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Sample records for aboriginal infants comparison

  1. Pneumococcal vaccination and otitis media in Australian Aboriginal infants: comparison of two birth cohorts before and after introduction of vaccination

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    Mackenzie Grant

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal children in remote Australia have high rates of complicated middle ear disease associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogens. We assessed the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination for prevention of otitis media in this setting. Methods We compared two birth cohorts, one enrolled before (1996–2001, and the second enrolled after introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate and booster 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (2001–2004. Source populations were the same for both cohorts. Detailed examinations including tympanometry, video-recorded pneumatic otoscopy and collection of discharge from tympanic membrane perforations, were performed as soon as possible after birth and then at regular intervals until 24 months of life. Analyses (survival, point prevalence and incidence were adjusted for confounding factors and repeated measures with sensitivity analyses of differential follow-up. Results Ninety-seven vaccinees and 51 comparison participants were enrolled. By age 6 months, 96% (81/84 of vaccinees and 100% (41/41 of comparison subjects experienced otitis media with effusion (OME, and by 12 months 89% and 88% experienced acute otitis media (AOM, 34% and 35% experienced tympanic membrane perforation (TMP and 14% and 23% experienced chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM. Age at the first episode of OME, AOM, TMP and CSOM was not significantly different between the two groups. Adjusted incidence of AOM (incidence rate ratio: 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69–1.13] and TMP (incidence rate ratio: 0.63 [0.36–1.11] was not significantly reduced in vaccinees. Vaccinees experienced less recurrent TMP, 9% (8/95 versus 22% (11/51, (odds ratio: 0.33 [0.11–1.00]. Conclusion Results of this study should be interpreted with caution due to potential bias and confounding. It appears that introduction of pneumococcal vaccination among Aboriginal infants was not associated with significant changes

  2. Comparison of arch form between ethnic Malays and Malaysian Aborigines in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Xinwei, Eunice Soh; Lim, Sheh Yinn; Jamaludin, Marhazlinda; Mohamed, Nor Himazian; Yusof, Zamros Yuzaidi Mohd; Shoaib, Lily Azura; Nik Hussein, Nik Noriah

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare the frequency distribution of various arch shapes in ethnic Malays and Malaysian Aborigines in Peninsular Malaysia and to investigate the morphological differences of arch form between these two ethnic groups. Methods: We examined 120 ethnic Malay study models (60 maxillary, 60 mandibular) and 129 Malaysian Aboriginal study models (66 maxillary, 63 mandibular). We marked 18 buccal tips and incisor line angles on each model, and digitized them using 2-dimens...

  3. A comparison of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students on the inter-related dimensions of self-concept, strengths and achievement

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    Jessica Whitley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. The current study explored the relationships between multidimensional self-concept, perceived strengths and academic achievement among a sample Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students. Results indicated that perceived self-concept and strengths were largely similar across groups. However, students in the two groups drew on different strengths to comprise their general self-concept. Findings are explored within the context of existing research and theory.

  4. Changes in Tobacco Use, Susceptibility to Future Smoking, and Quit Attempts among Canadian Youth over Time: A Comparison of Off-Reserve Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Youth

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    Tara Elton-Marshall

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a growing inequity in tobacco use, susceptibility to future smoking, and quit attempts among Off-Reserve Aboriginal (ORA youth in Canada relative to Non-Aboriginal youth. Current smoking, susceptibility to future smoking and quit attempts were examined among a nationally representative sample of ORA and Non-Aboriginal Canadian youth. Data are from cross-sectional surveys of 88,661 respondents in Grades 6 to 9 across the 2004, 2006 and 2008 survey waves of the Youth Smoking Survey (YSS. At each wave, ORA youth were more likely to be current smokers (overall OR = 3.91, 95% CI 3.47 to 4.41, to be susceptible to future smoking (overall OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.48, and less likely to have ever made a quit attempt compared to Non-Aboriginal youth (overall OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.96. Although susceptibility to future smoking declined for Non-Aboriginal youth, the prevalence of susceptibility remained stable among ORA youth. The percentage of ORA youth reporting making a quit attempt increased, however, current smoking rates among ORA youth did not decline. These findings suggest that the disparity in susceptibility to future tobacco use among ORA and Non-Aboriginal youth has increased over time. Despite increased rates of quit attempts, current smoking rates remain significantly higher among ORA youth. Tobacco control programs for Aboriginal youth should be a public health priority.

  5. Educational Equity in the Access to Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of Ethnic Minorities in China with Aboriginals in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This study provides insight into equity issues in post-secondary education by exploring and assessing the history, the reality and the potential developments in higher education for minority students in China, in comparison to post-secondary education for aboriginal students in Canada. It highlights access to post-secondary education by these…

  6. Nonmetric tooth crown traits in the Ami tribe, Taiwan aborigines: comparisons with other east Asian populations.

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    Manabe, Y; Rokutanda, A; Kitagawa, Y

    1992-10-01

    The frequencies of occurrence of 17 tooth crown traits in the living Ami tribe, which inhabits the east coast of Taiwan, were investigated and compared with other East Asian populations based on Turner's (1987) Mongoloid dental variation theory. Principal coordinate analysis based on Smith's mean measure of divergence using frequencies of the 17 traits suggests that the Ami tribe together with the Yami tribe and the Bunun tribe is included in the sinodont group typical of the Chinese mainland and northeast Asia. In light of these results and the estimated distribution of sinodonty and sundadonty in the past and the present, we speculate that the gene flow from Chinese mainlanders to native sundadonts, who seem to have migrated northward to Taiwan, contributed significantly to the formation of the living Taiwan aboriginal groups, sinodonts. Among the aboriginal tribes of Taiwan, the Ami have characteristics intermediate between those of the Yami and the Bunun. The relative positions of these tribes in East Asian populations suggests that the extent of sinodontification and of genetic isolation is one of the causes of the intertribal variation.

  7. Bullying in an Aboriginal Context

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    Coffin, Juli; Larson, Ann; Cross, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education Officers…

  8. Comparison of Congenital Abnormalities of Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques versus Infants with Natural Conception in Tehran

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    Hamid Gourabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries, 1 to 3% of newborn infants are conceived by assisted reproductivetechniques (ART. Despite the success of ART, there is concern about the risk of congenitalmalformations among these infants. We report our experience to determine whether use of ARTis associated with an increase in major congenital malformations or adverse pregnancy outcomes.Materials and Methods: Historical cohort study of major congenital malformations (MCMwas performed in 978 births from January 2008 to December 2010. The data for this analysiswere derived from a Tehran’s ART linked data file by simple sampling method. In our study, therisk of congenital malformations was compared in 326 ART infants and 652 naturally conceived(NC infants. We also performed multiple logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratio(OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the independent association of ART on each outcome.Results: We found 56 infants with major congenital malformations, these included 29 NC infants(4.4% and 27 ART infants (8.3%. In comparison with NC infants, ART infants had a significant1.94-fold increased risk of MCM.After adjustment for maternal age, infant’s sex stillbirth,abortion and type of delivery, we found a relatively small difference in risk (OR=2.04. Inthis study the majority (94.3% of all infants were normal but 5.7% of infants had at least oneMCM. The prevalence rate for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI was 6.5% for the Invitro fertilisation (IVF group was 15.9% or 2.73-fold higher than ICSI group (P=0.018. Alsowe ignore the possible role of genotype and other unknown factors in causing more malformationsin ART infants.Conclusion: Other studies have shown a slightly increased risk of major congenital malformationsin pregnancies resulting from ART. Likewise, this study reports a greater risk ofMCMs in ART infants than in naturally conceived infants. We also found evidence of a differencein risk of MCMs between IVF

  9. Aboriginal Review 2003/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information on Syncrude's efforts and achievements in working with Aboriginal communities and leaders in Alberta since 2002 through its Aboriginal Development Program. The report discusses the six key commitment areas of the Program. First, the report provides an overview of Syncrude's achievements in the area of corporate leadership including participation in the Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Industry Advisory Committee; recognition by the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business as a leader in Aboriginal relations through the Aboriginal Relations program; supporting the National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation; championing the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Council of Canada; membership of the Alberta Chamber of Resources Aboriginal Programs Project; Conference Board of Canada's Council on Corporate Aboriginal Relations; and, chairing the Mining Association of Canada. The report discusses business development of Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business owners including Syncrude's employment targets for Aboriginal employment in the Syncrude workforce. It discusses community development in Aboriginal communities such as long distance learning; the Fort Chipewyan day care centre; the Chipewyan Prairie Dene First Nation Multi-Purpose Community Centre in Janvier; and, an elder care facility in Fort McKay First Nation community. It discusses education and training including the Alberta Aboriginal Apprenticeship Project; Syncrude Aboriginal/Women Education Awards Program; University of Alberta Aboriginal Careers Initiative; and, the Aboriginal Financial Management Internship. The report also discusses Syncrude's consultations with Aboriginal communities on environmental issues such as end-land use, air quality and how further expansion can occur without long-term impacts on traditional land uses. The report also contains questions and answers with Aboriginal leaders to discuss the impact of oil sands development. figs

  10. Aboriginal review 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between Syncrude Canada Ltd., and the aboriginal people of Northeast Alberta was discussed. In 1970, Syncrude began development of its oil sands mega-project in the Fort McMurray region. Since then, the company has worked in partnership with the aboriginal communities to maximize their productive participation in the oil sands. Syncrude has provided opportunities in employment, education, and business and community development. Their goals for aboriginal employment are: (1) to attain 10 per cent aboriginal employees in the Company's direct workforce, and (2) to attain 13 per cent aboriginal employees in the overall workforce, including contractors. Currently, Syncrude Canada employs 315 aboriginal people in various career positions. The Company is also committed to the protection of the environment. As proof of this commitment, when a mine site is reclaimed, the Company does all that is required to ensure that the land can support both industry and traditional land uses such as hunting, fishing and trapping. Syncrude also works on air quality issues dealing with odors and sulfur dioxide emissions as shown by a two million dollar company-sponsored program to examine local air quality and its effect on people and their health. figs

  11. Infant Development in Fragile X Syndrome: Cross-Syndrome Comparisons.

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    Roberts, Jane E; McCary, Lindsay M; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Bailey, Donald B

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the developmental profile of male infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and its divergence from typical development and development of infants at high risk for autism associated with familial recurrence (ASIBs). Participants included 174 boys ranging in age from 5 to 28 months. Cross-sectional profiles on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning indicated infants with FXS could be differentiated from typically developing infants and ASIBs by 6 months of age. Infants with FXS displayed a trend of lower developmental skills with increasing age that was unique from the typically developing and ASIB groups. Findings suggest infants with FXS present with more significant, pervasive and early emerging delays than previously reported with potentially etiologically distinct developmental profiles. PMID:26864160

  12. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

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    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  13. Infant Development in Fragile X Syndrome: Cross-Syndrome Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jane E.; McCary, Lindsay M.; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the developmental profile of male infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and its divergence from typical development and development of infants at high risk for autism associated with familial recurrence (ASIBs). Participants included 174 boys ranging in age from 5 to 28 months. Cross-sectional profiles on the Mullen Scales of…

  14. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

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    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  15. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  16. Sweating it Out: Facilitating Corrections and Parole in Canada Through Aboriginal Spiritual Healing

    OpenAIRE

    David Milward

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples continue to be subjected to drastic over-incarceration. Much of the existing literature explores contemporary adaptations of Aboriginal justice traditions that resemble restorative justice as a solution. There is by comparison a lack of literature that considers searching for solutions during the correctional phase of the justice system, after Aboriginal persons have already been convicted and imprisoned. The objective of this paper is to explore a number of reforms in orde...

  17. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  18. Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.

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    Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities. PMID:22218266

  19. Aboriginal secondary education: Non completion and returns

    OpenAIRE

    Donders, Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    I use 2001 Canadian Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF) Census data to assess two dimensions of Aboriginal educational attainment: (1) what proportion of Aboriginals fail to complete high school; and (2) what is the return to different levels of education for Aboriginals. I find that Aboriginals, for certain age groups, are two times more likely than non Aboriginals to leave high school before completion. Further, I find that in terms of high school completion within the Aboriginal population, ...

  20. Sleep Patterns among South Korean Infants and Toddlers: Global Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngmin; Williamson, Ariel A; Seo, Hyun-Joo; Sadeh, Avi; Mindell, Jodi A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sleep patterns in a large sample of infants and toddlers (ages birth to 36 months) in Korea, and to compare sleep patterns, sleep problems, sleep ecology, and parental behaviors to global sleep data on young children in both predominantly Asian (P-A) and predominantly Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. We additionally examined parent and child demographic information, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology as predictors of sleep patterns among infants and toddlers in Korea. Parents/caregivers of 1,036 Korean infants and toddlers completed an expanded, internet-based version of the brief infant sleep questionnaire. Consistent with other studies of sleep in early childhood, sleep/wake patterns became increasingly consolidated with older child age for the Korea sample. Compared to both P-A and P-C infants and toddlers, children in Korea had the latest bedtimes, shortest total sleep and daytime sleep durations, and the least frequent rates of napping. Even though half of parents perceive their children's sleep problematic, parental perceptions of severe child sleep problems were the lowest. Within Korea, breastfeeding and bottle-feeding at sleep resumption were associated with increased nocturnal awakenings. Evening television viewing was associated with later bedtimes, which may have implications for sleep hygiene recommendations in clinical practice. The current study provides important information about sleep/wake patterns, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology for infants and toddlers for physicians to support healthy sleep in Korea. PMID:26839481

  1. Breastfeeding Duration and Residential Isolation amid Aboriginal Children in Western Australia

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    Stephen R. Zubrick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in urban, rural and remote settings across Western Australia. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using survey weights to produce unbiased estimates for the population of Aboriginal children. Data on demographic, maternal and infant characteristics were collected from 3932 Aboriginal birth mothers about their children aged 0–17 years (representing 22,100 Aboriginal children in Western Australia. Results: 71% of Aboriginal children were breastfed for three months or more. Accounting for other factors, there was a strong gradient for breastfeeding duration by remoteness, with Aboriginal children living in areas of moderate isolation being 3.2 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or more (p < 0.001 compared to children in metropolitan Perth. Those in areas of extreme isolation were 8.6 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or longer (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Greater residential isolation a protective factor linked to longer breastfeeding duration for Aboriginal children in our West Australian cohort.

  2. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  3. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

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    Sun Wenxing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM. Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-  Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1-  Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia.

  4. Neurosonography of hydrocephalus in infants. [Comparison with CT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackelford, G.D.

    1986-10-01

    Transfontanel cranial ultrasonography reliably delineates ventricular size and anatomy in small infants. In these children, it is an excellent primary imaging technique for evaluation of the many clinical problems related to ventricular dilatation. Sonography can be useful for: detecting ventriculomegaly, differentiating nonobstructive ventricular dilatation from obstructive enlargement (hydrocephalus), determining the cause of hydrocephalus; aiding in the temporary management of patients with hydrocephalus; and aiding in the management of patients with permanent ventricular shunts.

  5. Diagnoses and Presenting Symptoms in an Infant Psychiatry Clinic: Comparison of Two Diagnostic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Karen A.; Boyum, Lisa A.; Harmon, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To present data from a general infant psychiatry clinic, including range and frequency of presenting symptoms, relationship between symptoms and diagnoses, and comparison of two diagnostic systems, DSM-IV and Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC: 0-3). Method: A…

  6. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  7. Is there an Aboriginal bioethic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, G; Towney, P; McPhee, J R; Little, M; Kerridge, I H

    2004-12-01

    It is well recognised that medicine manifests social and cultural values and that the institution of healthcare cannot be structurally disengaged from the sociopolitical processes that create such values. As with many other indigenous peoples, Aboriginal Australians have a lower heath status than the rest of the community and frequently experience the effects of prejudice and racism in many aspects of their lives. In this paper the authors highlight values and ethical convictions that may be held by Aboriginal peoples in order to explore how health practitioners can engage Aboriginal patients in a manner that is more appropriate. In doing so the authors consider how the ethics, values, and beliefs of the dominant white Australian culture have framed the treatment and delivery of services that Aboriginal people receive, and whether sufficient effort has been made to understand or acknowledge the different ethical predispositions that form the traditions and identity of Aboriginal Australia(ns). PMID:15574447

  8. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  9. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  10. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  11. Comparison of different diagnostic methods in infants with Cholestasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mohsen Dehghani; Mahmood Haghighat; Mohammad Hadi Imanieh; Bita Geramizadeh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate different methods in differentiating idiopathic neonatal hepatitis from biliary atresia.METHODS: Sixty-five infants with cholestatic jaundice and final diagnosis of idiopathic neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia were studied prospectively from September 2003 to March 2006. A thorough history and physical examination were undertaken and the liver enzymes were examined. All cases underwent abdominal ultrasonography, hepatobiliary scintigraphy,and percutaneous liver biopsy. The accuracy, sensitivity,specificity and predictive values of these various methods were compared.RESULTS: There were 34 girls and 31 boys, among them 46 subjects had idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (age,61 ± 17 d) and 19 had biliary atresia (age, 64 ± 18 d).The mean age at onset of jaundice was significantly lower in cases of biliary atresia when compared to idiopathic neonatal hepatitis cases (9 ± 13 d vs 20 ± 21 d;P = 0.032). The diagnostic accuracy of different methods was as follows: liver biopsy, 96.9%; clinical evaluation,70.8%; ultrasonography, 69.2%; hepatobiliary scintigraphy, 58.5%; and liver enzymes, 50.8%.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that clinical evaluation by an experienced pediatric hepatologist and a biopsy of the liver are considered as the most reliable methods to differentiate idiopathic neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia.

  12. Improving access to primary care for Aboriginal babies in Western Australia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    McAullay, Daniel; McAuley, Kimberley; Marriott, Rhonda; Pearson, Glenn; Jacoby, Peter; Ferguson, Chantal; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Coffin, Juli; Green, Charmaine; Sibosado, Selina; Henry, Barbara; Doherty, Dorota; Edmond, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a decade of substantial investments in programs to improve access to primary care for Aboriginal mothers and infants, more than 50 % of Western Australian Aboriginal babies are still not receiving primary and preventative care in the early months of life. Western Australian hospitals now input birth data into the Western Australian electronic clinical management system within 48 hours of birth. However, difficulties have arisen in ensuring that the appropriate primary care ...

  13. Learning through an Aboriginal Language: The Impact on Students' English and Aboriginal Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…

  14. Preliminary comparison of infants speech with and without hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Richard S.; Nittrouer, Susan; Chenausky, Karen

    2005-04-01

    The speech of ten children with hearing loss and ten children without hearing loss aged 12 months is examined. All the children with hearing loss were identified before six months of age, and all have parents who wish them to become oral communicators. The data are from twenty minute sessions with the caregiver and child, with their normal prostheses in place, in semi-structured settings. These data are part of a larger test battery applied to both caregiver and child that is part of a project comparing the development of children with hearing loss to those without hearing loss, known as the Early Development of Children with Hearing Loss. The speech comparisons are in terms of number of utterances, syllable shapes, and segment type. A subset of the data was given a detailed acoustic analysis, including formant frequencies and voice quality measures. [Work supported by NIDCD R01 006237 to Susan Nittrouer.

  15. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  16. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C; Muller, Craig;

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors...

  17. Wind power projects and Aboriginal consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, T. [McCarthy Tetrault LLP, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation outlined some of the legal aspects related to Aboriginal involvement in wind power development consultation processes and disputes. Aboriginal rights are rights held by Aboriginal people that are an element of a practice, custom, or tradition integral to the culture of groups claiming such rights. Wind power developers should understand that Aboriginal rights claims may include fishing; whaling; transportation; and cultural and spiritual activities. Aboriginal title is a subcategory of Aboriginal rights, and is a right to land itself, and an encumbrance on the Crown's underlying title to land. Weak Aboriginal claims where potential infringement by energy developers is minor may only require notice and information. Strong prima facie cases for Aboriginal rights and title where the potential for infringement is of high significance may result in more extensive consultation involving interim solutions; formal Aboriginal participation in decision-making processes; and written responses demonstrating how Aboriginal concerns have been considered. There are a number of circumstances requiring a case-by-case approach, and the Crown may make decisions in the face of Aboriginal disagreement. However, energy developers should ensure that consultation processes are fair and reasonable. Conflicting interests can often be successfully resolved through consultation, and accommodation to Aboriginal rights may include mitigation, avoiding interference, and agreeing to as little infringement as possible. Aboriginal title may attach to private land but only to the Crown's underlying title. The Crown has no duty to consult respecting Aboriginal title on private land because title has already been infringed. In these cases, duty to consult and accommodate may be discharged through other regulatory processes such as environmental impact assessments. It was concluded that wind power project proponents should build a relationship with the Crown, as avoiding

  18. ABORIGINALITY AND TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E. Korstanje

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural tourism seems to be a buzz-word applied on a widest contexts and studies. The importance West has given to this term is linked to a new process of acceptance of diversity as never before. However, in the core of this discourse, the spirit of colonialism remains. In this conceptual paper, not only the main assumptions of cultural tourism are discussed in depth, but also its connection with colonization. One of main problems of cultural tourism is the conceptual basis on where this theory lies. For one hand, this term is strictly applied on local communities (aboriginals or ethnic minorities that have not sustained the progress on their own. On another one, this type of new paternalism closes the door for a real opportunity of dialogue between centre and periphery. As things being, cultural tourism not only is a concept very hard to be applied on research but also follow to nourish the ethnocentrism of nineteen-century racism.

  19. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  20. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal…

  1. Distinct modes of transmission of tuberculosis in aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ≤20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR = 5.98, p<0.0001. MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9% among southern people, and Beijing (62.5% and Haarlem (52.9% among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (≥15% than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05; MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ≤20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p = 0.01 and aboriginal ethnicity (p = 0.04 were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy.

  2. Cross-national comparison of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on infant and early child physical growth: a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Beau; LaGasse, Linda L; Wouldes, Trecia; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M; Arria, Amelia M; Huestis, Marilyn A; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M; Wilcox, Tara; Neal, Charles R; Lester, Barry M

    2014-10-01

    The current study seeks to compare the effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) on infant and child physical growth between the USA and New Zealand (NZ). This cross-national comparison provides a unique opportunity to examine the potential impact of services provided to drug using mothers on child health. The longitudinal Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle study of PME from birth to 36 months was conducted in the USA and NZ. The US cohort included 204 children with PME and 212 non-PME matched comparisons (NPME); the NZ cohort included 108 children with PME and 115 NPME matched comparisons. Latent growth curve models were used to examine effects of PME, country of origin, and the country × PME interaction on growth in length/height and weight. In regard to length/height, PME and country of origin were associated with initial length and growth over time. There was also a significant interaction effect, such that children with PME in the USA were shorter at birth than children with PME in NZ after controlling for other prenatal exposures, infant set, socioeconomic status, and maternal height. In regard to weight, there was only an effect of country of origin. Effects of PME on infant and child growth were shown to differ across countries, with exposed children in NZ faring better than exposed children in the USA. Implications for prevention programs and public policy are discussed.

  3. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  4. Mining information kit for Aboriginal communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The opportunities for building relationships between Aboriginal communities and the mining industry were discussed, along with opportunities for communities to build capacity and to participate in the mining cycle. With nearly 1200 Aboriginal communities located within 200 km of minerals and metals activities in Canada, there is potential for significant economic and business growth in the communities. This educational tool informs Aboriginal communities across Canada about all the stages of the mining cycle, from early exploration to mine closure. Its purpose is to help Aboriginal people to better understand mining activities and identify the many opportunities that mining can bring to their communities. The information kit contains 4 modules corresponding to the main stages of the mining cycle. It provides examples of community experiences, positive relationships, and partnerships with mining companies. It also outlines the regulatory process to ensure Aboriginal peoples are well informed of the economic, social and environmental effects, benefits and opportunities in making decisions. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Lee Carlson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into how Aboriginal peoples utilise and interact on social media, and how these technologies can assist with suicide prevention strategies. It found that Aboriginal people are engaging with Facebook to both seek and offer help for issues relating to suicide and self-harm. An existing continuum of suicide prevention strategies was evident—from light emotional support to direct suicide intervention involving health services. These strategies can be leveraged to implement effective and appropriate suicide prevention programs.

  6. Reconstructing the Star Knowledge of Aboriginal Tasmanians

    CERN Document Server

    Gantevoort, Michelle; Lischick, Savannah

    2016-01-01

    The canopy of stars is a central presence in the daily and spiritual lives of Aboriginal Tasmanians. With the arrival of European colonists, Tasmanian astronomical knowledge and traditions were interrupted and dispersed. Fragments can be found scattered in the ethnographic and historical record throughout the nineteenth century. We draw from ethnohistorical documents to analyse and reconstruct Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania. This analysis demonstrates that stars, the Milky Way, constellations, dark nebula, the Sun, Moon, meteors, and aurorae held cultural, spiritual, and subsistence significance within the Aboriginal cultures of Tasmania. We move beyond a monolithic view of Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania, commonly portrayed in previous research, to lay the groundwork for future ethnographic and archaeological fieldwork with Aboriginal elders and communities.

  7. Placement Decisions and Disparities among Aboriginal Children: Further Analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect Part A: Comparisons of the 1998 and 2003 Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Chabot, Martin; Fluke, John; Blackstock, Cindy; MacLaurin, Bruce; Tonmyr, Lil

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Fluke et al. (2010) analyzed Canadian Incidence Study on Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) data collected in 1998 to explore the influence of clinical and organizational characteristics on the decision to place Aboriginal children in an out-of-home placement at the conclusion of a child maltreatment investigation. This study…

  8. Decolonisation: a critical step for improving Aboriginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Juanita; Edwards, Tahnia

    2006-09-01

    Aboriginal health continues to be in crisis in Australia although expenditure has increased in service provision, strategic planning, research and policy development over the last thirty years. This paper recommends that a shift must occur to make Aboriginal health improvement a reality. This shift requires the decolonising of Aboriginal health so that the experts in Aboriginal health, namely Aboriginal people, can voice and action initiatives that address their health issues. This shift is from the current western dominant approach that continues to manage Aboriginal health in its linear spectrum of illness and disease. Aboriginal people view health differently; their contexts for health issues are also diverse requiring a more holistic and informed response.

  9. Explaining aboriginal/non-aboriginal inequalities in postseparation violence against Canadian women: application of a structural violence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jeanette Somlak; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Pulkingham, Jane

    2013-08-01

    Adopting a structural violence approach, we analyzed 2004 Canadian General Social Survey data to examine Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequalities in postseparation intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Aboriginal women had 4.12 times higher odds of postseparation IPV than non-Aboriginal women (p violence, especially colonialism and its negative consequences.

  10. A direct comparison of infants' use of featural and spatiotemporal information when individuating objects in a non-occlusion event monitoring design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    -of-expectation strategy, the present study reports a comparison of 8.0-, 6.5-, and 5.0-month-old infants' use of featural and spatiotemporal information in an event monitoring design. Using a mirror setup the memory demands was minimized, because all apparent changes in the unexpected test events took place in full view...... of the infants. The results indicate that while 8.0-, and 6.5-month-old infants individuated objects successfully regardless of whether they were provided with featural or spatiotemporal information, only the 5-month-old infants provided with spatiotemporal information succeeded. The results are discussed...

  11. Contextualising the social capital of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Lise; Treloar, Carla; Chambers, Georgina M; Butler, Tony; Guthrie, Jill

    2016-10-01

    Social capital is a valuable resource that has received little attention in the prison context. Differences in the construct and accessibility of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital exist for Aboriginal Australians in mainstream society, but were previously unexplored in prison. This study seeks to understand contextual differences of social capital for Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison. Thirty male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three New South Wales (NSW) correctional centres. Interviews were completed between November 2014 and March 2015. Experiences of bonding and linking social capital varied among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Opportunities for bridging social capital were limited for all participants. There is greater scope for building bonding social capital among male inmates than either bridging or linking social capital. Bonding social capital, particularly among Aboriginal men in prison, should be utilised to promote health and other programs to inmates.

  12. Comparisons of new nonlinear modeling techniques with applications to infant respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Michael; Judd, Kevin

    1998-06-01

    This paper concerns the application of new nonlinear time-series modeling methods to recordings of infant respiratory patterns. The techniques used combine the concept of minimum description length modeling with radial basis models. Our first application of the methods produced results that were not entirely satisfactory, particularly with respect to accurately modeling long term quantitative and qualitative features of respiration patterns. This paper describes a number of modifications of the original methods and makes a comparison of the improvements the various modifications gave. The modifications made were increasing the class of basis function, broadening the range of possible embedding strategies, improving the optimization of the likelihood of the model parameters and calculating a closer approximation to description length. The criteria used in the comparisons were description length, root-mean-square prediction error, model size, free-run behavior and amplitude size and variation. We use surrogate data analysis to confirm the hypothesis that the recorded data are consistent with the nonlinear models we construct, and not consistent with simpler models. We also investigate the free-run dynamics of the model systems to see if the models exhibit features consistent with physiological characteristics observed independently in the respiratory recording. This involved modeling breathing patterns prior to a sigh and onset of a phenomenon called “periodic breathing”; and comparing the period of “cyclic amplitude modulation” of the free-run dynamics of the models and the period of the subsequent periodic breathing observed in respiration recording. The periods were consistent in six out of seven recordings.

  13. [Health system and aboriginal communities in the province of Formosa, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirassou, Cristina S

    2013-01-01

    The author comments her experience in the practice of medicine and public health among aborigines in Formosa, a long neglected province in northeast Argentina. Her experience goes through a span of 34 years, 11 in a small community in a far off region. The province has 530162 inhabitants, 43358 (6.5%) aborigines of the Wichí, Qom, and Pilagá ethnicities. Some particular public health problems of these aborigines are due to the great distance between communities and the regular medical assistance while others are related to cultural differences. The situation has gradually improved in the last 30 years due to government awareness in providing easy and close access to medical care, making the most of the abilities of local aborigines midwifes, teaching health assistants and conventional measures. The most apparent results are the decrease in infant mortality rates and the lower incidence of tuberculosis, with no deaths due to tuberculous meningitis since 1999. No less important was the opening of new opportunities for education and the teaching of both native and Spanish language in the schools retaining local customs. The changes have brought about new risks and challenges such as: traffic accidents involving youngsters riding motorcycles, alcoholism, obesity, diabetes (undiagnosed beforehand), high rate of adolescence pregnancy, and crisis of leadership within the communities. PMID:24152404

  14. Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes Annette; Finucane Janine; Elsbury Dimity; Jacoby Peter; Weeks Sharon; Lehmann Deborah; Monck Ruth; Coates Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed ...

  15. A Comparison of the Sleep-Wake Patterns of Cosleeping and Solitary-Sleeping Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Amy; Burnham, Melissa M.; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Gaylor, Erika E.; Anders, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether 3-15, month-old cosleeping infants displayed differences in time spent in active versus quiet sleep, and in the number/duration of nighttime awakenings when compared with solitary-sleeping infants; and also whether they spent the majority of the night sleeping face-to-face, as previously reported. Nine cosleeping and…

  16. Comparison of Computed Tomography and Chest Radiography in the Detection of Rib Fractures in Abused Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Walton, John W.; Rosas, Angela J.; Coulter, Kevin P.; Rogers, Kristen K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Chest radiographs (CXR) are the standard method for evaluating rib fractures in abused infants. Computed tomography (CT) is a sensitive method to detect rib fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare CT and CXR in the evaluation of rib fractures in abused infants. Methods: This retrospective study included all 12 abused infants…

  17. International Comparisons of Infant Mortality and Related Factors : United States and Europe, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDorman, M.F.; Mathews, T.J.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Zeitlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific i

  18. A comparison of determinants of infant mortality rate (IMR) between countries with high and low IMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawangi, R; Barnett, J B

    1993-06-01

    Weighted least squares regressions and pooled regression models were used to examine the determinants of infant mortality in developing countries. Data were obtained from the UNICEF's "State of the World's Children, 1987" for 87 countries with data on gross national product, percentage of literate females, percentage of low birth weight infants, daily caloric supply per capita as a percentage of the daily requirement, percentage of population with access to drinking water, total fertility rate, and the population to nurses ratio. Data was unavailable on breast feeding practices and government expenditures on health. Weighted procedures were used because of heteroscadascity problems: total fertility rate was associated with the variance in the error term. The results of pooled data showed that the female literacy rate had the strongest impact on infant mortality, followed by access to clean water and the number of population per nursing person. The impact of female literacy was still strong in high infant mortality countries when controls for gross national product were included. Puzzling findings were the negative sign of low birth weight and the insignificant effect of the total fertility rate. The suggestion was that low birth weight may be expressed already in the level of education and availability of health programs. Fertility's lack of wide variations may explain the insignificant effect. Findings showed that infant mortality was 22.19% higher in countries with gross national product under $500. In low infant mortality countries, none of the environmental variables significantly explained infant mortality. Low birth weight increased its impact on infant mortality among these countries but was still not significant. The findings suggested that infant mortality was most affected by low birth weight and amount of population per nurse in more affluent countries. Environmental factors were more important in explaining high levels of infant mortality in less

  19. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  20. The Effects of Contingent Caregiver Imitation of Infant Vocalizations: a Comparison of Multiple Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jamie L; Stockwell, Fawna; Walker, Diana

    2014-06-01

    The present study replicated and extended the Pelaez et al. (Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 44:33-40, 2011) study, which examined the reinforcing effects of mothers' contingent imitation of their infants' vocalizations. Three infants aged 7-12 months who could vocalize sounds but not words participated with two caregivers for each infant (i.e., triads). During the intervention phase, the caregivers were asked to immediately imitate all vocalizations emitted by the child for a 3-min period. During the yoked control phase, the caregivers listened to an audio recording from the preceding condition and provided vocalizations non-contingently on the infants' responses. The procedures yielded different results across participants; one infant emitted a higher frequency of vocalizations during the contingent imitation phases over the control phases, and the other two infants showed higher rates of responding during the control phases. However, all infants emitted more imitative return vocalizations during contingent reinforcement conditions compared with the yoked control condition. PMID:27274970

  1. Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes Annette

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media (OM is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed regularly from birth to age 2 years. Tympanometry was conducted at routine field follow-up from age 3 months. Routine clinical examination by an ENT specialist was to be done 3 times and hearing assessment by an audiologist twice. TEOAEs were measured at ages Results At routine ENT specialist clinics, OM was detected in 55% of 184 examinations in Aboriginal children and 26% of 392 examinations in non-Aboriginal children; peak prevalence was 72% at age 5–9 months in Aboriginal children and 40% at 10–14 months in non-Aboriginal children. Moderate-severe hearing loss was present in 32% of 47 Aboriginal children and 7% of 120 non-Aboriginal children aged 12 months or more. TEOAE responses were present in 90% (46/51 of Aboriginal children and 99% (120/121 of non-Aboriginal children aged Overall prevalence of type B tympanograms at field follow-up was 50% (n = 78 in Aboriginal children and 20% (n = 95 in non-Aboriginal children. Conclusion The burden of middle ear disease is high in all children, but particularly in Aboriginal children, one-third of whom suffer from moderate-severe hearing loss. In view of the frequently silent nature of OM, every opportunity must be taken to screen for OM. Measurement of TEOAEs at age 1–2 months to identify children at risk of developing OM should be evaluated in a routine health service setting.

  2. Aboriginal Education as Cultural Brokerage: New Aboriginal Teachers Reflect on Language and Culture in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…

  3. Comparison of mortality risk: a score for very low birthweight infants

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, R.; Rey, M.; Metze, B; Obladen, M.; TARNOW-MORDI, W

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To develop and evaluate a score which quantifies mortality risk in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (birthweight below 1500 g) at admission to the neonatal intensive care unit.
METHODS—Five hundred and seventy two VLBW infants admitted from 1978 to 1987 were randomly assigned to a cohort (n = 396) for score development and a cohort (n = 176) for score validation. Two hundred and ninety four VLBW infants admitted from 1988 to 1991 were used to compare risk adjusted mortality between the...

  4. Physical activity, healthy lifestyle behaviors, neighborhood environment characteristics and social support among Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macniven, Rona; Richards, Justin; Gubhaju, Lina; Joshy, Grace; Bauman, Adrian; Banks, Emily; Eades, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity is the third leading cause of the burden of disease for Australian Aboriginal adults. The neighborhood environment and social support are known to influence physical activity (PA) participation. This study examined these factors in relation to achieving PA recommendations in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Social, Economic, and Environmental Factor (SEEF) Study in New South Wales, Australia were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants for PA-related attributes, including achieving PA recommendations. ORs for achieving PA recommendations were estimated in both groups. Overall, 63.1% of Aboriginal (n = 314) and 65.4% of non-Aboriginal (n = 59,175) participants met PA recommendations. Odds of healthy sleep duration were lower, and receiving GP advice to be active was higher, among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants. Aboriginal respondents had higher odds of reporting that the crime rate made it unsafe to walk and that local public transport was inaccessible. They had higher odds of disagreeing they have local shops, footpaths or free/low cost recreation facilities. PA correlates were similar in both groups. The factors relating to PA were similar in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Neighborhood and social features were less PA-favorable for Aboriginal participants suggesting multiple possible avenues for increasing PA in this older population group. PMID:27419016

  5. Comparison of Neutrophil Apoptosis by the Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Exotoxins between Healthy Individuals and Term Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Khazaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be colonized in different human tissues and result in some infections potentially. Thus, considering that these bacteria are resistance to most of the current antibiotics, an examination on pathogenesis mechanisms of such bacteria can be effective in controlling the infections developed by it.Materials and Methods: In this project, among 40 blood samples (20 healthy persons, 20 infants, an amount of 5 ml (2 ml in the infants heparinized blood was collected form each and then neutrophils were isolated by a standard method and were counted by neubauer lam. After culturing Pseudomonas bacteria in broth medium, some tubes with densities of 1, 2, 3 and 4 McFarland were prepared and the bacteria were isolated by centrifuge method with 3000rpm for 10 minutes and then its exotoxin were exposed to neutrophils of the groups under study. The effect of time and the bacteria count on the amount of the secreted toxin and in adjacency to neutrophils was measured.Results: There were 11 men and 9 women in the health group and the infants group consisted of 12 boys and 8 girls. Death cell percentage of neutrophils was 100% in the health group and 8.90% in the infants group. Percentage of bacterial growth in the medium 1 and 2 McFarland was zero; in the medium 3 McFarland, it was 12.5% in the healthy group and 1% in the infants group (p<0.10. The average rate of cell death in the minute 15th was different in two groups (68.5% in health group vs. 92.5% in the infants (p<0.0005. Conclusion: This study showed the effect of Pseudomonas bacteria on the development of early cell death in the infants very well. As it was shown, this effect is time-dependent and this cell death (apoptosis is occurred in the infants earlier than health people.

  6. Comparison of the Effect of Two Human Milk Fortifiers on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Thoene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of human milk fortifiers (HMF helps to meet the high nutritional requirements of the human milk-fed premature infant. Previously available powdered products have not met the protein requirements of the preterm infant population and many neonatologists add powder protein modulars to help meet protein needs. The use of powdered products is discouraged in neonatal intensive care units (NICU due to concern for invasive infection. The use of a commercially available acidified liquid product with higher protein content was implemented to address these two concerns. During the course of this implementation, poor growth and clinically significant acidosis of infants on Acidified Liquid HMF (ALHMF was observed. The purpose of this study was to quantify those observations by comparing infant outcomes between groups receiving the ALHMF vs. infants receiving powdered HMF (PHMF. A retrospective chart review compared outcomes of human milk-fed premature infants <2000 g receiving the ALHMF (n = 23 and the PHMF (n = 46. Infant growth, enteral feeding tolerance and provision, and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, metabolic acidosis, and diaper dermatitis were compared between the two groups. No infants were excluded from this study based on acuity. Use of ALHMF resulted in a higher incidence of metabolic acidosis (p = 0.002. Growth while on HMF as measured in both g/kg/day (10.59 vs. 15.37, p < 0.0001 and in g/day (23.66 vs. 31.27, p = 0.0001 was slower in the ALHMF group, on increased mean cal/kg/day (128.7 vs. 117.3, p = 0.13 with nearly twice as many infants on the ALHMF requiring increased fortification of enteral feedings beyond 24 cal/ounce to promote adequate growth (48% vs. 26%, p = 0.10. Although we were not powered to study NEC as a primary outcome, NEC was significantly increased in the ALHMF group. (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.03. Use of a LHMF in an unrestricted NICU population resulted in an increase in clinical complications within a high

  7. Comparison of Risk Factors in Necrotizing Enterocolitis among Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Ozlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Necrotizing enterocolitis is one of the important problems of premature infants. The incidence is about 1-5% in infants followed in neonatal care units and inversely related to gestational age and birth weight. Materials and Methods: In this study, 31 infants with necrotizing enterocolitis and 31 infants with similar gestational age and birth weight as control group hospitalized in Cukurova University Neonatal Care Unit between 1 January 2001-31 January 2004 were evaluated. Results: The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in this period was 1.4 (31/2214 admission. Mean gestational age was 30.5  3.2 weeks (25-36, mean birth weight was 1331  384 (730-2150 grams while 71% was younger than 32 gestational weeks and 67.7% was under 1500 grams. The signs of NEC were detected at a mean of 11.2  10. (2-38 days. Twenty-six (83.9% were being fed at the time of the necrotizing enterocolitis signs appeared. According to the Walsh and Kliegman classification, 19 (61.3% infants were in stage 1 (17 were 1a, 2 were 1b; 3 (9.6% infants were in stage 2a, 9 (%29.1 infants were in stage 3 (7 were in 3b. Blood culture was positive in 7 (%22.6 infants with predominance of gram negative microorganisms (5 infants. Eleven (%35.5 infants were exitus, 12 were discharged. Hypoxia, respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage and umbilical catheterization were significant risk factors in necrotizing enterocolitis . Thrombocytopenia, leucopenia and high C-reactive protein levels were significantly high in necrotizing enterocolitis group. Breast feeding is significantly high in control group. Conclusion: Necrotizing enterocolitis, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. Early breast feeding with small amounts, increasing amount of milk slowly, antenatal steroids, caring hygiene rules can prevent the development of it. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 642-647

  8. Comparison of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed infants

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    Analysa Margaretha Bogar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for the prevention of rickets. Human milk typically contains a vitamin D concentration of 25 IU/L or less. Bbreastfed infants are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Previous studies conducted in countries with four seasons have reported that risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency influence the vitamin D status in exclusively breastfed infants. Objective To compare the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OoHD in exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed infants. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Singkil District, Manado from February to May 2011. Of 48 Posyandu (Integrated Health Center, 4 were chosen to be the sources of subjects for this study. Subjects were collected consecutively among infants aged 6-7 months. The resulting exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed groups had 36 infants each. Results The mean 25(OHD level in the exclusively breastfed group was 61.75 nmol/L (95% CI 58.02 to 65.48 and in the non-exclusively breastfed group was 85.09 nmol/L (95% CI 79.49 to 90.68. The difference in 25(D levels in the two groups was statistically significant. However, 25(OHD levels of both groups were within the normal range. Conclusion The 25(D level was significantly lower in ex-exclusively breastfed infants compared to that in non-exclusively breastfed infants, but both levels were still in the normal range. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:157-60].

  9. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  10. 50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.4 Aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) No person shall engage in aboriginal subsistence whaling, except a whaling captain licensed pursuant...

  11. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  12. Risk factors and comorbidities for invasive pneumococcal disease in Western Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people

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    Faye Janice Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Australian Aboriginal people have among the highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD worldwide. We investigated clinical diagnosis, risk factors, comorbidities and vaccine coverage in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal IPD cases. Using enhanced surveillance, we identified IPD cases in Western Australia, Australia, between 1997 and 2007. We calculated the proportion with risk factors and comorbidities in children (<5 years and adults (≥15 years, as well as adults living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions. We then calculated the proportion of cases eligible for vaccination who were vaccinated before contracting IPD. Of the 1,792 IPD cases that were reported, 355 (20% were Aboriginal and 1,155 (65% were adults. Pneumonia was the most common diagnosis (61% of non-Aboriginal and 49% of Aboriginal adult IPD cases in 2001-2007. Congenital abnormality was the most frequent comorbidity in non-Aboriginal children (11%. In Aboriginal children, preterm delivery was most common (14%. Ninety-one percent of non-Aboriginal and 96% of Aboriginal adults had one or more risk factors or comorbidities. In non-Aboriginal adults, cardiovascular disease (34% was the predominant comorbidity whilst excessive alcohol use (66% was the most commonly reported risk factor in Aboriginal adults. In adults, comorbidities were more frequently reported among those in metropolitan regions than those in non-metropolitan regions. Vaccination status was unknown for 637 of 1,082 cases post-July 2001. Forty-one percent of non-Aboriginal and 60% of Aboriginal children were eligible for vaccination but were not vaccinated. Among adults with risk factors who were eligible for vaccination and with known vaccination status, 75% Aboriginal and 94% non-Aboriginal were not vaccinated. An all-of-life immunisation register is needed to evaluate vaccine coverage and effectiveness in preventing IPD in adults.

  13. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australia 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Latika; Chiu, Clayton; Habig, Andrew; Lowbridge, Christopher; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Wang, Han; McIntyre, Peter; Menzies, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This report outlines the major positive impacts of vaccines on the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from 2007 to 2010, as well as highlighting areas that require further attention. Hepatitis A disease is now less common in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in their non-Indigenous counterparts. Hepatitis A vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children was introduced in 2005 in the high incidence jurisdictions of the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. In 2002–2005, there were 20 hospitalisations for hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children agedmeningococcal C vaccination for infants and the high-school catch-up program were implemented in 2003, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by serogroup C. However, the predominant serogroup responsible for disease remains serogroup B, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have significantly higher incidence of serogroup B disease than other children. A vaccine against meningococcus type B has now been licensed in Australia. The decline in severe rotavirus disease after vaccine introduction in 2007 was less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. By far the highest hospitalisation rates continue to occur among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in the Northern Territory. Consideration of the role of age cut-offs and 2-dose versus 3-dose schedules may be necessary. Genotype surveillance is critically important to allow detection of any possible emergence of genotypes for which there is lower vaccine-derived immunity. Although Haemophilus influenzae type b disease rates have decreased significantly since the introduction of vaccines in 1993, the plateauing of rates in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, and increasing disparity with other children, are concerning. While it is possible that higher disease rates in young

  14. Aboriginal medical services cure more than illness: a qualitative study of how Indigenous services address the health impacts of discrimination in Brisbane communities

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Josifini T; Brolan, Claire E; Hill, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders persistently experience a significantly lower standard of health in comparison to non-Indigenous Australians. The factors contributing to this disparity are complex and entrenched in a history of social inequality, disempowerment, poverty, dispossession and discrimination. Aboriginal medical services (AMS) provide a culturally appropriate alternative to mainstream medical services as a means to address this health disparity and also advocate f...

  15. Comparison of respiratory inductance plethysmography with thoracoabdominal compression in bronchial challenges in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, C; Godfrey, S; Vilozni, D; Bar-Yishay, E; Noviski, N; Avital, A

    1996-09-01

    Respiratory inductance plethysmography measuring thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA) has been claimed to be a useful tool for measuring changes in airway resistance in infants. In this study we evaluated the response to methacholine by thoracoabdominal compression and respiratory inductance plethysmography. Seventeen infants (mean age, 13.1 +/- 4.7 mo) with recurrent episodes of cough or wheeze underwent bronchial challenge with inhaled methacholine. Lung function was evaluated by measuring maximal expiratory flow at resting lung volume (VmaxFRC), and the degree of TAA was measured by phase angle (theta). Methacholine was inhaled for 1 min during tidal breathing using increasing doubling concentrations until a fall of at least 40% in VmaxFRC was achieved (final concentration). All infants responded to the final concentration of methacholine by a significant fall in VmaxFRC (from 31 +/- 10 to 12 +/- 5 ml/s/kg, p inductance plethysmography is a sensitive method to measure bronchial reactivity to methacholine in most of the infants studied (14 of 17, 82%). A concentration of methacholine causing an increase in theta of at least 2.0 standard deviations above baseline is equivalent to the concentration causing a 40% fall in VmaxFRC.

  16. Infants Prefer the Musical Meter of Their Own Culture: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Gaye; Hannon, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Infants prefer native structures such as familiar faces and languages. Music is a universal human activity containing structures that vary cross-culturally. For example, Western music has temporally regular metric structures, whereas music of the Balkans (e.g., Bulgaria, Macedonia, Turkey) can have both regular and irregular structures. We…

  17. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  18. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  19. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  20. Comparison of airway measurements during influenza-induced tachypnea in infant and adult cotton rats

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    Prince Gregory A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased respiratory rate (tachypnea is frequently observed as a clinical sign of influenza pneumonia in pediatric patients admitted to the hospital. We previously demonstrated that influenza infection of adult cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus also results in tachypnea and wanted to establish whether this clinical sign was observed in infected infant cotton rats. We hypothesized that age-dependent differences in lung mechanics result in differences in ventilatory characteristics following influenza infection. Methods Lung tidal volume, dynamic elastance, resistance, and pleural pressure were measured in a resistance and compliance system on mechanically-ventilated anesthestized young (14–28 day old and adult (6–12 week old cotton rats. Animals at the same age were infected with influenza virus, and breathing rates and other respiratory measurements were recorded using a whole body flow plethysmograph. Results Adult cotton rats had significantly greater tidal volume (TV, and lower resistance and elastance than young animals. To evaluate the impact of this increased lung capacity and stiffening on respiratory disease, young and adult animals were infected intra-nasally with influenza A/Wuhan/359/95. Both age groups had increased respiratory rate and enhanced pause (Penh during infection, suggesting lower airway obstruction. However, in spite of significant tachypnea, the infant (unlike the adult cotton rats maintained the same tidal volume, resulting in an increased minute volume. In addition, the parameters that contribute to Penh were different: while relaxation time between breaths and time of expiration was decreased in both age groups, a disproportionate increase in peak inspiratory and expiratory flow contributed to the increase in Penh in infant animals. Conclusion While respiratory rate is increased in both adult and infant influenza-infected cotton rats, the volume of air exchanged per minute (minute volume is

  1. Comparison of the microstructure and composition of aboriginal ceramics, from indigenous site Caninhas, with the obtained ones in the region; Comparacao da microestrutura e da composicao de ceramicas indigenas provenientes do sitio arqueologico Caninhas, com as obtidas atualmente na regiao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, C.C.; Nakano, F.P.; Taguchi, S.P.; Camargo-Vernilli, D., E-mail: cristhian@alunos.eel.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Ribeiro, R.B.; Rosa, S.J. L. [Faculdades Integradas Teresa D' Avila (FATEA), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Rede Salesianas. Dept. de Desenho Industrial

    2009-07-01

    The archaeological site of Caninhas is made of funeral and combustion structures and various objects of aboriginal daily use. These parts and fragments were safe and inventoried, constituting approximately 4000 units. The objective of this project was to analyze the microstructure and composition of archaeological ceramics, and ceramics made of argil current of the zone. The crystalline phases were identified by X-Rays Diffraction (XRD), elementary composition was obtained by X-Rays Fluorescence (XRF) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS), and the microstructure was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Composition and microstructure of archaeological ceramics are different of current ceramics, indicating the effect of lixiviation in function of the time and the microstructural evolution due different ceramic processing. These results are valuable for the archaeological area studies, mainly for the cultural denoting which represents. The relation between some studies is basic to add knowledge: use of the ceramic materials engineering for archaeology application. (author)

  2. Respiratory inductance plethysmography in healthy infants: a comparison of three calibration methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, K A; Thompson, J R; Hallinan, H M; Beardsmore, C S

    2000-12-01

    Respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) measures respiration from body surface movements. Various techniques have been proposed for calibration in order that RIP may be used quantitatively. These include calculation of the proportionality constant of ribcage to abdominal volume change (K). The aims of this study were to 1) establish whether a fixed value of K could be used for calibration, and 2) compare this technique with multiple linear regression (MLR) and qualitative diagnostic calibration (QDC) in normal healthy infants. Recordings of pneumotachograph (PNT) flow and RIP were made during quiet (QS) and active sleep (AS) in 12 infants. The first 5 min in a sleep state were used to calculate calibration factors, which were applied to subsequent validation data. The absolute percentage error between RIP and PNT tidal volumes was calculated. The percentage error was similar over a wide range of K during QS. However, K became more critical when breathing was out of phase. A standard for K of 0.5 was chosen. There was good agreement between calibration methods during QS and AS. In the first minute following calibration during QS, the mean absolute errors were 3.5, 4.1 and 5.3% for MLR, QDC and fixed K respectively. The equivalent errors in AS were 11.5, 13.1 and 13.7% respectively. The simple fixed ratio method can be used to measure tidal volume with similar accuracy to multiple linear regression and qualitative diagnostic calibration in healthy unsedated sleeping infants, although it remains to be validated in other groups of infants, such as those with respiratory disease.

  3. Identification of respiratory virus in infants with congenital heart disease by comparison of different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mitiko Kanashiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory virus infections are the main cause of infant hospitalization and are potentially severe in children with congenital heart disease (CHD. Rapid and sensitive diagnosis is very important to early introduction of antiviral treatment and implementation of precautions to control transmission, reducing the risk of nosocomial infections. In the present study we compare different techniques in the diagnosis of respiratory viruses in CHD infants. Thirty-nine samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate were obtained from CHD infants with symptoms of respiratory infection. The Multiplex PCR (Seeplex® RV 12 ACE Detection driven to the detection of 12 respiratory viruses was compared with the direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA and PCR, both targeting seven respiratory viruses. The positivity found by DFA, Multiplex and PCR was 33.3%, 51.3% and 48.7%, respectively. Kappa index comparing DFA and Multiplex, DFA and PCR and PCR and Multiplex PCR was 0.542, 0.483 and 0.539, respectively. The concordance between techniques was considered moderate. Both Multiplex PCR (p = 0.001 and PCR (p = 0.002 detected significantly more respiratory virus than DFA. As the performance of the tests may vary, the combination of two or more techniques may increase diagnostic sensitivity favoring the diagnosis of co-infections, early introduction of antiviral therapy and implementation of appropriate measures.

  4. Posterior fossa abnormalities in high-risk term infants: comparison of ultrasound and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steggerda, S.J.; Smits-Wintjens, V.E.H.J.; Verbon, P.; Walther, F.J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Bruine, F.T. de [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Wezel-Meijler, G. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    We aimed to assess the characteristics of posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in a cohort of high-risk term neonates, as well as the diagnostic performance of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with additional mastoid fontanelle (MF) views for the detection of these abnormalities, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the reference standard. In this retrospective study, 113 term neonates with CUS and subsequent MRI were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of routine CUS and CUS with MF views were calculated. Posterior fossa abnormalities were diagnosed on CUS in 46 of 113 infants. MRI confirmed these findings in 43 and showed additional abnormalities in 32 infants. The sensitivity and specificity of anterior fontanelle views for major PF abnormalities as seen on MRI were 16 % and 99 %. Adding MF views increased the sensitivity of US to 82 %. The sensitivity and specificity of MF views for the detection of any (major or minor) PF abnormality were 57 % and 95 %. Especially acute hypoxic-ischemic injury and small subdural and punctate cerebellar haemorrhage remained undetected by CUS. PF abnormalities are frequent in high-risk term infants. MF-CUS enables early diagnosis of major PF abnormalities. We therefore advocate to perform MF-CUS in high-risk term neonates. (orig.)

  5. Modified Blalock Taussig shunt: Comparison between neonates, infants and older children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh Pal Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to compare various pre-and post-operative parameters and to identify the predictors of mortality in neonates, infants, and older children undergoing Modified Blalock Taussig shunt (MBTS. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 134 children who underwent MBTS over a period of 2 years through thoracotomy were reviewed. Children were divided into three groups-neonates, infants, and older children. For analysis, various pre-and post-operative variables were recorded, including complications and mortality. Results: The increase in PaO 2 and SaO 2 levels after surgery was similar and statistically significant in all the three groups. The requirement of adrenaline, duration of ventilation and mortality was significantly higher in neonates. The overall mortality and infant mortality was 4.5% and 8%, respectively. Conclusion: Neonates are at increased risk of complications and mortality compared with older children. Age (6 ml/kg, mechanical ventilation >24 h and post shunt increase in PaO 2 (P Diff <25% of baseline PaO 2 are independent predictors of mortality in children undergoing MBTS.

  6. Comparison of stool containment in cloth and single-use diapers using a simulated infant feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, M; Kressner, B; Raynor, W; Davis, J; Syverson, R E

    1993-03-01

    Single-use diapers and cloth diapers with vinyl pants were compared for their relative abilities to contain stool within the diaper. Artificial feces with carbon black as an additive allowed a quantitative measure of fecal containment by image analysis in 60 infants. This method showed complete containment of feces in the diaper in 50% of the single-use diapers whereas only 10% of the cloth diapers showed complete containment. In infants where the border of the vinyl pants was used as the boundary of containment with the cloth diapers, complete containment occurred only 33% of the time. Fluorescein dye ratings for containment/leakage in 69 infants showed that 83% of single-use diapers and 30% of the cloth diapers were rated as having no or minor leakage of feces. Cultures were taken of laundered vinyl pants that had previously been used over cloth diapers to determine microbial contamination. Thirty-nine percent of the pants contained Gram-negative, lactose-fermenting bacilli indicating fecal contamination. This study comparing single-use and cloth diapers for containment of artificial feces by use of image analysis and fluorescein dye ratings showed better containment by single-use diapers. The study also raises the question of possible spread of feces-borne pathogens by the vinyl pants used over cloth diapers, particularly in a day-care center. PMID:8441572

  7. Comet and Meteorite Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  8. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gendron; C. Hille

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are current

  9. A comparison between two NIRS oximeters (INVOS, OxyPrem) using measurement on the arm of adults and head of infants after caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sørensen, Simon; Hessel, Trine Witzner; la Cour, Amalia;

    2014-01-01

    Previously the NIRS oximeter OxyPrem was calibrated by comparison to the INVOS in a blood-lipid phantom. The aim of the present study was to test this calibration clinically. During vasculur occlusions in 10 adults and after birth in 25 term infants the relationship was OxyPrem = 1.24 x INVOS - 23...

  10. Improving healthcare for Aboriginal Australians through effective engagement between community and health services

    OpenAIRE

    Durey, Angela; McEvoy, Suzanne; Swift-Otero, Val; Taylor, Kate; Katzenellenbogen, Judith; Bessarab, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Background Effectively addressing health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians is long overdue. Health services engaging Aboriginal communities in designing and delivering healthcare is one way to tackle the issue. This paper presents findings from evaluating a unique strategy of community engagement between local Aboriginal people and health providers across five districts in Perth, Western Australia. Local Aboriginal community members formed District Aboriginal Healt...

  11. Comparison of INSURE method with conventional mechanical ventilation after surfactant administration in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: therapeutic challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Nayeri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Administration of endotracheal surfactant is potentially the main treatment for neonates suffering from RDS (Respiratory Distress Syndrome, which is followed by mechanical ventilation. Late and severe complications may develop as a consequence of using mechanical ventilation. In this study, conventional methods for treatment of RDS are compared with surfactant administration, use of mechanical ventilation for a brief period and NCPAP (Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, (INSURE method ((Intubation, Surfactant administration and extubation. A randomized clinical trial study was performed, including all newborn infants with diagnosed RDS and a gestational age of 35 weeks or less, who were admitted in NICU of Valiasr hospital. The patients were then divided randomly into two CMV (Conventional Mechanical Ventilation and INSURE groups. Surfactant administration and consequent long-term mechanical ventilation were done in the first group (CMV group. In the second group (INSURE group, surfactant was administered followed by a short-term period of mechanical ventilation. The infants were then extubated, and NCPAP was embedded. The comparison included crucial duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy, IVH (Intraventricular Hemorrhage, PDA (Patent Ductus Arteriosus, air-leak syndromes, BPD (Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia and mortality rate. The need for mechanical ventilation in 5th day of admission was 43% decreased (P=0.005 in INSURE group in comparison to CMV group. A decline (P=0.01 in the incidence of IVH and PDA was also achieved. Pneumothorax, chronic pulmonary disease and mortality rates, were not significantly different among two groups. (P=0.25, P=0.14, P=0.25, respectively. This study indicated that INSURE method in the treatment of RDS decreases the need for mechanical ventilation and oxygen-therapy in preterm neonates. Moreover, relevant complications as IVH and PDA were observed to be reduced. Thus, it seems rationale to

  12. Comparison of mortality risk: a score for very low birthweight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, R; Rey, M; Metze, B; Obladen;, M; TARNOW-MORDI, W.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To develop and evaluate a score which quantifies mortality risk in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (birthweight below 1500 g) at admission to the neonatal intensive care unit.
METHODS—Five hundred and seventy two VLBW infants admitted from 1978 to 1987 were randomly assigned to a cohort (n = 396) for score development and a cohort (n = 176) for score validation. Two hundred and ninety four VLBW infants admitted from 1988 to 1991 were used to compare risk adjusted mortality between the two eras.
RESULTS—Using multiple regression analysis, birthweight, Apgar score at 5 minutes, base excess at admission, severity of respiratory distress syndrome, and artificial ventilation were predictive of death in the development cohort. According to regression coefficients, a score ranging from 3 to 40 was developed. At a cutoff of 21, it predicted death in the validation cohort with a sensitivity of 0.85, a specificity of 0.73, and a correct classification rate of 0.76. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.86. There was no significant difference in risk severity and in risk adjusted mortality between the eras 1978-87 and 1988-91.
CONCLUSION—The present score is robust, easily obtainable at admission, and permits early randomisation based on mortality risk.

 Keywords: mortality risk; scoring system; very low birthweight PMID:9175942

  13. NORMATIVE STANDARDS AND COMPARISON OF ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA OF WHITE AND BLACK NEWBORN INFANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jon M.; Allen, G. Andrew; Haynes, Judy L.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2016-01-01

    We report normative standards for length, weight, 17 craniofacial dimensions, 5 hand and foot measurements, 7 circumferences, 9 skinfold thicknesses, penile length, and testicular volume in black and white newborns. No significant differences in these variables were found between black males and females. White males had greatest craniofacial height, head length, head breadth, minimum frontal diameter, bizygomatic diameter, and head circumference, whereas white females had largest medial calf, thigh, forearm, and subscapular skinfolds. White infants had largest weight, head circumference, head length, head breadth, calf and chest circumferences, and medial calf and forearm skinfolds, whereas nose breadth, mouth breadth, and penile length were greatest in black newborns.

  14. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Writing in English", pp. 32-44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    1991-01-01

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  15. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Wirting in English", pp. 32-44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    1991-01-01

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  16. Improving palliative care outcomes for Aboriginal Australians: service providers’ perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Shaouli; Bessarab, Dawn; van Schaik, Katherine D; Aoun, Samar M.; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers’ experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. Methods: In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient a...

  17. The missing link in Aboriginal care: resource accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, C W; Duffie-Ashton, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles.

  18. Disparities in healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Albertan residents, 1997-2006: a population database study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities. METHODS: Healthcare utilisation data over a nine-year period were analysed for a cohort of nearly two million individuals to determine the rates at which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations utilised two specialties (Cardiology and Ophthalmology in Alberta, Canada. Unadjusted and adjusted healthcare utilisation rates obtained by mixed linear and Poisson regressions, respectively, were compared amongst three population groups - federally registered Aboriginals, individuals receiving welfare, and other Albertans. RESULTS: Healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginals were substantially lower than those of non-Aboriginals and welfare recipients at each time point and subspecialty studied [e.g. During 2005/06, unadjusted Cardiology utilisation rates were 0.28% (Aboriginal, n = 97,080, 0.93% (non-Aboriginal, n = 1,720,041 and 1.37% (Welfare, n = 52,514, p = <0.001]. The age distribution of the Aboriginal population was markedly different [2.7%≥65 years of age, non-Aboriginal 10.7%], and comparable utilisation rates were obtained after adjustment for fiscal year and estimated life expectancy [Cardiology: Incidence Rate Ratio 0.66, Ophthalmology: IRR 0.85]. DISCUSSION: The analysis revealed that Aboriginal people utilised subspecialty healthcare at a consistently lower rate than either comparatively economically disadvantaged groups or the general population. Notably, the differences were relatively invariant between the major provincial centres and over a nine year period

  19. Comparison of three dose regimens of aprotinin in infants undergoing the arterial switch operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Yashwant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the most effective dose regimen of aprotinin for infants undergoing arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries in reducing blood loss and postoperative packed red blood cell (PRBC requirements. A total of 24 infants scheduled for arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries were included in the study. The infants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Group I (n = 8 patients received aprotinin in a dose of 20,000 kallikrein inhibiting units (KIU/kg after induction of anesthesia, 20,000 KIU/kg was added to the pump prime, and 20,000 KIU/kg/hour infusion for three hours after weaning from bypass; group II (n = 8 patients received aprotinin 30,000 KIU/kg after induction of anesthesia, 30,000 KIU/kg was added to the pump prime and 30,000 KIU/Kg/hour infusion for three hours after weaning from bypass; group III patients (n = 8 received aprotinin 40,000 KIU/kg after induction of anesthesia, 40,000 KIU/kg was added to the pump prime and 40,000 KIU/kg/hour infusion for three hours after weaning from bypass. Postoperatively, the cumulative hourly blood loss and PRBC requirements were noted up to 24 hours from the time of admission in the intensive care unit (ICU. Use of blood and blood products were noted. Coagulation parameters such as hematocrit, activated clotting time (ACT, fibrinogen, prothrombin time (PT, international normalized ratio (INR, platelet count, and fibrin degradation products (FDP were investigated before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, after protamine administration, and at four hours postoperatively in the ICU. The number of infants reexplored for increased mediastinal drainage was recorded. Renal functions were monitored by measuring urine output (hourly and serum urea (mg% and serum creatinine (mg% at 24 hours. The sternal closure time was comparable in all the three groups. Cumulative blood loss (ml/kg/24 hours was greatest in group I (17.30 ± 7.7, least in group

  20. Corporate social responsibility and aboriginal relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All of Canada's uranium mining activity occurs in the northern half of the province of Saskatchewan in western Canada. This region has a total population of 38 000 people living in many small communities scattered over 250 000 square kilometres. Demographically, the north's population is 75% aboriginal representing the Woodland Cree, Dene, and Metis Nations. The majority of the aboriginal population of northern Saskatchewan are treaty Indians (First Nations). The dominant first nations group in the north is The Lac La Ronge Indian Band, also Saskatchewan's largest Woodland Cree First Nation. Despite the fact that the Lac La Ronge Band and other First Nations of the region do not have surface or mineral rights, other than those on their reserve lands, they have significant influence in the development process. The extraction of the mineral resources of Canada are now undertaken with very considerable input from first nations groups and with sensitivity to their treaty rights and aboriginal traditional rights. Treaty rights in Canada include, among other things, hunting and fishing, access to post secondary education and special taxation considerations. This presentation will introduce participants to a unique perspective on northern Saskatchewan's uranium mining industry. This perspective will be provided by Harry Cook, Chief of the Lac La Ronge Indian Band.In his presentation, Chief Cook will provide a first nation's perspective on industrial development generally and uranium development specifically. He will begin by outlining the challenges facing aboriginal people in Canada and will provide an insightful view of the historical conflict between industrial developers and first nations people. He will describe the aspirations of his people and the importance they place on preservation of the natural environment. He will also speak to the critical need now emerging for aboriginal people to seek a balance between retaining traditional culture and participating in the

  1. Chronic liver disease in Aboriginal North Americans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John D Scott; Naomi Garland

    2008-01-01

    A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death.Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD,but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of CLD. High rates of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reported in regions of coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. Non-alcoholic liver disease is a common, but understudied, cause of CLD.Future research should monitor the incidence and etiology of CLD and should be geographically inclusive.In addition, more research is needed on the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and non-alcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD) in this population.

  2. Comparison Among Commonly Available Infant Formula Milks in the Iraqi Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Mudher Mikhael MClinPharm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast-feeding is the best method of feeding infants. In some cases, formula milk can be a suitable alternative, so this study aimed to compare the safety and nutritional adequacy of commonly available formula milks in the Iraqi market. An observational study for the commonly available formula milks was conducted in the largest supermarkets of Baghdad, Iraq, during January-March 2015. The macronutrient and micronutrient contents as presented in the label of each type of formula milk was compared with the standard requirement of formula milk according to the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN guidelines. Dielac formula milk is the commonest formula milk in the Iraqi market, with the lowest price when compared with other formula milks. All infant formula milks (Similac, Guigoz, and S-26 Gold except Dielac have the mandatory contents within the specified ranges, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. Dielac lacks more than 1 of the major mandatory contents besides lacking all optional contents in its formula. Guigoz formula milk lacks the optional ingredients arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and nucleotides. Similac milk was supplemented with a higher-than-specified level of nucleotides, and its l-carnitine contents were not declared. Only S26 Gold formula milk contained all mandatory and optional ingredients within the specified range, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. In conclusion, no formula milk can resemble breast milk; however, S26 Gold formula milk is the most acceptable formula, and Dielac formula milk is the worst. Therefore, it is recommended that Dielac be withdrawn from the Iraqi market.

  3. Strongyloidiasis: an issue in Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M; Page, W; Speare, R

    2003-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis, a disease caused by the parasitic gut nematode (roundworm), Strongyloides stercoralis, has the highest prevalence in the world in rural and remote Aboriginal communities of northern Australia. With prevalences greater than 25%, these communities have rates of strongyloidiasis higher those in the worst affected developing countries where surveys have been recently conducted. Available data indisputably support that strongyloidiasis is more prevalent in rural and remote Aboriginal communities than in the mainstream Australian community. However control of strongyloidiasis has not been given a high priority by government health departments, with the result that Aboriginal people in remote and rural communities in Northern Australia are still suffering from a preventable and treatable disease. This article suggests that the only way to address the strongyloidiasis problem in Indigenous communities is to have strongyloidiasis recognised and addressed at the national level. One component of this must be making health departments responsible for establishing appropriate systems of effective treatment for and monitoring of patients with strongyloidiasis. PMID:15877491

  4. Consulting Whom? Lessons from the Toronto Urban Aboriginal Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai T. Nguyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted here looks at the current Urban Aboriginal Strategy (UAS in Toronto. The purpose of this Strategy is to provide long-term investments to support Aboriginal communities in urban settings by focusing on three priority areas: improving life skills; promoting job training, skills, and entrepreneurship; and supporting Aboriginal women, children, and families. This article seeks to answer the following question: Does the UAS provide Aboriginal participants with the ability to effectively participant in the consultation process? It argues that the UAS process of consulting with the urban Aboriginal community does not allow for the effective participation of Aboriginal peoples because of problematics related to consulting in an urban setting and despite the language of partnership, the federal government still reserves the right to make final decisions. These problems diminish the ability to build renewed Aboriginal-State relations based on mutual respect and trust, which has been absent within the Aboriginal-State apparatus and resulted in the political exclusion of Aboriginals in Canada. Though consultation can be a vehicle for empowering participants with decision-making authority, this is not the case in Toronto. The lack of a common vision, political buy-in, and the aura of secrecy leads to a political relationship built on mistrust. Mistrust between members and government renders the consultation process ineffective. This article combines the literature on public consultations with official government documents to identify critical components that must be evident for consultations to be fruitful and participation effective. These criteria are the benchmarks upon which to measure effectiveness. Based on interviews with the Steering Committee, this article finds that the UAS process of consulting with the Toronto Aboriginal community does not enable Aboriginal participants to effectively participate in the democratic process.

  5. Comparison of detection results of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at different degrees in infant patients between brain electrical activity mapping, transcranial Doppler sonography and computer tomography examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongruo He; Xiaoying Xu; Yinghui Zhang; Guochao Han

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND; It has been proved that brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) detection can reflect the function of brain cell and its diseased degree of infant patients with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).OBJECTIVE: To observe the abnormal results of HIE at different degrees detected with BEAM and TCD in infant patients, and compare the detection results at the same time point between BEAM, TCD and computer tomography (CT) examinations.DESTGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Departments of Neuro-electrophysiology and Pediatrics, Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College.PARTICTPANTS: Totally 416 infant patients with HIE who received treatment in the Department of Newborn Infants, Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College during January 2001 and December 2005. The infant patients, 278 male and 138 female, were at embryonic 37 to 42 weeks and weighing 2.0 to 4.1 kg, and they were diagnosed with CT and met the diagnostic criteria of HIE of newborn infants compiled by Department of Neonatology, Pediatric Academy, Chinese Medical Association. According to diagnostic criteria, 130patients were mild abnormal, 196 moderate abnormal and 90 severe abnormal. The relatives of all the infant patients were informed of the experiment.METHODS: BEAM and TCD examinations were performed in the involved 416 infant patients with HIE at different degrees with DYD2000 16-channel BEAM instrument and EME-2000 ultrasonograph before preliminary diagnosis treatment (within 1 month after birth) and 1,3,6,12 and 24 months after birth, and detected results were compared between BEAM, TCD and CT examinations.MATN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of detection results of HIE at different time points in infant patients between BEAM, TCD and CT examinations. RESULTS: All the 416 infant patients with HIE participated in the result analysis. ① Comparison of the detected results in infant patients with mild HIE at different

  6. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR. See www.americanheart.org for ...

  7. Relationships Matter: Supporting Aboriginal Graduate Students in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Michelle; Archibald, Jo-ann; Hawkey, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The current Canadian landscape of graduate education has pockets of presence of Indigenous faculty, students, and staff. The reality is that all too often, Aboriginal graduate students are either among the few, or is the sole Aboriginal person in an entire faculty. They usually do not have mentorship or guidance from an Indigenous faculty member…

  8. How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T.M. Schreiner

    2013-01-01

    The article How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art will discuss two events at the Aboriginal Art Museum Utrecht from the perspective of a meeting between two artistic and legal cultures. The first event, on the art and law of the Spinifex people, will prove to be of a private law natu

  9. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong;

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Abori...

  10. Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

  11. 75 FR 10223 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XN25 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... notification of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the...

  12. 78 FR 13028 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC460 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the public of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to...

  13. 76 FR 16388 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA309 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... notification of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the...

  14. 77 FR 21540 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA967 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the public of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to...

  15. A Pedagogical Model for Engaging Aboriginal Children with Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Byrne, Matt; Gower, Graeme; Anderson, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal children experience social and educational disadvantage and many are not engaged with schooling or learning, which results in significantly lower levels of educational attainment. The Aboriginal Education Program delivered by Scitech to remote Western Australian schools has been shown to significantly increase student ratings of their…

  16. How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T.M. Schreiner (Agnes)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The article How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art will discuss two events at the Aboriginal Art Museum Utrecht from the perspective of a meeting between two artistic and legal cultures. The first event, on the art and law of the Spinifex people, will pro

  17. Becoming Aboriginal: Experiences of a European Woman in Kamchatka's Wilderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churikova, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    A Russian woman describes how living in remote Kamchatka helped her develop an aboriginal perspective. Chopping wood, hauling water, gathering food, alternately homeschooling her children and sending them to an ecological school, and interacting with local aboriginal people taught her the importance of conserving natural resources and living in…

  18. The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

  19. The usefulness of whole body bone mineral densitometry in the osteopenia of preterm infants: comparison with the wrist radiography and biochemical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Bong Jin; Huh, Jin Do; Shin, Sang Bum; Cheon, Byung Kook; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin Univ. Gospel Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jeong Mi; Jeon, Seong Sook [Ilsin Christian Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of whole body bone mineral densitometry in the diagnosis of frequent osteopenia of preterm infants by comparison with the wrist radiographs and biochemical parameters. From January 1995 to January 1996, we obtained whole body bone mineral density(BMD) studies using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) and wrist radiographs of 39 preterm infants. They were divided into three groups according to birth weight, under 1500g, 1501g to 2000g and above 2000g, and four grades of skeletal change, as seen on wrist radiography, according to the scoring method of Koo et al. Groups of birth weight and grades of skeletal change were then correlated with whole body BMD and biochemical parameters. For comparison, normal data were obtained from 13 infants born at full term. Data were analyzed by one way analysis of variation(ANOVA) and correlation and regression analysis. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Whole body BMDs were significantly lower in the more premature and smaller birth weight infants(r=0.77, p=0.0000), and in the higher grade of skeletal change(r-0.5276, p=0.0000). Aggravated skeletal changes were found in infants with lower birth weight(r= -0.3822, p=0.01). Interobserver variation in grading skeletal change was 42.9%, and intraobserver variation was 18.4%. Biochemical parameters such as serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, calcitonin and 25-hydroxy-vitamine D did not vary significantly according to either birth weight or skeletal change(p > 0.05). Premature osteopenia is more effectively diagnosed by measuring whole body BMD using DXA than by grading radiographical skeletal change or by biochemical parameters.

  20. Delivery room management of very low birth weight infants in Germany, Austria and Switzerland - a comparison of protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roehr CC

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys from the USA, Australia and Spain have shown significant inter-institutional variation in delivery room (DR management of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI, Objective To investigate protocols for DR management of VLBWI in Germany, Austria and Switzerland and to compare these with the 2005 ILCOR guidelines. Methods DR management protocols were surveyed in a prospective, questionnaire-based survey in 2008. Results were compared between countries and between academic and non-academic units. Protocols were compared to the 2005 ILCOR guidelines. Results In total, 190/249 units (76% replied. Protocols for DR management existed in 94% of units. Statistically significant differences between countries were found regarding provision of 24 hr in house neonatal service; presence of a designated resuscitation area; devices for respiratory support; use of pressure-controlled manual ventilation devices; volume control by respirator; and dosage of Surfactant. There were no statistically significant differences regarding application and monitoring of supplementary oxygen, or targeted saturation levels, or for the use of sustained inflations. Comparison of academic and non-academic hospitals showed no significant differences, apart from the targeted saturation levels (SpO2 at 10 min. of life. Comparison with ILCOR guidelines showed good adherence to the 2005 recommendations. Summary Delivery room management in German, Austrian and Swiss neonatal units was commonly based on written protocols. Only minor differences were found regarding the DR setup, devices used and the targeted ranges for SpO2 and FiO2. DR management was in good accordance with 2005 ILCOR guidelines, some units already incorporated evidence beyond the ILCOR statement into their routine practice.

  1. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives. PMID:26235612

  2. Parental perceptions and experiences after childbirth: a Comparison between mothers and fathers of term and preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooten, A.; Hoffenkamp, H.R.; Hall, R.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.; Bakel, van H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Parents experience a lot of positive and negative feelings and emotions after birth. The main purpose of this study was to compare perceptions and experiences of mothers and fathers with term, moderately and very preterm infants. Methods We included 202 infants with both parents, divided

  3. Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates.

  4. Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...

  5. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury: comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor function. We studied 20 infants with focal lesions and 23 controls using MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD) of the CSTs were determined. Asymmetry indices (AIs) were calculated by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral CSTs. Motor outcome was assessed using a standardized neurological examination. Conventional MRI was able to predict normal motor development (n = 9) or hemiplegia (n = 6). In children who developed a mild motor asymmetry (n = 5), conventional MRI predicted a hemiplegia in two and normal motor development in three infants. The AIs for tract volume, FA, ADC and RD showed a significant difference between controls and infants who developed a hemiplegia, and RD also showed a significant difference in AI between controls and infants who developed a mild asymmetry. Conventional MRI was able to predict subsequent normal motor development or hemiplegia following focal injury in newborn infants. Measures of RD obtained from diffusion tractography may offer additional information for predicting a subsequent asymmetry in motor function. (orig.)

  6. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury: comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roze, Elise [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); University Medical Center Groningen, Division of Neonatology, Beatrix Children' s Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Harris, Polly A.; Ball, Gareth; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Counsell, Serena J. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Elorza, Leire Zubiaurre [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); University of Barcelona, Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A.D.; Cowan, Frances M. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Porter, Emma [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Rutherford, Mary A. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor function. We studied 20 infants with focal lesions and 23 controls using MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD) of the CSTs were determined. Asymmetry indices (AIs) were calculated by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral CSTs. Motor outcome was assessed using a standardized neurological examination. Conventional MRI was able to predict normal motor development (n = 9) or hemiplegia (n = 6). In children who developed a mild motor asymmetry (n = 5), conventional MRI predicted a hemiplegia in two and normal motor development in three infants. The AIs for tract volume, FA, ADC and RD showed a significant difference between controls and infants who developed a hemiplegia, and RD also showed a significant difference in AI between controls and infants who developed a mild asymmetry. Conventional MRI was able to predict subsequent normal motor development or hemiplegia following focal injury in newborn infants. Measures of RD obtained from diffusion tractography may offer additional information for predicting a subsequent asymmetry in motor function. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoene, Melissa; Lyden, Elizabeth; Weishaar, Kara; Elliott, Elizabeth; Wu, Ruomei; White, Katelyn; Timm, Hayley; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We previously compared infant outcomes between a powdered human milk fortifier (P-HMF) vs. acidified liquid HMF (AL-HMF). A non-acidified liquid HMF (NAL-HMF) is now commercially available. The purpose of this study is to compare growth and outcomes of premature infants receiving P-HMF, AL-HMF or NAL-HMF. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved retrospective chart review compared infant outcomes (born cal/kg, 4.2 g protein/kg vs. P-HMF 117 cal/kg, 3.7 g protein/kg , NAL-HMF 120 cal/kg, 4.0 g protein/kg. AL-HMF infants exhibited lower carbon dioxide levels after day of life 14 and 30 (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0038). Three AL-HMF infants (13%) developed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) vs. no infants in the remaining groups (p = 0.0056). A NAL-HMF is the most optimal choice for premature human milk-fed infants in a high acuity neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PMID:27472359

  8. A Comparison of KL-6 and Clara Cell Protein as Markers for Predicting Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Keyi Wang; Xianmei Huang; Hui Lu; Zhiqun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the predictive characteristics of KL-6 and CC16 for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants, either independently or in combination. Study Design. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 with preterm neonates of gestational age ≤32 weeks and birth weight ≤1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 and 14 days after birth. Results. Seventy-three preterm infants were studied. BPD was identified in 24 of these infants. After adj...

  9. Comparison of Measurement of Central Corneal Thickness with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Standard Ultrasonic Pachymeter in Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Emre Hekimoglu; Muhammet Kazım Erol; Devrim Toslak; Deniz Turgut Coban; Berna Doğan; Ozgur Yucel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the repeatability of measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) by spectral domain optical coherence (SD-OCT) in premature infants and compare it to CCT measurement by ultrasonic pachymetry (USP). Methods. Three CCT measurements of the left eyes of 50 premature infants were obtained by SD-OCT using the iVue system. 10 CCT measurements of each 28 left eyes of 28 infants were obtained by USP using the Pacscan 300P system. Bland-Altman plots were developed and the limit ...

  10. The Relationship of Intelligence, Self-Concept and Locus of Control to School Achievement for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marilyn M.; Parker, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    To examine variables related to the school achievement of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, 35 indigenous students and 58 non-Aboriginals in grade 8 completed a Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Responsibility Questionnaire. (Author/SBH)

  11. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  12. Comparison of modified automatic Dumas method and the traditional Kjeldahl method for nitrogen determination in infant food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomonte, G; Costantini, A; Giammarioli, S

    1987-01-01

    This study compares 2 methods for determining nitrogen and protein in various types of infant food: the Kjeldahl method, developed in 1883, which is time consuming and labor intensive, and a newer, automatic method, based on the Dumas method. In each category of infant food considered, the results obtained from both methods are shown to be comparable; however, the modified Dumas method is quicker, easier, and does not pollute the laboratory environment.

  13. A Comparison of Community and Clinic Baby Showers to Promote Safe Sleep for Populations at High Risk for Infant Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R.; Schunn, Christy; Lopez, Venessa; Kraus, Stacey; Blackmon, Sheila; Dempsey, Millicent; Sollo, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Community baby showers have provided education and free portable cribs to promote safe sleep for high-risk infants. We evaluated knowledge gained at these showers and the effectiveness of holding baby showers at a primary care clinic as an alternative to traditional community venues. Participants at the community venue were more likely to exhibit risk factors associated with unsafe sleep and to report an unsafe sleep location for their infant without the provided portable crib. Following the ...

  14. Aboriginal Perspectives on Social-Emotional Competence in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Tremblay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaining an understanding of how best to support the development of Aboriginal children is important in promoting positive social, emotional, educational, and health outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to identify the most important elements of healthy development for Aboriginal children, with a particular focus on social-emotional development. Focus groups were conducted with 37 Aboriginal Canadians, including parents, service providers, adolescents, and young adults. Five inter-connected themes emerged: cultural wellness, emotional wellness, mental wellness, social wellness, and strong identity, with strong identity described as central and foundational to the other themes. This study strengthens the assertion that Aboriginal children require an additional set of social-emotional skills to successfully navigate different cultural contexts during development. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  15. A Comparison of KL-6 and Clara Cell Protein as Markers for Predicting Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the predictive characteristics of KL-6 and CC16 for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in preterm infants, either independently or in combination. Study Design. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 with preterm neonates of gestational age ≤32 weeks and birth weight ≤1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 and 14 days after birth. Results. Seventy-three preterm infants were studied. BPD was identified in 24 of these infants. After adjusting for potential confounders, serum KL-6 concentrations were found to be elevated in BPD infants at both time points relative to non-BPD infants, while serum CC16 concentrations were lower at 14 days. At both 7 d and 14 d of life the predictive power of KL-6 levels exceeded that of CC16 (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: at 7 d, 0.91 cf. 0.73, P=0.02; at 14 d, 0.95 cf. 0.85, P=0.05. The combination of these markers enhanced the sensitivity further. Conclusions. Serum KL-6 levels higher than 79.26 ng/mL at 14 days postpartum in preterm infants predict the occurrence of BPD. CC16 was less predictive than KL-6 at this time point, but KL-6 and CC16 together enhanced the prediction.

  16. A comparison of vowel formant frequencies in the babbling of infants exposed to Canadian English and Canadian French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattock, Karen; Rvachew, Susan; Polka, Linda; Turner, Sara

    2005-04-01

    It is well established that normally developing infants typically enter the canonical babbling stage of production between 6 and 8 months of age. However, whether the linguistic environment affects babbling, either in terms of the phonetic inventory of vowels produced by infants [Oller & Eiler (1982)] or the acoustics of vowel formants [Boysson-Bardies et al. (1989)] is controversial. The spontaneous speech of 42 Canadian English- and Canadian French-learning infants aged 8 to 11, 12 to 15 and 16 to 18 months of age was recorded and digitized to yield a total of 1253 vowels that were spectrally analyzed and statistically compared for differences in first and second formant frequencies. Language-specific influences on vowel acoustics were hypothesized. Preliminary results reveal changes in formant frequencies as a function of age and language background. There is evidence of decreases over age in the F1 values of French but not English infants vowels, and decreases over age in the F2 values of English but not French infants vowels. The notion of an age-related shift in infants attention to language-specific acoustic features and the implications of this for early vocal development as well as for the production of Canadian English and Canadian French vowels will be discussed.

  17. Parental Brain: Cerebral Areas Activated By Infant Cries And Faces. A Comparison Between Different Populations Of Parents And Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia ePiallini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature about parenting traditionally focused on caring behaviors and parental representations. Nowadays, an innovative line of researches, interested in evaluating the neural areas and hormones implicated in the nurturing and caregiving responses, has developed. The only way to permit a newborn to survive and grow up is to respond to his needs and in order to succeed it is necessary, first of all, that the adults around him understand what his needs are. That’s why adults’ capacity of taking care of infants cannot disregard from some biological mechanisms, which allow them to be more responsive to the progeny and to infants in general. Many researches have proved that exist specific neural basis activating in response to infant evolutionary stimuli, such as infant cries and infant emotional facial expression. There is a sort of innate predisposition in human adults to respond to infants’ signals, in order to satisfy their need and allow them to survive and become young adults capable of taking care of themselves. This article focuses on those researches that have investigated, in the last decade, which are the neural circuits underlying parental behavioral responses.Moreover, the paper compares the results of those studies that investigated the neural responses to infant stimuli under different conditions: familiar versus unknown children, parents versus non-parents and normative versus clinical samples (depression, addiction, adolescence and PTSD.

  18. The health of older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoGiudice, Dina

    2016-06-01

    The health of Aboriginal Australians is poorer than that of all other Indigenous cultures in developed nations, and recent studies suggest high rates of dementia and other conditions that are common in old age. This has implications for health promotion, provision of services and planning for older age in these communities. This article provides an overview on the health of Older Aboriginal Australians. PMID:27155822

  19. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

    OpenAIRE

    BOUCHER, Alexandre; Guimond. Éric; Robitaille, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    AbstractThis article deals with the contribution of intergenerational ethnic mobility tothe demographic reproduction of the Aboriginal groups in Canada: the NorthAmerican Indians, the Métis and the Inuit. To this effect, it attempts to see ifchildren in husband/wife census families keep the identity of their parents. Asexpected, children from endogamous couples generally keep their parents’identity. However, for most children from exogamous couples formed by anAboriginal person and a non-Abor...

  20. Comparison of conventional, immunological and molecular techniques for the diagnosis of symptomatic congenital human cytomegalovirus infection in neonates and infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is the commonest pathogen causing congenital infection globally. The diagnosis of congenital infection is based either on viral isolation (in cell culture or demonstration of HCMV DNA from the urine. Saliva is also being used as an alternative sample to urine for the same. The objective of this study was to compare the following assays-polymerase chain reaction (PCR from urine, saliva and blood, serology (anti-HCMV IgM and antigen detection (HCMV pp65 antigenaemia for the diagnosis of congenital HCMV infection. Materials and Methods: Urine and blood samples were collected from 31 infants (median age: 13 weeks with suspected HCMV infection. For 18 infants, additional saliva samples were collected and all the above assays were compared. Results: PCR for HCMV DNA from urine and anti-HCMV IgM were performed for all 31 infants. Of these, 22 (70.9% were positive for both assays. In 18 (of the 22 infants positive by both assays, PCR for HCMV DNA from saliva was positive in all 18 (100%, PCR from blood in 7/18 (38.8% and HCMV pp65 antigenaemia only in 1/18 (5.5% of the infants. Conclusion: Detection of HCMV DNA in urine combined with anti-HCMV IgM are suitable assays to diagnose HCMV infection in infants. Both PCR from the blood and HCMV pp65 antigenaemia lack sensitivity in infants. Salivary PCR combines convenience with high sensitivity and can substitute PCR from urine, especially in the outpatient and field settings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study from India to evaluate salivary PCR for the diagnosis of congenital HCMV infection.

  1. Owning solutions: a collaborative model to improve quality in hospital care for Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Thompson, Sandra C; Davidson, Patricia M; Bessarab, Dawn; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

    2012-06-01

    Well-documented health disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Aboriginal) and non-Aboriginal Australians are underpinned by complex historical and social factors. The effects of colonisation including racism continue to impact negatively on Aboriginal health outcomes, despite being under-recognised and under-reported. Many Aboriginal people find hospitals unwelcoming and are reluctant to attend for diagnosis and treatment, particularly with few Aboriginal health professionals employed on these facilities. In this paper, scientific literature and reports on Aboriginal health-care, methodology and cross-cultural education are reviewed to inform a collaborative model of hospital-based organisational change. The paper proposes a collaborative model of care to improve health service delivery by building capacity in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal personnel by recruiting more Aboriginal health professionals, increasing knowledge and skills to establish good relationships between non-Aboriginal care providers and Aboriginal patients and their families, delivering quality care that is respectful of culture and improving Aboriginal health outcomes. A key element of model design, implementation and evaluation is critical reflection on barriers and facilitators to providing respectful and culturally safe quality care at systemic, interpersonal and patient/family-centred levels. Nurses are central to addressing the current state of inequity and are pivotal change agents within the proposed model. PMID:22530862

  2. COMPARISON THE EFFECT OF SIMULTANEOUS SENSORY STIMULATION AND CURRENT OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY APPROACHES ON MOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFANTS WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein KARIMI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNeuromuscular characteristics in Down syndrome result in generalized muscular hypotonia, developmental delays and sensory integration deficits. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of simultaneous sensory stimulations and current occupational therapy approaches on motor functions development of infants with Down syndrome.Materials & MethodsEighteen infants with Down syndrome, aged 6 -18 months, were evaluated in two groups: intervention group (simultaneous sensory stimulation and occupational therapy and control group (occupational therapy alone. They attended the program 3 times a week for 6 months and each session lasted 45 minutes. Motor functions were assessed before, during, and after intervention in the two groups, using GMFM test.ResultsMean motor function increased in both groups according to the GMFM test (P = 0.000. Comparison of the changes showed that although the mean difference of this variable was higher in the intervention group, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.576.Mean motor deficit reduced in both groups during the period of the study,which was statistically significant (P ConclusionEarly use of simultaneous sensory stimulations can improve the quality of motor skills in Down syndrome infants. It is suggested that it may be used as an early intervention in association with other methods in the rehabilitation of these patients. However, more studies in this regard are warranted.Keywords:Down syndrome, Motor development, Occupational therapy, Sensory stimulation.

  3. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  4. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  5. Post-mortem computed tomography findings of the lungs: Retrospective review and comparison with autopsy results of 30 infant cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke, E-mail: ssu@rad.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Usui, Akihito, E-mail: t7402r0506@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosokai, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: hosokai@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Igari, Yui, E-mail: igari@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosoya, Tadashi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Yoshie, E-mail: yoshie@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Saito, Haruo, E-mail: hsaito@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Ishibashi, Tadashi, E-mail: tisibasi@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Funayama, Masato, E-mail: funayama@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). •In this study, twenty-two of the thirty sudden infant death cases showed increasing concentration in the entire lung field. •Based on the autopsy results, the lungs simply collapsed and no other abnormal lung findings were identified. •The radiologist should not consider increasing concentration in all lung fields as simply a pulmonary disorder when diagnosing the cause of infant death using PMCT. -- Abstract: Objectives: Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). However, the lungs often show simply atelectasis at autopsy in the absence of any other abnormal changes. Thus, we retrospectively reviewed the PMCT findings of lungs following sudden infant death and correlated them with the autopsy results. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed infant cases (0 year) who had undergone PMCT and a forensic autopsy at our institution between May 2009 and June 2013. Lung opacities were classified according to their type; consolidation, ground-glass opacity and mixed, as well as distribution; bilateral diffuse and areas of sparing. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the relationships among lung opacities, causes of death and resuscitation attempt. Results: Thirty infant cases were selected, which included 22 sudden and unexplained deaths and 8 other causes of death. Resuscitation was attempted in 22 of 30 cases. Bilateral diffuse opacities were observed in 21 of the 30 cases. Of the 21 cases, 18 were sudden and unexplained deaths. Areas of sparing were observed in 4 sudden and unexplained deaths and 5 other causes of death. Distribution of opacities was not significantly associated with causes of death or resuscitation attempt. The 21 cases with bilateral diffuse opacities included 6 consolidations (4 sudden and unexplained

  6. Post-mortem computed tomography findings of the lungs: Retrospective review and comparison with autopsy results of 30 infant cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). •In this study, twenty-two of the thirty sudden infant death cases showed increasing concentration in the entire lung field. •Based on the autopsy results, the lungs simply collapsed and no other abnormal lung findings were identified. •The radiologist should not consider increasing concentration in all lung fields as simply a pulmonary disorder when diagnosing the cause of infant death using PMCT. -- Abstract: Objectives: Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). However, the lungs often show simply atelectasis at autopsy in the absence of any other abnormal changes. Thus, we retrospectively reviewed the PMCT findings of lungs following sudden infant death and correlated them with the autopsy results. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed infant cases (0 year) who had undergone PMCT and a forensic autopsy at our institution between May 2009 and June 2013. Lung opacities were classified according to their type; consolidation, ground-glass opacity and mixed, as well as distribution; bilateral diffuse and areas of sparing. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the relationships among lung opacities, causes of death and resuscitation attempt. Results: Thirty infant cases were selected, which included 22 sudden and unexplained deaths and 8 other causes of death. Resuscitation was attempted in 22 of 30 cases. Bilateral diffuse opacities were observed in 21 of the 30 cases. Of the 21 cases, 18 were sudden and unexplained deaths. Areas of sparing were observed in 4 sudden and unexplained deaths and 5 other causes of death. Distribution of opacities was not significantly associated with causes of death or resuscitation attempt. The 21 cases with bilateral diffuse opacities included 6 consolidations (4 sudden and unexplained

  7. COMPARISON THE EFFECT OF SIMULTANEOUS SENSORY STIMULATION AND CURRENT OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY APPROACHES ON MOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFANTS WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud KARIMLOO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveNeuromuscular characteristics in Down syndrome result in generalized muscular hypotonia, developmental delays and sensory integration deficits. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of simultaneous sensory stimulations and current occupational therapy approaches on motor functions development of infants with Down syndrome.Materials & MethodsEighteen infants with Down syndrome, aged 6 -18 months, were evaluated in two groups: intervention group (simultaneous sensory stimulation and occupational therapy and control group (occupational therapy alone. They attended the program 3 times a week for 6 months and each session lasted 45 minutes. Motor functions were assessed before, during, and after intervention in the two groups, using GMFM test.ResultsMean motor function increased in both groups according to the GMFM test (P = 0.000. Comparison of the changes showed that although the mean difference of this variable was higher in the intervention group, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.576.Mean motor deficit reduced in both groups during the period of the study,which was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Comparison of the difference in mean motor deficit in the first and last evaluations showed that this difference was more in the intervention group but statistically insignificant (P = 0.617ConclusionEarly use of simultaneous sensory stimulations can improve the quality of motor skills in Down syndrome infants. It is suggested that it may be used as an early intervention in association with other methods in the rehabilitation of these patients. However, more studies in this regard are warranted.

  8. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucher, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis article deals with the contribution of intergenerational ethnic mobility tothe demographic reproduction of the Aboriginal groups in Canada: the NorthAmerican Indians, the Métis and the Inuit. To this effect, it attempts to see ifchildren in husband/wife census families keep the identity of their parents. Asexpected, children from endogamous couples generally keep their parents’identity. However, for most children from exogamous couples formed by anAboriginal person and a non-Aboriginal person, the Aboriginal identity prevailsover the non-Aboriginal identity. If Aboriginal identities were “not attractive”identities when declaring the ethnic affiliation of children in situations ofexogamous unions, then the size of the Aboriginal population in Canada wouldbe significantly smaller.RésuméCet article examine en quoi la mobilité ethnique intergénérationnelle contribueà la reproduction démographique des groupes autochtones du Canada; c'est-àdire: Les Amérindiens, les Métis et les Inuits. Pour ce faire, l’article tented’examiner si les enfants de familles de recensement époux et épouse gardentl'identité de leurs parents. Tel que prévu, les enfants issus de couples endogènesont tendance à garder l'identité de leurs parents. Cependant, pour la plupart desenfants issus de couples exogènes se composant d’une personne autochtone etd’une personne non-autochtone, l’identité autochtone l’emporte sur l’identiténon-autochtone. Si l'identité autochtone n'était pas une identité qui semble"attrayante" au moment de la déclaration de l’affiliation ethnique des enfantsdans le cas d’unions exogènes, la population autochtones du Canada serait bienmoindre.

  9. Early mortality from external causes in Aboriginal mothers: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Walker, Roz; de Klerk, Nick; Shepherd, Carrington

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal loss can have a deep-rooted impact on families. Whilst a disproportionate number of Aboriginal women die from potentially preventable causes, no research has investigated mortality in Aboriginal mothers. We aimed to examine the elevated mortality risk in Aboriginal mothers with a focus on external causes. Methods We linked data from four state administrative datasets to identify all women who had a child from 1983 to 2010 in Western Australia and ascertained their Aborigin...

  10. Dizzying Dialogue: Canadian Courts and the Continuing Justification of the Dispossession Of Aboriginal People

    OpenAIRE

    D’Arcy Vermette

    2015-01-01

    Since Aboriginal rights have found protection within Canada’s Constitution, a new relationship has emerged between Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples and the Crown. This relationship is characterized by the need for “reconciliation.” In its growing jurisprudence, the Supreme Court of Canada applies reconciliation doctrine to several important Aboriginal claims. Each application, however, brings with it a restriction on Aboriginal rights. This paper argues that the Court’s conception of reconciliatio...

  11. Sweating it Out: Facilitating Corrections and Parole in Canada Through Aboriginal Spiritual Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Milward

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal peoples continue to be subjected to drastic over-incarceration. Much of the existing literature explores contemporary adaptations of Aboriginal justice traditions that resemble restorative justice as a solution. There is by comparison a lack of literature that considers searching for solutions during the correctional phase of the justice system, after Aboriginal persons have already been convicted and imprisoned. The objective of this paper is to explore a number of reforms in order to better facilitate rehabilitation, reintegration, and parole for Aboriginal inmates. One is to invest greater resources into culturally sensitive programming that emphasizes spiritual healing for Aboriginal inmates. This is premised on the theme of “spend now, save later” with the idea that increasing the chances for Aboriginal re-integration may represent the better long term investment than simply warehousing large numbers of Aboriginal inmates year after year. Another problem is that many Aboriginal inmates are classified as higher security risks, which results in them being cut off from needed programming. The suggestion here is that criminal history as a static factor for determining security classifications may have little predictive value for the actual security risk posed by Aboriginal inmates, and therefore should be de-emphasized. Correctional Services of Canada should seriously consider developing an Aboriginal-specific classification scale that de-emphasizes criminal history, and emphasizes instead offender participation in culturally appropriate programs and spiritual healing, and behavioural progress while in prison. Risk assessment to re-offend for purposes of granting parole may also represent a form of systemic discrimination since criminal history represents a static factor that encumbers parole for many Aboriginal inmates. Risk assessment should instead emphasize dynamic risk factors by assessing Aboriginal participation in

  12. Bordetella bronchiseptica Pneumonia in an Infant and Genetic Comparison of Clinical Isolates with Veterinary Kennel Cough Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infant with recurrent episodes of respiratory failure was diagnosed with pertussis based on immunofluorescence testing, but culture revealed macrolide-resistant Bordetella bronchiseptica. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the child was not infected with a kennel cough vaccine strain, although th...

  13. Tone and Intonation in Mandarin Babytalk to Presyllabic Infants: Comparison with Registers of Adult Conversation and Foreign Language Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Mechthild; Hwang, Shu-Fen C.

    1991-01-01

    Native speakers recorded utterances in three role-play contexts: speech to presyllabic infants, foreign language instruction, and adult conversation. For babytalk, speakers neglected, reduced, or modified lexical tonal information in favor of simplified and clarified intonation contours. The implications regarding tone acquisition in children and…

  14. Comparison of complications of pentavalent and DTP vaccination in infants aged 2-6 months in Anzali, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sharafi

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, application of pentavalent vaccination not only minimizes the local reactions, but it also diminishes local discomfort through reducing the number of injections. Therefore, infants receiving this type of vaccination encounter minimum local reactions. It is recommended that further investigation be conducted on larger sample sizes in multiple healthcare centers.

  15. Comparison of the Effects of Attachment Training for Mothers on the Behavioral Responses of Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Edraki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature infants are among high-risk groups in community who need to be hospitalized at intensive care units for survival and receiving basic or special care. Hospitalization at neonatal intensive care units (NICUs unsettles the family and leads to the separation of parents from their infants. This study aimed to determine the effects of maternal attachment behaviors on the behavioral responses of premature infants, hospitalized at NICUs. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 64 premature infants, who were hospitalized at NICUs and were eligible for the study, were randomly allocated to study and control groups. Attachment behaviors including touching, massage and kangaroo care were applied for the study group, while the conventional attachment method was adopted for the control group. Behavioral responses were evaluated two hours before and two hours after training attachment behaviors. Data were analyzed, using Chi-square and student’s t-test. Results: The mean difference in the duration of deep sleep and consciousness was more significant in the study group, compared to the control group. Furthermore, the duration of drowsiness was significantly less in the study group, compared to the control group. Conclusion: The implementation of attachment training at NICUs decreased the time of drowsiness and improved behavioral responses, deep sleep time and consciousness.

  16. Comparison of Measurement of Central Corneal Thickness with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Standard Ultrasonic Pachymeter in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Hekimoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the repeatability of measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT by spectral domain optical coherence (SD-OCT in premature infants and compare it to CCT measurement by ultrasonic pachymetry (USP. Methods. Three CCT measurements of the left eyes of 50 premature infants were obtained by SD-OCT using the iVue system. 10 CCT measurements of each 28 left eyes of 28 infants were obtained by USP using the Pacscan 300P system. Bland-Altman plots were developed and the limit of agreement (LoA was determined to compare the mean of the SD-OCT and USP measurements. Results. No statistically significant difference was found among the 3 CCT measurements by SD-OCT. Both USP and SD-OCT have been performed for only left eyes of 28 of the 50 babies. Those results have been compared with each other. A statistically significant difference was found between the mean CCT measurements by SD-OCT and USP (p<0.05. The LoA between the SD-OCT and USP measurements ranged from 11.4 to −64.1. Conclusions. CCT can be measured using the iVue SD-OCT system with a high level of repeatability. Although measurement of CCT by SD-OCT and USP is highly correlated, the 2 systems cannot be used interchangeably in premature infants.

  17. Dancing with Ethnic Identities: An Aboriginal Dance Club in a Taiwanese Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shwu-Meei; Lee, Young Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research in Taiwan has shown that aboriginal students often have low self-esteem and a negative view of their life due to their heritage. This research studied 14 Taiwan aboriginal students to understand how the experience of an aboriginal dance club influenced the development of their ethnic identity. The results showed that the experiences of…

  18. Aboriginal Students' Achievement in Science Education: The Effect of Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Jimmy; Bouchamma, Yamina; Larose, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Some authors assume that the academic difficulties encountered by Aboriginal students can be partly explained by the discrepancy between teaching methods and Aboriginal learning styles. However, this hypothesis lacks empirical foundations. Using pan-Canadian data, we tried to identify the most efficient teaching methods for Aboriginal students and…

  19. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  20. Food Perceptions and Concerns of Aboriginal Women Coping with Gestational Diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Hannah Tait

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe how Aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Semi-structured explanatory model interviews explored Aboriginal women's illness experiences with GDM. Setting and Participants: Twenty-nine self-declared Aboriginal women who had…

  1. "We Can't Feel Our Language": Making Places in the City for Aboriginal Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloy, Natalie J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores possibilities for extending aboriginal language education opportunities into the urban domain based on qualitative research in Vancouver, British Columbia. The author argues that aboriginal language revitalization efforts have a place in the city, as demonstrated by emerging language ideologies of urban aboriginal people…

  2. Limits on Monolingualism? A Comparison of Monolingual and Bilingual Infants' Abilities to Integrate Lexical Tone in Novel Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Poh, Felicia L S; Fu, Charlene S L

    2016-01-01

    To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants' abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12-13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12-13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17-18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language. PMID:27242584

  3. Reliable partners : Aboriginal businesses growing along with oilsands development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radison, T.

    2007-11-15

    The development of Alberta's oilsands industry offers significant opportunities to Aboriginal communities located at the centre of development. Although resource development poses challenges in terms of traditional lifestyles and the environment, it has also resulted in the creation of thriving companies offering economic advantages to individuals and communities. The Northeastern Alberta Aboriginal Business Association (NAABA) has stated that between $400 and $500 million work of Aboriginal business is being conducted annually in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. This article described success stories of the labour, products and services targeted at the oilsands industry that these businesses provide. The operations of the Fort McKay Group of Companies (FMGC), Cold Lake First Nations, and Primco Dene were highlighted. It was shown that joint ventures have helped many Aboriginal companies diversify and grow. Partnerships were shown to be a viable way to share the wealth of the oilsands with Aboriginal communities, many of which are remote and have high unemployment rates and few opportunities for development. Some opportunities for development include band-owned mines, and progress in biofuels. 4 figs.

  4. Memorialising the Past: Is there an 'Aboriginal' Way?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Batten

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is debate about how the Aboriginal past can and should be memorialised. This paper utilises a series of example memorials to discuss the ways in which Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Australia are choosing to depict – in a physical, public form – Aboriginal perspectives of the past. The paper focuses on the issues of cultural evolution and the adoption of so-called ‘European’ ways of memorialising. It also looks at the role of landscapes and natural materials in memorials to the Aboriginal past and the evolving role of counter- and anti-memorials to commemorate the past. The examples of memorials from around Australia suggest that, above all, we must be open-minded about what constitutes an ‘Aboriginal’ memorial. Ways of memorialising the Aboriginal past can range, for example, from natural to constructed, from created by Indigenous people exclusively to otherwise, and from targeting an exclusively Indigenous audience, a non-Indigenous audience, or both. There is more than one way of memorialising the Aboriginal past.

  5. Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  6. A Comparison of Community and Clinic Baby Showers to Promote Safe Sleep for Populations at High Risk for Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Schunn, Christy; Lopez, Venessa; Kraus, Stacey; Blackmon, Sheila; Dempsey, Millicent; Sollo, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Community baby showers have provided education and free portable cribs to promote safe sleep for high-risk infants. We evaluated knowledge gained at these showers and the effectiveness of holding baby showers at a primary care clinic as an alternative to traditional community venues. Participants at the community venue were more likely to exhibit risk factors associated with unsafe sleep and to report an unsafe sleep location for their infant without the provided portable crib. Following the showers, both groups showed improvement in knowledge and intentions regarding safe sleep. However, to connect with the highest risk groups, showers held at community venues appeared to be preferable to those held at high-risk clinics. PMID:27335991

  7. A dermatoglyphic study of the Kavalan aboriginal population of Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yao-Fong; ZHANG HaiGuo; LAI Chun-Hung; LU ZhenYu; WANG ZhuGang

    2007-01-01

    By the 1970s, a number of dermatoglyphic studies of Taiwan aborigines (Gaoshan nationality) had been published, however in each only a few dermatoglyphic variables were addressed. Since that time, little new research has been conducted. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 100 individuals of Kavalan, a Taiwan aboriginal population, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count (TFRC), a-b total ridge count (a-b RC), atd angle and axial triradius percent distance (tPD), and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, palmar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, palmar hypothenar pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of any Taiwan aboriginal population.

  8. Ethnoveterinary practices of aborigine tribes in Odisha, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bikram K Mallik; Tribhuban Panda; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To record ethnoveterinary information of numerous aboriginal tribes of Kalahandi district of Odisha state, India. Methods: A survey of about 20 hamlets in the district was done with a questioner and personal interviews using the snowball technique in survey and sampling.Results:Seventy-three plants belonging to 41 families (Acanthaceae, Alangiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacadiaceae, Annonaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Bombaceae, Brassicaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Combretaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Lecythidaceae, Loganiaceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Moringaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Umbelliferae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae and Zingiberaceae) are used by aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district, Odisha, India, for treating ailments of domestic animals. Conclusion: Aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district use about 73 plants for treating ailments of animals.

  9. The Australian Aboriginal People: How to Misunderstand Their Science

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2014-01-01

    Just one generation ago, schoolkids were taught that Aboriginal people couldn't count beyond five, wandered the desert scavenging for food, had no civilization or religion, had no agriculture, couldn't navigate, didn't build houses, and peacefully acquiesced when Western Civilisation rescued them in 1788. How did we get it so wrong? Here I show that traditional Aboriginal people knew a great deal about the sky, knew the cycles of movements of the stars and the complex motions of the sun, moon and planets. I argue that school students studying science today could learn much from the way that pre-contact Aboriginal people used observation to build a self-consistent picture of the world around them, with predictive power and practical applications.

  10. Comparison of umbilical cord interleukin-6 in preterm infants with premature rupture of membranes and intact membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to compare inflammatory mediators in the cord blood of premature newborn infants with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and intact membranes. Eighty-nine premature neonates with gestational age of 27-34 weeks that delivered in Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran from June 2005 to March 2006 were enrolled in a prospective observational study and their umbilical cord plasma was collected at birth. They were allocated into 2 groups (45 patients with PROM and 44 neonates with intact membranes). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured in cord plasma by the enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) method. Mean cord plasma IL-6 levels in preterm neonates with PROM was 205.71 pg/ml and in neonates with intact membranes was 33.3 pg/ml for IL-6 (p=0.000). The mean cord blood CRP level in newborns was 10.2 ug/ml, and in those with intact membranes was 1.6 ug/ml and in those with intact membranes was 1.6 ug/ml (p=0.41). Early onset sepsis was more frequent in infants with PROM than premature infants with intact membrane (38% versus 10%, p=0.001). In neonates with PROM, the mean cord blood IL-6 level was significantly higher in septic newborns (414.28 versus 40.44 pg/ml, p=0.000). The premature newborn infants with PROM had increased IL-6 levels in cord blood, which was significantly higher in neonates that developed early onset sepsis. (author)

  11. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  12. Comparison of three different recombinant hepatitis B vaccines: GeneVac-B, Engerix B and Shanvac B in high risk infants born to HBsAg positive mothers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Velu, Vijayakumar; Nandakumar, Subhadra; Shanmugam, Saravanan; Jadhav, Suresh Sakharam; Kulkarni, Prasad Suryakant; Thyagarajan, Sadras Panchatcharam

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate a low cost Indian recombinant hepatitis B vaccine GeneVac-B® for its immunogenicity and safety in comparison to Engerix B® and Shanvac B® vaccine in high risk newborn infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers.

  13. Comparison in outcomes at two-years of age of very preterm infants born in 2000, 2005 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénaïg Abily-Donval

    Full Text Available To investigate alteration in 2-year neurological/behavioral outcomes of very preterm infants born in a French level three neonatal intensive care unit.We conducted a prospective, comparative study of very preterm infants born before 33 weeks' gestation at 5-year intervals in 2000, 2005 and 2010 at Rouen University Hospital. Neonatal mortality/morbidities, ante- and neonatal treatments, and at age 2 years motor, cognitive and behavioral data were collected by standardized questionnaires.We included 536 very preterm infants. Follow-up rates at two years old were 78% in 2000, 93% in 2005 and 92% in 2010 respectively. No difference in gestational age, birthweight, neonatal mortality/morbidities was observed except a decrease in low grade subependymal/intraventricular hemorrhages. Care modifications concerned use of antenatal magnesium sulfate, breast-feeding and post-natal corticosteroid therapy. Significant improvement in motor outcome and dramatic decrease in cerebral palsy rates (12% in 2000, 6% in 2005, 1% in 2010, p<0.001 were observed, as were improvements in feeding behavior. Although a non significant difference to better psychosocial behavior was reported, there was no difference in cognitive outcome.Improvement in neuromotor outcome and behavior was reported. This could be due to multiple modifications in care: including administration of magnesium sulfate to women at risk of preterm birth, increase in breast-feeding, decrease in low grade subependymal/intraventricular hemorrhages, and decrease in post-natal corticosteroid therapy, all of which require further investigation in other studies. Extended follow-up until school age is mandatory for better detection of cognitive, learning and behavioral disorders.

  14. An Aboriginal game plan - a plan for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A presentation is included of some of the more intangible and hands-on types of advice that a corporation should consider when they decide to do business with Canadian Aboriginal peoples. Although there are numerous areas of business concern (both legally and culturally) to consider when working with Aboriginal people and communities, developing a proactive strategy and approach to this segment of Canadian society is just as important and compelling as environmental or gender-related issues because they too can be seen to affect the company operations at any level. Having good corporate business relations with Aboriginal communities is going to take some thinking 'outside of the box,' but with committed understanding and focus on open communications, there is no reason why a company should not be able to develop a corporate-wide approach with relative ease. By being open to learning and listening, companies can begin to develop 'Aboriginal Relations' strategies that will become an automatic inclusion item at corporate strategy meetings and planning discussions. This would be in keeping with the corporation's choice to negotiate and not litigate

  15. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2016-08-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aboriginal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, and are an efficient way of transmitting oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. The study of Aboriginal astronomy has had an impact extending beyond mere academic curiosity, facilitating cross-cultural understanding, demonstrating the intimate links between science and culture, and helping students to engage with science.

  16. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  17. Schooling Taiwan's Aboriginal Baseball Players for the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junwei; Bairner, Alan

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges that faces nation-builders in postcolonial societies is the incorporation of subaltern groups, particularly aboriginal peoples, into a collective national project. One vehicle for addressing this challenge is sport with schools being amongst the most important venues. This article offers an empirical study of the role…

  18. Social Indicators in Surveys of Urban Aboriginal Residents in Saskatoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alan B.; Spence, Cara

    2008-01-01

    The Bridges and Foundations Project on Urban Aboriginal Housing, a Community-University Research Alliance (CURA) project financed primarily by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) and the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), has been operational in Saskatoon since early 2001. During these past 5 years…

  19. Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students: A Programmatic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melançon, Jérôme; Goebel, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students (PLAS) program at the University of Alberta (UofA) is a creative outgrowth of the growing Personal Librarian programs in academic libraries, in which a student is partnered with an individual librarian for the academic year. In the case of the UofA's PLAS program, first-year undergraduate students who…

  20. "Try to Understand Us":Aboriginal Elders’ Views on Exceptionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Phillips

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This article provides an analysis of the views of four Elders at the “A Window to Seeing the World Differently, National Symposium on Aboriginal Special Education” that was held in October 2005 at First Nations University of Canada in Regina.  The symposium was an opportunity to provide educators, students, parents, and community members with information on Aboriginal views on special education.  Concern had been expressed over the high numbers of Aboriginal students being identified as “special needs” attending schools on reserves throughout Canada.  There was also concern over difficulties with the current special education system, e.g., funding, assessment, and service issues.  It was believed that the Aboriginal worldview of students with special needs as having special gifts from the Creator was not integrated into the curriculum or into teaching practices.  The article concludes with suggestions for educators on how to address exceptionalities in Aboriginal communities. Keywords: Aboriginal education, Elders, exceptionality, special education, Aboriginal special   education.

  1. The constitutional duty to consult aboriginal peoples in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intent of the presentation would be to share our views that the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, as a court of record and an administrative tribunal with powers of quasi-judicial nature, is empowered to satisfy the constitutional duty to consult with Aboriginal people in Canada for nuclear related projects that fall within its mandate. We would also touch on the fact that the Commission is also responsible to conduct environmental assessments of uranium and nuclear related projects that may affect Aboriginal peoples, their traditional territories or their traditional way of life. Recent Canadian court decisions have recognized that administrative tribunals, such as the Commission, may be the appropriate agencies to address the duty to consult Aboriginal peoples on behalf of the Crown under section 35 of the Canadian Constitution (1867). The Supreme Court of Canada has also recognized that administrative tribunals such as the Commission may have the statutory authority to decide questions of law for subject matters that fall within their mandate and expertise. Consequently, it is now generally accepted that the Commission has jurisdiction to consider if the duty to consult with Aboriginal Peoples is indeed satisfied. This is of particular importance given that the Commission has the exclusive jurisdiction in Canada to regulate all matters related to nuclear including the implementation of international obligations Canada has agreed to. Failure to appropriately consult with Aboriginal peoples may also result in a constitutional challenge where Canadian courts may reverse a licensing decision in relation to major projects such as a uranium mine, a nuclear power facility or a deep geologic repository. (author)

  2. Why should Aboriginal peoples learn to write?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Serra Pagès

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultures and worldviews are inscribed by means of ‘writing’, or what Derrida calls ‘the perdurable inscription of a sign’ (Of Grammatology. A sign is the union between signifier and signified. The signifier may be natural (clouds indicate that it is going to rain or artificial. All cultures are made up of relations that stay at the level of signs, that is, everything that belongs to culture is empirical and conventional. In this regard, both Aboriginal and Western culture remain at the same level. Moreover, both cultures produce objectivity by means of contrast and experimentation, in the design of a sharp object, for example an arrow or a knife. In Ancient Greece, Havelock contends that the invention of writing dramatically increased the possibilities of objective thought (The Muse Learns To Write, but it also created a logic of binaries that transcended the objectivity of science and transpired into the ideology behind colonialism. In this context, the role of writing is analyzed in David Malouf’s Remembering Babylon. How does writing affect Gemmy all throughout the book? Already in the first Chapter, the teacher and the minister of the colony analyze Gemmy ‘in writing’. Gemmy knows what writing is but hasn’t learnt its ‘trick’: he does not know how to read or write. All he can see is that what he tells about his life, all his pain and suffering, is translated into marks and magic squiggles on the paper: only the spirit of the story he tells is captured. But little by little, the cognitive effects of writing get hold of Gemmy, until he starts to understand his life within the framework of the logic of binaries and identity upon which all reflective thought and science rest. All in all, this deconstructive reading can be seen as a critique of Europe’s modern idea of the autonomy of reason, in the name of a heteronymous rationality in the form of writing.

  3. Determination of Total Selenium in Infant Formulas: Comparison of the Performance of FIA and MCFA Flow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Pistón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two flow methods, based, respectively, on flow-injection analysis (FIA and on multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA, were compared with regard to their use for the determination of total selenium in infant formulas by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The method based on multicommutation provided lower detection and quantification limits (0.08 and 0.27 μg L−1 compared to 0.59 and 1.95 μ L−1, resp., higher sampling frequency (160 versus. 70 samples per hour, and reduced reagent consumption. Linearity, precision, and accuracy were similar for the two methods compared. It was concluded that, while both methods proved to be appropriate for the purpose, the MCFA-based method exhibited a better performance.

  4. Natural-Series Radionuclides in Traditional Aboriginal Foods in Tropical Northern Australia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of available information on natural-series radionuclides in traditional Aboriginal foods of northern Australia. Research on this topic has been carried out primarily for radiological impact assessment purposes in relation to uranium mining activities in the region. Many of the studies have concentrated on providing purely concentration data or concentration ratios, although more detailed uptake studies have been undertaken for freshwater mussels, turtles, and water lilies. The most-studied radionuclides are 238U and 226Ra. However, dose estimates based on current data highlight the importance of 210Po, particularly for the natural (nonmining-related dose. Data on uptake by terrestrial flora and fauna are scarce in comparison with aquatic organisms, and this knowledge gap will need to be addressed in relation to planning for uranium minesite rehabilitation.

  5. Evaluation of the first strategic plan for Aboriginal health in south western Sydney, 1993-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriage, C; Harris, E; Kristensen, E

    2000-01-01

    The 1993-98 Aboriginal Health Strategic Plan for South Western Sydney represented the first partnership of its kind between an Area Health Service, local Aboriginal Health Workers and the local Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in Australia. During 1998, an evaluation of the plan was undertaken as part of the preparation for the second Aboriginal Health Plan. Of the 45 strategies in the first plan, 38% had been fully implemented, 42% had been partly implemented, and 20% were not implemented at all. This paper discusses the importance of data collection and monitoring systems, the integration of Aboriginal health into mainstream services, the further development of Aboriginal health infrastructure, and continued leadership by senior managers. PMID:11186054

  6. “We Are Not Being Heard”: Aboriginal Perspectives on Traditional Foods Access and Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.

  7. "We are not being heard": Aboriginal perspectives on traditional foods access and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.

  8. The use of joint ventures to accomplish aboriginal economic development: Two examples from British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Boyd

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available “Aboriginal economic development” differs from other forms of development by emphasizing aboriginal values and community involvement. Joint ventures, while providing business advantages, may not be able to contribute to aboriginal economic development. This paper examines two joint ventures in the interior of British Columbia to examine their ability or inability to contribute the extra dimensions of development desired by aboriginal communities. The AED framework examines business structure; profitability; employment; aboriginal capacity in education, experience, and finance; preservation of traditional values, culture and language; control of forest management over traditional territory; and community support. Established in the context of unresolved land claims, both enterprises partially contribute to aboriginal economic development, but in different ways and with different overall results.

  9. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the

  10. Progress in developing an infant and child feeding index

    OpenAIRE

    Arimond, Mary; Ruel, Marie T.

    2002-01-01

    "Feeding practices are an important determinant of the nutritional status of infants and children. It is therefore useful to measure and describe infant and child feeding practices in a number of contexts. Such measurements could enable (1) international comparisons of the adequacy of infant and child feeding, (2) research linking infant and child feeding to determinants or outcomes, (3) advocacy regarding the importance of adequate infant and child feeding, and (4) monitoring and evaluation ...

  11. Lifting the burden: a coordinated approach to action on Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Jasmine; Hunt, Jennifer; Ivers, Rowena; Smyth, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence continues to be significantly higher among Aboriginal people than non-Aboriginal people, resulting in a range of serious health consequences and inequities. The Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of New South Wales (AHandMRC) and the New South Wales (NSW) Ministry of Health (the Ministry) have worked in partnership to develop The ATRAC Framework: A Strategic Framework for Aboriginal Tobacco Resistance and Control in NSW, in collaboration with Aboriginal communities and a range of stakeholders. The goal of the ATRAC Framework is to reduce smoking prevalence and the harmful impacts of tobacco use among Aboriginal people and communities in NSW. The framework includes reviews of relevant evidence and recommended actions, organised under six areas: leadership, partnerships and coordination; community action, awareness and engagement; workforce development; supportive environments; quitting support; and evidence, evaluation and research. The framework stresses that, to be successful, Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control programs and activities need to be evidence based, coordinated, integrated and involve Aboriginal people and Aboriginal community controlled health organisations in all aspects, from development through to implementation and evaluation. Consultations and evidence reviews highlight the importance of workforce support and development, including the ongoing need for more workers specialising in Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control, as well as ongoing training for all staff involved in delivering care to Aboriginal people. Other key strategies identified in the framework include improving access to nicotine replacement therapy and other medications to support quitting; supporting, strengthening and building on existing innovative community-based programs; and further developing the evidence base. The AHandMRC and the Ministry will continue to work in partnership to drive the use of the ATRAC Framework by all people

  12. Closing the Aboriginal Education Gap in Canada: The Impact on Employment, GDP, and Labour Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Calver

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements between 2001 and 2011, Canada’s Aboriginal population continues to underperform in the labour market. The Aboriginal educational attainment gap is often seen as the major source of these disparities. Using data from the 2011 National Household Survey, projections of Aboriginal population growth, and forecasts of aggregate economic conditions, we estimate the economic impact of closing the educational attainment gap by 2031. We find that the benefits of achieving such a fe...

  13. Comparison between terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative culture for analysis of infants' gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Fei; Nowrouzian, Forough; Rangel, Ignacio; Hannoun, Charles; Moore, Edward; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E

    2013-07-01

    The infantile intestinal microbiota is a major stimulus for immune maturation. Both culture and DNA-based methods can be used for microbiota characterization, but few studies have systematically compared their performance for analysis of the gut microbiota. Here, we examined fecal samples obtained on six occasions between one week and 12 months of age from six vaginally delivered infants. After quantitative aerobic and anaerobic culture of the samples on selective and non-selective media, DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and analyzed regarding 16S rRNA gene polymorphism by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). A database was constructed for direct identification of T-RFLP peaks by analysis of pure-culture bacteria and analysis of a limited number of samples by 16S rRNA cloning and sequencing. Bacterial genera present at >10⁶ CFU/g feces, as determined by quantitative culture, were generally readily detected by T-RFLP, while culture on selective media was more sensitive in detecting facultative anaerobes with lower population counts. In contrast, T-RFLP more readily than culture detected several anaerobic species, also taxa that could not be identified using the database. T-RFLP readily identified bacteria to the genus level and also provided some sub-genus discrimination. Both T-RFLP and culture identified Bifidobacterium, Clostridium and Bacteroides spp. among the most common colonizers of the infantile microbiota throughout the first year of life. T-RFLP analysis showed that microbiota complexity was high in the first weeks of life, declined to a minimum at 1-2 months of age, and thereafter increased again. Principal component analysis revealed that early samples (1 week-6 months) chiefly differed between individual infants, while 12-month samples were similar between children, but different from the early samples. Our results indicate that T-RFLP has high sensitivity and adequate taxonomic discrimination capacity for analysis of

  14. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM.

  15. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM. PMID:25291039

  16. Distribution of Hepatitis C Risk Factors and HCV Treatment Outcomes among Central Canadian Aboriginal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parmvir; Corsi, Daniel J.; Cooper, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aboriginal Canadians face many lifestyle risk factors for hepatitis C exposure. Methods. An analysis of Ottawa Hospital Viral Hepatitis Clinic (Ottawa, Canada) patients between January 2000 and August 2013 was performed. HCV infection risk factors and HCV treatment outcomes were assessed. Socioeconomic status markers were based on area-level indicators linked to postal codes using administrative databases. Results. 55 (2.8%) Aboriginal and 1923 (97.2%) non-Aboriginal patients were evaluated. Aboriginals were younger (45.6 versus 49.6 years, p < 0.01). The distribution of gender (63.6% versus 68.3% male), HIV coinfection (9.1% versus 8.1%), advanced fibrosis stage (29.2% versus 28.0%), and SVR (56.3% versus 58.9%) was similar between groups. Aboriginals had a higher number of HCV risk factors, (mean 4.2 versus 3.1, p < 0.001) with an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–4.4) for having 4+ risk factors. This was not explained after adjustment for income, social deprivation, and poor housing. Aboriginal status was not related to SVR. Aboriginals interrupted therapy more often due to loss to follow-up, poor adherence, and substance abuse (25.0% versus 4.6%). Conclusion. Aboriginal Canadians have higher levels of HCV risk factors, even when adjusting for socioeconomic markers. Despite facing greater barriers to care, SVR rates were comparable with non-Aboriginals. PMID:27446875

  17. The economic impact on Aboriginal communities of the Ranger Project: 1979-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What are the benefits generated for Aboriginal people by mining projects like the Ranger Project? Are these projects likely to fulfill the expectations of Aborigines who support the controlled exploitation of mineral resources on their land? This article examines the economic impact of the Ranger uranium project on Aboriginal people. Its principal aim is to provide detailed information on the use of royalty-related payments made to traditional owners as a result of Ranger's operations, and the consequent employment, training and social service opportunities for Aborigines

  18. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Anna P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy

  19. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2016-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aborig- inal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral ...

  20. Aboriginal Determination: Native Title Claims and Barriers to Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Akhtar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Australian government has proposed a referendum in 2012 to decide the constitutional status of its indigenous people. There is at present no mechanism to define the indigenous people as a domestic or foreign entity of the Commonwealth. This is an important issue because other settler governments have developed a framework to implement their relationship with the native people. As a result, it is difficult prove title to land that has been abrogated by the deeds of the settlers. In Mabo v Queensland (2,the Commonwealth government was found to have breached its fiduciary duty to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment led to the Native Title Act 1993 that established the process of asserting native rights that were held to coexist with pastoral ownership. The promulgation of the Native Title Amendment Act 1998 reversed this process and augmented the powers of non-native landlords by providing the device to extinguish native rights. In Western Australia v Ward, a mining lease was held to have precedence over native title that was adjudged to be part of a bundle of rights. In implementing the Native Title Act the issue turns on the determination of the ties to land/ sea that the government allows to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment in Harrington-Smith on behalf of the Wongatha People v Western Australia indicates that title can be excluded on procedural grounds and that there was an incompatibility between the claims of the Aboriginal peoples and the settlers’ claims. The road map towards a more effective regime of proving title can be achieved if the Aboriginal peoples are granted recognition as a nation in the Constitution and a treaty is signed with them.

  1. Aboriginal Placenames : Naming and re-naming the Australian landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Hercus, Luise; Koch, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Aboriginal approaches to the naming of places across Australia differ radically from the official introduced Anglo-Australian system. However, many of these earlier names have been incorporated into contemporary nomenclature, with considerable reinterpretations of their function and form. Recently, state jurisdictions have encouraged the adoption of a greater number of Indigenous names, sometimes alongside the accepted Anglo-Australian terms, around Sydney Harbour, for example. In some cases,...

  2. Comparison of eutectic mixture of local anesthetics cream with dorsal penile nerve block using lignocaine for circumcision in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb, Sabeen; Akhtar, Jamshed; Ahmed, Soofia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Circumcision is a commonly performed surgical procedure but choice of anesthesia remained an issue of research and debate. This study was conducted to find out the effectiveness of the eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) cream with dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) using lignocaine, for reduction of pain during circumcision. Methodology: This was comparative study carried out in Surgical Unit B of National Institute of Child Health Karachi, from May 2008 to October 2008. Patients under six month of age were randomized in to two groups (EMLA and DPNB) of fifty patients each. The effectiveness of pain control was assessed by measuring the baseline heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and Neonatal infant Pain Scale (NIPS scale) before the start of procedure and measuring of these parameters for each step of circumcision. Independent sample t -test was used to compare means and repeated ANOVA was used to compare means of HR, RR, oxygen (O2) saturations and NIPS. Results: The mean age in both the groups was 2.3 months. There was no statistically significant difference in baseline parameters in both the groups except the respiratory rate, which was significantly raised in DPNB group (33 breaths/min in EMLA and 38 in DPNB P < 0.04). During circumcision there was significant increase in heart rate in DPNB group, especially in step three and step four (p < 0.04). Oxygen saturation dropped in both the groups (baseline saturation 98% up to 91% in step 4). While assessing NIPS scores in both the groups, statistically significant difference was found between NIPS at step two and step four in two groups (p < 0.04). Conclusions: The overall pain control was equal in both the groups, although NIPS score was higher in DPNB in step two and four of circumcision. There was difference in application and cost. EMLA was easy to apply but has increased cost; while DPNB required expertise. PMID:24353502

  3. Comparison of anesthesia with sevoflurane-N2O and midazolam-remifentanil in low-birth-weight premature infants undergoing diode laser photocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    BUT, Abdulkadir; Arikan, Müge; ASLAN, Bilge; Öztürk, Levent; TABUK, Meltem; HORASANLI, Eyüp

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to compare anesthesia with sevoflurane-N2O and midazolam-remifentanil in terms of hemodynamic parameters and safety in low-birth-weight (LBW) premature infants undergoing diode laser photocoagulation (DLP) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Materials and methods: A total of 91 infants undergoing DLP for ROP were enrolled in this study. All of the infants were established with LBW (

  4. Astronomical Heritage and Aboriginal People: Conflicts and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    In this presentation we will address the issues relating to the astronomical heritage of contemporary aboriginal groups and othe minorities. We will deal specially with the intangible astronomical heritage and their particularities. We will study (from the ethnographic experience with Aboriginal groups, Creoles and Europeans in the Argentine Chaco) the conflicts referring to the different ways, in which the native's knowledge and practice are categorized by the natives themselves, by the scientists, the state politicians, the professional artists and NGOs. We will address several cases to illustrate this kind of conflicts. We will analyze the complexities of patrimonial policies when it are applied to practices and representations of contemporary communities involved in power relations with national states and the global system. The essentialization of identities, the folklorization of representations and practices, the fossilization of aboriginal peoples are some of the risks of give the label of "cultural heritage" without a careful consideration of each specific case.In particular we will suggest possible forms by which he international scientific community could collaborate to improve the agenda of national states instead of reproducing colonial prejudices. In this way we will contribute to promote the respect for ethnic and religious minorities.

  5. Racism and health among urban Aboriginal young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Paul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racism has been identified as an important determinant of health but few studies have explored associations between racism and health outcomes for Australian Aboriginal young people in urban areas. Methods Cross sectional data from participants aged 12-26 years in Wave 1 of the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service's Young People's Project were included in hierarchical logistic regression models. Overall mental health, depression and general health were all considered as outcomes with self-reported racism as the exposure, adjusting for a range of relevant confounders. Results Racism was reported by a high proportion (52.3% of participants in this study. Self-reported racism was significantly associated with poor overall mental health (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.25-5.70, p = 0.01 and poor general health (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.03-4.57, p = 0.04, and marginally associated with increased depression (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.97-4.09, p = 0.06 in the multivariate models. Number of worries and number of friends were both found to be effect modifiers for the association between self-reported racism and overall mental health. Getting angry at racist remarks was found to mediate the relationship between self-reported racism and general health. Conclusions This study highlights the need to acknowledge and address racism as an important determinant of health and wellbeing for Aboriginal young people in urban areas of Australia.

  6. Australian Aboriginal Memoir and Memory: A Stolen Generations Trauma Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Seran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a re-reading of Aboriginal author Sally Morgan’s Stolen Generations narrative My Place (1987 in post-Apology Australia (2008–present. The novel tells the story of Morgan’s discovery of her maternal Aboriginal origins through the life-stories of her mother and grandmother; the object of a quest for the past that is both relational and matrilineal; incorporating elements of autobiography and as-told-to memoirs to create a form of choral autoethnography. Morgan’s text explores the intergenerational consequences of child removal in the Aboriginal context and is representative of Indigenous-authored narratives in its suggestion that the children and grand-children of victims of colonial policies and practices can work through the trauma of their ancestors. I examine the literary processes of decolonization of the Indigenous writing/written self and community; as well as strategies for individual survival and cultural survivance in the Australian settler colonial context; especially visible through the interactions between traumatic memories and literary memoirs, a genre neglected by trauma theory’s concern with narrative fragmentation and the proliferation of “themed” life-writing centered on a traumatic event. This article calls for a revision of trauma theory’s Eurocentrism through scholarly engagement with Indigenous experiences such as Morgan’s and her family in order to broaden definitions and take into account collective, historical, and inherited trauma.

  7. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Misan, G.; Jamieson, L. M.; L. Richards; H. Mills; A. Russell; Shearer, M.; Parker, E J

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencin...

  8. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Hodson, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  9. Electroencephalogram and magnetic resonance imaging comparison as a predicting factor for neurodevelopmental outcome in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy infant treated with hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Del Balzo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE is an important cause of acute neurological damage in newborns at (or near term. Several trials in recent years have shown that moderate hypothermia by total body cooling or selective head is an effective intervention to reduce mortality and major disability in infants survived a perinatal hypoxic-ischemic attack. Follow-up in these patients is very important to establish neurodevelopmental outcome, and specific markers can lead us to detect predicting sign for good or poor outcome. We reported a few cases of newborn with HIE treated with hypothermia, in whom the comparison between electroencephalogram (EEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI represents the first marker for neurodevelopment outcome prediction. The continuous EEG monitoring showed a depressed EEG activity with diffuse burst depression in 7 patients. No epileptic abnormalities were registered. In 10 out of 20 patients no abnormalities of the background activity and no epileptic abnormalities were observed. We found that a depressed EEG activity during the first 72 h of life and a diffused alteration of basal ganglia at MRI were correlated with a poor neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months of follow-up.

  10. Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

  11. Neutropenia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007230.htm Neutropenia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood ...

  12. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home ...

  13. Pneumothorax - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around the lungs, which leads to a lung collapse. This article discusses pneumothorax in infants. Causes A pneumothorax occurs when some of the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in a baby's lung become overinflated and burst. ...

  14. Effective Nutrition Education for Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from a Diabetes Cooking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce E.; Moore, Louise F.; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…

  15. Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

  16. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities.

  17. Telling stories: nurses, politics and Aboriginal Australians, circa 1900-1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Sue

    2007-02-01

    The focus of this paper is stories by, and about, (mainly non-Aboriginal) Registered Nurses working in hospitals and clinics in remote areas of Australia from the early 1900s to the 1980s as they came into contact with, or cared for, Aboriginal people. Government policies that controlled and regulated Aboriginal Australians provide the context for these stories. Memoirs and other contemporary sources reveal the ways in which government policies in different eras influenced nurse's attitudes and clinical practice in relation to Aboriginal people, and helped institutionalise racism in health care. Up until the 1970s, most nurses in this study unquestioningly accepted firstly segregation, then assimilation policies and their underlying paternalistic ideologies, and incorporated them into their practice. The quite marked politicisation of Aboriginal issues in the 1970s in Australia and the move towards self-determination for Aboriginal people politicised many - but not all - nurses. For the first time, many nurses engaged in a robust critique of government policies and what this meant for their practice and for Aboriginal health. Other nurses, however, continued as they had before - neither questioning prevailing policy nor its effects on their practice. It is argued that only by understanding and confronting the historical roots of institutional racism, and by speaking out against such practices, can discrimination and racism be abolished from nursing practice and health care. This is essential for nursing's current and future professional development and for better health for Aboriginal Australians.

  18. Native Tongue, Captive Voice: The Representation of the Aboriginal "Voice" in Colonial South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Robert; Muhlhausler, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Examines the way in which the Aboriginal "voice" was represented in colonial South Australia, particularly in the form of pidgin English. The first part of the article focuses on the first decade of settlement; the second part examines the period between 1860 and the turn of the century. Findings indicate that the Aboriginal voice in South…

  19. The Changing Face of Aboriginal Education in Rural and Northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antone, Eileen M.

    2003-01-01

    Canada Natives have experienced many educational changes. Their traditional education and culture were negated by Euro-Western schooling, leaving Aboriginal people in a deficit position without a strong voice for many years. Only recently have Aboriginal people strengthened their voice in calling for their cultural values and beliefs to be the…

  20. Aboriginal Education with Anti-Racist Education: Building Alliances across Cultural and Racial Identity Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Denis, Verna

    2007-01-01

    A critical race analysis could provide both Aboriginal students and their university student advisors with knowledge to understand and potentially challenge the effects and processes of racialization that have historically, legally, and politically divided Aboriginal communities and families. Coalition and alliances can be made within and across…

  1. Creating Inclusive Space for Aboriginal Scholars and Scholarship in the Academy: Implications for Employment Equity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Many Canadian universities report an under-representation of Aboriginal scholars in their professoriate. Employment equity policy seeks to redress the under-representation of marginalized groups in the Canadian workforce, including Aboriginal peoples. This article presents the findings of a case study which sought to examine, from the perspective…

  2. Context, Diversity and Engagement: Early Intervention with Australian Aboriginal Families in Urban and Remote Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…

  3. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities. PMID:25265360

  4. Trauma and cultural safety: providing quality care to HIV-infected women of aboriginal descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Jane; Lauridsen-Hoegh, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, the Aboriginal community is most at risk for HIV infection. Aboriginal peoples have disproportionately high rates of violence, drug use, and challenging socioeconomic circumstances. All of this is related to a history of colonization that has left Aboriginal people vulnerable to HIV infection through unsafe sex, needle sharing, and lack of access to health promotion and education. Aboriginal women are at particular risk for HIV infection. They experience a disproportionate degree of trauma, which is associated with colonization, high rates of childhood sexual abuse, and illicit drug use. A history of trauma impacts on access to health care, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and mortality and morbidity in people with HIV. We describe the case of a 52-year-old, HIV-infected Aboriginal woman. We review the current evidence related to her case, including colonization, intersectionality, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, revictimization, and substance use. PMID:24012166

  5. Characteristics and outcome of type 2 diabetes in urban Aboriginal people: the Fremantle Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T M E; McAullay, D; Davis, W A; Bruce, D G

    2007-01-01

    We analysed data from Aboriginal patients with type 2 diabetes recruited to the community-based Fremantle Diabetes Study and compared them with those from the Anglo-Celt participants. Diabetes prevalence among Aboriginal people in the Fremantle area was more than double that of Anglo-Celts and the average age at diagnosis was 14 years or younger. Glycaemic control, urinary albumin :creatinine and the proportion of smokers were all higher in the Aboriginal group and there was evidence of lower diabetes-related quality of life and high rates of disability at a young age. The Aboriginal patients died 18 years or younger than their Anglo-Celt counterparts. Specialized, culturally-sensitive and sustainable programmes are urgently needed to improve the management of diabetes in urban Aboriginal communities.

  6. Aboriginal Homelessness: A Framework for Best Practice in the Context of Structural Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly D. Oelke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness among Indigenous peoples is an important issue in Canada and internationally. Research was conducted in seven metropolitan areas in the four western provinces of Canada to explore current services with the aim of developing a best practices framework to end homelessness for Aboriginal peoples. Sequential mixed methods were used. Key results found agreement that Aboriginal peoples were overrepresented among the homeless and policy determined the approach to and comprehensiveness of services provided. Funding, lack of time, and lack of resources were highlighted as issues. Gaps identified included a lack of partnership, cross-cultural collaboration, cultural safety, and evaluation and research in service provision. Best practices included ensuring cultural safety, fostering partnerships among agencies, implementing Aboriginal governance, ensuring adequate and sustainable funding, equitable employment of Aboriginal staff, incorporating cultural reconnection, and undertaking research and evaluation to guide policy and practices related to homelessness among Aboriginal peoples.

  7. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  8. Jinan:infant clothing test notification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Before the Spring Festival, Jinan Consumer Council issued the report of comparison test on 16 brands of infant apparel. The results show that all the products are qualified. To create a safe, secure environment for consumption, to ensure that the infants

  9. [Infant feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, M

    2012-09-01

    Infants are vulnerable: their growth and their development depend largely on their nutritional status. It is important to propose for them an optimal food. The human milk is unquestionably the best choice for the infant. When breastfeeding is not possible, the choice of the milk is made among hundreds of formulas for infants. They are regulated by a European directive. The healthcare professionals have to recommend as often as possible an infant formula: low protein content, predominance of whey proteins, enrichment with long chain fatty acids, lactose, addition of pre- or probiotics. The formulas for specific indications will be recommended in case of particular situations after verification that the complaints (constipation, regurgitations, stomach pains) cannot be corrected by simple dietary measures (increasing of the intakes of meals with a concomitant reduction of the volume of the meals). The food diversification is recommended between 17 and 26 weeks according to the neuromuscular capacities of the infant. These meals must be presented with a spoon to assure a sufficient nutritional intake. In Belgium, the use is to begin with fruits. One should avoid adding biscuits or sugar. The meal of vegetables will be introduced a little later. It should consist of starchy foods, vegetables with some fat to which the meat will be added. Numerous foods (biscuits, croissants and similar products, chips) should never be part of the ordinary menu, but should be reserved for particular occasions. The education of the children should begin from this age on.

  10. Infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Nina R

    2009-04-01

    Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend breast milk for optimal infant nutrition, many parents still choose formula as an acceptable alternative. The wide variety of available formulas is confusing to parents and physicians, but formulas can be classified according to three basic criteria: caloric density, carbohydrate source, and protein composition. Most infants require a term formula with iron. There is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid or arachidonic acid. Soy formulas are indicated for congenital lactase deficiency and galactosemia, but are not recommended for colic because of insufficient evidence of benefit. Hypoallergenic formulas with extensively hydrolyzed protein are effective for the treatment of milk protein allergy and the prevention of atopic disease in high-risk infants. Antireflux formulas decrease emesis and regurgitation, but have not been shown to affect growth or development. Most infants with reflux require no treatment. Family physicians can use these guidelines to counsel parents about infant formula, countering consumer advertising that is not evidence-based. PMID:19378873

  11. Infant feeding among HIV-positive mothers and the general population mothers: comparison of two cross-sectional surveys in Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tylleskär Thorkild

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers differ from recommendations to mothers of unknown HIV-status. The aim of this study was to compare feeding practices, including breastfeeding, between infants and young children of HIV-positive mothers and infants of mothers in the general population of Uganda. Methods This study compares two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2005 in Eastern Uganda using analogous questionnaires. The first survey consisted of 727 randomly selected general-population mother-infant pairs with unknown HIV status. The second included 235 HIV-positive mothers affiliated to The Aids Support Organisation, TASO. In this article we compare early feeding practices, breastfeeding duration, feeding patterns with dietary information and socio-economic differences in the two groups of mothers. Results Pre-lacteal feeding was given to 150 (64% infants of the HIV-positive mothers and 414 (57% infants of general-population mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding of infants under the age of 6 months was more common in the general population than among the HIV-positive mothers (186 [45%] vs. 9 [24%] respectively according to 24-hour recall. Mixed feeding was the most common practice in both groups of mothers. Solid foods were introduced to more than half of the infants under 6 months old among the HIV-positive mothers and a quarter of the infants in the general population. Among the HIV-positive mothers with infants below 12 months of age, 24 of 90 (27% had stopped breastfeeding, in contrast to 9 of 727 (1% in the general population. The HIV-positive mothers were poorer and had less education than the general-population mothers. Conclusion In many respects, HIV-positive mothers fed their infants less favourably than mothers in the general population, with potentially detrimental effects on both the child's nutrition and the risk of HIV transmission. Mixed feeding and pre

  12. Possible Association of High Urinary Magnesium and Taurine to Creatinine Ratios with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Reduction in Australian Aboriginals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsumi Hamada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16–79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02–0.57; P<.05. The significant inverse associations of fat intake with Mg/cre and of fast food intake with urinary taurine/creatinine ratio were revealed. Conclusions. The high prevalence of obesity in the Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine.

  13. A dermatoglyphic study of the Amis aboriginal population of Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Amis is the largest aboriginal population in Taiwan. The previous dermatoglyphic studies of the Amis only reported limited data. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 200 Amis individuals, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count, a-b ridge count, atd angle, axial triradius percent distance, and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, palmar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of Amis since 1960s, and its dermatoglyphic data will be useful for future research in anthropology, genetics and medicine.

  14. A dermatoglyphic study of the Amis aboriginal population of Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Amis is the largest aboriginal population in Taiwan. The previous dermatoglyphic studies of the Amis only reported limited data. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 200 Amis in-dividuals, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count, a-b ridge count, atd angle, axial triradius percent distance, and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, pal-mar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of Amis since 1960s, and its dermatoglyphic data will be useful for future re-search in anthropology, genetics and medicine.

  15. Comparisons of mortality and pre-discharge respiratory outcomes in small-for-gestational-age and appropriate-for-gestational-age premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Puneet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are differences in the literature regarding outcomes of premature small-for-gestational-age (SGA and appropriate-for gestational-age (AGA infants, possibly due to failure to take into account gestational age at birth. Objective To compare mortality and respiratory morbidity of SGA and AGA premature newborn infants. Design/Methods A retrospective study was done of the 2,487 infants born without congenital anomalies at ≤36 weeks of gestation and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU at John Dempsey Hospital, between Jan. 1992 and Dec. 1999. Recent (1994–96 U.S. birth weight percentiles for gestational age (GA, race and gender were used to classify neonates as SGA (th–90th percentile for GA. Using multivariate logistic regression and survival analyses to control for GA, SGA and AGA infants were compared for mortality and respiratory morbidity. Results Controlling for GA, premature SGA infants were at a higher risk for mortality (Odds ratio 3.1, P = 0.001 and at lower risk of respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 0.71, p = 0.02 than AGA infants. However multivariate logistic regression modeling found that the odds of having respiratory distress syndrome (RDS varied between SGA and AGA infants by GA. There was no change in RDS risk in SGA infants at GA ≤ 32 wk (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.32 – 1.98 but significantly decreased risk for RDS at GA > 32 wk (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.27 – 0.63; p Conclusions Premature SGA infants have significantly higher mortality, significantly higher risk of developing chronic lung disease and longer hospital stay as compared to premature AGA infants. Even the reduced risk of RDS in infants born at ≥32 wk GA, (conferred possibly by intra-uterine stress leading to accelerated lung maturation appears to be of transient effect and is counterbalanced by adverse effects of poor intrauterine growth on long term pulmonary outcomes such as chronic lung disease.

  16. Traditional Education of Aboriginal People in Canada: Principles, Methods and Characteristic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapotichna Maria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the period of traditional education of aboriginal people in Canada in precolonial times has been presented. The main objectives have been defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; characteristic of theoretical framework in understanding the concept of traditional aboriginal pedagogy and main principles underlying the education of younger generations of the indigenous people in Canada. The major components of teaching methods (practical, visual and oral have been specified. Practical, visual and oral methods of imparting knowledge have been discussed and peculiarities of the traditional education of native population in Canada in precolonial period have been identified. The problem of traditional education of aboriginal people in Canada has been studied by scientists: aboriginal education (M. Battiste, J. Henderson, J. Lambe; development of aboriginal education (J. Friesen, V. Friesen, J. Miller, E. Neegan; tertiary education of aboriginal people (V. Kirkness; traditional education of aboriginal people (L. McGregor. The research methodology comprises theoretical methods (comparative-historical method; logical and comparative methods; methods of induction and deduction, synthesis and analysis.

  17. “No More Boomerang”: Environment and Technology in Contemporary Aboriginal Australian Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Charles Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based in oral traditions and song cycles, contemporary Aboriginal Australian poetry is full of allusions to the environment. Not merely a physical backdrop for human activities, the ancient Aboriginal landscape is a nexus of ecological, spiritual, material, and more-than-human overlays—and one which is increasingly compromised by modern technological impositions. In literary studies, while Aboriginal poetry has become the subject of critical interest, few studies have foregrounded the interconnections between environment and technology. Instead, scholarship tends to focus on the socio-political and cultural dimensions of the writing. How have contemporary Australian Aboriginal poets responded to the impacts of environmental change and degradation? How have poets addressed the effects of modern technology in ancestral environments, or country? This article will develop an ecocritical and technology-focused perspective on contemporary Aboriginal poetry through an analysis of the writings of three significant literary-activists: Jack Davis (1917–2000, Oodgeroo Noonuccal (1920–1993, and Lionel Fogarty (born 1958. Davis, Noonuccal, and Fogarty strive poetically to draw critical attention to the particular impacts of late modernist technologies on Aboriginal people and country. In developing a critique of invasive technologies that adversely affect the environment and culture, their poetry also invokes the Aboriginal technologies that sustained (and, in places, still sustain people in reciprocal relation to country.

  18. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  19. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  20. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods: A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion: Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion: Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services

  1. Repositioning the Racial Gaze: Aboriginal Perspectives on Race, Race Relations and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Habibis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, public debate about recognition of the nation’s First Australians through constitutional change has highlighted the complexity and sensitivities surrounding Indigenous/state relations at even the most basic level of legal rights. But the unevenness of race relations has meant Aboriginal perspectives on race relations are not well known. This is an obstacle for reconciliation which, by definition, must be a reciprocal process. It is especially problematic in regions with substantial Aboriginal populations, where Indigenous visibility make race relations a matter of everyday experience and discussion. There has been considerable research on how settler Australians view Aboriginal people but little is known about how Aboriginal people view settler Australians or mainstream institutions. This paper presents the findings from an Australian Research Council project undertaken in partnership with Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation. Drawing on in-depth interviews with a cross-section of Darwin’s Aboriginal residents and visitors, it aims to reverse the racial gaze by investigating how respondents view settler Australian politics, values, priorities and lifestyles. Through interviews with Aboriginal people this research provides a basis for settler Australians to discover how they are viewed from an Aboriginal perspective. It repositions the normativity of settler Australian culture, a prerequisite for a truly multicultural society. Our analysis argues the narratives of the participants produce a story of Aboriginal rejection of the White Australian neo-liberal deal of individual advancement through economic pathways of employment and hyper-consumption. The findings support Honneth’s arguments about the importance of intersubjective recognition by pointing to the way misrecognition creates and reinforces social exclusion.

  2. The comparison of development quotient between preterm infants and full-term infants in Yuexiu District.%越秀区早产儿与足月儿发育商测评结果对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉春; 林丽军; 黄春

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare the birth weight,gender,labor presentation and development quotient between preterm infants and full -term infants,in order to study the development of infants. Methods:To check the gross motor,fine motion ability,adaptability,language competence,individual - social behavior of two - month - old infants by the measurement Scale for Neuropsychological development of infants between 0-3 years old, then calculated the development quotient. Professionals trained by the maternal and child health institution in Guangzhou were responsible for the measurement. Results:The average birth weight and average development quotient between two groups were statistically different,but the gender and labor presentation between two groups were not statistically different. Conclusion: The birth weight and development of preterm infants are worse than full - term infants. In order to improve the physical and intellectual development of preterm infants, we should measure the development quotient in early childhood,improve the family and community environment,and adopt corresponding educational methods.%目的:通过对早产儿和足月儿出生体重、性别、产式、发育商的测评和对比分析,了解婴幼儿的发育状况.方法:采用首都儿科研究所"0~3岁小儿神经精神发育检查量表",测查1 ~2月龄两组小儿的大运动、精细动作、适应能力、语言、个人-社交行为,计算发育商数.由经过广州市级妇幼保健机构专业培训并通过考核优秀的专职人员进行测试.结果:两组小儿平均出生体重之间的差异具有统计学意义,平均发育商之间的差异具有统计学意义,两组小儿性别之间、产式与发育商之间的差异没有统计学意义.结论:早产儿的体重和各项能力发育情况均较足月儿差,为了使早产儿的体格及智能发育得以正常发展,应该及早通过发育商的测评,积极指导改善社区家庭环境,采取恰当的科学教

  3. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes. PMID:26853210

  4. Socio-economic impacts between the nuclear industry and Aboriginal people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper explores several aspects of the socio-economic impact of the nuclear industry on Aboriginal people in northern Canada. The issues discussed include decision-making by consensus, community-based development, the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems (TEKMS), relationships with land and nature, and social and health issues. The issues are discussed with respect to the divergence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures, which affect the timelines for project viability as well as the continued harmony between industry and community. It is concluded that economic gains can be achieved through continuous community dialogue from the moment of project inception. (author)

  5. A process for the inclusion of Aboriginal People in health research: lessons from the Determinants of TB Transmission project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffa, Jody; King, Malcolm; McMullin, Kathleen; Long, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The Determinants of TB Transmission (DTT) project, a federally-funded study covering the period April 1, 2006-March 31, 2013, and examining the determinants of TB transmission amongst the Canadian-born population (Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal) in the prairie provinces of Canada, took a novel approach to health research involving Aboriginal people. The methodology aligned itself with the recently published Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Guidelines for Health Research Involving Aboriginal People and the established principles of Ownership, Control, Access, and Possession (OCAP). This article details the process by which collaboration with Aboriginal peoples was achieved, including the involvement of Aboriginal researchers, the development of Provincial Network Committees (PNCs), and communications with First Nations Chiefs and Council. Strengths of this methodology included Aboriginal organizational and community support with a high rate of participation; PNC leadership, which brought together Aboriginal stakeholders with provincial and federal TB program planners; and the exploration of both on and off-reserve transmission factors. Challenges of the methodology included meeting funding agency timelines and expectations given the gradual process of trust development and PNC-reviewed publication; respecting both community and individual participants' autonomy regarding study participation; and political discomfort with strong Aboriginal involvement. While the methodology required a dedicated investment from researchers and funding agencies alike, the process was worthwhile and achieved a high degree of support from its major collaborators: the Aboriginal peoples. PMID:21316828

  6. Comparison of three different recombinant hepatitis B vaccines: GeneVac-B, Engerix B and Shanvac B in high risk infants born to HBsAg positive mothers in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijayakumar Velu; Subhadra Nandakumar; Saravanan Shanmugam; Suresh Sakharam Jadhav; Prasad Suryakant Kulkarni; Sadras Panchatcharam Thyagarajan

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate a low cost Indian recombinant hepatitis B vaccine GeneVac-B for its immunogenicity and safety in comparison to Engerix B and Shanvac B vaccine in high risk newborn infants born to (hepatitis B surface antigen) HBsAg positive mothers.METHODS: A total of 158 infants were enrolled in the study. Fifty eight infants were enrolled in the GeneVac-B group while 50 each were included for Engerix B and Shanvac B groups. A three-dose regimen of vaccination; at birth (within 24 h of birth), 1st mo and 6 mo. were adopted with 10 ng dosage administered uniformly in all the three groups. Clinical and immunological parameters were assessed for safety and immunogenicity of the vaccines, in all the enrolled infants.RESULTS: Successful follow up until seven months of age was achieved in 83% (48/58) for GeneVac-B, 76% (38/50) and 64% (32/50) for Engerix B and Shanvac B groups respectively. 100% seroconversion and seroprotection was achieved in all the three groups of infants. The geometric mean titers of anti-HBs one month after the completion of three dose of vaccination were 90.5, 80.9 and 72.5 mlU/mL in GeneVac-B, Engerix B and Shanvac B vaccine group respectively. Furthermore the level of anti-HBs increases with age of babies who were born to HBsAg positive mothers. The GMT values of anti-HBs were 226.7, 193.9 and 173.6 mlU/mL respectively in GeneVac-B, Engerix B and Shanvac B groups one year after the completion of the three doses of vaccine. No systemic reactions were reported in infants during the entire vaccination process of GeneVac-B and the other two vaccines. Clinical safety parameters remained within the normal limits throughout the study period.CONCLUSION: The study concludes that there is no significant difference between the three recombinant hepatitis B vaccines. Administration of these vaccines within 24 h of birth to babies, born to HBsAg positive mothers will reduce the incidence of HBV infection.

  7. Comparison of antibody capture radio- and enzyme immunoassays with immunofluorescence for detecting IgM antibody in infants with congenital rubella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantler, S.; Evans, C.J. (Wellcome Research Lab., Beckenham (UK)); Mortimer, P.P. (Virus Reference Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, Colindale Avenue, London, (UK)); Cradock-Watson, J.E.; Ridehalgh, M.K.S. (Withington Hospital, Manchester (UK))

    1982-08-01

    IgM antibody capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA) and enzyme immunoassay (MACEIA) were compared with immunofluorescence (IF) for detecting specific IgM antibody in 99 sera from 76 infants with confirmed congenital rubella, and 61 sera from a comparative group of 59 infants who had miscellaneous abnormalities but in whom congenital rubella was not confirmed. All of 35 specimens collected from confirmed cases within 12 weeks of birth were positive by all three methods and all but one of 17 specimens collected after the age of 18 months were uniformly negative. At intermediate ages discrepancies occurred in 18 specimens, of which eight were positive and 10 negative by IF. Three of these 18 specimens were negative by both antibody capture procedures but showed weak fluorescence; the other 15 were negative by MACEIA, but positive by MACRIA which appears to be the more sensitive of the antibody capture methods. Sera from five infants in the comparative group were clearly positive by all three methods. These five infants were probably congenitally infected with rubella. Sera from the other 54 infants were negative, except for one that gave a weakly positive result by MACRIA alone. Antibody capture procedures offer several advantages over previous methods for detecting IgM antibody. Although MACRIA was found to be slightly more sensitive than MACEIA, the greater stability of the enzyme label, together with the possibility of both visual and quantitative assessment, could make MACEIA the method of choice for detecting rubella-specific IgM.

  8. Health inequities experienced by Aboriginal children with respiratory conditions and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Miriam; King, Malcolm; Blood, Roxanne; Letourneau, Nicole; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Anderson, Sharon; Bearskin, Lisa Bourque

    2013-09-01

    Asthma and allergies are common conditions among Aboriginal children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to assess the health and health-care inequities experienced by affected children and by their parents. Aboriginal research assistants conducted individual interviews with 46 Aboriginal children and adolescents who had asthma and/or allergies (26 First Nations, 19 Métis, 1 Inuit) and 51 parents or guardians of these children and adolescents. Followup group interviews were conducted with 16 adolescents and 25 parents/ guardians. Participants reported inadequate educational resources, environmental vulnerability, social and cultural pressures, exclusion, isolation, stigma, blame, and major support deficits. They also described barriers to health-service access, inadequate health care, disrespectful treatment and discrimination by health-care providers, and deficient health insurance. These children, adolescents, and parents recommended the establishment of culturally appropriate support and education programs delivered by Aboriginal peers and health professionals. PMID:24236369

  9. Pieces of a thousand stories: repatriation of the history of Aboriginal Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-line project A History of Aboriginal Sydney, based at the University of Sydney, takes existing educational and Australian Indigenous digital initiatives in a new direction. By dividing Sydney into six geographical areas, we are creating a knowledge base of post-invasion Aboriginal history, incorporating different forms of tagging, timeline and digital mapping to provide multiple paths to information in text, videos, still images and, in the future, three dimensional reconstructions of former living areas. After eighteen months research we are maintaining a balance between unearthing new and forgotten material, incorporating it into our developing database, and exploring the potential of digital mapping, animation and 3D historical reconstruction for educational and research purposes. With close Indigenous consultation, especially the Aboriginal Educational Consultative Groups, we hope to digitally construct the Aboriginal history of Sydney and return it to the people who have been deprived of so much of their history for so long.

  10. Person Perception and the Evaluation of Aboriginal Topical Art: How to Change Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Knud S.

    1979-01-01

    Results show that the drawings attributed to the Aboriginal "artist" produced more positive impressions and were rated more highly on the semantic differential. This research was presented at the Rocky Mountain Psychological Convention, Denver, Colorado, April, 1978. (Author)

  11. A new mixed micellar preparation for oral vitamin K prophylaxis: randomised controlled comparison with an intramuscular formulation in breast fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, F.; Marshall, S; SEVERSON, R.; Smith, D.; Shearer, M.; Pace, D; Joubert, P.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To compare a new oral preparation of vitamin K1 (Konakion MM) containing lecithin and glycocholic acid with a standard intramuscular (IM) preparation during the first 8 weeks of life in exclusively breast fed infants.
METHODS—Infants were randomised at birth to the IM group (1 mg vitamin K) or the oral group (2 mg given at birth and repeated at 7and 30 days of life). Prothrombin time (INR), plasma vitamin K1, and PIVKA II (undercarboxylated prothrombin) were mon...

  12. Premature Born Infant's Reaction to the Mother's Voice in Comparison to their Reaction to Music - Effect on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Djordjevic, Dragana

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare stress-reduction effects of the mother’s voice and lullaby music in preterm infants and to explore whether the mother’s well-being affects her ability to calm down her preterm baby. It was hypothesized that both acoustic stimulation interventions can calm down the baby, i.e. decrease heart rate and increase heart rate variability (HRV) in preterm infants. Further it was hypothesized that the mother’s voice would have greater effect than lullaby m...

  13. Long term refractive outcome in eyes of preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity: comparison of keratometric value, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and lens thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, M. Y.; Park, I.K.; Yu, Y S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—A longitudinal study of premature infants was conducted to examine changes in refractive status and their relation with age and factors influencing the occurrence and degree of myopia. Identification of which of the various refractive factors play important parts in relation to myopia in premature infants was attempted.
METHODS—Under observation were 125 eyes in 65 patients who were found to demonstrate no signs of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) or who had grade I or II ROP ...

  14. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Alam, Jahangir; Afsar, Nure Alam; Huda, Nazmul; Kabir, Yearul; Qadri, Firdausi; Raqib, Rubhana; Stephensen, Charles B

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy. Infants received tetanus and pertussis vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 wk of age. TT and PT anti-IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes was measured at 15 wk. Plasma antibodies were measured at 6 wk (pre-vaccination), 15 wk and 1 y of age. Prior to vaccination, TT and PT antibody were detected in 94.6% and 15.2% of infants. At 15 wk anti-TT-IgG and anti-PT-IgG in plasma was increased by 7-9 fold over pre-vaccination levels, while at 1 y plasma anti-TT-IgG was decreased by approximately 5-fold from the peak and had returned to near the pre-vaccination level. At 1 y plasma anti-PT-IgG was decreased by 2-fold 1 yfrom the 15 wk level. However, 89.5% and 82.3% of infants at 1 y had protective levels of anti-TT and anti-PT IgG, respectively. Pre-vaccination plasma IgG levels were associated with lower vaccine-specific IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes at 15 wk (p < 0.10). This apparent inhibition was seen for anti-TT-IgG at both 15 wk (p < 0.05) and t 1 y (p < 0.10) of age. In summary, we report an apparent inhibitory effect of passively derived maternal antibody on an infants' own antibody response to the same vaccine. However, since the cut-off values for protective titers are low, infants had protective antibody levels throughout infancy. PMID:27176823

  15. From the barrel of the gun: policy incursions, land, and Aboriginal peoples in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Robert J. Parkes

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the enduring traces of colonialism within the Australian nation-state and the ongoing challenges to Aboriginal peoples’ rights, especially land rights. We try to make sense of contemporary federal government and New South Wales state, or provincial, government policy changes which connect land use, access and ownership to social welfare, and which target Aboriginal peoples in remote, or outback, areas and the inner city. We connect these two policy initiatives by pointin...

  16. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.

  17. Developing an Exploratory Framework Linking Australian Aboriginal Peoples’ Connection to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Bolam; Claire Henderson-Wilson; Mardie Townsend; Jonathan Kingsley

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Count...

  18. A Loose Coupling: Aboriginal Participation in Library Education - A Selective Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Doerksen; Carla Martin

    2016-01-01

    The one constant of librarianship is the inevitability of interaction with diverse populations throughout all facets of the profession. This literature review critically examines works on the education and participation of North American Aboriginal people in the profession of librarianship and outlines the evolution of recruitment and retention strategies as they are addressed in scholarly literature. The authors pay particular attention to Canada where Aboriginal people have, historically, c...

  19. History-based Explanatory Framework for Procreative Behaviour of Aboriginal People of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Romaniuk, Anatole

    2008-01-01

    EnglishThe transition from traditional high to modern low fertility is in the forefront of empirical and theoretical investigations in contemporary aboriginal demography.The challenging question therein remains why its fertility has started to decline a century or so after the rest of Canada, and why it continues to trail the latter by a considerable lag. The objective of this paper is to present a history-based explanatory framework of the childbearing behaviour of Canadian aboriginal people...

  20. Aboriginal population of Canada: growth dynamics under conditions of encounter of civilisations

    OpenAIRE

    Romaniuc, Anatole

    2003-01-01

    EnglishThis paper endeavours to capture the broad configuration of demographicevolution of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada from the early contacts with Europeans to the present.The main stages thereof are identified and the underlying factors explored, against the historicalbackground of Aboriginal and European civilisations' encounter. While taking stock of the past, thepaper takes a glimpse into the future. It concludes with a review of demographically-driven policyissues that the First Na...

  1. Aboriginal fisher perspectives on use of biotelemetry technology to study adult Pacific salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen V. M.; Raby G. D.; Hinch S. G.; Cooke S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Biotelemetry has become a popular tool accepted by the scientific community as a reliable approach for studying wild fish. However, stakeholder perspectives on scientific techniques and the information they generate are not uniformly positive. Aboriginal groups in particular may have opposition or apprehension to telemetry as a research tool. To that end, we conducted a river-bank survey of 111 aboriginal First Nations fishers that target adult Pacific salmon in the lower Fraser River, Britis...

  2. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events. PMID:22730152

  3. Aboriginal Astronomical Traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 1: Nyeeruna and the Orion Story

    OpenAIRE

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-01-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE (1859-1951) recorded the daily lives, lore, and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as "Th...

  4. Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Niccols, Allison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many women, substance abuse offers a means of coping with trauma, such as childhood abuse, partner violence, and, for Aboriginal ...

  5. Culturally Competent Service Provision Issues Experienced By Aboriginal People Living With HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Kevin; Loppie, Charlotte; Jackson, Randy; Akan, Margaret; MacLean, Lynne; Reimer, Gwen

    2008-01-01

    Cultural identity is an important factor in how well Aboriginal people respond to HIV/AIDS prevention or, once diagnosed with HIV or AIDS, how it affects their health care. This study explores the cultural skills among service providers who see Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS (APHAs) and the perspectives of APHAs. The purpose is to better understand the wellness needs of APHAs and how culturally competent care affects health service access and use. Data collection included face-to-face...

  6. Awakening: 'Spontaneous recovery’ from substance abuse among Aboriginal peoples in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Elder Campbell Papequash; Colleen A. Dell; Adrien Tempier; Randy Duncan; Raymond Tempier

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on spontaneous recovery (SR) from substance abuse in general, and specific to Aboriginal peoples. There is also limited understanding of the healing process associated with SR. In this study, SR was examined among a group of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Employing a decolonizing methodology, thematic analysis of traditional talking circle narratives identified an association between a traumatic life event and an ‘awakening.’ This ‘awakening’ was embedded in prim...

  7. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Higginbottom Gina MA; Vallianatos Helen; Forgeron Joan; Gibbons Donna; Malhi Rebecca; Mamede Fabiana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to unders...

  8. Aboriginal educators' experiences as learners and as teachers in schools of social work

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    How can Canadian Schools of Social Work improve school climate in order to enhance outcomes and success among Aboriginal students and faculty? I interviewed14 Aboriginal faculty members from seven Schools of Social Work about their experiences as students and as faculty, and, they gave recommendations regarding needed changes. As learners, respondents were affected by individual, academic and relational factors, as well as teacher behaviours. The impact of negative experiences included: lonel...

  9. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Parker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1 quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2 identifying factors influencing participation, and (3 planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children’s dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location.

  10. Planning, implementing, and evaluating a program to address the oral health needs of aboriginal children in port augusta, australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E J; Misan, G; Shearer, M; Richards, L; Russell, A; Mills, H; Jamieson, L M

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location. PMID:22577401

  11. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  12. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... that are born full-term. A lack of vitamin D may also lead to osteopenia in infants. ...

  13. Peripheral intravenous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIV - infants; Peripheral IV - infants; Peripheral line - infants; Peripheral line - neonatal ... A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short, plastic tube, called a catheter. A health care provider puts ...

  14. Healthy Weights Interventions in Aboriginal Children and Youth: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Claire; Cooke, Martin; Rysdale, Lee; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal children and youth in Canada and elsewhere are at higher risk of obesity and overweight than other children. However, there has been no review of healthy weights interventions specifically aimed at Aboriginal children. A structured search for peer-reviewed articles presenting and evaluating healthy weights interventions for Aboriginal children and youth was conducted. Seventeen articles, representing seven interventions, were reviewed to identify their main characteristics, evaluation design, and evaluation outcomes. Interventions included several large community-based programs as well as several more focused programs that all targeted First Nations or American Indians, rather than Métis or Inuit. Only 1 program served an urban Aboriginal population. None of the published evaluations reported significant reductions in obesity or overweight or sustained increases in physical activity, although some evaluations presented evidence of positive effects on children's diets or on nutrition knowledge or intentions. We conclude that broader structural factors affecting the health of Aboriginal children may limit the effectiveness of these interventions, and that more evidence is required regarding interventions for Aboriginal children in various geographic and cultural contexts in Canada including Inuit and Métis communities. PMID:26066816

  15. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  16. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409

  17. Reanimating Lost Landscapes: Bringing Visualisation to Aboriginal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Public History Review volume 11, Peter Osborne called for the methodologies of environmental history to be brought more securely and more imaginatively into public history. Environmental history by its own definition, he argued, encompassed Indigenous, ethnic and Anglo-Celtic histories, and heritages natural and built, material and intangible. I believe too that we public historians need to Incorporate changing landscapes and topographies as a vital element in understanding why communities and their built heritages constantly transfigure. Sometimes a single geographic factor such as the northern Gulf Stream can go far to explain the spectacular rise of a small island like Great Britain to world power. Equally we can help to explain the precipitous decline of towns like Bourke by degradation and siltation in the Darling River. This paper uses the case study of the Narrabeen town camp to explore the potential of digital visual technologies in Aboriginal History.

  18. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  19. Comparison of cerebral oxygen saturation in premature infants by near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy: observations on probe-dependent bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Line C; Leung, Terence S; Greisen, Gorm

    2008-01-01

    oxygenation index (c-TOI) was measured using NIRO 300 (Hamamatsu Photonics KK). c-TOI was measured at several positions in each infant. c-TOI varied over time, increasing in the first third and decreasing in the last third of the study period (p

  20. A comparison of polymerase chain reaction and international organization for standardization methods for determination of Enterobacter sakazakii contamination of infant formulas from Chinese mainland markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yingwang; Wu, Qingping; Yao, Lin; Dong, Xiaohui; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Jumei

    2009-12-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen associated with meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in infants. One of the main transmission vehicles is the commercially available infant formulas. To provide efficient options and direction for detecting E. sakazakii in infant formulas, evaluation of different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the ompA gene, and the alpha-1,4-glucosidase gene (gluA) of this organism, were compared to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) method for detecting E. sakazakii in the 243 commercial infant formula samples. Twelve samples were found to be positive for E. sakazakii by all the PCR assays used, followed by sequencing of PCR products. Ten samples were found to be positive by the ISO method, and all 10 gave positive signals for all the PCR amplifications. In contrast, four false-positive results were generated by single-PCR of the ITS region and one false-positive result targeting the ompA gene, while two false-negative results occurred with the ISO method. Combined with selective enrichment step(s), duplex-PCR targeting ITS and ompA and targeting ompA and gluA genes or single-PCR of the gluA gene can be used to test for contamination by E. sakazakii in infant formulas before they enter the market. PCR techniques will be helpful for routine monitoring and risk assessment for large-scale screenings. PMID:19743923

  1. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11

  2. Picture of the health status of Aboriginal children living in an urban setting of Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Suzie; Woolfenden, Susan; Callaghan, Lola; Allende, Trudy; Winters, Jennifer; Wong, Grace; Caplice, Shea; Zwi, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the health status and health indicators for urban Aboriginal children (age 0-16 years) in south-east Sydney; and (2) evaluate the quality of routinely collected clinical data and its usefulness in monitoring local progress of health outcomes. Methods Aboriginal maternal and child health routine data, from multiple databases, for individuals accessing maternal and child health services between January 2007 and December 2012 were examined and compared with state and national health indicators. Results Reductions in maternal smoking, premature delivery and low birthweight delivery rates were achieved in some years, but no consistent trends emerged. Paediatric services had increased referrals each year. The most frequent diagnoses were nutritional problems, language delay or disorder and developmental delay or learning difficulties. Twenty per cent of children had a chronic medical condition requiring long-term follow-up. Aboriginal children were more likely to be discharged from hospital against medical advice than non-Aboriginal children. Routinely collected data did not include some information essential to monitor determinants of health and health outcomes. Conclusions Aboriginal children living in this urban setting had high levels of need. Routinely recorded data were suboptimal for monitoring local health status and needed to reflect national and state health indicators. Routinely collected data can identify service gaps and guide service development. What is known about this topic? Despite improvements in some areas, there continue to be significant gaps in maternal and child health outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. These are poorly documented at a local service level. What does this paper add? Intensive, local services offered to Aboriginal women and children can result in rapid service engagement. Health service data routinely collected by local services can be used to

  3. Three-dimensional comparison between the palatal forms in infants with complete unilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate (UCLP) with and without Hotz's plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, K; Sugahara, T; Mori, Y; Sakuda, M

    1996-05-01

    A three-dimensional measuring system was developed to analyze changes in palatal forms of UCLP infants. This system quantified the change of the curved surface on a palate by automatically superimposing two wireframe models obtained from casts at different stages of growth. It also analyzed the curvature of the palatal surface. This system was used to study the palates of 20 infants with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), from the first to fourth months after birth (12 with Hotz's plate and 8 without, selected at random). Both major and lesser maxillary segments without Hotz's plate remained anterior and lateral although those with Hotz's plate moved mesially during the fourth month after birth. In addition, the degrees of curvature on the palatal surfaces with Hotz's plate were less than those without Hotz's plate.

  4. Mental health and Victorian Aboriginal people: what can data mining tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen; Halacas, Chris; Cincotta, Marion; Pesich, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Nationally, Aboriginal people experience high levels of psychological distress, primarily due to trauma from colonisation. In Victoria, Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) provide many services to support mental health. The aim of the present study was to improve understanding about Victorian Aboriginal people and mental health service patterns. We located four mental health administrative datasets to analyse descriptively, including Practice Health Atlas, Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Service (AODTS), Kids Helpline and Close The Gap Pharmaceutical Scheme data. A large proportion of the local Aboriginal population (70%) were regular ACCHO clients; of these, 21% had a mental health diagnosis and, of these, 23% had a Medicare Mental Health Care Plan (MHCP). There were higher rates of Medicare MHCP completion rates where general practitioners (GPs) had mental health training and the local Area Mental Health Service had a Koori Mental Health Liaison Officer. There was an over-representation of AODTS episodes, and referrals for these episodes were more likely to come through community, corrections and justice services than for non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal episodes were less likely to have been referred by a GP or police and less likely to have been referrals to community-based or home-based treatment. There was an over-representation of Victorian Aboriginal calls to Kids Helpline, and these were frequently for suicide and self-harm reasons. We recommend primary care mental health programs include quality audits, GP training, non-pharmaceutical options and partnerships. Access to appropriate AODTS is needed, particularly given links to high incarcerations rates. To ensure access to mental health services, improved understanding of mental health service participation and outcomes, including suicide prevention services for young people, is needed. PMID:25053190

  5. Comparison of the Effects of Maternal Supportive Care and Acupressure (at BL32 Acupoint) on Labor Length and Infant's Apgar Score

    OpenAIRE

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Masoudi, Zahra; Zare, Najaf; Kasraeian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Prolonged labor leads to increase of cesarean deliveries, reduction of fetal heart rate, and maternal as well as infantile complications. Therefore, many women tend to use pharmacological or non-pharmacological methods for reduction of labor length. The present study aimed to compare the effects of maternal supportive care and acupressure (at BL32 acupoint) on labor length and infant's Apgar score. Methods: In this clinical trial, 150 women with low-risk pregnancy w...

  6. Comparison of Miller and Airtraq laryngoscopes for orotracheal intubation by physicians wearing CBRN protective equipment during infant resuscitation: a randomized crossover simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Claret, Pierre-Géraud; Asencio, Renaud; Rogier, Damien; Roger, Claire; Fournier, Philippe; Tran, Tu-Anh; Sebbane, Mustapha; Bobbia, Xavier; Emmanuel de La Coussaye, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of orotracheal intubation with the Miller laryngoscope compared with the Airtraq laryngoscope by emergency and pediatric physicians wearing CBRN-PPE type III on infant manikins with conventional airway. We hypothesized that in this situation, the orotracheal intubation with the Airtraq laryngoscope would be faster and more effective than with the Miller laryngoscope. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, crossover, sin...

  7. Infant Cardiac CT Angiography with 64-Slice and 256-Slice CT: Comparison of Radiation Dose and Image Quality Using a Pediatric Phantom

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yi-Wei; Yang, Ching-Ching; Mok, Greta S. P.; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to investigate the image quality and radiation exposure of pediatric protocols for cardiac CT angiography (CTA) in infants under one year of age. Methodology/Principal Findings Cardiac CTA examinations were performed using an anthropomorphic phantom representing a 1-year-old child scanned with non-electrocardiogram-gated (NG), retrospectively electrocardiogram-gated helical (RGH) and prospectively electrocardiogram-gated axial (PGA) techniques in 64-slic...

  8. Nursing Behaviors which Facilitate the Grief Work of Parents with Premature Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Comparison of Mothers and Fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahiminia, Elaheh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The birth of a child is an event to be remembered. However, a premature birth may shock the parents and cause their grief. Understanding differences between mothers and fathers can help nurses in providing nursing supports. Objectives: This study was performed with the aim of comparing nursing behaviors which facilitate grief work for parents of premature infants hospitalized in the NICU from perspectives of mothers and fathers. Patients and Methods: This comparative descriptive d...

  9. ‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life’: Aboriginal people's experience of haemodialysis in rural Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Australian Aboriginal people have at least eight times the incidence of end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis, as the non-Aboriginal population. Provision of health services to rural Aboriginal people with renal disease is challenging due to barriers to access and cultural differences. We aimed to describe the experiences of Aboriginal people receiving haemodialysis in rural Australia, to inform strategies for improving renal services. Design A qualitative design incorporating: Indigenist research methodology and Community Based Participatory Research principles. In-depth interviews used a ‘yarning’ and storytelling approach. Thematic analysis was undertaken and verified by an Aboriginal Community Reference Group. Setting A health district in rural New South Wales, Australia. Participants Snowball sampling recruited 18 Aboriginal haemodialysis recipients. Results Six themes emerged which described the patient journey: ‘The biggest shock of me life,’ expressed the shock of diagnosis and starting the dialysis; ‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life,’ explained how positive attitudes to treatment develop; ‘Family is everything’, described the motivation and support to continue dialysis; ‘If I had one of them nurses at home to help me’, depicted acute hospital settings as culturally unsafe; ‘Don't use them big jawbreakers’, urged service providers to use simple language and cultural awareness; ‘Stop ‘em following us onto the machine’, emphasised the desire for education for the younger generations about preventing kidney disease. An Aboriginal interpretation of this experience, linked to the analysis, was depicted in the form of an Aboriginal painting. Conclusions Family enables Aboriginal people to endure haemodialysis. Patients believe that priorities for improving services include family-centred and culturally accommodating healthcare systems; and improving access to early screening of kidney disease

  10. Comparison of quiet breathing and controlled ventilation in the high-resolution CT assessment of airway disease in infants with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory motion and low lung volumes limit the quality of HRCT examinations in infants and young children. To assess the effects of respiratory motion and lung inflation on the ability to diagnose airway abnormalities and air trapping (AT) using HRCT in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF). HRCT images of the lungs were obtained at four anatomical levels in 16 sedated children (age 2.4±1.1 years, mean±SD) with CF using controlled ventilation at full lung inflation (CVCT-I), at resting end exhalation (CVCT-E), and during quiet breathing (CT-B). Two blinded reviewers independently and then by consensus scored all images for the presence or absence of bronchiectasis (BE), bronchial wall thickening (BWT), and AT. Of the 64 images evaluated, BE was identified in 19 (30%) of the CVCT-I images compared to 6 (9%) of the CVCT-E images (P=0.006) and 4 (6%) of the CT-B images (P=0.044). AT was seen in 29 (45%) of the CVCT-E images compared to 14 (22%) of the CVCT-I images (P=0.012) and 12 (19%) of the CT-B images (P=0.012). There were no significant differences in the detection of BWT among the three methods. Summary: In infants with CF, fully inflating the lung improved the ability to diagnose early BE, and obtaining motion-free images at end exhalation enhanced the detection of AT. (orig.)

  11. Postdelivery changes in maternal and infant erythrocyte fatty acids in 3 populations differing in fresh water fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Sango, Wicklif S.; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Long-chain polyunsaturated (LCP) fatty acids (FA) are important during infant development. Mother-to-infant FA-transport occurs at the expense of the maternal status. Maternal and infant FA-status change rapidly after delivery. Methods: Comparison of maternal (mRBC) and infant erythroc

  12. Forest carbon trading : legal, policy, ecological and aboriginal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's forest ecosystems store 88 billion tonnes of carbon, with trees alone storing 13 billion tonnes, twice the global annual carbon emissions. Carbon trading could affect forest management. Certain types of forest carbon project will offer cost-effective carbon sequestration options. This paper addresses current concerns about forest carbon trading such as phony carbon gains, biodiversity impact and increased fossil fuel emissions. Statistics were presented with information on global carbon stocks. The Kyoto Protocol requires that Canada must count all changes in forest carbon stocks resulting from afforestation, reforestation or deforestation, and that Canada has the option of counting carbon stock changes from forest management. The decision must be made by 2006, and considerations are whether to present projected net source or sink, or whether to count current commercially managed areas or all timber productive areas. An outline of federal constitutional authority power regarding Kyoto was presented, including limits and risks of trade and treaty powers. The economics of forest carbon were outlined with reference to increasing forest carbon storage. A two-pronged approach was advised, with avoided logging and plantation and intensive management securing carbon and timber benefits. Examples of pre-Kyoto pilots were presented, including the SaskPower project, the Little Red River Cree project and the Labrador Innu project. The disadvantages of offset trading were presented. It was concluded that forest carbon markets are part of a larger vision for sustainable development in Canada's north, especially for aboriginal peoples, and may indicate a growing market for ecological services. Constitutional limits to federal power to regulate carbon trading are not insurmountable, but require care. Ownerships of forest carbon rights raises important policy and legal issues, including aboriginal right, efficiency and equity. An estimated cost of forest carbon projects

  13. Stand Up for the Burrup: Saving the Largest Aboriginal Rock Art Precinct in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dampier Rock Art Precinct contains the largest and most ancient collection of Aboriginal rock art in Australia. The cultural landscape created by generations of Aboriginal people includes images of long-extinct fauna and demonstrates the response of peoples to a changing climate over thousands of years as well as the continuity of lived experience. Despite Australian national heritage listing in 2007, this cultural landscape continues to be threatened by industrial development. Rock art on the eastern side of the archipelago, on the Burrup Peninsula, was relocated following the discovery of adjacent off-shore gas reserves so that a major gas plant could be constructed. Work has now begun on the construction of a second major gas plant nearby. This article describes the rock art of the Dampier Archipelago and the troubled history of European-Aboriginal contact history, before examining the impact of industry on the region and its environment. The destruction of Aboriginal rock art to meet the needs of industry is an example of continuing indifference to Aboriginal culture. While the complex struggle to protect the cultural landscape of the Burrup, in particular, involving Indigenous people, archaeologists, historians, state and federal politicians, government bureaucrats and multi-national companies, eventually led to national heritage listing, it is not clear that the battle to save the Burrup has been won.

  14. Developing an Exploratory Framework Linking Australian Aboriginal Peoples’ Connection to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Bolam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Country and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples’ health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples’ wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples’ health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation.

  15. Awakening: 'Spontaneous recovery’ from substance abuse among Aboriginal peoples in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Campbell Papequash

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of research on spontaneous recovery (SR from substance abuse in general, and specific to Aboriginal peoples. There is also limited understanding of the healing process associated with SR. In this study, SR was examined among a group of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Employing a decolonizing methodology, thematic analysis of traditional talking circle narratives identified an association between a traumatic life event and an ‘awakening.’ This ‘awakening’ was embedded in primary (i.e., consider impact on personal well-being and secondary (i.e., implement alternative coping mechanism cognitive appraisal processes and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation rooted in increased traditional Aboriginal cultural awareness and understanding. This contributed to both abstinence (i.e., recovery and sustained well-being (i.e.,continued abstinence. Three key interrelated ‘themes’ specific to the role of culture in SR and recovery maintenance were identified: Aboriginal identity, cultural practices, and traditional values. These findings,combined with the limited literature, were developed into a prospective model of SR from substance abuse inAboriginal peoples. This model highlights the potential need for substance abuse treatment and intervention policy to consider culture as a determinant of health and well-being.

  16. Developing an exploratory framework linking Australian Aboriginal peoples' connection to country and concepts of wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Bolam, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples' relationship to their traditional land (known as Country) and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships) and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism) factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples' health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples' wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples' health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation. PMID:23435590

  17. An Aboriginal Adult Literacy Campaign Pilot Study in Australia using Yes I Can

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Boughton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the remote Aboriginal community of Wilcannia in western NSW hosted the first Australian pilot of a Cuban mass adult literacy campaign model known as Yes I Can. The aim was to investigate the appropriateness of this model in Aboriginal Australia. Building on an intensive community development process of ‘socialisation and mobilisation’, sixteen community members with very low literacy graduated from the basic literacy course, with the majority continuing on into post-literacy activities, further training and/or employment. The pilot was initiated by the National Aboriginal Adult Literacy Campaign Steering Committee (NAALCSC consisting of Aboriginal leaders from the education and health sectors, and managed by the University of New England (UNE, working in partnership with the Wilcannia Local Aboriginal Land Council as the local lead agency. The pilot was supported by a Cuban academic who came to Australia for this purpose, and included a Participatory Action Research (PAR evaluation led by the UNE Project Manager. In this paper, members of the project team and the NAALCSC describe the pilot and reflect on its outcomes.

  18. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. PMID:24161085

  19. Social Exclusion/Inclusion for Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Walter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion social inclusion are useful concepts for making sense of the deeply embedded socio-economic disadvantaged position of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people in Australian. The concepts not only describe exclusion from social and economic participation; but seek to understand the dynamic processes behind their creation and reproduction. Yet few Australian studies go beyond describing Aboriginal over-representation on social exclusion indicators. Neither do they address the translatability of the concepts from non-Indigenous to Indigenous contexts despite mainstream studies finding the pattern of social exclusion (and therefore what social inclusion might look like differs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to that of other disadvantaged groups. This paper uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous children to explore patterns of social exclusion across social, economic, well-being and community dimensions for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait families. The paper then develops a contextual understanding of the processes and patterns that create and sustain social exclusion and the opportunities and challenges of moving to greater social inclusion for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people/s.

  20. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and…

  1. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Asthma in Off-Reserve Aboriginal Children and Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Sequential with Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori in an Aboriginal Community in the Canadian North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Morse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection occurs more frequently in Arctic Aboriginal settings than elsewhere in North America and Europe. Research aimed at reducing health risks from H pylori infection has been conducted in the Aboriginal community of Aklavik, Northwest Territories.

  3. Black on White: or varying shades of grey? Indigenous Australian photomedia artists and the ‘making of’ Aboriginality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 the Centre for Contemporary Photography in Melbourne presented the Indigenous photo-media exhibition Black on White. Promising to explore Indigenous perspectives on non-Aboriginality, its catalogue set forth two questions: how do Aboriginal artists see the people and culture that surrounds t

  4. Invasive pneumococcal disease in New South Wales, Australia: reporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status improves epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Durrheim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the feasibility of improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recording for notifiable diseases using all Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD notifications in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.In Australia people with IPD are nearly always admitted to hospital and their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status is recorded. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status was determined for IPD notifications by referring to the routine hospital admission data, in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.There were 234 notifications in the regional area of Hunter New England during the period 2007–2009. Initially, 168 (72% notifications had Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recorded. After referring to the routine hospital admission data the recorded status increased to 232 (99%. Updating the surveillance data required less than five minutes per notification.Referring to routine hospital admission data proved a useful and time-efficient surveillance strategy to increase the proportion of notifications with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status. These data can then be used to better understand the current epidemiology of IPD. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–4 years have a two- to threefold higher rate of invasive pneumococcal disease than non-Aboriginal children, thus high levels of timely pneumococcal immunization coverage remain important for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

  5. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH): a long-term platform for closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Darryl; Gordon, Raylene; Carr, Darren; Craig, Jonathan C; Banks, Emily; Muthayya, Sumithra; Wutzke, Sonia; Eades, Sandra J; Redman, Sally

    2016-01-01

    The full potential for research to improve Aboriginal health has not yet been realised. This paper describes an established long-term action partnership between Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs), the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of New South Wales (AH&MRC), researchers and the Sax Institute, which is committed to using high-quality data to bring about health improvements through better services, policies and programs. The ACCHSs, in particular, have ensured that the driving purpose of the research conducted is to stimulate action to improve health for urban Aboriginal children and their families. This partnership established a cohort study of 1600 urban Aboriginal children and their caregivers, known as SEARCH (the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health), which is now having significant impacts on health, services and programs for urban Aboriginal children and their families. This paper describes some examples of the impacts of SEARCH, and reflects on the ways of working that have enabled these changes to occur, such as strong governance, a focus on improved health, AH&MRC and ACCHS leadership, and strategies to support the ACCHS use of data and to build Aboriginal capacity. PMID:27421347

  6. Representation of Indigenous Women in Contemporary Aboriginal Short Stories of Australia and India: A Study in Convergences and Divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Acharya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to review and reassess the tribal situation with special reference to the tribal women in India and Australia. It is an attempt to locate the ‘Aboriginal woman’ question in the context of women’s movement in both countries. In Australia the women’s movement, on the whole, has not been successful in incorporating Aboriginal women into its concerns and activities. Relations with Aboriginal women have constituted a problem with the women’s movement. Despite many differences in socio-cultural set up the stories of Anil Gharai and those of Australian Aboriginal writers share many common traits and cut across cultural differences. It establishes the theory of pan-aboriginality that exists in countries that possess a sizeable population of indigenous people.

  7. Multiple sevoflurane exposures in infant monkeys do not impact the mother-infant bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, Jessica; Bush, Angela; Murphy, Kathy L; Baxter, Mark G; Alvarado, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to general anesthesia during the postnatal period is associated with death of brain cells as well as long-term impairments in cognitive and emotional behavior in animal models. These models are critical for investigating mechanisms of pediatric anesthetic neurotoxicity as well as for testing potential strategies for preventing or mitigating this toxicity. Control conditions for anesthesia exposure involve separation of conscious infants from their mothers for variable periods of time, which could have its own effect on subsequent behavior because of stress to the mother and/or infant as a consequence of separation.We are conducting a long-term study of infant rhesus monkeys exposed three times for 4h each to sevoflurane anesthesia during the first six postnatal weeks, with a comparison condition of control infant monkeys that undergo brief maternal separations on the same schedule, to equate the period of time each infant is conscious and separated from its mother. Because mothers are separated from their infants longer for infants in the anesthesia condition, this could modify maternal behavior toward the infant, which may influence subsequent socioemotional behavior in the infants. In this study, we analyzed maternal behavior immediately after the first post-anesthesia (or control) reunion, as well as during reintroduction of the mother-infant pair to the larger social group 24 hpost-anesthesia or control separation, and found no differences between the conditions with mothers spending most of their time in contact with infants in all conditions analyzed. This indicates that the different durations of maternal separation in this study design do not impact the mother-infant bond, strengthening conclusions that subsequent differences in behavior between monkeys exposed to anesthesia compared to controls are a consequence of anesthesia exposure and not differential maternal behavior in the two conditions. PMID:26878984

  8. Comparison of three chromogenic media and evaluation of two molecular-based identification systems for the detection of Enterobacter sakazakii from environmental samples from infant formulae factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzelle, Sylviane; Dilasser, Françoise; Maladen, Véronique; Soudrie, Nicole; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lombard, Bertrand; Lafarge, Veŕonique

    2007-07-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an occasional contaminant of powdered infant formula that can cause rare but severe foodborne infections in infants. To determine optimal methods for the detection and identification of E. sakazakii, 38 naturally contaminated samples from infant formulae factories were analyzed by two PCR-based methods and by a method (TS 22964/RM 210) developed by the International Organization for Standardization and the International Dairy Federation (ISO-IDF) using three different commercial chromogenic agars. The ISO-IDF method includes two enrichment steps, plating of the second enrichment broth on E. sakazakii isolation agar (a chromogenic selective agar), picking of five typical colonies for transfer onto tryptone soy agar, and subsequent confirmation of yellow-pigmented colonies by biochemical characterization. Twenty-two of the 38 samples were positive by the culture method. E. sakazakii isolation agar (ESIA; AES Laboratoires), COMPASS agar (Biokar Diagnostics), and Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen agar (Oxoid) compared favorably with violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG, a selective medium for Enterobacteriaceae), with positive predictive values of 86.96, 88, and 74.07%, respectively, in contrast to 47.83% for VRBG. One additional positive sample was detected using the nonpatented real-time PCR method evaluated, and those results were in 97.3% concordance with the ISO-IDF results. Some discrepancies between the results of the DuPont Qualicon BAX system and those of the ISO-IDF method could be explained by heterogeneity of contamination and sampling. Thus, both PCR-based systems were suitable for detecting and specifically identifying E. sakazakii within 1 to 2 days, and COMPASS agar and ESIA could be used interchangeably as a first-step medium to isolate presumptive E. sakazakii colonies.

  9. A CLINICAL STUDY OF MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY PATTERN OF LATE PRETERM INFANTS AT SNCU, WARANGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE A clinical study of morbidity and mortality pattern of late preterm infants in comparison with term infants. STUDY DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING SNCU, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Warangal. SUBJECTS Consecutive sample of late preterm infants and term infants referred to our hospital on or before fourth day of life. RESULTS 76 late preterm infants and 76 term infants with any of the pre-defined neonatal condition were included in the study. Late preterm infants were significantly at a higher risk for overall morbidity including hypothermia, sepsis, respiratory morbidity, jaundice, hypoglycemia, birth asphyxia. A trend towards higher mortality was also seen. CONCLUSION In an out born referral center, late preterm infants are more prone to suffer from morbidities than term infants. Hypothermia is the leading cause of morbidity in both term (61% and late pre-term (85% infants.

  10. The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n = 18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n = 29). An overarching theme of avoiding the "costly" crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system.

  11. The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n = 18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n = 29). An overarching theme of avoiding the "costly" crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system. PMID:25056441

  12. "Mean mugging": an exploration of young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, Jennifer L; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2015-08-01

    Bullying among youth is rampant and research suggests that young Aboriginal women may be particularly susceptible to bullying. Sport participation has been identified as a possible mechanism to prevent bullying behaviors, yet few researchers have explored bullying within the context of sport. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to explore young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports. Eight young Aboriginal women participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews and follow-up phone interviews. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, and findings were represented by five themes: (1) mean mugging, (2) sport specific, (3) happens all the time, (4) team bonding to address bullying, and (5) prevention through active coaches. The detailed descriptions shared by participants provide insight into a broad range of bullying experiences and serve as a foundation for addressing the bullying that occurs in sport.

  13. Aboriginal Health Care and Bioethics: A Reflection on the Teaching of the Seven Grandfathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotalik, Jaro; Martin, Gerry

    2016-05-01

    Contemporary bioethics recognizes the importance of the culture in shaping ethical issues, yet in practice, a process for ethical analysis and decision making is rarely adjusted to the culture and ethnicity of involved parties. This is of a particular concern in a health care system that is caring for a growing Aboriginal population. We raise the possibility of constructing a bioethics grounded in traditional Aboriginal knowledge. As an example of an element of traditional knowledge that contains strong ethical guidance, we present the story of the Gifts of the Seven Grandfathers. We note a resemblance of this Ojibway teaching to virtue ethics in European traditions, but we suggest that there are also important differences in how these two traditions are currently presented. We hope that further engagement with a variety of indigenous moral teachings and traditions could improve health care involving Aboriginal patients and communities, and enrich the discipline of bioethics. PMID:27111368

  14. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 1: the ethnobotany of the skyworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2014-11-01

    In Aboriginal Australia, the corpus of cosmological beliefs was united by the centrality of the Skyworld, which was considered to be the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. Early historical accounts of classical Australian hunter-gatherer beliefs described the heavens as inhabited by human and spiritual ancestors who interacted with the same species of plants and animals as they had below. This paper is the first of two that describes Indigenous perceptions of the Skyworld flora and draws out major ethnobotanical themes from the corpus of ethnoastronomical records garnered from a diverse range of Australian Aboriginal cultures. It investigates how Indigenous perceptions of the flora are interwoven with Aboriginal traditions concerning the heavens, and provides examples of how the study of ethnoastronomy can provide insights into the Indigenous use and perception of plants.

  15. Environmental agreements, EIA follow-up and aboriginal participation in environmental management: The Canadian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade a number of environmental agreements (EAs) have been negotiated in Canada involving industry, government and Aboriginal peoples. This article draws on the Canadian experience to consider the potential of such negotiated agreements to address two issues widely recognised in academic and policy debates on environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental management. The first relates to the need to secure indigenous participation in environmental management of major projects that affect indigenous peoples. The second and broader issue involves the necessity for specific initiatives to ensure effective follow-up of EIA. The Canadian experience indicates that negotiated environmental agreements have considerable potential to address both issues. However, if this potential is to be realized, greater effort must be made to develop structures and processes specifically designed to encourage Aboriginal participation; and EAs must themselves provide the financial and other resource required to support EIA follow-up and Aboriginal participation

  16. Problems of communicating radiation doses to aboriginal members of the public in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 1970s, Aboriginal people of the Alligator Rivers Region have had to come to grips with the effects of uranium mining at Nabarlek and Ranger. One element in their cost-benefit approach to mine operations has been the expectation that bush foods in the region will not be contaminated by the mining operations. Recent studies on radionuclide concentrations in freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi) in the region have shown this species, and perhaps others, to be efficient accumulators of radium. Information concerning natural radium accumulation in mussels and accompanying health risk estimates have been conveyed to Aboriginal people of the area and such information transfer has not been without its problems. Application of the ALARA principle to environmental management of the effluent pathways needs to consider Aboriginal expectations

  17. Aborigines, colonizers and newcomers: the landscape of transcultural psychiatry research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; de Moore, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    The authors present an analysis of transcultural psychiatry research in relation to three main population groups in Australia: Aboriginal Australians, documented immigrants, and refugees. The pioneering reports produced by Western psychiatrists in Aboriginal communities are examined in this article. Additional quantitative and qualitative studies developed with Aboriginal people in the context of a traumatic acculturation process are also reviewed. Subsequently, the authors examine the challenges faced by immigrants with mental disorders in a health care system still unequipped to treat a new array of clinical presentations unfamiliar to the clinical staff. The authors also highlight the development of policies aimed at providing quality mental health care to a mosaic of cultures in an evolving multicultural society. Lastly, the psychiatric manifestations of refugees and asylum seekers are analysed in the context of a series of vulnerabilities and deprivations they have experienced, including basic human rights.

  18. Couples Counseling for Aboriginal Clients Following Intimate Partner Violence: Service Providers' Perceptions of Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Elissa; Languedoc, Sue; Brown, Jason; Gerrits, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Interventions for family violence in Aboriginal communities should take a culture-based approach and focus on healing for the whole family. The purpose of this research was to identify risk issues from the perspective of service providers for couples counseling with Aboriginal clients following intimate partner violence. A total of 25 service providers participated in over the phone interviews concerning risk with Aboriginal men in couple counseling. Five concepts emerged including (a) collaterals, (b) commitment to change, (c) violence, (d) mind-set, and (e) mental health. It was concluded that culturally competent interventions should involve the entire community and have a restorative approach. The concepts were compared and contrasted with the available literature.

  19. Aboriginal Astronomical Traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 1: Nyeeruna and the Orion Story

    CERN Document Server

    Leaman, Trevor M

    2014-01-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE (1859-1951) recorded the daily lives, lore, and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as "The Orion Story", stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of "The Orion Story", including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  20. Balancing Culture, Ethics, and Methods in Qualitative Health Research with Aboriginal Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Meadows

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Including Aboriginal women in qualitative health research expands our understanding of factors that contribute to their health and well-being. As part of the larger WHEALTH study, we gathered qualitative health data on midlife Aboriginal women living both on and off reserves. Despite careful planning and a commitment to methodological congruence and purposiveness we encountered a number of challenges that raised ethical questions. We present how we addressed these issues as we attempted to produce ethical, culturally sensitive, and sound research in a timely fashion. This article provides important considerations for other researchers and funding bodies while illustrating the benefits of working with Aboriginal women as an under researched population.

  1. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 2: Plant connections with the skyworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2015-03-01

    In the recorded mythology of Aboriginal Australia there is frequent mention of the Skyworld as the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. The heavens were perceived as a country with the same species of plants and animals that existed below. In Aboriginal tradition, large trees were seen as connecting terrestrial space with the sky above, while the movements of celestial bodies were linked to seasonal changes observed with plants on Earth. This paper describes the links between the floras of Earth and the Skyworld.

  2. An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present evidence that the Boorong Aboriginal people of northwestern Victoria observed the Great Eruption of Eta ({\\eta}) Carinae in the nineteenth century and incorporated the event into their oral traditions. We identify this star, as well as others not specifically identified by name, using descriptive material presented in the 1858 paper by William Edward Stanbridge in conjunction with early southern star catalogues. This identification of a transient astronomical event supports the assertion that Aboriginal oral traditions are dynamic and evolving, and not static. This is the only definitive indigenous record of {\\eta} Carinae's outburst identified in the literature to date.

  3. Under-ascertainment of Aboriginality in records of cardiovascular disease in hospital morbidity and mortality data in Western Australia: a record linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katzenellenbogen Judy M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring the real burden of cardiovascular disease in Australian Aboriginals is complicated by under-identification of Aboriginality in administrative health data collections. Accurate data is essential to measure Australia's progress in its efforts to intervene to improve health outcomes of Australian Aboriginals. We estimated the under-ascertainment of Aboriginal status in linked morbidity and mortality databases in patients hospitalised with cardiovascular disease. Methods Persons with public hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Western Australia during 2000-2005 (and their 20-year admission history or who subsequently died were identified from linkage data. The Aboriginal status flag in all records for a given individual was variously used to determine their ethnicity (index positive, and in all records both majority positive or ever positive and stratified by region, age and gender. The index admission was the baseline comparator. Results Index cases comprised 62,692 individuals who shared a total of 778,714 hospital admissions over 20 years, of which 19,809 subsequently died. There were 3,060 (4.9% persons identified as Aboriginal on index admission. An additional 83 (2.7% Aboriginal cases were identified through death records, increasing to 3.7% when cases with a positive Aboriginal identifier in the majority (≥50% of previous hospital admissions over twenty years were added and by 20.8% when those with a positive flag in any record over 20 years were incorporated. These results equated to underestimating Aboriginal status in unlinked index admission by 2.6%, 3.5% and 17.2%, respectively. Deaths classified as Aboriginal in official records would underestimate total Aboriginal deaths by 26.8% (95% Confidence Interval 24.1 to 29.6%. Conclusions Combining Aboriginal determinations in morbidity and official death records increases ascertainment of unlinked cardiovascular morbidity in Western Australian

  4. Auditory Responses of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Betty Springer; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Forty infants, 3- to 12-months-old, participated in a study designed to differentiate the auditory response characteristics of normally developing infants in the age ranges 3 - 5 months, 6 - 8 months, and 9 - 12 months. (Author)

  5. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  6. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002004.htm Infant - newborn development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Infant development is most often divided into the following areas: ...

  7. Central venous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    CVL - infants; Central catheter - infants - surgically placed ... plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A ... central catheter (PICC) or midline central catheter (MCC). A CVL ...

  8. Comparison of two food record-based dietary assessment methods for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers, and children using data quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freisling, Heinz; C. Ocké, Marga; Casagrande, Corinne;

    2014-01-01

    with detailed description. For example, in the age category of 1-3 year olds in Belgium, for 7 out of 16 systematic questions on food description (e.g., "preservation method,") specific answers were significantly higher (all P foods was comparable......Purpose We aimed (1) to describe and evaluate the "EPIC-Soft DataEntry" application developed as a user-friendly data entry tool for pan-European and national food consumption surveys among infants and children, and (2) to compare two food record-based dietary assessment methods in terms of food...... description and quantification using data quality indicators. EPIC-Soft DataEntry was used for both methods. Methods Two pilot studies were performed in both Belgium and Czech Republic in a total of 376 children (3 months to 10 year olds): one using a consecutive 3-day food diary; and the second with two non...

  9. Cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi for averting anaemia in Gabon: a comparison between intention to treat and according to protocol analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lell Bertrand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Gabon, the impact of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi was not statistically significant on malaria reduction, but the impact on moderate anaemia was, with some differences between the intention to treat (ITT and the according to protocol (ATP trial analyses. Specifically, ATP was statistically significant, while ITT analysis was borderline. The main reason for the difference between ITT and ATP populations was migration. Methods This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of IPTi on the reduction of anaemia in Gabon, comparing results of the ITT and the ATP clinical trial analyses. Threshold analysis was conducted to identify when the intervention costs and protective efficacy of IPTi for the ATP cohort equalled the ITT cost-effectiveness ratio. Results Based on IPTi intervention costs, the cost per episode of moderate anaemia averted was US$12.88 (CI 95% 4.19, 30.48 using the ITT analysis and US$11.30 (CI 95% 4.56, 26.66 using the ATP analysis. In order for the ATP results to equal the cost-effectiveness of ITT, total ATP intervention costs should rise from 118.38 to 134 US$ ATP or the protective efficacy should fall from 27% to 18.1%. The uncertainty surrounding the cost-effectiveness ratio using ITT trial results was higher than using ATP results. Conclusions Migration implies great challenges in the organization of health interventions that require repeat visits in Gabon. This was apparent in the study as the cost-effectiveness of IPTp-SP worsened when drop out from the prevention was taken into account. Despite such challenges, IPTi was both inexpensive and efficacious in averting cases of moderate anaemia in infants.

  10. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C;

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  11. Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges related to collaborative Aboriginal mental health care. Methods A participatory action research approach was employed to evaluate the Knaw Chi Ge Win services and their place in the broader mental health system. Qualitative methods were used as the primary source of data collection and included document review, ethnographic interviews with 15 providers and 23 clients; and 3 focus groups with community workers and managers. Results The Knaw Chi Ge Win model is an innovative, community-based Aboriginal mental health care model that has led to various improvements in care in a challenging rural, high needs environment. Formal opportunities to share information, shared protocols and ongoing education support this model of collaborative care. Positive outcomes associated with this model include improved quality of care, cultural safety, and integration of traditional Aboriginal healing with clinical approaches. Ongoing challenges include chronic lack of resources, health information and the still cursory understanding of Aboriginal healing and outcomes. Conclusions This model can serve to inform collaborative care in other rural and Indigenous mental health systems. Further research into traditional Aboriginal approaches to mental health is needed to continue advances in collaborative practice in a clinical setting.

  12. 国内外婴幼儿配方奶粉激素含量比较%Comparison of Hormone Content in Domestic and Foreign Infant Formula Milk Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珮斯

    2014-01-01

    [目的]对国内外婴幼儿配方奶粉中的16种激素含量进行比较。[方法]采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱法分别测定样品中8种糖皮质激素和8种性激素的含量;分别对国内外婴幼儿配方奶粉中16种激素的检测结果、检出率、含量范围进行比较。[结果]16种激素中有15种未检出;国产奶粉和进口奶粉的黄体酮检出率分别为97%和95%,含量主要在20µg/kg(含20µg/kg)以下;在20~60µg/kg之间的,国产奶粉有11个样品,进口奶粉有2个样品,超出90µg/kg的只有2个进口奶粉样品。[结论]16种激素物质中,有15种在国内外婴幼儿配方奶粉中均没发现,而黄体酮在国内外婴幼儿配方奶粉中具有一定的普遍性,而且其含量范围有一定的相似性。%[Objective]Comparison of 16 kinds of hormone content in domestic and foreign infant formula milk powder. [Method]8 kinds of glucocorticoids and 8 kinds of sex hormones in samples were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. Comparison of the detection results, the detection rate and the content range of 16 kinds of hormones in domestic and foreign infant formula milk powder. [Result] In 16 kinds of hormones, there are 15 kinds not detected. The detection rates of progesterone in domestic milk powder and foreign milk powder are 97% and 95% respectively;progesterone levels mainly below in 20 μg/kg(including 20μg/kg);between 20~60 μg/kg,there are 11 samples of domestic milk powder and 2 samples of foreign milk powder,only 2 foreign milk powder samples are over 90 μg/kg.[Conclusion]15 kinds of hormones within 16 kinds has not been found in domestic and foreign infant formula milk powder, while the progesterone is universal both in domestic and foreign infant formula milk powder,and the range of content have similarity.

  13. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  14. A multimodal corpus of speech to infant and adult listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth K; Lahey, Mybeth; Ernestus, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2013-12-01

    An audio and video corpus of speech addressed to 28 11-month-olds is described. The corpus allows comparisons between adult speech directed toward infants, familiar adults, and unfamiliar adult addressees as well as of caregivers' word teaching strategies across word classes. Summary data show that infant-directed speech differed more from speech to unfamiliar than familiar adults, that word teaching strategies for nominals versus verbs and adjectives differed, that mothers mostly addressed infants with multi-word utterances, and that infants' vocabulary size was unrelated to speech rate, but correlated positively with predominance of continuous caregiver speech (not of isolated words) in the input.

  15. A multimodal corpus of speech to infant and adult listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth K; Lahey, Mybeth; Ernestus, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2013-12-01

    An audio and video corpus of speech addressed to 28 11-month-olds is described. The corpus allows comparisons between adult speech directed toward infants, familiar adults, and unfamiliar adult addressees as well as of caregivers' word teaching strategies across word classes. Summary data show that infant-directed speech differed more from speech to unfamiliar than familiar adults, that word teaching strategies for nominals versus verbs and adjectives differed, that mothers mostly addressed infants with multi-word utterances, and that infants' vocabulary size was unrelated to speech rate, but correlated positively with predominance of continuous caregiver speech (not of isolated words) in the input. PMID:25669300

  16. Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence.

  17. Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence. PMID:27336594

  18. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  19. Goal Theory and Indigenous Minority School Motivation: Relevance and Application. Australian Aboriginal and Navajo Indian Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    This paper reports on a continuing study of Australian Aboriginal and Navajo Indian children. The study investigates the relevance and applicability of goal theory to explaining indigenous minority motivation in school settings. Task, ego social solidarity, and extrinsic goal structures were examined as a means of explaining and predicting…

  20. Cultural self-efficacy of Canadian nursing students caring for aboriginal patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quine, Allisson; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D; Alberts, Nicole M

    2012-07-01

    Cultural self-efficacy refers to how capable one feels functioning in culturally diverse situations. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of cultural self-efficacy among nursing students, specifically in relation to individuals of Aboriginal ancestry. The authors examined the extent to which intercultural anxiety, intercultural communication, and experience with persons of Aboriginal ancestry predicted two aspects of cultural self-efficacy, namely, knowledge and skills. In this correlational study, non-Aboriginal Canadian nursing students (N = 59) completed a survey assessing these variables. Overall, cultural self-efficacy was rated as moderate by nursing students. Regression analyses indicated that greater intercultural communication skills and experience with persons of Aboriginal ancestry were significant unique predictors of higher cultural knowledge self-efficacy. Greater intercultural communication and lower intercultural anxiety significantly predicted higher cultural skills self-efficacy. The results provide direction to nursing programs interested in facilitating higher levels of cultural self-efficacy among nursing students. PMID:22477719

  1. Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

  2. Building on Conceptual Interpretations of Aboriginal Literacy in Anishinaabe Research: A Turtle Shaker Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debassige, Brent

    2013-01-01

    This article comes out of the larger context of my doctoral dissertation where I investigated my experiences as an academic who attempts to remain true to Indigenous Knowledge (IK) traditions while working within a Western European intellectual setting. In this current paper, I combine the conceptual frameworks of Aboriginal literacy and…

  3. Understanding Aboriginal English in the Legal System: A Critical Sociolinguistics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Diana

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews sociolinguistic work which has addressed the provision of justice for Aboriginal English (AE) speakers in Australia. It questions the assumptions about cultural and linguistic diversity and inequality which underlie this work, and proposes a critical sociolinguistic approach, which draws on social theory in the analysis of how…

  4. Adolescent Career Development in Urban-Residing Aboriginal Families in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Stevens, Alison; Spence, Wayne; Deyell, Stewart; Easterbrook, Adam; Brokenleg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how urban-residing Aboriginal adolescent-parent dyads (n = 11) jointly constructed and acted on goals and strategies with their social supports (n = 17) to facilitate the adolescents' career development. A modified protocol following the qualitative action-project method was used. A discrete joint…

  5. Teachers Make a Difference to the Study of Aboriginal Music in NSW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Anne; Bradley, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Australian Indigenous music and culture are in the foreground when Australia celebrates itself in international contexts but their inclusion in the school curriculum is sporadic. In New South Wales (NSW), high school music teachers are responsible for educating students about Aboriginal music(s) and culture(s) within a mandatory focus on…

  6. Queering Place: The Intersection of Feminist Body Theory and Australian Aboriginal Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In this article the author used an auto-ethnographic philosophical approach to construct a fragile history of the present. Margaret Somerville reports doing this through tracing key moments and movements of queering feminist poststructural theory and evolving a queering method of body/place writing through her embeddedness in Aboriginal stories.…

  7. Knowledge Transfer and Exchange Processes for Environmental Health Issues in Canadian Aboriginal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Dobbins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Within Canadian Aboriginal communities, the process for utilizing environmental health research evidence in the development of policies and programs is not well understood. This fundamental qualitative descriptive study explored the perceptions of 28 environmental health researchers, senior external decision-makers and decision-makers working within Aboriginal communities about factors influencing knowledge transfer and exchange, beliefs about research evidence and Traditional Knowledge and the preferred communication channels for disseminating and receiving evidence. The results indicate that collaborative relationships between researchers and decision-makers, initiated early and maintained throughout a research project, promote both the efficient conduct of a study and increase the likelihood of knowledge transfer and exchange. Participants identified that empirical research findings and Traditional Knowledge are different and distinct types of evidence that should be equally valued and used where possible to provide a holistic understanding of environmental issues and support decisions in Aboriginal communities. To facilitate the dissemination of research findings within Aboriginal communities, participants described the elements required for successfully crafting key messages, locating and using credible messengers to deliver the messages, strategies for using cultural brokers and identifying the communication channels commonly used to disseminate and receive this type of information.

  8. Formative Evaluation of the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership Program. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the report on the formative evaluation of the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership (ASEP) program conducted by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC), covering the period from November 2003 to November 2006. The report is organized into four sections. Section 1 presents an overview of the ASEP program…

  9. "Friendly Racism" and White Guilt: Midwifery Students' Engagement with Aboriginal Content in Their Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackrah, Rosalie D.; Thompson, Sandra C.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2011, all first year students in a health sciences faculty at a university in Western Australia complete a compulsory (half) Unit titled Indigenous Cultures and Health. The Unit introduces students to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, diversity, cultural protocols, social structures, patterns of communication, contemporary…

  10. An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…

  11. Supporting Australian Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal Nursing Students Using Mentoring Circles: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Felton-Busch, Catrina; Park, Tanya; Maza, Karen; Mills, Frances; Ghee, McCauley; Hitchins, Marnie; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer; Neuendorf, Nalisa

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to recruit Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students into nursing degrees have made minimal impact on the number of registered nurses working in Australia's healthcare sector. Yet increasing the number of Indigenous nurses remains one of the most important objectives in strategies to close the health gap between Indigenous and…

  12. The Development of Cross-Cultural Relations with a Canadian Aboriginal Community through Sport Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…

  13. Inclusion/exclusion for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students: Understanding how ‘We’ matters

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    Catherine M. Demosthenous

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of Indigenous people in universities is an important policy issue, as evidenced by the Review of Higher Education and Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, which is currently underway. While the Review aims to collectively address access and outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in universities to ensure parity in the sector, a key contributor to those outcomes is that of participation. This article examines a focus group interaction in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students are yarning about their experiences of participating in university life, using Ethnomethodology (EM and its analytic methods. Premised on the understanding that language is action, the study examines the students’ use of personal pronouns and particularly the first person pronoun ‘we’, using the inclusive/exclusive distinction. Applying this pronominal system here provides insights into the notion of inclusion/exclusion for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian higher education, and for understanding how ‘we’ matter(s in everyday university life.

  14. School Engagement among Aboriginal Students in Northern Canada: Perspectives From Activity Settings Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Colleen M.; Hawe, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    Background: Educational disengagement is a public health concern among Aboriginal populations in many countries. It has been investigated previously in a variety of ways, with the conventional focus being on the children themselves. Activity settings are events and places, theorized in terms of their symbols, roles, time frame, funds, people, and…

  15. Self-Beliefs and Behavioural Development as Related to Academic Achievement in Canadian Aboriginal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydala, Lola; Rasmussen, Carmen; Birch, June; Sherman, Jody; Wikman, Erik; Charchun, Julianna; Kennedy, Merle; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between measures of self-belief, behavioural development, and academic achievement in Canadian Aboriginal children. Standardized measures of intelligence are unable to consistently predict academic achievement in students from indigenous populations. Exploring alternative factors that may be both predictive…

  16. Community Arts as Public Pedagogy: Disruptions into Public Memory through Aboriginal Counter-Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, Amy; Sonn, Christopher; Kasat, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Community Arts and Cultural Development (CACD) is a form of public pedagogy that seeks to intervene into the reproduction of meaning in public spaces. In this article, we explore the Bush Babies and Elders portrait project that sought to contribute to the empowerment of Aboriginal participants through counter-storytelling. Drawing on interview and…

  17. Influences of Indigenous Language on Spatial Frames of Reference in Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-01-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as "in front" and "behind." Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian…

  18. Comparison between two different modes of non-invasive ventilatory support in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome mild to moderate: preliminary data

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    F. Ciuffini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as a better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. HFNC may be effective in the treatment of some neonatal respiratory conditions while being more user-friendly for care-givers than conventional NCPAP. Limited evidence is available to support the specific role, efficacy and safety of HFNC in newborns and to demonstrate efficacy compared with NCPAP; some studies suggest a potential role for HFNC in respiratory care of the neonate as a distinct non invasive ventilatory support. We present the preliminary data of a randomized clinical trial; the aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of HFNC compared to NCPAP in preterm newborns with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome (RDS.

  19. Postpartum Bonding Disorder: Factor Structure, Validity, Reliability and a Model Comparison of the Postnatal Bonding Questionnaire in Japanese Mothers of Infants

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    Yukiko Ohashi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Negative attitudes of mothers towards their infant is conceptualized as postpartum bonding disorder, which leads to serious health problems in perinatal health care. However, its measurement still remains to be standardized. Our aim was to examine and confirm the psychometric properties of the Postnatal Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ in Japanese mothers. We distributed a set of questionnaires to community mothers and studied 392 mothers who returned the questionnaires at 1 month after childbirth. Our model was compared with three other models derived from previous studies. In a randomly halved sample, an exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor structure: Anger and Restrictedness, Lack of Affection, and Rejection and Fear. This factor structure was cross-validated by a confirmatory factor analysis using the other halved sample. The three subscales showed satisfactory internal consistency. The three PBQ subscale scores were correlated with depression and psychological abuse scores. Their test–retest reliability between day 5 and 1 month after childbirth was measured by intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.76 and 0.83. The Akaike Information Criteria of our model was better than the original four-factor model of Brockington. The present study indicates that the PBQ is a reliable and valid measure of bonding difficulties of Japanese mothers with neonates.

  20. Infant-Infant Interaction in a Daycare Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Joan T.; Lee, Lee C.

    The Infant-Infant Contact Code, developed to observe the social behavior in infants, is described. Results from using this scale with nine infants under nine months indicated that contacts between infants are complex in nature, that there are developmental changes in models of encounter, and that babies take different roles in relation to the…

  1. The Murri clinic: a comparative retrospective study of an antenatal clinic developed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

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    Kildea Sue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Methods A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367 with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414 provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. Results The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Conclusions Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary

  2. Aboriginal Knowledge Infusion in Initial Teacher Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto

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    Angela Mashford-Pringle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the Aboriginal socio-political history in Canada has historically been excluded from public education. In Ontario, public school children learn about Aboriginal people at specific times in the curriculum. However, teachers frequently only teach the bare essentials about Aboriginal people in Canada because they do not have adequate knowledge or feel that they lack the ability to teach about this subject. The Ontario Institute of Studies in Education at the University of Toronto has implemented the Deepening Knowledge Project to provide teacher candidates with an increased awareness and knowledge about Aboriginal history, culture, and worldview for their future teaching careers. This article will provide insight into the project and the curriculum developed for working with teacher candidates.

  3. Comparison of normal saline, hypertonic saline albumin and terlipressin plus hypertonic saline albumin in an infant animal model of hypovolemic shock.

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    Javier Urbano

    Full Text Available In series of cases and animal models suffering hemorrhagic shock, the use of vasopressors has shown potential benefits regarding hemodynamics and tissue perfusion. Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin with a longer half-life that can be administered by bolus injection. We have previously observed that hypertonic albumin improves resuscitation following controlled hemorrhage in piglets. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the treatment with the combination of terlipressin and hypertonic albumin can produce better hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters than normal saline or hypertonic albumin alone at early stages of hemorrhagic shock in an infant animal model.Experimental, randomized animal study including 39 2-to-3-month-old piglets. Thirty minutes after controlled 30 ml/kg bleed, pigs were randomized to receive either normal saline (NS 30 ml/kg (n = 13, 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline (AHS 15 ml/kg (n = 13 or single bolus of terlipressin 15 μg/kg i.v. plus 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline 15 ml/kg (TAHS (n = 13 over 30 minutes. Global hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters were compared.After controlled bleed a significant decrease of blood pressure, cardiac index, central venous saturation, carotid and peripheral blood flow, brain saturation and an increase of heart rate, gastric PCO2 and lactate was observed. After treatment no significant differences in most hemodynamic (cardiac index, mean arterial pressure and perfusion parameters (lactate, gastric PCO2, brain saturation, cutaneous blood flow were observed between the three therapeutic groups. AHS and TAHS produced higher increase in stroke volume index and carotid blood flow than NS.In this pediatric animal model of hypovolemic shock, albumin plus hypertonic saline with or without terlipressin achieved similar hemodynamics and perfusion parameters than twice the volume of NS. Addition of terlipressin did not produce better results than AHS.

  4. Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program

    OpenAIRE

    Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

    2010-01-01

    The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of Aboriginal heritage is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program on 45 children...

  5. The protective role of optimism and self-esteem on depressive symptom pathways among Canadian Aboriginal youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Megan E; Rawana, Jennine S; Gentile, Petrice; Morgan, Ashley S

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk for depression and substance use problems. Increasingly, developmental theories have shifted from focusing on vulnerabilities to protective factors for adolescent depression. In particular, theories emphasizing protective factors are relevant when understanding the mental health of Aboriginal youth. However, it is unclear which factors protect against depressive symptomatology among Aboriginal adolescents to promote optimal development. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, the present study had three main objectives. First, we aimed to model the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using a sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth from a national Canadian dataset (ages 12-23). Second, we sought to examine the relationship between alcohol use behaviors, self-esteem, optimism, and the trajectories of depressive symptoms. Lastly, we investigated whether self-esteem and optimism mediated the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Gender differences were also examined within each of the study objectives. A sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth (N = 283; 48.3% male) was selected from cycles 4-7 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Heavy drinking was a risk factor for depressive symptoms, while self-esteem and optimism were key protective factors for depressive symptoms among early adolescent Aboriginal youth. Further, the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms among Canadian Aboriginal youth differed for boys and girls once accounting for risk and protective factors. Thus, it is valuable to integrate the protective role of self-esteem and optimism into developmental theories of depression and mental health intervention programs for early adolescent Aboriginal youth. PMID:24045879

  6. “I know it’s bad for me and yet I do it”: exploring the factors that perpetuate smoking in Aboriginal Health Workers - a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson Anna P; Cargo Margaret; Stewart Harold; Chong Alwin; Daniel Mark

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) have a mandate to deliver smoking cessation support to Aboriginal people. However, a high proportion of AHWs are smokers and this undermines their delivery of smoking cessation programs. Smoking tobacco is the leading contributor to the burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and must be prevented. Little is known about how to enable AHWs to quit smoking. An understanding of the factors that perpetuate smoking in AHWs is needed to infor...

  7. The Cedar Project: Surviving the Streets Without Shelter, Trauma and HIV vulnerability among Aboriginal young people who use drugs in two Canadian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, Brittany Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Aboriginal scholars suggest that the legacy of colonialism is a key contributing factor to rising rates of homelessness among Aboriginal young people. This analysis examined factors related to sleeping on the streets for 3 nights or more and HIV vulnerability among Aboriginal young people who use drugs. A profile of these young people was created using data from the Cedar Project. Young people who reported sleeping on the streets for 3 nights or more were significantly more likely to reside i...

  8. Immunisation of premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bonhoeffer, J; Siegrist, C‐A; Heath, P T

    2006-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk of vaccine preventable infections, but audits have shown that their vaccinations are often delayed. Early protection is desirable. While the evidence base for immunisation of preterm infants is limited, the available data support early immunisation without correction for gestational age. For a number of antigens the antibody response to initial doses may be lower than that of term infants, but protective concentrations are often achieved and memory succ...

  9. Direct Comparison of Immunogenicity Induced by 10- or 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine around the 11-Month Booster in Dutch Infants.

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    Alienke J Wijmenga-Monsuur

    Full Text Available Since 2009/10, a 10- and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV are available, but only the 10-valent vaccine is now being used for the children in the Netherlands. As the vaccines differ in number of serotypes, antigen concentration, and carrier proteins this study was designed to directly compare quantity and quality of the antibody responses induced by PCV10 and PCV13 before and after the 11-month booster.Dutch infants (n = 132 were immunized with either PCV10 or PCV13 and DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB at the age of 2, 3, 4 and 11 months. Blood samples were collected pre-booster and post-booster at one week and one month post-booster for quantitative and qualitative immunogenicity against 13 pneumococcal serotypes, as well as quantitative immunogenicity against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b. We compared immunogenicity induced by PCV13 and PCV10 for their ten shared serotypes.One month post-booster, pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs for the PCV13 group were higher compared with the PCV10 group for six serotypes, although avidity was lower. Serotype 19F showed the most distinct difference in IgG and, in contrast to other serotypes, its avidity was higher in the PCV13 group. One week post-booster, opsonophagocytosis for serotype 19F did not differ significantly between the PCV10- and the PCV13 group.Both PCV10 and PCV13 were immunogenic and induced a booster response. Compared to the PCV10 group, the PCV13 group showed higher levels for serotype 19F GMCs and avidity, pre- as well as post-booster, although opsonophagocytosis did not differ significantly between groups. In our study, avidity is not correlated to opsonophagocytotic activity (OPA and correlations between IgG and OPA differ per serotype. Therefore, besides assays to determine IgG GMCs, assays to detect opsonophagocytotic activity, i.e., the actual killing of the pneumococcus, are important for PCV evaluation. How

  10. Screening for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and developmental delay in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children

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    Chan HL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hsiang-Lin Chan,1,2,* Wen-Sheng Liu,3–6,* Yi-Hsuan Hsieh,1,2 Chiao-Fan Lin,1,2 Tiing-Soon Ling,2,7 Yu-Shu Huang1,2 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei City Hospital, Zhong-Xing Branch, Taipei, Taiwan; 4School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6College of Science and Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 7Department of Family Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the percentages of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children. Child development level was compared between the two groups. Methods: Teachers completed screening questionnaires for ADHD, ASD, and development level for 36- to 72-month-old children in kindergartens in Taiwan. The questionnaire results were compared between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal children. One child psychiatrist then interviewed the aboriginal preschool children to determine if they had ADHD and/or ASD. Results: We collected 93 questionnaires from the aboriginal group and 60 from the nonaboriginal group. In the aboriginal group, 5.37% of the children were identified to have ADHD, while 1.08% were identified to have ASD. Significantly fewer aboriginal children had developmental delays for situation comprehension and personal–social development (P=0.012 and 0.002, respectively than nonaboriginal children. Conclusion: Aboriginal children in Taiwan had typical percentages of ADHD and ASD compared to those published in the literature. Aboriginal children showed relative strengths in situation

  11. Hygiene improvement: essential to improving child health in remote Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross

    2010-09-01

    It is generally recognised that poor living conditions and poor hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander) children living in remote communities. There has been little research on this topic. Taking an ecological approach, our study aimed to identify the key factors contributing to poor hygiene in one remote Aboriginal community and to determine appropriate approaches for improving hygiene and reducing the burden of infection among children. Key findings include that multifaceted interventions are required to ensure that household water and sanitation technology are functional, hygiene behaviour change is achieved and environments that enable good hygiene behaviour are created. Many of the factors contributing to the problem of poor living conditions and poor hygiene in these communities are outside the control of the health system. Intersectoral collaboration and action is required to identify acceptable, effective and sustainable solutions. PMID:20854319

  12. An interview with Avigail Eisenberg : “Reasoning about the Identity of Aboriginal People”

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    Martin Blanchard

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Avigail Eisenberg is an Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science, University of Victoria. She was also a fellow of CRÉUM during the 2004-2005 academic year. She has written important texts on the issues of identity, race, gender, minority rights, and in particular, Aboriginal claims. Her writing displays intelligent and acute commentaries in which she demonstrates an ability to tackle difficult questions in a refreshing way. Martin Blanchard of CRÉUM asked Professor Eisenberg if she would be willing to be interviewed via email on the subject of an article she had just finished writing, entitled “Reasoning about the Identity of Aboriginal People”. (This text is forthcoming in Accommodating Cultural Diversity: Contemporary Issues in Theory and Practice, Stephen Tierney ed., London: Ashgate. She kindly accepted to answer his questions.

  13. From (b)edouin to (a)borigine: the myth of the desert noble savage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graulund, Rune

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the myth of the supposed superiority of the desert noble savage over civilized man. With the Bedouin of Arabia and the Aborigines of Australia as its two prime examples, the article argues that two versions of this myth can be traced: one in which the desert noble savage is valorized due to his valour, physical prowess and martial skill (Bedouin); and another, later version, where the desert noble savage is valorized as a pacifist, an ecologist and a mythmaker/storyteller (Aborigines). The article concludes by examining the way in which this turn from one type of desert noble savage to another reflects the manner in which western modernity has shifted its values from Cartesian dualities and Enlightenment rationalism to that of networks, potentialities, ecology and myth. PMID:19886291

  14. Starting points and pathways in Aboriginal students' learning of number: recognising different world views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Kaye; Frid, Sandra; Jacob, Lorraine

    2015-09-01

    This research was designed to investigate the conceptualisations and thinking strategies Indigenous Australian students use in counting tasks. Eighteen Aboriginal students, in years 1 to 11 at a remote community school, were interviewed using standard counting tasks and a `counting' task that involved fetching `maku' (witchetty grubs) to have enough to give a maku to each person in a picture. The tasks were developed with, and the interviews conducted by, an Aboriginal research assistant, to ensure appropriate cultural and language contexts. A main finding was that most of the students did not see the need to use counting to make equivalent sets, even though they were able to demonstrate standard counting skills. The findings highlight a need to further examine the world views, orientations and related mathematical concepts and processes that Indigenous students bring to school.

  15. Aboriginal Astronomical Traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 2: Animals in the Ooldean Sky

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    Leaman, Trevor M; Carter, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Australian Indigenous astronomical traditions hint at a relationship between animals in the skyworld and the behaviour patterns of their terrestrial counterparts. In our continued study of Aboriginal astronomical traditions from the Great Victoria Desert, South Australia, we investigate the relationship between animal behaviour and stellar positions. We develop a methodology to test the hypothesis that the behaviour of these animals is predicted by the positions of their celestial counterparts at particular times of the day. Of the twelve animals identified in the Ooldean sky, the nine stellar (i.e. non-planet or non-galactic) associations were analysed and each demonstrated a close connection between animal behaviour and stellar positions. We suggest that this may be a recurring theme in Aboriginal astronomical traditions, requiring further development of the methodology.

  16. Aboriginal Astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 2: Animals in the Ooldean Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.; Carter, Mark T.

    2016-04-01

    Australian Indigenous astronomical traditions demonstrate a relationship between animals in the skyworld and the behaviour patterns of their terrestrial counterparts. In our continued study of Aboriginal astronomical traditions from the Great Victoria Desert, South Australia, we investigate the relationship between animal behaviour and stellar positions when these relationships are not explicitly described in the written records. We develop a methodology to test the hypothesis that the behaviour of these animals is predicted by the positions of their celestial counterparts at particular times of the day. Of the twelve animals identified in the Ooldean sky, the nine stellar (i.e. non-planet or non-galactic) associations were analysed and each demonstrated a close connection between animal behaviour and stellar positions. We suggest that this may be a recurring theme in Aboriginal astronomical traditions, requiring further development of the methodology.

  17. Oral hygiene risk indicators among 6- to 9-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Huang, Shun-Te; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Chiou, Meng-Jao; Liao, Cheng-Ta

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the dental health status, dietary habits, oral hygiene levels, and caretaker risk indicators among Taiwanese children. This cross-sectional purposive sampling study included 256 aboriginal children, 6 to 9 years old, living in remote regions in southern Taiwan. Participants received dental examinations, and questionnaires were completed by caretakers. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, and multiple logistic regressions. The deft (sum of decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth) and defs (sum of the decayed, extracted, and filled primary dentition surfaces) indices were affected by the frequencies of drinking sweetened beverages (P = .0006) and daily toothbrushing (P = .0032). Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency was a significant predictor of children's oral hygiene status (P oral hygiene was 2.04 (P = .0184). Oral hygiene among aboriginal children in this study was inadequate. Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency and betel quid habit were significant predictors of poor children's oral hygiene.

  18. Autoimmune liver disease and the Canadian First Nations Aboriginal Communities of British Columbia's Pacific Northwest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric M Yoshida; Mark Riley; Laura T Arbour

    2006-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a well-known but uncommon chronic liver disease that is presumed to be of autoimmune etiology. Recently, investigations in British Columbia (BC), a province of Canada situated along the Pacific North-West of North America, have suggested that PBC is not a rare disease amongst BC's Aboriginal (i.e. First Nations) communities. Geographically, BC is adjacent to South East Alaska, an American state that has also reported an increased prevalence of PBC amongst its Aboriginal communities. In this article, the medical evidence supporting a hypothesis of increased risk of PBC amongst BC's First Nations communities is reviewed. Evidence suggesting that autoimmune hepatitis is also more likely amongst BC's First Nations communities is also presented.(C)2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  19. The results of spectrographic analysis of pigments from known aboriginal quarries and other outcrops in South Australia, and from painting sites in the Olary district of South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobbs, J.M.; Nobbs, M.F.; Moyle, D.W. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Full text: Pigments are minerals that provide the colour to paints and the pigments most commonly used by Aboriginal people are derived from red and yellow ochre and white minerals for example, gypsum and kaolin. During the early 1980s, the opportunity arose to collect pigments from many sources in South Australia. The sources included samples from known Aboriginal quarries and other outcrops. Pinhead-size samples of paint were collected from figures in some of the rock painting sites in the Olary District. These samples were analysed using Emission Spectrography with the aim of determining the nature of the pigments that is their constituent elements, and to investigate the possibility of finger-printing the sources of the pigments used by Aboriginal people. The ability of being able to source pigments found on the decorated surface of artefacts; pieces of ochre found in archaeological deposits or painted figures in a rock painting is important for understanding the trading and exchange network known to criss-cross Australia in the past. Facilities for Emission Spectrographic analyses were readily available and the capability to analyse (for twenty six elements) samples in milligram proportions suggested its use for the determination of the composition of material from unlimited sources and the compilation of a data-base detailing the results of the analyses in a form suitable for comparison. Examination of this database could then lead to further investigations with narrower and more specific aims. The results of the spectrographic analyses for red ochre from eighteen sources and yellow ochres from eight sources were tabulated as: strongly present >10%; present 1-10%; strong trace 0.1-1% ; trace 0.01-0.1%; faint trace <0.01%. Major elements, for example iron, aluminium, and silica showed in the Strongly Present and Present categories, while Trace and Faint Trace elements were variable. The results of the analyses of seventeen samples of red pigment and five

  20. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina D Hopkins

    Full Text Available Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths' psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status.We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12-17 years, n = 677 drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, p<.001 and carer reported lifetime health problems (OR 1.76, p<.04 than Less Resilient youth.The findings are consistent with biopsychosocial models and provide a more nuanced understanding of the patterns of risks, resources and adaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies.

  1. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Shepherd, Carrington C. J.; Catherine L. Taylor; Stephen R Zubrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths’ psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status. Method and Results We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of...

  2. Periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease among Aboriginal adults; an RCT

    OpenAIRE

    Jamieson, Lisa; Skilton, Michael; Maple-Brown, Louise; Kapellas, Kostas; Askie, Lisa; Hughes, Jaqui; Arrow, Peter; Cherian, Sajiv; Fernandes, David; Pawar, Basant; Brown, Alex; Boffa, John; Hoy, Wendy; Harris, David; Mueller, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background This study will assess measures of vascular health and inflammation in Aboriginal Australian adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and determine if intensive periodontal intervention improves cardiovascular health, progression of renal disease and periodontal health over a 24-month follow-up. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled trial. All participants will receive the periodontal intervention benefits, with the delayed intervention group receiving periodontal trea...

  3. SHIFTING JUDICIAL CONCEPTIONS OF 'RECONCILIATION': GEOGRAPHIC COMMITMENTS UNDERPINNING ABORIGINAL RIGHTS DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Michael McCrossan

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the past twenty years, the Supreme Court of Canada’s discourse concerning ‘reconciliation’ has shifted from moderating federal power to reconciling the preceding presence of Aboriginal people with an established sovereign (Crown) presence.  While scholars postulated that the Court was attempting to maintain colonial relations of power, substantive answers for this discursive shift are lacking within the literature.  This paper provides a comprehensive explanation of this sh...

  4. Women at greatest risk: Reducing injection frequency among young Aboriginal drug users in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Margo Elaine

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates why some young Aboriginal people inject opiates at higher frequency than others and suggests policies to address high frequency opiate injection. Multivariate logistic regression is used to analyze data gathered between 2003-04 in Vancouver and Prince George Independent variables include those shown as significant in relevant literature, demographics factors associated with severe addiction, and HCV imd HIV serostatus. Career injectors, females, those living in Vancouv...

  5. Aboriginal health research in the remote Kimberley: an exploration of perceptions, attitudes and concerns of stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Loughlin, Frieda; Hadgraft, Nyssa T.; Atkinson, David; Marley, Julia V

    2014-01-01

    Background For decades Indigenous peoples have argued for health research reform claiming methods used and results obtained often reflect the exploitative history of colonisation. In 2006 the Kimberley Aboriginal Health Planning Forum (KAHPF) Research Subcommittee (hereafter, the Subcommittee) was formed to improve research processes in the remote Kimberley region of north Western Australia. This paper explores the major perceptions, attitudes and concerns of stakeholders in the Subcommittee....

  6. Reduction of Family Violence in Aboriginal Communities: A Systematic Review of Interventions and Approaches1

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Beverley; Nahwegahbow, Amy; Andersson, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce family violence are documented in the published literature. We conducted a systematic review of interventions intended to prevent family violence in Aboriginal communities. We retrieved studies published up to October 2009; 506 papers included one systematic review, two randomized controlled trials, and fourteen nonrandomized studies or reviews. Two reviews discussed interventions relevant to primary prevention (reducing the risk factors for family violence), including ...

  7. Mitochondrial DNA evidence supports northeast Indian origin of the aboriginal Andamanese in the Late Paleolithic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Wang; Bikash Mitra; Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri; Malliya gounder Palanichamy; Qing-Peng Kong; Ya-Ping Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In view of the geographically closest location to Andaman archipelago,Myanmar was suggested to be the origin place of aboriginal Andamanese.However,for lacking any genetic information from this region,which has prevented to resolve the dispute on whether the aboriginal Andamanese were originated from mainland India or Myanmar.To solve this question and better understand the origin of the aboriginal Andamanese,we screened for haplogroups M31(from which Andaman-specific lineage M31a1 branched off)and M32 among 846mitochondrial DNAs(mtDNAs)sampled across Myanmar.As a result,two Myanmar individuals belonging to haplogroup M31 were identified,and completely sequencing the entire mtDNA genomes of both samples testified that the two M31 individuals observed in Myanmar were probably attributed to the recent gene flow from northeast India populations.Since no root lineages of haplogroup M31 or M32 were observed in Myanmar,it is unlikely that Myanmar may serve as the source place of the aboriginal Andamanese.To get further insight into the origin of this unique population,the detailed phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed by including additional 7 new entire mtDNA genomes and 113 M31 mtDNAs pinpointed from South Asian populations,and the results suggested that Andaman-specific M31a1 could in fact trace its origin to northeast India.Time estimation results further indicated that the Andaman archipelago was likely settled by modern humans from northeast India via the land-bridge which connected the Andaman archipelago and Myanmar around the Last Glacial Maximum(LGM),a scenario in well agreement with the evidence from linguistic and palaeoclimate studies.

  8. Paternal Genetic Structure of Hainan Aborigines Isolated at the Entrance to East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Dongna Li; Hui Li; Caiying Ou; Yan Lu; Yuantian Sun; Bo Yang; Zhendong Qin; Zhenjian Zhou; Shilin Li; Li Jin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At the southern entrance to East Asia, early population migration has affected most of the Y-chromosome variations of East Asians. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the isolated genetic structure of Hainan Island and the original genetic structure at the southern entrance, we studied the Y chromosome diversity of 405 Hainan Island aborigines from all the six populations, who have little influence of the recent mainland population relocations and admixtures. Here we report ...

  9. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  10. Food, food choice and nutrition promotion in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colles, Susan L; Maypilama, Elaine; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary diets of Aboriginal people living in remote Australia are characterised by processed foods high in fat and sugar. Within the 'new' food system, evidence suggests many Aboriginal people understand food in their own terms but lack access to consumer information about store-purchased foods, and parents feel inadequate as role models. In a remote Australian Aboriginal community, purposive sampling identified adults who participated in semistructured interviews guided by food-based themes relating to the contemporary food system, parental guidance of children's food choice and channels through which people learn. Interpretive content analysis was used to identify salient themes. In discussions, people identified more closely with dietary qualities or patterns than nutrients, and valued a balanced, fresh diet that made them feel 'light'. People possessed basic knowledge of 'good' store foods, and wanted to increase familiarity and experience with foods in packets and cans through practical and social skills, especially cooking. Education about contemporary foods was obtained from key family role models and outside the home through community-based organisations, including school, rather than pamphlets and flip charts. Freedom of choice was a deeply held value; carers who challenged children's autonomy used strategic distraction, or sought healthier alternatives that did not wholly deny the child. Culturally safe approaches to information sharing and capacity building that contribute to the health and wellbeing of communities requires collaboration and shared responsibility between policy makers, primary healthcare agencies, wider community-based organisations and families. PMID:25053144

  11. Predictors of betel quid chewing behavior and cessation patterns in Taiwan aborigines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shun-Jen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel quid, chewed by about 600 million people worldwide, is one of the most widely used addictive substances. Cessation factors in betel quid chewers are unknown. The present study explores prevalence and the quit rate of betel quid chewing in Taiwan aborigines. Our goal was to delineate potential predictors of chewing cessation. Methods A stratified random community-based survey was designed for the entire aborigines communities in Taiwan. A total of 7144 participants were included between June 2003 and May 2004 in this study. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, such as gender, age, obesity, education years, marital status, ethnicity, and habits of betel quid chewing, smoking and drinking was collected by trained interviewers. Results The prevalence of betel quid chewers was 46.1%. Betel quid chewing was closely associated with obesity (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.40–1.85. Betel quid chewers were most likely to use alcohol and cigarettes together. Quit rate of betel quid chewers was 7.6%. Betel quid chewers who did not drink alcohol were more likely to quit (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.43–2.50. Alcohol use is a significant factor related to cessation of betel quid chewing, but smoking is not. Conclusion Taiwan aborigines have a high prevalence of betel quid chewers and a low quit rate. Alcohol use is strongly association with betel quid chewing. Efforts to reduce habitual alcohol consumption might be of benefit in cessation of betel quid chewing.

  12. Aboriginal fisher perspectives on use of biotelemetry technology to study adult Pacific salmon

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    Nguyen V. M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biotelemetry has become a popular tool accepted by the scientific community as a reliable approach for studying wild fish. However, stakeholder perspectives on scientific techniques and the information they generate are not uniformly positive. Aboriginal groups in particular may have opposition or apprehension to telemetry as a research tool. To that end, we conducted a river-bank survey of 111 aboriginal First Nations fishers that target adult Pacific salmon in the lower Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada. The majority of respondents had heard of telemetry, but few had knowledge of its function. Most responses regarding the use of telemetry in fisheries science were positive. The few negative perspectives were primarily concerned about the effects of tagging procedures whereas positive perspectives arose because telemetry was perceived to generate information on migration patterns and survival. Over half of the respondents would trust data arising from telemetry studies, but some had conditions related to the group conducting the research and their experience with fish handling. Several respondents noted the need for additional consultation and outreach with aboriginal communities (especially fishers to better inform them of study questions and techniques which, in the case of telemetry studies, could promote better participation in tag return programs and uptake of knowledge emanating from use of telemetry.

  13. Colour-Blind: Discursive Repertoires Teachers Used to Story Racism and Aboriginality in Urban Prairie Schools

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    Tyler McCreary

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explores how teachers' constructions of racism consistently minimized its pervasiveness in the school. Teachers constructed racism as individual not systemic, construed it as a phenomenon of places outside the school, and attributed responsibility for addressing racism to other people, particularly Aboriginal populations. Based on written responses from 95 Canadian Prairie teachers from two schools, this research examines the discourses teachers employed to narrate racism, particularly with relation to Aboriginal students. While there were some differences between inner city and suburban teachers, teachers from both environments followed discursive repertoires that absolved themselves of responsibility for addressing racism and maintained the colour-blind image of education. Interrogating these discursive repertoires exposes the systems of denial that block meaningful action upon racialized inequalities and prevent the development of a truly inclusive educational environment. This underlines the need for expanded anti-racist professional development to support critical racial reflexivity among in-service teachers.Keywords: racism in education; critical whiteness studies; in-service teachers; Aboriginal education

  14. The Emotion of Truth and the Racial Uncanny: Aborigines and Sicilians in Australia

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    Francesco Ricatti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Through references to four anecdotes, this article approaches the complex and often neglected topic of the relationship between Sicilian migrants in Australia and Aborigines. It does so not in search of clear evidences that may structure a well-defined historical narrative, but rather looking for moments of truth that may open up new dialogues, narratives, research. Within embodied otherness, it is the uncanny feeling towards the racialised other that most effectively make us understand the complex relationship Italian migrants have had with the (unfamiliar. The concept of the uncanny helps us understand that the racism of many Italian migrants towards Aboriginal people in Australia has not been resulting from a frightening encounter with the other, with the unfamiliar, with the difference. It has rather been the result of the return of what has been repressed from historical memory, namely the colonial character of Italian unification, Italians’ own racist and colonial history, the colonial nature of many Italian migrants’ settlement abroad, and the identification of southern Italians as the colonised, racialised others, in Italy and abroad. Through positive examples of emotional, intimate and political engagement between Sicilians and Aborigines, this article also consider people’s agency in moving within and challenging the constraining, intricate pervasiveness of the racial and colonial dictate in contemporary Australian society.

  15. Hepatitis C Virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal Peoples of North America

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    Julia Uhanova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV, are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases.

  16. Increased risk for hepatitis C associated with solvent use among Canadian Aboriginal injection drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Ann M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solvent abuse is a particularly serious issue affecting Aboriginal people. Here we examine the association between solvent use and socio-demographic variables, drug-related risk factors, and pathogen prevalence in Aboriginal injection drug users (IDU in Manitoba, Canada. Methods Data originated from a cross-sectional survey of IDU from December 2003 to September 2004. Associations between solvent use and variables of interest were assessed by multiple logistic regression. Results A total of 266 Aboriginal IDU were included in the analysis of which 44 self-reported recent solvent use. Hepatitis C infection was 81% in solvent-users, compared to 55% in those reporting no solvent use. In multivariable models, solvent-users were younger and more likely to be infected with hepatitis C (AOR: 3.5; 95%CI: 1.3,14.7, to have shared needles in the last six months (AOR: 2.6; 95%CI:1.0,6.8, and to have injected talwin & Ritalin (AOR: 10.0; 95%CI: 3.8,26.3. Interpretation High hepatitis C prevalence, even after controlling for risky injection practices, suggests that solvent users may form closed networks of higher risk even amongst an already high-risk IDU population. Understanding the social-epidemiological context of initiation and maintenance of solvent use is necessary to address the inherent inequalities encountered by this subpopulation of substance users, and may inform prevention strategies for other marginalized populations.

  17. Knowledge translation lessons from an audit of Aboriginal Australians with acute coronary syndrome presenting to a regional hospital

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    Emma Haynes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Translation of evidence into practice by health systems can be slow and incomplete and may disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among Aboriginal Australians. Timely access to effective medical care for acute coronary syndrome substantially improves survival. A quality-of-care audit conducted at a regional Western Australian hospital in 2011–2012 compared the Emergency Department management of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal acute coronary syndrome patients. This audit is used as a case study of translating knowledge processes in order to identify the factors that support equity-oriented knowledge translation. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of the audit team and further key stakeholders with interest/experience in knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health. Interviews were analysed for alignment of the knowledge translation process with the thematic steps outlined in Tugwell’s cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation framework. Results: In preparing the audit, groundwork helped shape management support to ensure receptivity to targeting Aboriginal cardiovascular outcomes. Reporting of audit findings and resulting advocacy were undertaken by the audit team with awareness of the institutional hierarchy, appropriate timing, personal relationships and recognising the importance of tailoring messages to specific audiences. These strategies were also acknowledged as important in the key stakeholder interviews. A follow-up audit documented a general improvement in treatment guideline adherence and a reduction in treatment inequalities for Aboriginal presentations. Conclusion: As well as identifying outcomes such as practice changes, a useful evaluation increases understanding of why and how an intervention worked. Case studies such as this enrich our understanding of the complex human factors, including

  18. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

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    Hart Laura M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1 quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors; (2 qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems.

  19. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

  20. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

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    Leticia Funston

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child Sexual Assault (CSA in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP, families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.

  1. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander worldviews and cultural safety transforming sexual assault service provision for children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-09-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both "victim" and "those who sexually harm others" services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between "victims" and "those who sexually harm" services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

  2. Dizzying Dialogue: Canadian Courts and the Continuing Justification of the Dispossession Of Aboriginal People

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    D’Arcy Vermette

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Aboriginal rights have found protection within Canada’s Constitution, a new relationship has emerged between Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples and the Crown. This relationship is characterized by the need for “reconciliation.” In its growing jurisprudence, the Supreme Court of Canada applies reconciliation doctrine to several important Aboriginal claims. Each application, however, brings with it a restriction on Aboriginal rights. This paper argues that the Court’s conception of reconciliation is designed to facilitate the integration of Aboriginal peoples into larger society rather than to protect their collective interests. To demonstrate this argument, this paper examines the Supreme Court’s discussion of the doctrine of reconciliation from Sparrow (1990 to Little Salmon (2010. Depuis que les droits des autochtones sont protégés par la constitution canadienne, une nouvelle relation, ayant comme caractéristique le besoin de « réconciliation », a vu le jour entre les peuples autochtones du Canada et la Couronne. La Cour suprême du Canada a appliqué la doctrine de la réconciliation dans la série d’arrêts où elle s’est penchée sur plusieurs importantes revendications autochtones. Dans chaque cas, l’application de la doctrine de la réconciliation a cependant abouti à une restriction des droits des autochtones. Dans cet article, l’auteur soutient que, dans l’esprit de la Cour, la réconciliation vise à faciliter l’intégration des peuples autochtones dans la société en général plutôt qu’à protéger leurs intérêts collectifs. Pour étayer cette opinion, il examine l’analyse qu’a faite la Cour suprême de la doctrine de réconciliation de l’arrêt Sparrow (1990 à l’arrêt Little Salmon (2010.

  3. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  4. Infant and Adult Visual Attention During an Imitation Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Gemma; Herbert, Jane S.

    2014-01-01

    Deferred imitation tasks have shown that manipulations at encoding can enhance infant learning and memory performance within an age, suggesting that brain maturation alone cannot fully account for all developmental changes in early memory abilities. The present study investigated whether changes in the focus of attention during learning might contribute to improving memory abilities during infancy. Infants aged 6, 9, and 12 months, and an adult comparison group, watched a video of a puppet im...

  5. A multimodal corpus of speech to infant and adult listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, E.K.; Laheij, M.A.A.; Ernestus, M.T.C.; Cutler, A.

    2013-01-01

    An audio and video corpus of speech addressed to 28 11-month-olds is described. The corpus allows comparisons between adult speech directed towards infants, familiar adults and unfamiliar adult addressees, as well as of caregivers’ word teaching strategies across word classes. Summary data show that infant-directed speech differed more from speech to unfamiliar than familiar adults; that word teaching strategies for nominals versus verbs and adjectives differed; that mothers mostly addressed ...

  6. Ocular Manifestations in Infants Resulted from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many infertile couples can have child by assistant reproductive technology (ART. Always the undesirable effects of these methods on newborn are considered and are evaluated. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of ART on ocular and visual performances of infants born by these methods.In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 479 infants aged three-nine months presented to an optometry clinic of Child Health and Development Research Department (CHDRD, Tehran, Iran. Static retinoscopy, qualitative fixation evaluation, Hirschberg test, red reflex assessment and external eye examination were carried out. Other information such as birth weight and maturity of the infants was recorded.It was possible to assess only 320 out of 479 infants due to general condition of some participants. Comparison of mean refractive error in infants' right and left eyes did not show any significant difference. Our findings confirmed that 20.3% had poor fixation, while 2.9% revealed manifest strabismus. The results also revealed the prevalences of myopia, hyperopia and emmetropia are 2.9%, 87%, and 10.1%, respectively. Red reflex abnormalities were significantly found in boys and in preterm infants (p < 0.05. Failure of fixation control was seen more frequently with increasing refractive error, which significantly developed in preterm infants (p < 0.001.These results reflect the necessity of more comprehensive assessments and further follow-up of infants born by ART, especially for premature male ART infants. These results also suggest the probability of fixation condition and visual deficiencies in these infants. It is recommended to pay close attention to this preliminary report about the refractive and fixation condition of the infants born after ART.

  7. Implications of the nutrition transition for vitamin D intake and status in Aboriginal groups in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek Fares, Jessy; Weiler, Hope A

    2016-09-01

    Aboriginal Canadians have low intakes of vitamin D and are shifting away from consumption of traditional foods. Higher body mass index, skin pigmentation, and geographic latitude of residence further predispose Canadian Aboriginal populations to low vitamin D status. Low vitamin D status could compromise bone health and other health outcomes. Studies assessing vitamin D status of different Aboriginal groups are limited. The aim of this review is to examine the literature on vitamin D status and intakes of Canadian Aboriginal populations living in the Arctic. PubMed was searched for relevant articles published from 1983 to 2013. The prevalence of 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency ranged from 13.9% to 76.0% among children and adults in the summer. Furthermore, mean vitamin D intakes among all age groups were below the estimated average requirement. As vitamin D deficiency has been recently associated with chronic diseases, and Aboriginal populations living in the Arctic are at high risk for low vitamin D status, their vitamin D status should be assessed regularly across seasons.

  8. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...... indicating that some of the excess risk may have a placental origin. To further understand the associations between maternal obesity and late fetal and infant death, we need better and more detailed clinical data, which is difficult to obtain on a population level given the rarity of the outcomes. The best...

  9. "I'm thankful for being Native and my body is part of that": the body pride experiences of young Aboriginal women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Tara-Leigh F; Coppola, Angela M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-06-01

    Body pride may be a predictor of health and well-being among Aboriginal youth. Body pride could potentially be addressed in health interventions, but it is critical to understand how body pride is conceptualized among Aboriginal youth. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to better understand the experiences of body pride among young Aboriginal women living in urban centers in Alberta, Canada. Eight young Aboriginal women (15-18 years old) participated in one-on-one interviews. A qualitative content analysis highlighted five themes that represent the participants' meanings of body pride. Participants described how body pride is: (a) accepting everything about your body, (b) who you are and how you show it, (c) connected to culture, (d) being healthy, and (e) being thankful to be Native. This research makes a contribution to the growing body pride literature by providing an initial glimpse into the complexities of young Aboriginal women's body pride experiences.

  10. Influence of women's autonomy on infant mortality in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikari Ramesh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepalese women lag behind men in many areas, such as educational attainment, participation in decision-making and health service utilization, all of which have an impact on reproductive health outcomes. This paper aims to examine the factors influencing infant mortality, specifically, whether women's autonomy has an impact on infant mortality in the Nepali context. Methods Data were drawn from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2006. The analysis is confined to 5,545 children who were born within the five years preceding the survey. Association between infant mortality and the explanatory variables was assessed using bivariate analysis. Variables were then re-examined in multivariate analysis to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on infant mortality after controlling for other variables. Results The infant mortality rate (IMR in the five years preceding the survey was 48 deaths per one thousand live births. Infant mortality rate was high among illiterate women (56 per 1000 live births and among those not involved in decision making for health care (54 per 1000 live births. Furthermore, infant mortality was high among those women who had more children than their comparison group, who had birth intervals of less than two years, who had multiple births, who were from rural areas, who were poor, whose source of water was the river or unprotected sources, and who did not have a toilet facility in their household. Results from logistic regression show that women's autonomy plays a major role in infant mortality after controlling other variables, such as mother's sociodemographic characteristics, children's characteristics and other household characteristics. Children from literate women had a 32 percent lower chance (OR = 0.68 of experiencing infant mortality than did children from illiterate women. Furthermore, infants of women who were involved in decision-making regarding their own health care had a 25 percent lower

  11. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  12. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be ... free formulas: These formulas are also used for galactosemia and for children who can't digest lactose. ...

  13. Unconscious Choking: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Unconscious Choking—Infant (1:36) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase ...

  14. CPR - infant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100216.htm CPR - infant - series To use the sharing features on ... yourself to call 911 until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  15. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  16. Parenting Your Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Parenting Your Infant ...

  17. Aboriginal-mainstream partnerships: exploring the challenges and enhancers of a collaborative service arrangement for Aboriginal clients with substance use issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Kate P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partnerships between different health services are integral to addressing the complex health needs of vulnerable populations. In Australia, partnerships between Aboriginal1 community controlled and mainstream services can extend health care options and improve the cultural safety of services. However, although government funding supports such collaborations, many factors can cause these arrangements to be tenuous, impacting the quality of health care received. Research was undertaken to explore the challenges and enhancers of a government initiated service partnership between an Aboriginal Community Controlled alcohol and drug service and three mainstream alcohol rehabilitation and support services. Methods Sixteen staff including senior managers (n=5, clinical team leaders (n=5 and counsellors (n=6 from the four services were purposively recruited and interviewed. Interviews were semi-structured and explored staff experience of the partnership including the client intake and referral process, shared client care, inter-service communication and ways of working. Results & discussion Communication issues, partner unfamiliarity, ‘mainstreaming’ of Aboriginal funding, divergent views regarding staff competencies, client referral issues, staff turnover and different ways of working emerged as issues, emphasizing the challenges of working with a population with complex issues in a persistent climate of limited resourcing. Factors enhancing the partnership included adding a richness and diversity to treatment possibilities and opportunities to explore different, more culturally appropriate ways of working. Conclusion While the literature strongly advises partnerships be suitably mature before commencing service delivery, the reality of funding cycles may require partnerships become operational before relationships are adequately consolidated. Allowing sufficient time and funding for both the operation and relational aspects of a

  18. Differences in perinatal and infant mortality in high-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb-Rinker, Paromita; León, Juan Andrés; Gilbert, Nicolas L.;

    2015-01-01

    of viability are likely due to differences in birth registration practices, although true differences in maternal, fetal and infant health cannot be ruled out. This study emphasises the need for further standardisations, in order to enhance the relevance of international comparisons of infant mortality.......BACKGROUND: Variation in birth registration criteria may compromise international comparisons of fetal and infant mortality. We examined the effect of birth registration practices on fetal and infant mortality rates to determine whether observed differences in perinatal and infant mortality rates...... by gestational age and birth weight; gestational age-and birth weight-specific stillbirth rates; neonatal, post-neonatal, and cause-specific infant mortality. RESULTS: Proportion of live births

  19. Unnatural sudden infant death

    OpenAIRE

    Meadow, R

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To identify features to help paediatricians differentiate between natural and unnatural infant deaths.
METHOD—Clinical features of 81 children judged by criminal and family courts to have been killed by their parents were studied. Health and social service records, court documents, and records from meetings with parents, relatives, and social workers were studied.
RESULTS—Initially, 42 children had been certified as dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 29 wer...

  20. In vitro cytotoxicity of Nicotiana gossei leaves, used in the Australian Aboriginal smokeless tobacco known as pituri or mingkulpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghbel, Nahid; Ryu, BoMi; Cabot, Peter J; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2016-07-01

    The Aboriginal population of Central Australia use endemic Nicotiana species to make a smokeless tobacco product known usually as pituri or mingkulpa. Nicotiana leaves are masticated with wood ash into a 'quid' that is chewed/sucked for absorption of nicotine. In addition to nicotine, smokeless tobacco products contain a spectrum of biologically active compounds that may contribute to effects on health. The objective of this study was to quantify nicotine, and related alkaloids and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), in Nicotiana leaves used in pituri, and compare in vitro toxicity of pure nicotine with Nicotiana leaf extract at the same concentration of nicotine. An aqueous extract of dry leaves of Nicotiana gossei and a reference smokeless tobacco (CORESTA CRP2) were quantified for major pyridine alkaloids and TSNAs using HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS. A range of extract concentrations and corresponding concentrations of nicotine standard were tested using an MTS assay to measure human lung epithelium cell (A549) survival. Cells treated for 24h with the maximum concentration of 1.5mg/ml of nicotine resulted in 77% viability. In contrast, extracts from N. gossei leaves and CRP2 containing a similar concentration of nicotine (1.3mg/ml) resulted in remarkably lower viability of 1.5 and 6%, respectively. Comparison of cytotoxicity of pure nicotine with that of the extracts revealed that nicotine was not the source of their cytotoxicity. Other biologically active compounds such as the known carcinogens NNK and NNN, derived from nicotine and nornicotine and found to be present in the smokeless tobacco extracts, may be responsible. PMID:27178269

  1. Continuing Disparities in Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Complications Between Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australians With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy M.E.; Hunt, Kerry; McAullay, Daniel; Chubb, Stephen A.P.; Sillars, Brett A.; Bruce, David G.; Davis, Wendy A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether disparities in the nature and management of type 2 diabetes persist between Aboriginal and the majority Anglo-Celt patients in an urban Australian community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Baseline data from the observational Fremantle Diabetes Study collected from 1993 to 1996 (phase I) and from 2008 to 2011 (phase II) were analyzed. Patients characterized as Aboriginal or Anglo-Celt by self-report and supporting data underwent comprehensive assessment, including questionnaires, examination, and biochemical testing in a single laboratory. Generalized linear modeling with age/sex adjustment was used to examine differences in changes in variables in the two groups between phases I and II. RESULTS The indigenous participants were younger at entry and at diabetes diagnosis than the Anglo-Celt participants in both phases. They were also less likely to be educated beyond primary level and were more likely to be smokers. HbA1c decreased in both groups over time (Aboriginal median 9.6% [interquartile range 7.8–10.7%] to 8.4% [6.6–10.6%] vs. Anglo-Celt median 7.1% [6.2–8.4%] to 6.7% [6.2–7.5%]), but the gap persisted (P = 0.65 for difference between phases I and II by ethnic group). Aboriginal patients were more likely to have microvascular disease in both phases. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (ankle-brachial index ≤0.90 or lower-extremity amputation) increased in Aboriginal but decreased in Anglo-Celt participants (15.8–29.7 vs. 30.7–21.5%; P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS Diabetes management has improved for Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australian patients, but disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and complications persist. PMID:22815295

  2. Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB. Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability. We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES, in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities.

  3. Taking Synchrony Seriously: A Perceptual-Level Model of Infant Synchrony Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Christopher G.; Hollich, George J.; Helder, Nathan A.; Mislivec, Eric J.; Reddy, Anoop; Salunke, Sampanna; Memon, Naveed

    2004-01-01

    Synchrony detection between different sensory and/or motor channels appears critically important for young infant learning and cognitive development. For example, empirical studies demonstrate that audio-visual synchrony aids in language acquisition. In this paper we compare these infant studies with a model of synchrony detection based on the Hershey and Movellan (2000) algorithm augmented with methods for quantitative synchrony estimation. Four infant-model comparisons are presented, using ...

  4. Cannabis use and violence in three remote Aboriginal Australian communities: Analysis of clinic presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylie Lee, K S; Sukavatvibul, Krisakorn; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal reports have linked cannabis use to violence in some remote Australian Aboriginal communities. We examine the relationship between cannabis use and presentations to local clinics for violence-related trauma at a population level. As part of a larger study, estimates of cannabis and alcohol use status were obtained for 264 randomly selected individuals aged 14-42. These estimates were collected from Aboriginal health workers and respected community informants using a previously validated approach. Clinic records for the sample were audited for physical trauma presentations between January 2004 and June 2006. One in 3 individuals (n = 88/264) presented to the clinic with physical trauma. Of these, the majority (65.9%, n = 58/88) had at least one presentation that was violence-related. Nearly 2 in every 3 of the total presentations for trauma following violence (n = 40/63) involved the use of a weapon. Hunting tools were most often used, followed by wooden or rock implements. Individuals who reported any current cannabis use were nearly 4 times more likely than nonusers to present at least once for violent trauma after adjusting for current alcohol use, age, and sex (OR = 3.8, 95% CI [1.5, 9.8]). Aboriginal individuals in these remote communities experience high rates of physical trauma and violence, often involving weapons. A comprehensive study is needed to explore the association between cannabis and violence. At the same time, an investment in local programmes is needed to address cannabis use and underlying risk factors for substance use and for violence.

  5. Impact of ethnic mobility on the socio-economic conditions of Aboriginal peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siggner, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishFor the first time data from the 1986 and 1996 censuses have been organizedin an historical manner with a consistent set of definitions and geographies. Guimond (1999 hasestablished that the Aboriginal population, both in terms of origin and identity, has grown rapidlyand that an important component of that growth has come from personal changes in the ethnicaffiliation. This finding begs the question: what are the characteristics of the people changing theiraffiliation? Using census data, this study will focus on the highest level of schooling variable forthe population reporting Aboriginal origins and Aboriginal identity and show how this characteristicis changing in a selected age cohort over the ten year period 1986-96.FrenchC’est la premiére fois que les données des recensements de 1986 et de 1996 ontété classes d’une manière historique avec un ensemble conforme de definitionset d’éléments géographiques. Guimond (1999 a établi que la populationauthochtone, autant en termes d’origine que d’identité, avait augmentérapidemont et qu’une et qu’ne composante importante de cette croissance venaitde changements personnels dans l’affiliatiion ethnique. Cette découverte soulèvela question, à savoir quelles sont les caractéristiques d’un people qui changed’affiliation ? En se servant des donnés des recensements, cette etude examine letaux de scolarité le plus élevé variable des populations indiquant des origins ouune identité autochtones et démontre de quelle manière cette caractéristiquechange dans une cohorte d’âge sur une période de dix ans, soit de 1986 à 1996.

  6. Wurdi Youang: an Australian Aboriginal stone arrangement with possible solar indications

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P; Hamacher, Duane W; Abrahams, Reg

    2012-01-01

    Wurdi Youang is an egg-shaped Aboriginal stone arrangement in Victoria, Australia. Here we present a new survey of the site, and show that its major axis is aligned within a few degrees of east-west. We confirm a previous hypothesis that it contains alignments to the position on the horizon of the setting sun at the equinox and the solstices, and show that two independent sets of indicators are aligned in these directions. We show that these alignments are unlikely to have arisen by chance, and instead the builders of this stone arrangement appear to have deliberately aligned the site on astronomically significant positions.

  7. HIV Testing and Care in Canadian Aboriginal Youth: A community based mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Ted

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection is a serious concern in the Canadian Aboriginal population, particularly among youth; however, there is limited attention to this issue in research literature. The purpose of this national study was to explore HIV testing and care decisions of Canadian Aboriginal youth. Methods A community-based mixed-method design incorporating the Aboriginal research principles of Ownership, Control, Access and Possession (OCAP was used. Data were collected through surveys (n = 413 and qualitative interviews (n = 28. Eleven community-based organizations including urban Aboriginal AIDS service organizations and health and friendship centres in seven provinces and one territory assisted with the recruitment of youth (15 to 30 years. Results Average age of survey participants was 21.5 years (median = 21.0 years and qualitative interview participants was 24.4 years (median = 24.0. Fifty-one percent of the survey respondents (210 of 413 youth and 25 of 28 interview participants had been tested for HIV. The most common reason to seek testing was having sex without a condom (43.6% or pregnancy (35.4% while common reasons for not testing were the perception of being low HIV risk (45.3% or not having had sex with an infected person (34.5%. Among interviewees, a contributing reason for not testing was feeling invulnerable. Most surveyed youth tested in the community in which they lived (86.5% and 34.1% visited a physician for the test. The majority of surveyed youth (60.0% had tested once or twice in the previous 2 years, however, about one-quarter had tested more than twice. Among the 26 surveyed youth who reported that they were HIV-positive, 6 (23.1% had AIDS at the time of diagnosis. Delays in care-seeking after diagnosis varied from a few months to seven years from time of test. Conclusion It is encouraging that many youth who had tested for HIV did so based on a realistic self-assessment of HIV risk behaviours; however, for others

  8. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginbottom Gina MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2 with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3. The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge

  9. The Golden Canopies (Infant Radiant Warmer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The cradle warmer is based on technology in heated transparent materials developed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California he original application was in heated faceplates for the pressure suit heated faceplates worn by pilots of an Air Force/NASA reconnaissance and weather research plane. Later, Sierracin advanced the technology for other applications, among them the cockpit windows of the NASA X-15 supersonic research vehicle and the helmet faceplates of Apollo astronauts. Adapting the technology to hospital needs, Sierracin teamed with Cavitron Corporation, Anaheim, California, which produces the cradle warmer and two other systems employing Sierracin's electrically-heated transparencies. Working to combat the infant mortality rate, hospitals are continually upgrading delivery room and nursery care techniques. Many have special procedures and equipment to protect infants during the "period of apprehension," the critical six to 12 hours after delivery. One such item of equipment is an aerospace spinoff called the Infant Radiant Warmer, a "golden canopy" which provides uniform, controlled warmth to the infant's cradle. Warmth is vitally important to all newborns, particularly premature babies; they lose heat more rapidly than adults because they have greater surface area in comparison with body mass.

  10. Signal Clarity: An Account of the Variability in Infant Quantity Discrimination Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Lisa; Boyer, Ty W.; Cordes, Sara; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    Infants have shown variable success in quantity comparison tasks, with infants of a given age sometimes successfully discriminating numerical differences at a 2:3 ratio but requiring 1:2 and even 1:4 ratios of change at other times. The current explanations for these variable results include the two-systems proposal--a theoretical framework that…

  11. Time Series Analysis of Spontaneous Upper-Extremity Movements of Premature Infants With Brain Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Ohgi, Shohei; Morita, Satoru; Loo, Kek Khee; Mizuike, Chihiro

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Comparisons of spontaneous movements of premature infants with brain injuries and those without brain injuries can provide insights into normal and abnormal processes in the ontogeny of motor development. In this study, the characteristics of spontaneous upper-extremity movements of premature infants with brain injuries and those without brain injuries were examined with time series analysis.

  12. Tobacco use among urban Aboriginal Australian young people: a qualitative study of reasons for smoking, barriers to cessation and motivators for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Suzanne; Hawkins, Kimberley; Skaczkowski, Gemma; Copley, David; Bowden, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence among Aboriginal Australian young people greatly exceeds the prevalence in the broader population of Australian young people, yet limited research has explored the social context in which young Aboriginal Australians smoke. Four focus groups were conducted in 2009 with South Australian Aboriginal smokers aged 15-29 years residing in urban areas (n = 32) to examine attitudes and experiences surrounding smoking and quitting. The primary reasons for smoking initiation and maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people were identified as stress, social influence and boredom. Motivators for quitting were identified as pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons. The barriers to cessation were identified as social influence, the perception of quitting as a distant event and reluctance to access cessation support. However, it appears that social influences and stress were particularly salient contributors to smoking maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people. Smoking cessation interventions targeted at young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers should aim to build motivation to quit by utilising the motivators of pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons, while acknowledging the pertinent role of social influence and stress in the lives of young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers.

  13. Electricity, development and Aboriginals : keys to success for a developer; L'electricite, le developpement et les Autochtones : cles de la reussite pour un promoteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepton, A. [Conseil des Montagnais du Lac-St-Jean, Mashteuiatsh, PQ (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Developers involved in the field of electric power generation are faced with environmental issues and public misconceptions, in addition to technical and financing issues. The author described the factors that could affect negotiations with Aboriginal peoples during all stages of an electric power generation project. The complexity and location of the project is the major issue of concern, as the rights of Aboriginals in Quebec vary greatly depending on geography. For example, land located north of Val D'Or and Chibougamau is regulated by the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, requiring that a specific process be followed. Aboriginal peoples have different languages and cultures which must be respected in all negotiations. The author emphasized that each Aboriginal community is unique and proposed a few guidelines to help in the negotiation process, namely: (1) knowing the Aboriginal environment of the project, (2) establish contacts with the Aboriginal community, (3) get to know the development characteristics of the Aboriginal community, (4) follow well-defined steps, and, (5) present a proposal in accordance with the type of territory.

  14. Renal transplantation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer

    2016-05-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively. PMID:26115617

  15. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  16. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... dentist or hygienist to see. Because most infant formulas contain low levels of fluoride, regularly mixing powdered ...

  17. Cronobacter Illness and Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most at risk. Illnesses Linked to Powdered Infant Formula In some outbreak investigations, Cronobacter was found in ... other sources of this rare sickness. Powdered Infant Formula is Not Sterile Manufacturers report that, using current ...

  18. Nutrition for healthy term infants

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants is the new national statement on nutrition for infants from birth to 24 months, developed collaboratively by the Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada and Health Canada.

  19. "If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessarab Dawn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service.

  20. Breastfeeding the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  1. The problem of dementia in Australian aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, P A

    1997-02-01

    The concept of dementia in old age in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is intrinsically paradoxical. Firstly, few indigenous people reach old age. Secondly, from some indigenous points of view, dementia is either not recognized as a condition or as a problem, or, in the case of the more disruptive manifestations of cognitive impairment, is perceived as 'madness'. Moreover, in the wider context of profound political, social and economic inequality experienced by most indigenous people, the western medical category of dementia may appear to be of relatively minor importance. However, government initiatives in aged care generally and dementia care in particular which are designed to address the ageing of the Australian population as a whole also include the nation's older indigenous people. This article-based on a review of published work, supplemented by discussions with indigenous and non-indigenous individuals involved in indigenous aged care and mental health-examines some of the issues surrounding cognitive decline in old age for Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. More specifically, it looks at the problems involved in assessing and diagnosing cognitive decline and dementia, especially among people who follow more traditional ways of life, and in providing services to sufferers and their carers. In doing so, it considers some of the relative meanings of "old age', "abnormal old age', "mental disorder', "sickness' and "dementia'. PMID:9097208

  2. Sharing the story : Aboriginal and northern energy experiences : finding new ways for climate change control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    One of society's top priorities is to reduce the effects of climate change. Since the effects of climate change are more pronounced in polar regions and energy costs are typically very high, Aboriginal and Northern communities have much to gain from improved energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources. This publication profiles some of the community-driven energy efficiency and renewable energy projects that were undertaken as part of the Aboriginal and Climate Change Program. The profiles are based on interviews conducted in 2002-2003 with individuals who were instrumental in seeing the projects completed. The projects demonstrated innovative approaches to adopt energy efficiency practices and renewable energy to create a sustainable way of life. The projects ranged from small hydro, wind power, solar energy and district heating with wood. Energy efficiency projects in housing and waste heat recovery were also highlighted. The benefits of the various projects included reduced transportation fuel and energy transmission costs, local employment and reduced greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Aboriginal population of Canada: growth dynamics under conditions of encounter of civilisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuc, Anatole

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper endeavours to capture the broad configuration of demographicevolution of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada from the early contacts with Europeans to the present.The main stages thereof are identified and the underlying factors explored, against the historicalbackground of Aboriginal and European civilisations' encounter. While taking stock of the past, thepaper takes a glimpse into the future. It concludes with a review of demographically-driven policyissues that the First Nations are likely to confront as they step into the 21st Century.FrenchL'article vise à saisir les contours les plus significatifs de l'évolutiondémographique des populations autochtones depuis l'ouverture du Canada à lacolonisation européenne. Les principales étapes sont identifiées et les facteurssous-jacents explorés, dans la perspective des contacts des civilisationseuropéenne et autochtone. Tout en retraçant le passé, l'auteur jette un regard surl'avenir. L'exposé conclut avec un aperçu des questions politiques, engendréespar le développement démographique, que les premières nations de ce payspourraient être amenées à affronter à l'horizon du 21e siècle.

  4. Aboriginal overkill in the intermountain west of North America : Zooarchaeological tests and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, R Lee

    2004-06-01

    Zooarchaeological evidence has often been called on to help researchers determine prehistoric relative abundances of elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Some interpret that evidence as indicating elk were abundant; others interpret it as indicating elk were rare. Wildlife biologist Charles Kay argues that prehistoric faunal remains recovered from archaeological sites support his contention that aboriginal hunters depleted elk populations throughout the Intermountain West, including the Yellowstone area. To support his contention Kay cites differences between modern and prehistoric relative abundances of artiodactyls, age and sex demographics of ungulates in the prehistoric record indicating selective predation of prime-age females, and a high degree of fragmentation of artiodactyl bones indicating humans were under nutritional stress. Kay's data on taxonomic abundances are time and space averaged and thus mask much variation in elk abundances. When these data are not lumped they suggest that elk were at some times, in some places, as abundant as they are today. Data on the age-sex demography of artiodactyl prey are ambiguous or contradict Kay's predictions. Bone fragmentation data are variously nonexistent or ambiguous. The zooarchaeological implications of Kay's aboriginal overkill hypothesis have not yet undergone rigorous testing. PMID:26190412

  5. A 150-Year Conundrum: Cranial Robusticity and Its Bearing on the Origin of Aboriginal Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Curnoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Aboriginal Australians has been a central question of palaeoanthropology since its inception during the 19th Century. Moreover, the idea that Australians could trace their ancestry to a non-modern Pleistocene population such as Homo erectus in Southeast Asia have existed for more than 100 years, being explicitly linked to cranial robusticity. It is argued here that in order to resolve this issue a new program of research should be embraced, one aiming to test the full range of alternative explanations for robust morphology. Recent developments in the morphological sciences, especially relating to the ontogeny of the cranium indicate that character atomisation, an approach underpinning phylogenetic reconstruction, is fraught with difficulties. This leads to the conclusion that phylogenetic-based explanations for robusticity should be reconsidered and a more parsimonious approach to explaining Aboriginal Australian origins taken. One that takes proper account of the complex processes involved in the growth of the human cranium rather than just assuming natural selection to explain every subtle variation seen in past populations. In doing so, the null hypothesis that robusticity might result from phenotypic plasticity alone cannot be rejected, a position at odds with both reticulate and deep-time continuity models of Australian origins.

  6. Mini-med school for Aboriginal youth: experiential science outreach to tackle systemic barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita I. Henderson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Addressing systemic barriers experienced by low-income and minority students to accessing medical school, the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine has spearheaded a year-round, mini-med school outreach initiative for Aboriginal students. Method: Junior and senior high school youth generally attend the half-day program in classes or camps of 15–25, breaking into small groups for multisession activities. Undergraduate medical education students mentor the youth in stations offering experiential lessons in physical examination, reading x-rays, and anatomy. All resources from the medical school are offered in-kind, including a pizza lunch at midday, whereas community partners organize transportation for the attendees. Results: Opening the medical school and its resources to the community offers great benefits to resource-constrained schools often limited in terms of science education resources. The model is also an effort to address challenges among the medical professions around attracting and retaining students from underserved populations. Conclusion: The prospect of increasing admission rates and successful completion of medical education among students from marginalized communities poses a real, though difficult-to-measure, possibility of increasing the workforce most likely to return to and work in such challenging contexts. A mini-medical school for Aboriginal youth highlights mutual, long-term benefit for diverse partners, encouraging medical educators and community-based science educators to explore the possibilities for deepening partnerships in their own regions.

  7. Everywhere and Nowhere: Invisibility of Aboriginal and Torres Strain Islander Contact Languages in Education and Indigenous Language Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellwood, Juanita; Angelo, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The language ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Queensland are characterised by widespread language shift to contact language varieties, yet they remain largely invisible in discourses involving Indigenous languages and education. This invisibility--its various causes and its many implications--are explored through a…

  8. Gudaga Goes to School Study: Methods Used in Understanding School Transitions and Early Education Experiences of an Urban Aboriginal Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplun, Cathy; Knight, Jennifer; Grace, Rebekah; Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob; Comino, Elizabeth; Jackson-Pulver, Lisa; Kemp, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The Gudaga Goes to School Study described the transition to school and early education experiences of 117 urban Aboriginal children and their families. This paper outlines the methods and design of the study. A life course approach, employing multidimensional and multi-theoretical frameworks was used to capture the complexity of issues surrounding…

  9. The Fallacy of the Bolted Horse: Changing Our Thinking about Mature-Age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plater, Suzanne; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Lander, Jo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to critically review and analyse the public representations of mature-age university students in developed and some developing nations and how they compare to the public representations of mature-age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students in Australia ("students" also refers to graduates…

  10. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Aboriginal and European Canadian Mothers' Beliefs regarding Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Sheperd, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the maternal beliefs and practices regarding preschool children's proactive and reactive aggression, within a cross-cultural framework. Participants included 30 Aboriginal and 45 European Canadian mothers of preschoolers who provided their emotional reactions, causal attributions, socialization…

  11. Cultural and Social Capital and Talent Development: A Study of a High-Ability Aboriginal Student in a Remote Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, Karen; Merrotsy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    During the course of a school year, a study was conducted on the cultural context, the social milieu and the personal characteristics of a high ability Aboriginal student in a remote community in Canada. Using the lenses of cultural capital, social capital and human capital, the study explores the development of the student's talent through his…

  12. Strategic approaches to enhanced health service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspin Clive

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness confront multiple challenges that contribute to their poor health outcomes, and to the health disparities that exist in Australian society. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to care and support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. Methods Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n-16 and family carers (n = 3. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified and these were used to inform the key findings of the study. Results Participants reported both negative and positive influences that affected their health and well-being. Among the negative influences, they identified poor access to culturally appropriate health services, dislocation from cultural support systems, exposure to racism, poor communication with health care professionals and economic hardship. As a counter to these, participants pointed to cultural and traditional knowledge as well as insights from their own experiences. Participants said that while they often felt overwhelmed and confused by the burden of chronic illness, they drew strength from being part of an Aboriginal community, having regular and ongoing access to primary health care, and being well-connected to a supportive family network. Within this context, elders played an important role in increasing people’s awareness of the impact of chronic illness on people and communities. Conclusions Our study indicated that non-Indigenous health services struggled to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. To address their complex needs, health services could gain considerably by recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  13. Understanding, beliefs and perspectives of Aboriginal people in Western Australia about cancer and its impact on access to cancer services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessarab Dawn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a lower overall incidence, Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared with the non-Aboriginal population as manifested by higher mortality and lower 5-year survival rates. Lower participation in screening, later diagnosis of cancer, poor continuity of care, and poorer compliance with treatment are known factors contributing to this poor outcome. Nevertheless, many deficits remain in understanding the underlying reasons, with the recommendation of further exploration of Aboriginal beliefs and perceptions of cancer to help understand their care-seeking behavior. This could assist with planning and delivery of more effective interventions and better services for the Aboriginal population. This research explored Western Australian (WA Aboriginal peoples' perceptions, beliefs and understanding of cancer. Methods A total of 37 Aboriginal people from various geographical areas within WA with a direct or indirect experience of cancer were interviewed between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. A social constructionist framework provided a theoretical basis for analysis. Interpretation occurred within the research team with member checking and the involvement of an Aboriginal Reference Group assisting with ensuring validity and reliability. Results Outcomes indicated that misunderstanding, fear of death, fatalism, shame, preference for traditional healing, beliefs such as cancer is contagious and other spiritual issues affected their decisions around accessing services. These findings provide important information for health providers who are involved in cancer-related service delivery. Conclusion These underlying beliefs must be specifically addressed to develop appropriate educational, screening and treatment approaches including models of

  14. Tissue carnitine reserves of newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenai, J P; Borum, P R

    1984-07-01

    This study assessed the tissue reserves of carnitine at birth in a group of neonates (n = 22) of varying gestational age dying within 24 h of birth, prior to possible changes in carnitine status induced by postnatal intervention. Tissue carnitine concentration was highest in the muscle in each infant. The mean (+/- SD) muscle carnitine concentration of 8.4 +/- 3.6 nmol/mg noncollagen protein (NCP) in very immature infants (less than or equal to 1000 g birth weight) was significantly lower than the corresponding mean (+/- SD) values of 14.0 +/- 3.2 nmol/mg NCP in larger preterm infants (1001-2500 g; P less than 0.01) and 19.4 +/- 2.6 nmol/mg NCP in term infants (greater than or equal to 2501 g; P less than 0.001). Muscle carnitine concentration correlated positively with gestational age (r = 0.832; P less than 0.001) and with body dimensions. Liver and heart carnitine concentrations did not correlate significantly with gestation or body dimensions. The mean (+/- SD) liver carnitine concentration for all the neonates as a group was 4.1 +/- 1.5 nmol/mg NCP. The mean (+/- SD) heart carnitine concentration was 4.7 +/- 1.3 nmol/mg NCP. In comparison to adult controls, tissue carnitine concentrations were markedly lower in neonates, particularly in immature newborns. These data suggest that newborn infants, especially premature babies, are born with limited tissue reserves of carnitine and are therefore at an increased risk for developing carnitine deficiency and its adverse effects in the postnatal period, particularly if maintained on carnitine-free intravenous nutrition for prolonged periods of time.

  15. Genotypic and functional properties of early infant HIV-1 envelopes

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    Sullivan John L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the properties of HIV-1 variants that are transmitted from women to their infants is crucial to improving strategies to prevent transmission. In this study, 162 full-length envelope (env clones were generated from plasma RNA obtained from 5 HIV-1 Clade B infected mother-infant pairs. Following extensive genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, 35 representative clones were selected for functional studies. Results Infant quasispecies were highly homogeneous and generally represented minor maternal variants, consistent with transmission across a selective bottleneck. Infant clones did not differ from the maternal in env length, or glycosylation. All infant variants utilized the CCR5 co-receptor, but were not macrophage tropic. Relatively high levels (IC50 ≥ 100 μg/ml of autologous maternal plasma IgG were required to neutralize maternal and infant viruses; however, all infant viruses were neutralized by pooled sera from HIV-1 infected individuals, implying that they were not inherently neutralization-resistant. All infant viruses were sensitive to the HIV-1 entry inhibitors Enfuvirtide and soluble CD4; none were resistant to Maraviroc. Sensitivity to human monoclonal antibodies 4E10, 2F5, b12 and 2G12 varied. Conclusions This study provides extensive characterization of the genotypic and functional properties of HIV-1 env shortly after transmission. We present the first detailed comparisons of the macrophage tropism of infant and maternal env variants and their sensitivity to Maraviroc, the only CCR5 antagonist approved for therapeutic use. These findings may have implications for improving approaches to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission.

  16. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  17. Teaching Astronomy Through Art: Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, S. R.; Boles, M. S.; Patterson, R. J.

    1999-12-01

    We have created an exhibit, Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky, which has shown since June, 1999 in newly refurbished exhibit space at the Leander McCormick Observatory. The University of Virginia has a long and continuing tradition of astrometry starting with early parallax work at the McCormick Observatory, extending to our own NSF CAREER Award-funded projects, and including a long-term, ongoing southern parallax program at Mt. Stromlo and Siding Springs Observatories in Australia. Recently, through a gift of Mr. John Kluge, the University of Virginia has obtained one of the most extensive collections of Australian Aboriginal art outside of Australia. The goal of our exhibit is to unite the University's scientific, artistic and cultural connections to Australia through an exhibit focusing on different perspectives of the Australian night sky. We have brought together Australian Aboriginal bark and canvas paintings that feature astronomical themes, e.g., Milky Way, Moon, Magellanic Cloud and Seven Sisters Dreamings, from the Kluge-Ruhe and private collections. These paintings, from the Central Desert and Arnhem Land regions of Australia, are intermingled with modern, large format, color astronomical images of the same scenes. Descriptive panels and a small gallery guide explain the cultural, artistic and scientific aspects of the various thematic groupings based on particular southern hemisphere night sky objects and associated Aboriginal traditions and stories. This unusual combination of art and science not only provides a unique avenue for educating the public about both astronomy and Australian Aboriginal culture, but highlights mankind's ancient and continuing connection to the night sky. We appreciate funding from NSF CAREER Award #AST-9702521, a Cottrell Scholar Award from The Research Corporation, and the Dept. of Astronomy and Ruhe-Kluge Collection at the University of Virginia.

  18. 澳大利亚土著文化与艺术%Australian Aboriginal Culture and Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾维琳

    2011-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal inhabitants are one of the most ancient ethnic groups in the world.Australian unique geographical environment has created the Australian Aboriginal unique culture and art."Dreamtime" is the center of Australian Indigenous religion and culture,and is all of Aboriginal art.Australian Aborigines think "Dreamtime" is the time when their ancestors created the earth,humans and animals.They believe that their ancestral spirits have been sleeping on this land,and therefore they communicate with their ancestors by using totem,mythology,paintings,songs,dances and other art forms,connecting Aboriginal people and the land,their past and present,the supernatural and reality.%澳大利亚原居民是世界上最古老的民族之一。澳洲的独特地理环境孕育了澳洲土著独特的文化和艺术。"梦幻"是土著人宗教和文化生活的灵魂。澳洲土著人认为"梦幻时代"是祖先的创世纪年代,他们祖先的精灵一直沉睡在这块大地上。因此,土著人借助图腾、神话、绘画、歌曲、舞蹈等艺术形式与祖先交流,使他们与大地紧密联系在一起,使他们的过去和现在、超自然和现实联系在一起。

  19. Parent-Infant Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Lucile; Myre, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the development and philosophy of parent-infant education programs provided by Washington State community colleges and vocational technical schools consisting of parent-participation classes and cooperative preschools for 10,000 families. Describes program at Seattle Community College. (BF/JH)

  20. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  1. Unconscious Choking: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Unconscious Choking—Infant (1:36) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  2. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a system

  3. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  4. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  5. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  6. [Studies on the correlation of toxoplasma antibody between mothers and their infants in toxoplasmosis in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakachi, H

    1982-12-01

    The author examined immunoglobulin and toxoplasma antibody titer using a routine serologic test in 55 pregnant women with positive antibody titer and their infants (including one twin). After evaluation of the immunological correlationship between mothers and infants, the toxoplasma antibody titer half life in infants and its decay curve were derived from IgG toxoplasma antibody titer in infants. The IgG toxoplasma antibody titer at delivery well correlated with the titer transition in infants thereafter, and the infants were divided into the following three groups for comparison with mothers' titer at delivery. Group A (mothers' titer = infants' titer), group B (mothers' titer greater than infants' titer), group C (mothers' titer less than infants' titer). The antibody titer in group A and C decreased to negative at one year of age, the value in group B, however, at 6 months after delivery. Toxoplasma antibody titer (X) and antibody half life (T) from delivery to one month, from one month to 3 months and from 3 months to 6 months respectively, were derived as follows: (formula; see text) When the antibody titer of an infant is higher than the decay curve, toxoplasma infection is strongly indicated.

  7. 两种状态下婴儿培养箱内细菌学检测结果比较%Comparison of the results of bacteriological detection inside the infant incubator in two different conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安云

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨贮水湿化与非湿化状态下婴儿培养箱内细菌滋生情况.方法 将使用婴儿培养箱的90例新生儿分为观察组和对照组,比较相同条件下培养箱贮水湿化与非湿化状态箱内物体表面和空气的细菌检测结果以及两组新生儿体温、婴儿培养箱温度和环境湿度.结果 观察组婴儿培养箱内物体表面、空气的细菌检测合格率高于对照组(P<0.01);对照组婴儿培养箱内湿度高于新生儿所需湿度.结论 婴儿培养箱不宜常规贮水湿化,否则易引起细菌滋生;使用婴儿培养箱时应监测箱内湿度,当湿度过低不能满足患儿需要时才贮水湿化,且每日更换蒸馏水,并做好水槽消毒.%Objective To observe the bacteria breeding situation inside the infant incubator in wet and non -wet conditions. Methods A total of 90 infants in incubator were assigned to the experimental group and the control group. The results of the object surface and the air bacteriological detection inside the incubator and thermoregulation in newborn, infant incubabor's temperature and the humidity of the environment in two groups under web and non - web conditions were collected and compared. Results The qualified rates of the object surface and the air bacteriological detection of the experimental group were higher than the control group ( P < 0. 01 ). The humidity inside the incubator in the control group was higher than the requined humidity. Conclusion Infant incubator should not store water for humidifying, because it is easy to cause bacteria breeding. The humidity of infant incubator should be monitored. It is necessary to storage water when the humidity is too low to meet the needs of infants. The distilled water should be replaced everyday and do well in water disinfection.

  8. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howat Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA. This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so

  9. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically

  10. SHIFTING JUDICIAL CONCEPTIONS OF 'RECONCILIATION': GEOGRAPHIC COMMITMENTS UNDERPINNING ABORIGINAL RIGHTS DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McCrossan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of the past twenty years, the Supreme Court of Canada’s discourse concerning ‘reconciliation’ has shifted from moderating federal power to reconciling the preceding presence of Aboriginal people with an established sovereign (Crown presence.  While scholars postulated that the Court was attempting to maintain colonial relations of power, substantive answers for this discursive shift are lacking within the literature.  This paper provides a comprehensive explanation of this shift by comparing the hearing transcripts in the ‘Aboriginal rights trilogy’ to their corresponding written decisions.  It argues that particular judicial and geographic commitments underlie the concept of ‘reconciliation’ and ultimately serve to represent Aboriginal identity as inescapably ‘Canadian.’   Au cours des vingt dernières années, le discours de la Cour suprême du Canada concernant la « réconciliation » est passé de l’atténuation du pouvoir fédéral à la conciliation entre la présence antérieure des Autochtones et une présence souveraine (de la Couronne établie. Bien que les universitaires aient affirmé que la Cour tentait de maintenir des relations de pouvoir coloniales, l’évolution du discours n’est pas expliquée de façon concrète dans la littérature. Le présent article explique cette évolution de façon détaillée en comparant les transcriptions d’audience dans la « trilogie sur les droits ancestraux » à leurs décisions écrites correspondantes. Il fait valoir que des engagements judiciaires et géographiques particuliers sous-tendent le concept de la « réconciliation » et servent en définitive à représenter l’identité autochtone comme étant inévitablement « canadienne ».

  11. Biodiveristy and Stability of Aboriginal Salmon Fisheries in the Fraser River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, H. K.; Moore, J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural watersheds are hierarchical networks that may confer stability to ecosystem functions through integration of upstream biodiversity, whereby upstream asset diversification stabilizes the aggregate downstream through the portfolio effect. Here we show that riverine structure and its associated diversity confer stability of salmon catch and lengthened fishing seasons for Aboriginal fisheries on the Fraser River (1370km) in BC, Canada, the second longest dam-free salmon migration route in North America. In Canada, Aboriginal people have rights to fish for food, social, and ceremonial (FSC) purposes. FSC fisheries are located throughout the Fraser watershed and have access to varying levels of salmon diversity based on their location. For instance, fisheries at the mouth of the river have access to all of the salmon that spawn throughout the entire watershed, thus integrating across the complete diversity profile of the entire river. In contrast, fisheries in the headwaters have access to fewer salmon species and populations and thus fish from a much less diverse portfolio. These spatial gradients of diversity within watersheds provide a natural contrast for quantifying the effects of different types of diversity on interannual resource stability and seasonal availability. We acquired weekly and yearly catch totals from 1983 to 2012 (30 years) for Chinook, chum, coho, pink, and sockeye salmon for 21 FSC fishing sites throughout the Fraser River watershed from Fisheries and Oceans Canada. We examined how both population- and species-level diversity affects catch stability and season length at each site by quantifying year-to-year variability and within-year season length respectively. Salmon species diversity made fisheries up to 28% more stable in their catch than predicted with 3.7 more weeks to fish on average. Fisheries with access to high population diversity had up to 3.8 times more stable catch and 3 times longer seasons than less diverse fisheries. We

  12. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinkhorn Fiona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808

  13. On the feasibility of establishing the provenance of Australian Aboriginal artefacts using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and proton-induced X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, D. C.; Kubik, M. E.; Sterns, M.

    2007-09-01

    Museums and galleries in Australia have extensive collections of Aboriginal artefacts in their custody. In particular, the National Museum of Australia and the National Gallery of Australia are custodians of works of very considerable significance, in both cultural and financial terms. Art fraud can occur, documentation relating to artefacts can be mislaid, or the artefacts can be incorrectly filed. Because of this, it has become essential to establish protocols for the objective determination of the provenance of artefacts through scientific tests. For the work reported here we are concerned with the comparison of very small quantities of materials, paint scrapings from artefacts. Scrapings from artefacts of unknown provenance are compared with those from artefacts of known provenance, and the database established using an extended set of analytical techniques by Kubik. We describe here our use of synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) to determine the mineral phase compositions of very small amounts of pigment material (<50 μg), and the use of PIXE to give their atomic compositions to a threshold level of 1 ppm for similar masses of material.

  14. [Relationship Pattern of Mothers with Functional Constipated Infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Lisa; Höllwarth, Maria; Rumpold, Gerhard; Juen, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Relationship Pattern of Mothers with Functional Constipated Infants The present article investigates whether or not mothers of infants with functional constipation have a specific relationship pattern. This question is addressed by analyzing the data collected at the day care clinic for infant regulation disorders with appropriate methods like the questionnaire for the assessment of adjustment of mothers with children in infancy (EMKK, Engfer u. Codreanu, 1984) described here. The evaluation of data was performed in two ways: first with regard to the clinical study group of mothers with infants (age range from one to five years) suffering from functional constipation, and then compared to a clinical control group of mothers with infants who are coping with regulation disorders (by definition per Papouŝek, Schieche, Wurmser, 2010). With this comparison differences between the two groups are made visible and clinical interventions can be deduced accordingly. If the groups do not differ in their pattern described by the EMKK, the possible interventions can be adopted from the well-studied area of regulation disorders. The focus on analyzing the data of mothers with functional constipated infants serves as an important starting point for providing the best possible alignment of clinical intervention. PMID:25478715

  15. Comparison of the effects of educational programs on the development of infants aged 1-3 months based on the BASNEF model and application of acupressure on the GB-21 point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Akbarzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding plays a pivotal role in the promotion of health and prevention of psychological problems in children. This study aimed to compare the effects of breastfeeding educational programs on the development of infants aged 1-3 months based on the model of Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors (BASNEF and application of acupressure on the GB-21 point. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 150 pregnant women (gestational age: 36-41 weeks receiving care in the educational clinics affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Subjects were divided into two intervention groups (educational and acupressure and one control group. In intervention groups, in addition to routine prenatal care, pregnant women received training based on the BASNEF model and instructed acupressure. Mothers in the control group received only standard care during pregnancy. After the intervention, data were collected using Denver developmental screening test. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16 using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Among developmental gross motor skills, a significant difference was observed between the intervention and control groups regarding the ability to breast lift by relying on the arm (P=0.016. In terms of fine motor skills, a significant difference was observed in holding the rattle by infant (P=0.034. Moreover, time of acquiring individual and social developmental skills was higher in intervention groups compared to the control group. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P≥0.05. Therefore, no significant differences were observed between the two interventional groups in this regard (P≥0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, instructed acupressure on the GB-21 pointcould improve some gross motor and fine motor skills in infants. Therefore, it is recommended that the developmental indicators in infants aged 1-3 months be evaluated in

  16. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), 99mTC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and 99mTC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.

  17. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kim, Yun Jeong [Dongnam Health Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.

  18. Comparison of Marked Value and the Actual Content in Domestic and Foreign Infant Formula Milk Powder%国内外婴幼儿配方乳粉标示值与实际含量的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏永祺; 李珮斯; 陈伟萍; 陈瑞敏; 陈朝坚; 戴航; 胡晓露

    2014-01-01

    为了解乳粉标签上的信息是否与其内在质量相符,本文对国外品牌和国内品牌的婴幼儿配方乳粉进行了标示值与实际含量的比较分析。结果表明,国外与国内婴幼儿配方乳粉的样品合格率基本持平,品牌合格率则国内婴幼儿配方乳粉较高;主要问题均为维生素指标和矿物质指标的实际含量与标示值不符。此问题应引起国内外乳粉生产企业的重视。%In this paper, the foreign brands and domestic brands of infant formula milk powder were compared with the marked value and the actual content, in order to know whether the label information is consistent with product inner quality. The results shows that the sample qualiifed rate of foreign and domestic infant formula milk powder are basical y lfat, brand qualiifed rate of domestic infant formula powder is higher. The main problems are the actual content of vitamin and mineral index does not match the marked value. This problem should be brought to the attention of both domestic and foreign enterprises.

  19. Comparison of the Clinical Characteristics of Newborn Respiratory Distress Syndrome between Full-term and Premature Infants%足月儿与早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征发病临床比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical characteristics of newborn respiratory distress syndrome between full-term and premature infants, and to further explore the similarities and differences between them.Methods Eighty-six eases of confirmed respiratory distress syndrome with different gestational age in ICU of the department of Newborn in our hospital from January, 2007 to August, 2010, were enrolled in this study. They were divided into two groups: the premature infant group (50 cases, < 37 weeks) and the full-term group (36cases, > 37 weeks). The cause of disease, the onset time, X-ray performance, the treatment and complications of them were analyzed retrospectively. Results The causes of disease in full-term infants were the meeonium aspiration pneumonia, asphyxia, cesarean section and so on. The causes of disease in premature infants were premature delivery, premature rupture of memberane, asphyxia, cesarean section and aspiration pneumonia. Progressive dyspnea and cyanosis appeared in full-term infants ( 10.5 ± 4.1 ) h after birth, the mechanical ventilation time was (97.7 ± 17.2) h. While Progressive dyspnea, groaning and eyanosis appeared in premature infants (3.9 ± 2.7) h after birth, the mechanical ventilation time was (79.7 ± 7.6) h. The chest X-ray of infants in the two groups showed obvious diffused infiltrating shade in double lungs and air bronchogram.Most full-term infants with respiratory distress syndrome were complicated with the protopathy signs.Conclusions The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome is later, and the mechanical ventilation time was longer in full-term infants than in premature infants. Meconium aspiration pneumonia, asphyxia, and cesarean section are high risk factors of respiratory distress syndrome in full-term infants, while insufficient generative capacity of pulmonary surfactant is the high risk factor in premature infants.%目的 比较足月新生儿与早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征发病的临床特点,以进

  20. 晚期早产儿与足月儿神经行为发育在不同时期的比较%Comparison of neurobehavioral development between late-preterm infants and full-term infants at different periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林英; 李荣萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the neurobehavioral developmental differences between late-preterm infants and full-term infants at 12 months and 18 months of age, and to compare the neurobehavioral developmental changes at these two periods.Methods In the study 75 late-preterm infants and 80 full-term infants were selected as samples to test and compare their neurobehavioral development at 12 months and 18 months of age.Results At the age of 12 months, late-preterm infants had significantly lower quotient scores in the aspects of big movement, fine motor, adaptibility, language and personal social intercourse than the full-term infants ( t value was -3.837, -5.801,-3.532, -5.258 and -4.582, respectively, all P<0.05).At the age of 18 months, late-preterm infants still had significantly lower quotient scores in the above five aspects (t value was -2.786, -3.967, -4.946, -4.155 and -3.449, respectively, all P<0.05). Late-preterm infants’ score of big movement was obviously higher and that of personal social intercourse was remarkably lower at the age of 18 months than at the age of 12 months (t value was 1.982 and -4.214, respectively, both P<0.05).For the full-term infants the scores of big movement and adaptability were significantly higher and the score of personal social intercourse was lower at the age of 18 months (t value was 2.188, 2.683 and -3.880, respectively, all P <0.05).Conclusion Late-preterm infants’ neurobehavioral developmental level is lower than the full-term infants’ both at the age of 12 months and 18 months.Both late-preterm infants and full-term infants have lower scores of personal social intercourse at 18 months of age than at 12 months of age, but the reason for it needs to be further explored.Late-preterm infant’ s neurobehavioral development is not mature enough, so it is very important to concern and promote early development of late-preterm infants.%目的:了解晚期早产儿和足月儿在生后第12个月和第18个月两个年

  1. Where culture takes hold: "overimitation" and its flexible deployment in Western, Aboriginal, and Bushmen children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark; Mushin, Ilana; Tomaselli, Keyan; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Children often "overimitate," comprehensively copying others' actions despite manifest perceptual cues to their causal ineffectuality. The inflexibility of this behavior renders its adaptive significance difficult to apprehend. This study explored the boundaries of overimitation in 3- to 6-year-old children of three distinct cultures: Westernized, urban Australians (N = 64 in Experiment 1; N = 19 in Experiment 2) and remote communities of South African Bushmen (N = 64) and Australian Aborigines (N = 19). Children overimitated at high frequency in all communities and generalized what they had learned about techniques and object affordances from one object to another. Overimitation thus provides a powerful means of acquiring and flexibly deploying cultural knowledge. The potency of such social learning was also documented compared to opportunities for exploration and practice.

  2. The Importance of Insects in Australian Aboriginal Society: A Dictionary Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Si

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Insects and their products have long been used in Indigenous Australian societies as food, medicine and construction material, and given prominent roles in myths, traditional songs and ceremonies. However, much of the available information on the uses of insects in Australia remains anecdotal. In this essay, we review published dictionaries of Aboriginal languages spoken in many parts of Australia, to provide an overview of the Indigenous names and knowledge of insects and their products. We find that that native honeybees and insect larvae (particularly of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera are the most highly prized insects, and should be recognized as cultural keystone species. Many insects mentioned in dictionaries lack scientific identifications, however, and we urge documentary linguists to address this important issue.

  3. Respect for Grizzly Bears: an Aboriginal Approach for Co-existence and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Scott. Slocombe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal peoples’ respect for grizzly bear (Ursus arctos is widely acknowledged, but rarely explored, in wildlife management discourse in northern Canada. Practices of respect expressed toward bears were observed and grouped into four categories: terminology, stories, reciprocity, and ritual. In the southwest Yukon, practices in all four categories form a coherent qualitative resource management system that may enhance the resilience of the bear-human system as a whole. This system also demonstrates the possibility of a previously unrecognized human role in maintaining productive riparian ecosystems and salmon runs, potentially providing a range of valued social-ecological outcomes. Practices of respect hold promise for new strategies to manage bear-human interactions, but such successful systems may be irreducibly small scale and place based.

  4. Petrol-inhalation in aboriginal towns. Its remedy: the homelands movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwell, H D

    1979-09-01

    Regular petrol-inhaling involves 50 children ("sniffers"), aged nine to 14 years, at the Aboriginal town of Maningrida--over one-third of resident children of this age. Children of two closely related clan-language groups comprise the majority of inhalers. Similarly, at the town of Galiwinku the children of two deprived clans are involved almost exclusively. These are the only clans in eastern Arnhem Land without outstations on their homelands. Revitalization of these clans appears the only effective method of containing the practice. Petrol-inhaling is associated with delinquency, low body weight, venereal disease, and elevated levels of blood lead. The effectiveness of past remedial action is in doubt. PMID:514145

  5. The Aboriginal Conundrum; Finding a way out of the welfare trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helin, C. [Native Investment and Trade Association, Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The historical development of First Nations peoples following the conquest of North America, the development of the native reserves system, the creation of a culture of expectancy and the institutionalization of the dependence on welfare and transfer payments, and recent trends in First Nations demographics are sketched. The impact of these factors on First Nations peoples, especially low income, high incidence of substance abuse, high suicide rate among the young, high rate of incarceration, demoralizing loss of confidence, and inward focus, is explored, followed by a series of suggestions as to what can be and what must be done to break the cycle of welfare dependency. Short term solutions include focusing on education and training; longer term term solutions are more complex, but most likely include taking ownership of Aboriginal problems by First Nations peoples themselves, and switching gears from concentrating on grievances to focusing on development issues.

  6. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Montoya

    Full Text Available Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences

  7. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jessica L; Landi, Nicole; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high) and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral) in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG) and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences in motivational

  8. Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

  9. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Steven, Newmaster G; Maruthakkutti, Murugesan; Velusamy, Balasubramaniam; Ul-Huda, Muneer M

    2008-01-01

    There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as

  10. Optimisation modelling to assess cost of dietary improvement in remote Aboriginal Australia.

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    Julie Brimblecombe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cost and dietary choices required to fulfil nutrient recommendations defined nationally, need investigation, particularly for disadvantaged populations. OBJECTIVE: We used optimisation modelling to examine the dietary change required to achieve nutrient requirements at minimum cost for an Aboriginal population in remote Australia, using where possible minimally-processed whole foods. DESIGN: A twelve month cross-section of population-level purchased food, food price and nutrient content data was used as the baseline. Relative amounts from 34 food group categories were varied to achieve specific energy and nutrient density goals at minimum cost while meeting model constraints intended to minimise deviation from the purchased diet. RESULTS: Simultaneous achievement of all nutrient goals was not feasible. The two most successful models (A & B met all nutrient targets except sodium (146.2% and 148.9% of the respective target and saturated fat (12.0% and 11.7% of energy. Model A was achieved with 3.2% lower cost than the baseline diet (which cost approximately AUD$13.01/person/day and Model B at 7.8% lower cost but with a reduction in energy of 4.4%. Both models required very large reductions in sugar sweetened beverages (-90% and refined cereals (-90% and an approximate four-fold increase in vegetables, fruit, dairy foods, eggs, fish and seafood, and wholegrain cereals. CONCLUSION: This modelling approach suggested population level dietary recommendations at minimal cost based on the baseline purchased diet. Large shifts in diet in remote Aboriginal Australian populations are needed to achieve national nutrient targets. The modeling approach used was not able to meet all nutrient targets at less than current food expenditure.

  11. Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project

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    Joseph Pamela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

  12. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

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    Davison Belinda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.

  13. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

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    Kevin Rowley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous

  14. Do infant rats cry?

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    Blumberg, M S; Sokoloff, G

    2001-01-01

    In the current revival of interest in the emotional and mental lives of animals, many investigators have focused attention on mammalian infants that emit distress vocalizations when separated from the home environment. Perhaps the most intensively studied distress vocalization is the ultrasonic vocalization of infant rats. Since its discovery, this vocalization has been interpreted both as a communicatory signal for the elicitation of maternal retrieval and as the manifestation of emotional distress. In contrast, the authors examined the cardiovascular causes and consequences of the vocalization, and on the basis of this work, they hypothesized that the vocalization is the acoustic by-product of the abdominal compression reaction (ACR), a maneuver that results in increased venous return to the heart. Therefore, the vocalization may be analogous to a sneeze, serving a physiological function while incidentally producing sound. PMID:11212634

  15. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

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    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  16. Brain tumors in infants

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    Seyyed Mohammad Ghodsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12 were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16; bulge fontanel (15; vomiting (15; developmental regression (11; sunset eye (7; seizure (4; loss of consciousness (4; irritability (3; nystagmus (2; visual loss (2; hemiparesis (2; torticollis (2; VI palsy (3; VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2; and ptosis (1. Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7, followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6 and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%, from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%, 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%, and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary.

  17. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

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    Berger, R.; Söder, S.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelih...

  18. Are infant mortality rate declines exponential? The general pattern of 20th century infant mortality rate decline

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    Opuni Marjorie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time trends in infant mortality for the 20th century show a curvilinear pattern that most demographers have assumed to be approximately exponential. Virtually all cross-country comparisons and time series analyses of infant mortality have studied the logarithm of infant mortality to account for the curvilinear time trend. However, there is no evidence that the log transform is the best fit for infant mortality time trends. Methods We use maximum likelihood methods to determine the best transformation to fit time trends in infant mortality reduction in the 20th century and to assess the importance of the proper transformation in identifying the relationship between infant mortality and gross domestic product (GDP per capita. We apply the Box Cox transform to infant mortality rate (IMR time series from 18 countries to identify the best fitting value of lambda for each country and for the pooled sample. For each country, we test the value of λ against the null that λ = 0 (logarithmic model and against the null that λ = 1 (linear model. We then demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper transformation by comparing regressions of ln(IMR on same year GDP per capita against Box Cox transformed models. Results Based on chi-squared test statistics, infant mortality decline is best described as an exponential decline only for the United States. For the remaining 17 countries we study, IMR decline is neither best modelled as logarithmic nor as a linear process. Imposing a logarithmic transform on IMR can lead to bias in fitting the relationship between IMR and GDP per capita. Conclusion The assumption that IMR declines are exponential is enshrined in the Preston curve and in nearly all cross-country as well as time series analyses of IMR data since Preston's 1975 paper, but this assumption is seldom correct. Statistical analyses of IMR trends should assess the robustness of findings to transformations other than the log

  19. The Practical Application of the Multi-dimensional Integrated Teaching Method in Canada for Teaching Aboriginal Courses

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    XIAO Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The multi-dimensional integrated teaching method is reflected in the teaching of Ab-original courses by Prof .Georges E .Sioui at the University of Ottawa .The course is an “Introduc-tion to Canadian Aboriginal Societies and Cul-tures”.The practical application of this method is a process which organically combines all kinds of resources during the teaching of the course , and forms a powerful force of the course which effec-tively promotes the successful completion of the course , and the achievement of the teaching objec-tives of the curriculum . At the same time , the method provides an important inspiration and refer-ence for related teaching of national courses and reforms in the universities for nationalities of Chi-na . Ⅰ.Looking from the perspective of the ob-jectives of teaching the course , its composition is characterized by diversified background . All the students , no matter what their background , learn with strong initiation and consciousness as well as with a high level of class participation and enthusi-asm. Ⅱ.From the aspect of the aims for teaching the course , it gradually enhances students ’ under-standing of the Canadian aboriginal languages , cul-tures, medicine, native cultural activities, cultural centers and economies .It further helps them to view the status of Canadian history , politics, cul-ture and society within a Canadian multicultural policy background in an objective and impartial way, and promotes cultural understanding among different social groups .At the same time , it also helps the students to have better choices for future occupations , and serve the public better , especial-ly aboriginal people .Of course , it plays an impor-tant communications role for transferring Aboriginal information effectively . Ⅲ.The effect of the practical application of the multi-dimensional integrated teaching method is obvious . 1 .The participation of multi resources ( 1 ) participation of the Student Learning Service Center of

  20. Autism Treatment in the First Year of Life: A Pilot Study of Infant Start, a Parent-Implemented Intervention for Symptomatic Infants

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    Vismara, L.; Wagner, A. L.; McCormick, C.; Young, G.; Ozonoff, S.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of early autism screening is earlier treatment. We pilot-tested a 12-week, low-intensity treatment with seven symptomatic infants ages 7–15 months. Parents mastered the intervention and maintained skills after treatment ended. Four comparison groups were matched from a study of infant siblings. The treated group of infants was significantly more symptomatic than most of the comparison groups at 9 months of age but was significantly less symptomatic than the two most affected groups between 18 and 36 months. At 36 months, the treated group had much lower rates of both ASD and DQs under 70 than a similarly symptomatic group who did not enroll in the treatment study. It appears feasible to identify and enroll symptomatic infants in parent-implemented intervention before 12 months, and the pilot study outcomes are promising, but testing the treatment’s efficacy awaits a randomized trial. PMID:25212413