMID:23346118

  6. "We are not being heard": Aboriginal perspectives on traditional foods access and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.

  7. The Pituri Learning Circle: central Australian Aboriginal women's knowledge and practices around the use of Nicotiana spp. as a chewing tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratsch, Angela M; Mason, Andrea; Rive, Linda; Bogossian, Fiona E; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking has a range of known and predictable adverse outcomes, and across the world sustained smoking reduction campaigns are targeted towards reducing individual and public risk and harm. Conversely, more than 87 million women, mostly in low- and middle-income countries, use smokeless tobacco, yet the research examining the effect of this form of tobacco exposure on women is remarkably scant. In central Australia, the chewing of wild Nicotiana spp., a tobacco plant, commonly known as pituri and mingkulpa, is practised by Aboriginal groups across a broad geographical area. Until recently, there had been no health research conducted on the effects of chewing pituri. This article reports on one component of a multidimensional pituri research agenda. A narrative approach utilising the methodology of the Learning Circle was used to interview three key senior central Australian Aboriginal women representative of three large geographical language groupings. The participants were selected by a regional Aboriginal women's organisation. With the assistance of interpreters, a semistructured interview, and specific trigger resources, participants provided responses to enable an understanding of the women's ethnobotanical pituri knowledge and practices around the use of pituri within the context of Aboriginal women's lives. Data were transcribed, and by using a constant comparison analysis, emergent themes were categorised. The draft findings and manuscript were translated into the participants' language and validated by the participants. Three themes around pituri emerged: (a) the plants, preparation and use; (b) individual health and wellbeing; and (c) family and community connectedness. The findings demonstrated similar participant ethnobotanical knowledge and practices across the geographical area. The participants clearly articulated the ethnopharmacological knowledge associated with mixing pituri with wood ash to facilitate the extraction of nicotine from

  8. The community network: an Aboriginal community football club bringing people together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Alister; Anders, Wendy; Rowley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    There are few empirical studies about the role of Aboriginal sporting organisations in promoting wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of an Aboriginal community sporting team and its environment on the social, emotional and physical wellbeing of young Aboriginal men, and to identify barriers and motivators for participation. A literature review of the impact of sport on the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal participants was conducted. This informed a qualitative study design with a grounded theory approach. Four semistructured interviews and three focus groups were completed with nine current players and five past players of the Fitzroy Stars Football Club to collect data about the social, emotional and physical wellbeing impact of an Aboriginal football team on its Aboriginal players. Results of the interviews were consistent with the literature, with common concepts emerging around community connection, cultural values and identity, health, values, racism and discrimination. However, the interviews provided further detail around the significance of cultural values and community connection for Aboriginal people. The complex nature of social connections and the strength of Aboriginal community networks in sports settings were also evident. Social reasons were just as important as individual health reasons for participation. Social and community connection is an important mechanism for maintaining and strengthening cultural values and identity. Barriers and motivators for participation in Aboriginal sports teams can be complex and interrelated. Aboriginal sports teams have the potential to have a profound impact on the health of Aboriginal people, especially its players, by fostering a safe and culturally strengthening environment and encompassing a significant positive social hub for the Aboriginal community.

  9. Comparison of Insulin Expression Levels in White Blood Cells of infants with and without Family History of Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mazhari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type II diabetes is known as one of the most important, prevalent, and expensive diseases of mankind. Late diagnosis and subsequent delayed initiation of treatment or surveillance of patients create a variety of problems for affected individuals. This has raised increasing concerns for public health authorities throughout the world. In the current study, we aimed to find a new approach for early identification of high-risk individuals at initial months of their life. This allows us to take preventive measures as early as possible.Materials and Methods: In our study, 102 infants - from one to six months - were selected and placed in two case and control groups. The case group contained 52 babies with at least one of their parents identified as a type II diabetic patient. The control group comprised 50 babies with no family history of type II diabetes in paternal and maternal first-degree relatives. Afterwards, the expression level of insulin gene was analyzed in white blood cells of both groups. Information related to infants - referred to outpatient and inpatient wards of three main pediatric hospitals placed in Tehran - and their parents were collected through questionnaires within a two-year period. The study inclusion criteria for infants were confirmed type II diabetes in at least one of their parents, the absence of any metabolic disorder, and the absence of any disturbing vital signs. After drawing 2 ml of babies’ peripheral blood, total RNA of white blood cells (WBC was extracted, and used for cDNA synthesis. Real-Time PCR was then applied to quantitatively evaluate the expression levels of insulin gene. The results of Real-Time PCR were statistically analyzed by non-parametric tests of Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis.Results: The expression of insulin gene was observed in white blood cells of all samples. However, there was a significant difference in expression levels between case and control groups (p<0.05. There was a

  10. Health Inequalities, Deprivation, Immigration and Aboriginality in Canada: A Geographic Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert Pampalon; Denis Hamel; Philippe Gamache

    2010-01-01

    .... It is hypothesized that differences in the magnitude of survival inequalities according to deprivation across Canada are attenuated when immigration and Aboriginal status are accounted for. Methods...

  11. Aboriginal health workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2012-05-23

    Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal

  12. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Anna P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy

  13. [Comparison of jaw thrust and trapezius squeezing test as indicators for laryngeal mask airway insertion in infants and young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J Z; Zhao, J; Zhang, Y J

    2016-02-01

    To compare the effectiveness of the jaw thrust and the trapezius squeezing test(TST) for laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion in infants and children under sevoflurane anesthesia. A total of 100 children aged from 6 month to 3 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists(ASA) Ⅰ-Ⅱ and undergoing minor operation were enrolled from January to June 2015 in Tianjin Children's Hospital. The patients were randomly divided into jaw thrusting group (Group J, n=50)and trapezius squeezing group(Group T, n=50). Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane. When children's eyelash reflex lose, jaw thrust/trapezius squeeze was applied every 15 seconds.It's considered that the depth of anesthesia was not enough, and test reaction was positive if any movements of body, limbs or toes were found at the point of test. Sevoflurane should be keep on inhalation until negative test reaction was appeared. Then LMA was inserted immediately.The time required for the negative test, end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations (ETsev), the index of Narcotrend anesthesia monitor(NT), the occurrence of gross purposeful movements, coughing, gagging, breath-holding, laryngospasm or an SpO2 insertion in two groups of patients were observed and recorded. The condition of LMA insertion and the rate of successful insertion were evaluated. The blood pressure(BP), heart rate(HR) and SpO2 were also recorded before and after LMA insertion. In group J and group T, the time required for the negative test was (2.31±1.03) vs (2.85±0.97)min(t=-2.462, Pinsertion was 78% vs 100%(χ(2)=12.36 , Pinsertion in group T were superior to those in group J. The incidences of gross purposeful movements, coughing, gagging, breath-holding and SpO2insertion in group J were 20%, 16%, 10%, 14% and 8%, which were higher than those in group T (2%, 2%, 0, 2%, 0), the differences were significant(χ(2)=8.27, 5.98, 5.26, 4.89, 4.17, all Pinserting LMA in two groups. The trapezius squeezing test is a superior indicator of adequate

  14. Sleep wake cycling in early preterm infants: comparison of polysomnographic recordings with a novel EEG-based index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmu, Kirsi; Kirjavainen, Turkka; Stjerna, Susanna; Salokivi, Tommi; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2013-09-01

    To document the occurrence of genuine sleep stages in the early preterm babies, and to develop an EEG-based index for following sleep wake cyclicity. Twelve preterm babies were recruited from a study that assessed ventilator strategies. We used altogether 18 polysomnography recordings that were collected at mean conceptional age of 29.3 (25.9-32.7) weeks. Spontaneous activity transients (SAT) were detected automatically and their cumulative coverage in each 20s interval was computed from the EEG derivations C3-A2 and O2-A1. Mean SAT% values between sleep stages were compared. All babies exhibited all sleep stages, however the sleep was remarkably fragmentary in infants due to their respiratory issues. The EEG index, SAT% showed temporal behavior that strikingly well compared with the sleep stage fluctuations in the hypnogram. In the statistical analysis we found significant differences in all recordings between the deep (quiet) sleep and the REM sleep. Genuine sleep states exist in the early preterm babies, and changes in sleep stages are reflected in the EEG activity in a way that can be readily measured by assessing fluctuation of the automatically detected, EEG based index, the SAT%. The findings open a possibility to construct automated analysis or monitoring of sleep wake cyclicity into brain monitors in neonatal intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Postnatal depression, maternal-infant bonding and social support: a cross-cultural comparison of Nigerian and British mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Oladayo; Bunce, Louise; Lusher, Joanne; Banbury, Samantha

    2017-07-04

    The high prevalence of Post-Natal Depression (PND) in low and lower-middle income countries of Africa raises questions about the functionality of the abundant informal support accessed in the enmeshed family structure. This study examined the interaction between social support, parity and culture in the development of PND and maternal-infant bonding (MIB) among Nigerian, British and Nigerian Immigrant mothers in the UK. Participants (N = 124) were recruited from the UK and Nigeria via local support groups for mothers, websites offering motherhood-related content and social media. Questionnaires including the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire and Norbeck's Social Support Questionnaire were uploaded onto SurveyMonkey®. Findings revealed significant cultural differences in PND and social support. Multiple regression analyses revealed that PND, social support and culture could predict MIB, with PND being the only significant independent predictor. Our findings highlight the importance that cultural factors play in the development of PND and the establishment of MIB in the context of culturally attuned healthcare services.

  16. Policing Aboriginal Protests and Confrontations: Some Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedican, Edward J.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of police forces in Aboriginal protests and confrontations. It takes as a case study the Report of the Ipperwash Inquiry, which was released on May 31, 2007. In 1995 Dudley George, a member of the Stoney Point First Nation, was shot by an Ontario Provincial Police officer during a protest at Ipperwash Provincial Park. Five recommendations are proposed in this paper to reduce the inherent tensions in such protests, focusing on methods of mediation and conflict resolution. In particular, it is proposed that during such protests a more extensive use be made of Aboriginal persons with training and skills in mediation and negotiations in order to improve communication between police and First Nations protesters. It is also evident that government officials need to become more actively involved in resolving land claims, especially before they become flashpoints for violence, and to remove such disputes from the realm of criminal activity to matters of civil litigation.

  17. Aboriginal Determination: Native Title Claims and Barriers to Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Akhtar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Australian government has proposed a referendum in 2012 to decide the constitutional status of its indigenous people. There is at present no mechanism to define the indigenous people as a domestic or foreign entity of the Commonwealth. This is an important issue because other settler governments have developed a framework to implement their relationship with the native people. As a result, it is difficult prove title to land that has been abrogated by the deeds of the settlers. In Mabo v Queensland (2,the Commonwealth government was found to have breached its fiduciary duty to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment led to the Native Title Act 1993 that established the process of asserting native rights that were held to coexist with pastoral ownership. The promulgation of the Native Title Amendment Act 1998 reversed this process and augmented the powers of non-native landlords by providing the device to extinguish native rights. In Western Australia v Ward, a mining lease was held to have precedence over native title that was adjudged to be part of a bundle of rights. In implementing the Native Title Act the issue turns on the determination of the ties to land/ sea that the government allows to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment in Harrington-Smith on behalf of the Wongatha People v Western Australia indicates that title can be excluded on procedural grounds and that there was an incompatibility between the claims of the Aboriginal peoples and the settlers’ claims. The road map towards a more effective regime of proving title can be achieved if the Aboriginal peoples are granted recognition as a nation in the Constitution and a treaty is signed with them.

  18. Enhanced microbiological safety of acidified infant formulas tested in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organisms in infant formulas after reconstitution, and comparison of the bacteriostatic effect of acidified formulas obtained through fermentation or by direct addition of lactic acid. Design. Four commercially available infant formulas were ...

  19. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Hodson, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  20. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao T Nguyen

    Full Text Available Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice

  1. Astronomical Heritage and Aboriginal People: Conflicts and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro Martín

    2016-10-01

    In this presentation we address issues relating to the astronomical heritage of contemporary aboriginal groups and other minorities. We deal specially with intangible astronomical heritage and its particularities. Also, we study (from ethnographic experience with Aboriginal groups, Creoles and Europeans in the Argentine Chaco) the conflicts referring to the different ways in which the natives' knowledge and practice are categorized by the natives themselves, by scientists, state politicians, professional artists and NGOs. Furthermore, we address several cases that illustrate these kinds of conflicts. We aim to analyze the complexities of patrimonial policies when they are applied to practices and representations of contemporary communities involved in power relations with national states and the global system. The essentialization of identities, the folklorization of representations and practices, and the fossilization of aboriginal peoples are some of the risks of applying the label ``cultural heritage'' without a careful consideration of each specific case. In particular we suggest possible ways in which the international scientific community could collaborate to improve the agenda of national states instead of reproducing colonial prejudices. In this way, we aim to contribute to the promotion of respect for ethnic and religious minorities.

  2. Australian Aboriginal Memoir and Memory: A Stolen Generations Trauma Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Seran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a re-reading of Aboriginal author Sally Morgan’s Stolen Generations narrative My Place (1987 in post-Apology Australia (2008–present. The novel tells the story of Morgan’s discovery of her maternal Aboriginal origins through the life-stories of her mother and grandmother; the object of a quest for the past that is both relational and matrilineal; incorporating elements of autobiography and as-told-to memoirs to create a form of choral autoethnography. Morgan’s text explores the intergenerational consequences of child removal in the Aboriginal context and is representative of Indigenous-authored narratives in its suggestion that the children and grand-children of victims of colonial policies and practices can work through the trauma of their ancestors. I examine the literary processes of decolonization of the Indigenous writing/written self and community; as well as strategies for individual survival and cultural survivance in the Australian settler colonial context; especially visible through the interactions between traumatic memories and literary memoirs, a genre neglected by trauma theory’s concern with narrative fragmentation and the proliferation of “themed” life-writing centered on a traumatic event. This article calls for a revision of trauma theory’s Eurocentrism through scholarly engagement with Indigenous experiences such as Morgan’s and her family in order to broaden definitions and take into account collective, historical, and inherited trauma.

  3. Childhood Cryptosporidium infection among aboriginal communities in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; ’Azlin, M Y; Fatmah, M S; Norhayati, M

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian parasite that is prevalent worldwide, some species of which cause morbidity in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The prevalence and predictors of Cryptosporidium infection, and its effect on nutritional status, have recently been explored among 276 children (141 boys and 135 girls, aged 2–15 years) in aboriginal (Orang Asli) villages in the Malaysian state of Selangor. Faecal smears were examined by the modified Ziehl–Neelsen staining technique while socio–economic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements. Cryptosporidium infection, which was detected in 7·2% of the aboriginal children, was found to be significantly associated with low birthweight (⩽2·5 kg), being part of a large household (with more than seven members) and prolonged breast feeding (>2 years). The output of a binary logistic regression confirmed that large household size was a significant predictor of Cryptosporidium infection (giving an odds ratio of 2·15, with a 95% confidence interval of 1·25–5·02). Cryptosporidium infection is clearly a public-health problem among the aboriginal children of Selangor, with person-to-person the most likely mode of transmission. PMID:21396250

  4. Racism and health among urban Aboriginal young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Racism has been identified as an important determinant of health but few studies have explored associations between racism and health outcomes for Australian Aboriginal young people in urban areas. Methods Cross sectional data from participants aged 12-26 years in Wave 1 of the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service's Young People's Project were included in hierarchical logistic regression models. Overall mental health, depression and general health were all considered as outcomes with self-reported racism as the exposure, adjusting for a range of relevant confounders. Results Racism was reported by a high proportion (52.3%) of participants in this study. Self-reported racism was significantly associated with poor overall mental health (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.25-5.70, p = 0.01) and poor general health (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.03-4.57, p = 0.04), and marginally associated with increased depression (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.97-4.09, p = 0.06) in the multivariate models. Number of worries and number of friends were both found to be effect modifiers for the association between self-reported racism and overall mental health. Getting angry at racist remarks was found to mediate the relationship between self-reported racism and general health. Conclusions This study highlights the need to acknowledge and address racism as an important determinant of health and wellbeing for Aboriginal young people in urban areas of Australia. PMID:21756369

  5. Comparison of lipases for in vitro models of gastric digestion: lipolysis using two infant formulas as model substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassene, P J; Fanø, M; Mu, H; Rades, T; Aquistapace, S; Schmitt, B; Cruz-Hernandez, C; Wooster, T J; Müllertz, A

    2016-09-14

    The aim of this study was to find a lipase suitable as a surrogate for Human Gastric Lipase (HGL), since the development of predictive gastrointestinal lipolysis models are hampered by the lack of a lipase with similar digestive properties as HGL. Three potential surrogates for HGL; Rhizopus Oryzae Lipase (ROL), Rabbit Gastric Lipase (RGL) and recombinant HGL (rHGL), were used to catalyze the in vitro digestion of two infant formulas (a medium-chain triacylglyceride enriched formula (MC-IF) and a predominantly long-chain triacylglyceride formula (LC-IF)). Digesta were withdrawn after 0, 5, 15, 30, 60 min of gastric digestion and after 90 or 180 min of intestinal digestion with or without the presence of pancreatic enzymes, respectively. The digesta were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and gas chromatography to quantify the release of fatty acids (FAs). Digestions of both formulas, catalyzed by ROL, showed that the extent of gastric digestion was higher than expected from previously published in vivo data. ROL was furthermore insensitive to FA chain length and all FAs were released at the same pace. RGL and rHGL favoured the release of MC-FAs in both formulas, but rHGL did also release some LC-FAs during digestion of MC-IF, whereas RGL only released MC-FAs. Digestion of a MC-IF by HGL in vivo showed that MC-FAs are preferentially released, but some LC-FAs are also released. Thus of the tested lipase rHGL replicated the digestive properties of HGL the best and is a suitable surrogate for HGL for use in in vitro gastrointestinal lipolysis models.

  6. Comparison of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA with cuffed and uncuffed endotracheal tubes in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyyup Sabri Ozden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare cuffed and uncuffed endotracheal tubes (ETTs with ProSealTM laryngeal mask airway (PLMA in terms of airway security and extubation, starting out from the hypothesis that PLMA will provide alternative airway safety to the endotracheal tubes, and that airway complications will be less observed. After obtaining approval from the local Ethics Committee and parental informed consent, 120 pediatric patients 1-24 months old, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II, requiring general anesthesia for elective lower abdominal surgery, were randomized into PLMA (Group P, n = 40, cuffed ETT (Group C, n = 40, and uncuffed ETT (Group UC, n = 40 groups. The number of intubation or PLMA insertion attempts was recorded. Each patient’s epigastrium was auscultated for gastric insufflation, leak volumes and air leak fractions (leak volume/inspiratory volume were recorded. Post-operative adverse events related to airway management were also followed up during the first post-operative hour. Demographic and surgical data were similar among the groups. There were significantly fewer airway manipulations in the Group P than in the other groups (p < 0.01, and leak volume and air leak fractions were greater in the Group UC than in the other two groups (p < 0.01. Laryngospasm was significantly lower in the Group P during extubation and within the first minute of post-extubation than in the other groups (p < 0.01. Based on this study, PLMA may be a good alternative to cuffed and uncuffed ETTs for airway management of infants due to the ease of manipulation and lower incidence of laryngospasm.

  7. Comparison of Initial Response of Nebulized Salbutamol and Adrenaline in Infants and young Children Admitted with Acute Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S; Thapa, P; Rao, K S; Bk, G

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute bronchiolitis is common cause of hospitalization in infants and young children. There are widespread variations in the diagnosis and management. Despite the use of bronchodilators for decades, there is lack of consensus for the benefit of one above another. Objective To compare initial response of nebulized adrenaline and salbutamol. Method Children aged two months to two years admitted with acute bronchiolitis in the department of Paediatrics of Manipal teaching hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, from 1st March 2014 to 28th February 2015 were enrolled. Patients fulfilling inclusion criteria received either adrenaline or salbutamol nebulization. Data were collected in a predesigned proforma. Respiratory distress assessment instrument (RDAI) scores were considered primary outcome measure and respiratory rate at 48 hours, duration of hospital stay, requirement of supplemental oxygen and intravenous fluid were considered secondary outcome measure. Result A total of 40 patients were enrolled in each study group. Mean RDAI scores at admission was in 9.75 with (CI- 9.01, 10.49) in adrenaline and 9.77 (CI- 9.05, 10.50) in salbutamol group. There was gradual decline in mean RDAI scores in both the groups over 48 hours to 4.15 (CI- 3.57,4.73) and 4.13 (CI- 3.69,4.56) in adrenaline and salbutamol group respectively. Hospital stay was 5.32 days in adrenaline and 5.68 days in salbutamol group. Patients nebulized with adrenaline required oxygen for 33.30 hours compared with 36.45 hours in salbutamol. Intravenous fluid duration was also less in adrenaline group compared to salbutamol group (33.15 vs 37.80 hours). Conclusion Patients of acute bronchiolitis nebulized with either salbutamol or adrenaline experienced similar decline in RDAI scores in the first 48 hours. Duration of supplementary oxygen and intravenous fluid was less in adrenaline group compared with salbutamol group.

  8. Comparison of Griffiths-II and Bayley-II tests for the developmental assessment of high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Ilaria; Bickle Graz, Myriam; Tolsa, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    Two important risk factors for abnormal neurodevelopment are preterm birth and neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The new revisions of Griffiths Mental Development Scale (Griffiths-II, [1996]) and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II, [1993]) are two of the most frequently used developmental diagnostics tests. The Griffiths-II is divided into five subscales and a global development quotient (QD), and the BSID-II is divided into two scales, the Mental scale (MDI) and the Psychomotor scale (PDI). The main objective of this research was to establish the extent to which developmental diagnoses obtained using the new revisions of these two tests are comparable for a given child. Retrospective study of 18-months-old high-risk children examined with both tests in the follow-up Unit of the Clinic of Neonatology of our tertiary care university Hospital between 2011 and 2012. To determine the concurrent validity of the two tests paired t-tests and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were computed. Using the BSID-II as a gold standard, the performance of the Griffiths-II was analyzed with receiver operating curves. 61 patients (80.3% preterm, 14.7% neonatal asphyxia) were examined. For the BSID-II the MDI mean was 96.21 (range 67-133) and the PDI mean was 87.72 (range 49-114). For the Griffiths-II, the QD mean was 96.95 (range 60-124), the locomotors subscale mean was 92.57 (range 49-119). The score of the Griffiths locomotors subscale was significantly higher than the PDI (pvalidity. All correlations were high and significant with a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient >0.8. The meaning of the results for a given child was the same for the two tests. Two scores were interchangeable, the Griffiths-II QD and the BSID-II MDI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Kingdon's Multiple Streams Model and the Window of Opportunity for Improved Aboriginal Employment and Skills Development Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bhangoo, Gurminder Singh

    2014-01-01

    A rapidly growing and relatively young Aboriginal population in Canada has renewed concerns regarding the severe poverty experienced by this community. Statistics Canada estimates the Aboriginal population in Canada could reach between 1.7 million and 2.2 million by 2031. As a nation, Canadian history offers much to celebrate and be proud of, although the mistreatment of Aboriginal peoples remains a shameful chapter. Moreover, a tenuous relation between the federal government and Aboriginal C...

  10. Infant Jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and ...

  11. weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transfused infants and the volume of blood wasted during each transfusion, and to identify from this baseline information specific categories of infants who would benefit from the introduction of a limited donor exposure programme (LDEP). Study setting. Neonatal wards and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), Tygerberg ...

  12. Sectoral system capacity development in health promotion: evaluation of an Aboriginal nutrition program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genat, Bill; Browne, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sharon; MacDonald, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Issue addressed The study examined effective ways to build the capacity of health organisations and professionals in the public health sector to reduce Aboriginal chronic disease risk factors. It investigated the capacity-building strategies of the Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (VACCHO) nutrition team in the facilitation of the statewide implementation of the Victorian Aboriginal Nutrition and Physical Activity Strategy 2009-2014 (VANPAS). Methods Using a qualitative design, the study analysed the VACCHO program from 2009-2014 across five domains of capacity development: workforce, resources, organisations, partnerships and leadership. Data were sourced from archival program documents and 62 semi-structured participant interviews. Results Diverse Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal professional, organisation representatives and community participants engaged in the implementation of the VANPAS. The VACCHO team used the VANPAS to solidify participant buy-in, strengthen workforce effectiveness, increase health promotion and resource appropriateness, improve organisational policy and build an evidence-base through collaborative dialogue using action-reflection principles. Conclusion A credible, high-profile Aboriginal community led and evidence-based statewide program and a commitment to dialogue through action-reflection provided a meaningful basis for both Aboriginal community and mainstream organisational engagement. Upon this foundation, the VACCHO team built a coherent sectoral system with increased capacity to enhance the nutrition of Aboriginal Victorians. So what? In an historical context of mistrust and unmet expectations, program implementation methods that build confidence amongst collaborating Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal health agencies is fundamental to building capacity to enhance Aboriginal nutrition and health.

  13. Beginning the trajectory to ESKD in adult life: albuminuria in Australian aboriginal children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siah; Macaskill, Petra; Hodson, Elisabeth M; Daylight, Jennifer; Williams, Rita; Kearns, Rachael; Vukasin, Nicola; Lyle, David M; Craig, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    Globally, disadvantaged populations suffer a high burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The trajectory to CKD during childhood and adolescence remains unclear due to a paucity of longitudinal studies. This was a prospective, population-based cohort study in which since 2002 we have followed 3418 children (1469 non-Aboriginal and 1949 Aboriginal) attending participating schools across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The albumin:creatinine ratio was measured by dipstick every 2 years together with the body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. We used multivariable logistic generalised estimating equation models to examine whether Aboriginal children had a higher prevalence of albuminuria compared with non-Aboriginal children with increasing age and to identify potential risk factors. The mean age at enrolment was 10.6 years, at which time 14.2 % of the children were obese and 16.0 % overweight, with 11.5 % found to have albuminuria. Over 8 years (11,387 participant-years) of follow-up the prevalence of albuminuria increased to 18.5 %, overweight to 16.1 % and obesity to 17.2 %. The BMI standard deviation score (SDS) was found to have a differential effect on the risk of albuminuria in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children (P interaction < 0.01). The prevalence of albuminuria decreased as the BMI SDS increased in both groups of children, but it increased more in non-Aboriginal children, leading to a 2.5 % higher prevalence of albuminuria in overweight Aboriginal children (95 % confidence interval 1.0-4.2 %). Compared with non-Aboriginal children, Aboriginal children are of higher risk of albuminuria when overweight or obese. We hypothesise that overweight and obesity are key contributors to the development of adult onset CKD among Aboriginal Australians, which needs further exploration in future studies.

  14. Prevalence and perceptions of overweight and obesity in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal young people in custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haysom, Leigh; Indig, Devon; Moore, Elizabeth; Hardy, Louise L; van den Dolder, Paul A

    2013-08-19

    To describe prevalence of and risk factors for overweight, obesity and self-perceived weight gain of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian young people in custody at baseline and over 12 months of follow-up. Prospective cohort study of youths in custody in New South Wales, from August 2009, with follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months. Body mass index at baseline, categorised as overweight or obese using international cut-points; waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) at baseline, categorised as increased metabolic risk (≥ 0.5) or low metabolic risk (custody. A longer incarceration time had the strongest association with overweight obesity and self-reported weight gain. From a population health and policy perspective, changes to the liberal food environment and the approach to increasing physical activity in custody are warranted.

  15. Improving immunisation timeliness in Aboriginal children through personalised calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Delayed immunisation and vaccine preventable communicable disease remains a significant health issue in Aboriginal children. Strategies to increase immunisation coverage and timeliness can be resource intensive. In a low cost initiative at the Aboriginal Medical Service Western Sydney (AMSWS) in 2008–2009, a trial of personalised calendars to prompt timely childhood immunisation was undertaken. Methods Calendars were generated during attendances for early childhood immunisations. They were designed for display in the home and included the due date of the next immunisation, a photo of the child and Aboriginal artwork. In a retrospective cohort design, Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data from AMSWS and non-AMSWS providers were used to determine the delay in immunisation and percentage of immunisations on time in those who received a calendar compared to those who did not. Interviews were undertaken with carers and staff. Results Data on 2142 immunisation doses given to 505 children were analysed, utilising pre-intervention (2005–2007) and intervention (2008–2009) periods and a 2 year post-intervention observation period. 113 calendars were distributed (30% of eligible immunisation attendances). Improvements in timeliness were seen at each schedule point for those children who received a calendar. The average delay in those who received a calendar at their previous visit was 0.6 months (95% CI -0.8 to 2.6) after the due date, compared to 3.3 months (95% CI −0.6 to 7.5) in those who did not. 80% of doses were on time in the group who received a calendar at the preceding immunisation, 66% were on time for those who received a calendar at an earlier point and 57% of doses were on time for those who did not receive a calendar (Pimmunisations and a community health education project without undue resource implications. Conclusions Personalised calendars can increase the timeliness of immunisations in Aboriginal children. This simple, low cost

  16. Improving immunisation timeliness in Aboriginal children through personalised calendars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope; Menzies, Robert; Davison, Joyce; Moore, Louise; Wang, Han

    2013-06-20

    Delayed immunisation and vaccine preventable communicable disease remains a significant health issue in Aboriginal children. Strategies to increase immunisation coverage and timeliness can be resource intensive. In a low cost initiative at the Aboriginal Medical Service Western Sydney (AMSWS) in 2008-2009, a trial of personalised calendars to prompt timely childhood immunisation was undertaken. Calendars were generated during attendances for early childhood immunisations. They were designed for display in the home and included the due date of the next immunisation, a photo of the child and Aboriginal artwork. In a retrospective cohort design, Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data from AMSWS and non-AMSWS providers were used to determine the delay in immunisation and percentage of immunisations on time in those who received a calendar compared to those who did not. Interviews were undertaken with carers and staff. Data on 2142 immunisation doses given to 505 children were analysed, utilising pre-intervention (2005-2007) and intervention (2008-2009) periods and a 2 year post-intervention observation period. 113 calendars were distributed (30% of eligible immunisation attendances). Improvements in timeliness were seen at each schedule point for those children who received a calendar. The average delay in those who received a calendar at their previous visit was 0.6 months (95% CI -0.8 to 2.6) after the due date, compared to 3.3 months (95% CI -0.6 to 7.5) in those who did not. 80% of doses were on time in the group who received a calendar at the preceding immunisation, 66% were on time for those who received a calendar at an earlier point and 57% of doses were on time for those who did not receive a calendar (Pimmunisations and a community health education project without undue resource implications. Personalised calendars can increase the timeliness of immunisations in Aboriginal children. This simple, low cost tool appears practicable and effective in an

  17. Engaging aboriginal peoples in Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The interests and concerns of Aboriginal peoples are integral to development and implementation of Canada's plans for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has an ongoing statutory obligation and a commitment to active and meaningful participation with Aboriginal peoples. The organization has worked with Aboriginal organizations and individuals to develop long-term engagement and dialogue processes that respect traditional Aboriginal practices, culture, protocols and approaches to decision-making. Aboriginal peoples were significant participants in the 2003-2005 study that resulted in the recommendation for Adaptive Phased Management (APM). After the Canadian government agreed to proceed with APM, Aboriginal peoples provided valuable input into development of the process for selecting a site for a deep geological repository (DGR) for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel. The involvement of Aboriginal stakeholders continues to be important as Canada moves into the siting process. Engagement of Aboriginal peoples is guided by principles that respond to the unique interests, perspectives and culture of Aboriginal peoples. These principles recognize and honour the special relationship that Aboriginal peoples have with the natural environment, their unique stewardship responsibilities, and the fact that Aboriginal peoples are holders of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK), which brings value to planning processes. The NWMO has been working with Aboriginal Elders and others to learn about ATK and to interweave this knowledge into its work. ATK includes important knowledge about the land, ecology and intergenerational decision-making. The NWMO and Aboriginal peoples have given life to engagement principles and the wisdom of ATK by collaboratively developing a number of programs including agreements with national, regional and local Aboriginal organizations. Additionally, the NWMO has

  18. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Durey, Angela; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar M; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-11-04

    Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians' perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers' (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs' views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006-September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. CSPs' lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients' limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient-provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people's distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff, providing appropriate cultural training for CSPs

  19. Cultural Conceptualisations in English Words: A Study of Aboriginal Children in Perth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2005-01-01

    This study explored conceptualisations that two groups of Aboriginal and Anglo-Australian students attending metropolitan schools in Western Australia instantiate through the use of English words. At the time of the study, many educators believed that both these groups of students spoke the same dialect. A group of 30 Aboriginal primary school…

  20. Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

  1. The Problem with Numbers: An Examination of the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a federally funded pre-apprenticeship training programme designed to transition aboriginal northerners living in the Canadian Arctic into trades-related employment. Drawing from interviews involving programme partners and stakeholders, the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership programme that operated in the Beaufort…

  2. Cultural barriers to health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Mount Isa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain-Rigg, Kristin E; Veitch, Craig

    2011-04-01

    Access barriers to health care for minority populations has been a feature of medical, health and social science literature for over a decade. Considerations of cultural barriers have featured in this literature, but definitions of what constitutes a cultural barrier have varied. In this paper, data from recent interviews with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Aboriginal Health Workers and other non-Indigenous health professionals in north-west Queensland assist to refine the meaning of this term and uncovered other issues disguised as 'cultural' difference. Semistructured interviews with community and health professionals. Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, Aboriginal Health Workers and other health professionals in Mount Isa between 2007 and 2009. Cultural barriers were considered differently by Aboriginal patients and health practitioners. While Aboriginal patients focused heavily on social relationships and issues of respect and trust, most practitioners seemed more focused on making Aboriginal people feel comfortable with changes to physical environments and systems, with less emphasis on creating strong interpersonal relationships. For Aboriginal patients the focus on interpersonal relationships between themselves and health practitioners is paramount. Creating comforting physical environments and systems that are easier to navigate do assist in overcoming cultural barriers, but are often seen as little more than token gestures if trusting interpersonal relationships are not formed between patient and practitioner. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  3. Can We Educate and Train Aboriginal Leaders within Our Tertiary Education Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Aboriginal leadership often results in debate. The fundamental question raised is if Australian Aboriginal people are equal members of a pluralistic society that is based on co-operation and consensuses then how can you have a leader? Consequently who determines leadership or is a leader someone that in effect is more equal than…

  4. Effective Teaching Practices for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Natalie J.; Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis; Osborne, Barry; Boon, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature pertaining to the teacher actions that influence Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander student learning outcomes. This review investigates two foci: the identification of teacher actions influencing learning outcomes for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students and the methodological…

  5. Creating Inclusive Space for Aboriginal Scholars and Scholarship in the Academy: Implications for Employment Equity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Many Canadian universities report an under-representation of Aboriginal scholars in their professoriate. Employment equity policy seeks to redress the under-representation of marginalized groups in the Canadian workforce, including Aboriginal peoples. This article presents the findings of a case study which sought to examine, from the perspective…

  6. Preservice Teachers' Learning with Yuin Country: Becoming Respectful Teachers in Aboriginal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The ownership of Aboriginal knowledge and the Aboriginal perspective presented in school curriculum is always with Country. A number of preservice teachers were taken to a sacred story, "Gulaga a Living Spiritual Mountain," to participate in an elective subject to engage in respectful reciprocal relationship with Country. The…

  7. Closing the (service) gap: exploring partnerships between Aboriginal and mainstream health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Sandra C

    2011-08-01

    Although effective partnerships between Aboriginal and mainstream health services are critical to improve Aboriginal health outcomes, many factors can cause these partnerships to be tenuous and unproductive. Understanding the elements of best practice for successful partnerships is essential. A literature review was conducted in 2009 using keyword searches of electronic databases. Sourced literature was assessed for relevance regarding the benefits, challenges, lessons learnt and factors contributing to successful Aboriginal and mainstream partnerships. Key themes were collated. Although there is much literature regarding general partnerships generally, few specifically examine Aboriginal and mainstream health service partnerships. Twenty-four sources were reviewed in detail. Benefits include broadening service capacity and improving the cultural security of healthcare. Challenges include the legacy of Australia's colonial history, different approaches to servicing clients and resource limitations. Recommendations for success include workshopping tensions early, building trust and leadership. Although successful partnerships are crucial to optimise Aboriginal health outcomes, failed collaborations risk inflaming sensitive Aboriginal-non-Aboriginal relationships. Factors supporting successful partnerships remind us to develop genuine, trusting relationships that are tangibly linked to the Aboriginal community. Failure to invest in this relational process and push forward with 'business as usual' can ultimately have negative ramifications on client outcomes.

  8. Exploring Place from an Aboriginal Perspective: Considerations for Outdoor and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowan, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a recent study about Outward Bound Canada's Giwaykiwin program for Aboriginal youth. A key finding that emerged from the study was the need to design contemporary Aboriginal education programs based on a recognition of the evolution of Indigenous cultures and languages in close relationship with specific geographical areas.…

  9. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities.

  10. Cultural mismatch and the education of Aboriginal youths: the interplay of cultural identities and teacher ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Flores, Heidi; Ponizovskiy, Vladimir; Ranney, John D; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Russo, Natalie; Burack, Jacob A

    2013-01-01

    In response to the enduring "deficit" approach to the educational attainment of Aboriginal students in North America, we hypothesized that academic underperformance is related to a cultural mismatch between Aboriginal students' cultural background, which emphasizes connectedness and interdependence, and the mainstream White model of education, which focuses on independence and assertiveness. The participants included virtually all the secondary students (N = 115) in the Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach, Quebec, Canada. We obtained self-reports of identification with Aboriginal and White culture, teacher reports of assertiveness, and official grades. We found that high identification with either Aboriginal or White culture was related to higher grades, regardless of whether the students were perceived as assertive by their teacher. Conversely, at low levels of cultural identification toward Aboriginal or White culture, being perceived as low in assertiveness by one's teacher predicted lower grades. This suggests that both high cultural identification and assertiveness can contribute to enhancing the educational outcomes of Aboriginal students, but that Aboriginal students with low levels of both cultural identification and assertiveness are at particular risk as they are mismatched with the culture of mainstream schools and do not benefit from the protective effects of identity. The relationships among identity, cultural values, and academic performance point to the need to reject the notion of an inherent deficit in education among Aboriginal youths in favor of a different framework in which success can be attained when alternative ways of being are fostered and nurtured in schools.

  11. Didgeridoo Playing and Singing to Support Asthma Management in Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don

    2010-01-01

    Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…

  12. Unfinished dreams: community healing and the reality of aboriginal self-government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warry, Wayne

    1998-01-01

    ... of community development and cultural revitalization that are essential precursors to self-government. Warry's notion of 'community healing' involves efforts to rebuild the human foundations for self-governing Aboriginal societies. The book analyses key areas such as health care and the judicial and political systems where Aboriginal peoples ...

  13. Effective Nutrition Education for Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from a Diabetes Cooking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce E.; Moore, Louise F.; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…

  14. Perspectives on childhood resilience among the Aboriginal community: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christian; Tong, Allison; Nixon, Janice; Fernando, Peter; Kalucy, Deanna; Sherriff, Simone; Clapham, Kathleen; Craig, Jonathan C; Williamson, Anna

    2017-08-01

    To describe Aboriginal community members' perspectives on the outcomes and origins of resilience among Aboriginal children. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 36 Aboriginal adults (15 health service professionals, 8 youth workers and 13 community members) at two urban and one regional Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in New South Wales. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. We identified six themes: withstanding risk (displaying normative development, possessing inner fortitude); adapting to adversity (necessary endurance, masking inner vulnerabilities); positive social influences (secure family environments, role modelling healthy behaviours and relationships); instilling cultural identity (investing in Aboriginal knowledge, building a strong cultural self-concept); community safeguards (offering strategic sustainable services, holistic support, shared responsibility, providing enriching opportunities); and personal empowerment (awareness of positive pathways, developing self-respect, fostering positive decision making). Community members believed that resilient Aboriginal children possessed knowledge and self-belief that encouraged positive decision making despite challenging circumstances. A strong sense of cultural identity and safe, stable and supportive family environments were thought to promote resilient behaviours. Implications for public health: Many Aboriginal children continue to face significant adversity. More sustainable, Aboriginal-led programs are needed to augment positive family dynamics, identify at-risk children and provide safeguards during periods of familial adversity. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  16. Enhancing the get healthy information and coaching service for Aboriginal adults: evaluation of the process and impact of the program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, E; O'Hara, B J; Ahmed, N; Winch, S; McGill, B; Banovic, D; Maxwell, M; Rissel, C

    2017-09-06

    Non-communicable chronic diseases in Australia contribute to approximately 85% of the total burden of disease; this proportion is greater for Aboriginal communities. The Get Healthy Service (GHS) is effective at reducing lifestyle-based chronic disease risk factors among adults and was enhanced to facilitate accessibility and ensure Aboriginal cultural appropriateness. The purpose of this study is to detail how formative research with Aboriginal communities was applied to guide the development and refinement of the GHS and referral pathways; and to assess the reach and impact of the GHS (and the Aboriginal specific program) on the lifestyle risk factors of Aboriginal participants. Formative research included interviews with Aboriginal participants, leaders and community members, healthcare professionals and service providers to examine acceptability of the GHS; and contributed to the redesign of the GHS Aboriginal program. A quantitative analysis employing a pre-post evaluation design examined anthropometric measures, physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption of Aboriginal participants using descriptive and chi square analyses, t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Whilst feedback from the formative research was positive, Aboriginal people identified areas for service enhancement, including improving program content, delivery and service promotion as well as ensuring culturally appropriate referral pathways. Once these changes were implemented, the proportion of Aboriginal participants increased significantly (3.2 to 6.4%). There were significant improvements across a number of risk factors assessed after six months (average weight loss: 3.3 kg and waist circumference reduction: 6.2 cm) for Aboriginal participants completing the program. Working in partnership with Aboriginal people, Elders, communities and peak bodies to enhance the GHS for Aboriginal people resulted in an enhanced culturally acceptable and tailored program which significantly

  17. Aboriginal Homelessness: A Framework for Best Practice in the Context of Structural Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly D. Oelke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness among Indigenous peoples is an important issue in Canada and internationally. Research was conducted in seven metropolitan areas in the four western provinces of Canada to explore current services with the aim of developing a best practices framework to end homelessness for Aboriginal peoples. Sequential mixed methods were used. Key results found agreement that Aboriginal peoples were overrepresented among the homeless and policy determined the approach to and comprehensiveness of services provided. Funding, lack of time, and lack of resources were highlighted as issues. Gaps identified included a lack of partnership, cross-cultural collaboration, cultural safety, and evaluation and research in service provision. Best practices included ensuring cultural safety, fostering partnerships among agencies, implementing Aboriginal governance, ensuring adequate and sustainable funding, equitable employment of Aboriginal staff, incorporating cultural reconnection, and undertaking research and evaluation to guide policy and practices related to homelessness among Aboriginal peoples.

  18. How can GPs drive software changes to improve healthcare for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders peoples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Changes to the software used in general practice could improve the collection of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status of all patients, and boost access to healthcare measures specifically for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples provided directly or indirectly by general practitioners (GPs). Despite longstanding calls for improvements to general practice software to better support Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health, little change has been made. The aim of this article is to promote software improvements by identifying desirable software attributes and encouraging GPs to promote their adoption. Establishing strong links between collecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, clinical decision supports, and uptake of GP-mediated health measures specifically for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples - and embedding these links in GP software - is a long overdue reform. In the absence of government initiatives in this area, GPs are best placed to advocate for software changes, using the model described here as a starting point for action.

  19. Health Care and Aboriginal Seniors in Urban Canada: Helping a Neglected Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loleen Berdahl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Canadian researchers and policymakers have paid limited attention to the health care needs of Aboriginal seniors. This lack of attention is problematic, as the situation of Aboriginal seniors – including both status and non-status First Nations, Métis and Inuit – is particularly bleak. Using Winnipeg, Regina and Saskatoon as examples, this paper analyses the health care challenges facing Aboriginal seniors in urban Canada. We ask, what policy approaches are needed to improve the health and wellbeing of urban Aboriginal seniors so that they can have good quality living reflective of their needs and culture? We suggest that, in thinking throughpresent and future health services for urban Aboriginal seniors, policymakers should consider four key factors: socioeconomic conditions; underutilization of urban health services; jurisdiction; and elder abuse.

  20. Comparisons of mortality and pre-discharge respiratory outcomes in small-for-gestational-age and appropriate-for-gestational-age premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Puneet; McKay, Kathleen; Rosenkrantz, Ted S; Hussain, Naveed

    2004-06-08

    There are differences in the literature regarding outcomes of premature small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate-for gestational-age (AGA) infants, possibly due to failure to take into account gestational age at birth. To compare mortality and respiratory morbidity of SGA and AGA premature newborn infants. A retrospective study was done of the 2,487 infants born without congenital anomalies at Hospital, between Jan. 1992 and Dec. 1999. Recent (1994-96) U.S. birth weight percentiles for gestational age (GA), race and gender were used to classify neonates as SGA ( 32 wk (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.27 - 0.63; p hospital stay was significantly higher in SGA infants born between 26-36 wks GA than AGA infants. Premature SGA infants have significantly higher mortality, significantly higher risk of developing chronic lung disease and longer hospital stay as compared to premature AGA infants. Even the reduced risk of RDS in infants born at >/=32 wk GA, (conferred possibly by intra-uterine stress leading to accelerated lung maturation) appears to be of transient effect and is counterbalanced by adverse effects of poor intrauterine growth on long term pulmonary outcomes such as chronic lung disease.

  1. A comparison of the efficacy of weight-shift vs. joystick control of a robotic mobility device by infants ages 5 to 10 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Sharon; Dennis, Carole; Altman, Rachel; Smith, Janelle; Larin, Hélène

    2017-02-02

    The onset of crawling in infants contributes to cognitive, perceptual, social, and emotional development. Conversely, infants with motor impairment that delays or prevents autonomous mobility often have associated developmental delays. Evidence suggests that providing mobility may have positive developmental outcomes, however powered wheelchairs may not be recommended for very young children, due to safety concerns and the child's level of cognitive maturity. The WeeBot is a mobility device controlled by infant weight shifting while seated; infants as young as 5 months have learned to use it. This study compares the efficacy of using the WeeBot vs. using the traditional manual joystick to control a robotic mobility device. Participants were 20 typically developing infants between 5 and 10 months who had not yet achieved independent mobility. A quasi-experimental two-group design was used: The first 10 participants recruited used the WeeBot (weight-shift); the next 10 used the joystick. Results showed that infants learned to use weight-shift control more easily and more skilfully than did infants using the joystick. The ability of infants to use the WeeBot suggests that an intuitive alternative control might allow very early powered mobility for children with disabilities, which might have implications for various aspects of their development.

  2. Comparison of the Effect of Plastic Cover and Blanket on Body Temperature of Preterm Infants Hospitalized in NICU: Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Leila; Mahallei, Majid; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Peyghami, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    Introduction: Preterm infants are unable to regulate their body temperature and there are insufficient research evidences on different kinds of covers for hospitalized preterm infants; therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of comparing the effects of plastic and blanket covers on the body temperature of preterm infants under radiant warmer. Methods: This randomized cross-over clinical trial was carried out upon 80 infants with the gestational age of 28-30 weeks and birth weight of 800- 1250 gr who were in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit on the second day of their hospitalization. The study lasted for two days. In group 1, the plastic cover was used during the first day of the study while the blankets were used during the second day. Infants' heads were kept out of the cover and coated with a hat. In group 2, the plastic cover was used during the first day of the study while the blanket was used during second day. Digital thermometer was used to measure infants' axillary temperature. The data was analyzed using SPSS ver 13 and MiniTab software. Descriptive statistics, (Mean (SE), 95%CI) and inferential statistics (Repeated measurement and ANCOVA tests) were used. Results: The mean body temperature of the infants in the group covered with the plastic was calculated to be higher and the warmer was set on low temperature. Conclusion: Using plastic cover during the first few days of hospitalization in NICU resulted in regulation of preterm infants' body temperature.

  3. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Results Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. Conclusions The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women

  4. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passey Megan E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Results Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. Conclusions The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation

  5. Hyperglycemia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007228.htm Hyperglycemia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperglycemia is abnormally high blood sugar. The medical term ...

  6. Neutropenia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007230.htm Neutropenia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood ...

  7. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course ...

  8. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and strollers. Never leave an infant in a mesh playpen with one side down. Follow the guidelines ... S875. PMID: 20956229 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20956229 . Easter JS, Scott HF. Pediatric resuscitation. In: ...

  9. Maternal anxiety and satisfaction following infant hearing screening: a comparison of the health visitor distraction test and newborn hearing screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel; Baker, Holly; Uus, Kai; Bamford, John; Marteau, Theresa M

    2005-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening is currently replacing the health visitor distraction test (HVDT) conducted at eight months. Our previous research indicates that recall for further tests following newborn hearing screening can have a negative impact on the emotional well being of mothers, but it is not known if this is greater than that caused by recall following the distraction test. To compare the impact on maternal anxiety and satisfaction of recall following newborn hearing screening and the HVDT. Four groups participated: 27 mothers of babies receiving a satisfactory result and 21 mothers of babies recalled after the HVDT 26 mothers of babies receiving a satisfactory result and 16 mothers of babies recalled after newborn hearing screening. Questionnaires assessing maternal anxiety, worry and certainty about the babies' hearing, satisfaction with and attitudes towards the screening test were sent to mothers three weeks and six months following screening. Comparison of the effects of receipt of different results showed no significant differences in maternal anxiety, worry and certainty between the two tests. Those mothers whose babies had a newborn hearing screening test were significantly more satisfied, regardless of the result received. Those who received a satisfactory result on the newborn hearing screening programme also had more positive attitudes towards that screening test than those receiving a satisfactory result following the HVDT. These results suggest that newborn hearing screening does not have a more negative emotional impact than the HVDT.

  10. Possible Association of High Urinary Magnesium and Taurine to Creatinine Ratios with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Reduction in Australian Aboriginals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsumi Hamada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16–79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02–0.57; P<.05. The significant inverse associations of fat intake with Mg/cre and of fast food intake with urinary taurine/creatinine ratio were revealed. Conclusions. The high prevalence of obesity in the Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine.

  11. Faculty analysis of distributed medical education in Northern Canadian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Geoffrey L; Maar, Marion

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) in Canada implemented the world's first and (still) only mandatory Aboriginal community placement for all its medical students. The Aboriginal placement was created in part to address social accountability, defined as the obligation of medical schools to direct education, research and service activities towards addressing the priority health concerns of the community they serve. Concurrently, Aboriginal health policies have increasingly emphasized the need to involve Aboriginal people in healthcare planning and design health care that involves Aboriginal concepts of health and culturally safe care. Aboriginal delegates provided recommendations for the development of an Aboriginal health curriculum, which included the need for the medical school to acknowledge and respect Aboriginal history, health priorities and develop an Aboriginal community placement for all medical students. To anticipate the challenges (e.g., distance, communication, technologies, student and cultural safety, pedagogical effectiveness/appropriateness) presented by a mandatory placement for first-year students in Aboriginal communities a pilot placement project was designed. The locations of the communities were carefully selected in order to assess a variety of challenges that might be encountered with rural and remote Aboriginal community placements. Pilot lessons included managing student expectations, which leaned towards a clinical rather than a community-based cultural placement focus. Areas for increased coordination and administrative support were identified, as well as the need for more extensive community level support. The students had an overall positive experience and learned about the realities of health care in the communities. Aboriginal community staff commented that the experience with the students was fulfilling and beneficial. It was also recognized that curriculum delivery methods required major adjustments and that the

  12. [Breast feeding rates and factors influencing breast feeding practice in late preterm infants: comparison with preterm born at less than 34 weeks of gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gun Ja; Lee, Sang Lak; Kim, Hyeon Mi

    2012-04-01

    This study was done to compare breast feeding rates and factors influencing feeding practice between late preterm (34 ≤ GA intensive care units (NICU) of 4 university hospitals in D city. Data were collected from July 2009 to June 2010 from 324 medical records in the NICU. Breast-feeding at home was checked either by telephone survey or questioning during hospital visits. Rate of breast feeding for late preterm infants was significantly lower than for preterm infants. There was no significant difference in breast-feeding at home. We found differences in factors influencing breast feeding between the two groups. Factors influencing feeding for late preterm infants were type of delivery, mothers' occupation, feeding type during hospitalization, time elapse from hospital discharge, total admission days, infant's body weight at first feeding and length of NPO (nothing by mouth). Factors influencing feeding for preterm infants were birth order, maternal disease and obstetric complications, and one-minute Apgar score. Results of the study show low rates of breast-feeding for late preterm infants indicating a need for breast-feeding education for mothers of these infants.

  13. How can we make international comparisons of infant mortality in high income countries based on aggregate data more relevant to policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylbersztejn, Ania; Gilbert, Ruth; Hjern, Anders; Hardelid, Pia

    2017-12-19

    Infant mortality rates are commonly used to compare the health of populations. Observed differences are often attributed to variation in child health care quality. However, any differences are at least partly explained by variation in the prevalence of risk factors at birth, such as low birth weight. This distinction is important for designing interventions to reduce infant mortality. We suggest a simple method for decomposing inter-country differences in crude infant mortality rates into two metrics representing risk factors operating before and after birth. We used data from 7 European countries participating in the EURO-PERISTAT project in 2010. We calculated crude and birth weight-standardised stillbirth and infant mortality rates using Norway as the standard population. We decomposed between-country differences in crude stillbirth and infant mortality rates into the within-country difference in crude and birth weight-standardised stillbirth and infant mortality rates (metric 1), reflecting prenatal risk factors, and the between-country difference in birth weight-standardised stillbirth and infant mortality rates (metric 2), reflecting risk factors operating after birth. We also calculated birth weight-specific mortality. Using our metrics, we showed that for England, Wales and Scotland risk factors before and after birth contributed equally to the differences in crude stillbirth and infant mortality rates relative to Norway. In Austria, Czech Republic and Switzerland the differences were driven primarily by metric 1, reflecting high rate of low birth weight. The highest values of metric 2 observed in Poland partially reflected high rates of congenital anomalies. Our suggested metrics can be used to guide policy decisions on preventing infant deaths through reducing risk factors at birth or improving the care of babies after birth. Aggregate data tabulated by birth weight/gestational age should be routinely collected and published in high-income countries where

  14. Ways of knowing about health: an aboriginal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, C L

    1997-03-01

    Because of the questionable applicability to extant health promotion models and middle-range theories to aboriginal peoples, foundational inquiries examining the nature of cultural beliefs and ways of knowing about health within the cultures of various ethnic groups are imperative. This article describes the ways of knowing about health reported by Ojibwe people during an ethnographic inquiry in the Great Lakes region. These ways included stories from the oral tradition, authoritative knowledge of elders, "commonsense" models of illness and health, spiritual knowledge, and knowing oneself. The health-world view, a conceptual orientation for investigating health beliefs, is offered.

  15. [Communicative competence and physician - patient relationship in aboriginal health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniewicz, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Modern society consists of people from all walks of life. This melting pot of cultures might be considered both enriching and problematic. In order to communicate successfully, society members should acquire some social skills specific to a given community or, in other words, develop their communicative competence. The aim of this paper is to examine the way extralinguistic knowledge can influence physician - patient relationship in Aboriginal Australian communities. The paper is concerned with not only reviewing fundamental principles of ethnography and communicative competence but also identifying the main cultural differences that may affect the quality of healthcare services.

  16. Participatory action research: lessons learned with Aboriginal grandmothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, G; Green, K L

    2001-01-01

    Participatory action research is evolving as both a research methodology and an intervention for health promotion. Here we describe its use in conducting a health assessment as part of a larger project for older Aboriginal women (hereafter known as the grandmothers). The overall purpose of the project was to study the women's health needs and respond through health promotion programming. The experience of using participatory action research revealed a number of lessons, including challenges and points of tension, and determinants and indicators of success. The research team identified some implications for consideration by others interested in participatory action research.

  17. Songlines and navigation in Wardaman and other Australian Aboriginal cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Harney, Bill Yidumdum

    2014-07-01

    We discuss the songlines and navigation of the Wardaman people, and place them in context by comparing them with corresponding practices in other Aboriginal Australian language groups, using previously-unpublished information and also information drawn from the literature. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, enabling the transmission of oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. In many cases, songlines on the Earth are mirrored by songlines in the sky, enabling the sky to be used as a navigational tool, both by using it as a compass and by using it as a mnemonic.

  18. Infant feeding among HIV-positive mothers and the general population mothers: comparison of two cross-sectional surveys in Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tylleskär Thorkild

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers differ from recommendations to mothers of unknown HIV-status. The aim of this study was to compare feeding practices, including breastfeeding, between infants and young children of HIV-positive mothers and infants of mothers in the general population of Uganda. Methods This study compares two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2005 in Eastern Uganda using analogous questionnaires. The first survey consisted of 727 randomly selected general-population mother-infant pairs with unknown HIV status. The second included 235 HIV-positive mothers affiliated to The Aids Support Organisation, TASO. In this article we compare early feeding practices, breastfeeding duration, feeding patterns with dietary information and socio-economic differences in the two groups of mothers. Results Pre-lacteal feeding was given to 150 (64% infants of the HIV-positive mothers and 414 (57% infants of general-population mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding of infants under the age of 6 months was more common in the general population than among the HIV-positive mothers (186 [45%] vs. 9 [24%] respectively according to 24-hour recall. Mixed feeding was the most common practice in both groups of mothers. Solid foods were introduced to more than half of the infants under 6 months old among the HIV-positive mothers and a quarter of the infants in the general population. Among the HIV-positive mothers with infants below 12 months of age, 24 of 90 (27% had stopped breastfeeding, in contrast to 9 of 727 (1% in the general population. The HIV-positive mothers were poorer and had less education than the general-population mothers. Conclusion In many respects, HIV-positive mothers fed their infants less favourably than mothers in the general population, with potentially detrimental effects on both the child's nutrition and the risk of HIV transmission. Mixed feeding and pre

  19. Chemical and biological characterisation of solvent extracts and essential oils from leaves and fruit of two Australian species of Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae) used in aboriginal medicinal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2013-02-13

    Although no known medicinal use for Pittosporum undulatum Vent. (Pittosporaceae) has been recorded, anecdotal evidence suggests that Australian Aboriginal people used Pittosporum angustifolium Lodd., G. Lodd. & W. Lodd. topically for eczema, pruritis or to induce lactation in mothers following child-birth and internally for coughs, colds or cramps. Essential oil composition and bioactivity as well as differential solvent extract antimicrobial activity from Pittosporum angustifolium are investigated here first, to partially describe the composition of volatiles released in traditional applications of Pittosporum angustifolium for colds or as a lactagogue, and second to investigate antibacterial activity related to topical applications. Essential oils were also investigated from Pittosporum undulatum Vent., first to enhance essential oil data produced in previous studies, and second as a comparison to Pittosporum angustifolium. Essential oils were hydrodistilled from fruit and leaves of both species using a modified approach to lessen the negative (frothing) effect of saponins. This was achieved by floating pumice or pearlite obsidian over the mixture to crush the suds formed while boiling. Essential oil extracts were analysed using GC-MS, quantified using GC-FID then screened for antimicrobial activity using a micro-titre plate broth dilution assay (MIC). Using dichloromethane, methanol, hexane and H(2)O as solvents, extracts were produced from leaves and fruit of Pittosporum angustifolium and screened for antimicrobial activity and qualitative phytochemical character. Although the essential oil from leaves and fruit of Pittosporum undulatum demonstrated some component variation, the essential oil from fruits of Pittosporum angustifolium had major constituents that strongly varied according to the geographical location of collection, suggesting the existence of at least two chemotypes; one with high abundance of acetic acid decyl ester. This chemotype had high

  20. Not just bricks and mortar: planning hospital cancer services for Aboriginal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durey Angela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals. Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Findings Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v connection to the community. Conclusions Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes.

  1. Traditional Education of Aboriginal People in Canada: Principles, Methods and Characteristic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapotichna Maria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the period of traditional education of aboriginal people in Canada in precolonial times has been presented. The main objectives have been defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; characteristic of theoretical framework in understanding the concept of traditional aboriginal pedagogy and main principles underlying the education of younger generations of the indigenous people in Canada. The major components of teaching methods (practical, visual and oral have been specified. Practical, visual and oral methods of imparting knowledge have been discussed and peculiarities of the traditional education of native population in Canada in precolonial period have been identified. The problem of traditional education of aboriginal people in Canada has been studied by scientists: aboriginal education (M. Battiste, J. Henderson, J. Lambe; development of aboriginal education (J. Friesen, V. Friesen, J. Miller, E. Neegan; tertiary education of aboriginal people (V. Kirkness; traditional education of aboriginal people (L. McGregor. The research methodology comprises theoretical methods (comparative-historical method; logical and comparative methods; methods of induction and deduction, synthesis and analysis.

  2. Is Aboriginal nutrition a priority for local government? A policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helson, Catherine; Walker, Ruth; Palermo, Claire; Rounsefell, Kim; Aron, Yudit; MacDonald, Catherine; Atkinson, Petah; Browne, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to explore how Australian local governments prioritise the health and well-being of Aboriginal populations and the extent to which nutrition is addressed by local government health policy. In the state of Victoria, Australia, all seventy-nine local governments' public health policy documents were retrieved. Inclusion of Aboriginal health and nutrition in policy documents was analysed using quantitative content analysis. Representation of Aboriginal nutrition 'problems' and 'solutions' was examined using qualitative framing analysis. The socio-ecological framework was used to classify the types of Aboriginal nutrition issues and strategies within policy documents. Victoria, Australia. Local governments' public health policy documents (n 79). A small proportion (14 %, n 11) of local governments addressed Aboriginal health and well-being in terms of nutrition. Where strategies aimed at nutrition existed, they mostly focused on individual factors rather than the broader macroenvironment. A limited number of Victorian local governments address nutrition as a health issue for their Aboriginal populations in policy documents. Nutrition needs to be addressed as a community and social responsibility rather than merely an individual 'behaviour'. Partnerships are required to ensure Aboriginal people lead government policy development.

  3. Challenges to driver licensing participation for Aboriginal people in Australia: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Patricia; Clapham, Kathleen; Hunter, Kate; Treacy, Rebekah; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-08-31

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are overrepresented in transport-related morbidity and mortality. Low rates of licensure in Aboriginal communities and households have been identified as a contributor to high rates of unlicensed driving. There is increasing recognition that Aboriginal people experience challenges and adversity in attaining a licence. This systematic review aims to identify the barriers to licence participation among Aboriginal people in Australia. A systematic search of electronic databases and purposive sampling of grey literature was conducted, two authors independently assessed publications for eligibility for inclusion. Twelve publications were included in this review, of which there were 11 reporting primary research (qualitative and mixed methods) and a practitioner report. Barriers identified were categorised as individual and family barriers or systemic barriers relating to the justice system, graduated driver licensing (GDL) and service provision. A model is presented that depicts the barriers within a cycle of licensing adversity. There is an endemic lack of licensing access for Aboriginal people that relates to financial hardship, unmet cultural needs and an inequitable system. This review recommends targeting change at the systemic level, including a review of proof of identification and fines enforcement policy, diversionary programs and increased provision for people experiencing financial hardship. This review positions licensing within the context of barriers to social inclusion that Aboriginal people frequently encounter. Equitable access to licensing urgently requires policy reform and service provision that is inclusive, responsive to the cultural needs of Aboriginal people and accessible to regional and remote communities.

  4. Developing leaflets to give dental health advice to Aboriginal families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkhorn, Fiona; Wallace, Janet; Smith, Leanne; Blinkhorn, Anthony S

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries (decay) is a serious problem for young Aboriginal children, causing pain and stress. Treatment often involves extraction of teeth under a general anaesthetic. However, dental caries can be prevented by reducing the frequency of sugar consumption and brushing teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste. Such straightforward advice could be given to families by Aboriginal Health Workers who are trusted by their communities and have an existing advisory role. This paper reports on the development of dental health advice leaflets for use in Aboriginal communities. An Aboriginal reference panel was recruited to comment on dental health advice leaflets prepared by an Aboriginal graphic designer. The panel was asked to consider the design, cultural appropriateness and practicality of the leaflets. Comments were collected through email and face-to-face discussions, which were collated and the leaflets altered accordingly. The advice from the panel resulted in greater use of pictures. For example large green ticks and red crosses highlighted healthy and unhealthy behaviours, respectively. The tooth brushing leaflet was amended to emphasise the safe storage of toothpaste in order to keep it out of reach of young children. The panel stated that all leaflets should incorporate the Aboriginal flag, and proposed that fridge magnets might be beneficial as all family members would benefit from seeing the messages every day. The consultation process refined dental advice leaflets to reflect the views of an Aboriginal Reference Panel, in terms of design, cultural competence and practicality. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Not just bricks and mortar: planning hospital cancer services for Aboriginal people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sandra C; Shahid, Shaouli; Bessarab, Dawn; Durey, Angela; Davidson, Patricia M

    2011-03-14

    Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals.Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i) being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii) failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii) practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv) the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v) connection to the community. Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes.

  6. Reflecting the Lives of Aboriginal Women in Canadian Public Library Collection Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests some, but not all, the core titles needed for developing a public library collection that would reflect the diversity and complexity of the lives of Aboriginal women in Canada. The titles include major authors, essential titles, journals, magazines, indexes, databases, reference books, websites, film, music, and spoken word as well as some recommended collection sources. The works reveal an emerging literature and cultural production for, by, and about Aboriginal women that steers away from pathologizing their lives as discussed in the l998 Status of Women in Canada report Aboriginal Women in Canada: Strategic Research Directions for Policy Development. Library customers who are seeking a better understanding of the lives of Aboriginal women in Canada, or Aboriginal women who are seeking materials that reflect the strengths, challenges, reality, and dreams of their lives, should be able to expect a core collection in the public libraries of the communities in which they live. This paper will outline some of the arguments for developing a core collection of work for, and about, Aboriginal women in Canada, and will suggest some criteria and selection sources critical for this collection. For this paper, Aboriginal women in Canada include women who identify themselves as First Nation, Inuit and Metis.

  7. Low uptake of Aboriginal interpreters in healthcare: exploration of current use in Australia's Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Anna P; Lowell, Anne; Murphy, Jean; Dias, Tara; Butler, Deborah; Spain, Brian; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Campbell, Lauren; Bauert, Barbara; Salter, Claire; Tune, Kylie; Cass, Alan

    2017-11-15

    In Australia's Northern Territory, most Aboriginal people primarily speak an Aboriginal language. Poor communication between healthcare providers and Aboriginal people results in adverse outcomes including death. This study aimed to identify remediable barriers to utilisation of Aboriginal Interpreter services at the Northern Territory's tertiary hospital, which currently manages over 25,000 Aboriginal inpatients annually. This is a multi-method study using key stakeholder discussions, medical file audit, bookings data from the Aboriginal Interpreter Service 2000-2015 and an online cross-sectional staff survey. The Donabedian framework was used to categorise findings into structure, process and outcome. Six key stakeholder meetings each with approximately 15 participants were conducted. A key structural barrier identified was lack of onsite interpreters. Interpreter bookings data revealed that only 7603 requests were made during the 15-year period, with completion of requests decreasing from 337/362 (93.1%) in 2003-4 to 649/831 (78.1%) in 2014-15 (p < 0.001). Non-completion was more common for minority languages (p < 0.001). Medical files of 103 Aboriginal inpatients were audited. Language was documented for 13/103 (12.6%). Up to 60/103 (58.3%) spoke an Aboriginal language primarily. Of 422 staff who participated in the survey, 18.0% had not received 'cultural competency' training; of those who did, 58/222 (26.2%) indicated it was insufficient. The Aboriginal Interpreter Service effectiveness was reported to be good by 209/368 (56.8%), but only 101/367 (27.5%) found it timely. Key process barriers identified by staff included booking complexities, time constraints, inadequate delivery of tools and training, and greater convenience of unofficial interpreters. We identified multiple structural and process barriers resulting in the outcomes of poor language documentation and low rates of interpreter bookings. Findings are now informing interventions to improve

  8. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods: A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion: Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion: Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services

  9. Confronting the Growing Crisis of Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Health Among Aboriginal Peoples in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Although the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been decreasing worldwide, Aboriginal populations of Canada (including First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Peoples) continue to experience a rapidly growing burden of CVD morbidity and mortality. This article provides a succinct summary of the current crisis of CVD among Canadian Aboriginal peoples, including how and why it originated, elucidates the underlying population health risks driving higher rates of aboriginal CVD, and articulates the urgent need for community-engagement solutions and innovations in the areas of prevention, treatment and care, rehabilitation services, aboriginal-specific CVD surveillance, and advanced knowledge. In the past, particularly in rural and remote communities, Aboriginal Peoples' survival depended (and often still does) on hunting, fishing, and other forms of traditional food-gathering. However, the traditional life is being changed for many Aboriginal communities, resulting in significantly impaired dietary options and the undermining of a long-established way of life that was healthy and physically active. Reclaiming CVD health and well-being requires replacement of the calorie-dense and nutritionally inadequate diets of highly processed store-bought foods with fresh and nutritionally balanced diets and addressing the physically inactive lifestyles that together have contributed to an increase in CVD prevalence. Furthermore, disparities exist for hospital-based treatment experiences for patients from areas with high proportions of Aboriginal Peoples vs those with low proportions of Aboriginal Peoples. It is crucial to investigate and develop concrete plans to reduce the burden of CVDs among Aboriginal Peoples by improved prevention and treatment in a community-centred way. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparisons of mortality and pre-discharge respiratory outcomes in small-for-gestational-age and appropriate-for-gestational-age premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Puneet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are differences in the literature regarding outcomes of premature small-for-gestational-age (SGA and appropriate-for gestational-age (AGA infants, possibly due to failure to take into account gestational age at birth. Objective To compare mortality and respiratory morbidity of SGA and AGA premature newborn infants. Design/Methods A retrospective study was done of the 2,487 infants born without congenital anomalies at ≤36 weeks of gestation and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU at John Dempsey Hospital, between Jan. 1992 and Dec. 1999. Recent (1994–96 U.S. birth weight percentiles for gestational age (GA, race and gender were used to classify neonates as SGA (th–90th percentile for GA. Using multivariate logistic regression and survival analyses to control for GA, SGA and AGA infants were compared for mortality and respiratory morbidity. Results Controlling for GA, premature SGA infants were at a higher risk for mortality (Odds ratio 3.1, P = 0.001 and at lower risk of respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 0.71, p = 0.02 than AGA infants. However multivariate logistic regression modeling found that the odds of having respiratory distress syndrome (RDS varied between SGA and AGA infants by GA. There was no change in RDS risk in SGA infants at GA ≤ 32 wk (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.32 – 1.98 but significantly decreased risk for RDS at GA > 32 wk (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.27 – 0.63; p Conclusions Premature SGA infants have significantly higher mortality, significantly higher risk of developing chronic lung disease and longer hospital stay as compared to premature AGA infants. Even the reduced risk of RDS in infants born at ≥32 wk GA, (conferred possibly by intra-uterine stress leading to accelerated lung maturation appears to be of transient effect and is counterbalanced by adverse effects of poor intrauterine growth on long term pulmonary outcomes such as chronic lung disease.

  11. Use of cannabis during pregnancy and birth outcomes in an Aboriginal birth cohort: a cross-sectional, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephanie J; Mensah, Fiona K; Ah Kit, Jackie; Stuart-Butler, Deanna; Glover, Karen; Leane, Cathy; Weetra, Donna; Gartland, Deirdre; Newbury, Jonathan; Yelland, Jane

    2016-02-23

    Indigenous women continue to experience rates of stillbirth, preterm birth and low birth weight, two to three times higher than other women in high-income countries. The reasons for disparities are complex and multifactorial. We aimed to assess the extent to which adverse birth outcomes are associated with maternal cannabis use and exposure to stressful events and social health issues during pregnancy. Cross-sectional, population-based survey of women giving birth to Aboriginal babies in South Australia, July 2011-June 2013. Data include: maternal cannabis use, exposure to stressful events/social health issues, infant birth weight and gestation. 344 eligible women with a mean age of 25 years (range 15-43 years), enrolled in the study. Participants were representative in relation to maternal age, infant birth weight and gestation. 1 in 5 women (20.5%) used cannabis during pregnancy, and 52% smoked cigarettes. Compared with mothers not using cannabis or cigarettes, mothers using cannabis had babies on average 565 g lighter (95% CI -762 to -367), and were more likely to have infants with a low birth weight (OR=6.5, 95% CI 3.0 to 14.3), and small for gestational age (OR=3.8, 95% CI 1.9 to 7.6). Controlling for education and other social characteristics, including stressful events/social health issues did not alter the conclusion that mothers using cannabis experience a higher risk of negative birth outcomes (adjusted OR for odds of low birth weight 3.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 11.2). The findings provide a compelling case for stronger efforts to address the clustering of risk for adverse outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, and point to the need for antenatal care to address broader social determinants of adverse perinatal outcomes. Integrated responses--collaboratively developed with Aboriginal communities and organisations--that focus on constellations of risk factors, and a holistic approach to addressing social determinants of adverse birth outcomes

  12. Changes in body burden of mercury, lead, arsenic, cadmium and selenium in infants during early lactation in comparison with placental transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Chan, Hing Man; Domingo, José L; Kubota, Machi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2012-10-01

    The developing brains of both fetuses and infants are susceptible to environmental contaminants. However, the contribution of breast-feeding to the element body burden in infants remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to investigate the changes in body burden of elements such as methylmercury, lead, arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in infants during a 3-month breast-feeding period compared with placental transfer of the elements. Element concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord (fetus) red blood cells (RBCs) at parturition and in infant RBCs at 3 months. Most of the mercury in RBCs is in the methyl form, and the total mercury concentration in RBCs reflects methylmercury exposure. The mercury level in cord RBCs was approximately 1.5 times higher than that in mothers, while in infants, it declined by approximately 60% after 3-months' breast-feeding. The cord selenium level was similar to the maternal level, but declined approximately 75% after 3-months' breast-feeding in infants. Lead and arsenic concentrations in cord RBCs were about 60% of the maternal levels, and remained constant until the 3-month study period. The cadmium level in cord RBCs was about 20% of that in maternal RBCs, and remained almost constant until the end of the 3-month study period. In conclusion, although pregnant women should pay attention to avoid high methylmercury exposure, element exposure through breast-feeding does not pose any great concern in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of the performance of healthy Australian 3-year-olds with the standardised norms of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (version-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinta, Shriniwas; Walker, Karen; Halliday, Robert; Loughran-Fowlds, Alison; Badawi, Nadia

    2014-07-01

    Standardised developmental tests are now widely used in neurodevelopmental assessments of infants and children. In 2006, the revised and updated version of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (version III) replaced the previous version and is now widely used in neonatal developmental follow-up clinics. Several papers from Australia have highlighted underestimation of developmental impairment up to age 2 using this revised version. We aimed to ascertain how a cohort of healthy 3-year-old children performed compared to the standardised norms of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (version-III). Term healthy newborn control infants from the prospective Development after Infant Surgery (DAISy) study were included. At 3 years of age, the mean scores on each of the five subscales for 156 children were compared with the standardised norms. At 3 years of age, the mean scores were higher than the standardised norms on four of the subscales, cognition (Toddler Development (version-III) compared with the standardised means in four of the subtests, with the greatest difference in receptive language. This has implications for the assessment of children as the test may miss those with a minor delay and not reflect the severity of delay of infants that it does identify. We recommend that consideration ought to be given to re-standardising this assessment on Australian children.

  14. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)-developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-12-23

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the recommendations in these documents. Published by the

  15. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes.

  16. Aboriginal medical services cure more than illness: a qualitative study of how Indigenous services address the health impacts of discrimination in Brisbane communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Josifini T; Brolan, Claire E; Hill, Peter S

    2014-10-10

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders persistently experience a significantly lower standard of health in comparison to non-Indigenous Australians. The factors contributing to this disparity are complex and entrenched in a history of social inequality, disempowerment, poverty, dispossession and discrimination. Aboriginal medical services (AMS) provide a culturally appropriate alternative to mainstream medical services as a means to address this health disparity and also advocate for Indigenous rights and empowerment. This study provides a vignette of lay perspectives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders accessing community and government controlled AMS in Brisbane, Queensland with the intention of identifying self-perceived health determinants to inform the post-2015 international development goals. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with clients of a government-controlled AMS and an Aboriginal community controlled health service (ACCHS) in order to identify their self-identified essential health needs. Conversations were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and de-identified for analysis. Common themes were identified to highlight important issues around community health needs, how they can be addressed and what lessons can be extended to inform the post-2015 development goals. Participants acknowledge the complexity of health determinants faced by their peoples. Thematic analysis highlighted the pervasive influence of racism through many perceived health determinants; resulting in reduced healthcare seeking behaviour, unhealthy lifestyles and mental health issues. Participants emphasised the marked health improvements seen due to the establishment of Aboriginal medical services in their communities and the importance of the AMS' role in addressing the negative effects of discrimination on Indigenous health. It is concluded from this study that AMS are crucial in addressing the negative impacts of continued discrimination on

  17. Diagnostic hearing testing of infants aged 0-36 months in 3 South African provinces - Comparison of audiology records to HPCSA guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Selvarani; Störbeck, Claudine

    2016-12-01

    Within the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) pathway, which includes the processes of screening, diagnosis and intervention for paediatric hearing loss, paediatric diagnostic audiology involves a battery of specific tests and procedures. International studies have highlighted a golden standard for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss as based on the Joint Committee of Infant Hearing (2007) diagnostic guidelines, closely resembling the HPCSA diagnostic guidelines. There are limited South African studies on the processes and protocols followed in diagnostic paediatric audiology. This study aims to provide a comparison for how the tests used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa (within both the public and private healthcare sectors) compare to the HPCSA recommended diagnostic guidelines. A retrospective record review of paediatric clients with hearing loss (recruited through nonprobability convenience sampling) was conducted. This study is part of a longitudinal study of 711 deaf or hard of hearing children referred to the HI HOPES early intervention programme from September 2006 to December 2011. Diagnostic data from audiology reports of 117 children between 0 and 36 months were coded and analysed. Large variation was found in the tests included in the diagnostic audiology reports. For 22 children (19%) a comprehensive test battery was used. Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) recommended guidelines for diagnostic testing were not followed in any of the records analysed. Components of the HPCSA recommended test battery most frequently omitted was bone conduction testing. For both electrophysiology and behavioural testing, there was limited frequency specificity information. This exclusion of information is evidence of deficiencies in data recording and management, as well as having an effect on accuracy of classification of degree and type of hearing loss. There are gaps in age-appropriate assessment protocols, which

  18. Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iron-fortified formula.Some formulas are made from soy milk instead of cow’s milk. If your baby seems ... cow’s milk, your doctor may suggest using a soy-milk formula.If you’re not breastfeeding, use infant ...

  19. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  20. Comparison of antibody capture radio- and enzyme immunoassays with immunofluorescence for detecting IgM antibody in infants with congenital rubella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantler, S.; Evans, C.J. (Wellcome Research Lab., Beckenham (UK)); Mortimer, P.P. (Virus Reference Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, Colindale Avenue, London, (UK)); Cradock-Watson, J.E.; Ridehalgh, M.K.S. (Withington Hospital, Manchester (UK))

    1982-08-01

    IgM antibody capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA) and enzyme immunoassay (MACEIA) were compared with immunofluorescence (IF) for detecting specific IgM antibody in 99 sera from 76 infants with confirmed congenital rubella, and 61 sera from a comparative group of 59 infants who had miscellaneous abnormalities but in whom congenital rubella was not confirmed. All of 35 specimens collected from confirmed cases within 12 weeks of birth were positive by all three methods and all but one of 17 specimens collected after the age of 18 months were uniformly negative. At intermediate ages discrepancies occurred in 18 specimens, of which eight were positive and 10 negative by IF. Three of these 18 specimens were negative by both antibody capture procedures but showed weak fluorescence; the other 15 were negative by MACEIA, but positive by MACRIA which appears to be the more sensitive of the antibody capture methods. Sera from five infants in the comparative group were clearly positive by all three methods. These five infants were probably congenitally infected with rubella. Sera from the other 54 infants were negative, except for one that gave a weakly positive result by MACRIA alone. Antibody capture procedures offer several advantages over previous methods for detecting IgM antibody. Although MACRIA was found to be slightly more sensitive than MACEIA, the greater stability of the enzyme label, together with the possibility of both visual and quantitative assessment, could make MACEIA the method of choice for detecting rubella-specific IgM.

  1. Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Arterial Structure and Function Among Aboriginal Australians: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; O’Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Cai, Tommy Y; Anstey, Nicholas M; Sullivan, David R; Wang, Hao; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    .... Both diseases occur frequently in Aboriginal Australians. We hypothesized that nonsurgical periodontal therapy would improve measures of arterial function and structure that are subclinical indicators of atherosclerotic vascular disease...

  2. Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today.

  3. A Peep at the Blacks: A History of Tourism at Coranderrk Aboriginal Station, 1863-1924

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, Ian

    This book is concerned with the history of tourism at the Coranderrk Aboriginal Station at Healesville, northeast of Melbourne, which functioned as a government reserve from 1863 until its closure in 1924...

  4. Pieces of a thousand stories: repatriation of the history of Aboriginal Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-line project A History of Aboriginal Sydney, based at the University of Sydney, takes existing educational and Australian Indigenous digital initiatives in a new direction. By dividing Sydney into six geographical areas, we are creating a knowledge base of post-invasion Aboriginal history, incorporating different forms of tagging, timeline and digital mapping to provide multiple paths to information in text, videos, still images and, in the future, three dimensional reconstructions of former living areas. After eighteen months research we are maintaining a balance between unearthing new and forgotten material, incorporating it into our developing database, and exploring the potential of digital mapping, animation and 3D historical reconstruction for educational and research purposes. With close Indigenous consultation, especially the Aboriginal Educational Consultative Groups, we hope to digitally construct the Aboriginal history of Sydney and return it to the people who have been deprived of so much of their history for so long.

  5. Person Perception and the Evaluation of Aboriginal Topical Art: How to Change Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Knud S.

    1979-01-01

    Results show that the drawings attributed to the Aboriginal "artist" produced more positive impressions and were rated more highly on the semantic differential. This research was presented at the Rocky Mountain Psychological Convention, Denver, Colorado, April, 1978. (Author)

  6. Redistribution and Recognition: Assessing Alternative Frameworks for Aboriginal Policy in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Maciel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue that government approaches to addressing the claims of Aboriginal peoples in Canada are insufficient. Historically, these approaches have focused on redistribution. At the same time, these approaches have all but ignored recognition. We argue that a more holistic approach that addresses both redistribution and recognition is necessary. Further, we attempt to show that our approach is consistent with the tenets of liberalism. By conceiving of Aboriginal politics as such, the state may be better able to address claims. We begin by providing a theoretical overview of redistribution and recognition, respectively. Then, we proceed to show how redistribution and recognition must work together in an adequate account of justice with respect to Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Finally, we offer a conception of Aboriginal politics that fulfills this desideratum, and integrates the principle of recognition and redistribution in a way that is within the bounds of liberalism.

  7. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E

    1985-12-01

    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  8. Perceived community environment and physical activity involvement in a northern-rural Aboriginal community

    OpenAIRE

    Lévesque Lucie; Kirby Allison M; Wabano Virgina; Robertson-Wilson Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Ample evidence shows that regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is beginning to emerge linking PA to the physical environment but little is known about the relationship between remote rural environments and PA involvement in Aboriginal peoples. This study's purpose was to investigate the relationship between perceptions of t...

  9. Different Gene Preferences of Maple Syrup Urine Disease in the Aboriginal Tribes of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Woei Hou

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Although the Taiwanese Austronesian Aboriginal tribes are considered to share a common origin, different gene preferences of MSUD were noted. The novel DBT mutation c.650-651insT was more prevalent than the deleted 4.7-kb heterozygote in the Amis population. The reported 4.7-kb deletion indicating a possible founder mutation may be preserved in the southern and eastern, but not in northern Aboriginal tribes of Taiwan.

  10. Improving cardiovascular outcomes among Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from research for primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Thompson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Aboriginal people of Australia have much poorer health and social indicators and a substantial life expectancy gap compared to other Australians, with premature cardiovascular disease a major contributor to poorer health. This article draws on research undertaken to examine cardiovascular disparities and focuses on ways in which primary care practitioners can contribute to reducing cardiovascular disparities and improving Aboriginal health. Methods: The overall research utilised mixed methods and included data analysis, interviews and group processes which included Aboriginal people, service providers and policymakers. Workshop discussions to identify barriers and what works were recorded by notes and on whiteboards, then distilled and circulated to participants and other stakeholders to refine and validate information. Additional engagement occurred through circulation of draft material and further discussions. This report distils the lessons for primary care practitioners to improve outcomes through management that is attentive to the needs of Aboriginal people. Results: Aspects of primordial, primary and secondary prevention are identified, with practical strategies for intervention summarised. The premature onset and high incidence of Aboriginal cardiovascular disease make prevention imperative and require that primary care practitioners understand and work to address the social underpinnings of poor health. Doctors are well placed to reinforce the importance of healthy lifestyle at all visits to involve the family and to reduce barriers which impede early care seeking. Ensuring better information for Aboriginal patients and better integrated care for patients who frequently have complex needs and multi-morbidities will also improve care outcomes. Conclusion: Primary care practitioners have an important role in improving Aboriginal cardiovascular care outcomes. It is essential that they recognise the special needs of their

  11. Peopling of Sahul: mtDNA Variation in Aboriginal Australian and Papua New Guinean Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Redd, Alan J.; Stoneking, Mark

    1999-01-01

    We examined genetic affinities of Aboriginal Australian and New Guinean populations by using nucleotide variation in the two hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region (CR). A total of 318 individuals from highland Papua New Guinea (PNG), coastal PNG, and Aboriginal Australian populations were typed with a panel of 29 sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes. The SSO-probe panel included five new probes that were used to type an additional 1,037 individuals from several Asian po...

  12. Peer-led Aboriginal parent support: Program development for vulnerable populations with participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Ailsa; Toye, Christine; Hegney, Desley; Kickett, Marion; Marriott, Rhonda; Walker, Roz

    2017-10-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is a credible, culturally appropriate methodology that can be used to effect collaborative change within vulnerable populations. This PAR study was undertaken in a Western Australian metropolitan setting to develop and evaluate the suitability, feasibility and effectiveness of an Aboriginal peer-led home visiting programme. A secondary aim, addressed in this paper, was to explore and describe research methodology used for the study and provide recommendations for its implementation in other similar situations. PAR using action learning sets was employed to develop the parent support programme and data addressing the secondary, methodological aim were collected through focus groups using semi-structured and unstructured interview schedules. Findings were addressed throughout the action research process to enhance the research process. The themes that emerged from the data and addressed the methodological aim were the need for safe communication processes; supportive engagement processes and supportive organisational processes. Aboriginal peer support workers (PSWs) and community support agencies identified three important elements central to their capacity to engage and work within the PAR methodology. This research has provided innovative data, highlighting processes and recommendations for child health nurses to engage with the PSWs, parents and community agencies to explore culturally acceptable elements for an empowering methodology for peer-led home visiting support. There is potential for this nursing research to credibly inform policy development for Aboriginal child and family health service delivery, in addition to other vulnerable population groups. Child health nurses/researchers can use these new understandings to work in partnership with Aboriginal communities and families to develop empowering and culturally acceptable strategies for developing Aboriginal parent support for the early years. Impact Statement Child

  13. Awareness and impact of the 'Bubblewrap' advertising campaign among Aboriginal smokers in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Shepherd, Carrington C J; Pearson, Glenn; Monteiro, Heather; McAullay, Daniel; Economo, Kristina; Stewart, Susan

    2010-02-01

    Antismoking mass media campaigns have been shown to reduce smoking prevalence in the mainstream community, however there is little published research on their effect on Aboriginal Australian smokers. To evaluate the awareness and impact of a mainstream mass media advertising campaign (the 'Bubblewrap' campaign) on Aboriginal smokers in the state of Western Australia. A personal intercept survey was conducted in July 2008 across three sites (the Perth metropolitan area and the non-metropolitan towns of Kalgoorlie and Broome). An opportunity or convenience sampling strategy was used to recruit Aboriginal participants, and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 198 Aboriginal smokers to ascertain awareness of the campaign advertisements, whether they were seen as believable and relevant, and the impact the advertisements had on smoking behaviour. The majority of the participants interviewed had seen and/or heard the 'Bubblewrap' campaign advertisements, although there was considerably greater awareness of the television advertisement than the radio advertisements. Both forms of advertising were considered to be believable and relevant by the majority of Aboriginal smokers. Most of the smokers interviewed thought about cutting down and/or quitting after seeing or hearing the advertisements. Our findings suggest that mainstream antismoking mass media campaigns can positively influence the thoughts and behaviours that Aboriginal smokers have, and exhibit, towards quitting smoking. Notwithstanding this, advertisers should continue to look for better ways to incorporate Aboriginal themes in campaign messages. Future mainstream antismoking campaigns should source sufficient funds to ensure that advertising messages reach the large Aboriginal populations in regional and remote Australia.

  14. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Parker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1 quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2 identifying factors influencing participation, and (3 planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children’s dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location.

  15. The economic feasibility of price discounts to improve diet in Australian Aboriginal remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Anne; Moodie, Marj L; Ferguson, Megan; Cobiac, Linda J; Liberato, Selma C; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of fiscal measures applied in remote community food stores for Aboriginal Australians. Six price discount strategies on fruit, vegetables, diet drinks and water were modelled. Baseline diet was measured as 12 months' actual food sales data in three remote Aboriginal communities. Discount-induced changes in food purchases were based on published price elasticity data while the weight of the daily diet was assumed constant. Dietary change was converted to change in sodium and energy intake, and body mass index (BMI) over a 12-month period. Improved lifetime health outcomes, modelled for the remote population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, were converted to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) saved using a proportional multistate lifetable model populated with diet-related disease risks and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander rates of disease. While dietary change was small, five of the six price discount strategies were estimated as cost-effective, below a $50,000/DALY threshold. Stakeholders are committed to finding ways to reduce important inequalities in health status between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and non-Indigenous Australians. Price discounts offer potential to improve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health. Verification of these results by trial-based research coupled with consideration of factors important to all stakeholders is needed. © 2015 The Authors.

  16. Use of participatory research and photo-voice to support urban Aboriginal healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen; Burns, Cate; Liebzeit, Anna; Ryschka, Jodie; Thorpe, Sharon; Browne, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this research was to work collaboratively with an urban Aboriginal community to understand meanings of food and food insecurity and strengthen responses to this issue. The project took place at the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative in Geelong, South Eastern Australia in 2009-2010. Photo-voice research methods were used to explore meanings of food and food insecurity. This identified that food selections were influenced by family harmony, collectivism and satiation of hunger with cheap high carbohydrate and fat foods. People were also proud of their hunter-gatherer heritage and saw the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative as leaders in healthy food provision. Action research cycles were used to develop responses including plates depicting healthy food portions, social cooking opportunities, development of a cooking television series and a specialised cook-book. The partnership required researchers to listen carefully to respond to needs of the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative, and this meant adapting research plans to suit the local environment and community partner needs. There is potential for Aboriginal organisations to provide further leadership for healthy eating and food security through workplace food policies and partnerships with food security agencies. Use of Aboriginal nutrition knowledge to provide nutrition education may be useful in health promotion approaches. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Guarding against an HIV epidemic within an Aboriginal community and cultural framework; lessons from NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James; Akre, Snehal P; Kaldor, John M

    2010-01-01

    The rate of HIV diagnosis in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia has been stable over the past 5 years. It is similar to the rate in non-Indigenous people overall, but there are major differences in the demographical and behaviour patterns associated with infection, with a history of injecting drug use and heterosexual contact much more prominent in Aboriginal people with HIV infection. Moreover there are a range of factors, such as social disadvantage, a higher incidence of sexually transmitted infections and poor access to health services that place Aboriginal people at special risk of HIV infection. Mainstream and Aboriginal community-controlled health services have an important role in preventing this epidemic. Partnerships developed within NSW have supported a range of services for Aboriginal people. There is a continuing need to support these services in their response to HIV, with a particular focus on Aboriginal Sexual Health Workers, to ensure that the prevention of HIV remains a high priority.

  18. Healthy Weights Interventions in Aboriginal Children and Youth: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Claire; Cooke, Martin; Rysdale, Lee; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal children and youth in Canada and elsewhere are at higher risk of obesity and overweight than other children. However, there has been no review of healthy weights interventions specifically aimed at Aboriginal children. A structured search for peer-reviewed articles presenting and evaluating healthy weights interventions for Aboriginal children and youth was conducted. Seventeen articles, representing seven interventions, were reviewed to identify their main characteristics, evaluation design, and evaluation outcomes. Interventions included several large community-based programs as well as several more focused programs that all targeted First Nations or American Indians, rather than Métis or Inuit. Only 1 program served an urban Aboriginal population. None of the published evaluations reported significant reductions in obesity or overweight or sustained increases in physical activity, although some evaluations presented evidence of positive effects on children's diets or on nutrition knowledge or intentions. We conclude that broader structural factors affecting the health of Aboriginal children may limit the effectiveness of these interventions, and that more evidence is required regarding interventions for Aboriginal children in various geographic and cultural contexts in Canada including Inuit and Métis communities.

  19. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  20. [Observations on traditional healers ("medicine men") of Indonesian aborigines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, M

    2000-01-01

    The observations were done during expeditions to tribes of Indonesian aborigines on the islands of New Guinea/Irian Jaya (Korowai-tribe) and Borneo/Kalimantan (Benuaq-tribe). Neither the Korowai people, who are still living under stone age-like circumstances in up to 30 m high tree-houses, nor the Benuaq people of Borneo, being already influenced by missionary men, do treat injuries or wounds by traditional healers. All the "internal" disorders, not being suffered by injuries, are diagnosed and treated in certain ceremonies, during which the healer tries to get in contact to the spirits triggering the disease. The idea is to know the reason of the disorder caused by demons, though the patient can be treated with bringing offerings or confirmations. This way of treating is due to the image of a magic-demoniac relationship between patient and his disease.

  1. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods.

  2. Reanimating Lost Landscapes: Bringing Visualisation to Aboriginal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Public History Review volume 11, Peter Osborne called for the methodologies of environmental history to be brought more securely and more imaginatively into public history. Environmental history by its own definition, he argued, encompassed Indigenous, ethnic and Anglo-Celtic histories, and heritages natural and built, material and intangible. I believe too that we public historians need to Incorporate changing landscapes and topographies as a vital element in understanding why communities and their built heritages constantly transfigure. Sometimes a single geographic factor such as the northern Gulf Stream can go far to explain the spectacular rise of a small island like Great Britain to world power. Equally we can help to explain the precipitous decline of towns like Bourke by degradation and siltation in the Darling River. This paper uses the case study of the Narrabeen town camp to explore the potential of digital visual technologies in Aboriginal History.

  3. Developing a Standard Approach to Examine Infant Mortality: Findings from the State Infant Mortality Collaborative (SIMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroelinger, Charlan D.; Dudgeon, Matthew; Goodman, David; Ramos, Lauren Raskin; Barfield, Wanda D.

    2015-01-01

    States can improve pregnancy outcomes by using a standard approach to assess infant mortality. The State Infant Mortality Collaborative (SIMC) developed a series of analyses to describe infant mortality in states, identify contributing factors to infant death, and develop the evidence base for implementing new or modifying existing programs and policies addressing infant mortality. The SIMC was conducted between 2004 and 2006 among five states: Delaware, Hawaii, Louisiana, Missouri, and North Carolina. States used analytic strategies in an iterative process to investigate contributors to infant mortality. Analyses were conducted within three domains: data reporting (quality, reporting, definitional criteria, and timeliness), cause and timing of infant death (classification of cause and fetal, neonatal, and postneonatal timing), and maturity and weight at birth/maturity and birth weight-specific mortality. All states identified the SIMC analyses as useful for examining infant mortality trends. In each of the three domains, SIMC results were used to identify important direct contributors to infant mortality including disparities, design or implement interventions to reduce infant death, and identify foci for additional analyses. While each state has unique structural, political, and programmatic circumstances, the SIMC model provides a systematic approach to investigating increasing or static infant mortality rates that can be easily replicated in all other states and allows for cross-state comparison of results. PMID:23108735

  4. High prevalence of HIV infection among homeless and street-involved Aboriginal youth in a Canadian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kathy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal people experience a disproportionate burden of HIV infection among the adult population in Canada; however, less is known regarding the prevalence and characteristics of HIV positivity among drug-using and street-involved Aboriginal youth. We examined HIV seroprevalence and risk factors among a cohort of 529 street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. At baseline, 15 (2.8% were HIV positive, of whom 7 (46.7% were Aboriginal. Aboriginal ethnicity was a significant correlate of HIV infection (odds ratio = 2.87, 95%CI: 1.02 – 8.09. Of the HIV positive participants, 2 (28.6% Aboriginals and 6 (75.0% non-Aboriginals reported injection drug use; furthermore, hepatitis C co-infection was significantly less common among Aboriginal participants (p = 0.041. These findings suggest that factors other than injection drug use may promote HIV transmission among street-involved Aboriginal youth, and provide further evidence that culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions for HIV prevention among Aboriginal young people are urgently required.

  5. Infant weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    This communication supplement provides instructions for weaning an infant through the 1st year of life. Since a new born infant grows much faster than an older child, the baby requires sufficient nourishment. The order of foods, though, is important. The baby should begin with liquid foods, then semisolid foods, and lastly solid foods. The best food for an infant, breast milk, contains all the necessary nutrients for a baby. It is clean, safe, easy to digest, and it protects the new born from disease and infection. But when the baby reaches 4 months of age, the weaning process should begin. Fruit juice and soup made of green leafy vegetables contain the vitamins and minerals that the baby needs. Beginning in the 5th month, the baby's diet should include boiled mashed potatoes and smashed bananas. And by the 7th month, the baby is able to digest semisolid food such as khichadi or dalia (roasted cereal which is grounded and mixed with water and dal, and then cooked). Parents should realize that the weaning process does not beginning immediately after birth, and when it begins, the food should be introduced gradually. The food should not contain any spices and should be freshly prepared (the hands should be washed and the utensils cleaned before preparing the foods). To prevent diarrhea and other infections, the food must be kept covered, protected from dust and flies. By the end of the 1st year, the baby should able to eat the normal diet of the family.

  6. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy...

  7. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  8. Nutritional status of breastfed infants in rural Zambia : comparison of the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference versus the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Pandor, A.; Burema, J.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Chishimba, N.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional data for breastfed infants in rural Zambia were used to evaluate the effect of applying two different data sets as a reference, i.e. the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth reference in terms of prevalence of malnutrition

  9. Comparação do desenvolvimento motor de lactentes de mães adolescentes e adultas Motor development comparison between infants of adolescent and adult mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiane Sartori

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou caracterizar o desempenho motor de bebês de 0 a 16 meses, comparando o de bebês nascidos de mães adolescentes ao de bebês de mães adultas. Participaram 80 bebês, sendo 40 de mães adolescentes e 40 de mães adultas. Os instrumentos avaliativos foram a escala motora infantil de Alberta AIMS (Alberta infant motor scale e questionário para identificar as características biológicas. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente. Os resultados da AIMS mostram pior desempenho motor dos bebês de mães adolescentes (p=0,002; p=0,001, além de suas inadequadas aquisições motoras nas posturas prono e em pé. Não foi encontrada associação significativa entre a maioria dos fatores biológicos analisados e o desenvolvimento motor dos bebês. Os resultados sugerem que a idade materna pode ser considerada fator de risco para atraso motor em crianças, porém ressalta-se a interação de diferentes fatores, aqui não controlados, influenciando as aquisições motoras de crianças, tais como as demandas da tarefa e as condições do ambiente.The purpose of the study was to compare motor development of infants aged 0 to 16 months born of teenage mothers to those of adult mothers. Eighty babies were assessed, 40 of which the children of teenage mothers, and 40 of adult mothers. Instruments used were the Alberta infant motor scale (AIMS and a questionnaire to collect biological information. Data were statistically analysed. Results show teenage mothers' infants to have delayed motor development as compared to adult mothers' ones (p=0.002; p=0.001, as well as their poor motor acquisitions in prone and standing positions. No association was found between infants' motor development and most of the biological factors analysed. Results hence suggest that early maternal age may be considered a risk factor to motor delay in infants, but attention should be paid to other factors such as task requirements and environmental conditions (here

  10. Comparison of methods for recruiting and engaging parents in online interventions: study protocol for the Cry Baby infant sleep and settling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Fallon; Seymour, Monique; Giallo, Rebecca; Cann, Warren; Nicholson, Jan M; Green, Julie; Hiscock, Harriet

    2015-11-10

    Anticipatory guidance around the management of sleep and crying problems in early infancy has been shown to improve both infant behaviour and parent symptoms of postnatal depression. Digital technology offers platforms for making such programs widely available in a cost-efficient manner. However, it remains unclear who accesses online parenting advice and in particular, whether the parents who would most benefit are represented amongst users. It is also unknown whether the uptake of online programs can be improved by health professional recommendations, or whether parents require additional prompts and reminders to use the program. In this study we aim to: (1) determine whether weekly email prompts increase engagement with and use of a brief online program about infant sleeping and crying, (2) determine whether encouragement from a maternal and child health nurse promotes greater engagement with and use of the program, (3) examine who uses a brief online program about infant sleeping and crying; and, (4) examine the psychosocial characteristics of participants. This study is a randomised, parallel group, superiority trial, with all participating primary carers of infants aged 2 to 12 weeks, receiving access to the online program. Two modes of recruitment will be compared: recruitment via an online notice published on a non-commercial, highly credible and evidence-based website for parents and carers and via the parent's Maternal and Child Health nurse. After baseline assessment, parents will be randomised to one of two support conditions: online program alone or online program plus weekly email prompts. Follow up data will be collected at 4 months of infant age. Results from this trial will indicate whether involvement from a health professional, and/or ongoing email contact is necessary to engage parents in a brief online intervention, and promote parental use of strategies suggested within the program. Results of this trial will inform the development of

  11. Perspectives of Aboriginal women on participation in mammographic screening: a step towards improving services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne Pilkington

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of breast cancer using screening mammography provides an opportunity for treatment which can lead to significantly improved outcomes. Despite considerable efforts having been made, the rate at which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter respectfully referred to as Aboriginal women in Western Australia participate in BreastScreen WA’s screening mammogram program remains below that for the overall female population of Western Australia. This study aimed to examine perspectives on breast screening amongst Aboriginal women in Western Australia. We explored the factors which impact on participation in breast screening and sought to identify potential initiatives to address lower participation in screening. Methods Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and yarning sessions were conducted with a total of 65 research participants. They were all Aboriginal and comprised consumers and health professionals from locations across the state. Results Our findings show that research participants generally were willing to have a mammogram. Key reasons given were having a genetic predisposition to breast cancer and a perception of investing in health for the sake of the next generation, as well as personal well-being. Barriers identified included lack of education about or understanding of screening, inadequacies in cultural appropriateness in the screening program, cultural beliefs around cancer in general and breast cancer in particular, and competing health and life priorities. However, many enablers were identified which can serve as potential strategies to assuage fear and increase screening uptake. These included increased education delivered by respected Aboriginal women, culturally appropriate promotion and the provision of care and support from other women in the community. Conclusion The higher participation rates for Aboriginal women in Western Australia than are found for Aboriginal women

  12. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11

  13. Nutritional concerns in aboriginal children are similar to those in non-aboriginal children in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer P; Timmons, Vianne; Larsen, Roberta; Walton, Fiona; Bryanton, Janet; Critchley, Kim; McCarthy, Mary Jean

    2007-06-01

    To assess food consumption among aboriginal children living on Mi'kmaq reserves in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Data were collected as part of a larger study of health perceptions and behaviors in Mi'kmaq children and youth ages 1 to 18 years. Food consumption was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire during an in-home interview. Fifty-five children living on a reserve (53% of total population) ages 9 to 18 years. The number of servings of milk products, vegetables and fruit, and snack foods/beverages was calculated by adding the responses to the frequency of consumption of foods assessed in each group. chi(2) analysis was used to assess differences in food consumption according to sex and age. Only one child reported consuming the recommended minimum of five vegetables and fruit daily (Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating, 1992) (mean [+/-standard deviation]=2.8+/-1.1 servings). Twenty-five (49%) of the children consumed three or more servings of milk products daily (mean=2.6+/-1.3 servings). Approximately half of the children had three or more snack foods/beverages daily (mean=3.1+/-2.2 servings). Younger children (grades 4 to 6) consumed more cereal, peanut butter, and yogurt than older children. There were no significant differences in food consumption between boys and girls. Our findings are consistent with past reports in aboriginal children. However, except for higher consumption of french fries, results are similar to recent surveys of other Prince Edward Island school children, suggesting a province-wide rather than cultural health issue.

  14. Peripheral intravenous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIV - infants; Peripheral IV - infants; Peripheral line - infants; Peripheral line - neonatal ... A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short, plastic tube, called a catheter. A health care provider puts the PIV through the ...

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of COPD among Aboriginal peoples in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bird Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yelena Bird, John Moraros, Razi Mahmood, Sarvenaz Esmaeelzadeh, Nway Mon Kyaw Soe School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: COPD among Aboriginal peoples in Canada is a major public health concern. This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and association between certain risk factors and COPD among the 35-year-old or older Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It uses data from Statistics Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS, 2012. It consists of 8,117 self-identified Aboriginal peoples, aged 35 years old or older from all Canadian provinces and territories. The study outcomes centered on evaluating the prevalence and associated factors of COPD. Results: This study found that 6.80% of the participants self-reported having COPD. Results of the logistic regression analysis show that COPD was significantly higher among daily smokers (odds ratio [OR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.65–3.14, aged 55 years or older (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 2.14–4.30, who earned $5,000–$9,999 per annum (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 2.39–7.41 and needed health care over the past 12 months and did not receive it (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.27–2.65. Conclusion: The findings of our study show that COPD is strongly associated with Aboriginal peoples, who are older, smoke, have a low socioeconomic status (SES and do not have access to health care when needed. Clinicians, health care professionals, medical/public health organizations, researchers and patients will greatly benefit from additional research in this common, serious and often overlooked disease among Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Keywords: COPD, smoking, socioeconomic status, Aboriginal peoples, Canada

  16. Relationships Among Smoking, Drinking, Betel Quid Chewing and Pregnancy-Related Nausea and Vomiting in Taiwanese Aboriginal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Hao Chou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the associations among smoking, drinking, betel quid chewing and pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting (N/V in Taiwanese aboriginal women. A total of 901 aboriginal women from 11 hospitals were recruited into this study. A structured questionnaire on demographic and obstetric information, smoking history, alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing habits, and N/V by checklist was used to collect data. The findings of this study indicated that the prevalence of N/V, maternal smoking, drinking, and betel quid chewing were 75.6% (n = 682, 22.8% (n = 201, 31.9% (n = 287, and 34.7% (n = 313 respectively. Multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, body mass index and antiemetics use revealed significant relationships between smoking habits and N/V before confirmation of pregnancy and during pregnancy. In comparison with those who did not smoke, women smoking in excess of 10 cigarettes a day before pregnancy were 1.65 times more likely to develop N/V; and women smoking in excess of 10 cigarettes a day during pregnancy were 2.79 times more likely to develop N/V. Based on the findings of this study, smoking was associated, with a dose-response effect, with pregnancy-related N/V. Reducing the intake of cigarettes could decrease the risk of pregnancy-related N/V. Health care providers should help these women decrease their uncomfortable symptoms and improve their experiences of pregnancy and birth outcome during critical times.

  17. Comparison of IPV to tOPV week 39 boost of primary OPV vaccination in Indian infants: an open labelled randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanungo, Suman; Kim, Deok Ryun; Haldar, Bisakha; Snider, Cynthia; Nalavade, Uma; Kim, Soon Ae; Park, Ju Yeon; Sinha, Anuradha; Mallick, Aiyel Haque; Manna, Byomkesh; Sur, Dipika; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Deshpande, Jagadish M; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Wierzba, Thomas F; Petri, William A; Ali, Mohammad; Dey, Ayan

    2017-01-01

    The final endgame strategy of global polio eradication initiative includes switching from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccines (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV), and introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). This study compares IPV with tOPV week 39 boost in Indian infants. Starting 28 March 2012, we enrolled 372 Indian infant-mother pairs from Kolkata, India in an open-label, block-randomized, controlled trial comparing a 39 week tOPV to an IPV boost among infants immunized with three doses of tOPV. The primary outcome was mucosal immunity to poliovirus as measured by fecal polio virus shedding after OPV challenge. The secondary outcome was humoral response as defined by >1:8 titers for neutralizing antibodies at week 40. Seroconversion was measured by change in level of antibody titers from week 18 to week 40. The analyses were performed by both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) comparing the occurrences of outcomes between the arms of the study. Both the study arms provided equivalent mucosal immunity at 52 weeks with a total shedding prevalence of 28%. Vaccination with IPV resulted in significantly higher seroconversion rates for Polio type 2 (p = 0.03) and Polio type 3 (p IPV boost at week 39 is equivalent to tOPV in intestinal immunity, and provides higher seroconversion compared to tOPV. The major limitation of the study was the additional OPV doses receive by infants during pulse polio immunization resulted in additional mucosal boosting, diminishing the impact of IPV or tOPV boost at week 39. However, IPV for OPV boost should prove to be a step forward in the global polio eradication initiative to reduce the problem of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV).

  18. Identification of coronary artery anatomy on dual-source cardiac computed tomography before arterial switch operation in newborns and young infants: comparison with transthoracic echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2018-02-01

    Considering inherent limitations of transthoracic echocardiography, the diagnostic accuracy of cardiac CT in identifying coronary artery anatomy before arterial switch operation needs to be investigated with recently improved coronary artery visibility using electrocardiogram (ECG)-synchronized dual-source CT. To compare diagnostic accuracy between cardiac CT using a dual-source scanner and transthoracic echocardiography in identifying coronary artery anatomy before arterial switch operation in newborns and young infants. The study included 101 infants (median age 4 days, range 0 days to 10 months; M:F=78:23) who underwent ECG-synchronized cardiac dual-source CT and transthoracic echocardiography before arterial switch operation between July 2011 and December 2016. We evaluated and classified coronary artery anatomy on cardiac CT and transthoracic echocardiography. With the surgical findings as the reference standard, we compared the diagnostic accuracy for identifying coronary artery anatomy between cardiac CT and transthoracic echocardiography. The most common coronary artery pattern was the usual pattern (left coronary artery from sinus 1 and right coronary artery from sinus 2; 64.4%, 65/101), followed by a single coronary artery from sinus 2 and a conal branch from sinus 1 (7.9%, 8/101), the inverted pattern (5.9%, 6/101), the right coronary artery and left anterior descending artery from sinus 1 and the left circumflex artery from sinus 2 (5.9%, 6/101), and others. In 96 infants with surgically proven coronary artery anatomy, the diagnostic accuracy of cardiac CT was significantly higher than that of transthoracic echocardiography (91.7%, 88/96 vs. 54.2%, 52/96; Pswitch operation in newborns and young infants.

  19. Pregnancies exposed to methadone, methadone and other illicit substances, and poly-drugs without methadone: a comparison of fetal neurobehaviors and infant outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, L M; Di Pietro, J A; Elko, A; Williams, E L; Milio, L; Velez, M

    2012-05-01

    It is suspected that there is a continuum of impairment among prenatally drug-exposed infants, such that opioid and/or poly-drug exposure confers the highest risk for adverse neonatal outcomes than other classes of substances or single substance exposures. Suitable control groups are difficult to identify. This study compared fetal neurobehavioral development and infant outcomes in offspring of three groups of pregnant women in drug treatment. Exposure groups include: Methadone+other illicit substances (MM+Poly) and two groups currently abstinent for poly drug exposures: Methadone only (MM/A) and Non-Methadone (NM/A). Forty-nine women (19 MM+Poly, 18 MM/A, and 12 NM/A) underwent fetal monitoring at 36 weeks gestation at peak and trough levels of methadone (MM+Poly; MM/A) or at comparable morning and afternoon times (NM/A). Fetal heart rate (FHR), heart rate variability (FHRV) and motor activity (FM) data were collected. Infant measures included birth outcomes and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) assessment. As compared to the NM/A group, cardiac measures were decreased in methadone-exposed fetuses at peak levels. FHR was significantly more suppressed in the MM+Poly group. FM was significantly lower in the MM/A vs. the NM/A group at both peak and trough, indicative of more persistent exposure effects. The MM+Poly group delivered 1 week earlier and required NAS pharmacological treatment twice as often as the MM/A group. Results support the notion that poly-drug exposure may potentiate the effects of methadone on the fetus and infant and highlights the need for intensified treatment for methadone-maintained women who abuse other substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aboriginal Identity in Education Settings: Privileging Our Stories as a Way of Deconstructing the Past and Re-Imagining the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Marnee; Wickes, Judi

    2017-01-01

    From Aboriginal Australian perspectives and experiences, Aunty Judi Wickes and Marnee Shay bring a cross-generational, critical race analysis of Aboriginal identities and how they are implicated in the schooling experiences of Aboriginal young people. Using autoethnography, Aunty Judi and Marnee discuss their educational experiences in the…

  1. Aboriginal Self-Determination in Australia: The Effects of Minority-Majority Frames and Target Universalism on Majority Collective Guilt and Compensation Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Scott A.; Gunter, Helen N.; Smith, Joanne R.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Aboriginal-Anglo Australian relations, we tested the effect of framing (multiculturalism versus separatism) and majority group members' social values (universalism) on the persuasiveness of Aboriginal group rhetoric, majority collective guilt, attitudes toward compensation, and reparations for Aboriginals. As predicted, Anglo…

  2. Comparison of virological profiles of respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus in acute lower tract respiratory infections in very young Chilean infants, according to their clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchsinger, Vivian; Ampuero, Sandra; Palomino, M Angélica; Chnaiderman, Jonás; Levican, Jorge; Gaggero, Aldo; Larrañaga, Carmen E

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (HRV) are the main cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) in infants. Viral and host-related risk factors for severe disease have also not been clearly established. To assess whether certain viral features of RSV and, or HRV are associated with severe ALRTI. RSV and HRV were studied in nasopharyngeal samples of infants by immunofluorescence, Luminex(®) and/or real-time RT-PCR assays. Quantitation and genotyping of RSV and HRV by PCR were done. Of 124 virus positive specimens, 74 (59.7%) had RSV; 22 (17.7%) HRV and 28 (22.6%) RSV-HRV co-infection. Hospitalization was required in 57/74 RSV infants (77.0%); in 10/22 HRV cases (45.5%) (p=0.006) and in 15/28 co-infected by both viruses (53.6%) (p=0.003). Severe cases were 33/74 (44.6%) RSV infections, 2/22 HRV cases (9.1%), (pinfected by RSV-HRV (pinfection does not increase the severity of illness. NA1 RSV genotype was associated with major frequency of hospitalization, severe respiratory disease and higher viral load. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of performance and efficacy of air-Q intubating laryngeal airway and flexible laryngeal mask airway in anesthetized and paralyzed infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlong, Vanlal; Biyani, Ghansham; Pandey, Ravindra; Baidya, Dalim K; Punj, Chandralekha and Jyotsna

    2014-10-01

    Flexible laryngeal mask airway is a commonly used supraglotic airway device (SAD) during ophthalmic surgeries. Air-Q intubating laryngeal airway (ILA) is a newer SAD used as primary airway device and as a conduit for intubation as well. Available literature shows that air-Q performs equal or better than other SADs in children and adults. However, limited data is available using air-Q in infants and small children children’. Our hypothesis is that air-Q due to its improved cuff design will yield better airway seal pressures and improved laryngeal alignment as compared to flexible laryngeal mask airway. ASA I–II infants and children weighing insertion success rate, time to insert, and any other complications. There was no difference between the groups in demographic data, first insertion success rate, time to insert, and postoperative complications. Air-Q provided significantly more OLP [21.1 ± 6.4 cmH2O vs 17.4 ± 4.1 cmH2O, P = 0.02] and better FO view of glottis (good view 84% vs 48%, P = 0.0016) as compared to flexible laryngeal mask airway. We conclude that air-Q is superior to flexible laryngeal mask airway in providing higher airway sealing pressures and better FO grade of laryngeal view in infants and children.

  4. Sensory Acceptability of Infant Cereals with Whole Grain in Infants and Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Haro-Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, infant cereals are one of the first foods introduced during the complementary feeding stage. These cereals are usually made with refined cereal flours, even though several health benefits have been linked to the intake of whole grain cereals. Prior evidence suggests that food preferences are developed at early stages of life, and may persist in later childhood and adulthood. Our aim was to test whether an infant cereal with 30% of whole grain was similarly accepted both by parents and infants in comparison to a similar cereal made from refined flour. A total of 81 infants between 4 and 24 months old were included in the study. Parent-infant pairs participated in an 8-day experimental study. Acceptance was rated on hedonic scales (4-points for infants and 7-points for parents. Other attributes like color, smell, and taste were evaluated by the parents. Acceptability for infant cereals with whole grain and refined cereals was very similar both for infants (2.30 ± 0.12 and 2.32 ± 0.11, p = 0.606 and parents (6.1 ± 0.8 and 6.0 ± 0.9, p = 0.494. Therefore, our findings show that there is an opportunity to introduce whole grain cereals to infants, including those who are already used to consuming refined infant cereals, thereby accelerating the exposure of whole grain in early life.

  5. A review of dental caries in Australian Aboriginal children: the health inequalities perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Bradley; Blinkhorn, Anthony S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) describe caries prevalence and experience among Aboriginal children; and (2) investigate the disparity in dental caries between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian children. As background, dental caries is a widespread disease within Aboriginal communities and it has a particularly severe impact on children. In recognition of the extent and severity of this disease, its impact on childhood nutrition, socialisation and schooling, the control of dental caries has been identified as a key indicator in the reduction of disadvantage among Aboriginal communities. Medline was the primary database used in the literature search. Other databases included: PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Australian National and State departments of health websites were also searched for relevant documents. Articles were included in the review if they reported information on either caries prevalence rates or experience scores or both, for Aboriginal children in Australia. Articles were excluded if the study sample was special needs children, and/or caries statistics were reported only for children over 12 years. Caries prevalence among 6-year-olds in rural non-fluoridated Western Australia in 1963 was 27%, and in 2004 was 85% among 6-year-olds in rural non-fluoridated Queensland. There was a corresponding increase in caries experience scores in this period from 2.07 in 1963 to 6.37 in 2004. National estimates for 2000-2003 reported a caries prevalence of 72% and caries experience (dmft: decayed, missing and filled primary teeth) of 3.68 for 6-year-old Aboriginal Australian children. For 12-year-olds the national estimates were a caries prevalence of 45% and experience (DMFT, Decayed, Missing and Filled Permanent Teeth) of 1.25 (SE=0.07). The magnitude of disparity (relative difference) in 6-year-old caries experience between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children was relatively consistent over the period 1983-2007, with Aboriginal children

  6. Stand Up for the Burrup: Saving the Largest Aboriginal Rock Art Precinct in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dampier Rock Art Precinct contains the largest and most ancient collection of Aboriginal rock art in Australia. The cultural landscape created by generations of Aboriginal people includes images of long-extinct fauna and demonstrates the response of peoples to a changing climate over thousands of years as well as the continuity of lived experience. Despite Australian national heritage listing in 2007, this cultural landscape continues to be threatened by industrial development. Rock art on the eastern side of the archipelago, on the Burrup Peninsula, was relocated following the discovery of adjacent off-shore gas reserves so that a major gas plant could be constructed. Work has now begun on the construction of a second major gas plant nearby. This article describes the rock art of the Dampier Archipelago and the troubled history of European-Aboriginal contact history, before examining the impact of industry on the region and its environment. The destruction of Aboriginal rock art to meet the needs of industry is an example of continuing indifference to Aboriginal culture. While the complex struggle to protect the cultural landscape of the Burrup, in particular, involving Indigenous people, archaeologists, historians, state and federal politicians, government bureaucrats and multi-national companies, eventually led to national heritage listing, it is not clear that the battle to save the Burrup has been won.

  7. Melq'ilwiye: coming together--intersections of identity, culture, and health for urban Aboriginal youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Natalie; Walton, Patrick; Drolet, Julie; Tribute, Tara; Jules, Georgia; Main, Talicia; Arnouse, Mike

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this exploratory community-based participatory action research project was twofold: to determine how urban Aboriginal youth identify their health needs within a culturally centred model of health and wellness, and to create new knowledge and research capacity by and with urban Aboriginal youth and urban Aboriginal health-care providers. A mixed-method approach was employed to examine these experiences using talking circles and a survey. The study contributes to anticolonial research in that it resists narratives of dis(ease) put forth through neocolonial research paradigms.A key focus was the development of strategies that address the aspirations of urban Aboriginal youth, laying foundations upon which their potential in health and wellness can be nurtured, supported, and realized. The study contributes to a new narrative of the health of urban Aboriginal youth within a culturally centred and culturally safe framework that acknowledges their strong connection to their Indigenous lands, languages, and traditions while also recognizing the spaces between which they move.

  8. Experiences and needs of carers of Aboriginal children with a disability: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, Michelle; Green, Anna; Delaney, Patricia; Delaney, John; Patradoon-Ho, Patrick; Davidson, Patricia Mary; Abbott, Penelope

    2017-11-29

    Australian parents/carers of a person with a disability experience higher rates of depression, more financial stress, and are twice as likely to be in poor physical health than the general population. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples experience worse health, social and economic outcomes than other Australians, and those with a disability face 'double disadvantage'. This study aimed to better understand the experiences and needs of parents/carers/families of Aboriginal children with a disability. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with parents or primary carers of Aboriginal children aged zero-eight with disability. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Nineteen women (sixteen mothers and three grandmothers) were interviewed. More than half were lone carers (without a partner or spouse). Participants described their experiences, including challenges and facilitators, to providing and accessing care, impacts on their health and wellbeing, and associated economic and non-economic costs of caregiving. Financial strain and social isolation was particularly prominent for lone carers. Tailoring services to the needs of carers of Aboriginal children with a disability means supporting kinship caregiving, facilitating engagement with other Aboriginal families, and streamlining services and systems to mitigate costs. The experiences described by our participants depict an intersection of race, socio-economic status, gender, disability, and caregiving. Services and funding initiatives should incorporate such intersecting determinants in planning and delivery of holistic care.

  9. Supporting dietitians to work in Aboriginal health: Qualitative evaluation of a Community of Practice mentoring circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Annabelle M; Delbridge, Robyn; Palermo, Claire

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the experience of dietitians participating in a Community of Practice designed to support their work with Aboriginal communities. The Community of Practice for dietitians working with Aboriginal communities ran for 12 months, starting in May 2014. Six-weekly mentoring sessions were held using Skype, with conversation aided by a facilitator. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were held with all participants at the conclusion of the Community of Practice. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Thirteen dietitians participated in the Community of Practice and an in-depth, semi-structured interview. Four key themes were identified: (i) Aboriginal health practice requires a different way of 'knowing', 'being' and 'working'; (ii) Community of Practice is a safe place to discuss, debrief and explore ideas that are not safe elsewhere; (iii) participation in Community of Practice contributed to workforce retention in the Aboriginal health sector; and (iv) participation in Community of Practice contributed to dietitians changing their practice and feeling confident to do so. By increasing confidence and opportunities for safe discussion, Community of Practice appears to be a useful model of Continuing Professional Development to support dietitians working in Aboriginal health. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  10. Australia’s Efforts to Improve Food Security for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Australia is a wealthy country; however, available evidence suggests that food security among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples has not yet been achieved. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples living in remote, regional, and urban parts of Australia experience food insecurity for a number of reasons that usually include low income and a lack of access to affordable and healthy food. The much higher rate of illness and disease that this population experiences compared to non-indigenous Australians is directly related to food insecurity. This paper examines the food insecurity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and recent Australian government efforts to combat this problem. The paper first considers what constitutes a human rights-based approach to achieving food security. Second, it describes the food insecurity that currently exists among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples across the three pillars of food access, food availability, and food use. Third, the paper critically examines recent and current Australian government policy aimed at improving food security. The paper concludes with some reflections regarding how the Australian government can improve its efforts to achieve food security for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. PMID:28559687

  11. The Boomerangs Parenting Program for Aboriginal parents and their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lily; Griffiths, Chryne; Glossop, Patricia; Eapen, Valsamma

    2010-12-01

    Using three case studies, this paper describes the development and evaluation of 'The Boomerangs Aboriginal Circle of Security Parenting Camp Program', which is a clinical intervention based on an attachment framework using the Circle of Security and Marte Meo, and drawing on traditional Aboriginal culture. Three mothers from an Aboriginal Australian background with preschool age children attended the 20-session Boomerangs Program, including an initial camp and a second camp after 6 weeks. The camp provided the opportunity for parent empowerment and to explore the strengths and resources of the mother to facilitate better mother-child interactions and relationship, in a naturalistic setting. All three mothers gave positive feedback on the program in increasing the awareness, sensitivity and responsiveness of their interactions with their children, and this was reflected in the results of the questionnaires and observation of the mother-child interactions during play. This program offers the first ever evaluation of an intense parenting program using camps for Aboriginal Australians. This study is to be considered as an exploratory exercise - a first step in a process of exploring applicability and adapting parenting camps for Aboriginal families.

  12. Culture, context and therapeutic processes: delivering a parent-child intervention in a remote Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sarah; Robinson, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Little is written about the process of delivering mainstream, evidence-based therapeutic interventions for Aboriginal children and families in remote communities. Patterns of interaction between parents and children and expectations about parenting and professional roles and responsibilities vary across cultural contexts. This can be a challenging experience for professionals accustomed to work in urban settings. Language is only a part of cultural difference, and the outsider in a therapeutic group in an Aboriginal community is outside not only in language but also in access to community relationships and a place within those relationships. This paper uses examples from Let's Start, a therapeutic parent-child intervention to describe the impact of distance, culture and relationships in a remote Aboriginal community, on the therapeutic framework, group processes and relationships. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Program adaptation, evaluation and staff training and support need to take these factors into account to ensure cultural accessibility without loss of therapeutic fidelity and efficacy.

  13. Oral health care in remote Kimberley Aboriginal communities: the characteristics and perceptions of dental volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J; Hearn, L; Slack-Smith, L M

    2015-09-01

    Aboriginal Australians face significant disparities in oral health and this is particularly the case in remote communities where access to dental services can be difficult. Using volunteers to provide dental care in the remote Kimberley region of Western Australia is a novel approach. This study comprised an anonymous online survey of volunteers working with the Kimberley Dental Team (KDT). The survey had a response fraction of 66% and explored volunteer demographic characteristics, factors that motivated their involvement, perceptions of oral health among Aboriginal communities, and barriers and enablers to oral health in remote Aboriginal communities. Volunteers were more likely to be female, middle-aged and engaged in full-time employment. The two most common reasons reported for volunteering were to assist the community and visit the Kimberley region. Education and access to reliable, culturally appropriate care were perceived as enablers to good oral health for Aboriginal people in the Kimberley while limited access to services, poor nutrition and lack of government support were cited as barriers. Volunteers providing dental services to remote areas in Western Australia had a diverse demographic profile. However, they share similar motivating factors and views on the current barriers and enablers to good oral health in remote Aboriginal communities. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  14. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Paternal genetic structure of Hainan aborigines isolated at the entrance to East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongna Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At the southern entrance to East Asia, early population migration has affected most of the Y-chromosome variations of East Asians. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the isolated genetic structure of Hainan Island and the original genetic structure at the southern entrance, we studied the Y chromosome diversity of 405 Hainan Island aborigines from all the six populations, who have little influence of the recent mainland population relocations and admixtures. Here we report that haplogroups O1a* and O2a* are dominant among Hainan aborigines. In addition, the frequency of the mainland dominant haplogroup O3 is quite low among these aborigines, indicating that they have lived rather isolated. Clustering analyses suggests that the Hainan aborigines have been segregated since about 20 thousand years ago, after two dominant haplogroups entered East Asia (31 to 36 thousand years ago. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that Hainan aborigines have been isolated at the entrance to East Asia for about 20 thousand years, whose distinctive genetic characteristics could be used as important controls in many population genetic studies.

  16. Developing an Exploratory Framework Linking Australian Aboriginal Peoples’ Connection to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Bolam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Country and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples’ health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples’ wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples’ health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation.

  17. Aboriginal prisoners and cognitive impairment: the impact of dual disadvantage on Social and Emotional Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, S M; Ogloff, J R P; Shea, D; Pfeifer, J E; Paradies, Y

    2017-04-01

    Negligible information is available regarding the Social and Emotional Wellbeing (SEWB) needs of Aboriginal Australian individuals in custody with cognitive impairment. This is problematic given that Aboriginal people with cognitive impairment often experience dual disadvantage in the context of the justice system. This study sought to ascertain the relationship between cognitive impairment and mental health/cultural needs (SEWB) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in custody. A sample of 122 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were administered a culturally themed semi-structured questionnaire in custodial settings in Victoria, Australia. The questionnaire included measures of cognitive impairment, SEWB and forensic needs. Analyses were performed to determine differences in the presence of SEWB and unmet custodial needs by level of cognitive impairment. Findings revealed a diminished level of wellbeing for cognitively impaired participants across several factors. Cognitive impairment was associated with poorer coping mechanisms, additional experiences of racism, difficulties handling emotions, discomfort around non-Aboriginal people and reduced access to meaningful activities in custody. All participants regardless of their level of impairment recognised the importance of cultural engagement; however, cognitively impaired participants had greater difficulty accessing/practicing cultural activities. Culturally responsive disability assistance should be available at all phases of the justice system for Indigenous people with cognitive impairment to ensure that equitable care is accessible and needs are addressed. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Traditional food availability and consumption in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Megan; Brown, Clare; Georga, Claire; Miles, Edward; Wilson, Alyce; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-06-01

    To explore availability, variety and frequency consumption of traditional foods and their role in alleviating food insecurity in remote Aboriginal Australia. Availability was assessed through repeated semi-structured interviews and consumption via a survey. Quantitative data were described and qualitative data classified. Aboriginal and non-Indigenous key informants (n=30 in 2013; n=19 in 2014) from 20 Northern Territory (NT) communities participated in interviews. Aboriginal primary household shoppers (n=73 in 2014) in five of these communities participated in a survey. Traditional foods were reported to be available year-round in all 20 communities. Most participants (89%) reported consuming a variety of traditional foods at least fortnightly and 71% at least weekly. Seventy-six per cent reported being food insecure, with 40% obtaining traditional food during these times. Traditional food is consumed frequently by Aboriginal people living in remote NT. Implications for public health: Quantifying dietary contribution of traditional food would complement estimated population dietary intake. It would contribute evidence of nutrition transition and differences in intakes across age groups and inform dietary, environmental and social interventions and policy. Designing and conducting assessment of traditional food intake in conjunction with Aboriginal leaders warrants consideration. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genome variation - an increased understanding of population antiquity and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Nano; van Oven, Mannis; Wilcox, Stephen; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Ballantyne, Kaye N.; Wilcox, Leah; Papac, Luka; Cooke, Karen; van Oorschot, Roland A. H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, R. John; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Comas, David; Cooper, Alan; der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Ganeshprasad, Arunkumar; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Hobbs, Angela; Javed, Asif; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Melé, Marta; Merchant, Nirav C.; Owings, Amanda C.; Parida, Laxmi; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Soodyall, Himla; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Vilar, Miguel G.; Wells, R. Spencer; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2017-03-01

    Aboriginal Australians represent one of the oldest continuous cultures outside Africa, with evidence indicating that their ancestors arrived in the ancient landmass of Sahul (present-day New Guinea and Australia) ~55 thousand years ago. Genetic studies, though limited, have demonstrated both the uniqueness and antiquity of Aboriginal Australian genomes. We have further resolved known Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups and discovered novel indigenous lineages by sequencing the mitogenomes of 127 contemporary Aboriginal Australians. In particular, the more common haplogroups observed in our dataset included M42a, M42c, S, P5 and P12, followed by rarer haplogroups M15, M16, N13, O, P3, P6 and P8. We propose some major phylogenetic rearrangements, such as in haplogroup P where we delinked P4a and P4b and redefined them as P4 (New Guinean) and P11 (Australian), respectively. Haplogroup P2b was identified as a novel clade potentially restricted to Torres Strait Islanders. Nearly all Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups detected appear to be ancient, with no evidence of later introgression during the Holocene. Our findings greatly increase knowledge about the geographic distribution and phylogenetic structure of mitochondrial lineages that have survived in contemporary descendants of Australia’s first settlers.

  20. Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genome variation – an increased understanding of population antiquity and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Nano; van Oven, Mannis; Wilcox, Stephen; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Ballantyne, Kaye N.; Wilcox, Leah; Papac, Luka; Cooke, Karen; van Oorschot, Roland A. H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, R. John; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Comas, David; Cooper, Alan; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Gaieski, Jill B.; GaneshPrasad, ArunKumar; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Hobbs, Angela; Javed, Asif; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Melé, Marta; Merchant, Nirav C.; Owings, Amanda C.; Parida, Laxmi; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Soodyall, Himla; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Vilar, Miguel G.; Wells, R. Spencer; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians represent one of the oldest continuous cultures outside Africa, with evidence indicating that their ancestors arrived in the ancient landmass of Sahul (present-day New Guinea and Australia) ~55 thousand years ago. Genetic studies, though limited, have demonstrated both the uniqueness and antiquity of Aboriginal Australian genomes. We have further resolved known Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups and discovered novel indigenous lineages by sequencing the mitogenomes of 127 contemporary Aboriginal Australians. In particular, the more common haplogroups observed in our dataset included M42a, M42c, S, P5 and P12, followed by rarer haplogroups M15, M16, N13, O, P3, P6 and P8. We propose some major phylogenetic rearrangements, such as in haplogroup P where we delinked P4a and P4b and redefined them as P4 (New Guinean) and P11 (Australian), respectively. Haplogroup P2b was identified as a novel clade potentially restricted to Torres Strait Islanders. Nearly all Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups detected appear to be ancient, with no evidence of later introgression during the Holocene. Our findings greatly increase knowledge about the geographic distribution and phylogenetic structure of mitochondrial lineages that have survived in contemporary descendants of Australia’s first settlers. PMID:28287095

  1. An Aboriginal Adult Literacy Campaign Pilot Study in Australia using Yes I Can

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Boughton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the remote Aboriginal community of Wilcannia in western NSW hosted the first Australian pilot of a Cuban mass adult literacy campaign model known as Yes I Can. The aim was to investigate the appropriateness of this model in Aboriginal Australia. Building on an intensive community development process of ‘socialisation and mobilisation’, sixteen community members with very low literacy graduated from the basic literacy course, with the majority continuing on into post-literacy activities, further training and/or employment. The pilot was initiated by the National Aboriginal Adult Literacy Campaign Steering Committee (NAALCSC consisting of Aboriginal leaders from the education and health sectors, and managed by the University of New England (UNE, working in partnership with the Wilcannia Local Aboriginal Land Council as the local lead agency. The pilot was supported by a Cuban academic who came to Australia for this purpose, and included a Participatory Action Research (PAR evaluation led by the UNE Project Manager. In this paper, members of the project team and the NAALCSC describe the pilot and reflect on its outcomes.

  2. Social Exclusion/Inclusion for Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Walter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion social inclusion are useful concepts for making sense of the deeply embedded socio-economic disadvantaged position of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people in Australian. The concepts not only describe exclusion from social and economic participation; but seek to understand the dynamic processes behind their creation and reproduction. Yet few Australian studies go beyond describing Aboriginal over-representation on social exclusion indicators. Neither do they address the translatability of the concepts from non-Indigenous to Indigenous contexts despite mainstream studies finding the pattern of social exclusion (and therefore what social inclusion might look like differs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to that of other disadvantaged groups. This paper uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous children to explore patterns of social exclusion across social, economic, well-being and community dimensions for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait families. The paper then develops a contextual understanding of the processes and patterns that create and sustain social exclusion and the opportunities and challenges of moving to greater social inclusion for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people/s.

  3. Evaluation of Aboriginal Programs: What Place is Given to Participation and Cultural Sensitivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal populations in Northern Canada have, for many years, been confronted with socio-economic problems affecting their development. In the early 1990s, the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996 report concluded that it was important to integrate Aboriginal people into the management of public policies that concern them and to encourage their autonomy. In order to produce a quality evaluation that is useful in particular cultural contexts, measures have been developed to assure that the evaluation highly regards cultural sensitivity while integrating local participants in the evaluation process. This study, based on the systematic analysis of a non-probability sample of 27 program evaluation reports, presents an inventory of evaluation practice in Aboriginal contexts and estimates in what measure a culturally sensitive and participatory approach was applied. It was apparent that cultural sensitivity is gradually being integrated into Aboriginal program evaluation and that certain indicators show that there has been a positive evolution in this direction. Finally, the study shows an occasional recourse to participatory approaches, but this is not a strong tendency as systematically technocratic approaches are more broadly employed.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Sequential with Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori in an Aboriginal Community in the Canadian North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Morse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection occurs more frequently in Arctic Aboriginal settings than elsewhere in North America and Europe. Research aimed at reducing health risks from H pylori infection has been conducted in the Aboriginal community of Aklavik, Northwest Territories.

  5. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Asthma in Off-Reserve Aboriginal Children and Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation.

  6. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and influence…

  7. Moral Education and the Aboriginal Peoples of Taiwan: From Sino-Centrism to the Ethic of Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiyao

    2017-01-01

    Taiwan is not only inhabited by ethnic Chinese, as many who are not so familiar with this island might think; it also has a substantial number of aboriginal peoples who have lived on the island for millennia, long before the Chinese, Europeans and finally the Japanese colonisers arrived. The aboriginal peoples of Taiwan are Austronesian, with…

  8. The effectiveness of web-delivered learning with aboriginal students: Findings from a study in coastal Labrador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Philpott

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the findings of a study that explores perspectives of e-learning for aboriginal students in five coastal communities in Labrador, Canada. The rural nature of many communities in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, coupled with a dramatically declining enrollment, has resulted in expanding use of e-learning as a means to provide quality high school curriculum. Recently, a Community University Research Alliance partnered with stakeholders to explore the success of e-learning in the province. Through one of the projects of this alliance, the authors examined the success of this mode of delivery for aboriginal students from the perspective of the students themselves, as well as the perspective of parents and educators. Additionally, student performance was examined in comparison to provincial peers. A wealth of data emerged which affords insights into factors that support and hinder e-learning in coastal areas and also informs educators about the diverse learning characteristics and needs of aboriginal students. As Canadian educators are increasingly challenged to address achievement issues that continue to characterize aboriginal populations, this study offers important data on the viability of e-learning as a mode of curriculum delivery. Résumé : Cet article présente les résultats d’une étude qui explore les perspectives de l’apprentissage en ligne pour les élèves autochtones dans cinq collectivités côtières du Labrador, Canada. Le caractère rural d’un grand nombre de collectivités de la province de Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador, jumelé à une baisse spectaculaire de la scolarisation, a mené à une utilisation accrue de l’apprentissage en ligne comme solution permettant d’assurer un curriculum de qualité au secondaire. Récemment, une alliance de recherche université-communauté a travaillé de pair avec les intervenants afin d’étudier les résultats de l’apprentissage en ligne dans la province

  9. Expressions of shame in investigative interviews with Australian Aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Gemma; Brubacher, Sonja P; Powell, Martine B

    2016-01-01

    This study inspected a sample of 70 interview transcripts with Australian Aboriginal children to gain a sense of how frequently verbal shame responses were occurring in investigative interviews regarding alleged sexual abuse. Transcripts were examined to determine how children articulated shame, how interviewers reacted to these responses, and how shame related to children's accounts. Examination of frequencies revealed that verbal shame responses occurred in just over one-quarter of the interviews. One-way analyses of variance indicated that children who expressed shame within the interview spoke the same amount as children who did not express shame, however, they required more interviewer prompts before a disclosure was made. Interviews where children expressed shame also included a greater number of interviewer reminders compared to interviews without shame responses. Results emphasize the importance of interviewer awareness of shame, and also point to the value of reassurance, patience, and persistence with non-leading narrative prompting when interviewing children who express shame during discussions of sexual abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sustaining health education research programs in Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisener, Katherine; Shapka, Jennifer; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    Despite evidence supporting the ongoing provision of health education interventions in First Nations communities, there is a paucity of research that specifically addresses how these programs should be designed to ensure sustainability and long-term effects. Using a Community-Based Research approach, a collective case study was completed with three Canadian First Nations communities to address the following research question: What factors are related to sustainable health education programs, and how do they contribute to and/or inhibit program success in an Aboriginal context? Semi-structured interviews and a sharing circle were completed with 19 participants, including members of community leadership, external partners, and program staff and users. Seven factors were identified to either promote or inhibit program sustainability, including: 1) community uptake; 2) environmental factors; 3) stakeholder awareness and support; 4) presence of a champion; 5) availability of funding; 6) fit and flexibility; and 7) capacity and capacity building. Each factor is provided with a working definition, influential moderators, and key evaluation questions. This study is grounded in, and builds on existing research, and can be used by First Nations communities and universities to support effective sustainability planning for community-based health education interventions.

  11. Comparison of the effectiveness of mydriasis by two instillation methods of combined 0.75% tropicamide and 2.5% phenylephrine eye drop in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamonvaechavan, Pittaya; Chutasmit, Kanya; Damrongrak, Parichat; Koukiatkul, Supanna; Wongkiatkajorn, Tassanee; Ngerncham, Sopapan

    2012-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness and safety of two instillation methods of combined 0.75% tropicamide and 2.5% phenylephrine at 0, 5 minutes (min) with the same combined regimen at 0,30 minutes in preterm infants. A prospective, cross-over, randomized controlled trial was performed to compare 0, 5-min instillation (Method A) of combined 0.75% tropicamide and 2.5% phenylephrine with 0, 30-min instillation (Method B) of the same regimen. Forty-two preterm infants scheduled for screening retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were randomly assigned to two groups. Group 1 was defined as preterms applied by Method A at first examination then by Method B 1-4 weeks apart whereas vice versa in Group 2. Pupil size, heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) were recorded before and after eye-drop instillation. Mean time to 7-mm pupil size was no statistically significant difference between the two methods (Method A 46.47 min, Method B 46.58 min; p = 0.894). Method B has mean longer time to maintain 7-mm pupil size than Method A (Method A 67.67 min, Method B 75.33 min); but not statistically significant different (p = 0.323). HR, SBP and DBP were not significant change between the two methods. Both instillation methods produced consistently sufficient mydriasis and safety for evaluation peripheral fundus. Method B has slight longer mydriatic effect than Method A; thus giving more time to evaluate infant's eye for ophthalmologists.

  12. Postdelivery changes in maternal and infant erythrocyte fatty acids in 3 populations differing in fresh water fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Sango, Wicklif S.; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Long-chain polyunsaturated (LCP) fatty acids (FA) are important during infant development. Mother-to-infant FA-transport occurs at the expense of the maternal status. Maternal and infant FA-status change rapidly after delivery. Methods: Comparison of maternal (mRBC) and infant

  13. Acquiring and presenting Aboriginal art in art museums: my first 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Radford

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, Aboriginal art is celebrated as one of the most popular areas in any Australian art museum. The author charts his role in presenting and acquiring Aboriginal art as art, in art museums, against the backdrop of related developments in the Australian art world. He traces developments from the late 1970s when he was director of the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery, though his 23 years at the Art Gallery of South Australia, as a curator then director, to his current position as director of the National Gallery of Australia in Canberra, which now has the largest collection and display of Australian Indigenous art. He also describes the steady progress long before his time, some of which has not been documented before, made by art museums around Australia as they gradually accepted, collected and prominently displayed Aboriginal art. He was invited to present this paper.

  14. Influences of indigenous language on spatial frames of reference in Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-06-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.

  15. The differential influence of contextual risks on psychosocial functioning and participation of Australian aboriginal youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Katrina D; Taylor, Catherine L; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the differential influence of contextual risks for positive psychosocial functioning and participation in education or employment in a representative sample of 12- to 17-year-old Aboriginal youth (N = 674) using data drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS) 2000-2002. The authors modeled the influence of 3 empirical risk measures (risk factor, cumulative risk, and single risks) on positive psychosocial functioning and participation in education or employment. Results showed different risks for different developmental outcomes. Single sociodemographic risks were associated with reduced likelihood of positive psychosocial functioning, whereas cumulative risk and composite Family Health and Community Risk measures were associated with reduced likelihood of participation in education or employment. Methodological issues and implications for interventions to support young Aboriginal people's adaptation are discussed. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  16. Aborigines, colonizers and newcomers: the landscape of transcultural psychiatry research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; de Moore, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    The authors present an analysis of transcultural psychiatry research in relation to three main population groups in Australia: Aboriginal Australians, documented immigrants, and refugees. The pioneering reports produced by Western psychiatrists in Aboriginal communities are examined in this article. Additional quantitative and qualitative studies developed with Aboriginal people in the context of a traumatic acculturation process are also reviewed. Subsequently, the authors examine the challenges faced by immigrants with mental disorders in a health care system still unequipped to treat a new array of clinical presentations unfamiliar to the clinical staff. The authors also highlight the development of policies aimed at providing quality mental health care to a mosaic of cultures in an evolving multicultural society. Lastly, the psychiatric manifestations of refugees and asylum seekers are analysed in the context of a series of vulnerabilities and deprivations they have experienced, including basic human rights.

  17. Middle-ear disease in remote Aboriginal Australia: a field assessment of surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, D; MacKendrick, A; Weeks, S; Plant, A J

    2000-01-01

    Chronic middle-ear disease is highly prevalent among Australian Aboriginal people, and many undergo surgical treatment. However, the outcomes of surgery in this group have not been fully evaluated. This is a descriptive study of operations for middle-ear disease (excluding grommets) on Aboriginal patients in Kimberley hospitals between 1 October 1986 and 31 December 1995. Logistic regression was used to model predictors of surgical outcome. Success was defined by an intact tympanic membrane and air-bone gap of 10 years, however, this does not take into account the necessity of hearing for language acquisition and learning. Dedicated resources must be allocated for post-operative follow-up of Aboriginal patients so that much-needed, rigorous evaluations of ENT surgery can be conducted.

  18. "Mean mugging": an exploration of young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, Jennifer L; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2015-08-01

    Bullying among youth is rampant and research suggests that young Aboriginal women may be particularly susceptible to bullying. Sport participation has been identified as a possible mechanism to prevent bullying behaviors, yet few researchers have explored bullying within the context of sport. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to explore young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports. Eight young Aboriginal women participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews and follow-up phone interviews. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, and findings were represented by five themes: (1) mean mugging, (2) sport specific, (3) happens all the time, (4) team bonding to address bullying, and (5) prevention through active coaches. The detailed descriptions shared by participants provide insight into a broad range of bullying experiences and serve as a foundation for addressing the bullying that occurs in sport.

  19. Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  20. Aboriginal Astronomical Traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 1: Nyeeruna and the Orion Story

    CERN Document Server

    Leaman, Trevor M

    2014-01-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE (1859-1951) recorded the daily lives, lore, and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as "The Orion Story", stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of "The Orion Story", including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  1. Comparison of IPV to tOPV week 39 boost of primary OPV vaccination in Indian infants: an open labelled randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kanungo

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This study indicates that an IPV boost at week 39 is equivalent to tOPV in intestinal immunity, and provides higher seroconversion compared to tOPV. The major limitation of the study was the additional OPV doses receive by infants during pulse polio immunization resulted in additional mucosal boosting, diminishing the impact of IPV or tOPV boost at week 39. However, IPV for OPV boost should prove to be a step forward in the global polio eradication initiative to reduce the problem of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV.

  2. Comparison of two food record-based dietary assessment methods for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers, and children using data quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freisling, Heinz; C. Ocké, Marga; Casagrande, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed (1) to describe and evaluate the "EPIC-Soft DataEntry" application developed as a user-friendly data entry tool for pan-European and national food consumption surveys among infants and children, and (2) to compare two food record-based dietary assessment methods in terms of food...... description and quantification using data quality indicators. EPIC-Soft DataEntry was used for both methods. Methods Two pilot studies were performed in both Belgium and Czech Republic in a total of 376 children (3 months to 10 year olds): one using a consecutive 3-day food diary; and the second with two non...

  3. Kernicterus in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akihisa; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Shoji, Hiromichi; Nakazawa, Tomoyuki; Mimaki, Masakazu; Fujii, Katsunori; Oba, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2009-06-01

    We sought to clarify the features of kernicterus in preterm infants. The subjects of this study were 8 preterm infants with athetoid cerebral palsy whose gestational ages were 15 mg/dL were observed in 3 infants. No infant showed neurologic symptoms characteristic of classical acute bilirubin encephalopathy during the neonatal period. Dystonic posture and abnormal muscle tone were first recognized within 6 months' corrected age in all patients. During infancy, MRI was performed in 7 infants. Abnormal high-intensity areas were observed in the bilateral globi pallidi in all 7 infants. However, MRI during the neonatal period or after 1 year's corrected age showed no abnormal findings. BAEP measurements were abnormal in 7 of the 8 infants. Preterm infants with athetotic cerebral palsy showed rather homogeneous features, similar to term infants with kernicterus, with marked hyperbilirubinemia. This combination of clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological data will contribute to the increased recognition of preterm infants with kernicterus.

  4. Prevalence and associated factors of COPD among Aboriginal peoples in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Mahmood, Razi; Esmaeelzadeh, Sarvenaz; Kyaw Soe, Nway Mon

    2017-01-01

    Background COPD among Aboriginal peoples in Canada is a major public health concern. This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and association between certain risk factors and COPD among the 35-year-old or older Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. It uses data from Statistics Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS), 2012. It consists of 8,117 self-identified Aboriginal peoples, aged 35 years old or older from all Canadian provinces and territories. The study outcomes centered on evaluating the prevalence and associated factors of COPD. Results This study found that 6.80% of the participants self-reported having COPD. Results of the logistic regression analysis show that COPD was significantly higher among daily smokers (odds ratio [OR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.65–3.14), aged 55 years or older (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 2.14–4.30), who earned $5,000–$9,999 per annum (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 2.39–7.41) and needed health care over the past 12 months and did not receive it (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.27–2.65). Conclusion The findings of our study show that COPD is strongly associated with Aboriginal peoples, who are older, smoke, have a low socioeconomic status (SES) and do not have access to health care when needed. Clinicians, health care professionals, medical/public health organizations, researchers and patients will greatly benefit from additional research in this common, serious and often overlooked disease among Aboriginal peoples in Canada. PMID:28721036

  5. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of health research: Turning principles into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Josephine; Lock, Mark; Turner, Nicole; Dennison, Ray; Coleman, Clare; Kelly, Brian; Wiggers, John

    2015-08-01

    Gaps exist in researchers' understanding of the 'practice' of community governance in relation to research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. We examine Aboriginal community governance of two rural NSW research projects by applying principles-based criteria from two independent sources. One research project possessed a strong Aboriginal community governance structure and evaluated a 2-year healthy lifestyle program for children; the other was a 5-year cohort study examining factors influencing the mental health and well-being of participants. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia's 'Values and ethics: guidelines for ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research' and 'Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations' described by experts in the field. Adopt community-based participatory research constructs. Develop clear governance structures and procedures at the beginning of the study and allow sufficient time for their establishment. Capacity-building must be a key component of the research. Ensure sufficient resources to enable community engagement, conduct of research governance procedures, capacity-building and results dissemination. The implementation of governance structures and procedures ensures research addresses the priorities of the participating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, minimises risks and improves outcomes for the communities. Principles-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of research is very achievable. Next steps include developing a comprehensive evidence base for appropriate governance structures and procedures, and consolidating a suite of practical guides for structuring clear governance in health research. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  6. Increasing rates of diabetes amongst status Aboriginal youth in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Oster

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To track and compare trends in diabetes rates from 1995 to 2007 for Status Aboriginal and general population youth. Study design. Longitudinal observational research study (quantitative using provincial administrative data. Methods. De-identified data was obtained from Alberta Health and Wellness administrative databases for Status Aboriginal (First Nations and Inuit people with Treaty status and general population youth (<20 years. Diabetes cases were identified using the National Diabetes Surveillance System algorithm. Crude annual diabetes prevalence and incidence rates were calculated. The likelihood of being a prevalent case and incident case of diabetes for the 2 populations was compared for the year 2007. Average Annual Percent Changes (AAPC in prevalence and incidence from 1995 to 2007 were determined and compared between the 2 groups to examine trends over time. Results. While the prevalence of diabetes was higher in the general population in 1995, by 2007 there were no between group differences, reflected in the significantly higher AAPC of 6.98 for Status Aboriginal youth. Status Aboriginal males had a lower diabetes risk in 1995 compared with females, and experienced a greater increase in prevalence over the 13 years (AAPC 9.18 so that by 2007 their rates were equivalent to those of the females. Differences in diabetes incidence trends were only observed among male youth, where increases in incidence were greater for Status Aboriginal (AAPC 11.65 compared to general population males (AAPC 4.62 (p = 0.03. Conclusion. Youth-onset diabetes is an increasing problem in Alberta, especially among young Status Aboriginal males.

  7. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povey, Josie; Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-03-11

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members' experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health tools add an important element to public health

  8. Childhood Stress and Adversity is Associated with Late-Life Dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Delbaere, Kim; Draper, Brian; Mack, Holly A; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Chalkley, Simon; Minogue, Cecilia; Broe, Gerald A

    2017-10-01

    High rates of dementia have been observed in Aboriginal Australians. This study aimed to describe childhood stress in older Aboriginal Australians and to examine associations with late-life health and dementia. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample of community-dwelling older Aboriginal Australians. Urban and regional communities in New South Wales, Australia. 336 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians aged 60-92 years, of whom 296 were included in the current analyses. Participants completed a life course survey of health, well-being, cognition, and social history including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), with consensus diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer disease. CTQ scores ranged from 25-117 (median: 29) and were associated with several adverse childhood indicators including separation from family, poor childhood health, frequent relocation, and growing up in a major city. Controlling for age, higher CTQ scores were associated with depression, anxiety, suicide attempt, dementia diagnosis, and, specifically, Alzheimer disease. The association between CTQ scores and dementia remained significant after controlling for depression and anxiety variables (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.05-2.45). In contrast, there were no significant associations between CTQ scores and smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes, or cardiovascular risk factors. Childhood stress appears to have a significant impact on emotional health and dementia for older Aboriginal Australians. The ongoing effects of childhood stress need to be recognized as people grow older, particularly in terms of dementia prevention and care, as well as in populations with greater exposure to childhood adversity, such as Aboriginal Australians. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Autism Treatment in the First Year of Life: A Pilot Study of Infant Start, a Parent-Implemented Intervention for Symptomatic Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S. J.; Vismara, L.; Wagner, A. L.; McCormick, C.; Young, G.; Ozonoff, S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of early autism screening is earlier treatment. We pilot-tested a 12-week, low-intensity treatment with seven symptomatic infants ages 7-15 months. Parents mastered the intervention and maintained skills after treatment ended. Four comparison groups were matched from a study of infant siblings. The treated group of infants was…

  10. Image quality of ct angiography using model-based iterative reconstruction in infants with congenital heart disease: Comparison with filtered back projection and hybrid iterative reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianjun; Zhuang, Jian; Jiang, Jun; Li, Jiahua; Huang, Meiping; Liang, Changhong

    2017-01-01

    To compare the image quality, rate of coronary artery visualization and diagnostic accuracy of 256-slice multi-detector computed tomography angiography (CTA) with prospective electrocardiographic (ECG) triggering at a tube voltage of 80kVp between 3 reconstruction algorithms (filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose(4)) and iterative model reconstruction (IMR)) in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). Fifty-one infants with CHD who underwent cardiac CTA in our institution between December 2014 and March 2015 were included. The effective radiation doses were calculated. Imaging data were reconstructed using the FBP, iDose(4) and IMR algorithms. Parameters of objective image quality (noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)); subjective image quality (overall image quality, image noise and margin sharpness); coronary artery visibility; and diagnostic accuracy for the three algorithms were measured and compared. The mean effective radiation dose was 0.61±0.32 mSv. Compared to FBP and iDose(4), IMR yielded significantly lower noise (Preconstruction algorithm provided significantly increased objective and subjective image quality compared with the FBP and iDose(4) algorithms. However, IMR did not improve the diagnostic accuracy or coronary artery visualization compared with iDose(4). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Comparison of the effect of topical application of human milk and dry cord care on the bacterial colonization of umbilical cord in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abbaszadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk contains significant amounts of compounds that act as natural antimicrobial agents. This study was conducted to compare the effect of topical application of human milk and dry cord care on bacterial colonization in the umbilical cord of newborn infants. Methods: This clinical trial study was carried out on 174 infants in Kashan. The newborns were randomized to mother's milk group and dry cord care group from the birth. In group 1, the mother rubbed her own milk on the cord stump every 12 hours from 3 hours after birth to 2 days after the umbilical cord separation. In group 2, the mother was recommended not to use any material on the cord. Then, the cord samples were taken four times; 3hours after birth, at days 3 and 7, and 2 days after the umbilical cord separation. Results: The findings of the culture two days after umbilical cord separation indicated that low percentage of neonates in the breast milk (23.1% and dry cord care (28.8% groups had bacterial colonization. Moreover, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of growth of pathogenic organisms and normal flora of the skin (P>0.05. Conclusion: Given the low prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in the two groups, it seems using breast milk and dry cord care are equally effective methods of taking care of umbilical cord.

  12. Comparison of surgical outcomes among infants in neonatal intensive care units treated by pediatric surgeons versus general surgeons: The need for pediatric surgery specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Yoon Jung; Lee, Eun Hee; Lee, Ji Sung

    2017-11-01

    This study compared the outcomes of infants who underwent surgery in neonatal intensive care units by pediatric surgeons and by general surgeons. This was a retrospective study of infants who underwent surgery in neonatal intensive care units between 2010 and 2014. A total of 227 patients were included. Of these patients, 116 were operated on by pediatric surgeons (PS) and 111 were operated on by general surgeons (GS). The outcome measures were the overall rate of operative complications, unplanned reoperation, mortality rate, length of stay, operative time, and number of total number of operative procedures. The overall operative complication rate was higher in the GS group compared with the PS group (18.7% vs. 7.0%, p=0.0091). The rate of unplanned reoperations was also higher in the GS group (10.8% vs. 3.5%, p=0.0331). The median operation time (90min vs. 75min, p=0.0474) and median length of stay (24days vs. 18days, p=0.0075) were significantly longer in the GS group. The adjusted odd ratios of postoperative complications for GS were 2.9 times higher than that of PS (OR 2.90, p=0.0352). The operative quality and patient outcomes of the PS group were superior to those of the GS group. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of MR and fluoroscopic mucous fistulography in the pre-operative evaluation of infants with anorectal malformation: a pilot study

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    Alves, Jose C.G.; Lotz, Jan W.; Pitcher, Richard D. [Stellenbosch University, Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Sidler, Daniel [Stellenbosch University, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-08-15

    Anorectal malformations are often associated with rectal pouch fistulas. Surgical correction requires accurate evaluation of the presence and position of such fistulas. Fluoroscopy is currently the chosen modality for the detection of fistulas. The role of MRI is unexplored. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of MR versus fluoroscopic fistulography in the pre-operative evaluation of infants with anorectal malformation. We conducted a pilot study of infants requiring defunctioning colostomy for initial management of anorectal malformation. Dynamic sagittal steady-state free-precession MRI of the pelvis was acquired during introduction of saline into the mucous fistulas. Findings were compared among MR fistulography, fluoroscopic fistulography and intraoperative inspection. Eight children were included. Median age at fistulography was 15 weeks, inter-quartile range 13-20 weeks; all were boys. There was full agreement among MR fistulography, fluoroscopic fistulography and surgical findings. The pilot data suggest that MR fistulography is promising in the pre-operative evaluation of children with anorectal malformation. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of perinatal outcomes in small-for-gestational-age infants classified by population-based versus customised birth weight standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Lee, Su-Ho; Park, Jin-Sun; Woo, Sook-Young; Kim, Seon-Woo; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to derive a customised birth weight standard curve in our institute and to compare the perinatal outcomes of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births classified by population-based versus customised birth weight standards. We surveyed 9052 normal singleton deliveries and generated customised standards by adjusting for maternal characteristics and neonatal gender. We compared adverse perinatal outcomes between SGA and non-SGA births classified by both standards. According to the population-based standards, mothers of SGA infants were younger, thinner and shorter and had higher rates of nulliparity and female births. We adjusted for these maternal characteristics and neonatal gender in our customised standards. Multivariate analysis revealed that there were no differences in neonatal composite morbidity between the standards. However, infants classified as SGA by the customised standards showed a significantly higher rate of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission than those classified by the population-based standards. Our study showed that customised SGA made no significant differences in neonatal composite morbidity, only a modest increase in NICU admission rate compared to population-based standard. To clarify the association of adverse perinatal outcomes with customised SGA, larger studies are required. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. A community-based sports massage course for Aboriginal health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindigni, Dein; Parkinson, Lynne; Walker, Bruce; Rivett, Darren A; Blunden, Steve; Perkins, Janice

    2005-04-01

    To pilot a community-based and owned sports massage course for Aboriginal health workers (AHWs). Descriptive, pilot educational intervention study. Rural, Indigenous Australian community. AHWs working in a rural community. Cultural and logistical acceptability of the program to AHWs. The course was delivered within a culturally acceptable framework with applicability for the evaluation of sports massage skills and knowledge changes in a larger sample. The sports massage course demonstrated its applicability in this rural Aboriginal community and it has the potential to be adapted and adopted in other similar settings.

  16. Sudden infant death syndrome: methodological and patogenetical types of diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Glukhovets

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents an analysis of literature data on pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS in comparison with author’s experience of infants dead in home. Diagnostic significance of qualified autopsy examinations in analysis of infants’ death is shown. Frequent combination of morphogenetic cardiopathy and early signs of atrial myocarditis can be estimated as pathogenetic basis of SIDS.Key words: sudden infant death syndrome, morphogenetic cardiopathy, atrial myocarditis.

  17. International infant mortality rankings: A look behind the numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Korbin; Moon, Marilyn; Sulvetta, Margaret; Chawla, Juhi

    1992-01-01

    The very unfavorable infant mortality ranking of the United States in international comparisons is often used to question the quality of health care there. Infant mortality rates, however, implicitly capture a complicated story, measuring much more than differences in health care across countries. This article examines reasons behind international infant mortality rate rankings, including variations in the measurement of vital events, and differences in risk factors across countries. Its goal...

  18. Under-ascertainment of Aboriginality in records of cardiovascular disease in hospital morbidity and mortality data in Western Australia: a record linkage study

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    Katzenellenbogen Judy M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring the real burden of cardiovascular disease in Australian Aboriginals is complicated by under-identification of Aboriginality in administrative health data collections. Accurate data is essential to measure Australia's progress in its efforts to intervene to improve health outcomes of Australian Aboriginals. We estimated the under-ascertainment of Aboriginal status in linked morbidity and mortality databases in patients hospitalised with cardiovascular disease. Methods Persons with public hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Western Australia during 2000-2005 (and their 20-year admission history or who subsequently died were identified from linkage data. The Aboriginal status flag in all records for a given individual was variously used to determine their ethnicity (index positive, and in all records both majority positive or ever positive and stratified by region, age and gender. The index admission was the baseline comparator. Results Index cases comprised 62,692 individuals who shared a total of 778,714 hospital admissions over 20 years, of which 19,809 subsequently died. There were 3,060 (4.9% persons identified as Aboriginal on index admission. An additional 83 (2.7% Aboriginal cases were identified through death records, increasing to 3.7% when cases with a positive Aboriginal identifier in the majority (≥50% of previous hospital admissions over twenty years were added and by 20.8% when those with a positive flag in any record over 20 years were incorporated. These results equated to underestimating Aboriginal status in unlinked index admission by 2.6%, 3.5% and 17.2%, respectively. Deaths classified as Aboriginal in official records would underestimate total Aboriginal deaths by 26.8% (95% Confidence Interval 24.1 to 29.6%. Conclusions Combining Aboriginal determinations in morbidity and official death records increases ascertainment of unlinked cardiovascular morbidity in Western Australian

  19. Congenital Malformations in Singleton Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Singleton Infants by Natural Conception in Tehran, Iran

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    Ramin Mozafari Kermani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple pregnancies occur more frequently in assisted reproductive technology (ART compared to normal conception (NC. It is known that the risk of congenital malformations in a multiple pregnancy are higher than single pregnancy. The aim of this study is to compare congenital malformations in singleton infants conceived by ART to singleton infants conceived naturally. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, we performed a historical cohort study of major congenital malformations (MCM in 820 singleton births from January 2012 to December 2014. The data for this analysis were derived from Tehran’s ART linked data file. The risk of congenital malformations was compared in 164 ART infants and 656 NC infants. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses for the independent association of ART on each outcome. Results: We found 40 infants with MCM 29 (4.4% NC infants and 14 (8.3% ART infants. In comparison with NC infants, ART infants had a significant 2-fold increased risk of MCM (P=0.046. After adjusting individually for maternal age, infant gender, prior stillbirth, mother’s history of spontaneous abortion, and type of delivery, we did not find any difference in risk. In this study the majority (95.1% of all infants were normal but 4.9% of infants had at least one MCM. We found a difference in risk of MCMs between in vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. We excluded the possible role of genotype and other unknown factors in causing more malformations in ART infants. Conclusion: This study reported a higher risk of MCMs in ART singleton infants than in NC singleton infants. Congenital heart disease, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH, and urogenital malformations were the most reported major malformations in singleton ART infants according to organ and system classification.

  20. Public health research involving aboriginal peoples: research ethics board stakeholders' reflections on ethics principles and research processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Sarah; Worthington, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    The second edition (2010) of the Tri-Council Policy Statement on Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS2) prescribes a set of principles and provisions for engagement with Aboriginal communities. The objective of this study was to explore research ethics board (REB) stakeholder perspectives on the principles and processes of reviewing and conducting public health research with Aboriginal populations and communities. Twenty-four semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with REB staff, chairs, members (academic, community and student), and ethics policy key informants with knowledge of the ethics review process, including four Aboriginal participants. Interviews were professionally transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using NVivo 8 qualitative data management software. Three dominant themes emerged specific to ethical research practices with Aboriginal communities: 1) the importance of understanding Aboriginal research as a distinct form of research; 2) the unique nature and complexity of negotiating community consent; and 3) the importance of trust and relationship-building in the research process. Thematic results highlight the most prominent issues that REB participants encountered in reviewing research involving Aboriginal peoples. Continued attention needs to be paid to acknowledging and respecting issues of diversity in research involving diverse First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples. While specific to Aboriginal peoples, the TCPS2 guidelines also illustrate processes and practices that may assist in the development of respectful, collaborative public health research relationships with other historically marginalized populations.

  1. An Opportunity for Healing and Holistic Care: Exploring the Roles of Health Care Providers Working Within Northern Canadian Aboriginal Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Zaida; Holmes, Dave; Chartrand, Larry

    2016-05-22

    The purpose of this qualitative study was exploring what the roles and challenges of health care providers working within Northern Canadian Aboriginal communities are and what resources can help support or impede their efforts in working toward addressing health inequities within these communities. The qualitative research conducted was influenced by a postcolonial epistemology. The works of theorists Fanon on colonization and racial construction, Kristeva on semiotics and abjection, and Foucault on power/knowledge, governmentality, and biopower were used in providing a theoretical framework. Critical discourse analysis of 25 semistructured interviews with health care providers was used to gain a better understanding of their roles and challenges while working within Northern Canadian Aboriginal communities. Within this research study, three significant findings emerged from the data. First, the Aboriginal person's identity was constructed in relation to the health care provider's role of delivering essential health services. Second, health care providers were not treating the "ill" patient, but rather treating the patient for being "ill." Third, health care providers were treating the Aboriginal person for being "Aboriginal" by separating the patient from his or her identity. The treatment involved reforming the Aboriginal patient from the condition of being "Aboriginal." © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Do programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people leaving prison meet their health and social support needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope; Lloyd, Jane E; Joshi, Chandni; Malera-Bandjalan, Kathy; Baldry, Eileen; McEntyre, Elizabeth; Sherwood, Juanita; Reath, Jennifer; Indig, Devon; Harris, Mark F

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this review was to synthesise evidence on the health and social support needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people leaving prison and on programs which aid successful community re-entry. A systematic literature review was undertaken of peer-reviewed and grey literature published between 2001 and 2013, focusing on the post-release needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults and pre- and post-release programs. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have high health and social support needs on leaving prison. There is little literature evidence that re-entry programs commonly consider health needs, support linkages with primary care or Aboriginal Medical Services, or are designed in consideration of the particular needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In the absence of evaluative evidence on re-entry programs in this group, we have synthesised the best practice recommendations. Re-entry programs must be culturally competent in design and delivery, holistic, take a long-term view, involve families and communities, demonstrate interagency coordination and promote linkages between prison and community-based services. There is an urgent need for accessible pre- and post-release programs which meet the particular needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, including their health needs. Programs must be flexible, comprehensive and accessible to those on remand or with short sentences. Stronger linkage with primary care and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community controlled health organisations is recommended. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  3. Comparison between capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography for the study of the occurrence of patulin in apple juice intended for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Arbizu, M; González-Peñas, E; Amézqueta, S

    2010-01-01

    Apple juice samples intended for infants purchased in Navarra (Spain) have been analyzed for PAT occurrence. Two capillary electrophoresis methods, based on a MEKC and a CEC system, and an HPLC method were evaluated for the aforementioned study. The CEC system gave less satisfying separations and several practical problems, so samples have been analyzed by MEKC and HPLC. Both methods have been comparable in terms of recovery, precision, limits of detection, volume of organic solvents used and adequate selectivity with regard to PAT and HMF. The analysis time in HPLC has been slightly lower than in the MEKC methodology. The PAT levels obtained in apple juice by both validated methods showed a strong correlation (papple juices samples were in a range between day(-1) considering a body weight of 10 kg and an apple juice consumption of 130 mL day(-1), 26% of the PMTDI recommended by JECFA. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Colonial Perception of the Aboriginal Development and Economic System: The Question of the “First Contact”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Durnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main arguments in Locke’s theory was that the Aboriginals were underdeveloped and were living in simply organized societies based on a self-sufficient economy which could not produce any extra profit. In other words, in Locke’s view there existed two economic worlds – one European which had a potential for making profit, and one aboriginal, mainly connected with a barter economy. The research focus is the attempt to deny Locke’s myth about aboriginal economies at the time of the first contact with European colonizers.

  5. Antiretroviral treatment outcomes among foreign-born and Aboriginal peoples living with HIV/AIDS in northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Megan E; Hughes, Christine A; Yasui, Yutaka; Saunders, L Duncan; Houston, Stan

    2014-07-11

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic disproportionately involves socially vulnerable populations. Since 2001, the proportion of foreign-born patients served by the Northern Alberta HIV Program has increased. Our study aimed to evaluate antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes among HIV-infected foreign-born patients in northern Alberta, Canada, prescribed once-daily ART. We utilized a two-part retrospective cohort study to compare ART outcomes of foreign-born and Canadian-born Aboriginal patients compared to Canadian-born non-Aboriginal patients. Part 1 utilized logistic regression to compare the odds of experiencing initial virological suppression of foreign-born (40%) and Canadian-born Aboriginal patients (27%) compared with Canadian-born non-Aboriginal patients (33%). Part 2 used survival analysis to compare the rate of ART failure by country of origin among patients who achieved initial virological suppression in Part 1. Our study sample included 322 treatment-naïve patients (122 foreign-born). For Part 1, 261 patients achieved initial virological suppression within six months of initiating ART. After controlling for age, treatment regimen, HIV risk exposure, and calendar year compared to Canadian-born non-Aboriginal patients, the odds of achieving initial virological suppression were significantly lower for Canadian-born Aboriginal patients (OR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.20-0.96); and similar for foreign-born patients (OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.33-1.73). Part 2 included 261 patients who were followed for 635.1 person-years. Adjusting for age, sex, baseline CD4 cell count, and drug regimen, compared to Canadian-born non-Aboriginal patients, Canadian-born Aboriginal and foreign-born patients had similar rates of virological failure after achieving initial virological suppression (HR=1.54, 95% CI: 0.38-6.18; HR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.11-2.20, respectively). Our study indicated that ART outcomes among Alberta-based foreign-born patients are similar to those among Canadian-born non-Aboriginal

  6. Parental psychological distress and confidence after an infant's birth: the role of attachment representations in parents of infants with congenital anomalies and parents of healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana; Nazaré, Bárbara; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed to examine parental psychological distress and confidence after an infant's birth, when parenting an infant with a diagnosis of a congenital anomaly, and to understand the role of attachment representations on parental adjustment. Parents of infants with a congenital anomaly (44 couples) and parents of healthy infants (46 couples) completed measures of adult attachment representations and of psychological distress and parental confidence (one month after the infant's birth). Results showed no group differences in psychological distress. Mothers in the clinical group presented lower confidence than mothers in the comparison group, while for fathers the inverse pattern was found, showing their involvement in the caretaking of the infant. Insecure attachment representations predicted parental psychological distress, and a moderator role of group was found only for fathers. These results highlight the role of secure attachment representations as an individual resource in stress-inducing situations.

  7. Effective Behaviour Management Strategies for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Linda L.; Boon, Helen J.; Lewthwaite, Brian E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a systematic literature review conducted to identify effective behaviour management strategies which create a positive learning environment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. The search criteria employed resulted in 103 documents which were analysed in response to this focus. Results identified…

  8. VET Retention in Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities. Good Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2017

    2017-01-01

    This good practice guide is based on the research project "Enhancing training advantage for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander learners" by John Guenther et al. on behalf of Ninti One Limited. The project examines five unique and successful vocational education and training (VET) programs in remote areas and identifies how…

  9. Mining Aboriginal Labour: Examining Capital Reconversion Strategies Occurring on the Risk Management Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a vocational education and training partnership occurring in the Canadian oil sands mining industry. The case study involves a corporate-sponsored pre-apprenticeship training programme designed to procure aboriginal labour in the province of Alberta. Interviews with members of key partner groups and stakeholders occurred…

  10. Visibility and Voice: Aboriginal People Experience Culturally Safe and Unsafe Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Rachelle D; Evans, Mike; Berg, Lawrence D; Bottorff, Joan L; Dingwall, Carlene; Alexis, Carmella; Nyberg, Jessie; Smith, Michelle L

    2015-12-01

    In Canada, cultural safety (CS) is emerging as a theoretical and practice lens to orient health care services to meet the needs of Aboriginal people. Evidence suggests Aboriginal peoples' encounters with health care are commonly negative, and there is concern that these experiences can contribute to further adverse health outcomes. In this article, we report findings based on participatory action research drawing on Indigenous methods. Our project goal was to interrogate practices within one hospital to see whether and how CS for Aboriginal patients could be improved. Interviews with Aboriginal patients who had accessed hospital services were conducted, and responses were collated into narrative summaries. Using interlocking analysis, findings revealed a number of processes operating to produce adverse health outcomes. One significant outcome is the production of structural violence that reproduces experiences of institutional trauma. Positive culturally safe experiences, although less frequently reported, were described as interpersonal interactions with feelings visibility and therefore, treatment as a "human being." © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The Alcohol Awareness project: community education and brief intervention in an urban Aboriginal setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conigrave, Katherine; Freeman, Brian; Caroll, Therese; Simpson, Lynette; Lee, Kylie; Wade, Vicki; Kiel, Keren; Ella, Steve; Becker, Karen; Freeburn, Brad

    2012-12-01

    Although many Aboriginal Australians live in cities, minimal research has addressed community-based approaches to reduce alcohol problems in that setting. We conducted a pilot study of community-based education and brief intervention. Existing Aboriginal community-based groups in an urban region were offered interactive education sessions with Aboriginal facilitators. The session was based around a World Health Organization brief intervention, with posters as visual aids. Before education, participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and questions on potential barriers to treatment access. After the session, feedback on AUDIT score and one- on- one brief intervention were offered. Over 12 months, eight sessions were conducted and 58 individuals participated. The groups reached individuals with potential need for assistance: although 29.8% of the 47 questionnaire respondents were non-drinkers, 44.7% had an AUDIT score (of 8+) suggesting an alcohol problem, and 51.5% of drinkers reported 5+ (non-standardised) drinks per occasion. Participants showed considerable interest in the resources and most actively participated. All appeared unaware of recommended drinking limits, or of newer treatment options such as home detoxification or relapse prevention medicines. Participants were interested to receive their AUDIT score but not one-on- one intervention. Potential treatment access barriers were described. Interactive group education and feedback of AUDIT score is labour intensive but promoted thoughtful discussion on drinking. Methods to empower and support urban Aboriginal communities to tackle drinking problems need further exploration.

  12. Client perspectives on an Aboriginal community led oral health service in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Michelle; Gwynne, Kylie; Angell, Blake; Tennant, Marc; Blinkhorn, Anthony

    2017-06-01

    An oral health service was implemented, using a unique community development approach, for Northern NSW Australian Aboriginal communities in 2013-14. This study examined the views of children (and parents) who accessed the service, including: the extent of reported dental problems, oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour, accessibility of oral health services, satisfaction and cultural sensitivity of the service. A survey of the children who accessed this service was conducted between October 2014 and December 2014. A total of 49 (71%) Aboriginal children aged 4-14 (or parents of), provided responses to the survey. All agreed that healthy teeth were important (100%), but many thought oral disease leading to extraction was normal (68%). High levels of oral pain were reported (66%), half (53%) reported brushing morning and night. Access to the new dental health service was reported as 'easy' (92%). Many walked (47%) or were driven (35%) in health team (100%). The implementation of a new community led oral health service to Northern NSW Aboriginal communities was shown here to be well-utilised, respected and in an area of high need. The collaborative approach could be continued to be utilised to implement targeted, community led health promotion programs to facilitate and encourage better oral health practices for the Aboriginal children in these communities. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. Promoting women's health in remote Aboriginal settings: Midwifery students' insights for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackrah, Rosalie D; Thompson, Sandra C; Durey, Angela

    2015-12-01

    To describe midwifery students' insights on promoting health to Aboriginal women in remote Australia following a supervised clinical placement. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with all midwifery students who undertook the placement between 2010 and 2013. Aboriginal communities on the Ngaanyatjarra Lands, Western Australia. Undergraduate and postgraduate midwifery students from a Western Australian university. Remote cultural immersion clinical placement. Student learning related to culturally respectful health care delivery and promotion of health. Students observed that, despite vast distances, high rates of participation in a breast screening program were achieved due to the informal provision of culturally relevant information and support. Opportunistic encounters in communities also enabled sexual health messages to be delivered more widely and in less formal settings. The role played by Aboriginal Health Workers and female family members was vital. The importance of culturally respectful approaches to sensitive women's business, including discretion, the use of local language and pictorial representations of information, was recognised as was the socio-cultural context and its impact on the health and well-being of the community. Although short in duration, the Ngaanyatjarra Lands clinical placement provided midwifery students with a rare opportunity to observe the importance of local contexts and cultural protocols in Aboriginal communities, and to adapt health promotion strategies to meet local needs and ways of doing things. These strategies embraced the strengths, assets and capacities of communities, yet students also witnessed challenges associated with access, delivery and acceptance of health care in remote settings. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  14. Modern contact investigation methods for enhancing tuberculosis control in Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Cook

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aboriginal communities in Canada are challenged by a disproportionate burden of TB infection and disease. Contact investigation (CI guidelines exist but these strategies do not take into account the unique social structure of different populations. Because of the limitations of traditional CI, new approaches are under investigation and include the use of social network analysis, geographic information systems and genomics, in addition to the widespread use of genotyping to better understand TB transmission. Guidelines for the routine use of network methods and other novel methodologies for TB CI and outbreak investigation do not exist despite the gathering evidence that these approaches can positively impact TB control efforts, even in Aboriginal communities. The feasibility and efficacy of these novel approaches to CI in Aboriginal communities requires further investigation. The successful integration of these novel methodologies will require community involvement, capacity building and ongoing support at every level. The outcome will not only be the systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of CI data in high-burden communities to assess transmission but the prioritization of contacts who are candidates for treatment of LTBI which will break the cycle of transmission. Ultimately, the measure of success will be a clear and sustained decline in TB incidence in Aboriginal communities.

  15. Primary oral health service provision in Aboriginal Medical Services-based dental clinics in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Estie; Perera, Irosha; Tennant, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Australians living in rural and remote areas have poorer access to dental care. This situation is attributed to workforce shortages, limited facilities and large distances to care centres. Against this backdrop, rural and remote Indigenous (Aboriginal) communities in Western Australia seem to be more disadvantaged because evidence suggests they have poorer oral health than non-Indigenous people. Hence, provision of dental care for Aboriginal populations in culturally appropriate settings in rural and remote Western Australia is an important public health issue. The aim of this research was to compare services between the Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS)-based clinics and a typical rural community clinic. A retrospective analysis of patient demographics and clinical treatment data was undertaken among patients who attended the dental clinics over a period of 6 years from 1999 to 2004. The majority of patients who received dental care at AMS dental clinics were Aboriginal (95.3%), compared with 8% at the non-AMS clinic. The rate of emergency at the non-AMS clinic was 33.5%, compared with 79.2% at the AMS clinics. The present study confirmed that more Indigenous patients were treated in AMS dental clinics and the mix of dental care provided was dominated by emergency care and oral surgery. This indicated a higher burden of oral disease and late utilisation of dental care services (more focus on tooth extraction) among rural and remote Indigenous people in Western Australia.

  16. "Do You Live in a Teepee?" Aboriginal Students' Experiences with Racial Microaggressions in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. Anthony; Kleiman, Sela; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Isaac, Paige; Poolokasingham, Gauthamie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current qualitative investigation was to examine Aboriginal undergraduates' (N = 6) experiences with racial microaggressions at a leading Canadian university. The research team analyzed focus group data using a modified consensual qualitative research approach (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). The authors identified 5…

  17. The Development of Cross-Cultural Relations with a Canadian Aboriginal Community through Sport Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…

  18. The current state of Indigenous and Aboriginal women with diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, Cynthia; Skinner, Timothy; Ellis, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    To undertake a systematic review of diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), determining prevalence and impact on maternal and child health outcomes for Indigenous and Aboriginal women. Method: Electronic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, ERIC, DARE, CDSR, PsycINFO, Austhealth and HealthInfoNet were under...

  19. Familial Cases of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura in Taiwanese Aborigines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hung Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP is a disorder whose cause and pathogenesis is unknown; some familial cases of this disease have been reported. The clinical heterogeneity in HSP may be conferred by a number of genetic loci, including the major histocompatibility complex. The racial and genetic factors responsible for the occurrence of the familial cases of HSP in Taiwan are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the racial and genetic factors in familial HSP cases in Taiwan. We retrospectively collected the HSP cases in our hospital during 2006 through 2010 and observed that familial HSP cases were only in Taroko Aborigines. Six cases of HSP in 3 Taroko families were found, and their human leukocyte antigens (HLA were studied in the tissue typing laboratory of our hospital, to determine the possible association with familial HSP cases in Taiwanese Aborigines. Our results suggest an increased frequency of familial HSP cases with HLA-A24 in Taiwanese Taroko Aborigines. We concluded that racial and genetic predisposition was the possible cause for the familial occurrence of and renal involvement in HSP in Taiwanese Aborigines.

  20. Science Education Curriculum Development Principles in Taiwan: Connecting with Aboriginal Learning and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Hua; Liu, Yuan-Chen

    2017-01-01

    This paper reflects thorough consideration of cultural perspectives in the establishment of science curriculum development principles in Taiwan. The authority explicitly states that education measures and activities of aboriginal peoples' ethnic group should be implemented consistently to incorporate their history, language, art, living customs,…

  1. Tobacco control policies and activities in Aboriginal community-controlled health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Maureen E; Hunt, Jennifer M; Foster, Raylene; Couzos, Sophia; van der Sterren, Anke E; Sarin, Jasmine; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe tobacco control policies and activities at a nationally representative sample of Aboriginal community-controlled health services (ACCHSs). The Talking About The Smokes (TATS) project used a quota sampling design to recruit 34 ACCHSs around Australia. Between April 2012 and October 2013, a representative at each ACCHS completed a survey about the service's tobacco control policies and activities. Questions about support for smoke-free policies were also included in the TATS project survey of 2435 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members of the communities served by the ACCHSs. ACCHS tobacco control policies and activities. Thirty-two surveys were completed, covering 34 sites. Most ACCHSs (24/32) prioritised tobacco control "a great deal" or "a fair amount", and all services had smoke-free workplace policies. Most had staff working on tobacco control and had provided tobacco control training within the past year. A range of quit-smoking information and activities had been provided for clients and the community, as well as extra smoking cessation support for staff. There was strong support for smoke-free ACCHSs from within the Aboriginal communities, with 87% of non-smokers, 85% of ex-smokers and 77% of daily smokers supporting a complete ban on smoking inside and around ACCHS buildings. The high level of commitment and experience within ACCHSs provides a strong base to sustain further tobacco control measures to reduce the very high smoking prevalence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations.

  2. Sport, Educational Engagement and Positive Youth Development: Reflections of Aboriginal Former Youth Sports Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Nicole; Ma'ayah, Fadi; Harms, Craig; Guilfoyle, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Participation in sport during high school has been linked with a range of educational and developmental benefits. However, there is limited research investigating the benefits of participation in sport from the perspective of Aboriginal former youth sports participants. The purpose of the current research was to investigate how participation in…

  3. Building on Conceptual Interpretations of Aboriginal Literacy in Anishinaabe Research: A Turtle Shaker Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debassige, Brent

    2013-01-01

    This article comes out of the larger context of my doctoral dissertation where I investigated my experiences as an academic who attempts to remain true to Indigenous Knowledge (IK) traditions while working within a Western European intellectual setting. In this current paper, I combine the conceptual frameworks of Aboriginal literacy and…

  4. Respiratory morbidity and lung function in two Aboriginal communities in Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Ton, A.; James, A.L.; Wood, M.; Musk, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in the rates of respiratory symptoms, asthma and levels of lung function in two remote Aboriginal communities. Methodology: Respiratory symptoms, smoking history, skin prick test responses to common allergens, serum IgE, lung function, airway responsiveness to

  5. Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccols, Alison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and…

  6. Self-Esteem and Cultural Identity in Aboriginal Language Immersion Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcom, Lindsay A.

    2017-01-01

    In gauging the success of Aboriginal language immersion education, the focus is often placed on measuring language acquisition and academic achievement. Although useful, these metrics only tell part of the story; to achieve real school success, it is also vital to develop high personal self-esteem that results in a positive concept of oneself as a…

  7. Tracing Spectres of Whiteness: Discourse and the Construction of Teaching Subjects in Urban Aboriginal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    The author traces how discourse functions in the context of a school-based, urban Aboriginal education initiative, with a focus on the construction and organization of teaching subjects. Critical discourse analysis that traces spectres reveals some of the ways that whiteness and Eurocentrism create the possibilities for, and the conditions in…

  8. Diabetes mellitus and the Aboriginal diabetic initiative in Canada: An update review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Leung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease of major global health concern due to its increasing prevalence in both developing and developed counties, with a projection increase of 214% from the year 2000 to 2030. Among the Aboriginal population of Canada (which includes the First Nations, Inuit and Metis, diabetes mellitus contribute significantly to their higher morbidity and increased health disparity when compared to the non-Aboriginal Canadians. In view of this, the Federal Government of Canada had launched the Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative (ADI in 1999 as part of the bigger Canadian Diabetes Strategy to provide a better framework for surveillance, public education and community-based management of diabetes. Originally, ADI was intended for a 5-year cycle, but it was renewed twice in 2005 and then 2010, with a total funding of C$523 million. Given its long history of operation and the massive amount of revenue being injected, it is worthwhile to review the background information and the relevant data that had fostered the ADI; and more importantly, to critically evaluate the benefits and impact of the ADI in terms of the actual health of the Aboriginals and their social inequalities.

  9. HIV vaccine acceptability and culturally appropriate dissemination among sexually diverse Aboriginal peoples in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P A; Woodford, M R; Logie, C

    2012-01-01

    This study explored HIV vaccine acceptability and strategies for culturally appropriate dissemination among sexually diverse Aboriginal peoples in Canada, among those at highest HIV risk. We conducted four focus groups (n=23) with Aboriginal male (1) and female (1) service users, peer educators (1) and service providers (1) in Ontario, Canada. Transcripts were analysed with narrative thematic techniques from grounded theory, using NVivo. Participants' mean age was 37 years; about half (52%) were female, half (48%) Two-spirit or lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB)-identified, 48% had a high-school education or less and 57% were unemployed. Vaccine uptake was motivated by community survival; however, negative HIV vaccine perceptions, historically based mistrust of government and healthcare institutions, perceived conflict between western and traditional medicine, sexual prejudice and AIDS stigma within and outside of Aboriginal communities, and vaccine cost may present formidable obstacles to HIV vaccine acceptability. Culturally appropriate processes of engagement emerged on individual levels (i.e., respect for self-determination, explanations in Native languages, use of modelling and traditional healing concepts) and community levels (i.e., leadership by Aboriginal HIV advocates and political representatives, identification of gatekeepers, and procuring Elders' endorsements). Building on cultural strengths and acknowledging the history and context of mistrust and social exclusion are fundamental to effective HIV vaccine dissemination.

  10. Teachers Make a Difference to the Study of Aboriginal Music in NSW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Anne; Bradley, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Australian Indigenous music and culture are in the foreground when Australia celebrates itself in international contexts but their inclusion in the school curriculum is sporadic. In New South Wales (NSW), high school music teachers are responsible for educating students about Aboriginal music(s) and culture(s) within a mandatory focus on…

  11. Definitions of Suicide and Self-Harm Behavior in an Australian Aboriginal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way…

  12. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of present-day Aboriginal Australians and implications for human evolution in Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Nano; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; Turkalov, Rust; van Oorschot, Roland A H; van Holst Pellekaan,