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Sample records for aboriginal elders group

  1. The Sharing Circle of Wisdom: A Group for Elderly Aboriginals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Hoggan, Donovan; And Others

    Personal interviews with clients of the Calgary Indian Friendship Center and two other similar centers established a need for a program to enhance the social functioning of elderly aboriginals in Calgary. The needs focused on lack of transportation, inaccessible or inadequate medical care, isolation, elder abuse, and inadequate housing. The…

  2. Completing the circle: elders speak about end-of-life care with aboriginal families in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Mary; Baydala, Angelina; Bourassa, Carrie; McKay-McNabb, Kim; Placsko, Cheryl; Goodwill, Ken; McKenna, Betty; McNabb, Pat; Boekelder, Roxanne

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we share words spoken by Aboriginal elders from Saskatchewan, Canada, in response to the research question, "What would you like non-Aboriginal health care providers to know when providing end-of-life care for Aboriginal families?" Our purpose in publishing these results in a written format is to place information shared by oral tradition in an academic context and to make the information accessible to other researchers. Recent theoretical work in the areas of death and dying suggests that cultural beliefs and practices are particularly influential at the end of life; however, little work describing the traditional beliefs and practices of Aboriginal peoples in Canada exists to guide culturally appropriate end-of-life care delivery. Purposive sampling procedures were used to recruit five elders from culturally diverse First Nations in southern Saskatchewan. Key informant Aboriginal elder participants were videotaped by two Aboriginal research assistants, who approached the elders at powwows. Narrative analysis of the key informant interview transcripts was conducted to identify key concepts and emerging narrative themes describing culturally appropriate end-of-life health care for Aboriginal families. Six themes were identified to organize the data into a coherent narrative: realization; gathering of community; care and comfort/transition; moments after death; grief, wake, funeral; and messages to health care providers. These themes told the story of the dying person's journey and highlighted important messages from elders to non-Aboriginal health care providers.

  3. Aboriginal groups taking leadership positions in power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2009-09-15

    First Nations and Metis communities are now initiating and managing projects in the Canadian energy sector. Federal and provincial governments are now developing training programs to ensure that Aboriginal communities develop the skills needed to successfully manage energy projects. The Supreme Court of Canada has issued a number of rulings ensuring that companies and government agencies have a duty to consult with Aboriginal people when Crown decisions impact Treaty or Aboriginal rights. The Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure has now set up a unit to provide advice and guidance to facilitate partnership opportunities with First Nations and Metis communities. Major companies in Ontario have also developed consultation policies that focus on relationship building, internal education, and promoting business and workforce development. The Pic River First Nation group now owns a minority interest in the Wawatay generating station. A 23 MW facility is fully owned by the First Nations group. The province of Ontario has made a provision for up to $250 million to serve as loan guarantees for First Nations groups. It was concluded that the Electricity Sector Council (ESC) has developed an Aboriginal participation engagement project designed to increase Aboriginal awareness of opportunities within the electricity and renewable energy sector. 3 figs.

  4. Understanding Aboriginal Learning Ideology through Storywork with Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atleo, Marlene R.

    2009-01-01

    Five Nuu-chah-nulth Elders engaged in the examination of a Nuu-chah-nulth story for what they considered learning. A network of eight learning archetypes inhabited the story to demonstrate a range of learning strategies. The Elders identified features central to a cultural learning project, which included prenatal care and grandparent teaching,…

  5. Culturally Relevant Physical Activity through Elders in Motion: Physical Activity Programming for Older Aboriginal Adults in the Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Cleator, Lauren A; Giles, Audrey R

    2016-12-01

    The 2011 National Household Survey found that the number of Aboriginal peoples in Canada aged 65 and over has increased by over 46 % since the 2006 Canadian Census (Statistics Canada 2011). Despite this dramatic increase in older Aboriginal peoples, there is a dearth of research concerning this cohort, especially regarding their engagement with physical activity. Using a case study methodology, this research sought to examine if the Northwest Territories (NWT) Recreation and Parks Association's (NWTRPA) Elders in Motion (EIM) program is culturally relevant for the participants. For this research we used a postcolonial theoretical framework since many of the participants in EIM are Aboriginal older adults and have experienced, and continue to experience, the effects of colonialism. To address this aim we conducted nine semi-structured interviews with EIM program leaders and NWTRPA staff, and supplemented these with archival research of EIM program documents. The findings show that the NWTRPA has adapted many EIM program documents for the participants and thus attempts to be culturally relevant for the participants. There are, however, aspects of the program that are not culturally relevant and actually reinforce colonialism, specifically with the program content (i.e. activities that are a part of EIM). In light of these findings, recommendations are offered for the NWTRPA on how the EIM program can become more culturally relevant for its Aboriginal participants.

  6. Aboriginal experiences of aging and dementia in a context of sociocultural change: qualitative analysis of key informant group interviews with Aboriginal seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanting, Shawnda; Crossley, Margaret; Morgan, Debra; Cammer, Allison

    2011-03-01

    Examining the role of culture and cultural perceptions of aging and dementia in the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of age-related cognitive impairment remains an understudied area of clinical neuropsychology. This paper describes a qualitative study based on a series of key informant group interviews with an Aboriginal Grandmothers Group in the province of Saskatchewan. Thematic analysis was employed in an exploration of Aboriginal perceptions of normal aging and dementia and an investigation of issues related to the development of culturally appropriate assessment techniques. Three related themes were identified that highlighted Aboriginal experiences of aging, caregiving, and dementia within the healthcare system: (1) cognitive and behavioural changes were perceived as a normal expectation of the aging process and a circular conception of the lifespan was identified, with aging seen as going back "back to the baby stage", (2) a "big change in culture" was linked by Grandmothers to Aboriginal health, illness (including dementia), and changes in the normal aging process, and (3) the importance of culturally grounded healthcare both related to review of assessment tools, but also within the context of a more general discussion of experiences with the healthcare system. Themes of sociocultural changes leading to lifestyle changes and disruption of the family unit and community caregiving practices, and viewing memory loss and behavioural changes as a normal part of the aging process were consistent with previous work with ethnic minorities. This research points to the need to understand Aboriginal perceptions of aging and dementia in informing appropriate assessment and treatment of age-related cognitive impairment and dementia in Aboriginal seniors.

  7. Predictors of health promotion lifestyle among three ethnic groups of elderly rural women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H H

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of health promotion lifestyle (HPL) and examine the similarities and differences among three ethnic groups of elderly rural women in Taiwan. Pender's Health Promotion Model was used as the conceptual framework of this study. A convenience sample of 599 elderly rural women was recruited from three rural areas: Kao-Shu, San-Di-Men, and Ma-Chia. Ho-Lo, Hakka, and aboriginal people are the three main ethnic groups in these areas. Of the 599 elderly women, 391 completed all of the interview questions. Subjects ranged from 65 to 91 years old. All instruments used in this study have been evaluated for their content validity. The interrater reliability and alpha coefficient reliability of all instruments were greater than 0.70. A survey-interview method was used to collect data. Findings showed that the predictors of HPL have differences and similarities among elderly rural women from different ethnicities. In the group of elderly Ho-Lo women, age, education, living arrangements, and perceived barriers to health promotion lifestyle (PBaHPL) were significant predictors and they explained 41.9% of total variance in HPL. In the group of elderly Hakka women, education, number of chronic health problems, PBaHPL, and perceived benefits of health promotion lifestyle (PBeHPL) were significant predictors in explaining 53.9% of total variance in HPL. Finally, in the group of elderly aboriginal women, living arrangements, PBaHPL, and PBeHPL were significant predictors in explaining 70.0% of total variance in HPL. Community nurses can use their understanding of different ethnic groups to assess, identify, and use effective health promotion interventions for elderly rural women.

  8. Aboriginal Review 2003/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents information on Syncrude's efforts and achievements in working with Aboriginal communities and leaders in Alberta since 2002 through its Aboriginal Development Program. The report discusses the six key commitment areas of the Program. First, the report provides an overview of Syncrude's achievements in the area of corporate leadership including participation in the Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Industry Advisory Committee; recognition by the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business as a leader in Aboriginal relations through the Aboriginal Relations program; supporting the National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation; championing the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Council of Canada; membership of the Alberta Chamber of Resources Aboriginal Programs Project; Conference Board of Canada's Council on Corporate Aboriginal Relations; and, chairing the Mining Association of Canada. The report discusses business development of Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business owners including Syncrude's employment targets for Aboriginal employment in the Syncrude workforce. It discusses community development in Aboriginal communities such as long distance learning; the Fort Chipewyan day care centre; the Chipewyan Prairie Dene First Nation Multi-Purpose Community Centre in Janvier; and, an elder care facility in Fort McKay First Nation community. It discusses education and training including the Alberta Aboriginal Apprenticeship Project; Syncrude Aboriginal/Women Education Awards Program; University of Alberta Aboriginal Careers Initiative; and, the Aboriginal Financial Management Internship. The report also discusses Syncrude's consultations with Aboriginal communities on environmental issues such as end-land use, air quality and how further expansion can occur without long-term impacts on traditional land uses. The report also contains questions and answers with Aboriginal leaders to discuss the impact of oil sands development. figs

  9. [Prevalence of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia in rural aboriginal groups in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, F; Carrasco, E; Santos, J L; Calvillán, M; Albala, C

    1999-10-01

    Chilean aboriginal ethnic groups (mapuche and aymaras) have a very low prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes. The investigation of a possible relationship between this low prevalence of diabetes and obesity, hypertension and serum lipid profiles in both groups is worthwhile. To study the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and lipid profile in two Chilean aboriginal communities. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, fasting serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, leptin and oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 345 mapuche (106 male) and 247 aymara (100 male) individuals. Sixty three percent of mapuche women, 37.9% of mapuche men, 39.7% of the aymara women and 27.0% of aymara men had a body mass index over 27 kg/m2. Twenty percent of mapuche men, 18.0% of mapuche women, 9.0% of aymara men and 4.8% of the aymara women had high blood pressure values. Serum HDL cholesterol was below 35 mg/dl in 16% of mapuche women, 14% of mapuche men, 25% of the aymara women and 27% of aymara men. No differences in total cholesterol levels were observed between mapuches and aymaras. Mapuche women have higher prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure than aymara women. Low serum HDL cholesterol has a higher prevalence among aymara individuals.

  10. One-year follow up of PTSD and depression in elderly aboriginal people in Taiwan after Typhoon Morakot.

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    Chen, Yi-Lung; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Tang, Tze-Chun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chung; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a 1-year follow-up of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and depression in an elderly minority population who experienced Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. The PTSD Symptom Scale--Interview and the 10-item short form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale were used to examine PTSD symptomatology and depression in 120 victims at 3-6 months and in 88 victims (73.3% reinterview rate) at 11-12 months after the disaster. Further, we looked for associations between stress, prognosis, and development of PTSD symptomatology and depression. The prevalence of PTSD symptomatology decreased from 29.2% (35/120) at 3-6 months to 15.9% (14/88) at 11-12 months. The prevalence of depression, however, increased from 43.3% (52/120) to 46.6% (41/88). No factor was associated with follow-up PTSD symptomatology, and only the level of education was related to follow-up depression. Generally, the risk factors of age, sex, symptomatology of PTSD and depression at baseline, and stressor of unemployment predicted new-onset or chronic PTSD symptomatology and depression. Delayed-onset depression 48.0% (24/50) was more common than delayed-onset PTSD symptomatology 11.3% (7/62). Chronic and delayed-onset PTSD symptomatology were more easily developed with depression. Although PTSD and depression were separate consequences of trauma, they emerged and affected mental health together. We documented the courses of PTSD and depression among elderly aboriginal people, and the possible effects of demographic, symptomatology, and adverse life stressors were discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  12. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  13. The Effects of Group Work with Institutionalized Elderly Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyan, Veli; Sahin-Kara, Gülay; Camur Duyan, Gülsüm; Özdemir, Burcu; Megahead, Hamido A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This research article aims to measure the effects of group therapy on institutionalized elderly in terms of reducing depression and improving psychosocial functioning. Methods: Thirty elderly nursing home residents were recruited, and 16 of them elected to receive group treatment for depression and 14 declined treatment. The…

  14. Non-timber forest products and Aboriginal traditional knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin J. Marles

    2001-01-01

    Ethnobotanical research was conducted in over 30 Aboriginal communities within Canada's boreal forest region. Specific methods for the research were developed that involved a high degree of participation by Aboriginal people in every stage of the project, with the result that well over 100 Aboriginal elders contributed information on the uses of more that 200...

  15. "There's a housing crisis going on in Sydney for Aboriginal people": focus group accounts of housing and perceived associations with health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Melanie J; Williamson, Anna B; Fernando, Peter; Redman, Sally; Vincent, Frank

    2016-05-24

    Poor housing is widely cited as an important determinant of the poor health status of Aboriginal Australians, as for indigenous peoples in other wealthy nations with histories of colonisation such as Canada, the United States of America and New Zealand. While the majority of Aboriginal Australians live in urban areas, most research into housing and its relationship with health has been conducted with those living in remote communities. This study explores the views of Aboriginal people living in Western Sydney about their housing circumstances and what relationships, if any, they perceive between housing and health. Four focus groups were conducted with clients and staff of an Aboriginal community-controlled health service in Western Sydney (n = 38). Inductive, thematic analysis was conducted using framework data management methods in NVivo10. Five high-level themes were derived: the battle to access housing; secondary homelessness; overcrowding; poor dwelling conditions; and housing as a key determinant of health. Participants associated their challenging housing experiences with poor physical health and poor social and emotional wellbeing. Housing issues were said to affect people differently across the life course; participants expressed particular concern that poor housing was harming the health and developmental trajectories of many urban Aboriginal children. Housing was perceived as a pivotal determinant of health and wellbeing that either facilitates or hinders prospects for full and healthy lives. Many of the specific health concerns participants attributed to poor housing echo existing epidemiological research findings. These findings suggest that housing may be a key intervention point for improving the health of urban Aboriginal Australians.

  16. “There’s a housing crisis going on in Sydney for Aboriginal people”: focus group accounts of housing and perceived associations with health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J. Andersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor housing is widely cited as an important determinant of the poor health status of Aboriginal Australians, as for indigenous peoples in other wealthy nations with histories of colonisation such as Canada, the United States of America and New Zealand. While the majority of Aboriginal Australians live in urban areas, most research into housing and its relationship with health has been conducted with those living in remote communities. This study explores the views of Aboriginal people living in Western Sydney about their housing circumstances and what relationships, if any, they perceive between housing and health. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with clients and staff of an Aboriginal community-controlled health service in Western Sydney (n = 38. Inductive, thematic analysis was conducted using framework data management methods in NVivo10. Results Five high-level themes were derived: the battle to access housing; secondary homelessness; overcrowding; poor dwelling conditions; and housing as a key determinant of health. Participants associated their challenging housing experiences with poor physical health and poor social and emotional wellbeing. Housing issues were said to affect people differently across the life course; participants expressed particular concern that poor housing was harming the health and developmental trajectories of many urban Aboriginal children. Conclusions Housing was perceived as a pivotal determinant of health and wellbeing that either facilitates or hinders prospects for full and healthy lives. Many of the specific health concerns participants attributed to poor housing echo existing epidemiological research findings. These findings suggest that housing may be a key intervention point for improving the health of urban Aboriginal Australians.

  17. The Effect of Group Reminiscence Therapy on Depression of Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Nemati Dehkordi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & objective: Global investigations show that the elderly population is increasing because of the health care developments. However, this group is continuously experiencing health problems for example, depression is one of their major problems. The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of group reminiscence therapy on depression of elderly resident of Shahrekord, Iran. Methods and Materials: This is a clinical trial study. The sample was consisted of 64 elderly referring to retirement centre in Shahrekord in 1385 that were selected by convenience sampling, and then divided randomly into two groups: an experimental and a control group. Group reminiscence meetings for experimental group and group meetings for control group were formed each 8 session for one hour and a half. Depression level of investigated subjects’ pre and post intervention were assessed with the use of Geriatric Depression Scale. Descriptive and conceptual statistics were used for data analysis (Chi-square Test, mean - standard deviation- Paired t-test. Results: Findings of this study showed a significant difference between pre and post intervention, where the elderly depression mean score in experimental group changed from 17.95 to 12.99 (p=0.04 but no significant difference were observed in the control group. Conclusion: Considering the result of this study, it can be suggested that group reminiscence therapy is effective on the reduction of elderly depression level. Therefore, we can use this forgotten, easy and practicable and cheap technique in all nursing-homes and even at home.

  18. Distinct modes of transmission of tuberculosis in aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ≤20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR = 5.98, p<0.0001. MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9% among southern people, and Beijing (62.5% and Haarlem (52.9% among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (≥15% than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05; MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ≤20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p = 0.01 and aboriginal ethnicity (p = 0.04 were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy.

  19. A Personal Story of Teaching Aboriginal Art as a Non-Aboriginal Person

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    Fritzlan, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    This is an autoethnographic reflection of teaching Aboriginal art as a non-Aboriginal person. Over a period of ten months, a class of grade seven students was led through an inquiry into Aboriginal art including research and the creation of individual and group art pieces. The evolving curriculum was shaped by considerations of respect for…

  20. Wind power projects and Aboriginal consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, T. [McCarthy Tetrault LLP, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation outlined some of the legal aspects related to Aboriginal involvement in wind power development consultation processes and disputes. Aboriginal rights are rights held by Aboriginal people that are an element of a practice, custom, or tradition integral to the culture of groups claiming such rights. Wind power developers should understand that Aboriginal rights claims may include fishing; whaling; transportation; and cultural and spiritual activities. Aboriginal title is a subcategory of Aboriginal rights, and is a right to land itself, and an encumbrance on the Crown's underlying title to land. Weak Aboriginal claims where potential infringement by energy developers is minor may only require notice and information. Strong prima facie cases for Aboriginal rights and title where the potential for infringement is of high significance may result in more extensive consultation involving interim solutions; formal Aboriginal participation in decision-making processes; and written responses demonstrating how Aboriginal concerns have been considered. There are a number of circumstances requiring a case-by-case approach, and the Crown may make decisions in the face of Aboriginal disagreement. However, energy developers should ensure that consultation processes are fair and reasonable. Conflicting interests can often be successfully resolved through consultation, and accommodation to Aboriginal rights may include mitigation, avoiding interference, and agreeing to as little infringement as possible. Aboriginal title may attach to private land but only to the Crown's underlying title. The Crown has no duty to consult respecting Aboriginal title on private land because title has already been infringed. In these cases, duty to consult and accommodate may be discharged through other regulatory processes such as environmental impact assessments. It was concluded that wind power project proponents should build a relationship with the Crown, as avoiding

  1. Group follow up proposal for elderly with hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Eliara Pinto; Miranda, Elisiane Crestani de; Calais, Lucila Leal; Carvalho, Laura Maria Araújo de; Iório, Maria Cecília Martinelli; Borges, Alda Christina Lopes de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    Implementing rehabilitation programs to hearing impaired adults is of great importance, mainly in the elderly population, and it is necessary to add them to the routine of outpatient care programs. to present a group care program for elderly patients who are fitted with hearing aids. to carry out a pilot study of clinical and experimental type, with the participation of 40 elderly users of hearing aids donated by the government, distributed within six groups, with maximum of eight participants jointly with their respective companions. Program consisted of three meetings every fifteen days, where information and education on the proper use hearing aids was transmitted. Most of the patients participated actively in the meetings spontaneously giving their opinion or answering questions when so requested. All elderly had been informed as to the importance of accepting their auditory deficiency and on the need to be motivated towards using hearing aids. Moreover, listening to depositions of other elderly users seemed to facilitate understanding of their own difficulties and stimulated them in the process of getting used to the sound amplification. Groups structure facilitated interaction among aged ones, helping them to clarify communication doubts and strategies and, consequently, it promoted their adaptation.

  2. Associations of television viewing, physical activity and dietary behaviours with obesity in aboriginal and non-aboriginal Canadian youth.

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    Ng, Carmina; Young, T Kue; Corey, Paul N

    2010-09-01

    To determine associations of diet, physical activity and television (TV) viewing time with obesity among aboriginal and non-aboriginal youth in conjunction with socio-economic variables. Cross-sectional study of differences between aboriginal and non-aboriginal groups and associations between lifestyle and socio-economic factors with obesity were examined. Population data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 conducted in 2004 in the ten provinces of Canada. A total of 198 aboriginal and 4448 non-aboriginal Canadian youth aged 12-17 years. Compared to non-aboriginal youth, physical activity participation among aboriginal youth was higher, but consumption of vegetables and dairy products was lower, and more aboriginal youth were 'high' TV watchers. Low income adequacy was associated with decreased odds for obesity among aboriginal youth in contrast to higher odds among non-aboriginal youth. Non-aboriginal 'high' TV watchers consumed more soft drinks and non-whole-grain products than did 'low' TV watchers. Physical activity participation did not differ between 'high' and 'low' TV watchers for both groups, and was associated with lowered odds for obesity only among aboriginal youth. Sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors associated with obesity differ between aboriginal and non-aboriginal youth. These findings may be useful for guiding intervention efforts.

  3. Bioethics for clinicians: 18. Aboriginal cultures

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    Ellerby, Jonathan H.; McKenzie, John; McKay, Stanley; Gariépy, Gilbert J.; Kaufert, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Although philosophies and practices analogous to bioethics exist in Aboriginal cultures, the terms and categorical distinctions of "ethics" and "bioethics" do not generally exist. In this article we address ethical values appropriate to Aboriginal patients, rather than a preconceived "Aboriginal bioethic." Aboriginal beliefs are rooted in the context of oral history and culture. For Aboriginal people, decision-making is best understood as a process and not as the correct interpretation of a unified code. Aboriginal cultures differ from religious and cultural groups that draw on Scripture and textual foundations for their ethical beliefs and practices. Aboriginal ethical values generally emphasize holism, pluralism, autonomy, community- or family-based decision-making, and the maintenance of quality of life rather than the exclusive pursuit of a cure. Most Aboriginal belief systems also emphasize achieving balance and wellness within the domains of human life (mental, physical, emotional and spiritual). Although these bioethical tenets are important to understand and apply, examining specific applications in detail is not as useful as developing a more generalized understanding of how to approach ethical decision-making with Aboriginal people. Aboriginal ethical decisions are often situational and highly dependent on the values of the individual within the context of his or her family and community. PMID:11033715

  4. Surface rights on Aboriginal lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElhanney, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    Several issues regarding access and activity by petroleum industry on Aboriginal and Metis lands are discussed. Some alternative means by which both industry and Aboriginal groups can approach the matter of surface rights are presented. A historical account of how surface rights have been interpreted in the past was given. It was emphasized that the approach to surface rights compensation and negotiation for both aboriginal and industry parties must begin with adequate consultation. Rigid adherence to the usual past practice of geologically identifying locations, surveying and requesting a lease will no longer suffice. The aboriginal community must be consulted with as much lead time as possible, even assisted financially to identify traditional use areas that require protection, or cannot be disturbed, or require particular mitigation measures. Once this has been done, the operator can proceed to outline the scope of his project, detailing the timing, location, business and employment opportunities and other economic opportunities to the community. 21 refs

  5. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

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    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  6. A cost-consequences analysis of a midwifery group practice for Aboriginal mothers and infants in the top end of the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Gold, Lisa; Josif, Cath; Bar-Zeev, Sarah; Steenkamp, Malinda; Barclay, Lesley; Zhao, Yuejen; Tracy, Sally; Kildea, Sue

    2014-04-01

    to compare the cost-effectiveness of two models of service delivery: Midwifery Group Practice (MGP) and baseline cohort. a retrospective and prospective cohort study. a regional hospital in Northern Territory (NT), Australia. baseline cohort included all Aboriginal mothers (n=412), and their infants (n=416), from two remote communities who gave birth between 2004 and 2006. The MGP cohort included all Aboriginal mothers (n=310), and their infants (n=315), from seven communities who gave birth between 2009 and 2011. The baseline cohort mothers and infant's medical records were retrospectively audited and the MGP cohort data were prospectively collected. All the direct costs, from the Department of Health (DH) perspective, occurred from the first antenatal presentation to six weeks post partum for mothers and up to 28 days post births for infants were included for analysis. analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0 and Stata 12.1. Independent sample of t-tests and χ2 were conducted. women receiving MGP care had significantly more antenatal care, more ultrasounds, were more likely to be admitted to hospital antenatally, and had more postnatal care in town. The MGP cohort had significantly reduced average length of stay for infants admitted to Special Care Nursery (SCN). There was no significant difference between the two cohorts for major birth outcomes such as mode of birth, preterm birth rate and low birth weight. Costs savings (mean A$703) were found, although these were not statistically significant, for women and their infants receiving MGP care compared to the baseline cohort. for remote dwelling Aboriginal women of all risk who travelled to town for birth, MGP was likely to be cost effective, and women received better care and resulting in equivalent birth outcomes compared with the baseline maternity care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Community Resistance to Planned Housing for the Elderly: Ageism or General Antipathy to Group Housing?

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    Mangum, Wiley P.

    1988-01-01

    Compared community resistance to elderly housing and to other group housing through survey of two suburban communities. Found all group housing was objectionable; least objectionable were one-story apartments, shared housing, and multi-story apartments for elderly, in that order. Antipathy to group housing was far more important predictor of…

  8. The Group Setting: A Viable Mental Health Alternative for the Elderly.

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    Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel C.

    Group settings offer the elderly a unique outlet for interpersonal communication and can alleviate social isolation and aloneness. Group cohesiveness and instillation of hope are two curative factors in the group setting. Persons working with the elderly must be aware of their special problems and also be sensitive to their own age bias. Group…

  9. Issues with prescribed medications in Aboriginal communities: Aboriginal health workers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrosi, Kim; Taylor, Susan J; Aslani, Parisa

    2006-01-01

    The health of Indigenous Australians remains appalling. The causes of this situation are multi-factorial, however one contributing factor is poor medication compliance within Aboriginal populations. Anecdotal evidence provided by Aboriginal health workers in western New South Wales (NSW), Australia, has suggested that there are problems associated with the use of prescribed medications within the Aboriginal community. Aboriginal health workers form a core component of the Aboriginal health service sector and they have an in-depth knowledge of the community and its healthcare provision, as well as a familiarity with clinic patients and families. As such they are an important group whose opinions and beliefs about medication use in the Aboriginal population should be investigated. While there have been studies on the issues of prescribing in Aboriginal communities and access to medications, limited investigation into the use of prescribed medicines in Aboriginal communities and the role of the pharmacist in that process, has taken place. Therefore, this research aimed to identify the type of and reasons for inappropriate use of prescribed medications within Aboriginal communities serviced by the Mid Western Area Health Service (since incorporated into the Greater West Area Health Service) as perceived by the Aboriginal health workers in the area, and to explore strategies in conjunction with those Aboriginal health workers to address identified issues. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were held with 11 Aboriginal health workers employed in Community Health Centres and hospitals in the Mid Western Area Health service of NSW. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were content analysed for emerging themes. The interviews explored the beliefs, perceptions and experiences of the Aboriginal health workers regarding prescribed medication use, the role of the pharmacist, and identification of future strategies to improve medication use in

  10. A research review: exploring the health of Canada's Aboriginal youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Ning

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the current state of health research on Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youth in Canada. Design. A search of published academic literature on Canadian Aboriginal youth health, including a comprehensive review of both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal youth research, was conducted using MEDLINE and summarized. Methodology. A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published over a 10-year period (2000–2010. The search was limited to research articles pertaining to Canadian youth, using various synonyms for “Canada,” “youth,” and “Aboriginal.” Each article was coded according to 4 broad categories: Aboriginal identity, geographic location, research topic (health determinants, health status, health care, and the 12 key determinants of health proposed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC. Results. Of the 117 articles reviewed, only 34 pertained to Aboriginal youth, while the remaining 83 pertained to non-Aboriginal youth. The results revealed major discrepancies within the current body of research with respect to the geographic representation of Aboriginal youth, with several provinces missing from the literature, including the northern territories. Furthermore, the current research is not reflective of the demographic composition of Aboriginal youth, with an under-representation of Métis and urban Aboriginal youth. Health status of Aboriginal youth has received the most attention, appearing in 79% of the studies reviewed compared with 57% of the non-Aboriginal studies. The number of studies that focus on health determinants and health care is comparable for both groups, with the former accounting for 62 and 64% and the latter comprising 26 and 19% of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal studies, respectively. However, this review reveals several differences with respect to specific focus on health determinants between the two populations. In non-Aboriginal youth studies, all the 12 key determinants of health of PHAC

  11. Quality of Life and Gait in Elderly Group

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    Taguchi, Carlos Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The process of aging could lead to seniors being more prone to falls, which affects their quality of life. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between quality of life and gait in the elderly. Methods We used World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-Brief Brazilian version and the Dynamic Gait Index to assess fifty-six volunteers from the northeast of Brazil. Ages ranged from 60 to 85 years. Results The Dynamic Gait Index, which indicates the probability of falls, resulted in 36.3% of the sample presenting abnormal results. There was correlation between domain 2 (psychological and domain 4 (environment with domain 1(Physical and domain 3 (Social; a negative correlation between age and Domain 2; correlation between Question 1 (How would you rate your quality of life? and domains 1, 2, and 4 and no correlation between questions 1 and 2 (How satisfied are you with your health?. Question 2 was correlated with all of the domains. There was negative association between question 1 and falls, and a slight correlation between the Dynamic Gait Index scores and Question 1. Conclusion The self-perception of the study group about their quality of life was either good or very good, even though a considerable percentage of individuals had suffered falls or reported gait disturbances.

  12. HIV vaccine acceptability and culturally appropriate dissemination among sexually diverse Aboriginal peoples in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P A; Woodford, M R; Logie, C

    2012-01-01

    This study explored HIV vaccine acceptability and strategies for culturally appropriate dissemination among sexually diverse Aboriginal peoples in Canada, among those at highest HIV risk. We conducted four focus groups (n=23) with Aboriginal male (1) and female (1) service users, peer educators (1) and service providers (1) in Ontario, Canada. Transcripts were analysed with narrative thematic techniques from grounded theory, using NVivo. Participants' mean age was 37 years; about half (52%) were female, half (48%) Two-spirit or lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB)-identified, 48% had a high-school education or less and 57% were unemployed. Vaccine uptake was motivated by community survival; however, negative HIV vaccine perceptions, historically based mistrust of government and healthcare institutions, perceived conflict between western and traditional medicine, sexual prejudice and AIDS stigma within and outside of Aboriginal communities, and vaccine cost may present formidable obstacles to HIV vaccine acceptability. Culturally appropriate processes of engagement emerged on individual levels (i.e., respect for self-determination, explanations in Native languages, use of modelling and traditional healing concepts) and community levels (i.e., leadership by Aboriginal HIV advocates and political representatives, identification of gatekeepers, and procuring Elders' endorsements). Building on cultural strengths and acknowledging the history and context of mistrust and social exclusion are fundamental to effective HIV vaccine dissemination.

  13. Teaching Direct Practice Techniques for Work with Elders with Alzheimer's Disease: A Simulated Group Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.

    2003-01-01

    A role-play exercise about Alzheimer's disease was designed to teach group work with memory-impaired elders. Written comments from 26 social work students revealed four outcomes: demystifying practical knowledge, respect for diversity among memory-impaired individuals, increased awareness of elders' internal states, and awareness of the challenges…

  14. Mobility Behavior of the Elderly: an attitude-based segmentation approach for a heterogeneous target group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    The western population is ageing. Based on the assumption that the elderly are a quite heterogeneous population group with an increasing impact on the transport system, mobility types of the elderly were identified. By means of 1,500 standardized telephone interviews, mobility behavior and possible...

  15. Group of experience with the elderly: psychosocial support in health promotion

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    Laudicéia Noronha Xavier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the perception of the elderly on the importance of a group of experience. Methods: iIt is an exploratory, descriptive research with qualitative approach, developed at a Basic Health Unit in a county of the Brazilian northeast, with 13 elderly people attending the Group. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysis by the thematic analysis technique. Results: three empirical categories were identified: motivation to seek the group of experience, perspective concerning this group and changes perceived through participation. Conclusion: the group of experience can represent a therapeutic moment for the elderly, serving as support and strengthening the elderly in the social context, making the improvement and development of abilities as well as the obtaining more knowledge for health promotion possible.

  16. Engaging aboriginal peoples in Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, P.

    2011-01-01

    The interests and concerns of Aboriginal peoples are integral to development and implementation of Canada's plans for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has an ongoing statutory obligation and a commitment to active and meaningful participation with Aboriginal peoples. The organization has worked with Aboriginal organizations and individuals to develop long-term engagement and dialogue processes that respect traditional Aboriginal practices, culture, protocols and approaches to decision-making. Aboriginal peoples were significant participants in the 2003-2005 study that resulted in the recommendation for Adaptive Phased Management (APM). After the Canadian government agreed to proceed with APM, Aboriginal peoples provided valuable input into development of the process for selecting a site for a deep geological repository (DGR) for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel. The involvement of Aboriginal stakeholders continues to be important as Canada moves into the siting process. Engagement of Aboriginal peoples is guided by principles that respond to the unique interests, perspectives and culture of Aboriginal peoples. These principles recognize and honour the special relationship that Aboriginal peoples have with the natural environment, their unique stewardship responsibilities, and the fact that Aboriginal peoples are holders of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK), which brings value to planning processes. The NWMO has been working with Aboriginal Elders and others to learn about ATK and to interweave this knowledge into its work. ATK includes important knowledge about the land, ecology and intergenerational decision-making. The NWMO and Aboriginal peoples have given life to engagement principles and the wisdom of ATK by collaboratively developing a number of programs including agreements with national, regional and local Aboriginal organizations. Additionally, the NWMO has

  17. Effects of group reminiscence on elderly depression: A meta-analysis

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    Dan Song

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Group reminiscence was associated with short-term depression relief among elderly patients with depression and effectively improved self-esteem and life satisfaction. Higher-quality large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  18. Smoking and Other Drug Characteristics of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Prisoners in Australia

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    Robyn L. Richmond

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Although tobacco and alcohol use have declined substantially in the Australian community, substance use among prisoners remains high. The aim was to compare the smoking, drug, and alcohol characteristics, sociodemographic profile, and general health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male prisoners in a smoking cessation intervention. Design and Methods. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of data from 425 male prisoners who joined a quit smoking trial conducted at 18 correctional centres in NSW and Queensland using data collected by standardised self-report instruments. Results. Average age was 33 years with 15% from Aboriginal descent. Compared to non-Aboriginal prisoners, Aboriginal prisoners were significantly more likely to have left school with no qualifications, to have been institutionalised as a child, to be previously incarcerated, and commenced smoking at a younger age. The tobacco use profile of both groups was similar; most of them had a medium to high level of nicotine dependence, smoked roll your own tobacco, and were “serious” about quitting. Discussion and Conclusion. Despite differences in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and offending history, the smoking characteristics of Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal prisoners were similar. Incarceration offers an opportunity to encourage smoking cessation and reduction of drug use.

  19. Disparities in healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Albertan residents, 1997-2006: a population database study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Chung

    Full Text Available It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities.Healthcare utilisation data over a nine-year period were analysed for a cohort of nearly two million individuals to determine the rates at which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations utilised two specialties (Cardiology and Ophthalmology in Alberta, Canada. Unadjusted and adjusted healthcare utilisation rates obtained by mixed linear and Poisson regressions, respectively, were compared amongst three population groups - federally registered Aboriginals, individuals receiving welfare, and other Albertans.Healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginals were substantially lower than those of non-Aboriginals and welfare recipients at each time point and subspecialty studied [e.g. During 2005/06, unadjusted Cardiology utilisation rates were 0.28% (Aboriginal, n = 97,080, 0.93% (non-Aboriginal, n = 1,720,041 and 1.37% (Welfare, n = 52,514, p = <0.001]. The age distribution of the Aboriginal population was markedly different [2.7%≥65 years of age, non-Aboriginal 10.7%], and comparable utilisation rates were obtained after adjustment for fiscal year and estimated life expectancy [Cardiology: Incidence Rate Ratio 0.66, Ophthalmology: IRR 0.85].The analysis revealed that Aboriginal people utilised subspecialty healthcare at a consistently lower rate than either comparatively economically disadvantaged groups or the general population. Notably, the differences were relatively invariant between the major provincial centres and over a nine year period. Addressing the causes of these discrepancies is

  20. Anticipatory grief and chronicity: Elders and families in racial/ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Irene Daniels; McBride, Melen

    2004-01-01

    This article provides some brief demographic data on aging, describes anticipatory grief, and presents two cases of anticipatory grief involving elders in racial/ethnic minority groups with some analysis including cultural values and beliefs and some practical guidelines.Melen McBride and Mycel JacobIrene Daniels and Lillian DavisIrene and Don Lewis The discussion ends with a useful process model for improving communications with elders in racial/ethnic groups and their families.

  1. 'Stereotypes are reality': addressing stereotyping in Canadian Aboriginal medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Anh; Crowshoe, Lynden

    2015-06-01

    Efforts are underway in many parts of the world to develop medical education curricula that address the health care issues of indigenous populations. The topic of stereotypes and their impact on such peoples' health, however, has received little attention. An examination of stereotypes will shed light on dominant cultural attitudes toward Aboriginal people that can affect quality of care and health outcomes in Aboriginal patients. This study examines the views of undergraduate medical students regarding Canadian Aboriginal stereotypes and how they potentially affect Aboriginal people's health. The goal of this study was to gain insight into how medical learners perceive issues related to racism, discrimination and social stereotypes and to draw attention to gaps in Aboriginal health curricula. This study involved a convenience sample of medical learners drawn from one undergraduate medical programme in western Canada. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we conducted a total of seven focus group interviews with 38 first- and second-year undergraduate medical students. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. Medical students recognise that stereotypes are closely related to processes of racism and discrimination. However, they generally feel that stereotypes of Aboriginal people are rooted in reality. Students also identified medical school as one of the environments in which they are commonly exposed to negative views of Aboriginal people. Student responses suggest they see the cultural gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people as being both a cause and a consequence of discrimination against Aboriginal people. The results of this study suggest that teaching medical students about the realities and impacts of stereotypes on Aboriginal peoples is a good starting point from which to address issues of racism and health inequities affecting the health of Aboriginal people. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Factors associated with pretreatment and treatment dropouts: comparisons between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients admitted to medical withdrawal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Sun, Huiying; Marsh, David C; Anis, Aslam H

    2013-12-10

    Addiction treatment faces high pretreatment and treatment dropout rates, especially among Aboriginals. In this study we examined characteristic differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients accessing an inpatient medical withdrawal management program, and identified risk factors associated with the probabilities of pretreatment and treatment dropouts, respectively. 2231 unique clients (Aboriginal = 451; 20%) referred to Vancouver Detox over a two-year period were assessed. For both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups, multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted with pretreatment dropout and treatment dropout as dependent variables, respectively. Aboriginal clients had higher pretreatment and treatment dropout rates compared to non-Aboriginal clients (41.0% vs. 32.7% and 25.9% vs. 20.0%, respectively). For Aboriginal people, no fixed address (NFA) was the only predictor of pretreatment dropout. For treatment dropout, significant predictors were: being female, having HCV infection, and being discharged on welfare check issue days or weekends. For non-Aboriginal clients, being male, NFA, alcohol as a preferred substance, and being on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) at referral were associated with pretreatment dropout. Significant risk factors for treatment dropout were: being younger, having a preferred substance other than alcohol, having opiates as a preferred substance, and being discharged on weekends. Our results highlight the importance of social factors for the Aboriginal population compared to substance-specific factors for the non-Aboriginal population. These findings should help clinicians and decision-makers to recognize the importance of social supports especially housing and initiate appropriate services to improve treatment intake and subsequent retention, physical and mental health outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of treatment.

  3. Variance of foot biomechanical parameters across age groups for the elderly people in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deselnicu, D. C.; Vasilescu, A. M.; Militaru, G.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of a fieldwork study conducted in order to analyze major causal factors that influence the foot deformities and pathologies of elderly women in Romania. The study has an exploratory and descriptive nature and uses quantitative methodology. The sample consisted of 100 elderly women from Romania, ranging from 55 to over 75 years of age. The collected data was analyzed on multiple dimensions using a statistic analysis software program. The analysis of variance demonstrated significant differences across age groups in terms of several biomechanical parameters such as travel speed, toe off phase and support phase in the case of elderly women.

  4. WAYFINDING STUDY IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: THE ELDERLY VS. THE YOUNGER-AGED GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghae Lee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of architectural wayfinding aids on wayfinding performances in comparison of the elderly group and the younger aged group. An ambulatory healthcare facility was simulated using Virtual Reality (VR to develop two levels of wayfinding aids for the same environments. The base model included minimal wayfinding aids, and the design model included more wayfinding aids. The VR environment was presented in the form of video in order to test wayfinding performances at three different wayfinding decision points. Results showed that age and wayfinding aids impacted wayfinding performances. The younger-aged group performed wayfinding better compared to the elderly group. Participants who were tested in the design model were more successful in wayfinding compared to the elderly group. The elderly group reported that more salient wayfinding aids such as a big logo and paint colors helped their wayfinding while the younger-aged group reported less salient aids such as door designs as helpful wayfinding aids. When there were minimal wayfinding aids, the elderly participants needed to rely mostly on memory recall by remembering turns or paying close attention. When participants felt that the wayfinding test was difficult, their performances were less successful. Findings in this study suggest that wayfinding design for the elderly should consider the limited ability of recall and therefore, design wayfinding aids more frequently with more salient aids to avoid confusion. The elderly group needed to rely on their limited cognitive ability when there were not enough wayfinding aids, which make them experience difficulties in wayfinding.

  5. Attitudes and characteristics of health professionals working in Aboriginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Annabelle M; Magarey, Anthea M; Jones, Michelle; O'Donnell, Kim; Kelly, Janet

    2015-01-01

    There is an unacceptable gap in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Australia. Linked to social inequalities in health and political and historical marginalisation, this health gap must be urgently addressed. It is important that health professionals, the majority of whom in Australia are non-Aboriginal, are confident and equipped to work in Aboriginal health in order to contribute towards closing the health gap. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and characteristics of non-Aboriginal health professionals working in Aboriginal health. The research was guided and informed by a social constructionist epistemology and a critical theoretical approach. It was set within a larger healthy eating and physical activity program delivered in one rural and one metropolitan community in South Australia from 2005 to 2010. Non-Aboriginal staff working in the health services where the program was delivered and who had some experience or an interest working in Aboriginal health were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview. Dietitians working across South Australia (rural and metropolitan locations) were also invited to participate in an interview. Data were coded into themes that recurred throughout the interview and this process was guided by critical social research. Thirty-five non-Aboriginal health professionals participated in a semi-structured interview about their experiences working in Aboriginal health. The general attitudes and characteristics of non-Aboriginal health professionals were classified using four main groupings, ranging from a lack of practical knowledge ('don't know how'), a fear of practice ('too scared'), the area of Aboriginal health perceived as too difficult ('too hard') and learning to practice regardless ('barrier breaker'). Workers in each group had different characteristics including various levels of willingness to work in the area; various understandings of Australia's historical

  6. The Effect of Life Review Group Therapy on Elderly With Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Alizadehfard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chronic pain is a common problem in the elderly. The prevalence of pain indicates that among the Iranian older population who are living in nursing homes, at any specific time, at least 72.8% experience pain. Research designed as a structured review of one’s life is helpful, even is therapeutic in elderly. The aim of life review therapy increases life satisfaction, improves self-esteem, and helps elderly to cope with crises, losses, life transitions and providing acceptance of their life`s realities in coping and resolving their own past conflicts. Methods & Materials: Via this descriptive, case-control research, forty residents with persistent pain of 4 nursing homes in Tehran were selected. All subjects were asked to give their own demographic details and pain status following the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Randomly they got allocated into two groups. First group, conducting the complete life review therapy guide and the second one as control group. During the therapy time, patients reconstruct their life story and examine both positive and negative experiences, with the therapist as a coach. Effects of life review therapy on such elderly were examined via pain questionnaire after therapy periods and were compared with basic levels. Results: The results showed a significant difference between two groups.Reduction in pain questionnaire scores in first group compare with control group were significant. Conclusion: The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the utility of applying life review therapy for elderly with chronic pain

  7. Effectiveness of cognitive Existential Group therapy on quality of life of elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jalili Nikoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: With an aging population, considering the factors affecting the quality of life more than ever is necessary. The aim of current research was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive existential therapy on quality of life of elderly people. Methods: The current research is semi experimental with pre and post test with control group. Statistical population of research consists of all elderly people in Kahrizak nursing homes. In the first phase, the participants were selected through purposive sampling method and after responding to the quality of life questionnaire and obtaining score for enter to research they were divided in two groups of experimental and control (N = 12 per group using random sampling method.  The experimental group participated in 10 sessions of group counseling based on cognitive- existential approach and control group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using covariance analysis. Results: There was no difference between pre-test and control groups, but the mean scores of post-test experimental and control groups were statistically significant. and cognitive group therapy improves quality of life is (p=0.001. Therefore it seems that cognitive-existential group therapy increase quality of life of elderly people. Conclusion: Cognitive Existential Group therapy utilizes concepts such as death, meaning, cognitive distortions and responsibility could increase the level ofquality of life of elderly people. Thus interventions based on this approach could be useful in improving the quality of life.

  8. Aboriginal marriage and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A

    1984-01-01

    Patterns of marriage among the aboriginal population of Australia are investigated. The author attempts to determine "the economic significance of a method of family formation in which child-bearing is an essential component of the process....[and discusses the impact of] change in the micro-economies of Aboriginal households and families." Probabilities of change in marital status are also considered. Data are from the 1981 census. excerpt

  9. Psychopathology of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents Living in the Mountainous Region of Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents who live in the same mountainous region of southern Taiwan, and to test the hypothesis by controlling other individual and environmental factors. In this study, a total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal Taiwanese adolescents were enrolled. Their psychopathology was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale; demographic and family characteristics, and their affinity with their peer group and with their school were also assessed. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents, and indicated that females and adolescents perceiving higher levels of family conflict and lower family support were more likely to experience more severe psychopathology than those perceiving the contrary. Those who devise strategies to improve the mental health of adolescents living in impoverished regions must take into consideration their ethnicity, gender, and family context when devising such treatment strategies.

  10. Becoming empowered: a grounded theory study of Aboriginal women's agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Roxanne

    2011-07-01

    The study aim was to identify the process underlying the performance of agency for urban-dwelling Aboriginal women in contemporary Australian society with a view to promoting social change for Aboriginal people. Grounded theory methods were used in the conduct of 20 life history narrative interviews with Aboriginal women from across fourteen different language groups. Analysis identified a specific ecological model of Aboriginal women's empowerment, defined as "becoming empowered". "Performing Aboriginality" was identified as the core category and encompassed the women's concern for carving out a fulfilling life and carrying out their perceived responsibilities as Aboriginal women. While confirming much of the extant literature on empowerment, the analysis also offered unique contributions--a spiritual sensibility, cultural competence and an ethics of care and morality. This sheds new light on the creative ways in which Aboriginal women "disrupt" discourses and create alternate modes of existence. The findings have implications for improving quality of life for Aboriginal people by informing the practical development and delivery of social and health policies and programs.

  11. Sexuality and the Elderly: A Group Counseling Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzi, Dave; Gossman, Larry

    1982-01-01

    Describes a 10-session group counseling model to facilitate awareness of sexuality and the legitimacy of its expression for older adults. Considers member selection, session length and setting, and group leadership. (Author/MCF)

  12. Group Work with the Elderly: An Overview for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzi, Dave; Gross, Doug

    1980-01-01

    Loneliness and isolation of older adults can be treated with group therapy. Group methods such as reality orientation, remotivation, reminiscing and psychotherapy groups can increase social interaction but require special consideration of environment, scheduling and individual limitation as well as counselor training. (JAC)

  13. Participation of Aboriginal peoples in resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, J.; Snow, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The means by which the petroleum industry can establish a successful relationship with Aboriginal people and their community are described. It was emphasized that industry and Aboriginals must define training, employment and business objectives jointly for the longer term. Suncor's Oil Sands Group operates in an area considered to be traditional lands by the First Nation and Metis people of Fort McKay. Suncor recognizes its responsibilities to Fort McKay and has taken the approach to support Aboriginal community development through written agreements and protocols which identify the social, economic, environmental and political issues that are important to them. The Memorandum of Understanding between Suncor Energy Oil Sands, Fort McKay First Nation, and Fort McKay Metis Local 122 is used as an example of one major company's initiatives to establish a mutually supportive and interdependent relationship

  14. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  15. The effects of a psychomotor activation programme for use in groups of cognitively impaired people in homes for the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman-Rock, M.; Staats, P.G.M.; Tak, E.C.P.M.; Dröes, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. To test the effects of the Psychomotor Activation Programme (PAP) on the behaviour and cognition of demented elderly people. Design. Randomized controlled trial with an experimental group and a control group. Post-test after 6 months. Setting. Group care projects for demented elderly

  16. Functional outcomes of inpatient rehabilitation in very elderly patients with stroke: differences across three age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutai, Hitoshi; Furukawa, Tomomi; Wakabayashi, Ayumi; Suzuki, Akihito; Hanihara, Tokiji

    2018-05-01

    Background As the population continues to age rapidly, clarifying the factors affecting the prognosis in very elderly stroke patients is essential to enhance the quality of their rehabilitation. Objectives To compare the functional recovery of elderly stroke patients classified into three age groups and to identify the predictors of functional recovery in the very elderly following acute inpatient rehabilitation. Methods Observational study: We collected data on 461 stroke patients in the neurology and neurosurgery ward and classified them into three age groups (65-74, 75-84, and ≥ 85 years). Functional recovery was compared among groups using the functional independence measure (FIM) at discharge and ADL recovery rate was compared using the Montebello rehabilitation factor score (MRFS). Multiple regression analysis was used to identify and compare the factors associated with functional recovery in each age group. Results Functional recovery in the ≥ 85 years group was lower than that in other age groups. Factors associated with activities of daily living (ADL) status (FIM at discharge) in the ≥ 85 years group were premorbid dependence (β = -0.183, p = 0.011), motor paralysis (β = -0.238, p = 0.001), and cognitive function (β = 0.586, p age increased. Factors associated with ADL recovery rates (MRFS) in the ≥ 85 years group were non-paretic limb function (β = -0.294, p = 0.004) and cognitive function (β = 0.201, p = 0.047). Conclusions This study identified the factors associated with functional recovery among very elderly stroke patients. Effective forms of rehabilitation for very elderly stroke patients that take these factors into consideration need to be investigated.

  17. Using traditional spirituality to reduce domestic violence within aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchala, Chassidy; Paul, Sarah; Kennedy, Carla; Mehl-Madrona, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of involving traditional healing elders (THE) in the clinical care of aboriginal families who were involved in domestic violence in the context of a clinical case series of referrals made for domestic violence. Psychiatric consultations were requested from senior author L.M.M. for 113 aboriginal individuals involved with domestic violence as recipients or perpetrators (or both) between July 2005 and October 2008. As part of their clinical care, all were encouraged to meet with a THE, with 69 agreeing to do so. The My Medical Outcomes Profile 2 scale was being used as a clinical instrument to document effectiveness. Elders used traditional cultural stories and aboriginal spirituality with individuals, couples, and families to transform the conditions underlying domestic violence. For those people who met with the THE, a statistically significant change (p domestic violence is effective. We speculate that it helps by providing traditional stories about relationships and roles that do not include violence. Spiritual approaches within aboriginal communities may be more effective than more secular, clinical approaches. Research is indicated to compare elder-based interventions with conventional clinical care.

  18. Determinants of dental user groups among an elderly, low-income population.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuthy, R A; Strayer, M S; Caswell, R J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We test whether or not there are differences for selected variables among five dental user groups and one nondental group within an elderly, low-income population. DATA SOURCE: We used ten years of Medicare Part B claims data from the Cincinnati Health Department for all clinic users 62 years of age and older who participated in the Municipal Health Services Program. STUDY DESIGN: A polychotomous logistic regression model determined the ability to differentiate between the groups f...

  19. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendron, R.; Hille, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are

  20. Effectiveness of group music intervention against agitated behavior in elderly persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Chu, Hsin; Yang, Chyn-Yng; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2011-07-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of group music intervention against agitated behavior in elderly persons with dementia. This was an experimental study using repeated measurements. Subjects were elderly persons who suffered from dementia and resided in nursing facilities. In total, 104 participants were recruited by permuted block randomization and of the 100 subjects who completed this study, 49 were in the experimental group and 51 were in the control group. The experimental group received a total of twelve 30-min group music intervention sessions, conducted twice a week for six consecutive weeks, while the control group participated in normal daily activities. In order to measure the effectiveness of the therapeutic sessions, assessments were conducted before the intervention, at the 6th and 12th group sessions, and at 1 month after cessation of the intervention. Longitudinal effects were analyzed by means of generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After the group music therapy intervention, the experimental group showed better performance at the 6th and 12th sessions, and at 1 month after cessation of the intervention based on reductions in agitated behavior in general, physically non-aggressive behavior, verbally non-aggressive behavior, and physically aggressive behavior, while a reduction in verbally aggressive behavior was shown only at the 6th session. Group music intervention alleviated agitated behavior in elderly persons with dementia. We suggest that nursing facilities for demented elderly persons incorporate group music intervention in routine activities in order to enhance emotional relaxation, create inter-personal interactions, and reduce future agitated behaviors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [FRancilian Oncogeriatric Group (FROG)'s focus on management of elderly patients with bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebriou, Djamel; Avenin, Danièle; Caillet, Philippe; Mongiat-Artus, Pierre; Durdux, Catherine; Massard, Christophe; Culine, Stéphane

    2014-09-01

    Bladder cancer is diagnosed more often in the elderly. The most effective treatment strategies are mostly very aggressive and are not applicable to all patients in a very heterogeneous population. However, effective options exist to treat the most vulnerable subjects. A multidisciplinary approach including a geriatric assessment is essential for optimal adaptation of treatment. The FRancilian Oncogeriatric Group (FROG) conducted a comprehensive literature search in order to review the applicable therapeutic options according to oncological and geriatric settings. International recommendations are essential to harmonize the management of elderly patients with bladder cancer.

  2. Drinking culture of elderly Korean immigrants in Canada: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooksoo

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the drinking culture of elderly Korean immigrants in Canada. Using a focus group approach, qualitative data were collected from 19 elderly Korean immigrants (14 men; 5 women) residing in Canada. Data were analyzed using the techniques of grounded theory. The findings indicated that elderly Korean immigrants did not dramatically change their understanding of drinking or their ways of drinking. Instead, they modified their drinking behavior in accordance with the social and legal environment of their new country. In particular, Canadian alcohol policies, including the higher cost of alcohol, lower accessibility, and strict law enforcement, discouraged excessive drinking. Policy implications and recommendations for future research are presented.

  3. Examining the Effectiveness of Hope-Based Group Training on the Life Quality of the Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysam Ghazi Mohseni

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that hope-based group training could significantly enhance the quality of life of the elderly. With the rapid increase in the number of elderly, hope-based group training is highly recommended. 

  4. Effectiveness of Life Review Group Therapy on Psychological Well-Being and the Life Expectancy of Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Sadri Damirchi

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that life review group therapy could significantly enhance the psychological well-being and life expectancy in elderly women. With the rapid increase in the number of elderly, life review group therapy is highly recommended.

  5. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, J.; Duiven, M.; Garibaldi, A.; McGregor, D.; Straker, J.; Patton, P.

    2011-01-01

    the community identifies species and species groups that are integral to community values and way of life, and working with scientists on approaches that will protect the CKS. These novel approaches are helping to address the community's environmental and social/cultural values. While Canada's Aboriginal peoples have a unique perspective on resource management, founded in a meaningful personal relationship with the natural environment, many similarities do exist between ATK and Western knowledge. Interweaving of the two forms of knowledge achieves more success when the two cultures don't attempt to impose their worldviews on one another, but incorporate the strengths of both. (author)

  6. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, J. [JB, Consultant, Paris (France); Duiven, M. [Skeena Fisheries Commission, Kispiox, BC (Canada); Garibaldi, A. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); McGregor, D. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Geography and Aboriginal Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Patton, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    the community identifies species and species groups that are integral to community values and way of life, and working with scientists on approaches that will protect the CKS. These novel approaches are helping to address the community's environmental and social/cultural values. While Canada's Aboriginal peoples have a unique perspective on resource management, founded in a meaningful personal relationship with the natural environment, many similarities do exist between ATK and Western knowledge. Interweaving of the two forms of knowledge achieves more success when the two cultures don't attempt to impose their worldviews on one another, but incorporate the strengths of both. (author)

  7. Effects of a health promotion and fall prevention program in elderly individuals participating in interaction groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lays Cavallero Pagliosa

    Full Text Available Introduction Falls in elderly people are an increasing public health problem resulting in high costs to health services. Thus, it is essential to invest in the development of actions and programs focused on decreasing such risks. Objective To verify the effects of a program of health promotion and prevention of falls in relation to balance and functional abilities in elderly people participating in interaction groups in Caxias do Sul City, RS State. Materials and methods For this purpose, 14 elderly people were selected for assessment and reassessment through the following instruments: the Barthel Index, Timed Up and Go Test (TUG, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and a questionnaire to characterize the sample. Over the course of 2 months, group activities were conducted in a multi-sensory and proprioceptive circuit with a frequency of 2 times per week, totaling 14 meetings. Results The average age of participants was about 72 years old, mostly women (78.6%; 64.3% of them had experienced falls, and 92.9% had already practiced physical activities. After the intervention, there was an average increase of 9.14 points in the BBS (p = 0.000 and an average reduction of 4.4 seconds in gait speed on the TUG test (p = 0.000. Conclusion The application of the proposed program resulted in increasing balance and gait performance of the elderly, reducing the risk of falls.

  8. Immunogenicity and safety of 3-dose primary vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, David W; Ferguson, Murdo; Predy, Gerald; Dawar, Meena; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Han, Htay-Htay

    2015-04-15

    This study compared immune responses of healthy Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) components of a DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine, 1 month after completing dosing at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Of 112 infants enrolled in each group, 94 Aboriginal and 107 non-Aboriginal infants qualified for the immunogenicity analysis. Anti-PRP concentrations exceeded the protective minimum (≥0.15 μg/ml) in ≥97% of infants in both groups but geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher in Aboriginal infants (6.12 μg/ml versus 3.51 μg/ml). All subjects were seroprotected (anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL) against HBV, with groups having similar GMCs (1797.9 versus 1544.4 mIU/mL, Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal, respectively). No safety concerns were identified. We conclude that 3-dose primary vaccination with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine elicited immune responses to Hib and HBV components that were at least as high in Aboriginal as in non-Aboriginal Canadian infants. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00753649. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. A Survey on Efficacy of group logotherapy on loneliness and anxiety of death in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araghian Shima

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study is a quasi-test study to evaluate the effectiveness of logotherapy in group method on loneliness and anxiety of death among elderly people. The population of the study included all seniors 65 years old and older living in sanitarium in Mashhad. The sample consisted of 20 elderly men and women living in sanitarium in Mashhad on 2013- 2014 which were selected from above population in an available and voluntarily sampling way and then were randomly assigned to two groups.[1]The instruments consisted revised loneliness scale [1] and Death Anxiety Scale [2]. The analysis of covariance was used for Data analyzing. The results showed that there is a meaningful difference between test and control groups on the scale of loneliness and anxiety of death (p<0.05.

  10. The Effectiveness of a Multidisciplinary Group Rehabilitation Program on the Psychosocial Functioning of Elderly People Who Are Visually Impaired

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Suurmeijer, Theodorus; van der Mei, Sijrike F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The pilot study reported here determined the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation program, Visually Impaired Elderly Persons Participating (VIPP), on psychosocial functioning. Methods: The single-group pretest-posttest pilot study included 29 persons with visual

  11. Reducing prescribing of highly anticholinergic antidepressants for elderly people : randomised trial of group versus individual academic detailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Martine E C; Avorn, J; Porsius, A J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06946409X; de Boer, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of individual educational visits versus group visits using academic detailing to discuss prescribing of highly anticholinergic antidepressants in elderly people. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with three arms (individual visits, group visits, and a control arm).

  12. The role of group brain checkups using magnetic resonance imaging in pre-elderly with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai-Iwai, Eri; Ogawa, Fumiaki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Naruse, Shoji

    2006-01-01

    Care of elderly people is an important socio-economical issue for industrial nations. Stroke is the leading cause of elderly care and its major risk facters are silent brain infarcts and metabolic disorders such as hypertension. Recent progress in brain imaging techniques has enabled early detection of cerebrovascular disease. However, brain imaging of numerous patients is not feasible because the test is time consuming and costly. Furthermore, the epidemiology of silent cerebrovascular disease in hypertensive elderly people is not well-known. Thus, the present study aims to establish whether group brain check-up is effective and to assess the incidence of silent cerebrovascular disease in pre-elderly individuals with hypertension. We randomly enrolled 224 participants, aged 50- to 65-years-old, with hypertension detected during routine medical check-ups. All participants were free of neurological symptoms, or dementia as determined by the Mini Mental Status Examination. MRI was carried out by the simplified method of fast spin echo (FSE)-T2-weighted image (T2WI) and 3D-time of flight (TOF) MRA with Toshiba VISART1.5T, and diagnosed by 3 radiologists. Each imaging test required only 10 minutes and the cost was reduced to about 40-80% number of the usual cost for brain MRIs. The detection rate of abnormal findings was 77.6% (n=174) and that of cerebrovascular changes was 70.1% (n=159; 102 lacunae, 64 intracranial artery stenosis, and 27 cerebral aneurysm), which was much higher than previously reported in a study of random participants. In addition, follow-up questionnaires after the brain check-ups revealed that 86% of participants improved their awareness about health-related life-style. These findings indicate that the pre-elderly population with hypertension is at high-risk for silent cerebrovascular disease, and mass screening of this group using our simplified MRI may be an effective medical health strategy in aging society. (author)

  13. Complicated grief in Aboriginal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Sareen, Jitender; Elias, Brenda; Martens, Patricia; Munro, Garry; Bolton, James

    2012-06-01

    To date there have been no studies examining complicated grief (CG) in Aboriginal populations. Although this research gap exists, it can be hypothesized that Aboriginal populations may be at increased risk for CG, given a variety of factors, including increased rates of all-cause mortality and death by suicide. Aboriginal people also have a past history of multiple stressors resulting from the effects of colonization and forced assimilation, a significant example being residential school placement. This loss of culture and high rates of traumatic events may place Aboriginal individuals at increased risk for suicide, as well as CG resulting from traumatic loss and suicide bereavement. Studies are needed to examine CG in Aboriginal populations. These studies must include cooperation with Aboriginal communities to help identify risk factors for CG, understand the role of culture among these communities, and identify interventions to reduce poor health outcomes such as suicidal behavior.

  14. THE MOVING OF EMOTION ON ELDERLY' S LIFE: A STUDY WITH A THIRD AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Braz Penna

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Qualitative study which aims was to describe the emotions in elderly life and to debate the relation between emotions and elderly health. The study was developed in a third age group at Sao Gonçalo city – RJ by participant observation and semi-structured interviews with ten elderly people. After the information analysis it was possible to identify the category "The Pendulum of Emotions" and two complementary subjects: rising and descending movement of emotions on living. The elderly evidenced that their emotions represents a continuous movement which reflects straightly to the feeling of being or not healthy and living well the third age is having autonomy of daily activities and freedom to participate of leisure and physical activities. Thus, the human being needs to valorize all the stages of his life, because the process of becoming old starts from the moment we were born and the quality of life is a daily conquest in this way. KEY WORDS: Aging; Mental Health; Quality of Life.

  15. Forms of aboriginal self-government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boisvert, David

    1985-01-01

    .... This paper examines how to establish aboriginal authorities within Canadian federalism, and proposed that the devolution of authority onto aboriginal governments might be the best way to establish...

  16. A postcolonial feminist discourse analysis of urban Aboriginal women's description of pregnancy-related weight gain and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Francine E; Giles, Audrey R

    2016-02-01

    Excessive weight gain and physical inactivity in pregnancy have been identified as risk factors for negative health outcomes for mothers and fetuses, particularly among Aboriginal women. In this paper we engage with postcolonial feminist theory and critical discourse analysis to examine the question, "how do urban Aboriginal women understand pregnancy-related weight gain and physical activity." We conducted focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 25 urban Aboriginal pregnant or postpartum women between the ages of 16 and 39 in Ottawa, Canada. Three prominent discourses emerged: Aboriginal women have different pregnancies than non-Aboriginal women because Aboriginal women gain more weight and are more likely to develop gestational diabetes; Aboriginal women feel personally responsible for and shameful about excessive weight gain; finally, Aboriginal women need culturally safe pregnancy resources. Our results illuminate the complex and often paradoxical ways in which discourses around weight gain and physical activity are produced and taken-up by Aboriginal women and their healthcare providers. Based on these findings, we argue there is a lack of accessible and culturally safe resources for urban Aboriginal women, specifically concerning weight gain and physical activity in pregnancy. We recommend the development of resources that are created for/by/with Aboriginal women to better address that issues that urban Aboriginal women themselves identify as being of key importance. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Gomes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20; the 60-64 age group (n=20; the 65-69 age group (n=20; and the 70-74 age group (n=20. The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05; however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05 as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  18. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Matheus M; Reis, Júlia G; Carvalho, Regiane L; Tanaka, Erika H; Hyppolito, Miguel A; Abreu, Daniela C C

    2015-01-01

    muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (pstrength and power and the postural control performance (pelderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  19. A study of group reminiscence therapy and emotional intelligence among elderly members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Bazooband

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of group reminiscence therapy on elderly’s emotional intelligence. A quasi-experimental research with a pre-test-post-test control group was conducted in July 2015, with a sample of 40 elderly members referring to an (anonymous Community Center in the city of Shiraz, Iran. A predesigned instrument, i.e., the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire developed by Schering, was applied to collect data. SPSS Statistics v. 22.0 (Released 2013; IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA was used to analyze data, with a 95% confidence level and a measurement error of α=0.05. Hypothesis tests were mainly conducted to examine whether group reminiscence therapy correlates with emotional intelligence among the respondents. Findings revealed that the applied intervention i.e., group reminiscence therapy significantly associates with various dimensions of emotional intelligence including self-awareness, self-control, self-motivation, empathy and social skills in the older adults within the experiment group; i.e., the mean scores of the variables for the post-test administered on the experimental group were significantly higher than those on the control group. Group reminiscence therapy has the potential to enhance emotional intelligence in the elderly by helping them control their thoughts and emotions and learn problem-solving skills.

  20. Aboriginal Perspectives on Social-Emotional Competence in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Tremblay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaining an understanding of how best to support the development of Aboriginal children is important in promoting positive social, emotional, educational, and health outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to identify the most important elements of healthy development for Aboriginal children, with a particular focus on social-emotional development. Focus groups were conducted with 37 Aboriginal Canadians, including parents, service providers, adolescents, and young adults. Five inter-connected themes emerged: cultural wellness, emotional wellness, mental wellness, social wellness, and strong identity, with strong identity described as central and foundational to the other themes. This study strengthens the assertion that Aboriginal children require an additional set of social-emotional skills to successfully navigate different cultural contexts during development. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  1. The orodental status of a group of elderly in-patients: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, L; Gosney, M A; Doherty, U; Field, E A

    1999-12-01

    To provide a preliminary assessment of the orodental status and dental treatment requirements of a group of elderly in-patients. Cross-sectional. Acute Care of the Elderly and Stroke Rehabilitation units at teaching hospitals in Merseyside. 150 patients aged 58 to 94 years, in which a history could be validated at interview. Questionnaire administered by dentist and clinical examination. Registration with a dentist, prosthetic status and difficulties with dentures, denture hygiene and identification marking, dental treatment needs and evidence of mucosal pathology. Only 27% of patients claimed registration with a dentist. Three quarters of the patients were edentulous and 66 patients wore full dentures; 18 had no prostheses. Difficulties were experienced by one quarter of patients with upper dentures, compared with a half of lower denture wearers. Of the dentures available for inspection, 61% had removable soft debris, 66% were left out at night and 75% were cleaned by the patient, whilst on the ward. No dentures had evidence of identification marking. Of the 39 partially dentate patients, 75% required interventive dental treatment. Denture stomatitis was diagnosed in 29% of patients and 19 had evidence of benign mucosal pathology. The orodental status of this group of elderly in-patients was poor, with a high proportion being edentulous. Few were registered with a dentist and denture hygiene was inadequate. Lack of identification marking is a matter of concern. Closer liaison between hospital staff responsible for elderly in-patients is required, to improve the orodental health and quality of life of this medically compromised group of patients.

  2. [Elder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this review is to present scientific evidence on the biological, dietary, cultural and economic advantages of cow´s milk and dairy products intake in adults, with emphasis on the elderly. The role of milk and dairy products as part of the regular diet, as well as their contribution to a healthy diet for the aged population is described. The updated scientific references on the importance of milk and dairy products on the dietary management of the most prevalent diseases of the eldery -among these energy-protein malnutrition, sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases- are presented.

  3. Palatal rugae patterns in Australian aborigines and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapali, S; Townsend, G; Richards, L; Parish, T

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether rugae patterns change with age and to compare the number and pattern of rugae in Australian Aborigines with those of Caucasians. For the longitudinal part of the study, serial dental casts of ten Aborigines, from 6 to 20 years of age, were examined and rugae patterns were recorded. To enable comparisons to be made between different ethnic groups an additional 100 dental casts of Australian Aborigines and 200 casts of caucasians, ranging in age from 13 to 17 years, were examined. Characteristics observed were number, length, shape, direction and unification of rugae. The length of rugae increased significantly with age but the total number of rugae remained constant. Thirty-two per cent of rugae showed changes in shape, while 28 per cent displayed a change in orientation. In contrast to studies suggesting that rugae move forward with age, the majority of Aboriginal rugae that changed direction moved posteriorly. Changes in rugae patterns have been assumed to result from palatal growth but alterations in pattern were observed in the Aboriginal sample even after palatal growth had ceased. The mean number of primary rugae in Aborigines was higher than in Caucasians, although more primary rugae in Caucasians exceeded 10 mm in length than in Aborigines. The most common shapes in both ethnic groups were wavy and curved forms, whereas straight and circular types were least common. There was a statistically significant association between rugae forms and ethnicity, straight forms being more common in Caucasians whereas wavy forms were more common Aborigines.

  4. “We Are Not Being Heard”: Aboriginal Perspectives on Traditional Foods Access and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K.

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike. PMID:23346118

  5. "We are not being heard": Aboriginal perspectives on traditional foods access and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.

  6. Substance misuse in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1998-01-01

    Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view. The history of Aboriginal contact with and usage of intoxicating substances, including alcohol, is extremely complex and affected by a maze of restrictive government policies. These interact with a wide range of other Federal and State policies which have changed rapidly since the late 1960s when Aborigines were first granted the franchise; access to unrestricted drinking followed soon afterwards. Today Aborigines suffer disproportionately to other Australians from the physical and social consequences of excess alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, petrol and other solvent sniffing, usage of marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine and heroin, as well as other drugs. The Aboriginal population is dispersed in cities, towns, fringe settlements, rural and remote areas over this vast continent and there are different patterns of drug usage from place to place. This review attempts to synthesize some of this information in order to give an overview to the history, background, current status of substance misuse by Aborigines as well as some strategies being used to try to overcome this serious problem.

  7. No evidence for impaired humoral immunity to pneumococcal proteins in Australian Aboriginal children with otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Corscadden, Karli J; Coates, Harvey L; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Hillwood, Jessica; Toster, Sophie; Edminston, Phillipa; Zhang, Guicheng; Keil, Anthony; Richmond, Peter C

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Aboriginal population experiences disproportionately high rates of otitis media (OM). Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the main pathogens responsible for OM and currently no vaccine offering cross strain protection exists. Vaccines consisting of conserved antigens to S. pneumoniae may reduce the burden of OM in high-risk populations; however no data exists examining naturally acquired antibody in Aboriginal children with OM. Serum and salivary IgA and IgG were measured against the S. pneumoniae antigens PspA1 and 2, CbpA and Ply in a cross sectional study of 183 children, including 36 non-Aboriginal healthy control children and 70 Aboriginal children and 77 non-Aboriginal children undergoing surgery for OM using a multiplex bead assay. Significant differences were observed between the 3 groups for serum anti-PspA1 IgA, anti-CbpA and anti-Ply IgG and for all salivary antibodies assessed. Aboriginal children with a history of OM had significantly higher antibody titres than non-Aboriginal healthy children with no history of OM and non-Aboriginal children with a history of OM for several proteins in serum and saliva. Non-Aboriginal children with a history of OM had significantly higher salivary anti-PspA1 IgG than healthy children, while all other titres were comparable between the groups. Conserved vaccine candidate proteins from S. pneumoniae induce serum and salivary antibody responses in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children with a history of OM. Aboriginal children do not have an impaired antibody response to the antigens measured from S. pneumoniae and they may represent vaccine candidates in Indigenous populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. BOLD effect on calf muscle groups in elderly females with different bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Heather T; Griffith, James F; Ye, Chenfei; Yeung, David K; Xing, Xu; Leung, Ping-Chung; Yuan, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the BOLD effect on calf muscles in elderly subjects with different bone mineral density. The purpose was to investigate the oxygenation characteristics in different calf muscle groups for the elderly females and compare the muscle oxygenation among groups with different bone mineral density. Temporary vascular occlusion was induced with air-cuff compression of the thigh and BOLD-MRI data curve was fitted to derive quantitative parameters. Three muscle groups, gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head), soleus muscle, and tibialis anterior muscle, were investigated individually. Quantitative CT measurement was conducted on each subject, based on which subjects were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups. The BOLD signal in soleus muscle showed the lowest minimum ischemic value during ischemia and the steepest slope during hyperemia. As soleus muscle is mainly composed by slow-twitch oxidative muscle fibers, current results may be due to a higher vascular bed density and better endothelial function in such muscle. By t-test, the half-life of the BOLD signal decay during ischemia in both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was significantly prolonged in osteoporosis group, indicating a degenerated muscular oxygen metabolic capacity in osteoporotic patients.

  9. Exploring Australian Aboriginal women's experiences of menopause: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgenson, Janelle R; Jones, Emma K; Haynes, Emma; Green, Charmaine; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-03-20

    Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women's understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term "change of life" was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current services. While this study is with a select

  10. Comparison of the prognosis among different age groups in elderly patients with hip fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagino Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcome of treatment of hip fractures in different age groups in the elderly population is largely unknown. Hence, we stratified elderly patients with hip fracture into age groups and compared the prognosis in various age groups. Materials and Methods: Among 459 patients with hip fracture treated at our hospital from 1997, 430 patients aged 65 years or above at the time of injury were studied. The patients comprised 98 males and 332 females and the ages at injury ranged from 65 to 103 years (mean 83.4 years. There were 167 cases of femoral neck fracture and 263 cases of trochanteric fractures. Surgery was performed in 383 cases, while 47 cases were treated conservatively. The subjects were classified by age into young-old for those aged 65-74 years (group A, n = 55, middle-old for those aged 75-84 years (group B, n = 172, old-old for those aged 85-94 (group C, n = 180, and oldest-old for those aged 95 years or above (group D, n = 23. The functional and survival prognosis at discharge in each group was investigated. Results: Numbers of patients who were ambulatory at discharge among those ambulatory before injury were 43 of 49 (87.8% in group A, 113 of 152 (74.3% in group B, 86 of 138 (62.3% in group C, and 5 of 14 (35.7% in group D, showing worse recovery of walking ability as age advanced. Among those ambulatory before injury, 42 patients in group A, 139 patients in group B, 130 patients in group C, and 12 patients in group D underwent surgery and of these patients, 38 patients (90.5% in group A, 109 patients (78.4% in group B, 83 patients (63.8% in group C, and 5 patients (41.7% in group D were ambulatory at discharge. On the other hand, the numbers of patients who were ambulatory at discharge among those receiving conservative treatment were 5 of 7 (71.4% in group A, 4 of 13 (30.8% in group B, 3 of 8 (37.5% in group C, and 0 of 2 (0% in group D, showing better walking ability in surgical patients than in conservatively treated

  11. Nutritional status of haemodialysis patients: comparison of Australian cohorts of Aboriginal and European descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Alwyn; Carroll, Robert; Gallagher, Meghan; Meade, Anthony

    2013-12-01

    It is not known whether nutritional status differs between Australian Aboriginal and non Aboriginal haemodialysis subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal haemodialysis subjects at satellite dialysis centres. Seventy-six (25 Aboriginal, 51 non-Aboriginal) prevalent haemodialysis patients were enrolled in a 3-month cross-sectional study. Each month anthropometric and biochemical measurements were collected. Nutritional status (diet history, patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), handgrip strength) was assessed by a dietitian. PG-SGA detected mild to moderate malnutrition in 35% of Aboriginal patients and 25% of non-Aboriginal patients. The overall physical rating on the PG-SGA was significantly higher in Aboriginal patients, indicating the presence of a greater deficit in muscle mass in this population. Inter-dialytic weight gain was significantly greater in Aboriginal subjects (median [range] 3.0 [2.1-5.7] vs 2.5 [-0.3-5.0] kg, Ppatients with diabetes (median [range] 9.4 [4.9-23.4] vs 5.7 [3.1-12.9], P=0.002; 7.0 [5.2-11.0] vs 5.8 [4.6-9.0], P1.6 and median normalized protein catabolic rate 1.5). Difficulties were encountered in obtaining dietary information from Aboriginal subjects using the diet history method. Subjects had acceptable parameters of dialysis adequacy; however, 35% had evidence of malnutrition. Further research should focus on establishing a knowledge base for the nutritional management for Aboriginal dialysis subjects, and the development of a validated individual dietary assessment method for use in this population group. © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  12. The effects of group reminiscence therapy on depression, self esteem, and life satisfaction of elderly nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Wu, Chiu-Yen; Jin, Suh-Fen; Chu, Tsung-Lan; Huang, Tzu-Shin; Clark, Mary Jo

    2006-03-01

    The need to provide quality mental health care for elders in nursing home settings has been a critical issue, as the aging population grows rapidly and institutional care becomes a necessity for some elders. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to describe the effect of participation in reminiscence group therapy on older nursing home residents' depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants who met the study criteria. Residents of one ward were assigned to the reminiscence therapy group intervention, while residents of the other ward served as controls. Nine weekly one-hour sessions were designed to elicit reminiscence as group therapy for 12 elders in the experimental group. Another 12 elders were recruited for a control group matched to experimental subjects on relevant criteria. Depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction were measured one week before and after the therapy. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 10.0) was used to analyze data. Results indicated that group reminiscence therapy significantly improved self-esteem, although effects on depression and life satisfaction were not significant. Reminiscence groups could enhance elders' social interaction with one another in nursing home settings and become support groups for participants. The model we created here can serve as a reference for future application in institutional care.

  13. Determinants of dental user groups among an elderly, low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthy, R A; Strayer, M S; Caswell, R J

    1996-02-01

    We test whether or not there are differences for selected variables among five dental user groups and one nondental group within an elderly, low-income population. We used ten years of Medicare Part B claims data from the Cincinnati Health Department for all clinic users 62 years of age and older who participated in the Municipal Health Services Program. A polychotomous logistic regression model determined the ability to differentiate between the groups for each of the selected variables, controlling for race. Next, a polychotomous stepwise logistic regression was used in finding a multivariate model for determining dental user group membership. Logistic regression was used to ascertain which variables were discriminators between any two types of dental users. Mean number of medical visits, mean number of prescriptions filled, and race are determinants of group membership, with the nondental group having more medical visits and more likely to be white. Although year of birth cohort is statistically significant in determining dental user types, the direction of effect is not constant across the comparisons. However, the relative risk for being in the two complete denture groups, compared to both compliant subgroups, increases with each older cohort. Higher levels of medical use may "crowd out" dental use, even when it is without user cost, either because the medical problems are treated as a higher priority, or because dealing with medical needs leaves too little perceived time or energy to seek dental care. Even in a low-income population seeking dental care, there appears to be a birth cohort effect with a decline in the younger elderly who require two complete dentures.

  14. Interventions to improve social determinants of health among elderly ethnic minority groups: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Michelle S; Agyemang, Charles O; Smalbrugge, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative health outcomes. The goal of this article was to identify effective interventions that improve social participation, and minimise social isolation and loneliness in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. An electronic database (PubMed) was systematically searched using an extensive search strategy, for intervention studies in English, French, Dutch of German, without time limit. Additional articles were found using references. Articles were included if they studied an intervention aimed to improve social participation or minimise social isolation or loneliness and were focusing on community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Data regarding studies characteristics and results were extracted. Six studies (three randomized controlled trials, three non-controlled intervention studies) were included in the review. All studies were group-based interventions and had a theoretical basis. Five out of six studies showed improvement on a social participation, -isolation or loneliness outcome. Type of intervention included volunteering-, educational- and physical activities. In three studies active participation of the participant was required, these interventions were not more effective than other interventions. Some interventions improved the included social determinants of health in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Investment in further development and implementation of these interventions may help to improve social determinants of health in these populations. It is necessary to evaluate these interventions in the European setting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

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    Dawson Anna P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy

  16. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of a life review group program on self-esteem and life satisfaction in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kai-Jo; Lu, Ru-Band; Chu, Hsin; Chang, Yue-Cune; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating whether a Life Review Group Program (LRGP) improved the self-esteem and life satisfaction in the elderly. This randomized, controlled trial consisted of 75 elderly males from a Veterans' Home in Northern Taiwan, 36 of whom were in the experimental group and 39 of whom were in the control group. The subjects in the experimental group participated in an 8-week LRGP. Data were collected before and after the LRGP and again 1 month after the end of the program. The study subjects had a mean age of 78.13 years. The generalized estimating equation was used to compare alterations in the self-esteem and life satisfaction of the elderly before and after the intervention. The alterations in self-esteem and life satisfaction in the experimental group after the LRGP were significantly improved compared to the control group. One month after the LRGP was completed, the self-esteem and life satisfaction of the experimental group continued to improve when compared with pre-intervention levels. Based on these results, the LRGP can potentially improve the self-affirmation, confidence, and self-esteem of the elderly and promote short-term life satisfaction. The results of this study provide a model for clinical evidence-based therapy, serving as a reference for related studies and evaluation of health-promoting programs, as well as improving the health and quality of care of the elderly.

  18. Relationship between body mass index, bone mineral density, and oral hygiene with periodontal disease in a Mexican elderly group.

    OpenAIRE

    José Francisco Murrieta; Ricardo Gustavo García; Brenda Contreras; Remedios Guadalupe Valdez; María Lilia Juárez

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), and oral hygiene with periodontal disease (PD) in a group of elderly adults in Mexico City. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 151 elderly adults was conducted. Before applying the epidemiological survey, each subject was asked to sign an informed consent. Standardization for measuring Ramfjord’s Periodontal Disease Index (PDI), BMI, and Green an...

  19. Effectiveness of Group Logotherapy on Death Anxiety and Life Expectancy of the Elderly Living in Boarding Houses in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Hajiazizi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion Overall, based on the results of this research, group therapy was found to reduce death anxiety and life expectancy in elderly people living in boarding houses and subsequently, improve their mental health. Due to the special emphasis of logotherapy on the present and the meaning of suffering for the elderly, it is important to use it for promoting social well-being of older people.

  20. Corporate social responsibility and aboriginal relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, J.; Cook, H.D.

    2002-01-01

    All of Canada's uranium mining activity occurs in the northern half of the province of Saskatchewan in western Canada. This region has a total population of 38 000 people living in many small communities scattered over 250 000 square kilometres. Demographically, the north's population is 75% aboriginal representing the Woodland Cree, Dene, and Metis Nations. The majority of the aboriginal population of northern Saskatchewan are treaty Indians (First Nations). The dominant first nations group in the north is The Lac La Ronge Indian Band, also Saskatchewan's largest Woodland Cree First Nation. Despite the fact that the Lac La Ronge Band and other First Nations of the region do not have surface or mineral rights, other than those on their reserve lands, they have significant influence in the development process. The extraction of the mineral resources of Canada are now undertaken with very considerable input from first nations groups and with sensitivity to their treaty rights and aboriginal traditional rights. Treaty rights in Canada include, among other things, hunting and fishing, access to post secondary education and special taxation considerations. This presentation will introduce participants to a unique perspective on northern Saskatchewan's uranium mining industry. This perspective will be provided by Harry Cook, Chief of the Lac La Ronge Indian Band.In his presentation, Chief Cook will provide a first nation's perspective on industrial development generally and uranium development specifically. He will begin by outlining the challenges facing aboriginal people in Canada and will provide an insightful view of the historical conflict between industrial developers and first nations people. He will describe the aspirations of his people and the importance they place on preservation of the natural environment. He will also speak to the critical need now emerging for aboriginal people to seek a balance between retaining traditional culture and participating in the

  1. Effect of sociodemographic variables and time on food group contribution to total food availability in Portuguese elderly households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, D M; Oliveira, B M P M; Rodrigues, S S P; de Almeida, M D V

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the simultaneous effects of sociodemographic variables and time on each food group contribution to total Portuguese elderly household food availability. Four cross sectional Portuguese Household Budget Surveys were used. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), using a general linear model (GLM), was applied to analyze the simultaneous effects of sociodemographic variables and time. Portuguese population. Nationally representative samples of households with members aged ≥ 65 years were selected and categorized as solitary elderly female, solitary elderly male, or couple (one elderly female and one elderly male). Samples included 1,967 households in 1989-1990, 2,219 households in 1994-1995, 2,533 households in 2000-2001 and 2,441 households in 2005-2006. The simultaneous effects of sociodemographic variables and time were significant for all food groups (P<0.001). The highest contribution for the total household food availability was found for cereals, potatoes, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages and fruits. The effects were large for "household food availability" and medium for "elderly household type", "urbanization degree", "income", "food expenses" and "eating out expenses". Solitary elderly male households had the highest proportion of cereals and alcoholic beverages, whilst solitary elderly female households had higher availability of milk/milk products and fruits. Households located in urban areas had higher contribution of milk/milk products while rural, had higher contribution of potatoes. The simultaneous effect of the studied variables on food group contribution to total household food availability can be considered when addressing dietary recommendation for providing an insight into the motivations associated with food purchases.

  2. Factors relating to participation in follow-up to the 45 and up study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Gubhaju

    2016-05-01

    can be used to follow Aboriginal participants in cohort studies. Despite somewhat greater loss to follow-up in Aboriginal people (after considering socio-demographic and health characteristics, factors related to follow-up participation were similar in both groups: greater loss was observed in those experiencing disadvantage, ill-health and health risk, with implications for interpretation of future findings. Aboriginal low income earners and current regular smokers had a particularly elevated likelihood of non-participation compared to non-Aboriginal people. These findings highlight the importance of identifying and addressing barriers to participation among hard-to-reach population groups.

  3. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Robitaille

    2010-12-01

    Aboriginal person and a non-Aboriginal person, the Aboriginal identity prevails over the non-Aboriginal identity. If Aboriginal identities were “not attractive” identities when declaring the ethnic affiliation of children in situations of exogamous unions, then the size of the Aboriginal population in Canada would be significantly smaller.

  4. The influence of music on exercise in a group of sedentary elderly women: an important tool to help the elderly to stay active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, B; D'Ottavio, S; Padua, E; Tonelli, C; Pantanella, L

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to verify how listening to instrumental asynchronous music, with tempo of 90 bpm, can affect the aerobic physical performance in elderly women engaged in a continuous and constant exercising, predominantly aerobic, consisting of walking routines. Twenty women (N.=20, age=75.8±4.2 years) volunteered to the study and underwent a six-week period of physical exercising. All women were previously sedentary, as they had not trained systematically within the last 5 years. The experimental group (Eg=10) performed all the exercise sessions and tests listening to music. The control group (Cg=10) performed the same program without listening to music. Total distances covered, heart rates before and after the tests and the rates of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Significant differences between groups (Pmusic may be considered an important tool in supporting elderly people involved in physical exercising.

  5. Respiratory function among Malaysian aboriginals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A. E.; Bolton, J. M.; Ganendran, A.

    1971-01-01

    Respiratory function tests have been performed on 43 Malaysian aboriginals. The forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were considerably below, and the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) slightly below, the predicted values. The FEV1 and PEFR decreased more rapidly with advancing age than predicted from western standards. These findings may be due to physiological differences or may be the result of chronic purulent bronchitis which is common among the aboriginals. Images PMID:5144653

  6. Impacts of toothbrushing frequency on periodontal findings in a group of elderly Lithuanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysniauskaite, Sonata; Vehkalahti, Miira M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the severity of the findings of dental plaque, calculus and deepened periodontal pockets in relation to self-reported toothbrushing frequency in a group of elderly Lithuanians. The authors hypothesised that those reporting twice daily toothbrushing exhibit less severe periodontal findings. A cross-sectional study of 94 dentate patients aged 60 or older was conducted at two public dental offices in Lithuania. Half-mouth recordings of dental plaque, calculus and deepened periodontal pockets were expressed as mean values per subject. These indicators described the severity of periodontal findings. A self-administered questionnaire provided information on toothbrushing frequency, age, gender and education. Statistical evaluation included chi-square test, analysis of variance and logistic regression. None of the subjects were plaque-, calculus- or pocket-free. Of all, 26% reported that they brushed their teeth at least twice daily, 36% once daily and 38% less frequently. Women (P = 0.004), younger (P = 0.002) and higher educated respondents (P toothbrushing more frequently than did their counterparts. Twice daily toothbrushing was clearly associated with the least severe conditions regarding dental plaque (P = 0.03) and deepened pockets (P toothbrushing was the strongest factor (OR = 2.1; P = 0.03) to explain the lowest scores of deepened periodontal pockets. Twice daily toothbrushing contributes to better periodontal health in the elderly subjects and should be encouraged at every dental appointment.

  7. Cognitive deficit and depressive symptoms in a community group of elderly people: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Silberman

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the number and proportion of old people increases worldwide, health professionals and systems should be made aware and prepared to deal with their problems. Cognitive deficit and symptoms of depression are commom among the elderly, and may occur in relation to various risk factors such as health conditions and psychosocial variables. In order to study cognitive deficit and the presence of signs and symptoms of depression, 62 elderly community subjects enrolled at a Community Health Unit in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were interviewed. They were evaluated by means of the Mini Mental State Exam, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression rating scale, and a questionnaire on health conditions, living arrangements and social variables. Higher levels of symptoms of depression were observed among subjects exposed to major risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases (diabetes and coronary disease, while impaired cognitive performance was seen among individuals who could not count on the presence of a confidant (social network variable. The results suggest that the early identification of major risk groups among old people can help to prevent institutionalization and keep individuals in the community.

  8. Cognitive deficit and depressive symptoms in a community group of elderly people: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberman Claudia

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the number and proportion of old people increases worldwide, health professionals and systems should be made aware and prepared to deal with their problems. Cognitive deficit and symptoms of depression are commom among the elderly, and may occur in relation to various risk factors such as health conditions and psychosocial variables. In order to study cognitive deficit and the presence of signs and symptoms of depression, 62 elderly community subjects enrolled at a Community Health Unit in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were interviewed. They were evaluated by means of the Mini Mental State Exam, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression rating scale, and a questionnaire on health conditions, living arrangements and social variables. Higher levels of symptoms of depression were observed among subjects exposed to major risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases (diabetes and coronary disease, while impaired cognitive performance was seen among individuals who could not count on the presence of a confidant (social network variable. The results suggest that the early identification of major risk groups among old people can help to prevent institutionalization and keep individuals in the community.

  9. Syncrude's commitment to Aboriginal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loader, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes how the Syncrude relationship with Aboriginal communities in the region came about, and how Syncrude maintains that relationship and share in the community at its oil sands operation in Alberta, Canada. Syncrude is a world leader in oil sands development and in promoting the quality of the working life and employment of native peoples. The remainder of the presentation is devoted to that particular achievement. The partnerships Syncrude has built are based on mutual respect, a sustainable capability, a professional relationship, support of community, and self-reliance. Syncrude recognized very early on that Aboriginal people would have a major interest in the company's future and sought to integrate the company's program into operations as a normal way of doing business. Today, Aboriginal people play a vital role in the oil sands industry, working at a variety of skilled occupations. The education component of Syncrude's program is designed to equip Aboriginal people with the training they need to claim their fair share of the employment pie at Syncrude. Contractors servicing Syncrude are about one-fifth Aboriginal-owned and run operations and they are in turn encouraged to hire Aboriginal employees. There are three direct elements of the program: employment, education and business development, but partnerships go beyond just that: they extend to the community such that Syncrude is dedicated to working with local people, when requested, to help them define and meet their needs and to achieve self-reliance

  10. Change Makers: Empowering Ourselves Thro' the Education and Culture of Aboriginal Languages: A Collaborative Team Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Yvonne

    2003-01-01

    A British Columbian Native teacher education program is guided by a team of First Nations educators and elders, university faculty, a representative of the teacher federation, and students. Aboriginal languages are incorporated into a Native cultural studies course using a holistic approach based on the Medicine Wheel that empowers students to…

  11. Community Arts as Public Pedagogy: Disruptions into Public Memory through Aboriginal Counter-Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, Amy; Sonn, Christopher; Kasat, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Community Arts and Cultural Development (CACD) is a form of public pedagogy that seeks to intervene into the reproduction of meaning in public spaces. In this article, we explore the Bush Babies and Elders portrait project that sought to contribute to the empowerment of Aboriginal participants through counter-storytelling. Drawing on interview and…

  12. The effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugbeer, Nivash; Ramklass, Serela; Mckune, Andrew; van Heerden, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly. One hundred participants were recruited for voluntary participation from five aged care facilities, with inclusion being based on the outcome of a medical assessment by a sports physician. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the effect of a 12 week group exercise programme on two groups of participants using pre-test and post-test procedures. A significant difference was noted in social function post training 2X/week (MD = -13.85, 95% CI [-24.66, -3.38], p = 0.017, d = 0.674) and 3X/week (MD = -13.30, 95% CI [-21.81, -5.59], p = 0.003, d = 0.712) a week. Training 3X/week a week provided an additional benefit in vitality (MD = -7.55, 95% CI [-13.16, -1.91], p = 0.018, d =0. 379). Improvements in mental component summary scale post training 2X/week (MD = -4.08, 95% CI [-7.67, -0.42], p = 0.033, d = 0.425) and 3X/week (MD = -6.67, 95% CI [-10.92, -2.33], p = 0.005, d = 0.567) a week was further noted. Mental health and social health benefits can be obtained irrespective of exercise frequency 2X/week or 3X/week. The exercise intervention at a frequency 3X/ week was more effective in improving mental component summary due to a larger effect size obtained compared to the exercise frequency of 2X/week. Additional benefits in vitality were achieved by exercising 3X/week. This may assist the elderly in preserving their independence.

  13. The Effectiveness of a Multidisciplinary Group Rehabilitation Program on the Psychosocial Functioning of Elderly People Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.; van der Mei, Sijrike F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The pilot study reported here determined the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation program, Visually Impaired Elderly Persons Participating (VIPP), on psychosocial functioning. Methods: The single-group pretest-posttest pilot study included 29 persons with visual impairments (aged 55 and older) who were referred…

  14. Learning through an Aboriginal Language: The Impact on Students' English and Aboriginal Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…

  15. A Guide for Health Professionals Working with Aboriginal Peoples: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Canadian health professionals will enhance understanding, communication, and clinical skills in the area of Aboriginal health. The resulting enhancement of collaborative relationships between Aboriginal peoples and their women's health providers may contribute to health services that are more appropriate, effective, efficient, and accessible for Aboriginal peoples in Canada. The educational process may require an initial investment of time from the health professional. Recommendations were grouped according to four themes: sociocultural context, health concerns, cross-cultural understanding, and Aboriginal health resources. Health professionals are encouraged to learn the appropriate names, demographics, and traditional geographic territories and language groups of the various Aboriginal groups in Canada. In addition, sensitivity to the impact of colonization and current socioeconomic challenges to the health status of Aboriginal peoples is warranted. Health services for Aboriginal peoples should take place as close to home as possible. Governmental obligations and policies regarding determination are recognized. With respect to health concerns, holistic definitions of health, based on Aboriginal perspectives, are put forward. Aboriginal peoples continue to experience a disproportionate burden of health problems. Health professionals are encouraged to become familiar with several key areas of morbidity and mortality. Relationships between Aboriginal peoples and their care providers need to be based on a foundation of mutual respect. Gaps and barriers in the current health care system for Aboriginal peoples are identified. Health professionals are encouraged to work with Aboriginal individuals and communities to address these gaps and barriers. Aboriginal peoples require culturally appropriate health care, including treatment in their own languages when possible. This may require interpreters or Aboriginal health advocates. Health professionals are encouraged to recognize

  16. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  17. Health workers' views of help seeking and suicide among Aboriginal people in rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Anton N; Sutton, Keith; Hearn, Stuart; Wanganeen, Gilbert; Dudgeon, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    To explore Aboriginal health workers' views about help seeking and suicide. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants. Data were analysed thematically. Njernda Aboriginal Corporation and the Yorta Yorta Aboriginal Community of Echuca, Victoria. Twenty seven participants (15 men and 12 women) over the age of 18 years were interviewed, of which 24 were Aboriginal workers employed by Njernda Aboriginal Corporation. Four themes emerged from the data: 'Difficulty in talking about one's problems'; 'Reasons for not talking with family and peers'; 'Lack of access to suitable formal supports' and 'Consequences of not talking about one's problems'. This study unpacks the problem of help seeking for psychological distress among rural Aboriginal people and highlights its association with suicide and self-harm. The findings suggest that the barriers faced by Aboriginal people in sharing their traumatic emotions exist from childhood to older age groups and this inability to seek and obtain help can lead to self-harm and suicide. Similar studies on Aboriginal help seeking and suicide will help shed more light on this challenging issue. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C.; Muller, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversi......, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert....

  19. The Effect of Life Review Group Therapy on Elderly With Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Sousan Alizadehfard

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Chronic pain is a common problem in the elderly. The prevalence of pain indicates that among the Iranian older population who are living in nursing homes, at any specific time, at least 72.8% experience pain. Research designed as a structured review of one’s life is helpful, even is therapeutic in elderly. The aim of life review therapy increases life satisfaction, improves self-esteem, and helps elderly to cope with crises, losses, life transitions and providing acceptance ...

  20. Distribution and determinants of non communicable diseases among elderly Uyghur ethnic group in Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs are showing an increasing trend globally as well as in China. Elderly population are more prone to these NCDs. Situation in China is worse owing to the higher proportion of geriatric population. Burden of NCDs and the role of their socio-demographic and behavioral predictors among these elderly and more so among the ethnic minority groups among them, need to be investigated specifically, owing to their distinct genetic background, lifestyles and behavior.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1329 randomly selected persons of Uyghur ethnicity, aged 60 years or more in Xinjiang, the largest administrative division in China to measure the burden of NCDs, understand the distribution of socio-demographic, behavioral and life event-related potential correlates of them and to estimate the association of the NCDs with these correlates.Among these participants 54.2% were female, 86.8% were married and more than half had only attended elementary school or less. 41.46% was suffering from at least one NCD. 20.22% had one NCD, 12.11% had two and 8.58% had three or more. 27.3% had hypertension, 4.06% had diabetes, 6.02% had hyperlipidemia, 7.37% had angina, 14.52% had cardiovascular diseases, 11.59% had any kind of cancers and 9.78% had chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Rural residents (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.17-1.80, AOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.53-2.61 and current smokers had higher odds of having more NCDs (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.34. Additionally not being satisfied with current life, not being able to take care of self in daily life, currently not being involved in farm work, less intake of fresh vegetables, fruits and garlic, too less or too much salt intake, not having hobbies were found to be positively associated with having more NCDs.Implementation of effective intervention strategies to promote healthy life styles among the Uyghur elderly population of China seems urgent.

  1. The impact of group music therapy on depression and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsin; Yang, Chyn-Yng; Lin, Yu; Ou, Keng-Liang; Lee, Tso-Ying; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness of group music therapy for improving depression and delaying the deterioration of cognitive functions in elderly persons with dementia. The study had a prospective, parallel-group design with permuted-block randomization. Older persons with dementia (N = 104) were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. The experimental group received 12 sessions of group music therapy (two 30-min sessions per week for 6 weeks), and the control group received usual care. Data were collected 4 times: (1) 1 week before the intervention, (2) the 6th session of the intervention, (3) the 12th session of the intervention, and (4) 1 month after the final session. Group music therapy reduced depression in persons with dementia. Improvements in depression occurred immediately after music therapy and were apparent throughout the course of therapy. The cortisol level did not significantly decrease after the group music therapy. Cognitive function significantly improved slightly at the 6th session, the 12th session, and 1 month after the sessions ended; in particular, short-term recall function improved. The group music therapy intervention had the greatest impact in subjects with mild and moderate dementia. The group music intervention is a noninvasive and inexpensive therapy that appeared to reduce elders' depression. It also delayed the deterioration of cognitive functions, particularly short-term recall function. Group music therapy may be an appropriate intervention among elderly persons with mild and moderate dementia.

  2. Syncrude's commitment to Aboriginal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loader, R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Syncrude's program designed to maintain good relations with Aboriginal communities in all areas where Syncrude operation impact upon Aboriginal peoples and their traditional ways of life are described. The program extends from employment through education to business and community development, the preservation of traditional lifestyles, and the protection of the environment. As examples, some 13 per cent of Syncrude's workforce is made up of Aboriginal people, at an average annual salary of $58,000. The company offers $ 2,000 each, specifically to Aboriginal persons, wanting to further their education particularly in disciplines related to oil sands. A five-year $ 500,000 program has been established by Syncrude at the University of Alberta specifically for Aboriginal people to pursue careers in engineering, medicine , education and business. Other career programs are also offered through Keyano College, Athabasca University and the Northern Alberta Development Council, and there is a strong commitment by the company to encouraging adults to go back to school and for kids to stay in school. Last year the company spent $ 54 million with Aboriginal-owned and operated businesses; the company also support several programs to foster the appreciation of Aboriginal culture not only in Alberta but throughout the country. Environment is the fifth and final element of the Aboriginal Development Program. It involves consultation and working with local communities on environmental matters involving issues ranging from land reclamation to emission reduction. Some six million dollars are spent annually on reclaiming land and reintroducing native animal and plant species wherever possible. An outstanding example of this is the Wood Bison Trail on 210 hectares of reclaimed land managed by the Fort McKay First Nations. It is readily acknowledged that dealing with Aboriginal concerns has not been an easy road to travel and that there are still many things to do. Nevertheless, there

  3. Group fitness activities for the elderly: an innovative approach to reduce falls and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonino; Patti, Antonino; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Sahin, Fatma Nese; Paoli, Antonio; Cataldo, Maria Concetta; Mammina, Caterina; Palma, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the opportunity to adopt, for the elderly, already validated function ability tests to better understand how to prevent falls and injuries and to better plan group fitness activities like ballroom dance classes (e.g., Valzer, Polka, Mazurka). A cross-sectional study was conducted. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Barthel Index (BI) were administered and the occurrence of falls during the previous 2 years was evaluated by anamnesis. One hundred and twenty-two elderly subjects living in Palermo city participated to the study. According to the anamnesis, subjects were divided into two groups: experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). The EG consisted of 75 subjects attending classes of ballroom dancing (73.0 ± 5.6 years 26.1 ± 3.9 BMI), while the CG included 47 volunteers (74.3 ± 5.4 years, 26.8 ± 4.4 BMI). A threshold of 70 % for both scales (BBS-70 and BI-70 %) was set, according to the aims of the study. STATISTICA software was adopted to perform an unpaired t test. A P value lower than 0.05 was considered to be statistically relevant. The BI and BBS of CG were 76.7 ± 33.08 and 30.9 ± 14.9, respectively, while the BI and BBS of EG were 98.1 ± 6.9 and 50.5 ± 54. In EG the BBS-70 % showed 96.0 % of cases compared to 27.6 % of the CG. The BI showed a similar trend to BBS. In EG the BI-70 % showed 98.6 % of cases, while the BI-70 % of CG showed 70.2 % of cases. Moreover, only 36.0 % of EG reported falls previously, while CG reported 53.2 % of falls during the same period of time. The BBS seems to be a valid and reliable tool able to be adopted also by professionals of the ballroom dancing sector (e.g., Valzer, Polka and Mazurka classes). Instructors may evaluate the functional ability of their attendees through BBS to easily obtain more information and better plan ballroom dance classes. Moreover, we highlight that these conclusions need to be supported by other studies with different

  4. ABORIGINALITY AND TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E. Korstanje

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural tourism seems to be a buzz-word applied on a widest contexts and studies. The importance West has given to this term is linked to a new process of acceptance of diversity as never before. However, in the core of this discourse, the spirit of colonialism remains. In this conceptual paper, not only the main assumptions of cultural tourism are discussed in depth, but also its connection with colonization. One of main problems of cultural tourism is the conceptual basis on where this theory lies. For one hand, this term is strictly applied on local communities (aboriginals or ethnic minorities that have not sustained the progress on their own. On another one, this type of new paternalism closes the door for a real opportunity of dialogue between centre and periphery. As things being, cultural tourism not only is a concept very hard to be applied on research but also follow to nourish the ethnocentrism of nineteen-century racism.

  5. [Modern tactics of the dystrophic retina disease treatment of patients of the elder age group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, A V; Osokina, Iu Iu

    2010-01-01

    One of the problems of elderly and senile patients is the reduction of visual acuity. Primarily this is due to AREDS as the most frequent cause of loss of visual acuity in people over 60 years. Therefore, the search for ways to protect and maintain visual function of elderly and senile patients is an important task both for ophthalmology and geriatrics.

  6. SUITABILITY OF MEDICATIONS USED BY THE ELDERLY PARTICIPANTS OF A SOCIAL GROUP, ACCORDING TO THE BEERS CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysa Donária de Miranda Mascarenhas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic process defined as aging progressively reduces the functional capacity of the elderly and added to the lifestyle, they can to testify to the high number of pathologies. Thus, pharmacotherapy for this age group requires special care, keeping in view its peculiarities. Given this need, a group of researchers has developed criteria that allowed the identification of inappropriate medications. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of medications used by the elderly participants of a social group, in Vitória da Conquista, BA, according to the Beers criteria. This research was an exploratory descriptive study and data collection conducted through semi - structured interviews. It was asked to bring all the elderly who were using medications and / or prescriptions. It was found that 12.7% of the drugs used by the elderly appeared in the list of inappropriate medicines and 42% of respondents make use of polypharmacy. Among the most prescribed inappropriate medications, there is acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, diazepam, piroxicam, ibuprofen and amitriptyline. The class of inappropriate drugs most used by seniors was anti - inflammatory drugs. Given this, all health professionals need to put into practice the criteria for selecting medications this age group as the reality of existing drugs in Brazil.

  7. Suitability of medications used by the elderly participants of a social group, according to the Beers criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysa Donária de Miranda Mascarenhas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic process defined as aging progressively reduces the functional capacity of the elderly and added to the lifestyle, they can to testify to the high number of pathologies. Thus, pharmacotherapy for this age group requires special care, keeping in view its peculiarities. Given this need, a group of researchers has developed criteria that allowed the identification of inappropriate medications. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of medications used by the elderly participants of a social group, in Vitória da Conquista, BA, according to the Beers criteria. This research was an exploratory descriptive study and data collection conducted through semi - structured interviews. It was asked to bring all the elderly who were using medications and / or prescriptions. It was found that 12.7% of the drugs used by the elderly appeared in the list of inappropriate medicines and 42% of respondents make use of polypharmacy. Among the most prescribed inappropriate medications, there is acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, diazepam, piroxicam, ibuprofen and amitriptyline. The class of inappropriate drugs most used by seniors was anti - inflammatory drugs. Given this, all health professionals need to put into practice the criteria for selecting medications this age group as the reality of existing drugs in Brazil.

  8. A comparison of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students on the inter-related dimensions of self-concept, strengths and achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Whitley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. The current study explored the relationships between multidimensional self-concept, perceived strengths and academic achievement among a sample Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students. Results indicated that perceived self-concept and strengths were largely similar across groups. However, students in the two groups drew on different strengths to comprise their general self-concept. Findings are explored within the context of existing research and theory.

  9. Marginality, Stress and Ethnic Identification in an Acculturated Aboriginal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John W.

    1970-01-01

    Study is an evaluation of aspects of the marginality theory," which attempted to comprehend the psychological traits noticed in groups of persons caught between two cultures, and who were, hence, marginal" to both. Data collected in an Australian aboriginal community only partly supports this theory. (RJ)

  10. Identifying barriers to aboriginal renewable energy deployment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, Joel

    2012-01-01

    As one of the largest and wealthiest countries in the world, Canada stands well-positioned to take advantage of ongoing growth in North American demand for primary energy supply by expanding domestic delivery of renewable energy generation to internationally interconnected electric grids across the country. There are myriad benefits of adopting the renewable energy approach to development—as the province of Ontario has acknowledged through the implementation of their 2009 Green Energy Act—including drastic reductions in carbon emissions, the decommissioning of existing fossil fuel power generation that cause serious public health problems, and opportunities for sustainable development at the community level. One group in particular stands poised to shape these debates. In Canada, historically marginalized Aboriginal peoples remain one of the groups with the greatest potential for meeting these enormous renewable energy deployment needs. Aboriginal involvement in renewable energy generation in Canada has been as diverse as Canada's Aboriginal peoples and groups have already adopted a range of different solutions to meet energy supply needs. However, many significant barriers exist that prevent this diverse cultural group from reaching its full potential. The article identifies some of these shortcomings and analyzes their roots. - Highlights: ► Renewable energy is one of the most important sustainable development opportunities today. ► Aboriginal-led renewable development could dramatically increase Canadian supply. ► Surmountable barriers are identified.

  11. Some epidemiological aspects of elderly participants of a relationship group in the city of Jequié-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Santos Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The demographic aging, followed by longevity, provided morbimortality alterations showing a significant part of elderly attacked by noncommunicable chronic-degenerative diseases. In this perspective this study of descriptive exploratory character with transversal delineation aimed to identify the epidemiological profile of 25 elderly and characterize them inside a third age relationship group in the city of Jequié/BA. The majority of the elderly was of the female sex, 68% of the interviewed ones are retired and 32% still carry through professional activities. About the educational level, 20% are illiterate, literate 28%, 44% have the Elementary Degree and 8% the High School Degree. The health problems most cited were disc herniation, cerebrovascular accident, tendinitis, fistulous, arthrosis and others. The pain prevalence was present in 80% of the subjects, and 77% presented pain for more than 6 months. The most frequent localizations were in low back column (44,4%, right shoulder/superior thorax and knee (29.6%.

  12. Gambling and Problem Gambling among Canadian Urban Aboriginals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Belanger, Yale D; Prusak, S Yvonne

    2016-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of gambling and problem gambling in urban Aboriginals in the Canadian Prairie provinces and to determine the predictors of problem gambling. In total, 1114 Aboriginals living in 15 cities in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba were recruited via posters and direct solicitation at Native Friendship Centres, shopping malls, and other locations where Aboriginals congregated. They each completed a self-administered 5- to 10-minute survey. Urban Aboriginals in the present sample were found to have a much higher level of gambling participation than the general Canadian public, especially for electronic gambling machines, instant lotteries, and bingo. Their intensity of participation in terms of number of formats, frequency of play, and gambling expenditure was also very high. This, in turn, is an important contributing factor to their very high rate of problem gambling, which was found to be 27.2%. Problem gambling was higher in males, unemployed people, and cities having the highest proportion of their population consisting of urban Aboriginals. Urban Aboriginal people appear to have some of the highest known rates of problem gambling of any group in Canada. This is attributable to having many more risk factors for problem gambling, such as a greater level of participation in gambling, greater participation in continuous forms of gambling (e.g., electronic gambling machines), younger average age, higher rates of substance abuse and mental health problems, and a range of disadvantageous social conditions (e.g., poverty, unemployment, poor education, cultural stress) that are conducive to the development of addictive behaviour. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Aboriginal Art: Who was interested?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the common assumption that Aboriginal art has been absent from Australian art histories and demonstrates how this is not so. It criticises the notion that art history should be represented by specialised art-history books and argues for the important of art museum displays as texts. It also examines the ways in which Aboriginal art has been examined in literature devoted to Australian history and anthropology. It foregrounds the idea that arts history is not necessarily best represented by official art historical texts.

  14. Effect of Group Logotherapy on Life Expectancy and Mental and Social Wellbeing of The Female Elderly Residents of Nursing Homes in Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Saffarinia

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion It was concluded that mental health professionals can use group logotherapy to improve life expectancy and mental and social wellbeing of female elderly residents of nursing homes. Also, it is suggested that future research should investigate the effectiveness of group logotherapy in improving other positive psychological constructs in female and male elderly residents of nursing homes.

  15. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf…

  16. Aboriginal Representation: Conflict or Dialogue in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leane, Jeanine

    2010-01-01

    This research begins with the premise that non-Aboriginal students are challenged by much Aboriginal writing and also challenge its representations as they struggle to re-position themselves in relation to possible meanings within Aboriginal writing. Many non-Aboriginal students come to read an Aboriginal narrative against their understanding of…

  17. Cognitive deficit and depressive symptoms in a community group of elderly people: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Silberman

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the number and proportion of old people increases worldwide, health professionals and systems should be made aware and prepared to deal with their problems. Cognitive deficit and symptoms of depression are commom among the elderly, and may occur in relation to various risk factors such as health conditions and psychosocial variables. In order to study cognitive deficit and the presence of signs and symptoms of depression, 62 elderly community subjects enrolled at a Community Health Unit in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were interviewed. They were evaluated by means of the Mini Mental State Exam, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression rating scale, and a questionnaire on health conditions, living arrangements and social variables. Higher levels of symptoms of depression were observed among subjects exposed to major risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases (diabetes and coronary disease, while impaired cognitive performance was seen among individuals who could not count on the presence of a confidant (social network variable. The results suggest that the early identification of major risk groups among old people can help to prevent institutionalization and keep individuals in the community.Com o objetivo de avaliar déficit cognitivo e presença de sinais e sintomas depressivos, 62 idosos registrados numa Unidade de Saúde Comunitária em Porto Alegre/RS foram entrevistados em suas casas. Foram avaliados pelo Mini Exame do Estado Mental (Mini Mental State, pela escala de Montgomery-Asberg, e por um questionário sobre condições de saúde, moradia e outras variáveis de vínculos sociais. Níveis mais altos de sintomas depressivos foram observados entre os idosos expostos a fatores de risco maiores para doença cérebro-vascular (diabete e doença coronariana, enquanto que pior desempenho cognitivo foi encontrado nos sujeitos que não contavam com um confidente (variável da rede social. Os resultados sugeriram que a identificação precoce dos

  18. Low back pain risk factors in a large rural Australian Aboriginal community. An opportunity for managing co-morbidities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkinson Lynne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is the most prevalent musculo-skeletal condition in rural and remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are also prevalent amongst Indigenous people contributing to lifestyle diseases and concurrently to the high burden of low back pain. Objectives This paper aims to examine the association between LBP and modifiable risk factors in a large rural Indigenous community as a basis for informing a musculo-skeletal and related health promotion program. Methods A community Advisory Group (CAG comprising Elders, Aboriginal Health Workers, academics, nurses, a general practitioner and chiropractors assisted in the development of measures to assess self-reported musculo-skeletal conditions including LBP risk factors. The Kempsey survey included a community-based survey administered by Aboriginal Health Workers followed by a clinical assessment conducted by chiropractors. Results Age and gender characteristics of this Indigenous sample (n = 189 were comparable to those reported in previous Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS studies of the broader Indigenous population. A history of traumatic events was highly prevalent in the community, as were occupational risk factors. Thirty-four percent of participants reported a previous history of LBP. Sporting injuries were associated with multiple musculo-skeletal conditions, including LBP. Those reporting high levels of pain were often overweight or obese and obesity was associated with self-reported low back strain. Common barriers to medical management of LBP included an attitude of being able to cope with pain, poor health, and the lack of affordable and appropriate health care services. Though many of the modifiable risk factors known to be associated with LBP were highly prevalent in this study, none of these were statistically associated with LBP. Conclusion Addressing particular modifiable risk factors associated with LBP

  19. Stories of Aboriginal Transracial Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttgens, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant number of transracial Aboriginal adoptions that have taken place in Canada, little research is available that addresses the psychological and psychosocial ramifications for the children involved. The scant literature that does exist raises concerns about the psychological impact of this type of adoption. The present…

  20. Relationship between body mass index, bone mineral density, and oral hygiene with periodontal disease in a Mexican elderly group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Murrieta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body mass index (BMI, bone mineral density (BMD, and oral hygiene with periodontal disease (PD in a group of elderly adults in Mexico City. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 151 elderly adults was conducted. Before applying the epidemiological survey, each subject was asked to sign an informed consent. Standardization for measuring Ramfjord’s Periodontal Disease Index (PDI, BMI, and Green and Vermilion’s OHI-S was carried out. Descriptive statistics and linear regression models were performed. Results: The 93.4% of the group had PD, 33.8% showed severe gingivitis and 20.5% mild gingivitis. A 28.5% five percent of the group had osteopenia and 18.5% had osteoporosis, being more common in people over 69 years. The 38.4% percent of the group was underweight and 53.0% had poor oral hygiene. Oral hygiene accounted for 63.1% of the PD variance (p=0.0001, figure that did not increase considerably by adding BMD and BMI variables to the regression model. Conclusion: The frequency of PD in this group of elderly adults was high and significantly associated with BMD, BMI, and mainly oral hygiene.

  1. Exploring the expression of depression and distress in aboriginal men in central Australia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression, experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia. Methods Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods. Results Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation. Conclusions Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa, which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression.

  2. Healthy elderly people lack neutrophil-mediated functional activity to type V group B Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Rene A; Baker, Carol J; Keitel, Wendy A; Edwards, Morven S

    2004-01-01

    To determine the function of capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-specific immunoglobulin-G (IgG) and neutrophils from older adults in increasing ingestion and killing of type V group B Streptococcus (GBS). Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinic at Baylor College of Medicine. The subjects were 40 healthy, community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older from Houston, Texas. The serum level of type V GBS CPS-specific IgG was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Functional activity was evaluated using an opsonophagocytosis assay. Sera from four subjects promoted efficient neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis and killing of type V GBS (mean log10 reduction+/-standard deviation in colony-forming units (cfu)=1.51+/-0.39). Each had serum CPS-specific IgG concentrations exceeding 1 microg/mL. Sera from 36 subjects did not promote neutrophil-mediated functional activity (mean log10 reduction in cfu=-0.09+/-0.06; P=.025). Only one of these 36 had a CPS-specific IgG concentration exceeding 1 microg/mL. When pooled sera from young adults given type V GBS conjugate vaccine was added at CPS-specific IgG concentrations of 4 microg/mL or 0.4 microg/mL, sera from all subjects promoted neutrophil-mediated killing of type V GBS. No impairment was evident in the neutrophil function of elderly subjects when it was compared with that of young adults. CPS-specific IgG and neutrophils from healthy older adults function to ingest and kill type V GBS, but these antibodies are not present in sufficient amounts in most individuals. Further studies should determine whether a type V GBS vaccine induces functionally active antibodies in older people.

  3. In Search of the Aboriginal Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Hawkeye Robertson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Notions of aboriginal cultural reclamation and healing presuppose the existence of distinctly aboriginal selves that were damaged or lost in a process of colonization and that those selves can be “restored” in some meaningful way. Such aboriginal healing has been done without a detailed examination of the selves of individuals to be assisted in this manner. This article examines the selves of four contemporary individuals with varying relationships to the concept of aboriginality using a method of mapping the self with elemental units of culture called “memes.” It is suggested that a spectrum of healthy selves is possible for people who either identify with aboriginality culturally or satisfy a racial definition of the concept. The co-evolution of the self and culture is discussed along with the utility of various definitions of what it means to be aboriginal in a North American context.

  4. Nutritional survey of an elderly Russian population. CARE International Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, C H; Posner, B M; Peterson, D E

    1994-01-01

    During March and April 1992, CARE International, with epidemiological support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted household surveys of pensioners 70 years of age or older in two Russian cities. The objectives of these studies were to assess survey feasibility, to report baseline nutritional data, and to determine if demographic identifiers on computerized government listings could be used to target nutritional aid toward the most needy among elderly people. Pensioners in each city were administered questionnaires regarding food consumption and financial and health status. We calculated scores for body mass index (BMI) and Nutritional Screening Initiative (NSI) Checklist (a tool for assessing the nutritional risk status of U.S. elderly). Median pension income was 410 roubles (about $4.00) per month. Forty-five percent of the participants had pensioners will be used for continuing assessment of the impact of economic restructuring in Russia upon elderly citizens.

  5. A culturally adapted drug and alcohol abuse prevention program for aboriginal children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydala, Lola T; Sewlal, Betty; Rasmussen, Carmen; Alexis, Kathleen; Fletcher, Fay; Letendre, Liz; Odishaw, Janine; Kennedy, Merle; Kootenay, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    In response to substance abuse within their community, the Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation invited the University of Alberta (UofA) to partner in a collaborative effort to establish a school-based substance abuse prevention program. An evidence-based substance abuse prevention program was reviewed and adapted by the community to ensure that it incorporated their cultural beliefs, values, language, and visual images. The adapted program was delivered to students at Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation School and changes in student participants' knowledge, attitudes, refusal skills, and self-beliefs were measured. Benefits and challenges of adapting the program were documented. The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the Canadian Institute for Health Research, Guidelines for Research Involving Aboriginal People, provided a frame of reference for the work throughout the research process. A pre-/posttest questionnaire was used to measure changes in student participants' drug and alcohol refusal skills, self-beliefs, and knowledge of the negative effects of drug and alcohol use. Focus groups (FGs) documented community members' experiences of and responses to the program adaptations and delivery. Results included (1) positive changes in students' drug and alcohol refusal skills, self-beliefs, and knowledge of the negative effects of drug and alcohol use, (2) ownership of and investment in the program by the community, (3) teaching approaches that correspond with the learning contexts, worldview, and relationships of the community, and (4) participation of community Elders. Quantitative and qualitative measures provide evidence for the importance, benefits, and challenges of employing a culturally adapted evidence-based substance abuse prevention program with Aboriginal students attending a First Nations school.

  6. What are the factors associated with good mental health among Aboriginal children in urban New South Wales, Australia? Phase I findings from the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Anna; D'Este, Catherine; Clapham, Kathleen; Redman, Sally; Manton, Toni; Eades, Sandra; Schuster, Leanne; Raphael, Beverley

    2016-07-05

    To identify the factors associated with 'good' mental health among Aboriginal children living in urban communities in New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional survey (phase I of a longitudinal study). 4 Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services that deliver primary care. All services were located in urban communities in New South Wales, Australia. 1005 Aboriginal children aged 4-17 years who participated in phase I of the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH). Carer report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Scores urban Aboriginal children may include the timely provision of medical care for children and provision of additional support for parents and carers experiencing mental or physical health problems, for adolescent boys and for young people in the foster care system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Theory that explains an Aboriginal perspective of learning to understand and manage diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Emma; Johnson, Craig; Kemp, Bernie; Smith, Valerie; Johnson, Monica; Townsend, Billie

    2017-02-01

    To use grounded theory and participatory research methodology to explain how Aboriginal people learn to understand and manage type 2 diabetes. Aboriginal people with diabetes were invited to participate in one of five focus groups (n=25, male=12, female=13). Focus groups and education sessions were conducted by Aboriginal members of the research team. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed, with coding and first level analysis undertaken by all members of the research team. Participants described colonisation and dislocation from Country and family members' experiences with diabetes as significant historical influences which, in conjunction with the model of care experienced and the type of interaction with health services, shaped how they came to understand and manage their diabetes. Patient experience of a model of care alone is not what influences understanding and management of diabetes in Aboriginal people. Implications for Public Health: Health service improvements should focus on understanding past experiences of Aboriginal patients, improving interactions with health services and supporting holistic family centred models of care. Focusing on just the model of care in absence of other improvements is unlikely to deliver health benefits to Aboriginal people. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Self-Care and Self-Help Groups for the Elderly: A Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This document notes that, as health care costs continue to rise, the elderly are monitoring themselves as a means of cost containment, and as a way of enhancing their sense of well-being and their ability to lead active lives. It points out that more and more organizations are sponsoring health programs that promote the concept of self-care and…

  9. Geriatric assessment predicts survival and toxicities in elderly myeloma patients: An International Myeloma Working Group report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Palumbo (Antonio); S. Bringhen (Sara); M.V. Mateos; A. Larocca (Alessandra); T. Facon (Thierry); S. Kumar (Shaji); M. Offidani (Massimo); P.L. McCarthy (Philip); A. Evangelista (Arturo); S. Lonial (Sagar); S. Zweegman (Sonja); P. Musto (Pellegrino); E. Terpos (Evangelos); A. Belch (Andrew); R. Hàjek (Roman); H. Ludwig (Heinz); A.K. Stewart (Keith); P. Moreau; K.C. Anderson (Kenneth); H. Einsele (Hermann); B.G.M. Durie (Brian); M.A. Dimopoulos (Meletios A.); O. Landgren; J.F.S. Miguel (Jesus F. San); P.G. Richardson (P.); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); S.V. Rajkumar (Vincent)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe conducted a pooled analysis of 869 individual newly diagnosed elderly patient data from 3 prospective trials. At diagnosis, a geriatric assessment had been performed. An additive scoring system (range 0-5), based on age, comorbidities, and cognitive and physical conditions, was

  10. Effects of Spiritual Group Therapy on Caregiver Strain in Home Caregivers of the Elderly with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Behrouz; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Haghi, Marjan

    2017-06-01

    Care of patients with Alzheimer's disease is one of the most difficult types of care that exposes the caregiver to a high level of care strain. The present research aimed at determining the effect of spiritual care on caregiver strain of the elderly with Alzheimer's disease. An experimental study was carried out on 100 caregivers who were selected by convenience sampling and randomly divided into intervention, control one and control two groups. Group spiritual therapy was performed on the intervention group for five weeks, Control one participate in the group sessions without any particular interventions, and control two received no interventions. Data was collected through a demographic questionnaire and Robinson's (1983) Caregiver Strain Index, and analyzed using the Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test, one-way analysis of variance and paired t-test. Statistical significance level was considered as 0.05. In the intervention group mean of the posttest care strain score 32.43±2.73 was significantly lower than pretest 37.16±1.26 (Pcare strain was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the two other groups (Pcare can reduce care strain in home caregivers of the elderly with Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pieces of a thousand stories: repatriation of the history of Aboriginal Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-line project A History of Aboriginal Sydney, based at the University of Sydney, takes existing educational and Australian Indigenous digital initiatives in a new direction. By dividing Sydney into six geographical areas, we are creating a knowledge base of post-invasion Aboriginal history, incorporating different forms of tagging, timeline and digital mapping to provide multiple paths to information in text, videos, still images and, in the future, three dimensional reconstructions of former living areas. After eighteen months research we are maintaining a balance between unearthing new and forgotten material, incorporating it into our developing database, and exploring the potential of digital mapping, animation and 3D historical reconstruction for educational and research purposes. With close Indigenous consultation, especially the Aboriginal Educational Consultative Groups, we hope to digitally construct the Aboriginal history of Sydney and return it to the people who have been deprived of so much of their history for so long.

  12. Cross-Cultural, Aboriginal Language, Discovery Education for Health Literacy and Informed Consent in a Remote Aboriginal Community in the Northern Territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Shield

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education for health literacy of Australian Aboriginal people living remotely is challenging as their languages and worldviews are quite different from English language and Western worldviews. Becoming health literate depends on receiving comprehensible information in a culturally acceptable manner. Methods: The study objective was to facilitate oral health literacy through community education about scabies and strongyloidiasis, including their transmission and control, preceding an ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA for these diseases. A discovery education approach where health concepts are connected to cultural knowledge in the local language was used. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal educators worked collaboratively to produce an in-depth flip-chart of the relevant stories in the local language and to share them with clan elders and 27% of the population. Results: The community health education was well received. Feedback indicated that the stories were being discussed in the community and that the mode of transmission of strongyloidiasis was understood. Two-thirds of the population participated in the MDA. This study documents the principles and practice of a method of making important Western health knowledge comprehensible to Aboriginal people. This method would be applicable wherever language and culture of the people differ from language and culture of health professionals.

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF GROUP-MEDIATED LIFESTYLE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAM FOR HEALTH BENEFIT IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE AT RURAL THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethisan, Plernta; Chapman, Robert; Kumar, Ramesh; Somrogthong, Ratana

    2015-01-01

    Elderly population is considered as a vulnerable group and prone to develop multiple medical problems. This aging population is rapidly increasing in developing countries especially in Thailand. This study was a quasi-experimental study to evaluate the effectiveness of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity (GLPA) program on change health benefit in physical activity among elderly people by using validated and reliable Global Physical Activity Questionnaire-GPAQv2. The study was conducted in Phranakhonsiayutthaya district, Ayutthaya province due to its population being the second highest elderly in the Central Region of Thailand. A total of 102 persons of age 60 and over who could read and write Thai language were selected purposively. However, 52 elderly were enrolled in the intervention group and 50 were enrolled for the control group. General Linear Model repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of program on change health benefit in physical activity among elderly. Overall health benefit at baseline were similar between intervention and control group and found statistically non-significant with p-value 0.638 (>0.05). However, the mean score of health benefit was 23.21 +/- 29.23 in intervention group and 20.74 +/- 23.18 in control group. One third of participants of intervention group had not found health benefit due to physical activity while in control group this number was more than half. After elderly received Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program intervention for 6 month found significant statistical differences as compared with mean score at baseline (health benefit 6 month, intervention group =40.7?34.28 and control group = 4.56 +/- 8.79). The effect of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program change intervention was statistically significant in health benefit after intervention program between intervention and control group. Our study suggested that there was need of promoting and encourages physical activity to

  14. Peer-led Aboriginal parent support: Program development for vulnerable populations with participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Ailsa; Toye, Christine; Hegney, Desley; Kickett, Marion; Marriott, Rhonda; Walker, Roz

    2017-10-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is a credible, culturally appropriate methodology that can be used to effect collaborative change within vulnerable populations. This PAR study was undertaken in a Western Australian metropolitan setting to develop and evaluate the suitability, feasibility and effectiveness of an Aboriginal peer-led home visiting programme. A secondary aim, addressed in this paper, was to explore and describe research methodology used for the study and provide recommendations for its implementation in other similar situations. PAR using action learning sets was employed to develop the parent support programme and data addressing the secondary, methodological aim were collected through focus groups using semi-structured and unstructured interview schedules. Findings were addressed throughout the action research process to enhance the research process. The themes that emerged from the data and addressed the methodological aim were the need for safe communication processes; supportive engagement processes and supportive organisational processes. Aboriginal peer support workers (PSWs) and community support agencies identified three important elements central to their capacity to engage and work within the PAR methodology. This research has provided innovative data, highlighting processes and recommendations for child health nurses to engage with the PSWs, parents and community agencies to explore culturally acceptable elements for an empowering methodology for peer-led home visiting support. There is potential for this nursing research to credibly inform policy development for Aboriginal child and family health service delivery, in addition to other vulnerable population groups. Child health nurses/researchers can use these new understandings to work in partnership with Aboriginal communities and families to develop empowering and culturally acceptable strategies for developing Aboriginal parent support for the early years. Impact Statement Child

  15. Culture, context and therapeutic processes: delivering a parent-child intervention in a remote Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sarah; Robinson, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Little is written about the process of delivering mainstream, evidence-based therapeutic interventions for Aboriginal children and families in remote communities. Patterns of interaction between parents and children and expectations about parenting and professional roles and responsibilities vary across cultural contexts. This can be a challenging experience for professionals accustomed to work in urban settings. Language is only a part of cultural difference, and the outsider in a therapeutic group in an Aboriginal community is outside not only in language but also in access to community relationships and a place within those relationships. This paper uses examples from Let's Start, a therapeutic parent-child intervention to describe the impact of distance, culture and relationships in a remote Aboriginal community, on the therapeutic framework, group processes and relationships. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Program adaptation, evaluation and staff training and support need to take these factors into account to ensure cultural accessibility without loss of therapeutic fidelity and efficacy.

  16. Weeding out or Developing Capacity? Challenges for Aboriginal Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Teacher education is critical to the development of Aboriginal teachers able to ensure success among Aboriginal learners and contribute to the preservation and renewal of Aboriginal communities. In a series of talking circles, six beginning Aboriginal teachers discussed their teacher preparation and their first years of practice. They expressed…

  17. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Lee Carlson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into how Aboriginal peoples utilise and interact on social media, and how these technologies can assist with suicide prevention strategies. It found that Aboriginal people are engaging with Facebook to both seek and offer help for issues relating to suicide and self-harm. An existing continuum of suicide prevention strategies was evident—from light emotional support to direct suicide intervention involving health services. These strategies can be leveraged to implement effective and appropriate suicide prevention programs.

  18. Improving cardiovascular outcomes among Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from research for primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Thompson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Aboriginal people of Australia have much poorer health and social indicators and a substantial life expectancy gap compared to other Australians, with premature cardiovascular disease a major contributor to poorer health. This article draws on research undertaken to examine cardiovascular disparities and focuses on ways in which primary care practitioners can contribute to reducing cardiovascular disparities and improving Aboriginal health. Methods: The overall research utilised mixed methods and included data analysis, interviews and group processes which included Aboriginal people, service providers and policymakers. Workshop discussions to identify barriers and what works were recorded by notes and on whiteboards, then distilled and circulated to participants and other stakeholders to refine and validate information. Additional engagement occurred through circulation of draft material and further discussions. This report distils the lessons for primary care practitioners to improve outcomes through management that is attentive to the needs of Aboriginal people. Results: Aspects of primordial, primary and secondary prevention are identified, with practical strategies for intervention summarised. The premature onset and high incidence of Aboriginal cardiovascular disease make prevention imperative and require that primary care practitioners understand and work to address the social underpinnings of poor health. Doctors are well placed to reinforce the importance of healthy lifestyle at all visits to involve the family and to reduce barriers which impede early care seeking. Ensuring better information for Aboriginal patients and better integrated care for patients who frequently have complex needs and multi-morbidities will also improve care outcomes. Conclusion: Primary care practitioners have an important role in improving Aboriginal cardiovascular care outcomes. It is essential that they recognise the special needs of their

  19. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  20. Adiposity in aboriginal people from Arnhem Land, Australia: variation in degree and distribution associated with age, sex and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C O; White, N G

    1994-01-01

    A number of researchers have found substantial sex, population and group differences in adiposity and fat-distribution patterns, but there is relatively little information on body fat distribution in Aboriginal groups, especially for the indigenous people of Australia. This study, the largest of its kind for Australian Aboriginal people, presents information on adiposity and fat distribution in 425 Yolngu, a group of Aboriginal people living in a number of communities representing a wide range of lifestyles, in northeast Arnhem Land, Australia. Using BMI standards developed for people of European descent, the majority of the individuals in this study were lean, and the incidence of obesity was considerably less than in other Australian groups, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal. For the Yolngu in this study the relationship between ageing and adiposity is similar to that reported for tradition-orientated Aboriginal people, as well as for a number of other indigenous groups, viz., while the men maintain their weight into old age, the women, once they are past early adulthood, lose body fat with age. The results from the present study suggest that the age at which the Yolngu women start to gain, and subsequently lose, body fat is associated with differences in degree of acculturation. As has been found in other populations, age- and sex-related differences in body fat distribution occur, but no correlation was found between adiposity and fat distribution. The Aboriginal women and men, however, had a significantly more central distribution of subcutaneous fat than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Our findings have implications for the health and demography of Aboriginal people in general, and the Yolngu in particular, as they continue the transition from hunting and foraging towards a more 'westernized' lifestyle.

  1. Socioeconomic, social behaviour and dietary patterns among Malaysian aborigines and rural native Malays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, O; Shamsuddin, Z; Khalid, B A

    1991-09-01

    The socioeconomic, social behaviour and dietary pattern of 100 Aborigines and Malays, aged 7 years and above from Kuala Pangsoon, Selangor Malaysia were studied by using pretested questionnaires. The individual's dietary intake was estimated using 24 hour recall for 3 days within one week which was chosen at random. The household's food consumption pattern was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires. There was no difference in the total income per month for both communities, as well as the educational attainment of the head of household and property ownership. The proportion of smokers among the Aborigines and the Malays was almost similar (33%) but the percentage of heavy smokers was higher among Aborigines compared to Malays. One third of the Aborigines regularly consume alcohol. The main energy source for both communities was rice, sugar and cooking oil whilst fish and eggs were the main sources of protein. More than 50% of the Aborigines take tapioca or tapioca leaves at least once a week compared to less than 20% among the Malays. There was no significant different in the intake of energy, protein and carbohydrate between the groups. However, the Aborigines take less fats and iron compared to the Malays. The difference in terms of smoking, drinking habit and dietary intake may determine the distribution of disease in both communities.

  2. Addressing the barriers to driver licensing for Aboriginal people in New South Wales and South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Kathleen; Hunter, Kate; Cullen, Patricia; Helps, Yvonne; Senserrick, Teresa; Byrne, Jake; Harrison, James E; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2017-06-01

    Low rates of driver licensing have been linked to increased risk of transport-related injury, and reduced access to health services, employment and educational opportunities in the Aboriginal population. This paper reports on how barriers to obtaining a driver licence are being addressed in four Aboriginal communities in New South Wales and South Australia. Qualitative data were collected over a four-month period in 2013. Interviews with Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal stakeholders (n=31) and 11 focus groups with Aboriginal participants (n=46) were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Factors facilitating licensing included: family support, professional lessons, alternative testing and programs that assist with literacy, fines management, financial assistance and access to a supervising driver. Stakeholders recommended raising awareness of existing services and funding community-based service provision to promote access to licensing. Facilitating licence participation requires systemic change and long-term investment to ensure interagency collaboration, service use and sustainability of relevant programs, including job search agencies. Implications for public health: The disadvantage faced by Aboriginal people in driver licensing is a fundamental barrier to participation and a social determinant of health. Understanding the factors that promote licensing is crucial to improving access for under-serviced populations; recommendations provide pragmatic solutions to address licensing disadvantage. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)-developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-12-23

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the recommendations in these documents. Published by the

  4. Enculturation and alcohol use problems among aboriginal university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul J; Parlee, Brenda; McKennitt, Daniel W

    2011-12-01

    To examine associations between aboriginal enculturation, Canadian acculturation, and alcohol problems among aboriginal university students living in an urban area in Canada. Data for this mixed methods study were collected through in-person surveys with a convenience sample of aboriginal university students (n = 60) in 2008/2009. Students evidenced high levels of aboriginal enculturation and Canadian acculturation. aboriginal enculturation was significantly associated with reduced alcohol problems for aboriginal university students. There was no association between Canadian acculturation and alcohol problems. Qualitative findings suggest aboriginal cultural practices helped students cope with problems in their daily lives and provided them with both personal and social rewards. This study found aboriginal enculturation was significantly associated with reduced alcohol problems among aboriginal university students. Results support the growth of programs and services that encourage aboriginal students to maintain their cultural identity within the university setting.

  5. Explaining aboriginal/non-aboriginal inequalities in postseparation violence against Canadian women: application of a structural violence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jeanette Somlak; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Pulkingham, Jane

    2013-08-01

    Adopting a structural violence approach, we analyzed 2004 Canadian General Social Survey data to examine Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequalities in postseparation intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Aboriginal women had 4.12 times higher odds of postseparation IPV than non-Aboriginal women (p colonialism and its negative consequences.

  6. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the

  7. Inequalities in determinants of health among Aboriginal and Caucasian persons living with HIV/AIDS in Ontario: results from the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Laverne E; Rourke, Sean B; Gibson, Katherine; Bekele, Tsegaye M; Tucker, Ruthann; Greene, Saara; Sobota, Michael; Koornstra, Jay; Byers, Steve; Marks, Elisabeth; Bacon, Jean; Watson, James R; Hwang, Stephen W; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Dunn, James R; Guenter, Dale; Hambly, Keith; Bhuiyan, Shafi

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal Canadians (i.e., First Nations, Inuit and Métis) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, and experience greater social and economic marginalization and poorer housing conditions. This study sought to understand the differences in the determinants of health and housing-related characteristics between samples of Aboriginal and Caucasian adults living with HIV/AIDS in Ontario. We analyzed baseline demographic, socio-economic, health, and housing-related data from 521 individuals (79 Aboriginal and 442 Caucasian) living with HIV/AIDS and enrolled in the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study. We compared the characteristics of Aboriginal and Caucasian participants to identify determinants of health and housing-related characteristics independently associated with Aboriginal ethnicity. Compared to Caucausian participants living with HIV, Aboriginal participants were more likely to be younger, female or transgender women, less educated, unemployed, and homeless or unstably housed. They were also more likely to have low incomes and to have experienced housing-related discrimination. In a multivariate model, gender, income, and experiences of homelessness were independently associated with Aboriginal ethnicity. Aboriginal individuals living with HIV/AIDS in our sample are coping with significantly worse social and economic conditions and are more likely to experience challenging housing situations than a comparison group of Caucasian individuals living with HIV/AIDS. To develop effective care, treatment and support strategies for Aboriginal peoples with HIV, it is critical to address and improve their socio-economic and housing conditions.

  8. Nutritional status in mexican elderlys: comparative study between groups with different social assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Armando Osuna-Padilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study were to determine the prevalence of undernutrition and obesity in older people with various types of social support from Sinaloa, México.Material and methods: Comparative, observational, prospective and cross-sectional study in 91 elderly. Determined body weight, height and anthropometric measurements. Applied the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA. Means and standard deviations are estimated. Chi-square2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyzed data. Pearson correlation were utilized for evaluated the correlation between antropomethric indicators and MNA. The level of statistical significance was p<0.05.Results: 91 elderlies were evaluated: 35 users of a day House, 28 members of a cultural centre, and 28 residents of two nursing homes. There was a prevalence of malnutrition of 32.1% in the institutionalized, 14.3% on the day house, and 3.5% in independent adult. Obesity were diagnosed in 93.2% of people by Waist/Height Ratio. Good correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and calf circumference (CC with MNA (p<0.05.Conclusions: High prevalences of undernutrition were found in nursing homes and user of day homes, with major risks in womans and people major of 80 years. The implementation of nutritional interventions depending on the type of social assistance received is required.

  9. Comparison of gait velocity and center of mass during square and semicircular turning gaits between groups of elderly people with differing visual acuity

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sun-shil; An, Duk-hyun; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate gait velocity and center of mass (COM) during square and semicircular turning gaits between two groups of elderly people with differing visual acuity. [Subjects] Twenty elderly Korean women who could walk independently and who lived in the community were recruited. [Methods] We measured gait velocity and COM using an accelerometer during two different turning gaits. [Results] The velocity during square and semicircular turning gaits of pa...

  10. Vancouver Area Community Corrections and Aboriginal Justice: A Review of Aboriginal Federal Offenders and Sentencing Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Nuszdorfer, Jana Viktoria

    2012-01-01

    Operating under Vancouver Area Community Corrections, the Vancouver Parole Office is committed to reintegrating federal offenders on conditional release into the city of Vancouver. The establishment of collaborative justice between Correctional Services Canada (CSC) and the Aboriginal community is relatively new and has altered the procedures imposed on Aboriginal offenders serving their sentence. This paper reviews the trajectory uniquely assigned specifically to Aboriginal federal offende...

  11. Managing behavioral and psychological symptoms in Chinese elderly with dementia via group-based music intervention: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow Th; Fong, Ted Ct; Sing, C Y; Lee, Pandora Ht; Leung, Alice Bk; Chung, Kitty Sm; Kwok, Janet Kl

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a group music intervention in managing behavioral and psychological symptoms in Chinese elderly with dementia. This cluster randomized trial recruited 73 elderly participants with moderate dementia from 10 elderly residential homes and assigned them to the intervention ( n = 40) and control ( n = 33) group. The intervention included 16 half-hour sessions of music intervention with multi-sensory components over eight weeks and control group received standard care. Participants' levels of subjective moods and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as agitation, aberrant motor behaviors, dysphoria, and irritability were assessed at baseline, the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and the end of the intervention. Controlling for baseline outcomes, latent growth modeling revealed significant intervention effects for agitation ( B = -1.03, SE = 0.30, p  0.05). The music intervention showed significant reduction in the behavioral and psychological symptoms in Chinese elderly patients with dementia. Elderly homes could adopt this practical non-pharmacological intervention as a strategy to improve the well-being of the elderly.

  12. Perspectives of Aboriginal women on participation in mammographic screening: a step towards improving services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne Pilkington

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of breast cancer using screening mammography provides an opportunity for treatment which can lead to significantly improved outcomes. Despite considerable efforts having been made, the rate at which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter respectfully referred to as Aboriginal women in Western Australia participate in BreastScreen WA’s screening mammogram program remains below that for the overall female population of Western Australia. This study aimed to examine perspectives on breast screening amongst Aboriginal women in Western Australia. We explored the factors which impact on participation in breast screening and sought to identify potential initiatives to address lower participation in screening. Methods Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and yarning sessions were conducted with a total of 65 research participants. They were all Aboriginal and comprised consumers and health professionals from locations across the state. Results Our findings show that research participants generally were willing to have a mammogram. Key reasons given were having a genetic predisposition to breast cancer and a perception of investing in health for the sake of the next generation, as well as personal well-being. Barriers identified included lack of education about or understanding of screening, inadequacies in cultural appropriateness in the screening program, cultural beliefs around cancer in general and breast cancer in particular, and competing health and life priorities. However, many enablers were identified which can serve as potential strategies to assuage fear and increase screening uptake. These included increased education delivered by respected Aboriginal women, culturally appropriate promotion and the provision of care and support from other women in the community. Conclusion The higher participation rates for Aboriginal women in Western Australia than are found for Aboriginal women

  13. Temporal trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in rural and northern Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, Fabienne; Wilkins, Russell; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to assess trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in the rural and northern regions of Quebec. In a birth cohort-based study of all births to residents of rural and northern Quebec from 1991 through 2000 (n = 177,193), we analyzed birth outcomes and infant mortality for births classified by maternal mother tongue (Inuit, First Nations or non-Aboriginal) and by community type (predominantly First Nations, Inuit or non-Aboriginal). From 1991-1995 to 1996-2000, there was a trend of increasing rates of preterm birth for all 6 study groups. In all rural and northern areas, low birth weight rates increased significantly only for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.45 (95% CI 1.05-2.01)]. Stillbirth rates showed a non-significant increase for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.76 (0.64-4.83)]. Neonatal mortality rates decreased significantly in the predominantly non-Aboriginal communities and in the non-Aboriginal mother tongue group [RR0.78 (0.66-0.92)], and increased non-significantly for the First Nations mother tongue group [RR2.17 (0.71-6.62)]. Perinatal death rates increased for the First Nations mother tongue grouping in northern areas [RR2.19 (0.99-4.85)]. There was a disconcerting rise of some mortality outcomes for births to First Nations and Inuit mother tongue women and to women in predominantly First Nations and Inuit communities, in contrast to some improvements for births to non-Aboriginal mother tongue women and to women in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities in rural or northern Quebec, indicating a need for improving perinatal and neonatal health for Aboriginal populations in rural and northern regions.

  14. Temporal trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in rural and northern Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Simonet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective was to assess trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in the rural and northern regions of Quebec. Study design and methods. In a birth cohort-based study of all births to residents of rural and northern Quebec from 1991 through 2000 (n = 177,193, we analyzed birth outcomes and infant mortality for births classified by maternal mother tongue (Inuit, First Nations or non-Aboriginal and by community type (predominantly First Nations, Inuit or non-Aboriginal. Results. From 1991–1995 to 1996–2000, there was a trend of increasing rates of preterm birth for all 6 study groups. In all rural and northern areas, low birth weight rates increased significantly only for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.45 (95% CI 1.05–2.01]. Stillbirth rates showed a non-significant increase for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.76 (0.64–4.83]. Neonatal mortality rates decreased significantly in the predominantly non-Aboriginal communities and in the non-Aboriginal mother tongue group [RR0.78 (0.66–0.92], and increased non-significantly for the First Nations mother tongue group [RR2.17 (0.71–6.62]. Perinatal death rates increased for the First Nations mother tongue grouping in northern areas [RR2.19 (0.99–4.85]. Conclusion. There was a disconcerting rise of some mortality outcomes for births to First Nations and Inuit mother tongue women and to women in predominantly First Nations and Inuit communities, in contrast to some improvements for births to non-Aboriginal mother tongue women and to women in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities in rural or northern Quebec, indicating a need for improving perinatal and neonatal health for Aboriginal populations in rural and northern regions.

  15. Proposta de acompanhamento em grupo para idosos protetizados Group follow up proposal for elderly with hearing aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliara Pinto Vieira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A implantação de programas de reabilitação para o deficiente auditivo adulto é de grande importância, principalmente na população geriátrica, sendo necessário incorporá-los à rotina dos serviços ambulatoriais. OBJETIVO: Apresentar um programa de atendimento em grupo voltado para idosos protetizados. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Realizar um estudo piloto do tipo clínico e experimental, com a participação de 40 idosos usuários de próteses auditivas, doadas em um Serviço Público, distribuídos em seis grupos, com no máximo oito idosos mais seus respectivos acompanhantes. O programa constou de três encontros quinzenais, onde foram transmitidas informações e orientações necessárias para adequada adaptação dos idosos ao uso das próteses auditivas. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos idosos participou dos encontros ativamente, expondo suas opiniões espontaneamente ou respondendo as questões quando solicitado. Todos os idosos foram orientados quanto à importância da aceitação da deficiência auditiva e sobre a necessidade de motivação para o uso das próteses auditivas. Além disso, ouvir depoimentos dos outros idosos pareceu facilitar a compreensão das suas próprias dificuldades e os estimulou no processo de adaptação à amplificação. CONCLUSÃO: a formação de grupos facilitou a interação entre idosos, permitiu o esclarecimento das dúvidas e estratégias de comunicação e, conseqüentemente, favoreceu o processo de adaptação.Implementing rehabilitation programs to hearing impaired adults is of great importance, mainly in the elderly population, and it is necessary to add them to the routine of outpatient care programs. AIM: to present a group care program for elderly patients who are fitted with hearing aids. MATERIAL AND METHOD: to carry out a pilot study of clinical and experimental type, with the participation of 40 elderly users of hearing aids donated by the government, distributed within six groups, with maximum

  16. Linguistic aspects of Australian Aboriginal English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard Australian English (SAE) at one end, through to something very close to creole at the other. The phonetics and phonology, grammar, and lexicon of AAE are influenced to varying degrees by the Australian Aboriginal language substrate. There are also some features typical of non-standard Englishes in general, and some which have been retained from earlier forms of the colonial language. Many teachers still see this variety as an uneducated or corrupted form of Standard Australian English, rather than as a different dialect of English that is just as efficient a medium of communication.

  17. Effectiveness of group-mediated lifestyle physical activity (glpa) program for health benefit in physical activity among elderly people at rural thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethisan, P.; Chapman, R.

    2015-01-01

    Elderly population is considered as a vulnerable group and prone to develop multiple medical problems. This aging population is rapidly increasing in developing countries especially in Thailand. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study to evaluate the effectiveness of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program on change health benefit in physical activity among elderly people by using validated and reliable Global Physical Activity Questionnaire-GPAQv2. The study was conducted in Phranakhonsiayutthaya district, Ayutthaya province due to its population being the second highest elderly in the Central Region of Thailand. A total of 102 persons of age 60 and over who could read and write Thai language were selected purposively. However, 52 elderly were enrolled in the intervention group and 50 were enrolled for the control group. General Linear Model repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity (GLPA) program on change health benefit in physical activity among elderly. Results: Overall health benefit at baseline were similar between intervention and control group and found statistically non-significant with p-value 0.638 (>0.05). However, the mean score of health benefit was 23.21 ± 29.23 in intervention group and 20.74 ± 23.18 in control group. One third of participants of intervention group had not found health benefit due to physical activity while in control group this number was more than half. After elderly received Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program intervention for 6 month found significant statistical differences as compared with mean score at baseline (health benefit 6 month, intervention group =40.7 ± 34.28 and control group =4.56 ± 8.79). Conclusion: The effect of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program change intervention was statistically significant in health benefit after intervention program between intervention and control group. Our study

  18. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo

    2016-09-20

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  19. Comparison of gait velocity and center of mass during square and semicircular turning gaits between groups of elderly people with differing visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Shil; An, Duk-Hyun; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate gait velocity and center of mass (COM) during square and semicircular turning gaits between two groups of elderly people with differing visual acuity. [Subjects] Twenty elderly Korean women who could walk independently and who lived in the community were recruited. [Methods] We measured gait velocity and COM using an accelerometer during two different turning gaits. [Results] The velocity during square and semicircular turning gaits of participants with good binocular visual acuity (GBVA) was significantly higher than that of participants with poor binocular visual acuity (PBVA). The COM during square and semicircular turning gaits of the GBVA group was significantly decreased compared with that of the PBVA group. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that visual acuity affects velocity and COM during square and semicircular turning gaits of elderly people.

  20. Does more equitable governance lead to more equitable health care? A case study based on the implementation of health reform in Aboriginal health Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Sabanovic, Hana; La Brooy, Camille; Lock, Mark; Lusher, Dean; Brown, Larry

    2014-12-01

    There is growing evidence that providing increased voice to vulnerable or disenfranchised populations is important to improving health equity. In this paper we will examine the engagement of Aboriginal community members and community controlled organisations in local governance reforms associated with the Aboriginal Health National Partnership Agreements (AHNPA) in Australia and its impact on the uptake of health assessments. The sample included qualitative and quantitative responses from 188 people involved in regional governance in Aboriginal health. The study included data on the uptake of Aboriginal health assessments from July 2008 to December 2012. The study population was 83190 in 2008/9, 856986 in 2009/10, 88256 in 2010/11 and 90903 in 2011/12. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between organisations within forums and the regional uptake of Aboriginal health assessments. The independent variables included before and after the AHNPA, state, remoteness, level of representation from Aboriginal organisations and links between Aboriginal and mainstream organisations. The introduction of the AHNPA was associated with a shift in power from central government to regional forums. This shift has enabled Aboriginal people a much greater voice in governance. The results of the analyses show that improvements in the uptake of health assessments were associated with stronger links between Aboriginal organisations and between mainstream organisations working with Aboriginal organisations. Higher levels of community representation were also associated with improved uptake of health assessments in the AHNPA. The findings suggest that the incorporation of Aboriginal community and community controlled organisations in regional planning plays an important role in improving health equity. This study makes an important contribution to understanding the processes through which the incorporation of disadvantaged groups into governance might contribute to

  1. Fatherhood in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: An Examination of Barriers and Opportunities to Strengthen the Male Parenting Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Lyndon; Rees, Susan

    2018-03-01

    Traditional Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies value men's role as parents; however, the importance of promoting fatherhood as a key social determinant of men's well-being has not been fully appreciated in Western medicine. To strengthen the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male parenting role, it is vital to examine current barriers and opportunities. The first author (a male Aboriginal health project officer) conducted yarning sessions in three remote Australian communities, two being Aboriginal, the other having a high Aboriginal population. An expert sample of 25 Aboriginal and 6 non-Aboriginal stakeholders, including maternal and child health workers and men's group facilitators, considered barriers and opportunities to improve men's parenting knowledge and role, with an aim to inform services and practices intended to support men's parenting. A specific aim was to shape an existing men's group program known as Strong Fathers, Strong Families. A thematic analysis of data from the project identified barriers and opportunities to support men's role as parents. Challenges included the transition from traditional to contemporary parenting practices and low level of cultural and male gender sensitivity in maternal and child health services. Services need to better understand and focus on men's psychological empowerment and to address shame and lack of confidence around parenting. Poor literacy and numeracy are viewed as contributing to disempowerment. Communities need to champion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male father role models. Biases and barriers should be addressed to improve service delivery and better enable men to become empowered and confident fathers.

  2. Attempted suicide in the elderly: characteristics of suicide attempters 70 years and older and a general population comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorsson, Stefan; Runeson, Bo; Skoog, Ingmar; Ostling, Svante; Waern, Margda

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors associated with attempted suicide in the elderly. Social, psychological, and psychiatric characteristics were compared in suicide attempters (70 years and older) and a representative population sample. Emergency departments at five hospitals in western Sweden and a representative sample of the elderly population. Persons with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score age 80 years). Comparison subjects matched for gender and age group (N = 408) were randomly selected among participants in our general population studies. Symptoms were rated with identical instruments in cases and comparison subjects. The examination included the MMSE and tests of short- and long-term memory, abstract thinking, aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and major and minor depressions were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, using symptom algorithms. Factors associated with attempted suicide included being unmarried, living alone, low education level, history of psychiatric treatment, and previous suicide attempt. There was no association with dementia. Odds ratios were increased for both major (odds ratio [OR]: 47.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.1-117.7) and minor (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.5-4.7) depressions. An association was observed between perceived loneliness and attempted suicide; this relationship was independent of depression (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.1). Observed associations mirrored those previously shown for completed suicide. Results may help to inform clinical decisions regarding suicide risk evaluation in this vulnerable and growing age group.

  3. Antiquity and diversity of aboriginal Australian Y-chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Nano; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Taylor, Duncan; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; Turkalov, Rust; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the origins of Aboriginal Australians is crucial in reconstructing the evolution and spread of Homo sapiens as evidence suggests they represent the descendants of the earliest group to leave Africa. This study analyzed a large sample of Y-chromosomes to answer questions relating to the migration routes of their ancestors, the age of Y-haplogroups, date of colonization, as well as the extent of male-specific variation. Knowledge of Y-chromosome variation among Aboriginal Australians is extremely limited. This study examined Y-SNP and Y-STR variation among 657 self-declared Aboriginal males from locations across the continent. 17 Y-STR loci and 47 Y-SNPs spanning the Y-chromosome phylogeny were typed in total. The proportion of non-indigenous Y-chromosomes of assumed Eurasian origin was high, at 56%. Y lineages of indigenous Sahul origin belonged to haplogroups C-M130*(xM8,M38,M217,M347) (1%), C-M347 (19%), K-M526*(xM147,P308,P79,P261,P256,M231,M175,M45,P202) (12%), S-P308 (12%), and M-M186 (0.9%). Haplogroups C-M347, K-M526*, and S-P308 are Aboriginal Australian-specific. Dating of C-M347, K-M526*, and S-P308 indicates that all are at least 40,000 years old, confirming their long-term presence in Australia. Haplogroup C-M347 comprised at least three sub-haplogroups: C-DYS390.1del, C-M210, and the unresolved paragroup C-M347*(xDYS390.1del,M210). There was some geographic structure to the Y-haplogroup variation, but most haplogroups were present throughout Australia. The age of the Australian-specific Y-haplogroups suggests New Guineans and Aboriginal Australians have been isolated for over 30,000 years, supporting findings based on mitochondrial DNA data. Our data support the hypothesis of more than one route (via New Guinea) for males entering Sahul some 50,000 years ago and give no support for colonization events during the Holocene, from either India or elsewhere. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [The Effect of Structured Group Reminiscence Therapy on the Life Satisfaction of Institutionalized Elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Mei; Kuo, Chien-Lin; Chen, Mei-Rong; Lee, Lai-Ling; Lee, Pi-Yueh; Wang, Shu-Fen

    2016-08-01

    Long-term care institutions have become an option for older people who are dependent in daily living. However, insufficient attention has been focused on assessing the life satisfaction of those currently residing in these institutions in Taiwan. Previous research indicates that group reminiscence may improve the life satisfaction of older adults. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the implementation and evaluation of reminiscence interventions. To examine the effect of a structured group reminiscence protocol on the life satisfaction of institutionalized older adults. The study used a quasi-experimental design. A total of 48 older adults were conveniently recruited from two long-term care institutions in southern Taiwan. The experimental group (n = 23) received 8 weeks of structured-group reminiscence for 40 minutes weekly, while the control group (n = 25) received routine care from the institution. Both groups were evaluated using a life-satisfaction questionnaire before and after the intervention and again four weeks later. Life satisfaction scores were statistically similar on the pre-test and significantly different on both post-test questionnaires for the two groups. The scores for the experimental and control groups were pre-test: 24.22 vs 23.36 (p = .063); post-test I: 27.22 vs 23.32 (p life satisfaction for the experimental group increased by 0.85-points (p = .042) more than the control group, which is a significant difference. The results support that the 8-week structured group reminiscence protocol effectively enhances life satisfaction in older adults. The results of this study may be referenced in the continuing education of nurses working in long-term care institutions in the context of helping nurses organize, facilitate, and evaluate this protocol.

  5. Traditional food availability and consumption in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Megan; Brown, Clare; Georga, Claire; Miles, Edward; Wilson, Alyce; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-06-01

    To explore availability, variety and frequency consumption of traditional foods and their role in alleviating food insecurity in remote Aboriginal Australia. Availability was assessed through repeated semi-structured interviews and consumption via a survey. Quantitative data were described and qualitative data classified. Aboriginal and non-Indigenous key informants (n=30 in 2013; n=19 in 2014) from 20 Northern Territory (NT) communities participated in interviews. Aboriginal primary household shoppers (n=73 in 2014) in five of these communities participated in a survey. Traditional foods were reported to be available year-round in all 20 communities. Most participants (89%) reported consuming a variety of traditional foods at least fortnightly and 71% at least weekly. Seventy-six per cent reported being food insecure, with 40% obtaining traditional food during these times. Traditional food is consumed frequently by Aboriginal people living in remote NT. Implications for public health: Quantifying dietary contribution of traditional food would complement estimated population dietary intake. It would contribute evidence of nutrition transition and differences in intakes across age groups and inform dietary, environmental and social interventions and policy. Designing and conducting assessment of traditional food intake in conjunction with Aboriginal leaders warrants consideration. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. The-1131T > C Polymorphism in the Apolipoprotein A5 Gene is Related to Hypertriglyceridemia in Taiwanese Aborigines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Huang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, considered to be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, is high in Taiwanese aborigines. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of the -1131T > C polymorphism in the apolipoprotein A5 gene on serum triglyceride levels in female Taiwanese aborigines. This was a cross-sectional study, and a total of 316 unrelated female Taiwanese aborigines were genotyped at the -1131T > C polymorphism in apolipoprotein A5 using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Serum triglyceride ≥150 mg/dL was defined as the hypertriglyceridemia group and triglyceride C polymorphism of the Apo A5 gene influences serum triglyceride levels in female Taiwanese aborigines, and that differences exist in the frequency of the C allele among people of various ethnicities.

  7. Women’s Aboriginal Art: Negotiating Two Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Shana

    2008-01-01

    In the 20th century art market, women’s Aboriginal art was perceived as something insignificant and easy to create. During the last half of the century, female Aboriginal artists were under-valued, under-researched, and poorly marketed. Not only were they paid significantly less, but they were also considered less talented than male Aboriginal artists. Nevertheless, the 21st century shows a shift away from these sexist notions as Aboriginal women negotiate new styles in their artwork. ...

  8. Interventions to improve social determinants of health among elderly ethnic minority groups: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Michelle S.; Agyemang, Charles O.; Smalbrugge, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative

  9. Improving paediatric outreach services for urban Aboriginal children through partnerships: views of community-based service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S L; Williams, K; Ritchie, J; Zwi, K

    2015-11-01

    In Australia, Aboriginal children experience significantly poorer health outcomes compared with non-Aboriginal children. Health policies aimed at improving Aboriginal health outcomes include interventions in the early childhood period. There is a need for government health services to work in partnership with Aboriginal people and other services to achieve the highest level of health possible for Aboriginal children, who often require a range of services to meet complex needs. This paper describes the views of service providers on how paediatric outreach services work in partnership with other services, Aboriginal families and the community and how those partnerships could be improved to maximize health outcomes for children. In-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with managers and service providers over a 6-week period in 2010. The views and suggestions of participants were documented and a thematic analysis was undertaken. Analysis of two focus groups with seven service providers and five individual interviews with service managers resulted in the identification of four themes: (i) using informal and formal ways of working; (ii) cultivating effective relationships; (iii) demonstrating cultural sensitivity; and (iv) forging strong leadership. Use of formal and informal approaches facilitated effective relationships between service providers and Aboriginal families and communities. Partnerships with the community were founded on a culturally appropriate model of care that recognized a holistic approach to health and wellness. Leadership emerged as an essential component of effective partnerships, cultivating the ethos of the workplace and creating an environment where collaboration is supported. Culturally appropriate child health services, which utilize effective relationships and employ a range of informal and formal collaboration with other services and community members, are well positioned to implement health policy and improve

  10. Middle-ear disease in remote Aboriginal Australia: a field assessment of surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, D; MacKendrick, A; Weeks, S; Plant, A J

    2000-01-01

    Chronic middle-ear disease is highly prevalent among Australian Aboriginal people, and many undergo surgical treatment. However, the outcomes of surgery in this group have not been fully evaluated. This is a descriptive study of operations for middle-ear disease (excluding grommets) on Aboriginal patients in Kimberley hospitals between 1 October 1986 and 31 December 1995. Logistic regression was used to model predictors of surgical outcome. Success was defined by an intact tympanic membrane and air-bone gap of 10 years, however, this does not take into account the necessity of hearing for language acquisition and learning. Dedicated resources must be allocated for post-operative follow-up of Aboriginal patients so that much-needed, rigorous evaluations of ENT surgery can be conducted.

  11. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  12. 50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.4 Aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) No person shall engage in aboriginal subsistence whaling, except a whaling captain licensed pursuant to...

  13. The psychological impact of heavy drinking among the elderly on their co-residents: The 10/66 group population based survey in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Acosta, Daisy; Rodriguez, Guillermina; Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is very limited literature on alcohol use among the elderly and little is known about the impact it has on family and caregivers, especially in low and middle income countries. Aim To estimate the independent effect of heavy alcohol use among the elderly on the psychological health of their co-residents. Methods This is a secondary analysis using data from the comprehensive cross-sectional survey of the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme in the Dominican Republic. The characteristics of the elderly participants as well as the co-residents were described. The independent association of heavy drinking among the participants with psychological morbidity in their co-residents was estimated. Different models were generated to rule out potential mediating effects of disability and behavioural symptoms. Results Prevalence of heavy alcohol use in the elderly in Dominican Republic was 10.6%. There was a statistically significant independent effect of heavy alcohol use by the elderly on their co-residents mental health (PR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.07–2.01) which was not accounted by disability (Sobel–Goodman test, p = 0.15). Severity of psychological and behavioural symptoms partially (29.1% of the total effect) explained this association (Sobel–Goodman mediation test, p = 0.006). Conclusions Health services for the elderly in low and middle income countries will have to be configured around detection of alcohol problems among the elderly as well as offering appropriate support to their co-residents. PMID:20970926

  14. Risk factors and comorbidities for invasive pneumococcal disease in Western Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye Janice Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Australian Aboriginal people have among the highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD worldwide. We investigated clinical diagnosis, risk factors, comorbidities and vaccine coverage in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal IPD cases. Using enhanced surveillance, we identified IPD cases in Western Australia, Australia, between 1997 and 2007. We calculated the proportion with risk factors and comorbidities in children (<5 years and adults (≥15 years, as well as adults living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions. We then calculated the proportion of cases eligible for vaccination who were vaccinated before contracting IPD. Of the 1,792 IPD cases that were reported, 355 (20% were Aboriginal and 1,155 (65% were adults. Pneumonia was the most common diagnosis (61% of non-Aboriginal and 49% of Aboriginal adult IPD cases in 2001-2007. Congenital abnormality was the most frequent comorbidity in non-Aboriginal children (11%. In Aboriginal children, preterm delivery was most common (14%. Ninety-one percent of non-Aboriginal and 96% of Aboriginal adults had one or more risk factors or comorbidities. In non-Aboriginal adults, cardiovascular disease (34% was the predominant comorbidity whilst excessive alcohol use (66% was the most commonly reported risk factor in Aboriginal adults. In adults, comorbidities were more frequently reported among those in metropolitan regions than those in non-metropolitan regions. Vaccination status was unknown for 637 of 1,082 cases post-July 2001. Forty-one percent of non-Aboriginal and 60% of Aboriginal children were eligible for vaccination but were not vaccinated. Among adults with risk factors who were eligible for vaccination and with known vaccination status, 75% Aboriginal and 94% non-Aboriginal were not vaccinated. An all-of-life immunisation register is needed to evaluate vaccine coverage and effectiveness in preventing IPD in adults.

  15. ABO Blood Group and Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Osteopenia in the Elderly Population: An Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP)-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Seyfizadeh, Narges; Negahdar, Hajar; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Nooreddini, Hajighorban; Parsian, Hadi

    Osteoporosis is known as a degenerative disease of the skeletal system and its main complication is fracture, which influences quality of life in the elderly. There are 4 major blood groups in humans based on the presence of A and B antigens. According to the investigations, there are reported relations between blood types and some diseases. In this study, the association between the ABO blood group and the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in an elderly population was investigated. Medical records of 990 elderly people were investigated in a cross-sectional study and the association between their blood group and the incidence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The results showed that ABO blood groups had no association with the prevalence of osteoporosis in both elderly men and women. The association between age and osteoporosis was significant and the association between this disorder and gender was significant too. The results also indicate that there is no association between RH + and RH - blood types and osteoporosis and osteopenia in both men and women. Based on this finding, it would be reasonable to conduct extensive studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Providing culturally informed mental health services to Aboriginal youth: The YouthLink model in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, Daniela; Feehan, Steven; Nicholls, Craig; Soong, Wei; Rigoli, Daniela; Follett, Denise; Carastathis, Geoff; Gomes, Alison; Griffiths, Jennifer; Curtis, Kerry; Smith, Warwick; Waters, Flavie

    2018-03-24

    Aboriginal young people are more likely to experience mental health issues and to access mental health services than other young Australians, yet there are few culturally informed mental health programs and services available. This study describes and documents the effectiveness of the culturally sensitive model within YouthLink, a state-wide mental health service program in Western Australia for young people aged 13 to 24 years of age. A mixed-method design including a descriptive approach reporting on the YouthLink framework and an empirical research design where 40 Aboriginal clients completed client feedback monitoring measures between 2014 and 2016. The YouthLink culturally informed conceptual framework adheres to best practice principles relevant to work with Indigenous people, family and communities. Aboriginal young people indicated improvement across the treatment period as shown by within-group differences between the first and last session scores on feedback measures. Therapeutic alliance (together with lower baseline acuity and female gender) also contributed significantly to positive treatment outcomes. Through a strong role of Aboriginal practitioners, relationships with Aboriginal communities, and greater service flexibility that embraces cultural meaning and knowledge, YouthLink has sought to enhance its response to the needs of Aboriginal youth. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI): A screening tool for identifying acquired communication disorders in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth M; Ciccone, Natalie; Hersh, Deborah; Katzenellebogen, Judith; Coffin, Juli; Thompson, Sandra; Flicker, Leon; Hayward, Colleen; Woods, Deborah; McAllister, Meaghan

    2017-06-01

    Acquired communication disorders (ACD), following stroke and traumatic brain injury, may not be correctly identified in Aboriginal Australians due to a lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate assessment tools. Within this paper we explore key issues that were considered in the development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI) - a screening tool designed to assess the presence of ACD in Aboriginal populations. A literature review and consultation with key stakeholders were undertaken to explore directions needed to develop a new tool, based on existing tools and recommendations for future developments. The literature searches revealed no existing screening tool for ACD in these populations, but identified tools in the areas of cognition and social-emotional wellbeing. Articles retrieved described details of the content and style of these tools, with recommendations for the development and administration of a new tool. The findings from the interview and focus group views were consistent with the approach recommended in the literature. There is a need for a screening tool for ACD to be developed but any tool must be informed by knowledge of Aboriginal language, culture and community input in order to be acceptable and valid.

  18. "Do You Live in a Teepee?" Aboriginal Students' Experiences with Racial Microaggressions in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. Anthony; Kleiman, Sela; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Isaac, Paige; Poolokasingham, Gauthamie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current qualitative investigation was to examine Aboriginal undergraduates' (N = 6) experiences with racial microaggressions at a leading Canadian university. The research team analyzed focus group data using a modified consensual qualitative research approach (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). The authors identified 5…

  19. Mining Aboriginal Labour: Examining Capital Reconversion Strategies Occurring on the Risk Management Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a vocational education and training partnership occurring in the Canadian oil sands mining industry. The case study involves a corporate-sponsored pre-apprenticeship training programme designed to procure aboriginal labour in the province of Alberta. Interviews with members of key partner groups and stakeholders occurred…

  20. Communication disorders after stroke in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists on acquired communication disorders (ACD) in Aboriginal Australians despite their high rates of stroke. Their uptake of rehabilitation services is low, and little information is available on functional consequences for this population. This pilot study explored consequences of ACD for Aboriginal Australians after stroke, including their experiences of services received. Semi-structured interviews were collected with 13 Aboriginal people with ACD, and family members, in Perth. Ages ranged from 30 to 78 years and time post stroke from 0.5 to 29 years. A qualitative, thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken. The key themes which emerged were "getting on with life", coping with change, independence/interdependence, the importance of communication for maintaining family and community connection, role and identity issues and viewing the stroke consequences within the broader context of co-morbidities. While similar life disruptions were found to those previously reported in the general stroke population, this study highlighted differences, which reflect the particular context of ACD for Aboriginal people and which need to be considered when planning future services. While implications are limited due to small numbers, the findings emphasise the importance of a holistic approach, and integration of communication treatments into community-led social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation Aboriginal Australians frequently experience a range of concurrent and complex co-morbidities and demanding social or family circumstances at the same time as coping with communication disorders post-stroke. A holistic approach to post stroke rehabilitation may be appropriate with services that accommodate communication disorders, delivered in collaboration with Aboriginal organisations, emphasising positive attitudes and reintegration into community as fully as possible. Communication and yarning are important for maintaining family and

  1. A Rare Case of Chronic Diarrhea in an Elderly Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jong Bair

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diarrhea is a common condition in older age groups, and many patients do not seek medical attention unless their diarrhea is associated with other symptoms, such as weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding or abdominal pain. It is a critical condition in the elderly, especially with systemic disease. We report the case of an elderly patient with chronic diarrhea secondary to intestinal capillariasis. Human intestinal capillariasis is a rare parasitosis of the gastrointestinal tract, which may be a fatal disease if early treatment is not given. The clinical hallmarks of capillariasis include chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, borborygmi, marked weight loss, protein and electrolyte loss, and cachexia. Most patients die from electrolyte loss resulting in heart failure and/or septicemia. Taiwan, particularly in Taitung County, is a Capillaria-prevalent area. Thus, parasitosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with debilitating chronic diarrhea, especially in the elderly aboriginal population of Taitung County. A careful dietary and travel history is important in any such case; but even in the absence of clear-cut exposure, a parasitic infection should be considered and carefully investigated.

  2. Sexuality in the perception and experience of elderly women members of a living group - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.10700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice do Carmo Jhan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a result of a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, aiming to examine the perception and experience of women participating in elderly groups about sexuality in the oldness. The study was conducted with 29 old women members of five different elderly groups located in the northern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The data were collected through interviews with semi-structured open questions. The survey resulted in two analytical categories. The first one is associated with the participants’ understanding about sexuality in the oldness. The second one is related to new relationships as consequence of group insertion. The results indicate the importance of the awareness and the recognition of the main aspects that affect positively and negatively the practice of sexuality in the oldness, allowing the development of strategies for health education targeted to this population, considering the physical, emotional and cultural aspects of the group.  

  3. Focus Groups in Elderly Ophthalmologic Patients: Setting the Stage for Quantitative Preference Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Marion; Vennedey, Vera; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Fauser, Sascha; Stock, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are rarely actively involved in decision-making, despite facing preference-sensitive treatment decisions. This paper presents a qualitative study to prepare quantitative preference elicitation in AMD patients. The aims of this study were (1) to gain familiarity with and learn about the special requirements of the AMD patient population for quantitative data collection; and (2) to select/refine patient-relevant treatment attributes and levels, and gain insights into preference structures. Semi-structured focus group interviews were performed. An interview guide including preselected categories in the form of seven potentially patient-relevant treatment attributes was followed. To identify the most patient-relevant treatment attributes, a ranking exercise was performed. Deductive content analyses were done by two independent reviewers for each attribute to derive subcategories (potential levels of attributes) and depict preference trends. The focus group interviews included 21 patients. The interviews revealed that quantitative preference surveys in this population will have to be interviewer assisted to make the survey feasible for patients. The five most patient-relevant attributes were the effect on visual function [ranking score (RS): 139], injection frequency (RS: 101), approval status (RS: 83), side effects (RS: 79), and monitoring frequency (RS: 76). Attribute and level refinement was based on patients' statements. Preference trends and dependencies between attributes informed the quantitative instrument design. This study suggests that qualitative research is a very helpful step to prepare the design and administration of quantitative preference elicitation instruments. It especially facilitated familiarization with the target population and its preferences, and it supported attribute/level refinement.

  4. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  5. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  6. Evidence summary: why is access to dental care for frail elderly people worse than for other groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caines, Beth

    2010-02-13

    In August 2009, members of the newly redeveloped Primary Care Dentistry Research Forum (http://www.dentistryresearch.org) took part in an online vote to identify questions in day-to-day practice that they felt most needed to be answered with conclusive research. The question which received the most votes formed the subject of a critical appraisal of the relevant literature. Each month a new round of voting will take place to decide which further questions will be reviewed. Dental practitioners and dental care professionals are encouraged to take part in the voting and submit their own questions to be included in the vote by joining the website.This paper details a summary of the findings of the first critical appraisal. In conclusion, the critical appraisal has identified that primary research is needed to look at the subject of access to dental care for frail elderly people. Similar barriers to accessing care for this group of people are still being reported today as they were 20 years ago.

  7. Improving the efficacy of healthcare services for Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Kylie; Jeffries, Thomas; Lincoln, Michelle

    2018-01-16

    Objective The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the enablers for effective health service delivery for Aboriginal Australians. Methods This systematic review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Papers were included if they had data related to health services for Australian Aboriginal people and were published between 2000 and 2015. The 21 papers that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Seven papers were subsequently excluded due to weak methodological approaches. Results There were two findings in the present study: (1) that Aboriginal people fare worse than non-Aboriginal people when accessing usual healthcare services; and (2) there are five enablers for effective health care services for Australian Aboriginal people: cultural competence, participation rates, organisational, clinical governance and compliance, and availability of services. Conclusions Health services for Australian Aboriginal people must be tailored and implementation of the five enablers is likely to affect the effectiveness of health services for Aboriginal people. The findings of the present study have significant implications in directing the future design, funding, delivery and evaluation of health care services for Aboriginal Australians. What is known about the topic? There is significant evidence about poor health outcomes and the 10-year gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and limited evidence about improving health service efficacy. What does this paper add? This systematic review found that with usual health care delivery, Aboriginal people experience worse health outcomes. This paper identifies five strategies in the literature that improve the effectiveness of health care services intended for Aboriginal people. What are the implications for

  8. Aborigines and uranium: consolidated report to the Minister for Aboriginal Affairs on the social impact of uranium mining on the aborigines of the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This consolidated report for the period October 1978 to June 1984 examines the aboriginal social environment, the impact and consequences for aborigines of uranium mining. The report looks at the question of monitoring social impact and examines in detail the findings and recommendations of the Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry. The social impact of mining is discussed, including the complexity of law and administration, economic consequences, health and aboriginal civic culture

  9. Terapia de la risa en un grupo de mujeres adultas/ Laughter therapy in a group of elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Villam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: explorar los beneficios de la terapia de la risa en un grupo de mujeres adultas pertenecientes a un centro gerontológico del Municipio de Envigado (Colombia. Metodología: estudio con enfoque cualitativo mediante entrevista semiestructurada a 10 adultas entre 59 y 97 años de edad, antes y después de la aplicación de 5 sesiones, una semanal, de terapia de la risa por parte del grupo Mediclaun “payasos hospitalarios”. Resultados: muchos de los cambios percibidos en las adultas coinciden con la literatura en lo que respecta a una actitud más positiva, incremento de la confianza en el otro y la aceptación; expresan el pasado con menos dolor y un mayor agrado frente al acompañamiento familiar. Conclusiones: La terapia de la risa permite al adulto mayor encontrar fortalezas que puedan ayudarle a mejorar su presente, a su vez, lograr cambios en el individuo que se le revierten positivamente y a su relación con el entorno Objective: to explore the benefits of laughter therapy in a group of elderly women belonging to a gerontology center (Envigado, Colombia. Methodology: a qualitative study using a semi-structured interview with 10 adult women aged 59 to 97. The participants were interviewed before and after applying 5 weekly sessions of laughter therapy. Said therapy was administered by the Mediclaun "hospital clowns" group. Results: many of the changes observed in adult women are consistent with the results described in the literature in relation to a more positive attitude, increased confidence in people and acceptance; the participants expressed the past with less pain and had a greater liking towards family support. Conclusions: laughter therapy allows seniors to find the strength to improve their present situation, thus causing positive changes in their own self and in their relationship with their surroundings

  10. Mental health of Aboriginal children and adolescents in violent school environments: protective mediators of violence and psychological/nervous disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Violet

    2013-03-01

    The effect of school violence on mental health was examined among 12,366 Aboriginal children and adolescents, primarily First Nations, Métis, and Inuit residing off reservations in the Canadian provinces and territories. Analyses were based on the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples' Survey, a postcensal national survey of Aboriginal youth aged 6-14 years. More than one-fifth of students in the sample attended schools where violence was perceived as a problem. The occurrence of psychological or nervous disorders was about 50% higher among students exposed to school violence than among other students. School violence was a significant predictor of mental health difficulties, irrespective of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Virtually the entire effect was mediated by interpersonal processes, or negative quality of parent-child and peer relationships, while the effect was not explained by cultural detachment through lack of interactions with Elders and traditional language ability/use. Results underscored school violence as a significant public health concern for Aboriginal elementary and high school students, and the need for evidence-based mental health interventions for at-risk populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hospitalizations due to unintentional transport injuries among Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, changes over time and ecological analysis of risk markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M. Anne; Jin, Andrew; Amram, Ofer; McCormick, Rod; Lalonde, Christopher E.

    2018-01-01

    Background Worldwide, Indigenous people have disproportionately higher rates of transport injuries. We examined disparities in injury-related hospitalizations resulting from transport incidents for three population groups in British Columbia (BC): total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations. We also examined sociodemographic, geographic and ethnic risk markers for disparities. Methods We identified Aboriginal people through BC’s universal health care insurance plan insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional transport injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with SRR of transport injury by multivariable linear regression. Results During the period 1991–2010, the SRR for the off-reserve Aboriginal population was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.71 to 1.83); and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.93 to 2.07) among those living on-reserve. Decline in crude rate and SRRs was observed over this period among both the Aboriginal and total populations of BC, but was proportionally greater among the Aboriginal population. The best-fitting multivariable risk marker model was an excellent fit (R2 = 0.912, ppopulation per room, proportion of the population with a high school certificate, proportion of the population employed; and multiplicative interactions of Aboriginal ethnicity with population per room and proportion of the population employed. Conclusions Disparities in risk of hospitalization due to unintentional transport injury have narrowed. Aboriginal ethnicity modifies the effects of socioeconomic risk factors. Continued improvement of socioeconomic conditions and implementation of culturally relevant injury prevention interventions

  12. Hospitalizations due to unintentional transport injuries among Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, changes over time and ecological analysis of risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; George, M Anne; Jin, Andrew; Amram, Ofer; McCormick, Rod; Lalonde, Christopher E

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, Indigenous people have disproportionately higher rates of transport injuries. We examined disparities in injury-related hospitalizations resulting from transport incidents for three population groups in British Columbia (BC): total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations. We also examined sociodemographic, geographic and ethnic risk markers for disparities. We identified Aboriginal people through BC's universal health care insurance plan insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional transport injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with SRR of transport injury by multivariable linear regression. During the period 1991-2010, the SRR for the off-reserve Aboriginal population was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.71 to 1.83); and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.93 to 2.07) among those living on-reserve. Decline in crude rate and SRRs was observed over this period among both the Aboriginal and total populations of BC, but was proportionally greater among the Aboriginal population. The best-fitting multivariable risk marker model was an excellent fit (R2 = 0.912, ppopulation per room, proportion of the population with a high school certificate, proportion of the population employed; and multiplicative interactions of Aboriginal ethnicity with population per room and proportion of the population employed. Disparities in risk of hospitalization due to unintentional transport injury have narrowed. Aboriginal ethnicity modifies the effects of socioeconomic risk factors. Continued improvement of socioeconomic conditions and implementation of culturally relevant injury prevention interventions are needed.

  13. Injury hospitalizations due to unintentional falls among the Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: incidence, changes over time, and ecological analysis of risk markers, 1991-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jin

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls.We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA, relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression.During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94. Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07. Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment.Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of hospitalization due to unintentional fall

  14. Hospitalizations due to unintentional transport injuries among Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, changes over time and ecological analysis of risk markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    Full Text Available Worldwide, Indigenous people have disproportionately higher rates of transport injuries. We examined disparities in injury-related hospitalizations resulting from transport incidents for three population groups in British Columbia (BC: total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations. We also examined sociodemographic, geographic and ethnic risk markers for disparities.We identified Aboriginal people through BC's universal health care insurance plan insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization for unintentional transport injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA, relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with SRR of transport injury by multivariable linear regression.During the period 1991-2010, the SRR for the off-reserve Aboriginal population was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.71 to 1.83; and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.93 to 2.07 among those living on-reserve. Decline in crude rate and SRRs was observed over this period among both the Aboriginal and total populations of BC, but was proportionally greater among the Aboriginal population. The best-fitting multivariable risk marker model was an excellent fit (R2 = 0.912, p<0.001, predicted SRRs very close to observed values, and retained the following terms: urban residence, population per room, proportion of the population with a high school certificate, proportion of the population employed; and multiplicative interactions of Aboriginal ethnicity with population per room and proportion of the population employed.Disparities in risk of hospitalization due to unintentional transport injury have narrowed. Aboriginal ethnicity modifies the effects of socioeconomic risk factors. Continued improvement of socioeconomic conditions

  15. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

  16. [The influence of the advertising in the medication use in a group of elderly attended in a primary health care unit in Aracaju (Sergipe, Brasil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lyra, Divaldo Pereira; Neves, Aline Souza; Cerqueira, Karine Santos; Marcellini, Paulo Sergio; Marques, Tatiane Cristina; de Barros, José Augusto Cabral

    2010-11-01

    The growth of the Brazilian elderly people has led to a trend to an increase in the medication use. The inadequate use of drugs can be induced by some factors, like advertisement, with the risk of damaging the user's health. The objective of the study was to evaluate the advertisement influence in medication use in a group of elderly patients in a primary health care unit in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. 230 elderly aging over 60 years with both genders had been interviewed from April to June of 2007. The majority of the interviewees (73%) has at least a chronic health condition and 73.9% consumed regularly at least one medication. 17.8% of the sample informed to use medication motivated by publicity influence; 2.2% had considered that the medication never cause damages and 6.5% believed that always it makes well. In this study, correlations have been made and demonstrated that those who presented a higher level of consumption influenced by advertising also think that drugs used are always beneficial and vice versa (p= 0.04). The data showed that part of elderly suffered influence of advertisement to medication use, and are not conscious of risks involved.

  17. Supporting youth wellbeing with a focus on eating well and being active: views from an Aboriginal community deliberative forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Jackie; Cox, Heather; Lopes, Edilene; Motlik, Jessie; Hanson, Lisa

    2018-02-14

    Including and prioritising community voice in policy development means policy is more likely to reflect community values and priorities. This project trialled and evaluated a storyboard approach in a deliberative community forum to engage Australian Aboriginal people in health policy priority setting. The forum was co-constructed with two Aboriginal community-controlled organisations. A circle storyboard was used to centre Aboriginal community knowledge and values and encourage the group to engage with broader perspectives and evidence. The forum asked a diverse (descriptively representative) group of Aboriginal people in a rural town what governments should do to support the wellbeing of children and youth, particularly to encourage them to eat well and be active. The storyboard provided a tactile device to allow shared stories and identification of community issues. The group identified policies they believed governments should prioritise, including strategies to combat racism and provide local supports and outlets for young people. An informed deliberative storyboard approach offers a novel way of engaging with Aboriginal communities in a culturally appropriate and inclusive manner. Implications for public health: The identification of racism as a major issue of concern in preventing children from living healthy lifestyles highlights the need for policy responses in this area. © 2018 The Authors.

  18. Effect of computer mouse gain and visual demand on mouse clicking performance and muscle activation in a young and elderly group of experienced computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Jensen, Bente R.

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the specific effects of motor demand and visual demands on the ability to control motor output in terms of performance and muscle activation. Young and elderly subjects performed multidirectional pointing tasks with the computer mouse. Three levels of mouse gain...... and three levels of target size were used. All subjects demonstrated a reduced working speed and hit rate at the highest mouse gain (1:8) when the target size was small. The young group had an optimum at mouse gain 1:4. The elderly group was most sensitive to the combination of high mouse gain and small...... was only to a minor degree influenced by mouse gain (and target sizes) indicating that stability of the forearm/hand is of significance during computer mouse control. The study has implications for ergonomists, pointing device manufacturers and software developers....

  19. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Yaegl Aboriginal community in northern New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Joanne; Brouwer, Nynke; Harrington, David; Gaikwad, Jitendra; Heron, Ronald; Yaegl Community Elders; Ranganathan, Shoba; Vemulpad, Subramanyam; Jamie, Joanne

    2012-01-06

    Documentation of Australian bush medicines is of utmost importance to the preservation of this disappearing and invaluable knowledge. This collaboration between the Yaegl Aboriginal community in northern New South Wales (NSW), Australia and an academic institution, demonstrates an effective means of preserving and adding value to this information. Questionnaire-guided interviews were performed with community Elders under a framework of participatory action research. Medicinal plant knowledge was collated in a handbook to aid interviews and to be used as an ongoing resource by the community. Specimens for all non-cultivar plants that were discussed were collected and deposited in herbaria with unique voucher numbers. This medicinal knowledge was checked against the literature for reports of related use and studies of biological activity. Nineteen Elders were interviewed, leading to discussions on fifty four plant preparations used for medicinal purposes. These plant preparations involved thirty two plants coming from twenty one families, reflecting the botanical diversity of the area. The plants retained in the Yaegl pharmacopoeia correspond to their accessibility and ease of preparation, reflected in their ongoing utilisation. Several plant uses did not appear elsewhere in the literature. This study is the first comprehensive documentation of the medicinal knowledge of the Yaegl Aboriginal community. It has been conducted using participatory action research methods and adds to the recorded customary knowledge of the region. The customary medicinal knowledge retained by the Yaegl Aboriginal community is related to the evolving needs of the community and accessibility of plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of serum trace element, biochemical and hematological data of a healthy elderly group residing in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sumita, N.M.; Jaluul, O.; Jacob-Filho, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, blood serum trace elements, biochemical and hematological parameters were obtained to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. Results obtained showed that more than 93% of the studied individuals presented most of the serum trace element concentrations and of the hematological and biochemical data within the reference values used in clinical laboratories. However, the percentage of elderly presenting recommended low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations was low (70%). The study indicated positive correlation between the concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.06). (author)

  1. A long-term, multicenter, open-label study of risperidone in elderly patients with psychosis. On behalf of the Risperidone Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Harvey, P D; Vervarcke, J; Gagiano, C A; De Hooge, J D; Bray, G; Dose, M; Barak, Y; Haushofer, M

    2000-06-01

    Studies have shown that risperidone is safe and efficacious in young and middle-aged adults with chronic schizophrenia, but considerably fewer data are available on the treatment of elderly patients with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, particularly long-term outcomes. A 12-month, open-label study was conducted to assess the effects of risperidone in elderly, chronically ill, psychotic patients. This study enrolled 180 elderly, chronically ill, psychotic patients (median age, 72 years [range 54-89]), 97 of whom completed the 12-month study. At endpoint, the mean dose of risperidone was 3.7 mg/day. Clinical improvement (> or =20% reduction in Positive and Negative Syndrome Score [PANSS] total score) was achieved by 54% of patients at endpoint. There were significant reductions in PANSS total, subscale (positive, negative, and general psychopathology), and cognition cluster scores at endpoint (p<0.001). Clinical Global Impressions severity of illness scores showed continued improvement through month 12 (p<0.001). In contrast, PANSS data from a historical comparable control group of patients receiving conventional antipsychotic agents showed no symptom improvement over a 12-month treatment period. The severity of preexisting extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in patients treated with risperidone decreased significantly from baseline to endpoint (p<0.001), and the use of antiparkinsonian medication decreased from 41.1% of patients before the trial to 25.6% during the trial. There were no spontaneous reports of tardive dyskinesia (TD) and the incidence of assessed TD was 4.3% in contrast to the expected 26% reported in middle-aged and elderly patients receiving conventional antipsychotic agents for 1 year. Long-term treatment with risperidone was associated with continued symptom improvement, a decrease in the severity of preexising EPS, and a low incidence of TD in elderly psychotic patients. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Prevalence of depression and its associations with cardio-metabolic control in Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Timothy M.E.; Hunt, Kerry; Bruce, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To determine the prevalence and associates of depression in Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt (AC) Australians with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Community-based patients were screened using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as part of detailed assessment. The prevalence of any current depression...... in the AC group and alcohol use in the Aboriginal group. Conclusions: Although prevalence of depression was not significantly increased in the Aboriginal patients, it was more likely to be major and untreated. Depression complicating type 2 diabetes is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk.......-demographic, anthropometric and diabetes-related characteristics to those without PHQ-9 data. A quarter of the Aboriginals had current depression vs 10.6% of ACs (. P=. 0.16), 15.4% vs 4.1% had major depression (. P=. 0.029), and 68.8% vs 29.7% had untreated depression (. P=. 0.032). Compared with non-depressed participants...

  3. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Shepherd, Carrington C. J.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths’ psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status. Method and Results We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12–17 years, n = 677) drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, padaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies. PMID:26716829

  4. The birthing experiences of rural Aboriginal women in context: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; Varcoe, Colleen; Calam, Betty

    2011-12-01

    It has been established that the birthing experiences and outcomes of rural women are shaped by poverty, isolation, limited economic opportunities, and diminishing maternity services. We lack research into how these dynamics are compounded by intersecting forms of oppression faced by Aboriginal women, to impact on their birthing experiences and outcomes. The findings of this study of rural Aboriginal maternity care in 4 communities in British Columbia show how diminishing local birthing choices and women's struggles to exert power, choice, and control are influenced by centuries of colonization. The research questions focus on rural Aboriginal women's experiences of birthing and maternity care in this neocolonial context and their desire for supportive birthing environments. A community-based participatory and ethnographic design was employed. Individual interviews, focus groups, and participant observation were the primary data sources. Although the women's experiences in each community were shaped by distinct histories and traditions, economics, politics, and geographies, the impacts of colonization and medical paternalism and the struggle for control of women's bodies during birth intersect, placing additional stress on women. The implications for nurses of accounting for the intersecting dynamics that shape Aboriginal women's experiences and birth outcomes are discussed.

  5. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Katrina D; Shepherd, Carrington C J; Taylor, Catherine L; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths' psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status. We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12-17 years, n = 677) drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, pResilient youth. The findings are consistent with biopsychosocial models and provide a more nuanced understanding of the patterns of risks, resources and adaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies.

  6. The Picture Talk Project: Starting a Conversation with Community Leaders on Research with Remote Aboriginal Communities of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, E F M; Macdonald, G; Martiniuk, A L C; D'Antoine, H; Oscar, J; Carter, M; Lawford, T; Elliott, E J

    2017-05-11

    Researchers are required to seek consent from Indigenous communities prior to conducting research but there is inadequate information about how Indigenous people understand and become fully engaged with this consent process. Few studies evaluate the preference or understanding of the consent process for research with Indigenous populations. Lack of informed consent can impact on research findings. The Picture Talk Project was initiated with senior Aboriginal leaders of the Fitzroy Valley community situated in the far north of Western Australia. Aboriginal people were interviewed about their understanding and experiences of research and consent processes. Transcripts were analysed using NVivo10 software with an integrated method of inductive and deductive coding and based in grounded theory. Local Aboriginal interpreters validated coding. Major themes were defined and supporting quotes sourced. Interviews with Aboriginal leaders (n = 20) were facilitated by a local Aboriginal Community Navigator who could interpret if necessary and provide cultural guidance. Participants were from all four major local language groups of the Fitzroy Valley; aged 31 years and above; and half were male. Themes emerging from these discussions included Research-finding knowledge; Being respectful of Aboriginal people, Working on country, and Being flexible with time; Working together with good communication; Reciprocity-two-way learning; and Reaching consent. The project revealed how much more there is to be learned about how research with remote Aboriginal communities should be conducted such that it is both culturally respectful and, importantly, meaningful for participants. We identify important elements in community consultation about research and seeking consent.

  7. The world's longest surviving paediatric practices: some themes of Aboriginal medical ethnobotany in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary paediatric practices of Australian Aboriginal men and women, in more than 100 Aboriginal Language Groups, comprise a living discipline whose origins predate Western medicine by tens of millennia. The history of paediatrics acknowledges this surviving continuum of the world's oldest child-care practices. Because of the inextricable nexus between Aboriginal men and women and the land in which they live, medical ethnobotany forms a major part of the medical aspects of Aboriginal child care. Traditional tribal healers, called 'Nungungi' in some language groups of Central Australia, are identified as such whilst still young children and are given special education in the healing arts, especially that of medical ethnobotany, by older healers. Distinct from this specialized role, all Aboriginal men and women (and in particular grandmothers) in traditional communities use a sophisticated botanical materia medica in the treatment of sick and injured children. In cultures in transition, medical ethnobotanical practices may persist long after the local use of flora as sources of traditional food, weaponry, totemic identity and religious rites have disappeared. Some selected botanical 'cures' were adopted by early European settlers and a number of such relict uses have become part of mainstream Western life today, particularly as this applies to self-medication. Drugs and medicaments used in the treatment of children are obtained from leaves, bark, roots and flowers, usually as fresh preparations. They are prepared as infusions, decoctions and macerations and may be enjoined with emollients such as emu or kangaroo fat for topical application. Botanical drugs and medicaments are usually prepared fresh for each administration and are rarely stored. Contemporary Australian ethnobotany exploits the medicinal properties of more than 100 genera - using such extracts as antiseptics, analgesics, astringents, antipyretics, sedatives, hypnotics, expectorants and

  8. Evaluation of MESSAGE communication strategy combined with group reminiscence therapy on elders with mild cognitive impairment in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan-Huan; Liu, Peng-Cheng; Ying, Jie; Shi, Ying; Wang, Shou-Qi; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Sun, Jiao

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate combined effects of MESSAGE communication strategy and group reminiscence therapy (GRT) on elders with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in long-term care facilities in Changchun, China. This study is a nonrandomized controlled trial. Subjects included 60 elders with MCI. Participants were divided into intervention (MESSAGE communication strategy combined with GRT) and control groups (without any intervention). Primary outcomes comprised cognitive function and quality of life of elderly people, as measured by the Beijing version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Chinese (mainland) version of Short-Form 36 Health Survey assessment. We observed significant changes in cognitive function with mean difference of 1.962 after 12 weeks (P = .000; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.341, 2.582), delayed memory dimension of 1.115 (P = .003; 95% CI = 0.417, 1.813). The intervention group exhibited the following improvements: general health of 14.731 (P = .000; 95% CI = 8.511, 20.951), mental health of 21.038 (P = .000; 95% CI = 17.301, 24.776), role-emotional of 26.925 (P = .003; 95% CI = 10.317, 45.533), and vitality of 14.231 (P = .000; 95% CI = 10.084, 18.377). Using a sample of Chinese elderly people with MCI and residing in long-term care facilities, we concluded that application of MESSAGE communication strategy combined with GRT resulted in improved cognitive function and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australia 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Latika; Chiu, Clayton; Habig, Andrew; Lowbridge, Christopher; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Wang, Han; McIntyre, Peter; Menzies, Robert

    2013-12-31

    This report outlines the major positive impacts of vaccines on the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from 2007 to 2010, as well as highlighting areas that require further attention. Hepatitis A disease is now less common in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in their non-Indigenous counterparts. Hepatitis A vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children was introduced in 2005 in the high incidence jurisdictions of the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. In 2002–2005, there were 20 hospitalisations for hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children agedtypes prior to vaccine introduction, the decline in total IPD notifications has been less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. Higher valency vaccines (10vPCV and 13vPCV) which replaced 7vPCV from 2011 are likely to result in a greater impact on IPD and potentially also non-invasive disease, although disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes appears likely to be an ongoing problem. Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged ≥50 years, there have been recent increases in IPD, which appear related to low vaccination coverage and highlight the need for improved coverage in this high-risk target group. Since routine meningococcal C vaccination for infants and the high-school catch-up program were implemented in 2003, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by serogroup C. However, the predominant serogroup responsible for disease remains serogroup B, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have significantly higher incidence of serogroup B disease than other children. A vaccine against meningococcus type B has now been licensed in Australia. The decline in severe rotavirus disease after vaccine introduction in 2007 was less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. By far the highest hospitalisation

  10. Focus groups as a tool to collect data in a community informatics project involving elderly rural women

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the extended project is to identify and investigate the aspects that will encourage elderly women in rural areas to use the ICT platform, and to determine what the physical design, content and applications should look like...

  11. Comparative assessment of study groups of elderly female computer users from four European countries: questionnaires used in the NEW study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandsjö, L; Larsman, P; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M M R

    2006-01-01

    There is a lack of consistent and comprehensive questionnaire forms for the studies of factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders at the European level. One of the results of the EU-funded project, neuromuscular assessment in the elderly worker (NEW), is a set of questionnaires...

  12. KINSHIP, MARRIAGE AND AGE IN ABORIGINAL AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Denham, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    McConnell (1930) first described and attempted to explain an “age spiral” in Australian Aboriginal systems of descent, marriage and kinship over eighty years ago. Since then, ethnographic and theoretical research concerning this matter has been sporadic and inconclusive, with societies that display this feature most often being treated as anomalous, transitional, hybrid or aberrant. Atkins (1981) attributed the failure to understand these societies to a lack of realism in the models; specific...

  13. Factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate; Flicker, Leon; Dwyer, Anna; Atkinson, David; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; LoGiudice, Dina

    2010-10-01

    Although the prevalence of dementia in remote living Aboriginal Australians is one of the highest in the world, the factors associated with dementia in this population are yet to be examined. This study was designed to determine the demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians living in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. A total of 363 Aboriginal Australians aged over 45 years from the Kimberley region were selected by semi-purposeful sampling. The factors analysed for association with dementia were age, sex, education, smoking, chewing tobacco, alcohol, head injury, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous stroke, epilepsy, falls, mobility, incontinence, urinary problems, vision and hearing. This exposure data was collected from participants' and informants' reports using the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment and specialist review, and medical records. Factors associated with dementia included older age, male gender (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.4, 6.8) and no formal education (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1, 6.7) and after adjusting for age, sex and education, dementia was associated with current smoking (OR 4.5, 95%CI 1.1, 18.6), previous stroke (OR 17.9, 95%CI 5.9, 49.7), epilepsy (OR 33.5, 95%CI 4.8, 232.3), head injury (OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.7, 9.4), and poor mobility, incontinence and falls. Interventions aimed at better management or prevention of the modifiable factors identified could reduce dementia risk in Aboriginal populations.

  14. Talking about the not talked about: use of, and reactions to, a DVD promoting bowel cancer screening to Aboriginal people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Margaret; Shahid, Shaouli; O'Connor, Kathleen; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-12-01

    To examine a) the implementation and use of a DVD developed to educate Aboriginal people about bowel cancer and bowel cancer screening; and b) broader aspects of Aboriginal participation in the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program. Qualitative methods and descriptive approaches were used. Data were collected using face-to-face and telephone interviews and focus group discussions. There were 67 participants, including those involved in the development and distribution of the DVD, health professionals and Aboriginal community members. Although the DVD received a positive reaction from participants, fewer than half the DVDs had been distributed. Furthermore, the small number of DVDs that had been distributed were under-utilised. The weaknesses do not appear to lie with the resource itself but can be attributed partly to poor distribution and promotion. This may have been compounded by the structure of the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program, which limited the engagement of Aboriginal community members and health providers whose focus is largely directed towards more pressing health care issues. Interest in the resource may increase once the Aboriginal component of the screening program is more closely linked with primary care. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. Art History in Remote Aboriginal Art Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Jorgensen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 Congress of the International Committee of the History of Art in Melbourne suggested in its theme of 'Crossing Cultures' that art history must revise its nationalistic methodologies to construct more international histories of art. This essay addresses the legacy of different eras and methods of writing the art history of remote Aboriginal artists. It argues that colonialism has structured many of the ways in which this art history has been written, and that the globalisation of art history does little to rectify these structures. Instead, art history must turn to institutions that are less implicated in the legacy of colonialism to frame its work. Rather than turning to the museums and art galleries who have provided much of the material for the art histories of the twentieth century, this essay suggests that remote art centres offer dynamic opportunities for doing twenty-first century art history. Founded in an era of political self-determination for remote Aboriginal people, these centres aspire to create an opportunity for the expression of a cultural difference whose origins precede the invasion and colonisation of Australia. Art centres and their archives present an opportunity to work through the legacies of colonialism in the art history of remote Australian Aboriginal artists

  16. The impact of taxation on Aboriginal ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranson, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper covers several key objectives including: sheltering income and assets owned by Bands from taxation; structuring businesses so that taxes are minimized at the outset; maintaining and managing business operations so as to ensure taxes continue to be minimized; and shifting permissible deductions to non-Aboriginal business partners (whenever possible) without infringing upon the rights Indians are entitled to under Section 87 of the Indian Act. The paper does not consider exploiting the rights or assets of Indians, rather it is about willing and cooperative business partners who are able to take advantage of a unique situation so that various levels of government do not get a bigger slice of the pie. It is important to remember that if one partner needs more cash to pay taxes, all partners suffer, because there is less cash available to reinvest in the business. Most First Nations and Aboriginal people maintain that taxes do not apply to them because various levels of government have no jurisdiction over them. The paper does not dispute this claim, rather while the issue of self-government and related jurisdictions issues are being resolved, it is still important to focus on using the status quo in minimizing taxes for Aboriginal businesses. The paper considers: the various taxes requiring consideration; the impact of other legislation and agreements; the various business structures and their treatment; and how to find the best structure for each business

  17. Strategic approaches to enhanced health service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspin Clive

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness confront multiple challenges that contribute to their poor health outcomes, and to the health disparities that exist in Australian society. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to care and support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. Methods Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n-16 and family carers (n = 3. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified and these were used to inform the key findings of the study. Results Participants reported both negative and positive influences that affected their health and well-being. Among the negative influences, they identified poor access to culturally appropriate health services, dislocation from cultural support systems, exposure to racism, poor communication with health care professionals and economic hardship. As a counter to these, participants pointed to cultural and traditional knowledge as well as insights from their own experiences. Participants said that while they often felt overwhelmed and confused by the burden of chronic illness, they drew strength from being part of an Aboriginal community, having regular and ongoing access to primary health care, and being well-connected to a supportive family network. Within this context, elders played an important role in increasing people’s awareness of the impact of chronic illness on people and communities. Conclusions Our study indicated that non-Indigenous health services struggled to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. To address their complex needs, health services could gain considerably by recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  18. Determination of the energy requirements in mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients in different BMI groups using the Harris–Benedict equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Hui Hsu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to studies on calorie requirement in mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients are few, and indirect calorimetry (IC is not available in every intensive care unit (ICU. The aim of this study was to compare IC and Harris–Benedict (HB predictive equation in different BMI groups. Methods: A total of 177 mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients (≧65 years old underwent IC for measured resting energy expenditure (MREE. Estimated calorie requirement was calculated by the HB equation, using actual body weight (ABW and ideal body weight (IBW separately. Patients were divided into four BMI groups. One-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for statistical analyses. Results: The mean MREE was 1443.6 ± 318.2 kcal/day, HB(ABW was 1110.9 ± 177.0 kcal/day and HB(IBW was 1101.5 ± 113.1 kcal/day. The stress factor (SFA = MREE ÷ HB(ABW was 1.43 ± 0.26 for the underweight, 1.30 ± 0.27 for the normal weight, 1.20 ± 0.19 for the overweight, and 1.20 ± 0.31 for the obese. The SFI (SFI = MREE ÷ HB(IBW was 1.24 ± 0.24 for the underweight, 1.31 ± 0.26 for the normal weight, 1.36 ± 0.21 for the overweight, and 1.52 ± 0.39 for the obese. MREE had significant correlation both with REE(ABW = HB(ABW × SFA (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001 and REE(IBW = HB(IBW × SFI (r = 0.43; P < 0.0001. Conclusion: IC is the best accurate method for assessing calorie requirement of mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients. When IC is not available, using the predictive HB equation is an alternative choice. Calorie requirement can be predicted by HB(ABW × 1.20–1.43 for critically ill elderly patients according to different BMI groups, or using HB(IBW × 1.24–1.52 for patients with edema, ascites or no available body weight data. Keywords: Body Mass Index, Elderly critical care, Harris–Benedict equation, Indirect calorimetry

  19. Consulting Whom? Lessons from the Toronto Urban Aboriginal Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai T. Nguyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted here looks at the current Urban Aboriginal Strategy (UAS in Toronto. The purpose of this Strategy is to provide long-term investments to support Aboriginal communities in urban settings by focusing on three priority areas: improving life skills; promoting job training, skills, and entrepreneurship; and supporting Aboriginal women, children, and families. This article seeks to answer the following question: Does the UAS provide Aboriginal participants with the ability to effectively participant in the consultation process? It argues that the UAS process of consulting with the urban Aboriginal community does not allow for the effective participation of Aboriginal peoples because of problematics related to consulting in an urban setting and despite the language of partnership, the federal government still reserves the right to make final decisions. These problems diminish the ability to build renewed Aboriginal-State relations based on mutual respect and trust, which has been absent within the Aboriginal-State apparatus and resulted in the political exclusion of Aboriginals in Canada. Though consultation can be a vehicle for empowering participants with decision-making authority, this is not the case in Toronto. The lack of a common vision, political buy-in, and the aura of secrecy leads to a political relationship built on mistrust. Mistrust between members and government renders the consultation process ineffective. This article combines the literature on public consultations with official government documents to identify critical components that must be evident for consultations to be fruitful and participation effective. These criteria are the benchmarks upon which to measure effectiveness. Based on interviews with the Steering Committee, this article finds that the UAS process of consulting with the Toronto Aboriginal community does not enable Aboriginal participants to effectively participate in the democratic process.

  20. Antenatal services for Aboriginal women: the relevance of cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibel, Tracy; Walker, Roz

    2010-01-01

    Due to persistent significantly poorer Aboriginal perinatal outcomes, the Women's and Newborns' Health Network, Western Australian Department of Health, required a comprehensive appraisal of antenatal services available to Aboriginal women as a starting point for future service delivery modelling. A services audit was conducted to ascertain the usage frequency and characteristics of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women in Western Australia (WA). Telephone interviews were undertaken with eligible antenatal services utilising a purpose specific service audit tool comprising questions in five categories: 1) general characteristics; 2) risk assessment; 3) treatment, risk reduction and education; 4) access; and 5) quality of care. Data were analysed according to routine antenatal care (e.g. risk assessment, treatment and risk reduction), service status (Aboriginal specific or non-specific) and application of cultural responsiveness. Significant gaps in appropriate antenatal services for Aboriginal women in metropolitan, rural and remote regions in WA were evident. Approximately 75% of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women have not achieved a model of service delivery consistent with the principles of culturally responsive care, with few services incorporating Aboriginal specific antenatal protocols/programme, maintaining access or employing Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs). Of 42 audited services, 18 Aboriginal specific and 24 general antenatal services reported utilisation by Aboriginal women. Of these, nine were identified as providing culturally responsive service delivery, incorporating key indicators of cultural security combined with highly consistent delivery of routine antenatal care. One service was located in the metropolitan area and eight in rural or remote locations. The audit of antenatal services in WA represents a significant step towards a detailed understanding of which services are most highly utilised and their defining characteristics

  1. The Ancestor Project: Aboriginal Computer Education through Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Marla; Biin, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the ANCESTOR program is to use digital storytelling as a means of promoting an interest in technology careers for Aboriginal learners, as well as increasing cultural literacy. A curriculum was developed and first tested with Aboriginal students at the LÁU,WELNEW Tribal School near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Based on feedback…

  2. Applying Collective Impact to Wicked Problems in Aboriginal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Kylie; Cairnduff, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal people fare worse than other Australians in every measure of health, including in a ten-year gap in life expectancy, infant mortality, cardiovascular disease, dental disease, mental health, chronic disease and maternal health. Despite sustained government effort, progress to improve Aboriginal health has been very slow. The collective…

  3. Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

  4. Seeding Success: Schools That Work for Aboriginal Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Geoff; O'Rourke, Virginia; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a large mixed methods research project that investigated the conditions of success for Aboriginal school students. The article presents the qualitative case study component of the research. It details the work of four schools identified as successful for Aboriginal students with respect to social and academic outcomes, and…

  5. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Abori...

  6. How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T.M. Schreiner (Agnes)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The article How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art will discuss two events at the Aboriginal Art Museum Utrecht from the perspective of a meeting between two artistic and legal cultures. The first event, on the art and law of the Spinifex people,

  7. How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiner, A.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The article How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art will discuss two events at the Aboriginal Art Museum Utrecht from the perspective of a meeting between two artistic and legal cultures. The first event, on the art and law of the Spinifex people, will prove to be of a private law

  8. Australian Engineering Educators' Attitudes towards Aboriginal Cultures and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinch, Thomas; Prpic, Juliana Kaya; Jolly, Lesley; Leigh, Elyssebeth; Kennedy, Jade

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, representation of Aboriginal populations within the engineering profession is very low despite participation targets set by Government departments, professional bodies and Universities. Progressing the Aboriginal inclusion agenda within Australian Engineering Education requires a clearer understanding of engineering educators'…

  9. 77 FR 21540 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA967 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the public of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the...

  10. 75 FR 10223 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...: 2010-4684] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XN25 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... whales. SUMMARY: NMFS provides notification of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead...

  11. 76 FR 16388 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA309 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... notification of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the Alaska...

  12. 78 FR 13028 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC460 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the public of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the...

  13. Dysphagia in the elderly.

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, W. G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the problem of dysphagia in the elderly so that primary care physicians are better able to recognize and manage it. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Dysphagia, a prevalent problem in the elderly, causes significant morbidity and even mortality. Age-related deterioration of the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing is well documented. Diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia in the elderly is based mainly on clinical experience with large groups of patients. Few controlled clinical trials hav...

  14. [Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in two Chilean aboriginal populations living in urban zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Elena P; Pérez, Francisco B; Angel, Bárbara B; Albala, Cecilia B; Santos, J Luis M; Larenas, Gladys Y; Montalvo, Domingo V

    2004-10-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is increasing in aboriginal populations in Chile. To study the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and serum lipids in two aboriginal populations, Mapuche and Aymara, that were transferred from a rural to a urban environment. Two groups of subjects over 20 years were analyzed, Mapuche and Aymara. The Mapuche group was formed by 42 men and 105 women, living in four urban communities of Santiago, and an Aymara group formed by 42 men and 118 women, living in Arica, in Northern Chile. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulin and serum leptin were determined. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 6.9% in Aymara and 8.2% in Mapuche subjects. The frequency of glucose intolerance was similar in both groups, but greater among men. A total blood cholesterol over 200 mg/dl was observed in 43.1% of Aymara and 27.9% of Mapuche subjects (p Mapuche individuals, respectively (p= NS). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia in turban aboriginal populations is higher than that of their rural counterparts. A possible explanation for these results are changes in lifestyles that come along with urbanization, characterized by a high consumption of saturated fat and refined sugars and a low level of physical activity.

  15. Tjirtamai--'to care for': a nursing education model designed to increase the number of Aboriginal nurses in a rural and remote Queensland community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Roianne; West, Leeona; West, Karen; Usher, Kim

    In 2009, a nursing education model was locally designed and delivered to support the interest of a group of Aboriginal community members living in a rural and remote town in Queensland, specifically to prepare for entry into further nursing education. Named 'Tjirtamai' by the traditional owners of the area, the program was offered in recognition of the challenges faced by Aboriginal people when they enter nursing education courses and as a way to increase the local number of Aboriginal nurses. This program, while funded by the Government, had unprecedented support and involvement from both the local Aboriginal and wider community. The model offered multiple exit points, assistance with financial and other known challenges for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students, and included contextualised literacy and numeracy. Of the 38 Aboriginal students who enrolled in the course, 26 students completed. Of those students, 18 have since enrolled in a bachelor degree in nursing while another 4 enrolled in a diploma of nursing. This paper provides an overview of the course and its outcomes.

  16. [Prevention of decline in subjectively perceived physical function of the elderly by regular participation in a community-based exercise group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotou, Tomomi; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a community-based group exercise program on physical functioning among elderly people. This prospective observational study enrolled 494 persons aged 70-84 years who volunteered for the study and completed a baseline measurement in 2006 and were re-evaluated 1 year later in 2007. The exercise regimen consisted of resistance training and recreational exercise for 1.5 hours conducted twice a month. Physical functioning was evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire consisting of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) and Motor Fitness Scale (MFS). Decline in physical functioning was defined as a reduction in either TMIG-IC or MFS scores of more than 2 points deviation from the median change of each score. TMIG-IC and MFS results were obtained from 494 and 392 eligible subjects, respectively. After 1 year, 68 subjects (TMIG-IC) and 88 subjects (MFS) reported a decline in physical functioning. After adjustment for confounding factors, the odds ratio of reduced physical functioning, as assessed by the TMIG-IC among the subjects who did not participate in the exercise group and those who did, were 1.00 (control) and 0.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.75). Similar results were obtained when assessed on the MFS. These results suggest that participation in a community-based exercise group of elderly people was effective in maintaining self-reported physical function.

  17. The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

  18. group

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and promote family planning and child health services to ensure a healthier life for isolated communities during their integration ... traditional methods are still used as the main method of fertility regulation in African societies. The social, cultural and traditional beliefs and practices that are .... An elderly man said, "We space.

  19. Promoting System-Wide Cultural Competence for Serving Aboriginal Families and Children in a Midsized Canadian City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambtman, Rudy; Hudson, Suzanne; Hartry, Reid; Mackay-Chiddenton, Dawne

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the work of the Circle of Courage, a cross-cultural group committed to improving the cultural competence of organizations providing services to Aboriginal populations in a midsized city in Canada. Rather than concentrating on individuals' cultural competence, the Circle targets mainstream organizations. Many of its…

  20. Determination of the energy requirements in mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients in different BMI groups using the Harris-Benedict equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Hui; Lee, Chao-Hsien; Kuo, Li-Kuo; Kung, Yu-Chung; Chen, Wei-Ji; Tzeng, Min-Su

    2018-04-01

    Due to studies on calorie requirement in mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients are few, and indirect calorimetry (IC) is not available in every intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to compare IC and Harris-Benedict (HB) predictive equation in different BMI groups. A total of 177 mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients (≧65 years old) underwent IC for measured resting energy expenditure (MREE). Estimated calorie requirement was calculated by the HB equation, using actual body weight (ABW) and ideal body weight (IBW) separately. Patients were divided into four BMI groups. One-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for statistical analyses. The mean MREE was 1443.6 ± 318.2 kcal/day, HB(ABW) was 1110.9 ± 177.0 kcal/day and HB(IBW) was 1101.5 ± 113.1 kcal/day. The stress factor (SFA = MREE ÷ HB(ABW)) was 1.43 ± 0.26 for the underweight, 1.30 ± 0.27 for the normal weight, 1.20 ± 0.19 for the overweight, and 1.20 ± 0.31 for the obese. The SFI (SFI = MREE ÷ HB(IBW)) was 1.24 ± 0.24 for the underweight, 1.31 ± 0.26 for the normal weight, 1.36 ± 0.21 for the overweight, and 1.52 ± 0.39 for the obese. MREE had significant correlation both with REE(ABW) = HB(ABW) × SFA (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001) and REE(IBW) = HB(IBW) × SFI (r = 0.43; P < 0.0001). IC is the best accurate method for assessing calorie requirement of mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients. When IC is not available, using the predictive HB equation is an alternative choice. Calorie requirement can be predicted by HB(ABW) × 1.20-1.43 for critically ill elderly patients according to different BMI groups, or using HB(IBW) × 1.24-1.52 for patients with edema, ascites or no available body weight data. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. ARTISTIC ACTIVITY AMONG THE ELDERLY AS A FORM OF LIFELONG LEARNING, BASED UPON THE OPINIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WROCŁAW’S UNIVERSITY OF THE THIRD AGE HANDICRAFT GROUP MEMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Działa

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the topic of creativity and artistic activity among elderly people in the context of claims related to the idea of lifelong learning. It discusses the phenomenon of creativity and how senior citizens can benefit from it. The artistic activity of people in the age of late adulthood is also discussed in that context. In the last part of the text, theoretical claims are collated with what the artistic groups’ elderly members themselves said during a focus group interview

  2. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  3. Nutritional concerns in aboriginal children are similar to those in non-aboriginal children in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer P; Timmons, Vianne; Larsen, Roberta; Walton, Fiona; Bryanton, Janet; Critchley, Kim; McCarthy, Mary Jean

    2007-06-01

    To assess food consumption among aboriginal children living on Mi'kmaq reserves in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Data were collected as part of a larger study of health perceptions and behaviors in Mi'kmaq children and youth ages 1 to 18 years. Food consumption was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire during an in-home interview. Fifty-five children living on a reserve (53% of total population) ages 9 to 18 years. The number of servings of milk products, vegetables and fruit, and snack foods/beverages was calculated by adding the responses to the frequency of consumption of foods assessed in each group. chi(2) analysis was used to assess differences in food consumption according to sex and age. Only one child reported consuming the recommended minimum of five vegetables and fruit daily (Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating, 1992) (mean [+/-standard deviation]=2.8+/-1.1 servings). Twenty-five (49%) of the children consumed three or more servings of milk products daily (mean=2.6+/-1.3 servings). Approximately half of the children had three or more snack foods/beverages daily (mean=3.1+/-2.2 servings). Younger children (grades 4 to 6) consumed more cereal, peanut butter, and yogurt than older children. There were no significant differences in food consumption between boys and girls. Our findings are consistent with past reports in aboriginal children. However, except for higher consumption of french fries, results are similar to recent surveys of other Prince Edward Island school children, suggesting a province-wide rather than cultural health issue.

  4. Aboriginal fisher perspectives on use of biotelemetry technology to study adult Pacific salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen V. M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biotelemetry has become a popular tool accepted by the scientific community as a reliable approach for studying wild fish. However, stakeholder perspectives on scientific techniques and the information they generate are not uniformly positive. Aboriginal groups in particular may have opposition or apprehension to telemetry as a research tool. To that end, we conducted a river-bank survey of 111 aboriginal First Nations fishers that target adult Pacific salmon in the lower Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada. The majority of respondents had heard of telemetry, but few had knowledge of its function. Most responses regarding the use of telemetry in fisheries science were positive. The few negative perspectives were primarily concerned about the effects of tagging procedures whereas positive perspectives arose because telemetry was perceived to generate information on migration patterns and survival. Over half of the respondents would trust data arising from telemetry studies, but some had conditions related to the group conducting the research and their experience with fish handling. Several respondents noted the need for additional consultation and outreach with aboriginal communities (especially fishers to better inform them of study questions and techniques which, in the case of telemetry studies, could promote better participation in tag return programs and uptake of knowledge emanating from use of telemetry.

  5. The Representation of Aboriginality in the Novels of Peter Temple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identity politics is fraught with difficulties. Of few places is this truer than in Australia when it comes to the representation of Aboriginality. On the one hand the absence or invisibility of Aboriginality in Australian life and culture maybe interpreted as a deliberate exclusion of a people whose presence is uncomfortable or inconvenient for many Australians of immigrant origin. Equally, the representation of Aboriginality by non-Aboriginals may be seen as an appropriation of identity, an inexcusable commercial exploitation or an act of neocolonialism. Best-selling and prize-winning South African-born author Peter Temple appears to be very much aware of these pitfalls. In his crime novels, written between 1996 and 2009, he has obviously made the decision to grasp the nettle and attempt to represent Aboriginality in a way that would be as acceptable as possible. This paper traces the evolution of Temple's representation of Aboriginality through the three major Aboriginal characters present in his novels: Cameron Delray (Bad Debts, 1996; Black Tide, 1999; Dead Point, 2000; and White Dog, 2003, Ned Lowey (An Iron Rose, 1998 and Detective Sergeant Paul Dove (The Broken Shore, 2005 and Truth, 2009.

  6. Comparison of polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes in the treatment of constipation in elderly institutionalized patients: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seinelä, Lauri; Sairanen, Ulla; Laine, Tarmo; Kurl, Sangita; Pettersson, Tiina; Happonen, Pertti

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a commonly used osmotic laxative. PEG with electrolytes is mixed with water, but PEG without electrolytes can also be mixed with, for example, juice, coffee or tea, making it more palatable. Laxatives, including PEG, are commonly used by the elderly, particularly those living in institutions. Few clinical studies, however, have investigated the use of PEG in this population. To test whether PEG 4000 without electrolytes (hypotonic PEG) is at least as effective and safe as PEG 4000 with electrolytes (isotonic PEG) in elderly institutionalized constipated patients. The acceptability of the treatments was also compared. This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted at ten private assisted-living facilities or communal nursing homes in Finland. Eligible patients were required to have used isotonic PEG at a stable dose without any other treatment for constipation (except for Plantago ovata seeds) for at least 2 weeks prior to a run-in period. After the 1-week run-in, 62 patients (mean age 86 years; range 66-99 years) were randomly either switched to receive hypotonic PEG or continued to receive isotonic PEG, both dissolved in water, 12 g once or twice daily or once every other day, for 4 weeks. Stool frequency, stool consistency, stool straining and gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded. Safety laboratory tests were conducted before and after the treatment period. Acceptability was assessed at the end of the study. At week 4, mean (SD) weekly stool frequencies in the hypotonic and isotonic PEG groups were 8.5 (4.5) and 8.4 (3.6), respectively. The mean stool frequency ratio (95% CI) was 0.90 (0.74, 1.10); thus, the PEG products were considered equally effective. At week 4, the proportion of patients with soft or normal stool consistency was higher in the hypotonic PEG group than in the isotonic PEG group (70% vs 52%), but this difference was not statistically significant. There were no differences between the groups in

  7. Karyotype plus NPM1 mutation status defines a group of elderly patients with AML (≥60 years) who benefit from intensive post-induction consolidation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperr, Wolfgang R; Zach, Otto; Pöll, Iris; Herndlhofer, Susanne; Knoebl, Paul; Weltermann, Ansgar; Streubel, Berthold; Jaeger, Ulrich; Kundi, Michael; Valent, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Although it is generally appreciated that a subset of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may benefit from intensive consolidation, little is known about variables predicting such benefit. We analyzed 192 consecutive patients with de novo AML aged ≥60 years who were treated with intensive chemotherapy. About 115 patients (60%) achieved complete hematologic remission (CR). Among several parameters, the karyotype was the only independent variable predicting CR (P karyotype and mutated NPM1 (NPM1mut) were independent predictors of survival. NPM1mut showed a particular prognostic impact in patients with normal (CN) or non-monosomal (Mkneg) karyotype by Haemato-Oncology Foundation for Adults in the Netherlands (HOVON)-criteria, or intermediate karyotype by Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG)-criteria. The median CCR was 0.94, 1.6, 0.9, and 0.5 years for core-binding-factor, CN/Mkneg-NPM1mut, CN/Mkneg-NPM1-wild-type AML, and AML with monosomal karyotype, respectively, and the 5-year survival was 25%, 39%, 2%, and 0%, respectively (P < 0.05). Similar results (0.9, 1.5, 0.9, and 0.5 years) were obtained using modified SWOG criteria and NPM1 mutation status (P < 0.05). In summary, elderly patients with CN/Mkneg-NPM1mut or CBF AML can achieve long term CCR when treated with intensive induction and consolidation therapy whereas most elderly patients with CN/Mkneg-NPM1wt or Mkpos AML may not benefit from intensive chemotherapy. For these patients either hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation or alternative treatments have to be considered. Am. J. Hematol. 91:1239-1245, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Acculturation: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Cindy

    2002-01-01

    The health status of Australia's indigenous people remains the worst of any subgroup within the population, and there is little evidence of any significant improvement over the past two decades, a situation unprecedented on a world scale. Compared with non-indigenous Australians, adult life expectancy is reduced by 15-20 years, with twice the rates of mortality from heart disease, 17 times the death rate from diabetes and 10 times the deaths from pneumonia. Despite improvements in perinatal mortality, they continue to represent a major cause of death, with infant deaths up to 2.5 times higher than the general population. The problems of educational disadvantage and unemployment are reflected in twice the rates of smoking and high obesity levels. Seven percent of indigenous families are homeless, with many more in inadequate and overcrowded housing, sometimes lacking water or sewerage. Economic disadvantage is real: 23% worry about going without food. Nutritional deficiencies in children have resulted in failure to thrive, contributing greatly to the problems of pneumonia and infectious diseases. The remoteness and isolation of many Aboriginal communities limit education and employment opportunities. It is important to consider the historical context of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, in order to gain an understanding of current health problems. The impact of past policies and practices and the 'introduced diet' are reflected in the poor health outcomes described above. This session will explore some of the underlying historical, cultural, structural and political factors that can be linked to the current problems.

  9. Evolutionists and Australian Aboriginal art: 1885-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines key examples of writing about Australian Aboriginal art in the decades around 1900 specifically in relation to the way in which it is used to provide evidence for theories concerning the evolution of art. Analysis of published works by late nineteenth-century men of science reveals the main influences shaping their perceptions of Aboriginal art during this time and provides an early working definition of this emerging category. This paper confirms that turn-of-the-century European understandings of Aboriginal art were based on limited evidence mediated through a specifically ethnographic notion of ‘decorative art’.

  10. Asthma Prevention and Management for Aboriginal People: Lessons From Mi'kmaq Communities, Unama'ki, Canada, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleden, Heather; Watson, Robert; Bennett, Ella; Masuda, Jeffrey; King, Malcolm; Stewart, Miriam

    2016-01-14

    Asthma affects at least 10% of Aboriginal children (aged 11 or younger) in Canada, making it the second most common chronic disease suffered by this demographic group; yet asthma support strategies specific to Aboriginal peoples have only begun to be identified. This research builds on earlier phases of a recent study focused on identifying the support needs and intervention preferences of Aboriginal children with asthma and their parents or caregivers. Here, we seek to identify the implications of our initial findings for asthma programs, policies, and practices in an Aboriginal context and to determine strategies for implementing prevention programs in Aboriginal communities. Five focus groups were conducted with 22 recruited community health care professionals and school personnel in 5 Mi'kmaq communities in Unama'ki (Cape Breton), Nova Scotia, Canada, through a community-based participatory research design. Each focus group was first introduced to findings from a local "social support for asthma" intervention, and then the groups explored issues associated with implementing social support from their respective professional positions. Thematic analysis revealed 3 key areas of opportunity and challenges for implementing asthma prevention and management initiatives in Mi'kmaq communities in terms of 1) professional awareness, 2) local school issues, and 3) community health centers. Culturally relevant support initiatives are feasible and effective community-driven ways of improving asthma support in Mi'kmaq communities; however, ongoing assistance from the local leadership (ie, chief and council), community health directors, and school administrators, in addition to partnerships with respiratory health service organizations, is needed.

  11. The beyond borders initiative: Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and international public health students: engaging partners in cross-cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Michelle; Manalo, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    The University of Sydney's Graduate Diploma in Indigenous Health Promotion (GDIHP) and Masters of International Public Health (MIPH) students have expressed a consistent desire to engage more with each other through student tutorials or any small group activity. MIPH students have expressed an interest in learning about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanderpeople and their health issues recognising contextual similarities in health priorities and social-cultural determinants. A and TSI students enrolled in the GDIHP have traditionally had very little contact with other students and are often unaware of the innovative solutions implemented in developing countries. Through this inclusive teaching innovation the MIPH and GDIHP programmes utilised diversity in the student population and responded to the University's Strategic Plan to promote and enhance pathways for supporting Indigenous students. This innovation provided an opportunity for both groups to learn more about each other as they develop into globally competitive public health practitioners. The 'Beyond Borders' initiative exposed MIPH and GDIHP students to problem-based learning that incorporated global perspectives as well as focusing on the very specific and unique realities of life in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Both student cohorts reported that the knowledge and skill exchange was highly valuable and contributed to their development as health professionals. This simple yet effective initiative created a sustainable cross-cultural, interdisciplinary and community-oriented partnership that benefited all involved and assisted in addressing health inequities in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and in developing countries.

  12. Proceedings of Canada Forum 4. annual conference : powering up Aboriginal energy : clean energy driving Aboriginal economic development across Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, C.; Buckell, J.

    2010-01-01

    This conference provided a form to discuss issues related to renewable energy and methods of creating successful and sustainable business models and plans in Aboriginal communities. The Government of Canada's new Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development promotes partnerships supporting Aboriginal businesses in order to maximize access to capital. More than $350 billion in major resource and energy developments have been identified in or near Aboriginal communities. The tools available for small, medium and large-sized Aboriginal businesses were discussed along with financing sources and mechanisms for creating equity in renewable energy projects. Speakers also addressed the need for new transmission to serve renewable generation; recognition of rights in sharing the land; and Ontario's Aboriginal Energy Partnerships Program which provides an opportunity for First Nations and Metis to work with the government and private sector to build, own and operate new electricity transmission. Other topics presented at the conference included biomass district heating; bioenergy projects; wind partnerships with Aboriginal communities; hydroelectric development; and northern and remote communities. The conference featured 11 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  13. The Relationship of Intelligence, Self-Concept and Locus of Control to School Achievement for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marilyn M.; Parker, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    To examine variables related to the school achievement of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, 35 indigenous students and 58 non-Aboriginals in grade 8 completed a Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Responsibility Questionnaire. (Author/SBH)

  14. Aboriginal Language and School Outcomes: Investigating the Associations for Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guevremont

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Being taught an Aboriginal language at school has generally been associated with positive school outcomes for Aboriginal children but not adults. This study attempted to understand this discordance by examining three possible explanations: (a confounding variables, (b a cohort effect, and (c differences in the timing and duration of Aboriginal language instruction. Confounding variables (school attendance on reserve, parental education, and family residential school attendance and duration of Aboriginal language instruction (six of more grades were important contributors; whereas the presence of a cohort effect and the timing of Aboriginal language instruction were not found to be significant. Future studies of Aboriginal language instruction should consider family educational experiences, location of schooling, and the duration of Aboriginal language instruction.Being taught an Aboriginal language at school has generally been associated with positive school outcomes for Aboriginal children but not adults. This study attempted to understand this discordance by examining three possible explanations: (a confounding variables, (b a cohort effect, and (c differences in the timing and duration of Aboriginal language instruction. Confounding variables (school attendance on reserve, parental education, and family residential school attendance and duration of Aboriginal language instruction (six of more grades were important contributors; whereas the presence of a cohort effect and the timing of Aboriginal language instruction were not found to be significant. Future studies of Aboriginal language instruction should consider family educational experiences, location of schooling, and the duration of Aboriginal language instruction.

  15. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina D Hopkins

    Full Text Available Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths' psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status.We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12-17 years, n = 677 drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, p<.001 and carer reported lifetime health problems (OR 1.76, p<.04 than Less Resilient youth.The findings are consistent with biopsychosocial models and provide a more nuanced understanding of the patterns of risks, resources and adaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies.

  16. Alcohol and other contextual factors of suicide in four Aboriginal communities of Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Arlene; Tousignant, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Aboriginal populations worldwide face increasing rates of suicide. Despite this recurring observation, little research has emerged from Aboriginal settings. This paper describes the psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of 30 consecutive adult suicides from four First-Nations communities in Quebec, Canada. Psychological autopsies guided by the LEDS with family members of the deceased. Suicide among this group is overrepresented by young single men. Alcohol intoxication at the time of death was reported for 22 cases in association with rapid acting out after the precipitating event for 20. All but two cases had a history of alcohol abuse, and drug use was also present in 23 cases. In 16 cases there had been a previous suicide attempt, 14 of which occurred during the previous year. The main socio-demographic characteristics of the communities were overcrowded living arrangements and no job status (90%). Seven cases were incarcerated or locked up at the time of death. Clustering of suicide was observed within seven nuclear families including 16 suicides. This study shows that Aboriginal suicide is the result of a complex interweaving of individual, familial, and socio-historical variables. The impact of contemporary social stressors on individual well-being must be addressed to prevent suicide in this community.

  17. Self-reported prevalence and health correlates of functional limitation among Massachusetts elderly Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and non-Hispanic white neighborhood comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, K L; Falcon, L M; Bianchi, L A; Cacho, E; Bermudez, O I

    2000-02-01

    Limited data suggest that Puerto Ricans experience greater disability than other ethnic groups, but few studies have examined the factors associated with this apparent difference. We describe the prevalence of functional limitation and disability in a representative sample of Puerto Rican and Dominican elders in Massachusetts, and in a neighborhood comparison group of non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). We then relate disability scores, based on both prevalence and severity of ADL or IADL limitation, with self-reported history of diagnosed health conditions--adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI; weight kg/height m(2)), income, education, living alone, smoking, and alcohol use. Seventy-five percent of Dominican women and 73% of Puerto Rican women reported difficulty with at least one ADL, compared with 64% of NHW women. Puerto Rican men reported significantly more limitation than did NHW or Dominican men. Conditions significantly associated with at least two disability measures among the NHW included smoking, former heavy alcohol use, arthritis, cataract, respiratory disease, and high BMI, but not stroke, diabetes, history of heart attack, or depression. The patterns for Puerto Ricans differed, with the strongest associations between disability and stroke, arthritis, diabetes, and depression, followed by history of heart attack, high BMI, cataract, poverty status, and respiratory disease. Only arthritis and depression were consistently significantly associated with disability among this smaller sample of Dominican elders. Functional limitation and disability are more prevalent among Puerto Ricans and among Dominican women than among neighborhood NHWs in Massachusetts. Greater disability is associated with the presence of chronic health conditions, which differ by ethnic group. Additional research is needed to further define the social and health factors that contribute to these ethnic differences.

  18. The -1131T>C polymorphism in the apolipoprotein A5 gene is related to hypertriglyceridemia in Taiwanese aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng-Chuan; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Wang, Huan-Sen; Sung, Yi-Ching; Ko, Ying-Chin; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, considered to be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, is high in Taiwanese aborigines. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of the -1131T>C polymorphism in the apolipoprotein A5 gene on serum triglyceride levels in female Taiwanese aborigines. This was a cross-sectional study, and a total of 316 unrelated female Taiwanese aborigines were genotyped at the -1131T>C polymorphism in apolipoprotein A5 using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Serum triglyceride > or = 150 mg/dL was defined as the hypertriglyceridemia group and triglyceride Japanese and Han Chinese, but was higher than that in Caucasians. In a multiple logistic model adjusted for possible confounders, C allele-containing variants were independently associated with greater risks (CT genotype: OR = 3.28, 95% CI = 1.43-7.56; CC genotype: OR = 5.86, 95% CI = 2.15-15.99) of hypertriglyceridemia than the TT genotype (p fashion (for trend, p C polymorphism of the Apo A5 gene influences serum triglyceride levels in female Taiwanese aborigines, and that differences exist in the frequency of the C allele among people of various ethnicities.

  19. Owning solutions: a collaborative model to improve quality in hospital care for Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Thompson, Sandra C; Davidson, Patricia M; Bessarab, Dawn; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

    2012-06-01

    Well-documented health disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Aboriginal) and non-Aboriginal Australians are underpinned by complex historical and social factors. The effects of colonisation including racism continue to impact negatively on Aboriginal health outcomes, despite being under-recognised and under-reported. Many Aboriginal people find hospitals unwelcoming and are reluctant to attend for diagnosis and treatment, particularly with few Aboriginal health professionals employed on these facilities. In this paper, scientific literature and reports on Aboriginal health-care, methodology and cross-cultural education are reviewed to inform a collaborative model of hospital-based organisational change. The paper proposes a collaborative model of care to improve health service delivery by building capacity in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal personnel by recruiting more Aboriginal health professionals, increasing knowledge and skills to establish good relationships between non-Aboriginal care providers and Aboriginal patients and their families, delivering quality care that is respectful of culture and improving Aboriginal health outcomes. A key element of model design, implementation and evaluation is critical reflection on barriers and facilitators to providing respectful and culturally safe quality care at systemic, interpersonal and patient/family-centred levels. Nurses are central to addressing the current state of inequity and are pivotal change agents within the proposed model. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Elderly Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderly Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • The elderly (ages 65 and older) made up 13. ... population; they accounted for 16.37% of all suicides in the US. • The rate of suicides for ...

  1. Group for family/caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer’s: experience of teachers based on the complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silomar Ilha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the relationships experienced by a group of health care teachers directed to family members/caregivers of older people with Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: qualitative research, conducted with five teachers participating in a support group developed in a university. Data collected by the technique of focus group submitted to Focal Strategic Analysis. Results: six categories were identified: Difficulty in raising awareness of the participants about Alzheimer’s disease; The interdisciplinary in the guidelines; Exchange of knowledge; Acquire/search for more knowledge; Expansion/socialization of knowledge about Alzheimer’s disease: an even existing challenge; Absence attendance: a threat to the existence of the group. Conclusion: the disorder is a reality experienced by teachers in the group, which is (reorganize constantly seeking the best way to guide and foster care.

  2. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i Aboriginal and total populations; ii populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. Methods We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC’s universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. “On-reserve” residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs were classified as “metropolitan” if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Results Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0, but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86. For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0; 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1

  3. [Obesity and leptin association in three Chilean aboriginal populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, F; Santos, J L; Albala, C; Calvillán, M; Carrasco, E

    2000-01-01

    Although there is a clear relationship between body mass index and leptin levels, few authors have addressed the possible influence of ethnic factors on these levels. To measure serum leptin in three different Chilean aboriginal populations. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 345 rural mapuche individuals, 247 rural aymara subjects and 162 urban mapuche subjects. A body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 was used as cutoff point to classify study subjects. Among the three ethnic groups, women had serum leptin levels three times higher than men. In all three ethnic groups, there was a significant association between leptin levels, body mass index and gender (r2 = 0.32 and 0.5 p mapuche, r2 = 0.32 and 0.5 p mapuche populations). No differences in leptin levels were observed for the interaction between age and insulin. The increments per quartile in leptin levels were lower among mapuche than aymara individuals. Rural mapuche individuals have a high frequency of obesity. However their leptin levels are lower than those of aymara or urban mapuche populations. The higher leptin levels observed in urban mapuche subjects could be due to environmental influences.

  4. Research protocol for the Picture Talk Project: a qualitative study on research and consent with remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Emily F M; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Lawford, Tom; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; D'Antoine, Heather A; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-12-28

    Research with Indigenous populations is not always designed with cultural sensitivity. Few publications evaluate or describe in detail seeking consent for research with Indigenous participants. When potential participants are not engaged in a culturally respectful manner, participation rates and research quality can be adversely affected. It is unethical to proceed with research without truly informed consent. We describe a culturally appropriate research protocol that is invited by Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley in Western Australia. The Picture Talk Project is a research partnership with local Aboriginal leaders who are also chief investigators. We will interview Aboriginal leaders about research, community engagement and the consent process and hold focus groups with Aboriginal community members about individual consent. Cultural protocols will be applied to recruit and conduct research with participants. Transcripts will be analysed using NVivo10 qualitative software and themes synthesised to highlight the key issues raised by the community about the research process. This protocol will guide future research with the Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley and may inform the approach to research with other Indigenous communities of Australia or the world. It must be noted that no community is the same and all research requires local consultation and input. To conduct culturally sensitive research, respected local people from the community who have knowledge of cultural protocol and language are engaged to guide each step of the research process from the project design to the delivery of results. Ethics approval was granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (No. 2012/348, reference:14760), the Western Australia Country Health Service Ethics Committee (No. 2012:15), the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee and reviewed by the Kimberley Aboriginal Health Planning Forum Research Sub-Committee (No. 2012

  5. Understanding, beliefs and perspectives of Aboriginal people in Western Australia about cancer and its impact on access to cancer services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessarab Dawn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a lower overall incidence, Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared with the non-Aboriginal population as manifested by higher mortality and lower 5-year survival rates. Lower participation in screening, later diagnosis of cancer, poor continuity of care, and poorer compliance with treatment are known factors contributing to this poor outcome. Nevertheless, many deficits remain in understanding the underlying reasons, with the recommendation of further exploration of Aboriginal beliefs and perceptions of cancer to help understand their care-seeking behavior. This could assist with planning and delivery of more effective interventions and better services for the Aboriginal population. This research explored Western Australian (WA Aboriginal peoples' perceptions, beliefs and understanding of cancer. Methods A total of 37 Aboriginal people from various geographical areas within WA with a direct or indirect experience of cancer were interviewed between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. A social constructionist framework provided a theoretical basis for analysis. Interpretation occurred within the research team with member checking and the involvement of an Aboriginal Reference Group assisting with ensuring validity and reliability. Results Outcomes indicated that misunderstanding, fear of death, fatalism, shame, preference for traditional healing, beliefs such as cancer is contagious and other spiritual issues affected their decisions around accessing services. These findings provide important information for health providers who are involved in cancer-related service delivery. Conclusion These underlying beliefs must be specifically addressed to develop appropriate educational, screening and treatment approaches including models of

  6. Teaching Astronomy Through Art: Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, S. R.; Boles, M. S.; Patterson, R. J.

    1999-12-01

    We have created an exhibit, Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky, which has shown since June, 1999 in newly refurbished exhibit space at the Leander McCormick Observatory. The University of Virginia has a long and continuing tradition of astrometry starting with early parallax work at the McCormick Observatory, extending to our own NSF CAREER Award-funded projects, and including a long-term, ongoing southern parallax program at Mt. Stromlo and Siding Springs Observatories in Australia. Recently, through a gift of Mr. John Kluge, the University of Virginia has obtained one of the most extensive collections of Australian Aboriginal art outside of Australia. The goal of our exhibit is to unite the University's scientific, artistic and cultural connections to Australia through an exhibit focusing on different perspectives of the Australian night sky. We have brought together Australian Aboriginal bark and canvas paintings that feature astronomical themes, e.g., Milky Way, Moon, Magellanic Cloud and Seven Sisters Dreamings, from the Kluge-Ruhe and private collections. These paintings, from the Central Desert and Arnhem Land regions of Australia, are intermingled with modern, large format, color astronomical images of the same scenes. Descriptive panels and a small gallery guide explain the cultural, artistic and scientific aspects of the various thematic groupings based on particular southern hemisphere night sky objects and associated Aboriginal traditions and stories. This unusual combination of art and science not only provides a unique avenue for educating the public about both astronomy and Australian Aboriginal culture, but highlights mankind's ancient and continuing connection to the night sky. We appreciate funding from NSF CAREER Award #AST-9702521, a Cottrell Scholar Award from The Research Corporation, and the Dept. of Astronomy and Ruhe-Kluge Collection at the University of Virginia.

  7. Wisdom and influence of elders: possibilities for health promotion and decreasing tobacco exposure in First Nations communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcoe, Colleen; Bottorff, Joan L; Carey, Joanne; Sullivan, Debbie; Williams, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    This community-based project examined the interpersonal and system influences on smoking practices and exposure to cigarette smoke that place young pregnant and parenting First Nations women and their children at risk. The aim was to work with the community using this information to develop meaningful strategies to support tobacco reduction and reduce exposure to second-hand smoke. Ethnographic methods informed by decolonizing approaches were used to study smoking practices and exposure within the context of six First Nations rural reserve villages in the Gitxsan territory in North-Western British Columbia. Data were collected through individual interviews with key community members, individual and group interviews with women, men, youth and older people, including Elders, and participant observation. Older people, including grandparents and Elders expressed great interest in being more involved in their communities, particularly with youth. Other community members, especially mothers, saw such older people as important in diminishing the tobacco exposure problem, with ideas for their involvement ranging from role modeling non-smoking or respectful smoking to teaching cultural traditions. Elders in First Nations communities represent a culturally-relevant resource for health that is currently underused. Communities might draw upon their wisdom and influence to decrease tobacco exposure and promote community health in other ways. This offers a concrete, practical strategy in response to widespread calls for supporting the culture of Aboriginal people as part of health promotion.

  8. Deadly progress: changes in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult daily smoking, 2004–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Lovett

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoking is the leading contributor to the burden of disease among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Reducing tobacco use in this population is a public health priority. Precise monitoring of smoking prevalence trends is central to implementation and evaluation of effective tobacco control. The way in which trends are reported influences understanding of the extent of progress, with potential implications for policy. Our objective was to quantify absolute changes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult (≥18 years old daily tobacco smoking prevalence from 2004 to 2015, including comparisons with the total Australian population, and by age, sex and remoteness. Methods: We analysed multiple nationally representative surveys of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, and total Australian, population conducted from 2004 to 2015. Aligned with strength-based approaches, we applied a progress frame, focusing on absolute differences in smoking prevalence within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Results: The prevalence of current daily smoking among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults nationally was 50.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 47.9, 52.2 in 2004–05 and 41.4% (95% CI 39.1, 43.6 in 2014–15, representing an absolute prevalence decrease of 8.6 percentage points (95% CI 5.5, 11.8 over the past decade. This is comparable with the 6.8 percentage point (95% CI 5.6, 7.9 decrease in smoking prevalence in the total Australian population over the same period, from 21.3% in 2004–05 (95% CI 20.5, 22.0 to 14.5% in 2014–15 (95% CI 13.6, 15.4. Particular success in reducing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smoking was observed among younger age groups, with a decrease of 13.2 percentage points for 18–24-year-olds (95% CI 5.9, 20.4, 9.0 percentage points for 25–34-year-olds (95% CI 2.7, 15.3 and 8.7 percentage points for 35–44-year-olds (95% CI 2.6, 14.8. Smoking

  9. The Aboriginal Challenge − the Post-Soviet Response: Can the Aboriginal Peoples of Russia Be Rescued from the Modernisation Shock?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Steljmah

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats the theme of aboriginal/native peoples in Post-Soviet Russia. First the authors ask: how is a people to be defined as aboriginal, or else how can such a people be distinguished from "small ethnic groups" or "ethnic minorities"? They find an answer in Convention No. 169 of the International Labour Organisation, which gives two criteria: a a social type in which pre-state forms are maintained, a more or less traditional economy and remains of collective land ownership, b a specific view of the world, sacralisation of nature, the land and its resources. According to this, 26 ethnic groups in the North and Far East of the Russian Federation can be termed aboriginal. Their total number does not surpass 9% of the population of these areas. Their present situation is marked by crisis, caused, inter alia, by the demise of former economic forms and general deculturation, unequal participation in the modern economy, demographic catastrophe, a poor health situation, aggravated by alcoholism, with also an increase of suicides and depression. The authors find the reasons for this crisis in: 1 the modernisation shock which traditional societies always suffer when coming into contact with industrial or post-industrial societies, 2 crude interference in the Soviet period into traditional modes of livings, 3 an undefined legal status and system for the protection of aboriginals and 4 years of ignoring the opinions of the latter regarding their position in the broader society. The authors identify three models of adaptation to modemisation: full adaptation, partial adaptation and no adaptation. The first is typical of individuals, but on the group level does not preserve ethnicity. The third leads to ethnic self-isolation, which is rare in Russia. The third model dominates − it entails rejection of marginalisation and a striving to be included into the broader society, but not at the expense of ethnic specificity. This was expressed by the

  10. The elderly patients' dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C.; Wagner, L.

    2007-01-01

    This study shows how care providers in hospital practice perceive the elderly patient's dignity as a core value in health promoting care towards the elderly. Fifteen focus group interviews were conducted with care providers who told about their nursing practice experience. The interviews were...... analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. The results disclose that when caring for the elderly patient's health potential, care providers saw dignity as the core value of health. Dignity was found to capture three themes: autonomy, identity, and worthiness. These themes reflect...

  11. [Should obesity in the elderly be treated? Sparse scientific evidence to support treatment of overweight in this age group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössner, Stephan

    Mean body weight increases with age up to about ago 60 and then levels off. Information about the association between body weight and mortality at old age is sparse, since most studies are cross-sectional. Some studies even suggest a protective effect of overweight at old age. Weight loss treatment may be indicated even at old age to relieve mechanical problems, reduce the need for pharmacotherapy and improve self-esteem. As regards treatment, most clinical drug trials actively exclude older people, and hence little is known about the effects in this age group. However, physical activity, even at old age, has documented beneficial effects, in spite of modest effects on weight. Bariatric surgery, although obviously debatable in this age group, has been safely performed. With an increased segment of the population of higher age under way, strategies to manage obesity, also in this age group, need to be developed.

  12. Inequalities in the social determinants of health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: a cross-sectional population-based study in the Australian state of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; Parsons, Lorraine; McNeil, John

    2014-10-18

    Aboriginal Australians are a culturally, linguistically and experientially diverse population, for whom national statistics may mask important geographic differences in their health and the determinants of their health. We sought to identify the determinants of health of Aboriginal adults who lived in the state of Victoria, compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts. We obtained data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey: a cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. The data included measures of the social determinants of health (socioeconomic status (SES), psychosocial risk factors, and social capital), lifestyle risk factors, health care service use, and health outcomes. We calculated prevalence ratios (PR) using a generalised linear model with a log link function and binomial distribution; adjusted for age and sex. Aboriginal Victorians had a higher prevalence of self-rated fair or poor health, cancer, depression and anxiety, and asthma; most notably depression and anxiety (PR = 1.7, 95% CI; 1.4-2.2). Determinants that were statistically significantly different between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Victorians included: a higher prevalence of psychosocial risk factors (psychological distress, food insecurity and financial stress); lower SES (not being employed and low income); lower social capital (neighbourhood tenure of less than one year, inability to get help from family, didn't feel valued by society, didn't agree most people could be trusted, not a member of a community group); and a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors (smoking, obesity and inadequate fruit intake). A higher proportion of Aboriginal Victorians sought help for a mental health related problem and had had a blood pressure check in the previous two years. We identified inequalities in health between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Victorians, most notably in the prevalence of depression and anxiety, and the social

  13. Outcome of first line systemic treatment in elderly compared to younger patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: A retrospective analysis of the CAIRO and CAIRO2 studies of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, Sabine; Doornebal, Joan; Teerenstra, Steven; Lemmens, Wim; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Koopman, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Background. Metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is predominantly a disease of the elderly, therefore the current standards should be evaluated in this population. Material and methods. We evaluated in different age groups the outcome in terms of median overall and progression-free survival, response

  14. The Effectiveness of Group Social Work Forgiveness Intervention on the Life Satisfaction of the Elderly Living in Care Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Arshi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Participating in forgiveness group sessions has impact upon the life satisfaction of the old people living in care centers and implementing a protocol to increase the forgiveness can help promote the quality of life of old people living in care homes.

  15. Natural-series radionuclides in traditional North Australian aboriginal foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, A.S.; Johnston, A.; Hancock, G.J.; Martin, P. [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS), Jabiru (Australia)

    1997-07-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 227}Ac were measured in edible flesh of traditional Aboriginal food items from the Magela and Cooper Creek systems in the tropical Northern Territory of Australia. Fish, buffalo, pig, magpie goose, filesnake, goanna, turtle, freshwater shrimp and freshwater crocodile were studied. Activity concentrations in water were also measured to enable the calculation of concentration ratios (CRs).For most edible flesh samples, activity concentrations followed the approximate order: {sup 210}Po>>{sup 226210}[{sup 234}Usimilar{sup 238}[{sup 230}Thsimilar{sup 232}Th]. The {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb activity ratio was particularly high (greater than 100) for pig flesh. CRs for fish species fall into two groups. Group 1 (bony bream and sleepy cod) had CRs about five times higher than for group 2 (eight other species). CRs for turtle flesh were similar to those for fish in group 1, while those for turtle liver were about a factor of 10 higher. CRs for magpie goose, filesnake, freshwater shrimp, goanna and crocodile flesh were also of the same order as for fish in groups 1 or 2.Calculations of dose resulting from release of wastewaters from uranium mining operations in the region show that the dominant pathway would be uptake of radionuclides, especially {sup 226}Ra, by freshwater mussels, followed by radionuclide uptake by fish. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Development and feasibility testing of an education program to improve knowledge and self-care among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robyn A; Fredericks, Bronwyn; Buitendyk, Natahlia J; Adams, Michael J; Howie-Esquivel, Jill; Dracup, Kathleen A; Berry, Narelle M; Atherton, John; Johnson, Stella

    2015-01-01

    There is a 70% higher age-adjusted incidence of heart failure (HF) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, three times more hospitalisations and twice as many deaths as among non-Aboriginal people. There is a need to develop holistic yet individualised approaches in accord with the values of Aboriginal community health care to support patient education and self-care. The aim of this study was to re-design an existing HF educational resource (Fluid Watchers-Pacific Rim) to be culturally safe for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, working in collaboration with the local community, and to conduct feasibility testing. This study was conducted in two phases and utilised a mixed-methods approach (qualitative and quantitative). Phase 1 used action research methods to develop a culturally safe electronic resource to be provided to Aboriginal HF patients via a tablet computer. An HF expert panel adapted the existing resource to ensure it was evidence-based and contained appropriate language and images that reflects Aboriginal culture. A stakeholder group (which included Aboriginal workers and HF patients, as well as researchers and clinicians) then reviewed the resources, and changes were made accordingly. In Phase 2, the new resource was tested on a sample of Aboriginal HF patients to assess feasibility and acceptability. Patient knowledge, satisfaction and self-care behaviours were measured using a before and after design with validated questionnaires. As this was a pilot test to determine feasibility, no statistical comparisons were made. Phase 1: Throughout the process of resource development, two main themes emerged from the stakeholder consultation. These were the importance of identity, meaning that it was important to ensure that the resource accurately reflected the local community, with the appropriate clothing, skin tone and voice. The resource was adapted to reflect this, and members of the local community voiced the recordings for the

  17. ARTISTIC ACTIVITY AMONG THE ELDERLY AS A FORM OF LIFELONG LEARNING, BASED UPON THE OPINIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WROCŁAW’S UNIVERSITY OF THE THIRD AGE HANDICRAFT GROUP MEMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Działa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the topic of creativity and artistic activity among elderly people in the context of claims related to the idea of lifelong learning. It discusses the phenomenon of creativity and how senior citizens can benefit from it. The artistic activity of people in the age of late adulthood is also discussed in that context. In the last part of the text, theoretical claims are collated with what the artistic groups’ elderly members themselves said during a focus group interview

  18. Influence of the consumption of fruits and vegetables on the nutritional status of a group of institutionalized elderly persons in the Madrid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, A; Andrés, P; Perea, J M; López-Sobaler, A M; Ortega, R M

    2010-10-01

    To determine the nutritional status in a group of institutionalized elderly people in the Madrid region of Spain, with respect to their consumption of fruits and vegetables. The Madrid region, Spain. Men and women 65 years of age (n=180). A dietetic study undertaken using the precise weighing method (7 consecutive days). Anthropometric and blood analysis data were also recorded. The study subjects were grouped according to whether or not they consumed the WHO/FAO-recommended amount of 400 g/day of fruits and vegetables. Mean fruit and vegetable consumption was 446.77 ± 168.80 g/day. The subjects who consumed at least 400 g/day of these foods also took in the largest total weight of food, and had the largest macronutrient, fiber, vitamin and mineral intakes. They also had higher serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations and lower plasma homocysteine concentrations than those who consumed less than the recommended 400 g/day of fruits and vegetables. The subjects who consumed at least 400 g/day of fruits and vegetables generally showed a better nutritional status. It would be advisable that the consumption of such foods be relatively increased, especially by those who currently consume less than 400 g/day.

  19. What are the preferred characteristics of a service robot for the elderly? A multi-country focus group study with older adults and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaf, Sandra; Marti, Patrizia; De Witte, Luc

    2017-11-10

    This multi-perspective study focuses on how a service robot for the elderly should behave when interacting with potential users. An existing service robot and a scenario were used as a concrete case, which was discussed and analyzed during focus group sessions with older adults (n = 38), informal caregivers (n = 24), and professional caregivers (n = 35) in the Netherlands, France, and the United Kingdom. A total of seven topics-privacy, task execution, environment, appearance, behavior, visitors, and communication-were explored. The results showed that some of the characteristics mentioned were unique to a user group, but several were cross-cutting. Overall, potential users expected the service robot to be customizable in order to match the users' needs and preferences. Also, high expectations concerning its functioning and behavior were expressed, which sometimes could even be compared to the qualities of a human being. This emphasizes the complexity of service robot development for older adults, and highlights the need for a personalized and flexible solution. One size does not fit all, and specific attention should be paid to the development of the robot's social behavior and skills beyond a mere functional support for the person.

  20. Dancing with Ethnic Identities: An Aboriginal Dance Club in a Taiwanese Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shwu-Meei; Lee, Young Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research in Taiwan has shown that aboriginal students often have low self-esteem and a negative view of their life due to their heritage. This research studied 14 Taiwan aboriginal students to understand how the experience of an aboriginal dance club influenced the development of their ethnic identity. The results showed that the experiences of…

  1. Education for Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: An Overview of Four Realms of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.

    2016-01-01

    In line with an Aboriginal worldview of interconnectivity, I outline successful educational programs, policies, and services for Aboriginal peoples in Canada. These programs and initiatives are presented within four thematic areas related to (a) early childhood education, (b) Aboriginal pedagogy, language, and culture (throughout kindergarten to…

  2. Food Perceptions and Concerns of Aboriginal Women Coping with Gestational Diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Hannah Tait

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe how Aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Semi-structured explanatory model interviews explored Aboriginal women's illness experiences with GDM. Setting and Participants: Twenty-nine self-declared Aboriginal women who had…

  3. The Influence of Governmental Control and Early Christian Missionaries on Music Education of Aborigines in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angela Hao-Chun

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research conducted on Taiwanese Aboriginal music education in comparison to Aboriginal education. C. Hsu's "Taiwanese Music History" (1996) presents information on Aboriginal music including instruments, dance, ritual music, songs and singing, but information on music education practices is lacking. The examination…

  4. Aboriginal Students' Achievement in Science Education: The Effect of Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Jimmy; Bouchamma, Yamina; Larose, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Some authors assume that the academic difficulties encountered by Aboriginal students can be partly explained by the discrepancy between teaching methods and Aboriginal learning styles. However, this hypothesis lacks empirical foundations. Using pan-Canadian data, we tried to identify the most efficient teaching methods for Aboriginal students and…

  5. Comparison of the clinical features and outcomes in two age-groups of elderly patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao XH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xing-Hui Shao,1 Yan-Min Yang,1 Jun Zhu,1 Han Zhang,1 Yao Liu,1 Xin Gao,1 Li-Tian Yu,1 Li-Sheng Liu,1 Li Zhao,2 Peng-Fei Yu,3 Hua Zhang,4 Qing He,5 Xiao-Dan Gu6 1Emergency and Intensive Care Center, Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 2Department of Emergency, Fu Xing Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Cardiology, Pingdu People’s Hospital, Pingdu, 4Department of Emergency, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, 5Department of Emergency, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 6Department of Emergency, Sixth People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF disproportionately affects older adults. However, direct comparison of clinical features, medical therapy, and outcomes in AF patients aged 65–74 and ≥75 years is rare. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the differences in clinical characteristics and prognosis in these two age-groups of geriatric patients with AF.Materials and methods: A total of 1,336 individuals aged ≥65 years from a Chinese AF registry were assessed in the present study: 570 were in the 65- to 74-year group, and 766 were in the ≥75-year group. Multivariable Cox hazards regression was performed to analyze the major adverse cardiac events (MACEs between groups.Results: In our population, the older group were more likely to have coronary artery disease, hypertension, previous stroke, cognitive disorder, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the 65- to 74-year group were more likely to have valvular heart disease, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, or sleep apnea. The older patients had 1.2-fold higher mean CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes, stroke scores, but less ­probability of being prescribed drugs. Compared with those aged 65–74 years, the older group had a higher risk of death (hazard ratio 2

  6. Gestational Age and Child Development at Age Five in a Population-Based Cohort of Australian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Mark; Falster, Kathleen; Chambers, Georgina; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Homaira, Nusrat; Brownell, Marni; Eades, Sandra; Jorm, Louisa

    2018-01-01

    Preterm birth and developmental vulnerability are more common in Australian Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal children. We quantified how gestational age relates to developmental vulnerability in both populations. Perinatal datasets were linked to the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC), which collects data on five domains, including physical, social, emotional, language/cognitive, and general knowledge/communication development. We quantified the risk of developmental vulnerability on ≥1 domains at age 5, according to gestational age and Aboriginality, for 97 989 children born in New South Wales, Australia, who started school in 2009 or 2012. Seven thousand and seventy-nine children (7%) were Aboriginal. Compared with non-Aboriginal children, Aboriginal children were more likely to be preterm (5% vs. 9%), and developmentally vulnerable on ≥1 domains (20% vs. 36%). Overall, the proportion of developmentally vulnerable children decreased with increasing gestational age, from 44% at ≤27 weeks to 20% at 40 weeks. Aboriginal children had higher risks than non-Aboriginal children across the gestational age range, peaking among early term children (risk difference [RD] 19.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 16.3, 21.7; relative risk [RR] 1.91, 95% CI 1.77, 2.06). The relation of gestational age to developmental outcomes was the same in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children, and adjustment for socio-economic disadvantage attenuated the risk differences and risk ratios across the gestational age range. Although the relation of gestational age to developmental vulnerability was similar in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children, Aboriginal children had a higher risk of developmental vulnerability at all gestational ages, which was largely accounted for by socio-economic disadvantage. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fall prevention services for older Aboriginal people: investigating availability and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Coombes, Julieann; Keay, Lisa; Sherrington, Catherine; Tiedemann, Anne; Broe, Tony; Lovitt, Lorraine; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-12-14

    Falls and fall-related injury are emerging issues for older Aboriginal people. Despite this, it is unknown whether older Aboriginal people access available fall prevention programs, or whether these programs are effective or acceptable to this population. To investigate the use of available fall prevention services by older Aboriginal people and identify features that are likely to contribute to program acceptability for Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A questionnaire was distributed to Aboriginal and mainstream health and community services across NSW to identify the fall prevention and healthy ageing programs currently used by older Aboriginal people. Services with experience in providing fall prevention interventions for Aboriginal communities, and key Aboriginal health services that delivered programs specifically for older Aboriginal people, were followed up and staff members were nominated from within each service to be interviewed. Service providers offered their suggestions as to how a fall prevention program could be designed and delivered to meet the health and social needs of their older Aboriginal clients. Of the 131 services that completed the questionnaire, four services (3%) had past experience in providing a mainstream fall prevention program to Aboriginal people; however, there were no programs being offered at the time of data collection. From these four services, and from a further five key Aboriginal health services, 10 staff members experienced in working with older Aboriginal people were interviewed. Barriers preventing services from offering appropriate fall prevention programs to their older Aboriginal clients were identified, including limited funding, a lack of available Aboriginal staff, and communication difficulties between health services and sectors. According to the service providers, an effective and acceptable fall prevention intervention would be evidence based, flexible, community-oriented and social

  8. Aboriginal urbanization and rights in Canada: examining implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Laura C; Wilson, Kathi

    2013-08-01

    Urbanization among Indigenous peoples is growing globally. This has implications for the assertion of Indigenous rights in urban areas, as rights are largely tied to land bases that generally lie outside of urban areas. Through their impacts on the broader social determinants of health, the links between Indigenous rights and urbanization may be related to health. Focusing on a Canadian example, this study explores relationships between Indigenous rights and urbanization, and the ways in which they are implicated in the health of urban Indigenous peoples living in Toronto, Canada. In-depth interviews focused on conceptions of and access to Aboriginal rights in the city, and perceived links with health, were conduced with 36 Aboriginal people who had moved to Toronto from a rural/reserve area. Participants conceived of Aboriginal rights largely as the rights to specific services/benefits and to respect for Aboriginal cultures/identities. There was a widespread perception among participants that these rights are not respected in Canada, and that this is heightened when living in an urban area. Disrespect for Aboriginal rights was perceived to negatively impact health by way of social determinants of health (e.g., psychosocial health impacts of discrimination experienced in Toronto). The paper discusses the results in the context of policy implications and future areas of research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Epilepsy in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-An Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elderly people are the largest and continuously fastest growing population among patients with epilepsy. Elderly patients with epilepsy are very different from other age groups in many respects and clinicians shouldn’t treat them in the same way as younger adults. Accurate diagnosis of epilepsy in the elderly is much more difficult and atypical manifestations and misdiagnoses are certainly not the exception. Syncope is probably the most important differential diagnosis. High clinical suspicion and proper investigation are the best tools for prompt diagnosis. Etiologies of late-onset epilepsy are mainly symptomatic and cerebrovascular diseases are the most common causes in this age group, followed by degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. It is appropriate to consider starting antiepileptic drug (AED treatment at the first-ever seizure in elderly patients who have remote symptomatic causes such as stroke and dementia. According to the high recurrence rate of seizure and the good response to AEDs in elderly patients, the proper choice from various AEDs for seizure control is very important. Decision-making for AED choice depends on many different factors, including pharmacological properties, efficacy, tolerability from side effects, drug interactions, and medical comorbidities. The newer AEDs with lesser adverse effects and fewer drug interactions appear to be reasonable treatment options for elderly patients. However, more evidence from clinical trials in this specific age group is warranted.

  10. Impact of colonialism on Māori and Aboriginal healthcare access: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambas, Shelaine I; Wright, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Historical socio-political processes have produced gross inequity of health resource for Aboriginal Australians and New Zealand Māori. This paper argues that socio-political factors resulting from the entrenchment of colonialism have produced significant personal and structural barriers to the utilisation of healthcare services and directly impact the health status of these two vulnerable groups. Discussion Paper. Understanding the actual barriers preventing the utilisation of healthcare facilities, as perceived by Indigenous people, is essential in reducing the gross disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous morbidity and mortality in Australia and New Zealand.

  11. Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data on Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Elderly Patients Compared With Younger Patients Who Participated in US National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Zhang, Ying; Vokes, Everett E; Schiller, Joan H; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Karen; Curran, Walter J; Schild, Steven E; Movsas, Benjamin; Clamon, Gerald; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Blumenschein, George R; Socinski, Mark A; Ready, Neal E; Akerley, Wallace L; Cohen, Harvey J; Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Elderly patients may experience increased rates of adverse events (AEs) or less benefit from concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Patients and Methods Individual patient data were collected from 16 phase II or III trials conducted by US National Cancer Institute-supported cooperative groups of concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone or with consolidation or induction chemotherapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer from 1990 to 2012. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and AEs were compared between patients age ≥ 70 (elderly) and those younger than 70 years (younger). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for survival time and CIs were estimated by single-predictor and multivariable frailty Cox models. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (ORs) for AEs and CIs were obtained from single-predictor and multivariable generalized linear mixed-effect models. Results A total of 2,768 patients were classified as younger and 832 as elderly. In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly patients had worse OS (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.31 and HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.29, respectively). In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly and younger patients had similar progression-free survival (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10 and HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.09, respectively). Elderly patients had a higher rate of grade ≥ 3 AEs in unadjusted and multivariable models (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.70 and OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.74, respectively). Grade 5 AEs were significantly higher in elderly compared with younger patients (9% v 4%; P < .01). Fewer elderly compared with younger patients completed treatment (47% v 57%; P < .01), and more discontinued treatment because of AEs (20% v 13%; P < .01), died during treatment (7.8% v 2.9%; P < .01), and refused further treatment (5.8% v 3.9%; P = .02). Conclusion Elderly patients in concurrent

  12. Nurses' experiences with the implementation of the Kinaesthetics movement competence training into elderly nursing care: a qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fringer, André; Huth, Martina; Hantikainen, Virpi

    2014-12-01

    Supporting the movement of older people is one among the daily duties of geriatric nurses. Nurses exhibit a high risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Nurses should also possess interaction skills to support active participation of older people in their own daily activities. Kinaesthetics movement competence training claims to be a recommendable approach that benefits both nurses and nursing home residents. However, implementing Kinaesthetics into daily practice is a challenging process. This study aimed to examine nurses' experiences with regard to the implementation of Kinaesthetics movement competence training into a nursing home. Qualitative descriptive design with focus groups' interviews. Thirty-two (three men) geriatric nurses from a Swiss nursing home who participated first time in Kinaesthetics training were interviewed in three focus groups (average 79 minutes). Interviews were analysed using inductive coding, categorisation and abstraction. The ethics committees of the cantons Basel-Stadt and Basel-Land (Switzerland) approved the study on 16 September 2010 (reference no. 224/10). Nurses' experiences with the implementation of Kinaesthetics were divided into two categories: nurses' attitudes with regard to the implementation of Kinaesthetics and nurses experience of Kinaesthetics with regard to integration into daily practice. Even though the participants showed a positive attitude towards the design and structure of the Kinaesthetics training, its implementation into daily practice initially posed a noticeable challenge for the participating nurses. The results indicate that various factors exist that may either promote or impede the implementation of Kinaesthetics in nursing. The successful implementation of Kinaesthetics can be promoted by the structural integration of the concept at various levels of nursing home as well as complementary supporting measures. Regular professional support and education after Kinaesthetics training appears to be

  13. Grief and courage in a river town: a pilot project in the Aboriginal community of Kempsey, New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleworth, Sally; Smith, Wayne; Sealey, Robyn

    2006-12-01

    To describe a pilot project implemented in Kempsey, NSW, whereby a psychiatry registrar worked in a community-controlled Aboriginal medical service, Durri Aboriginal Corporation Medical Service, which provides mental health services for Aboriginal people. The Aboriginal Mental Health Workers and psychiatry registrar jointly managed a significant number of Aboriginal people, often with assistance from the local mental health service at Kempsey. The registrar gained insight into the local Aboriginal community and more culturally appropriate clinical methods, as well as some cultural factors that can influence the presentation and management of mental illnesses. The Aboriginal Mental Health Workers increased their clinical knowledge and confidence through working with the registrar.

  14. A concise culture review of Aboriginal and Australian fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the Australian fiction, we have suggested that some blossoming of this Australian genre happened during the nineteenth century, so in this review we have to start with some earlier works to express the cultural and poetical picture just unpretentious but completely. Firstly, it ought to be the Aboriginal literature which is of great importance to many both within Australia and internationally. This culture review will relate to the Aboriginal writing in English. The transformative survey of Aboriginal writing presents the stories and patterns of Australian culture and society in new ways, foregrounding and celebrating Indigenous experience and expression. It introduces powerful and creative individual voices as it also reveals a larger history of struggle, suffering and strength.

  15. A dermatoglyphic study of the Kavalan aboriginal population of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Fong; Zhang, HaiGuo; Lai, Chun-Hung; Lu, ZhenYu; Wang, ZhuGang

    2007-02-01

    By the 1970s, a number of dermatoglyphic studies of Taiwan aborigines (Gaoshan nationality) had been published, however in each only a few dermatoglyphic variables were addressed. Since that time, little new research has been conducted. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 100 individuals of Kavalan, a Taiwan aboriginal population, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count (TFRC), a-b total ridge count (a-b RC), atd angle and axial triradius percent distance (tPD), and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, palmar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, palmar hypothenar pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of any Taiwan aboriginal population.

  16. Aboriginal cultural awareness training: policy v. accountability - failure in reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Barbara; Westwood, Geoff

    2010-11-01

    Despite 42 years progress since the 1967 referendum enabling laws to be made covering Aboriginal Australians their poor health status remains and is extensively documented. This paper presents results of a study into Cultural Awareness Training (CAT) in New South Wales and specifically South West Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS) with the aim of improving long-term health gains. The evidence demonstrates poor definition and coordination of CAT with a lack of clear policy direction and accountability for improving cultural awareness at government level. In SWSAHS staff attendance at training is poor and training is fragmented across the Area. The paper proposes actions to improve Aboriginal cultural awareness for health professionals including incorporating Aboriginal CAT into broader based Cross Cultural Training (CCT).

  17. Diet and anthropometry at 2 years of age following an oral health promotion programme for Australian Aboriginal children and their carers: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Lisa G; Lynch, John; Hedges, Joanne; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2017-12-01

    There are marked disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous children's diets and oral health. Both diet and oral health are linked to longer-term health problems. We aimed to investigate whether a culturally appropriate multi-faceted oral health promotion intervention reduced Aboriginal children's intake of sugars from discretionary foods at 2 years of age. We conducted a single-blind, parallel-arm randomised controlled trial involving women who were pregnant or had given birth to an Aboriginal child in the previous 6 weeks. The treatment group received anticipatory guidance, Motivational Interviewing, health and dental care for mothers during pregnancy and children at 6, 12 and 18 months. The control group received usual care. The key dietary outcome was the percent energy intake from sugars in discretionary foods (%EI), collected from up to three 24-h dietary recalls by trained research officers who were blind to intervention group. Secondary outcomes included intake of macronutrients, food groups, anthropometric z scores (weight, height, BMI and mid-upper arm circumference) and blood pressure. We enrolled 224 children to the treatment group and 230 to the control group. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that the %EI of sugars in discretionary foods was 1·6 % lower in the treatment group compared with control (95 % CI -3·4, 0·2). This culturally appropriate intervention at four time-points from pregnancy to 18 months resulted in small changes to 2-year-old Aboriginal children's diets, which was insufficient to warrant broader implementation of the intervention. Further consultation with Aboriginal communities is necessary for understanding how to improve the diet and diet-related health outcomes of young Aboriginal children.

  18. Effect of bright light and melatonin on cognitive and noncognitive function in elderly residents of group care facilities: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemersma-Van der Lek, R.F.; Swaab, D.F.; Twisk, J.; Hol, E.M.; Hoogendijk, W.J.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Cognitive decline, mood, behavioral and sleep disturbances, and limitations of activities of daily living commonly burden elderly patients with dementia and their caregivers. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with these symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the

  19. Effect of bright light and melatonin on cognitive and noncognitive function in elderly residents of group care facilities: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemersma-Van der Lek, R.F.; Swaab, D.F.; Twisk, J.W.; Hol, E.M.; Hoogendijk, W.J.G.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Cognitive decline, mood, behavioral and sleep disturbances, and limitations of activities of daily living commonly burden elderly patients with dementia and their caregivers. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with these symptoms. Objective: To determine whether the

  20. Assessing and Validating an Educational Resource Package for Health Professionals to Improve Smoking Cessation Care in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Bar-Zeev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Australian Aboriginal pregnant women have a high smoking prevalence (45%. Health professionals lack adequate educational resources to manage smoking. Resources need to be tailored to ensure saliency, cultural-sensitivity and account for diversity of Indigenous populations. As part of an intervention to improve health professionals’ smoking cessation care in Aboriginal pregnant women, a resource package was developed collaboratively with two Aboriginal Medical Services. The purpose of this study was to assess and validate this resource package. A multi-centred community-based participatory 4-step process (with three Aboriginal Medical Services from three Australian states, included: (1 Scientific review by an expert panel (2 ‘Suitability of Materials’ scoring by two Aboriginal Health Workers (3 Readability scores (4 Focus groups with health professionals. Content was analysed using six pre-determined themes (attraction, comprehension, self-efficacy, graphics and layout, cultural acceptability, and persuasion, with further inductive analysis for emerging themes. Suitability of Material scoring was adequate or superior. Average readability was grade 6.4 for patient resources (range 5.1–7.2, and 9.8 for health provider resources (range 8.5–10.6. Emergent themes included ‘Getting the message right’; ‘Engaging with family’; ‘Needing visual aids’; and ‘Requiring practicality under a tight timeframe’. Results were presented back to a Stakeholder and Consumer Aboriginal Advisory Panel and resources were adjusted accordingly. This process ensured materials used for the intervention were culturally responsive, evidence-based and useful. This novel formative evaluation protocol could be adapted for other Indigenous and culturally diverse interventions. The added value of this time-consuming and costly process is yet to be justified in research, and might impact the potential adaption by other projects.

  1. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc), nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM). Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT) bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1- children and 14%, 5% and 18% in 146 non-Aboriginal children. OM was diagnosed at least once in 71% of Aboriginal children and 43% of non-Aboriginal children. After controlling for age, sex, presence of other bacteria and environmental factors, early nasopharyngeal carriage of NTHi increased the risk of subsequent OM (odds ratio = 3.70, 95% CI 1.22-11.23) in Aboriginal children, while Mcat increased the risk of OM in non-Aboriginal children (odds ratio = 2.63, 95% CI 1.32-5.23). Early carriage of Pnc was not associated with increased risk of OM. Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia. PMID:23256870

  2. Setting the scene: early writing on Australian Aboriginal art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings together some of the earliest writings on Australian Aboriginal art. It examines references to specific examples of this unique art in a range of sources including journals of early British and French explorers, the field reports of naturalists and ethnologists, early Royal Society papers and newspaper articles of the day. By tracing the impact of important texts and images, certain connections, collaborations and disagreements over the meaning, worth and ability of Australias first art and artists are revealed. An analysis of these previously unrelated accounts contributes to an understanding of early European perceptions and attitudes towards Aboriginal art.

  3. What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah

    2015-05-18

    Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. The study population will be identified via linkage of Australian Early Development Census data to perinatal and birth registration data sets. It will include an almost complete population of children who started their first year of full-time school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2009 and 2012. Early childhood health and development trajectories for these children will be constructed via linkage to a range of administrative data sets relating to birth outcomes, congenital conditions, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, receipt of ambulatory mental healthcare services, use of general practitioner services, contact with child protection and out-of-home care services, receipt of income assistance and fact of death. Using multilevel modelling techniques, we will quantify the contributions of individual-level and area-level factors to variation in early childhood development outcomes in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Additionally, we will evaluate the impact of two government programmes that aim to address early childhood disadvantage, the NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service and the Brighter Futures Program. These evaluations will use propensity score matching methods and multilevel modelling. Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. Dissemination mechanisms include engagement of stakeholders (including representatives from Aboriginal community controlled organisations, policy agencies, service providers) through a reference group, and writing of summary

  4. Research with Aboriginal peoples: authentic relationships as a precursor to ethical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Julie R

    2010-12-01

    Recent ethics guidelines and policies are changing the way health research is understood, governed, and practiced among Aboriginal communities in Canada. This provides a unique opportunity to examine the meanings and uses of such guidelines by Aboriginal communities themselves. This qualitative study, conducted in Labrador, Canada, with the Innu, Inuit, and Inuit-Metis, examined how communities and researchers collaborate in a co-learning environment whereby mutual interests and agendas are discussed and enacted throughout the entire research process-a process referred to an authentic research relationship. The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: (1) Why are authentic research relationships important? (2) What is authenticity in research? (3) How do we achieve authenticity in research with Aboriginal peoples? This shift to more wholistic methodologies can be used in various contexts in Canada and internationally. This is the first study by an Aboriginal person to examine the perspectives of Aboriginal people, in an Aboriginal context, using Aboriginal methodologies.

  5. Structuring oil and gas joint ventures with aboriginal communities: conference papers conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Insight Conference featured twelve articles on the following topics: 1 - researching and understanding your legal partners; II - an aboriginal game plan - a plan for success; III - legal and management issues relating to aboriginal ventures; IV - tax status of reserve-based aboriginal people and businesses under the Indian Act; v - first nations as exempt bodies under the Income Tax Act; V I - innovative options for structuring oil and gas leases and exploration permits on aboriginal lands; VII - joint venture and partnership arrangements; V III - the impact of taxation on aboriginal ventures; I X - bankruptcy and insolvency issues for on-reserve businesses; X - financing options for oil and gas ventures with first nations; XI - Syncrude's commitment to aboriginal development; and X II - structuring oil and gas ventures with aboriginal communities. Articles abstracted/indexed separately include: I, II, V I (2), V III, X, XI, and X II

  6. Canadian Aboriginal people's experiences with HIV/AIDS as portrayed in selected English language Aboriginal media (1996-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne N; Friedman, Daniela B; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the portrayal of HIV/AIDS in 14 mass print newspapers directed towards the Canadian Aboriginal population and published between 1996 and 2000. Based on qualitative content analysis the research examines both manifest and latent meanings. Manifest results of this study indicate that women and youth are under represented as persons with HIV/AIDS. The latent results note the frequent references to Aboriginal culture, and the political and economic position of Aboriginal Canadians when discussing the disease, the person with the disease, the fear of the disease and the reaction of the community to the person with the disease. Unlike mainstream media where the medical frame is dominant, HIV/AIDS are here contextualized by culture, identity, spirituality and political-economic issues.

  7. Indicators for continuous quality improvement for otitis media in primary health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, Beverly; Agostino, Jason; Coates, Harvey; Weeks, Sharon; Lehmann, Deborah; Wood, Marianne; Lannigan, Francis; McAullay, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Otitis media is a common, generally self-limiting childhood illness that can progress to severe disease and have lifelong sequelae, including hearing loss and developmental delays. Severe disease is disproportionately prevalent among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Primary health care is at the frontline of appropriate prevention and treatment. Continuous quality improvement in the prevention and management of important causes of morbidity in client populations is accepted best practice in primary health care and now a requirement of Australian Government funding to services providing care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. To date, there have been no indicators for continuous quality improvement in the prevention and management of otitis media and its sequelae in primary health care. Through an expert group consensus process, seven evidence-based indicators, potentially extractable from electronic health records, have been developed. The development process and indicators are described.

  8. Serum sample levels of bromine, iron, scandium and zinc in preschool children of Atayal and Bunun aborigines living in central Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien-Yi Chen; Ding-Bang Lin; Yuan-Yaw Wei

    2006-01-01

    This study determined bromine, iron, scandium and zinc serum levels in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children living in remote mountainous areas to increase the understanding of the social, cultural, nutrient and ethnic background of the Taiwanese children. Seventy-three serum samples were taken from two ethnic groups of preschool children, Atayal aborigines (AAPC) and Bunun aborigines (BAPC). Sera of these children were freeze dried. Trace elements in sera were identified by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The accuracy and precision of INAA was evaluated using certified reference materials: Tomato Leaves (NIST-SRM 1570a) and Lichen (IAEA-336). Statistical analysis identified several different patterns for ethnic groups, gender and age via the two-tailed Student's t-test. Analytical results showed that the ranges of Br, Fe, Sc and Zn in sera were somewhat wide. The Zn serum levels (p < 0.05) and Br serum levels (p < 0.01) in the AAPC were significantly lower than those in the BAPC. However, there were no significant differences in Fe or Sc serum levels between the two groups. Analytical results were compared to published data for different counties. This study is the first investigating trace elements in Taiwanese aborigines and can be used to establish a much-needed serum element database. (author)

  9. Vaccines for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, B; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B

    2012-10-01

    Vaccination is the most efficient strategy to prevent infectious disease. The increased vulnerability to infection of the elderly makes them a particularly important target population for vaccination. However, most vaccines are less immunogenic and efficient in the elderly because of age-related changes in the immune system. Vaccination against influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae and varicella zoster virus is recommended for the elderly in many countries. Various strategies such as the use of adjuvants and novel administration routes are pursued to improve influenza vaccination for the elderly and recent developments in the field of pneumococcal vaccination led to the licensure of protein-conjugated polysaccharide vaccines containing up to 13 serotypes. As antibody titres are generally lower in the elderly and-particularly for inactivated vaccines-decline fast in the elderly, regular booster immunizations, for example against tetanus, diphtheria and, in endemic areas, tick-borne encephalitis, are essential during adulthood to ensure protection of the elderly. With increasing health and travel opportunities in old age the importance of travel vaccines for persons over the age of 60 is growing. However, little is known about immunogenicity and efficacy of travel vaccines in this age group. Despite major advances in the field of vaccinology over the last decades, there are still possibilities for improvement concerning vaccines for the elderly. Novel approaches, such as viral vectors for antigen delivery, DNA-based vaccines and innovative adjuvants, particularly toll-like receptor agonists, will help to achieve optimal protection against infectious diseases in old age. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  10. Cholecystectomy for the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liv Bjerre Juul; Harboe, Kirstine Moll; Bardram, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The number of Danish inhabitants older than 65 years is increasing, and cholecystectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed for this age group. This study aimed to analyze the role of age as an independent predictor of outcome for elderly cholecystectomy patients.......The number of Danish inhabitants older than 65 years is increasing, and cholecystectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed for this age group. This study aimed to analyze the role of age as an independent predictor of outcome for elderly cholecystectomy patients....

  11. Quality improvement in practice: improving diabetes care and patient outcomes in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneman, Alice; Atkinson, David; Davey, Maureen; Marley, Julia V

    2014-10-07

    Management of chronic disease, including diabetes, is a central focus of most Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) in Australia. We have previously demonstrated that diabetes monitoring and outcomes can be improved and maintained over a 10-year period at Derby Aboriginal Health Service (DAHS). While continuous quality improvement (CQI) has been shown to improve service delivery rates and clinical outcome measures, the process of interpreting audit results and developing strategies for improvement is less well described. This paper describes the evaluation of care of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and features of effective CQI in ACCHSs in the remote Kimberley region of north Western Australia. Retrospective audit of records for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary care patients aged ≥15 years with a confirmed diagnosis of T2DM at four Kimberley ACCHSs from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012. Interviews with health service staff and focus group discussions with patients post audit. diabetes care related activities, clinical outcome measures and factors influencing good diabetes related care and effective CQI. A total of 348 patients from the four ACCHSs were included in the study. Clinical care activities were generally high across three of the four health services (at least 71% of patients had cholesterol recorded, 89% blood pressure, 84% HbA1c). Patients from DAHS had lower median cholesterol levels (4.4 mmol/L) and the highest proportion of patients meeting clinical targets for HbA1c (31% v 16% ACCHS-3; P = 0.02). Features that facilitated good care included clearly defined staff roles for diabetes management, support and involvement of Aboriginal Health Workers, efficient recall systems, and well-coordinated allied health services. Effective CQI features included seamless and timely data collection, local ownership of the process, openness to admitting deficiencies and willingness to embrace change. Well

  12. Partnering with an Aboriginal Community for Health and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Cultural awareness is a concept that is gaining much attention in health and education settings across North America. This article describes how the concepts of cultural awareness shaped the process and the curriculum of an online health education project called Interprofessional Collaboration: Culturally-informed Aboriginal Health Care. The…

  13. Aboriginal Student Engagement and Achievement: Educational Practices and Cultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Aboriginal people in Canada want an education that reflects their cultural values and linguistic heritages. They want an education that will foster their children's sense of engagement and identity, putting them on the path to success. When students enter public school systems, however, they encounter curriculums and pedagogies that marginalize…

  14. Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students: A Programmatic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melançon, Jérôme; Goebel, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students (PLAS) program at the University of Alberta (UofA) is a creative outgrowth of the growing Personal Librarian programs in academic libraries, in which a student is partnered with an individual librarian for the academic year. In the case of the UofA's PLAS program, first-year undergraduate students who…

  15. An Aboriginal game plan - a plan for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favelle, G.

    1999-01-01

    A presentation is included of some of the more intangible and hands-on types of advice that a corporation should consider when they decide to do business with Canadian Aboriginal peoples. Although there are numerous areas of business concern (both legally and culturally) to consider when working with Aboriginal people and communities, developing a proactive strategy and approach to this segment of Canadian society is just as important and compelling as environmental or gender-related issues because they too can be seen to affect the company operations at any level. Having good corporate business relations with Aboriginal communities is going to take some thinking 'outside of the box,' but with committed understanding and focus on open communications, there is no reason why a company should not be able to develop a corporate-wide approach with relative ease. By being open to learning and listening, companies can begin to develop 'Aboriginal Relations' strategies that will become an automatic inclusion item at corporate strategy meetings and planning discussions. This would be in keeping with the corporation's choice to negotiate and not litigate

  16. Book Review: Aboriginal Customary Law: A Source of Common Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Aboriginal Customary Law: A Source of Common Law Title to Land. Book Author: U Secher. (2014 Hart Publishing Oxford and Portland Oregon) ISBN 978-1-84946-553-3. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  17. Relationscapes: How Contemporary Aboriginal Art Moves Beyond the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Manning

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses landscape art of Australian Aboriginal landscape paintings since the 1970s, particualry that of  Emily Kngwarreye, Dorothy Napangardi, Kathleen Petyarre and Clifford Possum. The author explores how modern materials and techniques are used to convey traditional stories, topographies and cosmologies, using Deleuzian analysis.

  18. Evaluation of a sealant intervention program among Taiwanese aboriginal schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ju Hsieh

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The application of pit-and-fissure sealants was 94.54% effective in preventing caries on newly erupted permanent molars among Taiwanese aboriginal schoolchildren. Complete sealant failure demonstrated a high risk for caries, and such teeth should immediately be resealed.

  19. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the relevant...

  20. Mortality after admission for acute myocardial infarction in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in New South Wales, Australia: a multilevel data linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Deborah A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart disease is a leading cause of the gap in burden of disease between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Our study investigated short- and long-term mortality after admission for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI to public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, and examined the impact of the hospital of admission on outcomes. Methods Admission records were linked to mortality records for 60047 patients aged 25–84 years admitted with a diagnosis of AMI between July 2001 and December 2008. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR for 30- and 365-day all-cause mortality. Results Aboriginal patients admitted with an AMI were younger than non-Aboriginal patients, and more likely to be admitted to lower volume, remote hospitals without on-site angiography. Adjusting for age, sex, year and hospital, Aboriginal patients had a similar 30-day mortality risk to non-Aboriginal patients (AOR: 1.07; 95% CI 0.83-1.37 but a higher risk of dying within 365 days (AOR: 1.34; 95% CI 1.10-1.63. The latter difference did not persist after adjustment for comorbid conditions (AOR: 1.12; 95% CI 0.91-1.38. Patients admitted to more remote hospitals, those with lower patient volume and those without on-site angiography had increased risk of short and long-term mortality regardless of Aboriginal status. Conclusions Improving access to larger hospitals and those with specialist cardiac facilities could improve outcomes following AMI for all patients. However, major efforts to boost primary and secondary prevention of AMI are required to reduce the mortality gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people.

  1. Why should Aboriginal peoples learn to write?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Serra Pagès

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultures and worldviews are inscribed by means of ‘writing’, or what Derrida calls ‘the perdurable inscription of a sign’ (Of Grammatology. A sign is the union between signifier and signified. The signifier may be natural (clouds indicate that it is going to rain or artificial. All cultures are made up of relations that stay at the level of signs, that is, everything that belongs to culture is empirical and conventional. In this regard, both Aboriginal and Western culture remain at the same level. Moreover, both cultures produce objectivity by means of contrast and experimentation, in the design of a sharp object, for example an arrow or a knife. In Ancient Greece, Havelock contends that the invention of writing dramatically increased the possibilities of objective thought (The Muse Learns To Write, but it also created a logic of binaries that transcended the objectivity of science and transpired into the ideology behind colonialism. In this context, the role of writing is analyzed in David Malouf’s Remembering Babylon. How does writing affect Gemmy all throughout the book? Already in the first Chapter, the teacher and the minister of the colony analyze Gemmy ‘in writing’. Gemmy knows what writing is but hasn’t learnt its ‘trick’: he does not know how to read or write. All he can see is that what he tells about his life, all his pain and suffering, is translated into marks and magic squiggles on the paper: only the spirit of the story he tells is captured. But little by little, the cognitive effects of writing get hold of Gemmy, until he starts to understand his life within the framework of the logic of binaries and identity upon which all reflective thought and science rest. All in all, this deconstructive reading can be seen as a critique of Europe’s modern idea of the autonomy of reason, in the name of a heteronymous rationality in the form of writing.

  2. Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

    2011-06-01

    The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of Aboriginal heritage is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program on 45 children of Aboriginal heritage and their caregivers. We used a single-group, pretest (program intake)/posttest (program exit) design with follow-up when the children were 7 years old. We used an observational measure of child receptive language (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III) and caregiver-reported measures of child development (Nipissing District Developmental Screen), risk for child maltreatment (Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory; AAPI), parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index; PSI), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale; RSE), and life skills (Community Life Skills scale; CLS). Using paired t-tests we found statistically significant increases in child receptive language scores between intake and exit, and repeated-measures ANOVA showed that these improvements were maintained up to age 7 years. For caregivers, Pearson's correlations demonstrated that risk for child maltreatment, parenting stress, self-esteem, and life skills were stable over time. Results of this study suggest that children of Aboriginal heritage can benefit from participation in a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program. Their caregivers may have received greater benefit if issues of intergenerational transmission of the negative influences of residential schools were addressed as part of programming.

  3. Elder inmates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The criminological literature underscores that criminal offences committed by senior citizens are directly related to their age and entering a new stage of life. In elder offenders, we may observe a distinctive pattern in the development of their criminal activities, the structure of crime, gender-specific criminal offences, their previous criminal records and their social status. The former criminological studies on the elderly population have most frequently focused on examining the senior citizens' fear of crime and their victimization within the family; the studies on criminal offences committed by the elderly seem to be rather scarce. The prior research into the criminal activity of elder offenders has largely addressed the needs and difficulties encountered by elderly inmates, particularly in case they were sentenced to long-term imprisonment and subject to strict parole rules. Some researchers have also extended criticism on the lack of special correctional facilities specifically designed for elder inmates. In general, crime rate drops with aging. In developed countries, there is a constant increase of elder population as opposed to the marked decrease of younger population. Yet, the percentage of convicted offenders among the persons over the age of 55 is still significantly lesser as compared to the percentage of younger convicts. Namely, different issues pertaining to 'elder people behind bars' have eventually become the subject matter of interest of criminologists and penologists, public administration authorities and international organizations advocating the observance of human rights. The incarcerated men and women face many physical and psychological problems which are generally encountered by all people at large but usually at a later age, when they are at least 10 years older than the inmates. Violence, anxiety and distress caused by the immediate prison environment, separation from their friends and families, and the awareness

  4. A Comparison of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Students on the Inter-Related Dimensions of Self-Concept, Strengths and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Jessica; Rawana, Edward; Brownlee, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. In this study, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the…

  5. Mini-med school for Aboriginal youth: experiential science outreach to tackle systemic barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita I. Henderson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Addressing systemic barriers experienced by low-income and minority students to accessing medical school, the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine has spearheaded a year-round, mini-med school outreach initiative for Aboriginal students. Method: Junior and senior high school youth generally attend the half-day program in classes or camps of 15–25, breaking into small groups for multisession activities. Undergraduate medical education students mentor the youth in stations offering experiential lessons in physical examination, reading x-rays, and anatomy. All resources from the medical school are offered in-kind, including a pizza lunch at midday, whereas community partners organize transportation for the attendees. Results: Opening the medical school and its resources to the community offers great benefits to resource-constrained schools often limited in terms of science education resources. The model is also an effort to address challenges among the medical professions around attracting and retaining students from underserved populations. Conclusion: The prospect of increasing admission rates and successful completion of medical education among students from marginalized communities poses a real, though difficult-to-measure, possibility of increasing the workforce most likely to return to and work in such challenging contexts. A mini-medical school for Aboriginal youth highlights mutual, long-term benefit for diverse partners, encouraging medical educators and community-based science educators to explore the possibilities for deepening partnerships in their own regions.

  6. Mini-med school for Aboriginal youth: experiential science outreach to tackle systemic barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rita I; Williams, Keri; Crowshoe, Lynden Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Addressing systemic barriers experienced by low-income and minority students to accessing medical school, the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine has spearheaded a year-round, mini-med school outreach initiative for Aboriginal students. Junior and senior high school youth generally attend the half-day program in classes or camps of 15-25, breaking into small groups for multisession activities. Undergraduate medical education students mentor the youth in stations offering experiential lessons in physical examination, reading x-rays, and anatomy. All resources from the medical school are offered in-kind, including a pizza lunch at midday, whereas community partners organize transportation for the attendees. Opening the medical school and its resources to the community offers great benefits to resource-constrained schools often limited in terms of science education resources. The model is also an effort to address challenges among the medical professions around attracting and retaining students from underserved populations. The prospect of increasing admission rates and successful completion of medical education among students from marginalized communities poses a real, though difficult-to-measure, possibility of increasing the workforce most likely to return to and work in such challenging contexts. A mini-medical school for Aboriginal youth highlights mutual, long-term benefit for diverse partners, encouraging medical educators and community-based science educators to explore the possibilities for deepening partnerships in their own regions.

  7. Searching MEDLINE for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health literature: questionable sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Ruth M; Tieman, Jennifer J; Tyndall, Jess; Phillips, Paddy A

    2013-06-01

    The extent to which existing and future research can impact on reducing health disparities relates not only to the evidence available, but the ability to find that evidence. Our objective is to quantify experts' literature searching effectiveness with respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people's health. Nine journals were dual reviewed, and a 'gold standard' set of relevant articles was identified. Health librarians (n = 25) completed a standardised searching task using OVID MEDLINE, and results were compared with the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity and precision rates were calculated. The gold standard comprised 136 of 1469 (9.3%) records from nine journals. Searches achieved a mean sensitivity of 53.2% (median = 64.7%, range 0.0-93.4%), specificity of 97.4% (median = 99.4%, range 52.6-100%) and precision of 83.3% (median = 91.0%, range 16.7-100%). Self-estimates of search sensitivity (post hoc) were significantly higher than observed (M = 78.9%, t = 4.812, P MEDLINE. A search filter may improve searching effectiveness for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health literature. Assessment of health librarians' searching competencies warrants further professional debate and consideration. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  8. Elderly from lower socioeconomic groups are more vulnerable to mental health problems, but area deprivation does not contribute : A comparison between Slovak and Dutch cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behanova, Martina; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Nagyova, Iveta; van Ameijden, Erik J. C.; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about factors associated with mental health problems (MHP) of the elderly in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods, and comparisons between Central European and Western European countries on this topic are lacking. We examined whether MHP occurred more frequently in

  9. Resilience amongst Australian aboriginal youth: an ecological analysis of factors associated with psychosocial functioning in high and low family risk contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Katrina D; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12-17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000-2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth.

  10. Resilience amongst Australian Aboriginal Youth: An Ecological Analysis of Factors Associated with Psychosocial Functioning in High and Low Family Risk Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12–17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000–2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth. PMID:25068434

  11. Realist Review of Programs, Policies, and Interventions to Enhance the Social, Emotional, and Spiritual Well-Being of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People Living in Out-of-Home Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lindstedt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The child protection system in Australia includes out-of-home care (OoHC for children and young people at risk of harm and neglect. In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people are 9 times more likely to be placed in care than non-Aboriginal young people (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015. Australia’s history of colonization and subsequent policies have caused trauma to individuals, families, and communities and resulted in poor physical and mental health and mistrust of services. This review was undertaken to identify programs and policies currently in place that aim to improve the mental health and well-being of this vulnerable population. It provides an analysis of both the strengths of the current system as well as what has been inadequately addressed based on literature in the area.By incorporating an Aboriginal perspective, this review focuses on social, emotional, and spiritual well-being (SESWB and the aspects of a child’s life and community that promote this. A realist review of the academic and grey literature was conducted in 2014. It included an extensive search of government and non-government (NGO publications. The review identified nine programs or policies that are designed to improve the SESWB of Aboriginal young people in OoHC in local and international settings. These are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Child Placement Principle, cultural support plans, Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations (ACCOs, family group decision-making, therapeutic care, and Panyappi Mentoring Program. Given that culturally competent service provision is important to SESWB, the review concludes that an increase in monitoring and evaluation is necessary to determine the effectiveness of programs and ensure their implementation and sustainability when warranted. Policy and research work is needed to adapt and devise programs promoting the SESWB of Aboriginal young people (at both the

  12. The contribution of socio-economic position to the excesses of violence and intimate partner violence among aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Smylie, Janet; Urquia, Marcelo; Allan, Billie; O'Campo, Patricia

    2013-07-25

    To examine the contribution of socio-economic position (SEP) in explaining the excess of any abuse and intimate partner violence (IPV) among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal women in Canada. This comparison has not been studied before. We conducted logistic regression analysis, using nationwide data from a weighted sample of 57,318 Canadian-born mothers of singletons who participated in the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey 2006-7. The unadjusted odds of any abuse and IPV were almost four times higher among Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal mothers; OR 3.91 (95% CI 3.12-4.89) and OR 3.78 (2.87-4.97), respectively. Adjustment for SEP reduced the unadjusted OR of any abuse and IPV by almost 40%. However, even with this adjustment, the odds of any abuse and IPV for Aboriginal mothers remained twice that of non-Aboriginal mothers; OR 2.34 (1.82-2.99) and OR 2.19 (1.60-3.00), respectively. SEP is a predominant contributor to the excess of abuse against Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal women in Canada. Reducing violence against Aboriginal women can be achieved mostly by improving their SEP, and simultaneously be informed by social processes and services that can mitigate abuse. The fact that SEP did not fully explain the excess of abuse among the Aboriginal women might lend support to "colonization or postcolonial theories," and related contextual factors such as differences in community social resources (e.g., social capital) and services. The effect of these factors on the excess of abuse warrants future research.

  13. Disparity in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations: recommendations for action

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.; Episkenew, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, cancer has occurred at a lower rate in aboriginal populations; however, it is now dramatically increasing. Unless preventive measures are taken, cancer rates among aboriginal peoples are expected to soon surpass those in non-aboriginal populations. Because a large proportion of malignant disorders are preventable, primary prevention through socioeconomic interventions, environmental changes, and lifestyle modification might provide the best option for reducing the increasing bur...

  14. Aboriginal Language and School Outcomes: Investigating the Associations for Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Guevremont; Dafna Kohen

    2017-01-01

    Being taught an Aboriginal language at school has generally been associated with positive school outcomes for Aboriginal children but not adults. This study attempted to understand this discordance by examining three possible explanations: (a) confounding variables, (b) a cohort effect, and (c) differences in the timing and duration of Aboriginal language instruction. Confounding variables (school attendance on reserve, parental education, and family residential school attendance) and duratio...

  15. EARP [environmental assessment and review process] and the aboriginal women of James Bay: A structural bias?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, S.

    1993-07-01

    The massive James Bay hydroelectric development project in northern Quebec is studied to explore the themes of the impact on women of rapid resource development projects and the process of environmental assessment of such projects, particularly as it relates to aboriginal peoples. Field surveys were conducted in the Cree community of Fort George, now relocated to Chisasibi as a result of hydroelectric development on the LaGrande River. The surveys examined the kinds of social impacts, the impacts (if any) that were particular to women, the degree of gender bias in Cree society which may have affected those impacts and the participation of women in the environmental assessment process, and the possibility of a bias against women in the environmental assessment process. A number of direct and indirect social effects of the James Bay developments were identified, but the extent to which women and men experienced different impacts, or to which they experienced the same impacts differently, was not entirely clear. It is concluded that the original question of bias against women needs to be reframed: whether the environmental assessment process is adequate to address the range of indirect social impacts which accrue to many social sectors, including youths, elders, men, and women. It is then concluded that the process is not adequate, and a number of recommendations are offered which may help to facilitate cross-cultural impact assessment. 35 refs

  16. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically

  17. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Hermeston, Wendy; Passey, Megan; Fallon, Tony; Muyambi, Kuda

    2012-06-10

    While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Local research groups comprising 13-19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by "putting issues on the table". While there were confronting and ethically challenging aspects, these informants considered that with flexibility

  18. Transformative effects of Aboriginal health placements for medical, nursing, and allied health students: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Helena; Browne, Jennifer; Perruzza, Julia; Svarc, Ruby; Davis, Corinne; Adams, Karen; Palermo, Claire

    2018-02-02

    The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate whether placements in Aboriginal health affect the self-perceived skill in working in Aboriginal health settings and career aspirations of health students, and in particular, aspects of the placement that had the greatest impact. The Embase, Cinahl, ProQuest, Scopus, Informit, Ovid MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PubMed databases were searched in April/May 2016. Placements of at least 1 week duration in an Aboriginal health setting involving Australian students of medical, nursing, dentistry, or allied health disciplines, with outcomes relating to changes in students' knowledge, attitudes, and/or career aspirations, were included. The search retrieved 1351 papers. Fourteen studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. Narrative synthesis found that work placements in Aboriginal health increased understanding and awareness of Aboriginal culture, promoted deeper understanding of Aboriginal health determinant complexity, increased awareness of everyday racism toward Aboriginal Australians, and enhanced desire to work in Aboriginal health. There is a need for improved teaching and learning scholarship to understand whether placements improve students' skill working with Aboriginal people in health care or increase the likelihood of future employment in these settings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. 'Partnerships are crucial': an evaluation of the Aboriginal Family Birthing Program in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Philippa; Bubner, Tanya; Glover, Karen; Rumbold, Alice; Weetra, Donna; Scheil, Wendy; Brown, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate implementation and outcomes of the Aboriginal Family Birthing Program (AFBP), which provides culturally competent antenatal, intrapartum and early postnatal care for Aboriginal families across South Australia (SA). Analysis of births to Aboriginal women in SA 2010-2012; interviews with health professionals and AFBP clients. Around a third of all Aboriginal women giving birth in SA 2010-2012 (n=486) attended AFBP services. AFBP women were more likely to be more socially disadvantaged, have poorer pregnancy health and to have inadequate numbers of antenatal visits than Aboriginal women attending other services. Even with greater social disadvantage and higher clinical complexity, pregnancy outcomes were similar for AFBP and other Aboriginal women. Interviews with 107 health professionals (including 20 Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Care (AMIC) workers) indicated differing levels of commitment to the model, with some lack of clarity about AMIC workers and midwives roles. Interviews with 20 AFBP clients showed they highly valued care from another Aboriginal woman. Despite challenges, the AFBP reaches out to women with the greatest need, providing culturally appropriate, effective care through partnerships. Implications for Public Health: Programs like the AFBP need to be expanded and supported to improve maternal and child health outcomes for Aboriginal families. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Genetic research and aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Emma; Pearson, Glenn; Rouhani, Lobna; Peacock, Chris S; Jamieson, Sarra E; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2012-12-01

    While human genetic research promises to deliver a range of health benefits to the population, genetic research that takes place in Indigenous communities has proven controversial. Indigenous peoples have raised concerns, including a lack of benefit to their communities, a diversion of attention and resources from non-genetic causes of health disparities and racism in health care, a reinforcement of "victim-blaming" approaches to health inequalities, and possible misuse of blood and tissue samples. Drawing on the international literature, this article reviews the ethical issues relevant to genetic research in Indigenous populations and considers how some of these have been negotiated in a genomic research project currently under way in a remote Aboriginal community. We consider how the different levels of Indigenous research governance operating in Australia impacted on the research project and discuss whether specific guidelines for the conduct of genetic research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are warranted.

  1. How an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care service improved access to mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Julie; Askew, Deborah; Foley, Wendy; Duthie, Deb; Shuter, Patricia; Combo, Michelle; Clements, Lesley-Ann

    2015-06-06

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experience higher levels of psychological distress and mental ill health than their non-Indigenous counterparts, but underuse mental health services. Interventions are required to address the structural and functional access barriers that cause this underuse. In 2012, the Southern Queensland Centre of Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care employed a psychologist and a social worker to integrate mental health care into its primary health care services. This research study examines the impact of this innovation. A mixed-method research design was used whereby a series of qualitative open-ended interviews were conducted with 7 psychology clients, 5 social work clients, the practice dietician, and the social worker and psychologist. General practitioners, practice nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers and receptionists participated in 4 focus groups. Key themes were identified, discussed, refined and agreed upon by the research team. Occasions of service by the psychologist and social worker were reviewed and quantitative data presented. Clients and staff were overwhelmingly positive about the inclusion of a psychologist and a social worker as core members of a primary health care team. In one-year, the psychologist and social worker recorded 537 and 447 occasions of service respectively, and referrals to a psychologist, psychiatrist, mental health worker or counsellor increased from 17% of mental health clients in 2010 to 51% in 2012. Increased access by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to mental health care was related to three main themes: (1) Responsiveness to community needs; (2) Trusted relationships; and (3) Shared cultural background and understanding. The holistic nature and cultural safety of the primary health care service, its close proximity to where most people lived and the existing trusted relationships were identified as key factors in decreasing barriers to access

  2. Parkinson's disease as community health problem: study in Norwegian nursing homes. The Norwegian Study Group of Parkinson's Disease in the Elderly.

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, J P

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the extent of under-diagnosis and overdiagnosis of Parkinson's disease and to determine quality of treatment in a defined population. DESIGN--Clinical evaluation of an elderly population. SETTING--40 Norwegian nursing homes. SUBJECTS--3322 residents of nursing homes, of whom 500 were selected by nursing staff for evaluation on the basis of a structured information programme on Parkinson's disease and 269 were examined in detail by neurologists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Pat...

  3. Differences in the Distribution of Bi?fidobacterial and Enterobacterial Species in Human Faecal Microflora of Three Different (Children, Adults, Elderly) Age Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gavini, Franҫoise; Cayuela, Chantal; Antoine, Jean-Michel; Lecoq, Catherine; Lefebvre, Bernard; Membré, Jeanne-Marie; Neut, Christel

    2011-01-01

    To determine if there is any change with age in the distribution of Bifidobacterium and Enterobacteriaceae species in human intestinal microflora, strains were isolated from a total of 54 samples of human faeces (15 children, 3–15 years old; 17 adults, 30–46 years old; 22 elderly, 69–89 years old). The bifidobacteria were identified at species level using a numerical phenotypic identification system developed on the Internet (http://kounou.lille.inra.fr) and DNA–DNA hy...

  4. Elderly from lower socioeconomic groups are more vulnerable to mental health problems, but area deprivation does not contribute: A comparison between Slovak and Dutch cities

    OpenAIRE

    Behanova, Martina; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Nagyova, Iveta; van Ameijden, Erik J. C.; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about factors associated with mental health problems (MHP) of the elderly in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods, and comparisons between Central European and Western European countries on this topic are lacking. We examined whether MHP occurred more frequently in deprived neighbourhoods and among deprived people. Next, we examined whether the association of MHP with area deprivation differed by country and whether this could be explained by the socioeconomic...

  5. Aboriginal Determination: Native Title Claims and Barriers to Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Akhtar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Australian government has proposed a referendum in 2012 to decide the constitutional status of its indigenous people. There is at present no mechanism to define the indigenous people as a domestic or foreign entity of the Commonwealth. This is an important issue because other settler governments have developed a framework to implement their relationship with the native people. As a result, it is difficult prove title to land that has been abrogated by the deeds of the settlers. In Mabo v Queensland (2,the Commonwealth government was found to have breached its fiduciary duty to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment led to the Native Title Act 1993 that established the process of asserting native rights that were held to coexist with pastoral ownership. The promulgation of the Native Title Amendment Act 1998 reversed this process and augmented the powers of non-native landlords by providing the device to extinguish native rights. In Western Australia v Ward, a mining lease was held to have precedence over native title that was adjudged to be part of a bundle of rights. In implementing the Native Title Act the issue turns on the determination of the ties to land/ sea that the government allows to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment in Harrington-Smith on behalf of the Wongatha People v Western Australia indicates that title can be excluded on procedural grounds and that there was an incompatibility between the claims of the Aboriginal peoples and the settlers’ claims. The road map towards a more effective regime of proving title can be achieved if the Aboriginal peoples are granted recognition as a nation in the Constitution and a treaty is signed with them.

  6. Healing history? Aboriginal healing, historical trauma, and personal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, James B

    2014-06-01

    What can an exploration of contemporary Aboriginal healing programs such as those offered in Canadian prisons and urban clinics tell us about the importance of history in understanding social and psychological pathology, and more significantly the salience of the concept of "historical trauma"? The form of Aboriginal "healing" that has emerged in recent decades to become dominant in many parts of the country is itself a reflection of historical processes and efforts to ameliorate the consequences of what is today often termed "historical trauma." In other words, contemporary notions of "healing" and the social, cultural, medical, and psychological disruption and distress caused by colonialism and captured in the term "historical trauma" have coevolved in an interdependent manner. I also argue that there is a tension between the attribution of this distress to both specific (e.g., residential schools) and generalized (e.g., colonialism) historical factors, as evident in the "historical trauma" concept, and the prevailing emphasis in many healing programs to encourage the individual to take personal responsibility for their situation and avoid attributing blame to other factors. I conclude that "historical trauma" represents an idiom of distress that captures a variety of historical and contemporary phenomena and which provides a language for expressing distress that is gaining currency, at least among scholars, and that the contemporary Aboriginal healing movement represents an effort to deal with the absence or failure of both "traditional" Aboriginal healing and government-sponsored medical and psychological services to adequately deal with this distress of colonialism. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Quality of life and its association with work, the Internet, participation in groups and physical activity among the elderly from the EpiFloripa survey, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Larissa Pruner; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-12-22

    The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP). The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1). The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.

  8. Depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Alex D.H.; Mentha, Ricky; Rowley, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    groups comprising of members from primary Indigenous language groups in central Australia. First, focus group participants were asked to review and select a screening measure for adaptation. Bi-lingual experts then translated and back translated the language within the selected measure. Focus group...

  9. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wenxing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM. Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-  Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1-  Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia.

  10. Australian Aboriginal Memoir and Memory: A Stolen Generations Trauma Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Seran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a re-reading of Aboriginal author Sally Morgan’s Stolen Generations narrative My Place (1987 in post-Apology Australia (2008–present. The novel tells the story of Morgan’s discovery of her maternal Aboriginal origins through the life-stories of her mother and grandmother; the object of a quest for the past that is both relational and matrilineal; incorporating elements of autobiography and as-told-to memoirs to create a form of choral autoethnography. Morgan’s text explores the intergenerational consequences of child removal in the Aboriginal context and is representative of Indigenous-authored narratives in its suggestion that the children and grand-children of victims of colonial policies and practices can work through the trauma of their ancestors. I examine the literary processes of decolonization of the Indigenous writing/written self and community; as well as strategies for individual survival and cultural survivance in the Australian settler colonial context; especially visible through the interactions between traumatic memories and literary memoirs, a genre neglected by trauma theory’s concern with narrative fragmentation and the proliferation of “themed” life-writing centered on a traumatic event. This article calls for a revision of trauma theory’s Eurocentrism through scholarly engagement with Indigenous experiences such as Morgan’s and her family in order to broaden definitions and take into account collective, historical, and inherited trauma.

  11. What oil and gas activities infringe on Aboriginal interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the experiences that First Nations communities in British Columbia have had in dealing with the petroleum industry and government are reviewed, emphasizing the past lack of consultation with First Nations whose treaty and Aboriginal rights were being infringed. The focus is primarily on Treaty 8, one of the series of numbered treaties negotiated during the 1800s, but which is still very much in effect. Changes expected as a result of the recent Delgamuukw decision which obligates regulatory authorities to consult with First Nations prior to issuing any permits for exploration or extraction of natural resources where such proposed projects might infringe on treaty and Aboriginal rights, are reviewed. Recent examples of settlements that confirm governments' and the industry's readiness to deal with aboriginal title claims as intended by the courts are cited. Other examples, showing reluctance by both governments and industry to accept the concept of mutually acceptable and meaningful consultation despite court rulings, and in the face of increasing levels of conflict, are also discussed.2 figs

  12. Depression, Suicidal Behaviour, and Mental Disorders in Older Aboriginal Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tang Shen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal Australians experience higher levels of psychological distress, which may develop from the long-term sequelae of social determinants and adversities in early and mid-life. There is little evidence available on the impact of these on the mental health of older Aboriginal Australians. This study enrolled 336 Aboriginal Australian participants over 60 years from 5 major urban and regional areas in NSW, utilizing a structured interview on social determinants, and life-time history of physical and mental conditions; current psychosocial determinants and mental health. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to examine the link between these determinants and current depressive scores and suicidality. There was a high rate of life-time depression (33.3%, current late-life depression (18.1%, and suicidal ideation (11.1%. Risk factors strongly associated with late-life depression included sleep disturbances, a history of suicidal behaviour, suicidal ideation in late-life and living in a regional location. This study supports certain historical and psychosocial factors predicting later depression in old age, and highlights areas to target for prevention strategies.

  13. Childhood Cryptosporidium infection among aboriginal communities in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; ’Azlin, M Y; Fatmah, M S; Norhayati, M

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian parasite that is prevalent worldwide, some species of which cause morbidity in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The prevalence and predictors of Cryptosporidium infection, and its effect on nutritional status, have recently been explored among 276 children (141 boys and 135 girls, aged 2–15 years) in aboriginal (Orang Asli) villages in the Malaysian state of Selangor. Faecal smears were examined by the modified Ziehl–Neelsen staining technique while socio–economic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements. Cryptosporidium infection, which was detected in 7·2% of the aboriginal children, was found to be significantly associated with low birthweight (⩽2·5 kg), being part of a large household (with more than seven members) and prolonged breast feeding (>2 years). The output of a binary logistic regression confirmed that large household size was a significant predictor of Cryptosporidium infection (giving an odds ratio of 2·15, with a 95% confidence interval of 1·25–5·02). Cryptosporidium infection is clearly a public-health problem among the aboriginal children of Selangor, with person-to-person the most likely mode of transmission. PMID:21396250

  14. Indigenous Australian food culture on cattle stations prior to the 1960s and food intake of older Aborigines in a community studied in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris-Blazos, A; Wahlqvist, M L

    2000-09-01

    Between 1988 and 1993 the International Union of Nutritional Sciences Committee 'Nutrition and Ageing' established the international 'Food Habits in Later Life' (FHILL) Program.1,2 The FHILL program documented current and distant past food habits of more than 2000 Caucasian and Asian elderly people, which also included 54 older Aboriginal Australians in a community called Junjuwa in the Fitzroy Valley, Kimberley region, Western Australia. The program primarily used a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to collect food intake data. However, in some communities this was neither practical nor feasible due to differences in cultural interpretation of questions relating to 'time', 'frequency' and 'quantity'. To overcome this hurdle, FHILL was coupled to a qualitative socioanthropological methodolgy known as RAP 'Rapid Assessment Procedures'. This paper reviews published qualitative data using RAP to describe distant past food intake on cattle stations prior to the 1960s 1 and food intake of Aborigines aged 50 years and over in 1988 in Junjuwa.4 Aboriginal food habits on cattle stations prior to the 1960s appeared to be more nutrient dense, due to greater food variety and higher intakes of lean fresh and salted buffalo meat (probably high in omega-3 fatty acids), offal, vegetables and bush foods; buffalo fat was rationed and used in meat stews. High intakes of tea and sugar appears to have remained unchanged. Food intake was more or less constant from day to day in contrast to the 'feast' and 'famine' days observed in the community studied in 1988, which was related to the pension cycle. In contrast to the more varied cattle station diet, the community-dwelling older Aborigines in 1988 consumed more than 50% of their total energy intake from three foods: sugar, fatty beef/lamb and white flour (damper). Exploring distant past food intake on cattle stations has helped explain desirable and undesirable food preferences of the older Aborigines in 1988. For example, the

  15. Prevalence and perceptions of overweight and obesity in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal young people in custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haysom, Leigh; Indig, Devon; Moore, Elizabeth; Hardy, Louise L; van den Dolder, Paul A

    2013-08-19

    To describe prevalence of and risk factors for overweight, obesity and self-perceived weight gain of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian young people in custody at baseline and over 12 months of follow-up. Prospective cohort study of youths in custody in New South Wales, from August 2009, with follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months. Body mass index at baseline, categorised as overweight or obese using international cut-points; waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) at baseline, categorised as increased metabolic risk (≥ 0.5) or low metabolic risk (custody. A longer incarceration time had the strongest association with overweight obesity and self-reported weight gain. From a population health and policy perspective, changes to the liberal food environment and the approach to increasing physical activity in custody are warranted.

  16. Incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Susan M; Foster, Bethany J; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Crowshoe, Lynden; Alexander, R Todd; Soo, Andrea; Tonelli, Marcello A

    2012-10-02

    Although Aboriginal adults have a higher risk of end-stage renal disease than non-Aboriginal adults, the incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal children and young adults are not well described. We calculated age- and sex-specific incidences of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal people less than 22 years of age using data from a national organ failure registry. Incidence rate ratios were used to compare rates between Aboriginal and white Canadians. To contrast causes of end-stage renal disease by ethnicity and age, we calculated the odds of congenital diseases, glomerulonephritis and diabetes for Aboriginal people and compared them with those for white people in the following age strata: 0 to less than 22 years, 22 to less than 40 years, 40 to less than 60 years and older than 60 years. Incidence rate ratios of end-stage renal disease for Aboriginal children and young adults (age diseases were less common among Aboriginal people aged less than 22 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.36-0.86), and glomerulonephritis was more common (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.55-3.07). An excess of glomerulonephritis, but not diabetes, was seen among Aboriginal people aged 22 to less than 40 years. The converse was true (higher risk of diabetes, lower risk of glomerulonephritis) among Aboriginal people aged 40 years and older. The incidence of end-stage renal disease is higher among Aboriginal children and young adults than among white children and young adults. This higher incidence may be driven by an increased risk of glomerulonephritis in this population.

  17. Vaccines for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  19. Diversity in eMental Health Practice: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jennifer; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Singer, Judy

    2017-05-29

    specific and mainstream. While they referred clients to online treatment programs, they used only eMH resources designed for mobile devices in their face-to-face contact with clients. This paper provides Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander service providers and the eMH field with findings that may inform and guide the implementation of eMH resources. It may help policy developers locate this workforce within broader service provision planning for eMH. The findings could, with adaptation, have wider application to other workforces who work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients. The findings highlight the importance of identifying and addressing the particular needs of minority groups for eMH services and resources. ©Jennifer Bird, Darlene Rotumah, James Bennett-Levy, Judy Singer. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 29.05.2017.

  20. Social Integration of Fringe-Dwelling Aboriginal Children and Their Families in Selected Townships of South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeck, F. N.

    This paper discusses the problems faced by young Australian Aboriginal families and particularly their children as they attempt to find a satisfactory solution to being Aboriginal in a dominant white urban society. The paper is restricted to a consideration of country-urban Aborigines categorized as 'fringe dwellers,' because they live…

  1. Reconciling Mixed Methods Approaches with a Community Narrative Model for Educational Research Involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakich, Eva; Watt, Tony; Hooley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Researching the education of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australian schools is an exceedingly difficult and uncompromising task. Working respectfully with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities must remain top priority with any research project regarding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander viewpoints of…

  2. Enough Bad News! Remote Social Health & Aboriginal Action in a Harsh Environment--Coober Pedy in South Australia's "Outback."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, G.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic…

  3. The insidious problem inside: mental health problems of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Edward; Andersen, Kimina; Kinner, Stuart

    2009-08-01

    Despite recognition of the extremely high rates of mental illness among custodial populations and the fact that Indigenous people represent around one-quarter of Australia's custodial population, little is known about the mental health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in custody. Mental health is an important component of social and emotional wellbeing for Indigenous people and this paper considers current evidence regarding the mental health status of Indigenous Australians in custody. A systematic review was undertaken of the quantitative literature relating to the mental health problems of Indigenous people in custody in Australia. Despite high incarceration rates for Indigenous people and evidence that both mental health problems and rates of mental illness are extremely high in this group, studies in this area are few and limited in scope. The first step toward addressing the marked social and mental health problems for Indigenous people in custody is to systematically identify the nature and extent of these problems.

  4. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Durey, Angela; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar M; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-11-04

    Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians' perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers' (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs' views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006-September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. CSPs' lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients' limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient-provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people's distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff, providing appropriate cultural training for CSPs

  5. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians’ perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers’ (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs’ views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). Methods A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006 - September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. Results CSPs’ lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients’ limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient–provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people’s distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff

  6. Unfinished dreams: community healing and the reality of aboriginal self-government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warry, Wayne

    1998-01-01

    ... of community development and cultural revitalization that are essential precursors to self-government. Warry's notion of 'community healing' involves efforts to rebuild the human foundations for self-governing Aboriginal societies. The book analyses key areas such as health care and the judicial and political systems where Aboriginal peoples ...

  7. The Problem with Numbers: An Examination of the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a federally funded pre-apprenticeship training programme designed to transition aboriginal northerners living in the Canadian Arctic into trades-related employment. Drawing from interviews involving programme partners and stakeholders, the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership programme that operated in the Beaufort…

  8. Effective Nutrition Education for Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from a Diabetes Cooking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce E.; Moore, Louise F.; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…

  9. Cultural Immersion: Developing a Community of Practice of Teachers and Aboriginal Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Cathie; Cavanagh, Paddy

    2016-01-01

    A lack of teacher awareness of the cultural and historical background of Aboriginal students has long been recognised as a major causative factor in the failure of Australian schools to fully engage Aboriginal students and deliver equitable educational outcomes for them. Using Wenger's communities of practice framework, this paper analyses the…

  10. Cultural mismatch and the education of Aboriginal youths: the interplay of cultural identities and teacher ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Flores, Heidi; Ponizovskiy, Vladimir; Ranney, John D; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Russo, Natalie; Burack, Jacob A

    2013-01-01

    In response to the enduring "deficit" approach to the educational attainment of Aboriginal students in North America, we hypothesized that academic underperformance is related to a cultural mismatch between Aboriginal students' cultural background, which emphasizes connectedness and interdependence, and the mainstream White model of education, which focuses on independence and assertiveness. The participants included virtually all the secondary students (N = 115) in the Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach, Quebec, Canada. We obtained self-reports of identification with Aboriginal and White culture, teacher reports of assertiveness, and official grades. We found that high identification with either Aboriginal or White culture was related to higher grades, regardless of whether the students were perceived as assertive by their teacher. Conversely, at low levels of cultural identification toward Aboriginal or White culture, being perceived as low in assertiveness by one's teacher predicted lower grades. This suggests that both high cultural identification and assertiveness can contribute to enhancing the educational outcomes of Aboriginal students, but that Aboriginal students with low levels of both cultural identification and assertiveness are at particular risk as they are mismatched with the culture of mainstream schools and do not benefit from the protective effects of identity. The relationships among identity, cultural values, and academic performance point to the need to reject the notion of an inherent deficit in education among Aboriginal youths in favor of a different framework in which success can be attained when alternative ways of being are fostered and nurtured in schools.

  11. Preservice Teachers' Learning with Yuin Country: Becoming Respectful Teachers in Aboriginal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The ownership of Aboriginal knowledge and the Aboriginal perspective presented in school curriculum is always with Country. A number of preservice teachers were taken to a sacred story, "Gulaga a Living Spiritual Mountain," to participate in an elective subject to engage in respectful reciprocal relationship with Country. The…

  12. Closing the (service) gap: exploring partnerships between Aboriginal and mainstream health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Sandra C

    2011-08-01

    Although effective partnerships between Aboriginal and mainstream health services are critical to improve Aboriginal health outcomes, many factors can cause these partnerships to be tenuous and unproductive. Understanding the elements of best practice for successful partnerships is essential. A literature review was conducted in 2009 using keyword searches of electronic databases. Sourced literature was assessed for relevance regarding the benefits, challenges, lessons learnt and factors contributing to successful Aboriginal and mainstream partnerships. Key themes were collated. Although there is much literature regarding general partnerships generally, few specifically examine Aboriginal and mainstream health service partnerships. Twenty-four sources were reviewed in detail. Benefits include broadening service capacity and improving the cultural security of healthcare. Challenges include the legacy of Australia's colonial history, different approaches to servicing clients and resource limitations. Recommendations for success include workshopping tensions early, building trust and leadership. Although successful partnerships are crucial to optimise Aboriginal health outcomes, failed collaborations risk inflaming sensitive Aboriginal-non-Aboriginal relationships. Factors supporting successful partnerships remind us to develop genuine, trusting relationships that are tangibly linked to the Aboriginal community. Failure to invest in this relational process and push forward with 'business as usual' can ultimately have negative ramifications on client outcomes.

  13. Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

  14. Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

  15. Exploring Place from an Aboriginal Perspective: Considerations for Outdoor and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowan, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a recent study about Outward Bound Canada's Giwaykiwin program for Aboriginal youth. A key finding that emerged from the study was the need to design contemporary Aboriginal education programs based on a recognition of the evolution of Indigenous cultures and languages in close relationship with specific geographical areas.…

  16. Context, Diversity and Engagement: Early Intervention with Australian Aboriginal Families in Urban and Remote Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…

  17. Politics, pain and pleasure: the art of art-making for ‘settled’ Aboriginal Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Gibson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of the ‘acrylic art movement’ which came out of Papunya in the Western Desert of Australia in the 1970s, Aboriginal art and cultures have become intertwined in public discourse, through government policy, and in visual art worlds. It is arguably through their artworks that Australian Aboriginal people have become increasingly known both within Australia and overseas (Merlan 2001; cf. Fourmille 1994.i Indeed, in many ways, Aboriginal art has come to represent Aboriginal people and their culture (Myers 2002. But what kind of art is acceptably deemed Aboriginal in mainstream art worlds, by Australian Aboriginal people, and why? What does this mean personally, socially and economically for those Aboriginal artists who are located in the south-eastern parts of Australia which were first colonised? For the most part these people are deemed by the mainstream population to have ‘lost their culture’. More than this, they are spoken of by some other Aboriginal people from the more remote and later colonised parts of the continent in similar terms. Based on long-term ethnographic fieldwork with the Barkindji people of Wilcannia, a small country town in the south-east of Australia, this paper explores the role of art making and art talk and the ways in which these are implicated in the politics of culture, in cultural subjectivity, and in the consolidation and (recreation of cultural identity.

  18. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities.

  19. Breastfeeding Duration and Residential Isolation amid Aboriginal Children in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Zubrick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in urban, rural and remote settings across Western Australia. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using survey weights to produce unbiased estimates for the population of Aboriginal children. Data on demographic, maternal and infant characteristics were collected from 3932 Aboriginal birth mothers about their children aged 0–17 years (representing 22,100 Aboriginal children in Western Australia. Results: 71% of Aboriginal children were breastfed for three months or more. Accounting for other factors, there was a strong gradient for breastfeeding duration by remoteness, with Aboriginal children living in areas of moderate isolation being 3.2 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or more (p < 0.001 compared to children in metropolitan Perth. Those in areas of extreme isolation were 8.6 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or longer (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Greater residential isolation a protective factor linked to longer breastfeeding duration for Aboriginal children in our West Australian cohort.

  20. A socioecological framework to understand weight-related issues in Aboriginal children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Noreen D; Hanley, Anthony J G; Delormier, Treena

    2012-02-01

    Obesity prevention efforts in Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, or Inuit) communities in Canada should focus predominantly on children given their demographic significance and the accelerated time course of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Aboriginal population. A socioecological model to address childhood obesity in Aboriginal populations would focus on the numerous environments at different times in childhood that influence weight status, including prenatal, sociocultural, family, and community environments. Importantly, for Aboriginal children, obesity interventions need to also be situated within the context of a history of colonization and inequities in the social determinants of health. This review therefore advocates for the inclusion of a historical perspective and a life-course approach to obesity prevention in Aboriginal children in addition to developing interventions around the socioecological framework. We emphasize that childhood obesity prevention efforts should focus on promoting maternal health behaviours before and during pregnancy, and on breastfeeding and good infant and child nutrition in the postpartum and early childhood development periods. Ameliorating food insecurity by focusing on improving the sociodemographic risk factors for it, such as increasing income and educational attainment, are essential. More research is required to understand and measure obesogenic Aboriginal environments, to examine how altering specific environments modifies the foods that children eat and the activities that they do, and to examine how restoring and rebuilding cultural continuity in Aboriginal communities modifies the many determinants of obesity. This research needs to be done with the full participation of Aboriginal communities as partners in the research.

  1. What is the impact of diabetes for Australian Aboriginal women when pregnant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cynthia, Porter; Timothy, Skinner; Isabelle, Ellis

    2011-01-01

    The impact differential of diabetes for Aboriginal maternal and infant health outcomes is different to Caucasian outcomes. With maternal diabetes, Aboriginal infant's birth weight increases and stillbirth rate is 22/1000 for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 53/1000 for pre-existing diabete...

  2. Educational Issues Facing Aboriginal Families in Rural Australia: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Susan

    2002-01-01

    A case study of Aboriginal education in Geraldton, Western Australia, looked at the cycle of low educational attainment, unemployment, and poverty; national and state programs to support Aboriginal students and parent involvement; and community attitudes toward existing programs and proposed improvement strategies. A 1-year plan is detailed for…

  3. Factors Affecting Language and Literacy Development in Australian Aboriginal Children: Considering Dialect, Culture and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gwendalyn L.; Williams, Cori J.

    2018-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children, in general, lag behind their mainstream peers in measures of literacy. This article discusses some of the complex and interconnected factors that impact Aboriginal children's early language and literacy development. Poor health and historically negative socio-political factors are known influences on Aboriginal…

  4. Isolated Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lucy Rose; And Others

    The Minnesota Senior Study, the first statewide survey of the elderly in nearly 20 years, was based on a telephone survey with a statewide sample of 1,500 non-institutionalized Minnesotans age 60 and older. Substantial numbers of Minnesotans age 60-plus were found to have low social contacts. Five percent, or about 33,000 older Minnesotans, fell…

  5. Communities driving change: evaluation of an Aboriginal driver licensing programme in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Patricia; Clapham, Kathleen; Lo, Serigne; Rogers, Kris; Hunter, Kate; Treacy, Rebekah; Porykali, Bobby; Keay, Lisa; Senserrick, Teresa; Ivers, Rebecca

    2017-07-03

    The Driving Change programme was developed to facilitate access to licensing in Aboriginal communities in Australia. This process evaluation aimed to explore whether Driving Change was implemented as intended and was addressing the needs of the communities. A mixed methods approach was used, with triangulation of client data (n = 984), semi-structured interviews (n = 18) and client discussion groups (n = 21). Descriptive and regression analyses of quantitative and thematic analysis of qualitative data were drawn together to develop an integrated understanding of implementation barriers and facilitators. The programme reached 984 clients, with the majority from the target age group 16-24 years (56-89%). In multivariate analysis, clients who had supervised driving practice were 2.4 times more likely to attain a licence (95% CI: 1.9-3.1) and clients who received a high level of case management were 1.8 times more likely to progress to attain a licence than those who received low levels of case management (95% CI: 1.3-2.6). Implementation was facilitated by community partnerships and this was attributed to local delivery, Aboriginal leadership, connections with community networks and community ownership of solutions. Driving Change is engaging communities and reaching clients with a high level of need for licensing support. The programme is working with communities, benefiting from the input of cultural values and sharing ownership of local solutions. Community partnerships were critical to successfully supporting clients to overcome challenging barriers to participation. The learnings from this programme are relevant to complex community programme implementation and evaluation, particularly with diverse or hard to reach populations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease among Aboriginal adults; an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lisa; Skilton, Michael; Maple-Brown, Louise; Kapellas, Kostas; Askie, Lisa; Hughes, Jaqui; Arrow, Peter; Cherian, Sajiv; Fernandes, David; Pawar, Basant; Brown, Alex; Boffa, John; Hoy, Wendy; Harris, David; Mueller, Nicole; Cass, Alan

    2015-10-31

    This study will assess measures of vascular health and inflammation in Aboriginal Australian adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and determine if intensive periodontal intervention improves cardiovascular health, progression of renal disease and periodontal health over a 24-month follow-up. The study will be a randomised controlled trial. All participants will receive the periodontal intervention benefits, with the delayed intervention group receiving periodontal treatment 24 months following baseline. Inclusion criteria include being an Aboriginal Australian, having CKD (a. on dialysis; b. eGFR levels of periodontal disease, having at least 12 teeth, and living in Central Australia for the 2-year study duration. The intervention involves intensive removal of dental plaque biofilms by scaling, root-planing and removal of teeth that cannot be saved. The intervention will occur in three visits; baseline, 3-month and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome will be changes in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Secondary outcomes will include progression of CKD or death as a consequence of CKD/cardiovascular disease. Progression of CKD will be defined by time to the development of the first of: (1) new development of macroalbuminuria; (2) 30 % loss of baseline eGFR; (3) progression to end stage kidney disease defined by eGFR disease defined by commencement of renal replacement therapy. A sample size of 472 is necessary to detect a difference in cIMT of 0.026 mm (SD 0.09) at the significance criterion of 0.05 and a power of 0.80. Allowing for 20 % attrition, 592 participants are necessary at baseline, rounded to 600 for convenience. This will be the first RCT evaluating the effect of periodontal therapy on progression of CKD and cardiovascular disease among Aboriginal patients with CKD. Demonstration of a significant attenuation of CKD progression and cardiovascular disease has the potential to inform clinicians of an important, new and widely available strategy

  7. Aboriginal Homelessness: A Framework for Best Practice in the Context of Structural Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly D. Oelke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness among Indigenous peoples is an important issue in Canada and internationally. Research was conducted in seven metropolitan areas in the four western provinces of Canada to explore current services with the aim of developing a best practices framework to end homelessness for Aboriginal peoples. Sequential mixed methods were used. Key results found agreement that Aboriginal peoples were overrepresented among the homeless and policy determined the approach to and comprehensiveness of services provided. Funding, lack of time, and lack of resources were highlighted as issues. Gaps identified included a lack of partnership, cross-cultural collaboration, cultural safety, and evaluation and research in service provision. Best practices included ensuring cultural safety, fostering partnerships among agencies, implementing Aboriginal governance, ensuring adequate and sustainable funding, equitable employment of Aboriginal staff, incorporating cultural reconnection, and undertaking research and evaluation to guide policy and practices related to homelessness among Aboriginal peoples.

  8. The Elderly "New Homeless": An Emerging Population at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutza, Elizabeth A.; Keigher, Sharon M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined 125 case records from public agency and 157 case records from private agency in Chicago, Illinois. Findings suggest that elderly people, particularly elderly women, are emerging as newest group caught in widening net of homelessness. This group does not fit stereotypes attributed to homeless population; nevertheless, elderly people are at…

  9. A pilot randomized controlled trial using EEG-based brain–computer interface training for a Chinese-speaking group of healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee TS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tih-Shih Lee,1 Shin Yi Quek,1 Siau Juinn Alexa Goh,1 Rachel Phillips,2 Cuntai Guan,3 Yin Bun Cheung,4 Lei Feng,5 Chuan Chu Wang,3 Zheng Yang Chin,3 Haihong Zhang,3 Jimmy Lee,6 Tze Pin Ng,5 K Ranga Rama Krishnan1 1Department of Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore; 2Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore; 3Institute for Infocomm Research, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore; 4Centre for Quantitative Medicine, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore; 5Department of Psychological Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 6Department of General Psychiatry/Department of Research, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore Background: There is growing evidence that cognitive training (CT can improve the cognitive functioning of the elderly. CT may be influenced by cultural and linguistic factors, but research examining CT programs has mostly been conducted on Western populations. We have developed an innovative electroencephalography (EEG-based brain–computer interface (BCI CT program that has shown preliminary efficacy in improving cognition in 32 healthy English-speaking elderly adults in Singapore. In this second pilot trial, we examine the acceptability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of our BCI CT program in healthy Chinese-speaking Singaporean elderly.Methods: Thirty-nine elderly participants were randomized into intervention (n=21 and waitlist control (n=18 arms. Intervention consisted of 24 half-hour sessions with our BCI-based CT training system to be completed in 8 weeks; the control arm received the same intervention after an initial 8-week waiting period. At the end of the training, a usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered. Efficacy was measured using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS, which was translated and culturally adapted for the Chinese-speaking local population. Users were asked

  10. Elderly\\'s Leisure Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Daily hours" by the word means times. Leisure is the concept of comfort, rest, relation and free of any working situations. And technically; it consists of times and opportunity that have reminded after daily job and performance of any types of activity. Sociologists leisure has anew conceptuality in compare to do believe society in which such phenomenon can't be considered as classical unemployment, as was in the past. Methods & Materials: This research is about needs in elderlies' leisure times. This research shows that all leisure programs are sum of nearly all complete practical programs in domination of adult's leisure times. A performed with careful planning and programming and multifactorial rather than expansion of accomplishment's are beneficial is our country. We distributed special research questionnaires as accidental mode among adults, in general parks of qzvin province. We assessed archive information by use of unparametric statistics of expansion. In addition, we used piraloon coefficient of correlation too. Results: According to achieve result of research among elderlies' leisure programs which consist of" film showing", sport and art programs which have allocated extended portion for their own. Elderlies' views about sport were very positive. Exercise of sport has been considered as effective to their heath and their soul and society cultural promotions. Conclusion: All keeping centers of elderlies have t.v, radio and other facilities for showing video-films which consist of sports, also complete installation of sports, arts used as human drives, were very useful in optimizing elderlies' leisure times objectives.

  11. Design of environmental education module towards the needs of aboriginal community learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasman, Siti Mariam; Yasin, Ruhizan Mohammad

    2017-05-01

    Non-formal education (NFE) refers to a program that is designed for personal and social education for learners to improve the level of skills and competencies outside formal educational curriculum. Issues related to geography and environment of different Aboriginal communities with other communities play an important role in determining the types and methods that should be made available to the minority community groups. Thus, this concept paper is intended to cater for educational environment through the design and development of learning modules based on non-formal education to the learning of Aboriginal community. Methods and techniques in the design and construction of the modules is based on the Design and Development Research (DDR) that was based on instructional design model of Morrison, Kemp and Ross which is more flexible and prioritizes the needs and characteristics of learners who were involved in the learning modules of the future. The discussion is related to the module development which is suitable to the learning needs of the community and there are several recommendations which may be applied in the implementation of this approach. In conclusion, the community of Orang Asli should be offered the same education as other communities but it is important to distinguish acceptance of learning techniques or approaches used in the education system to meet their standards. The implications of this concept paper is to meet the educational needs of the environment which includes a few aspects of science and some learning activities using effective approaches such as playing and building their own knowledge of meaning.

  12. Genetic analysis in a variant of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in an inbred aboriginal community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, C.R.; Nylen, E.G.; Halliday, W. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable inheritance patterns, age-of-onset, rates of progression and patterns of muscle involvement. To date, 4 different chromosomal assignments have been described; LGMD1 to chromosome 5q, LGMD2 to chromosome 15q, SCARMD to chromosome 13q and a fourth locus on chromosome 2p. Because of this genetic heterogeneity, only large unambiguous multiplex families which are clearly linked to a particular locus can be utilized in a genetic analysis. We now report preliminary findings in a large highly inbred aboriginal kindred with 8 probands (5 females, 3 males) from 6 nuclear families with a progressive LMD. All presented in their mid- to late teens with gait disturbances. At time of presentation all except one had both proximal as well as distal muscle involvement, facial muscle sparing, CK levels 25 to 100 times normal (3762-20,400 U/l), dystrophic muscle biopsies and normal dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoprotein expression. We have studied the segregation of highly informative microsatellite markers for FBN1, D15S132 and the gene for thrombospondin on chromosome 15q and D2S134, D2S136, D2S147, and D2S166 on chromosome 2. Linkage to chromosome 15q has been excluded and two-point lod scores are not significant as yet to either confirm or exclude linkage to chromosome 2p. However, visual inspection reveals that affected individuals are not consistently homozygous for the chromosome 2p markers as would be predicted in such an inbred population. Clinically, SCARMD is unlikely and if the locus on chromosomes 2p and 5q can also be excluded, a genome-wide search using evenly spaced microsatellites will be initiated. A second geographically distinct aboriginal kindred with a similar clinical phenotype has now also been identified.

  13. [Communicative competence and physician - patient relationship in aboriginal health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniewicz, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Modern society consists of people from all walks of life. This melting pot of cultures might be considered both enriching and problematic. In order to communicate successfully, society members should acquire some social skills specific to a given community or, in other words, develop their communicative competence. The aim of this paper is to examine the way extralinguistic knowledge can influence physician - patient relationship in Aboriginal Australian communities. The paper is concerned with not only reviewing fundamental principles of ethnography and communicative competence but also identifying the main cultural differences that may affect the quality of healthcare services.

  14. A dermatoglyphic study of the Amis aboriginal population of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Fong; Zhang, HaiGuo; Shen, Chien-Fu; Lai, Chun-Hung

    2008-01-01

    Amis is the largest aboriginal population in Taiwan. The previous dermatoglyphic studies of the Amis only reported limited data. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 200 Amis individuals, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count, a-b ridge count, atd angle, axial triradius percent distance, and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, palmar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of Amis since 1960s, and its dermatoglyphic data will be useful for future research in anthropology, genetics and medicine.

  15. [Elderly women dealing with institutionalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Fábio José; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Junges, José Roque

    2008-09-01

    This study focused on institutionalization of the elderly from the perspective of gender studies. The aim was to understand the effects of institutionalization on the lives of elderly women and their strategies to deal with this situation. The study used a qualitative methodology and was conducted in a long-term care facility for the elderly, with 110 individuals from Alto Uruguai, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Data collection used discussion groups with ten elderly women participating. Content analysis was used and identified three main categories: the nursing home as a total institution, gender, and strategies to deal with institutionalization. Half of the women had chosen to live in the nursing home, while the others complained about their confinement to what they considered "a dump for old people". The gender category permeated the women's lives, which included domestic activities in the "home" in order to pass the time. Strategies to deal with institutionalization included religious rituals, handicrafts, and walks.

  16. Constructions and experiences of motherhood in the context of an early intervention for Aboriginal mothers and their children: mother and healthcare worker perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Ussher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The colonisation of Australia has been associated with traumatic consequences for Aboriginal health and wellbeing, including the breakdown of the traditional family unit and negative consequences for the mother/child relationship. Early-intervention programs have been developed to assist families to overcome disadvantage and strengthen mother/child attachment. However, there is no research examining Aboriginal women’s subjective experiences and constructions of motherhood in the context of such programs, and no research on the perceived impact of such programs, from the perspective of Aboriginal mothers and healthcare workers (HCWs, with previous research focusing on child outcomes. Method Researchers conducted participant observation of an early intervention program for Aboriginal mothers and young children over a 6 month period, one-to-one interviews and a focus group with 10 mothers, and interviews with nine HCWs, in order to examine their perspectives on motherhood and the intervention program. Results Thematic analysis identified 2 major themes under which subthemes were clustered. Constructions of motherhood: ‘The resilient mother: Coping with life trauma and social stress’ and ‘The good mother: Transformation of self through motherhood’; Perspectives on the intervention: ‘“Mothers come to life”: Transformation through therapy’; and ‘“I know I’m a good mum”: The need for connections, skills and time for self’. Conclusions The mothers constructed themselves as being resilient ‘good mothers’, whilst also acknowledging their own traumatic life experiences, predominantly valuing the peer support and time-out aspects of the program. HCWs positioned the mothers as ‘traumatised’, yet also strong, and expressed the view that in order to improve mother/child attachment a therapeutic transformation is required. These results suggest that early interventions for Aboriginal mothers should

  17. Elder abuse telephone screen reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J

    2009-01-01

    (a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.

  18. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Kathryn

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population.

  19. Design and implementation of a dental caries prevention trial in remote Canadian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rosamund; Veronneau, Jacques; Leroux, Brian

    2010-05-13

    The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. Aboriginal women were hired from the 9 communities to recruit expectant and new mothers to the trial, administer questionnaires and deliver the counseling to mothers in the test communities. The goal is for mothers to receive the intervention during pregnancy and at their child's immunization visits. Data on children's dental health status and family dental health practices will be collected when children are 30-months of age. The communities were randomly allocated to test or control group by a random "draw" over community radio. Sample size and power were determined based on an anticipated 20% reduction in caries prevalence. Randomization checks were conducted between groups. In the 5 test and 4 control communities, 272 of the original target sample size of 309 mothers have been recruited over a two-and-a-half year period. A power calculation using the actual attained sample size showed power to be 79% to detect a treatment effect. If an attrition fraction of 4% per year is maintained, power will remain at 80%. Power will still be > 90% to detect a 25% reduction in caries prevalence. The distribution of most baseline variables was similar for the two randomized groups of mothers. However, despite the random assignment of communities to treatment conditions, group differences exist for stage of pregnancy and prior tooth extractions in the family. Because of the group imbalances on certain variables, control of baseline variables will be done in the analyses of treatment effects. This paper explains the challenges of conducting randomized trials in remote settings, the importance of thorough

  20. Exploring factors impacting early childhood health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families and communities: protocol for a population-based cohort study using data linkage (the 'Defying the Odds' study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bridgette; Gubhaju, Lina; Jorm, Louisa; Preen, David; Jones, Jocelyn; Joshy, Grace; Shepherd, Carrington; McAullay, Daniel; Eades, Sandra

    2018-03-28

    Empirical evidence on family and community risk and protective factors influencing the comparatively high rates of potentially preventable hospitalisations and deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants and children is limited. As is evidence on geographical variation in these risks. The 'Defying the Odds' study aims to explore the impact of perinatal outcomes, maternal social and health outcomes and level of culturally secure service availability on the health outcomes of Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal infants and children aged 0-5 years. The study combines a retrospective cohort study that uses state-wide linked health and administrative data from 12 data sources for multiple generations within Aboriginal families in WA, with specifically collected survey data from health and social services supporting Aboriginal families in regions of WA. Data sources include perinatal/birth registration, hospital, emergency department, mental health services, drug and alcohol service use, mortality, infectious disease notifications, and child protection and family services. Multilevel regression models will be used to examine the intensity of admissions and presentations, mortality, intensity of long stays and morbidity-free survival (no admissions) for Aboriginal children born in WA in 2000-2013. Relationships between maternal (and grand-maternal) health and social factors and child health outcomes will be quantified. Community-level variation in outcomes for Aboriginal children and factors contributing to this variation will be examined, including the availability of culturally secure services. Online surveys were sent to staff members at relevant services to explore the scope, reach and cultural security of services available to support Aboriginal families across selected regions of WA. Ethics approvals have been granted for the study. Interpretation and dissemination are guided by the study team's Aboriginal leadership and reference groups. Dissemination

  1. What are the social concerns? consultation and respect for the rights of aboriginal peoples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcombe, P.

    2003-01-01

    Large scale developments, whether hydroelectric development, mining, or forestry, to name a few types, have the potential to broadly and adversely impact on Aboriginal peoples and communities. Perhaps more so than any other segment of Canadian society, Aboriginal peoples, and particularly those residing in remote communities, are heavily reliant upon healthy environments and healthy natural resources in order to preserve and maintain their lifestyles, cultures, and economies. Further, Aboriginal peoples in Canada have the unique circumstance of having Treaty and Aboriginal rights protected under the terms of Treaties, Land Claims, and/or the Constitution of Canada Act, 1982. As with other forms of large scale Development - Nuclear fuel waste storage and management projects may have the potential to adversely impact on Aboriginal peoples. The following presentation outlines some key considerations relevant to understanding the social concerns, consultation requirements, and best practices for involving Aboriginal peoples - the key ingredients to enhancing the confidence of Aboriginal Peoples in nuclear fuel waste storage and management projects. (author)

  2. Developing leaflets to give dental health advice to Aboriginal families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkhorn, Fiona; Wallace, Janet; Smith, Leanne; Blinkhorn, Anthony S

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries (decay) is a serious problem for young Aboriginal children, causing pain and stress. Treatment often involves extraction of teeth under a general anaesthetic. However, dental caries can be prevented by reducing the frequency of sugar consumption and brushing teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste. Such straightforward advice could be given to families by Aboriginal Health Workers who are trusted by their communities and have an existing advisory role. This paper reports on the development of dental health advice leaflets for use in Aboriginal communities. An Aboriginal reference panel was recruited to comment on dental health advice leaflets prepared by an Aboriginal graphic designer. The panel was asked to consider the design, cultural appropriateness and practicality of the leaflets. Comments were collected through email and face-to-face discussions, which were collated and the leaflets altered accordingly. The advice from the panel resulted in greater use of pictures. For example large green ticks and red crosses highlighted healthy and unhealthy behaviours, respectively. The tooth brushing leaflet was amended to emphasise the safe storage of toothpaste in order to keep it out of reach of young children. The panel stated that all leaflets should incorporate the Aboriginal flag, and proposed that fridge magnets might be beneficial as all family members would benefit from seeing the messages every day. The consultation process refined dental advice leaflets to reflect the views of an Aboriginal Reference Panel, in terms of design, cultural competence and practicality. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  3. Reflecting the Lives of Aboriginal Women in Canadian Public Library Collection Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests some, but not all, the core titles needed for developing a public library collection that would reflect the diversity and complexity of the lives of Aboriginal women in Canada. The titles include major authors, essential titles, journals, magazines, indexes, databases, reference books, websites, film, music, and spoken word as well as some recommended collection sources. The works reveal an emerging literature and cultural production for, by, and about Aboriginal women that steers away from pathologizing their lives as discussed in the l998 Status of Women in Canada report Aboriginal Women in Canada: Strategic Research Directions for Policy Development. Library customers who are seeking a better understanding of the lives of Aboriginal women in Canada, or Aboriginal women who are seeking materials that reflect the strengths, challenges, reality, and dreams of their lives, should be able to expect a core collection in the public libraries of the communities in which they live. This paper will outline some of the arguments for developing a core collection of work for, and about, Aboriginal women in Canada, and will suggest some criteria and selection sources critical for this collection. For this paper, Aboriginal women in Canada include women who identify themselves as First Nation, Inuit and Metis.

  4. Challenges to driver licensing participation for Aboriginal people in Australia: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Patricia; Clapham, Kathleen; Hunter, Kate; Treacy, Rebekah; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-08-31

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are overrepresented in transport-related morbidity and mortality. Low rates of licensure in Aboriginal communities and households have been identified as a contributor to high rates of unlicensed driving. There is increasing recognition that Aboriginal people experience challenges and adversity in attaining a licence. This systematic review aims to identify the barriers to licence participation among Aboriginal people in Australia. A systematic search of electronic databases and purposive sampling of grey literature was conducted, two authors independently assessed publications for eligibility for inclusion. Twelve publications were included in this review, of which there were 11 reporting primary research (qualitative and mixed methods) and a practitioner report. Barriers identified were categorised as individual and family barriers or systemic barriers relating to the justice system, graduated driver licensing (GDL) and service provision. A model is presented that depicts the barriers within a cycle of licensing adversity. There is an endemic lack of licensing access for Aboriginal people that relates to financial hardship, unmet cultural needs and an inequitable system. This review recommends targeting change at the systemic level, including a review of proof of identification and fines enforcement policy, diversionary programs and increased provision for people experiencing financial hardship. This review positions licensing within the context of barriers to social inclusion that Aboriginal people frequently encounter. Equitable access to licensing urgently requires policy reform and service provision that is inclusive, responsive to the cultural needs of Aboriginal people and accessible to regional and remote communities.

  5. The mouth as a site of structural inequalities; the experience of Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, A; Bessarab, D; Slack-Smith, L

    2016-06-01

    To address the mouth as a site of structural inequalities looking through the lens of Aboriginal Australian experience. This is a critical review of published literature relevant to our objective. Criteria for selection included articles on: the social context of oral and general health inequalities for Aboriginal Australians; Aboriginal perceptions and meanings of the mouth and experiences of oral health care and the role of the current political-economic climate in promoting or compromising oral health for Aboriginal Australians. Evidence suggests oral health is important for Aboriginal Australians yet constrained by challenges beyond their control as individuals, including accessing dental services. Competing demands on limited budgets often led to oral health dropping off the radar unless there was an emergency. Structural (social, political and economic) factors often inhibited Aboriginal people making optimum health choices to prevent oral disease and access services for treatment. Factors included cost of services, limited education about oral health, intense advertising of sugary drinks and discrimination from service providers. Yet the literature indicates individuals, rather than structural factors, are held responsible and blamed for the poor state of their oral health. The current neoliberal climate focuses on individual responsibility for health and wellbeing often ignoring the social context. To avoid the mouth becoming an ongoing site for structural inequality, critically reviewing oral health policies and practices for whether they promote or compromise Aboriginal Australians' oral health is a step towards accountability-related oral health outcomes.

  6. Outcomes of bariatric surgery in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, J Esteban; Wilson, Samuel E; Nguyen, Ninh T

    2006-10-01

    The Medicare Coverage Advisory Committee recently concluded that evidence supports the safety and effectiveness of bariatric surgery in the general adult population. However, more information is needed on the role of bariatric surgery in the elderly. The aim of this study was to examine the outcome of bariatric surgery in the elderly performed at academic centers. Using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision diagnosis and procedure codes, we obtained data from the University HealthSystem Consortium Clinical Data Base for all elderly (>60 years) and nonelderly (19-60 years) patients who underwent bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity between 1999 and 2005. Outcome measures, including patient characteristics, length of stay, 30-day readmission, morbidity, and observed and expected (risk-adjusted) mortality, were compared between groups. Bariatric surgery in the elderly represents 2.7 per cent (n = 1,339) of all bariatric operations being performed at academic centers. Of the 99 University HealthSystem Consortium centers performing bariatric surgery, 78 centers (79%) perform bariatric surgery in the elderly. Compared with nonelderly patients, elderly patients who underwent bariatric surgery had more comorbidities, longer lengths of stay (4.9 days vs 3.8 days, P elderly group (0.7% vs 0.3%, P = 0.03). When risk adjusted, the observed-to-expected mortality ratio for the elderly group was 0.9. In a subset of elderly patients with a pre-existing cardiac condition (n = 236), the in-hospital mortality was 4.7 per cent. Bariatric surgery in the elderly represents only a small fraction of the number of bariatric operations performed at academic centers. Although the morbidity and mortality is higher in the elderly, bariatric surgery in the elderly is considered as safe as other gastrointestinal procedures because the observed mortality is better than the expected (risk-adjusted) mortality.

  7. High allele frequency of CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910) in a Negrito's subtribe population in Malaysia; Aboriginal people of Jahai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdi, Rasmaizatul Akma; Mohd Yusoff, Narazah; Ismail, Rusli; Soo Choon, Tan; Saleem, Mohamed; Musa, Nurfadhlina; Yusoff, Surini

    2016-09-01

    CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms modulate inter-individual variations in the human body's responses to various endogenous and exogenous drug substrates. To date, little is known about the CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms among the aboriginal populations of the world, including those in Malaysia. To characterise and compare the CYP2C9 polymorphisms (CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*4 and CYP2C9*5) between one of Malaysia's aboriginal populations, Jahai, with the national major ethnic, Malay. To also compare the allele frequencies from these two populations with available data of other aboriginal populations around the world. The extracted DNA of 155 Jahais and 183 Malays was genotyped for CYP2C9 polymorphisms using a nested multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique. The results were confirmed by DNA direct sequencing. Genotyping results revealed that CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*4 and CYP2C9*5 were absent in Jahais, while only the latter two were absent in Malays. The CYP2C9*3 allelic frequency in Jahais was 36.2%, making them the most frequent carriers of the allele thus far reported in any ethnic group from Southeast Asia. The high frequency of CYP2C9*3 and the absence of CYP2C9*2 in Jahais suggest that genetic drift may be occurring in this ethnic group. This is the first study to determine the CYP2C9 polymorphisms in an aboriginal population in Malaysia.

  8. An Elderly Employment Model For The Thai Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornrat Sadangharn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at studying an elderly employment model for the Thai automotive industry. Mixed methods with a sequential exploratory strategy were utilized. Grounded theory was employed by using in-depth interviews to investigate the characteristics of elderly employment in the Thai automotive industry. For this stage of the research, theoretical and purposive sampling was used to select 32 key informants from four groups of stakeholders: (1 elderly workers, (2 employers or human resource managers, (3 government officers, and (4 academics. The findings were then validated using a quantitative approach with structural equation modelling (SEM. A total of 308 elderly workers and human resource managers were surveyed regarding their opinion about elderly employment. Based on the survey, the elderly employment model in the Thai automotive industry, which is comprised of the approach to elderly employment, elderly employment preparation, and key success factors for elderly employment, was revealed to be a good fit. 

  9. [Depression in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hideyuki

    2008-09-01

    The incidence of depression is higher than that of dementia in the elderly. Unlike depression in other age groups, that in the elderly is characterized by frequent physical complaints, irritation, and delusional tendencies. The treatment of depression in the elderly requires the complex incorporation of psychiatric and gerontological viewpoints. Psychiatrically, difficulty in accepting decreases in psychological and physical functions and solitude is important, as a psychological characteristic, inducing the development of depression. Biochemically, there is an underlying decrease in the function of brain monoaminergic nerve activated, such as by serotonin and noradrenalin. Radiologically, damage to the cerebral white matter and a decrease in the frontal lobe function have been frequently reported. Depression is difficult to differentiate from dementia and is also often complicated by dementia. Since a depressive state often precede Alzheimer's disease, evaluation of cognitive function is also necessary in patients with a depressive state. Although apathy is often observed as a symptom of dementia and tends to be confused with a depressive symptom, caution is necessary because of differences in the treatment method. Gerontologically, depression is one of geriatric syndrome and isa frequently observed in the elderly in the later stage and closely associated with a decrease in activities of daily life. Depression is also closely associated with lifestyle-related diseases, and its incidence is high in the presence of cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, and conversely, depression is often complicated by lifestyle-related disease. Anxiety and depression are frequently observed in the frail elderly, but few studies on the assessment and appropriate approach for psychological matters. Further studies are necessary. The treatment of depression in the elderly could be classified into 3 stages. In the acute stage, the

  10. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods: A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion: Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion: Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services

  11. Repositioning the Racial Gaze: Aboriginal Perspectives on Race, Race Relations and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Habibis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, public debate about recognition of the nation’s First Australians through constitutional change has highlighted the complexity and sensitivities surrounding Indigenous/state relations at even the most basic level of legal rights. But the unevenness of race relations has meant Aboriginal perspectives on race relations are not well known. This is an obstacle for reconciliation which, by definition, must be a reciprocal process. It is especially problematic in regions with substantial Aboriginal populations, where Indigenous visibility make race relations a matter of everyday experience and discussion. There has been considerable research on how settler Australians view Aboriginal people but little is known about how Aboriginal people view settler Australians or mainstream institutions. This paper presents the findings from an Australian Research Council project undertaken in partnership with Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation. Drawing on in-depth interviews with a cross-section of Darwin’s Aboriginal residents and visitors, it aims to reverse the racial gaze by investigating how respondents view settler Australian politics, values, priorities and lifestyles. Through interviews with Aboriginal people this research provides a basis for settler Australians to discover how they are viewed from an Aboriginal perspective. It repositions the normativity of settler Australian culture, a prerequisite for a truly multicultural society. Our analysis argues the narratives of the participants produce a story of Aboriginal rejection of the White Australian neo-liberal deal of individual advancement through economic pathways of employment and hyper-consumption. The findings support Honneth’s arguments about the importance of intersubjective recognition by pointing to the way misrecognition creates and reinforces social exclusion.

  12. Early mortality from external causes in Aboriginal mothers: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Fairthorne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal loss can have a deep-rooted impact on families. Whilst a disproportionate number of Aboriginal women die from potentially preventable causes, no research has investigated mortality in Aboriginal mothers. We aimed to examine the elevated mortality risk in Aboriginal mothers with a focus on external causes. Methods We linked data from four state administrative datasets to identify all women who had a child from 1983 to 2010 in Western Australia and ascertained their Aboriginality, socio-demographic details, and their dates and causes of death prior to 2011. Comparing Aboriginal mothers with other mothers, we estimated the hazard ratios (HRs for death by any external cause and each of the sub-categories of accident, suicide, and homicide, and the corresponding age of their youngest child. Results Compared to non-Aboriginal mothers and after adjustment for parity, socio-economic status and remoteness, Aboriginal mothers were more likely to die from accidents [HR = 6.43 (95 % CI: 4.9, 8.4], suicide [HR = 3.46 (95 % CI: 2.2, 5.4], homicide [HR = 17.46 (95 % CI: 10.4, 29.2] or any external cause [HR = 6.61 (95 % CI: 5.4, 8.1]. For mothers experiencing death, the median age of their youngest child was 4.8 years. Conclusion During the study period, Aboriginal mothers were much more likely to die than other mothers and they usually left more and younger children. These increased rates were only partly explained by socio-demographic circumstances. Further research is required to examine the risk factors associated with these potentially preventable deaths and to enable the development of informed health promotion to increase the life chances of Aboriginal mothers and their children.

  13. Dog and Cat Interactions in a Remote Aboriginal Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Kennedy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined dog and cat demographics, roaming behaviours, and interspecific interactions in a remote Aboriginal island community using multiple methods. Our results revealed temporal differences between the roaming behaviours of dogs, cats, and wildlife. Dogs showed crepuscular behaviour, being active around dawn (5:30 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. and dusk (6:00 p.m. and 11:35 p.m.. The majority of cats were active between dawn (6:30 a.m. and dusk (7:30 p.m. and travelled shorter distances than dogs. However, some cats were also observed roaming between dusk and dawn, and were likely to be hunting since flightless wildlife were also recorded on our remote-sensing cameras during this time. These baseline data provide evidence to suggest that new management programs are needed to reduce the number of roaming cats and therefore their potential impacts on native wildlife. Collaborations between Aboriginal owners and other stakeholders is necessary to design innovative and effective animal management and policy on the island.

  14. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes.

  15. Contribution of chronic diseases to disability in elderly people in countries with low and middle incomes: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Renata M; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jotheeswaran, A T; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Pichardo, Guillermina Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Marina Calvo; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Zuniga, Tirso; Prince, Martin

    2009-11-28

    Disability in elderly people in countries with low and middle incomes is little studied; according to Global Burden of Disease estimates, visual impairment is the leading contributor to years lived with disability in this population. We aimed to assess the contribution of physical, mental, and cognitive chronic diseases to disability, and the extent to which sociodemographic and health characteristics account for geographical variation in disability. We undertook cross-sectional surveys of residents aged older than 65 years (n=15 022) in 11 sites in seven countries with low and middle incomes (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, and Peru). Disability was assessed with the 12-item WHO disability assessment schedule 2.0. Dementia, depression, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were ascertained by clinical assessment; diabetes, stroke, and heart disease by self-reported diagnosis; and sensory, gastrointestinal, skin, limb, and arthritic disorders by self-reported impairment. Independent contributions to disability scores were assessed by zero-inflated negative binomial regression and Poisson regression to generate population-attributable prevalence fractions (PAPF). In regions other than rural India and Venezuela, dementia made the largest contribution to disability (median PAPF 25.1% [IQR 19.2-43.6]). Other substantial contributors were stroke (11.4% [1.8-21.4]), limb impairment (10.5% [5.7-33.8]), arthritis (9.9% [3.2-34.8]), depression (8.3% [0.5-23.0]), eyesight problems (6.8% [1.7-17.6]), and gastrointestinal impairments (6.5% [0.3-23.1]). Associations with chronic diseases accounted for around two-thirds of prevalent disability. When zero inflation was taken into account, between-site differences in disability scores were largely attributable to compositional differences in health and sociodemographic characteristics. On the basis of empirical research, dementia, not blindness, is overwhelmingly the most important

  16. Feasibility study of docetaxel plus bevacizumab as first line therapy for elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Thoracic Oncology Research Group (TORG) 1014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Yusuke; Hosomi, Yukio; Oshita, Fumihiro; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Seki, Nobuhiko; Minato, Koichi; Aono, Hiromi; Yamada, Kouzo; Okuma, Yusuke; Hida, Naoya; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Miura, Yosuke; Yomota, Makiko; Satoh, Akira; Kunitoh, Hideo; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Shibuya, Masahiko; Watanabe, Koshiro

    2015-01-01

    Docetaxel monotherapy is one of the standard treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer in elderly patients. The addition of bevacizumab to docetaxel seems promising; however, the feasibility of this combination has not been investigated in such patients. Patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer aged 70 years or older who had not previously received cytotoxic chemotherapy were enrolled. Patients in the Level 0 cohort received docetaxel 60 mg/m 2 and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg, whereas those in the Level-1 cohort received docetaxel 50 mg/m 2 and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg. Chemotherapy was repeated 3 weekly for six cycles. The primary endpoint was toxicity and the secondary endpoints were response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and proportion of patients who underwent three or more cycles of chemotherapy. Twenty-one patients were enrolled from December 2010 to September 2012 at six institutes. Of the nine patients enrolled in Level 0, two experienced dose-limiting toxicity (febrile neutropenia and prolonged Grade 4 neutropenia in one patient, and Grade 3 infection in another patient) during the first cycle. Enrollment to the Level 0 cohort was terminated because two patients developed Grade 4 sepsis during later cycles. The remaining 12 patients were enrolled in the Level-1 cohort, in which two dose-limiting toxicities (prolonged Grade 4 neutropenia and Grade 3 increased aminotransferase level) were observed. No patient in the Level-1 cohort experienced Grade 4 nonhematologic toxicity. Grade 4 neutropenia occurred in 89 % of Level 0 patients and 50 % of Level-1 patients. The proportion of patients who experienced Grade 3/4 infection, febrile neutropenia or sepsis was 44 % in the Level 0 cohort, and 8 % in the Level-1 cohort. The overall response rate to chemotherapy and progression-free survival were 29 % (95 % CI, 11–52 %) and 5.9 months (95 % CI, 3.6–9.1 months), respectively. Efficacy outcomes did not differ significantly between

  17. Two Principles of good elderly care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Eskelinen, Leena; Boll Hansen, Eigil

    ) which is a possibility for the elderly to choose a private provider. Stressing the self-determination of the elderly and the help provided as service is potentially at odds with one of the existing principles of elderly care, namely the professional principle of help-to-self help. It aims at activating...... the elderly person to manage as much as possible themselves and is based upon a socio-pedagogical culture, where the professional is teaching elderly people about the proper behavior. It’s based upon a formal knowledge of aging and upon different techniques to motivate and involve the elderly....... These are clearly different logics. However, no research has so far studied how these concepts are translated from a national to the municipal level to groups of home helpers and to individual home helpers. And how are these principles played out in different contexts of private firms and public providers...

  18. Socio-economic impacts between the nuclear industry and Aboriginal people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The paper explores several aspects of the socio-economic impact of the nuclear industry on Aboriginal people in northern Canada. The issues discussed include decision-making by consensus, community-based development, the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems (TEKMS), relationships with land and nature, and social and health issues. The issues are discussed with respect to the divergence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures, which affect the timelines for project viability as well as the continued harmony between industry and community. It is concluded that economic gains can be achieved through continuous community dialogue from the moment of project inception. (author)

  19. Variability of micronutrient content in enriched dairy and fruit products. Executive Group for Development of Nutrient Dense Foods for Frail Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N; Adam, S G; de Groot, L C; de Graaf, C

    2000-07-01

    Accurate measures of micronutrient levels in newly developed enriched foods are indispensable for valid labelling, for determination of ultimate levels for possible claimed health effects and for safety. To date, only a limited amount of public literature is available on the reproducibility of laboratory analysis and on the similarity within novel fortified or enriched foods. Within the framework of an intervention trial in frail elderly, the micronutrient content of eight different types of enriched foods were repeatedly examined. The variance in concentrations of the vitamins B1, B2, B6, folic acid, B12, C, D, and E was studied, in addition to levels of the minerals zinc, iodine, calcium, iron and magnesium. Four main factors, possibly contributing to the variability of these micronutrient levels, were investigated: (1) type of product, (2) type of laboratory (between-laboratory) reproducibility), (3) time of the year (month) in which analyses were carried out (May-October) and (4) freshness of the product. The type of product and laboratory emerged as factors contributing mostly to the total variability in concentrations of vitamins (on average approximately 50% explained). However, none of the products consistently contained higher or lower levels compared to the other products and most target levels were met except for vitamin B2 in both dairy and fruit products and for folic acid and vitamin C in some fruit products. Differences between products were regarded as acceptable. Extensive evaluation of multiple lab results should be emphasised within the manufacturing process of enriched foods.

  20. Perspectives on elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores perceptions and views of different groups involved in elder abuse. First chapter provides a general introduction to the topic and current study. In the second chapter of this thesis, definitions of elder abuse and their developments are reviewed. Chapter three explores different

  1. Addressing HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal People using a Health Status, Health Determinants and Health Care Framework: A Literature Review and Conceptual Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowgesic, Earl

    2010-12-01

    (1) To describe the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among Aboriginal populations using a mixed methods approach (i.e. quantitative and qualitative methods); (2) to examine the individual-level and community-level relationships between HIV/AIDS, health determinants, and health care (e.g. diagnosis, access to treatment and health services planning); and (3) to explore innovative solutions to address HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal populations based upon research and infrastructure (e.g. partnerships, data sources and management, health indicators and culture) and policy (i.e. self-determination of Aboriginal Peoples). Literature review and conceptual analysis using a health status, health determinants and health care framework. In comparison to non-Aboriginal persons, HIV infection is higher among Aboriginal persons, is more directly attributable to unique risk factors and socio-demographic characteristics, and yields more adverse health outcomes. Culture, poverty and self-determination are determinants of health for Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal people have inadequate primary care and, in particular, specialist care. It is necessary to include traditional Aboriginal approaches and culture when addressing Aboriginal health while understanding competing paradigms between modern medicine and Aboriginal traditions. There is a need for self-determination of Aboriginal Peoples in order to improve the health of Aboriginal communities and those living with HIV/AIDS. Research and policy affecting Aboriginal people should be of the highest quality and based upon Aboriginal community relevance and involvement.

  2. 'Work it out': evaluation of a chronic condition self-management program for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, with or at risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kyly; Gatton, Michelle L; Mahoney, Ray; Nelson, Alison

    2017-09-26

    Chronic diseases disproportionately burden Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, with cardiovascular (CV) diseases being the greatest contributor. To improve quality of life and life expectancy for people living with CV disease, secondary prevention strategies such as rehabilitation and self-management programs are critical. However, there is no published evidence examining the effect of chronic condition self-management (CCSM) group programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who have, or are at risk of, CV disease specifically. This study evaluates the Work It Out program for its effect on clinical outcome measures in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participants with or at risk of CV disease. This study was underpinned by a conceptual framework based on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community control. Participants had at least one diagnosed CV disease, or at least one CV disease risk factor. Short-term changes in clinical outcome measures over (approximately) 12 weeks were evaluated with a quasi-experimental, pre-post test design, using paired t-tests. Factors contributing to positive changes were tested using general linear models. The outcome measures included blood pressure (mmHg), weight (kg), body mass index (kg/m 2 ), waist and hip circumference (cm), waist to hip ratio (waist cm/hip cm) and six minute walk test (6MWT). Changes in several clinical outcome measures were detected, either within the entire group (n = 85) or within specific participant sub-groups. Participant's 6MWT distance improved by an average 0.053 km (95% CI: 0.01-0.07 km). The change in distance travelled was influenced by number of social and emotional wellbeing conditions participants presented with. The weight of participants classified with extreme obesity decreased on average by 1.6 kg (95% CI: 0.1-3.0 kg). Participants with high baseline systolic blood pressure demonstrated a mean decrease of 11 mmHg (95% CI: 3.2-18.8

  3. Safe care spaces and places: exploring urban Aboriginal families' access to preventive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herk, Kimberley A; Smith, Dawn; Tedford Gold, Sara

    2012-05-01

    Many Aboriginal children living in Canadian cities experience high levels of perinatal and infant health challenges. Despite efforts to reduce inequities in early childhood development, numerous urban Aboriginal families have poor access to preventive care. In this paper, we challenge conventional notions of access and use a postcolonial population health perspective to explain how access to preventive care for Aboriginal families is influenced by safety and responsiveness within care experiences. We explore an approach to care that addresses the safety of care spaces and care places. The potential of this approach for improving access to preventive services for Aboriginal families may be of considerable interest to urban preventive health policy or health system managers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today.

  5. The "fire stick farming" hypothesis: Australian Aboriginal foraging strategies, biodiversity, and anthropogenic fire mosaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliege Bird, R; Bird, D W; Codding, B F; Parker, C H; Jones, J H

    2008-09-30

    Aboriginal burning in Australia has long been assumed to be a "resource management" strategy, but no quantitative tests of this hypothesis have ever been conducted. We combine ethnographic observations of contemporary Aboriginal hunting and burning with satellite image analysis of anthropogenic and natural landscape structure to demonstrate the processes through which Aboriginal burning shapes arid-zone vegetational diversity. Anthropogenic landscapes contain a greater diversity of successional stages than landscapes under a lightning fire regime, and differences are of scale, not of kind. Landscape scale is directly linked to foraging for small, burrowed prey (monitor lizards), which is a specialty of Aboriginal women. The maintenance of small-scale habitat mosaics increases small-animal hunting productivity. These results have implications for understanding the unique biodiversity of the Australian continent, through time and space. In particular, anthropogenic influences on the habitat structure of paleolandscapes are likely to be spatially localized and linked to less mobile, "broad-spectrum" foraging economies.

  6. Aboriginal self-government: rights to citizenship and access to governmental services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyon, N

    1984-01-01

    ... them. Entitlement to essential public services of reasonable quality, which inheres in Canadian citizenship, comes to aboriginal peoples by virtue of their contribution of the entire land base of Canada...

  7. Risk factors for hearing loss in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins; Marília Fontenele e Silva Câmara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment ...

  8. The duration of stage transition during pharyngeal swallowing among young-elderly, and mid-elderly individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Byeon, Haewon; Koh, Hyeung Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Understanding the normal movements of the pharyngeal stage is important in the assessment of dysphagia. This study classified an elderly population into young-elderly and mid-elderly individuals and investigated the difference in stage transition duration between the two groups to provide basic material for assessment of dysphagia in old age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 12 middle-aged individuals (40?49 years), young-elderly individuals (65?74 years), and 9...

  9. Awareness and impact of the 'Bubblewrap' advertising campaign among Aboriginal smokers in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Shepherd, Carrington C J; Pearson, Glenn; Monteiro, Heather; McAullay, Daniel; Economo, Kristina; Stewart, Susan

    2010-02-01

    Antismoking mass media campaigns have been shown to reduce smoking prevalence in the mainstream community, however there is little published research on their effect on Aboriginal Australian smokers. To evaluate the awareness and impact of a mainstream mass media advertising campaign (the 'Bubblewrap' campaign) on Aboriginal smokers in the state of Western Australia. A personal intercept survey was conducted in July 2008 across three sites (the Perth metropolitan area and the non-metropolitan towns of Kalgoorlie and Broome). An opportunity or convenience sampling strategy was used to recruit Aboriginal participants, and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 198 Aboriginal smokers to ascertain awareness of the campaign advertisements, whether they were seen as believable and relevant, and the impact the advertisements had on smoking behaviour. The majority of the participants interviewed had seen and/or heard the 'Bubblewrap' campaign advertisements, although there was considerably greater awareness of the television advertisement than the radio advertisements. Both forms of advertising were considered to be believable and relevant by the majority of Aboriginal smokers. Most of the smokers interviewed thought about cutting down and/or quitting after seeing or hearing the advertisements. Our findings suggest that mainstream antismoking mass media campaigns can positively influence the thoughts and behaviours that Aboriginal smokers have, and exhibit, towards quitting smoking. Notwithstanding this, advertisers should continue to look for better ways to incorporate Aboriginal themes in campaign messages. Future mainstream antismoking campaigns should source sufficient funds to ensure that advertising messages reach the large Aboriginal populations in regional and remote Australia.

  10. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.

  11. A framework for understanding culture and its relationship to information behaviour: Taiwanese aborigines' information behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nei-Ching Yeh

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. This article proposes a model of culture and its relationship to information behaviour based on two empirical studies of Taiwanese aborigines' information behaviour. Method. The research approach is ethnographic and the material was collected through observations, conversations, questionnaires, interviews and relevant documents. In 2003-2004, the author lived with two Taiwan aboriginal tribes, the Yami tribe and the Tsau tribe and conducted forty-two theme-based interviews. An...

  12. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    OpenAIRE

    Ewen, Shaun; Hollinsworth,David

    2016-01-01

    Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in bot...

  13. Developing research in partnership with Aboriginal communities - strategies for improving recruitment and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, K; Weatherall, L; Hollebone, K; Apen, K; McLean, M; Blackwell, C; Eades, S; Boulton, J; Lumbers, E; Smith, R

    2013-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal communities in urban, rural and remote areas are continuing to suffer high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity that will impact on the future health of the community. It has been well documented that Aboriginal women have extreme distrust of mainstream pregnancy-related health care and suggested that late entry into antenatal care is as high as 50% in the Aboriginal population. Although medical and midwifery staff have long discussed strategies to improve uptake of antenatal health care for Aboriginal women, researchers in many areas have found the recruitment of Aboriginal people into scientific studies almost impossible. This article seeks to share the strategies that have been developed over a period of time by the authors that have proved useful for recruitment and retention into research. It is anticipated that these strategies would also apply for health practitioners in maintaining their patients for clinical care management. Although each research location (regional, rural and remote) has had to spend time determining what approach is best for meeting the research outcomes, many of these suggestions become applicable to clinicians seeking to develop better connections with Aboriginal patients in their clinics. With the management of ongoing chronic health conditions for Aboriginal people a priority in 'Closing the Gap', a number of these suggestions could easily be implemented by clinicians. Remembering that each community has specific needs that must be addressed, priorities for assistance for that community will be easily identifiable after community consultation (eg transport, or ability to access medical testing). Opportunities for the use of new social media (eg Facebook) as communication tools for researchers and clinicians will have increasing applicability as further software updates are created. With open and trusting dialogues between researchers, clinicians and Aboriginal communities, we can go a long way towards

  14. Paperbark and pinard: A historical account of maternity care in one remote Australian Aboriginal town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Sarah; Belton, Suzanne; McGrath, Ann; Saggers, Sherry; Narjic, Concepta Wulili

    2015-12-01

    Maternity care in remote areas of the Australian Northern Territory is restricted to antenatal and postnatal care only, with women routinely evacuated to give birth in hospital. Using one remote Aboriginal community as a case study, our aim with this research was to document and explore the major changes to the provision of remote maternity care over the period spanning pre-European colonisation to 1996. Our research methods included historical ethnographic fieldwork (2007-2013); interviews with Aboriginal women, Aboriginal health workers, religious and non-religious non-Aboriginal health workers and past residents; and archival review of historical documents. We identified four distinct eras of maternity care. Maternity care staffed by nuns who were trained in nursing and midwifery serviced childbirth in the local community. Support for community childbirth was incrementally withdrawn over a period, until the government eventually assumed responsibility for all health care. The introduction of Western maternity care colonised Aboriginal birth practices and midwifery practice. Historical population statistics suggest that access to local Western maternity care may have contributed to a significant population increase. Despite population growth and higher demand for maternity services, local maternity services declined significantly. The rationale for removing childbirth services from the community was never explicitly addressed in any known written policy directive. Declining maternity services led to the de-skilling of many Aboriginal health workers and the significant community loss of future career pathways for Aboriginal midwives. This has contributed to the current status quo, with very few female Aboriginal health workers actively providing remote maternity care. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Racial discrimination, post-traumatic stress and prescription drug problems among Aboriginal Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald; Laing, Lory

    2015-06-24

    1) To examine associations between racial discrimination and drug problems among urban-based Aboriginal adults; and 2) to determine whether these associations are best explained by symptoms of psychological stress, distress or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data were collected through in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults (N = 372) living in a mid-sized city in western Canada in 2010. Associations were examined using bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders, with continuous prescription and illicit drug problem scores as outcomes. Mediation was examined using the cross-products of coefficients method. More than 80% of Aboriginal adults had experienced racial discrimination in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels in that period. Past-year discrimination was a risk factor for PTSD symptoms and prescription drug problems in models adjusted for confounders and other forms of psychological trauma. In mediation models, PTSD symptoms explained the association between discrimination and prescription drug problems; psychological stress and distress did not. PTSD symptoms also explained this association when the covariance between mediators was controlled. The results also indicate that participation in Aboriginal cultural traditions was associated with increased discrimination. Most efforts to address Aboriginal health inequities in Canada have focused on the role Aboriginal people play in these disparities. The current findings combine with others to call for an expanded focus. Non-Aboriginal Canadians may also play a role in the health inequities observed. The findings of this study suggest efforts to reduce discrimination experienced by Aboriginal adults in cities may reduce PTSD symptomology and prescription drug problems in these populations.

  16. Different Gene Preferences of Maple Syrup Urine Disease in the Aboriginal Tribes of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Woei Hou

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Although the Taiwanese Austronesian Aboriginal tribes are considered to share a common origin, different gene preferences of MSUD were noted. The novel DBT mutation c.650-651insT was more prevalent than the deleted 4.7-kb heterozygote in the Amis population. The reported 4.7-kb deletion indicating a possible founder mutation may be preserved in the southern and eastern, but not in northern Aboriginal tribes of Taiwan.

  17. The Aboriginal Australian Family Wellbeing Program: A Historical Analysis of the Conditions That Enabled Its Spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSpreading proven or promising Aboriginal health programs and implementing them in new settings can make cost-effective contributions to a range of Aboriginal Australian development, health and wellbeing, and educational outcomes. Studies have theorized the implementation of Aboriginal health programs but have not focused explicitly on the conditions that influenced their spread. This study examined the broader political, institutional, social and economic conditions that influenced negotiations to transfer, implement, adapt, and sustain one Aboriginal empowerment program—the Family Wellbeing (FWB program—to at least 60 geographical sites across Australia over 24 years.Materials and methodsA historical account of the spread of the FWB Program was constructed using situational analysis, a theory-methods package derived from a poststructural interpretation of grounded theory methods. Data were collected from published empirical articles, evaluation reports and project articles, and interviews with 18 key actors in the spread of FWB. Social worlds and arenas maps were used to determine the organizations and their representative agents who were involved in FWB spread and to analyze the enabling and constraining conditions.ResultsThe program was transferred through three interwoven social arenas: employment and community development; training and capacity development; and social and emotional wellbeing promotion and empowerment research. Program spread was fostered by three primary conditions: government policies and the availability and Aboriginal control of funding and support; Aboriginal leadership, associated informal networks and capability; and research evidence that built credibility for the program.Discussion and conclusionThe continued demand-driven transfer of empowerment programs requires policies that enable Aboriginal control of funding and Aboriginal leadership and networks. Flexible and sustained coordination of

  18. Elderly Turkish Migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Petersen, Signe Sofia Gronwald; Yazici, Suzan

    Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark: Health in a life course perspective Objective According to Statistics Denmark, Turkish immigrants constitute the largest immigrant group in Denmark with 1.1% of the population (60,390 people) in 2012. They account for a higher rate of chronic ailments and a hi......Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark: Health in a life course perspective Objective According to Statistics Denmark, Turkish immigrants constitute the largest immigrant group in Denmark with 1.1% of the population (60,390 people) in 2012. They account for a higher rate of chronic ailments...... elderly people by studying the every day life of elderly Turkish migrants. Methods Qualitative interviews were carried out with 12 Turkish men and 18 women aged 54-80. The interviews had a focus on their health practices and health perceptions in a life history perspective. The interviews were...... histories, we learned that the interviewees had not only encountered unskilled and physical demanding work, but many of them had experienced very bad and unhealthy living conditions during their stay in Denmark. Conclusions A life course approach to the study of Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark suggests...

  19. [What is the situation with human rights of the elderly? : UN Open-ended Working Group on Ageing - review and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Claudia

    2017-06-01

    In November 2010 the United Nations General Assembly set up a working group to strengthen the protection of human rights for older persons (UN Open-ended Working Group on Ageing) with the United Nations Resolution A/C.3/65/L.8/Rev.1. In December 2016 the members of the working group met for the seventh time and discussed how they can approach the fulfillment of the mandate. In addition to better implementation, the strengthening of rights can consist of closing existing gaps or further differentiation of the rights in order to give the member states better guidance on how to implement them. To improve the human rights of older persons a task of the members of the working group would be to examine the existing rights and, where possible, adjust them to the real needs of the group. One of the major challenges facing the working group is already apparent: who belongs to the group of older persons and how could the group be described? This article deals with the presentation of the international process, new developments at the regional level and the attitudes of the member states and the civil society. A further aim is to present the possibilities and effects of a comprehensive legally binding instrument.

  20. The economic feasibility of price discounts to improve diet in Australian Aboriginal remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Anne; Moodie, Marj L; Ferguson, Megan; Cobiac, Linda J; Liberato, Selma C; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of fiscal measures applied in remote community food stores for Aboriginal Australians. Six price discount strategies on fruit, vegetables, diet drinks and water were modelled. Baseline diet was measured as 12 months' actual food sales data in three remote Aboriginal communities. Discount-induced changes in food purchases were based on published price elasticity data while the weight of the daily diet was assumed constant. Dietary change was converted to change in sodium and energy intake, and body mass index (BMI) over a 12-month period. Improved lifetime health outcomes, modelled for the remote population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, were converted to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) saved using a proportional multistate lifetable model populated with diet-related disease risks and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander rates of disease. While dietary change was small, five of the six price discount strategies were estimated as cost-effective, below a $50,000/DALY threshold. Stakeholders are committed to finding ways to reduce important inequalities in health status between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and non-Indigenous Australians. Price discounts offer potential to improve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health. Verification of these results by trial-based research coupled with consideration of factors important to all stakeholders is needed. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. The oral health care experiences of NSW Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Megan A; Hunt, Jennifer; Walker, David; Williams, Rodger

    2015-02-01

    Aboriginal people continue to experience a disproportionately heavy burden of oral disease. A range of oral health services may be available to Aboriginal communities, including those provided by Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs). This study explored the oral health care experiences and activities of ACCHSs to inform policy and program decision making. Mixed methods, including an online survey and semi-structured interviews with senior ACCHS staff, were used. Areas of inquiry included perceived community need for oral health care, oral health care models, accessibility of other oral health services and barriers to providing oral health care. Twenty-nine NSW ACCHSs participated in the study. The activities of NSW ACCHSs in oral health care are diverse and reflect the localised approaches they take to delivering primary health care. ACCHSs commonly face barriers in delivering oral health care, as do Aboriginal communities in accessing other oral health services. NSW ACCHSs are important but under-acknowledged providers of a range of oral health services to Aboriginal communities and are well placed to provide this care as part of their comprehensive primary health care model. ACCHS roles in improving Aboriginal oral health would be strengthened by greater acknowledgement of their contributions and expertise and the development of transparent, long-term funding policies that respond to community need. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Study on alcohol dependence and factors related to erectile dysfunction among aborigines in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jian-Kang; Ma, Mi-Chia; Lin, Yen-Chin; Chiang, Han-Sun; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Relatively few studies have addressed the risk factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Taiwanese- most have described ED and medical problems in the general population. In this study, the cardiovascular risk factors of ED among aborigines in Taiwan were investigated. However, alcohol dependence (AD) was prevalent in Taiwan's aborigine population. So this study also focused on the relationship among AD, the cardiovascular risk factors and ED. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and data was obtained from a baseline survey of 192 aboriginal adults (35-75 years of age). The participants' demographic data, AD, markers of endothelial function, serum testosterone, and ED status were assessed. Ninety-four (49%) of the 192 participants had a history of alcoholism and 79 (84%) of those with alcoholism had ED. The study reported that AD and hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS), ED, abnormality of testosterone, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are highly prevalent among the aborigines. Factors that may affect ED included age, AD, central obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, MetS, and testosterone. ED is highly prevalent among aborigines with the risk factors of AD, MetS, old age, and abnormal testosterone serum level. MetS, atherosclerosis, and ED are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, an increased focus on Taiwanese aborigines with ED is necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Healthy Weights Interventions in Aboriginal Children and Youth: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Claire; Cooke, Martin; Rysdale, Lee; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal children and youth in Canada and elsewhere are at higher risk of obesity and overweight than other children. However, there has been no review of healthy weights interventions specifically aimed at Aboriginal children. A structured search for peer-reviewed articles presenting and evaluating healthy weights interventions for Aboriginal children and youth was conducted. Seventeen articles, representing seven interventions, were reviewed to identify their main characteristics, evaluation design, and evaluation outcomes. Interventions included several large community-based programs as well as several more focused programs that all targeted First Nations or American Indians, rather than Métis or Inuit. Only 1 program served an urban Aboriginal population. None of the published evaluations reported significant reductions in obesity or overweight or sustained increases in physical activity, although some evaluations presented evidence of positive effects on children's diets or on nutrition knowledge or intentions. We conclude that broader structural factors affecting the health of Aboriginal children may limit the effectiveness of these interventions, and that more evidence is required regarding interventions for Aboriginal children in various geographic and cultural contexts in Canada including Inuit and Métis communities.

  4. End-of-life issues for aboriginal patients: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Len; Minty, Alana

    2007-09-01

    To understand some of the cross-cultural issues in providing palliative care to aboriginal patients. MEDLINE (1966 to 2005), CINAHL, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and the Aboriginal Health Collection at the University of Manitoba were searched. Studies were selected based on their focus on both general cross-cultural caregiving and, in particular, end-of-life decision making and treatment. Only 39 relevant articles were found, half of which were opinion pieces by experienced nonaboriginal professionals; 14 were qualitative research projects from nursing and anthropologic perspectives. All patients are unique. Some cultural differences might arise when providing palliative care to aboriginal patients, who value individual respect along with family and community. Involvement of family and community members in decision making around end-of-life issues is common. Aboriginal cultures often have different approaches to telling bad news and maintaining hope for patients. Use of interpreters and various communication styles add to the challenge. Cultural differences exist between medical caregivers and aboriginal patients. These include different assumptions and expectations about how communication should occur, who should be involved, and the pace of decision making. Aboriginal patients might value indirect communication, use of silence, and sharing information and decision making with family and community members.

  5. Use of participatory research and photo-voice to support urban Aboriginal healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen; Burns, Cate; Liebzeit, Anna; Ryschka, Jodie; Thorpe, Sharon; Browne, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this research was to work collaboratively with an urban Aboriginal community to understand meanings of food and food insecurity and strengthen responses to this issue. The project took place at the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative in Geelong, South Eastern Australia in 2009-2010. Photo-voice research methods were used to explore meanings of food and food insecurity. This identified that food selections were influenced by family harmony, collectivism and satiation of hunger with cheap high carbohydrate and fat foods. People were also proud of their hunter-gatherer heritage and saw the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative as leaders in healthy food provision. Action research cycles were used to develop responses including plates depicting healthy food portions, social cooking opportunities, development of a cooking television series and a specialised cook-book. The partnership required researchers to listen carefully to respond to needs of the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative, and this meant adapting research plans to suit the local environment and community partner needs. There is potential for Aboriginal organisations to provide further leadership for healthy eating and food security through workplace food policies and partnerships with food security agencies. Use of Aboriginal nutrition knowledge to provide nutrition education may be useful in health promotion approaches. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Reanimating Lost Landscapes: Bringing Visualisation to Aboriginal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Public History Review volume 11, Peter Osborne called for the methodologies of environmental history to be brought more securely and more imaginatively into public history. Environmental history by its own definition, he argued, encompassed Indigenous, ethnic and Anglo-Celtic histories, and heritages natural and built, material and intangible. I believe too that we public historians need to Incorporate changing landscapes and topographies as a vital element in understanding why communities and their built heritages constantly transfigure. Sometimes a single geographic factor such as the northern Gulf Stream can go far to explain the spectacular rise of a small island like Great Britain to world power. Equally we can help to explain the precipitous decline of towns like Bourke by degradation and siltation in the Darling River. This paper uses the case study of the Narrabeen town camp to explore the potential of digital visual technologies in Aboriginal History.

  7. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  8. Urban Aboriginal Creation Stories and History: contesting the past and the present. The Eleventh Doireann MacDermott Lecture

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    Kristina Everett

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the 11th annual Doireann MacDermott public lecture presented at the Universitat de Barcelona in November, 2010. It is a critique of discourses and representations in Australian society, and indeed, embedded in all western societies (and many non-western societies I suspect which support and reinforce artificial binary oppositions which make up social structures and institutions. Binary oppositions reinforce oppositional power dynamics, making one term positive and the other negative, not recognizing categories in-between. Linguistically, for example, the terms ‘Indigenous’ and ‘non-Indigenous’ articulate a false dichotomy between people who, empirically, are not two discrete groups, but rather, multiple groups within each category which interact within and between groups in complex and fluid engagements. The discourses and representations I discuss in this paper articulate imaginary binary oppositions out of social processes and identities which are, in fact, very similar. However, because these discourses and representations are constructed by different social groups with unequal power relationships they are treated as opposites, one with a higher value than the other. In this paper I am primarily concerned with history and myth, and in two related ‘stories’, the Lachlan Macquarie story, classified as history because it is primarily written and ‘belongs’ to the dominant Australian society, and the Maria Locke story, classified as myth because it is primarily oral, and explains the emergence and characteristics of a group of Aboriginal people who claim traditional Aboriginal ownership of a large part of what is today called Sydney.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of a senior centre group programme for increasing social support and preventing depression in elderly people living at home in Norway

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    Bøen Hege

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late-life depression is a common condition and a challenging public health problem. A lack of social support is strongly associated with psychological distress. Senior centres seem to be suitable arenas for community-based health promotion interventions, although few studies have addressed this subject. The objectives were to examine the effect of a preventive senior centre group programme consisting of weekly meetings, on social support, depression and quality of life. Methods A questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 4,000 persons over 65 in Oslo, and a total of 2,387 completed questionnaires were obtained. These subjects served as a basis for recruitment of participants for a trial, with scores on HSCL-10 being used as a main inclusion criterion. A total of 138 persons were randomized into an intervention group (N = 77 and control group (N = 61. Final analyses included 92 persons. Social support (OSS-3, depression (BDI, life satisfaction and health were measured in interviews at baseline and after 12 months (at the end of the intervention programme. Perceptions of benefits from the intervention were also measured. Mean scores, SD, SE and CI were used to describe the changes in outcomes. Effect sizes were calculated based on the original scales and as Cohen’s d. Paired sample tests and ANOVA were used to test group differences. Results There was an increase in social support in both groups, but greatest in the intervention group. The level of depression increased for both groups, but more so in the control than the intervention group. There was a decrease in life satisfaction, although the decrease was largest among controls. There were almost no differences in reported health between groups. However, effect sizes were small and differences were not statistically significant. In contrast, most of the participants said the intervention meant much to them and led to increased use of the centre. Conclusions In

  10. High prevalence of HIV infection among homeless and street-involved Aboriginal youth in a Canadian setting

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    Li Kathy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal people experience a disproportionate burden of HIV infection among the adult population in Canada; however, less is known regarding the prevalence and characteristics of HIV positivity among drug-using and street-involved Aboriginal youth. We examined HIV seroprevalence and risk factors among a cohort of 529 street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. At baseline, 15 (2.8% were HIV positive, of whom 7 (46.7% were Aboriginal. Aboriginal ethnicity was a significant correlate of HIV infection (odds ratio = 2.87, 95%CI: 1.02 – 8.09. Of the HIV positive participants, 2 (28.6% Aboriginals and 6 (75.0% non-Aboriginals reported injection drug use; furthermore, hepatitis C co-infection was significantly less common among Aboriginal participants (p = 0.041. These findings suggest that factors other than injection drug use may promote HIV transmission among street-involved Aboriginal youth, and provide further evidence that culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions for HIV prevention among Aboriginal young people are urgently required.

  11. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) ... age groups wit11 less emphasis 011 the elderly. Breast cancer has, however, been found to be a serious disease in terms of incidence and mor- tality in older women.GJ .... a disease of the relatively young in our environ- men t.

  12. Report on the Elderly 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Timmermans; M.M.Y. de Klerk

    2000-01-01

    The Social and Cultural Planning Office has been asked to asked to provide information on a regular basis about a number of different population groups. This third report on the elderly looks at the following subjects: demographic trends and networks education and

  13. Zinc, copper and environmental factors in the aboriginal peoples of the North West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, D B; Smith, R M; Spargo, R M; Francis, N

    1981-10-01

    Three-hundred Aboriginal people five to 70 yr have been studied at three missions in the north west of Australia-Beagle Bay, Lombadina and One Arm Point. The prevalence of hypozincaemia and hypercupraemia (a departure of more than 2 S.D. from the expected normal) has been assessed. Plasma iron concentration was determined. Half of the individuals had hypozincaemia and for some age groups the prevalence was greater (almost 100% for 15 to 20-year-old females at Lombadina). Hypercupraemia was prevalent and ranged from 70 to 100% for most age groups. Hypoferraemia was detected frequently. By the use of anthropometric methods the children were found to be growth retarded and to have reduced weight for height. These people are known to be infected with intestinal parasites which cause bleeding into the bowel or malabsorption which can cause losses of zinc or failure of adsorption. They prefer unleavened bread which contains phytic acid which inhibits zinc absorption. The soil is zinc deficient and the climate conducive to large losses of zinc in sweat. Geophagia is practiced and pica is found to occur in children. Preliminary evidence of elevated copper status is available. We speculate that growth failure may be related to zinc deficiency or copper toxicity.

  14. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11

  15. 原住民護生在最後一哩的學習歷程 The Last-Mile Learning of Aboriginal Nursing Students

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    劉杏元 Hsing-Yuan Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 本研究目的在探討原住民護生在最後一哩的學習歷程,以北部某技術學院護理科五專原住民護生完成最後一哩「臨床護理選習課程」共48人為研究對象,以參與觀察、半結構式問卷、深度訪談與焦點團體訪談進行資料蒐集,並透過長期投入、三角檢證、同儕審視、參與者檢核、反例個案分析、厚實敘寫等方式,做為提高研究信實度的方式,最後歸納其於最後一哩之學習歷程為:一、護生與原住民身分的原罪與束縛;二、護生與新手護士間角色轉換;三、在挑戰與支持間尋找情緒的出口;四、在最後一哩中探索生涯。將可做為原住民教育及護理教育之重要參酌。 This study explored the last-mile learning process of aboriginal nursing students. The participants were 48 aboriginal students from the Department of Nursing, who hadfinished their clinical practicums. Data were collected by observation, semi-structured questionnaire survey, in-depth interviews, and focus group interviews. The strategy of data analysis was based on grounded theory. To enhance the trustworthiness of this study, trust relationship was established with the participants, and different research methodologies including triangulation, peer review, member check, negative cases analysis, and thick description were used. Our results revealed that the subjects’ last-mile learning process included: (1 seeking freedom from constraints as an aboriginal nursing student, (2 switching roles from a nursing student to a novice nurse, (3 searching for emotional outlets in face of challenges, and (4 career exploration. Findings of this study not only shed light on aboriginal students’ learning process during clinical practicums, but also serve as useful references for both aboriginal education and nursing education.

  16. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  17. [Diagnosis of gastric ulcer in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Kiyoshi; Fukuchi, Takumi; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    It is well known that gastric ulcers are most often found at anglus and upper corpus in the elderly. The number of gastric ulcer found at upper corpus hold half of all cases in the elderly patients with bleeding ulcer. Sixty percent of the elderly patients with bleeding ulcer took NSAIDs including low-dose aspirin in authors' hospital. Now it is easy to treat and cure bleeding ulcers due to development of endoscopic hemostasis and antiulcer drugs such as proton pump inhibitor(PPI). However, the elderly patients sometimes result in fatal outcome on bleeding from gastric ulcer. Therefore, it is important to prevent ulcer complications by PPI for the high-risk group such as elderly patients taking NSAIDs.

  18. Longitudinal vocabulary development in Australian urban Aboriginal children: Protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, K; Eadie, P; Descallar, J; Comino, E; Kemp, L

    2017-11-01

    Vocabulary is a key component of language that can impact on children's future literacy and communication. The gap between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children's reading and academic outcomes is well reported and similar to Indigenous/non-Indigenous gaps in other nations. Determining factors that influence vocabulary acquisition over time and may be responsive to treatment is important for improving Aboriginal children's communication and academic outcomes. To determine what factors influence Australian urban Aboriginal children's receptive vocabulary acquisition and whether any of these are risks or protective for vocabulary development. One hundred thirteen Aboriginal children in South Western Sydney from the longitudinal birth cohort Gudaga study were assessed on The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test multiple times: 3 years, just prior to school entry, at the end of the first and second years of formal schooling. Multilevel models were used to determine the effects of 13 fixed and manipulable maternal, child, and family variables drawn from previous research. Higher maternal education was found to be protective at 3 years and over time. The number of children in urban Australian Aboriginal households made an impact on vocabulary development and this varied over time. From 3 to 6 years, those with early poor non-verbal cognitive skills had vocabulary skills that remained below those with stronger non-verbal skills at 3 years. Girls exhibit an earlier advantage in vocabulary acquisition, but this difference is not sustained after 4 years of age. The risk and protective factors for vocabulary development in Australian Aboriginal children are similar to those identified in other studies with some variation related to the number of children in the home. In this limited set of predictors, maternal education, gender, non-verbal cognitive skills, and the number of children in households were all shown to impact on the acquisition of vocabulary to 3

  19. Promoting the uptake of preventative Aboriginal child health policy in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Sue; Hellwig, Leonie; Peate, Diann; Wilson, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Australian Aboriginal children are over-represented on all negative health indicators compared with non-Aboriginal children.Contributing factors to the disparity include the impact of historical events, racism and social determinants of health. Despite the benefits of child health checks, offered through the Medicare Benefit Schedule and community health services, uptake of these is low. In 2012, Western Australia Health implemented the Enhanced Aboriginal Child Health Schedule (EACHS) policy to address specific health needs of Aboriginal children. The Aboriginal Child Heath Project (the Project), was a five-year initiative funded through the Council of Australian Governments. Project staff promoted the profile of preventative child health and the uptake of the EACHS policy across the state by agencies operating in the sector. Western Australia. Reach of the implementation workshop was measured by the number of staff attending policy implementation and the total number for agencies represented. One measure of impact was the number of agencies requesting the EACHS policy who adapted or adopted it to deliver evidence based comprehensive child health programs. The Project offered policy implementation workshops to health staff delivering services to young Aboriginal children. In addition to the evidence-based policy, a suite of resources were made available to support service delivery. The EACHS is a framework used by agencies to deliver consistent care and support governance when providing child health services to Aboriginal families across Western Australia. Providing a policy that was consistent with identified service strengths allowed agencies to individually build their capacity to deliver child health checks, using existing resources, at their own pace. © 2015 Commonwealth of Australia. Australian Journal of Rural Health © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  20. Perfil dos idosos freqüentadores de grupos de convivência em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil A profile of elderly members of community groups in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Paula Lutiene de Castro e Borges

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho caracterizou os idosos freqüentadores de grupos de convivência sob os aspectos físico, social, psicológico e econômico. Realizou-se estudo descritivo transversal com 197 idosos, utilizando o Brazilian Old Age Schedule modificado, com perguntas sobre saúde física, serviços médicos, atividades da vida diária, recursos sociais, econômicos e saúde mental. A maioria dos participantes era mulher, viúva, com escolaridade primária, média de idade de 71,66 ± 6,8 anos; 51,27% consideraram sua saúde boa, 85,28% referiram pelo menos uma doença; 63,96% não relataram quedas no último ano e 56,85% relataram incontinência urinária. A maioria freqüentava os grupos de convivência de idosos há mais de cinco anos; 65,99% apresentaram renda de até um salário mínimo e 24,37% apresentaram sintomas depressivos. Houve associação da autopercepção de saúde com quedas e incontinência urinária; de quedas com problemas neurológicos, músculo-esqueléticos, digestivos e sintomas depressivos; de incontinência urinária com sintomas depressivos e atividades da vida diária e de satisfação com a família e estado civil. As alterações de saúde encontradas reforçam o perfil epidemiológico dos idosos e podem contribuir para o direcionamento de ações para a saúde coletiva dos mesmos.This study focused on elderly members of community groups, specifically their physical, social, psychological, and economic conditions. A descriptive cross-sectional study included 197 individuals, using the modified Brazilian Old Age Schedule, with questions on physical health, medical services, activities of daily living, social and economic resources, and mental health. The majority of participants were women, widows, and had primary schooling; mean age was 71.66 ± 6.8 years; 51.27% considered their health good; 85.28% reported at least one illness; 63.96% reported no falls in the previous year; 56.85% reported urinary incontinence (UI. The

  1. Spirituality in elderly people

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    Cecilia San Martín Petersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality may be understood as a group of feelings, beliefs and actions that suppose a search for the transcendent, sacred or divine. As representations about an ultimate power, they contribute to the sense and purpose in life and orient peoples behavior, relationships, and ways to feel and think about reality and about themselves. Since either in the growing old process and in the evaluation of life that occurs when approaching to death it may emerge conflicts, confusion and suffering, people beliefs about what is beyond death, or the answers to the questions about what for and why of life, become determinants in elders well-being. Furthermore, considering that life expectancy has significantly increased, and that the ways of growing old are changing as well as what being old means, and this process advantages and disadvantages or problems, in it ́s different contexts, it ́s necessary to think old age over again, as well as the policies that affect the quality of life of this group of people. Therefore, every professional who assist elderly, specially mental health professionals, must consider the spiritual referents of the individual in order to give the best assistance in whatever problems may appear in the growing old process. 

  2. The Role of Aboriginal Literacy in Improving English Literacy in Remote Aboriginal Communities: An Empirical Systems Analysis with the Interplay Wellbeing Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Byron; Quinn, Stephen J.; Abbott, Tammy; Cairney, Sheree

    2018-01-01

    Indigenous language endangerment is critical in Australia, with only 120 of 250 known languages remaining, and only 13 considered strong. A related issue is the gap in formal education outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people compared with other Australians, with the gap wider in remote regions. Little empirical research exists in…

  3. A retrospective prevalence study of malaria in an aborigine hospital in Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Nissapatorn, V; Mohamad Azlan, H; Nor Adli, A R; Shahrul Rizan, I; Anez, A; Jasmin, B

    2006-01-01

    This was a five-year retrospective study (1999-2004) on the prevalence of malaria at the Aborigine Hospital, Gombak, Malaysia. A total of 94 malaria cases was analysed. The highest case reports were for the year 2000, with 32 cases (34%), and the lowest was in 2004, with only 1 (1%). The majority of cases reported were among the Semai tribe (44%), followed by the Temiar tribe (34%) and the unspecified tribe (s) (20%). Females (53%) were more commonly affected than males (47%). The majority of cases were within the age group 1-5 years (51%). Plasmodium falciparum was the most common species reported in this study, at 57%, followed by Plasmodium vivax (38%) and 5% mixed infection of P. falciparum and P. vivax. Most patients (27%) stayed for more than one month in hospital. Most patients came from Kuala Lipis, Pahang, (78%). The most common complication was anemia (38%) followed by splenomegaly (18%); only 2% had cerebral malaria. All patients were treated with the standard anti-malarial drugs. No deaths were reported in this study.

  4. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa in an aborigine community in Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Azian, M Y; San, Y M; Gan, C C; Yusri, M Y; Nurulsyamzawaty, Y; Zuhaizam, A H; Maslawaty, M N; Norparina, I; Vythilingam, I

    2007-06-01

    The objective was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal protozoa among the aborigines and to determine the problems regarding the infection. The study was carried out in January 2006 in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia. Samples of faeces were collected from children and adults and these were fixed in PVA and trichrome staining was carried out. From the 130 individuals studied, 94 (72.3%) were positive with at least one intestinal protozoa. Nine intestinal protozoa namely Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba hartmani, Entamoeba polecki, Iodamoeba butschlii and Chilomastix mesnili were detected. The prevalent species were B. hominis (52.3%), followed by G. lamblia (29.2%), E. coli (26.2%) and E. histolytica (18.5%). The other species ranged from 1.5 to 10.8%. Among the positive samples, mixed infection with E. histolytica and G. lamblia was 3.8%, E. histolytica and B. hominis was 15.4%, G. lamblia and B. hominis was 17.7%. Triple infection of E. histolytica, G. lamblia and B. hominis was 3.1%. The infection was more prevalent in children below 10 years age group (45.4%) and lowest in the age above 60 years (3.8%). The high prevalence was attributable to poor environmental management, poor personal hygiene and lack of health education.

  5. Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples

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    Hay Phillipa J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005 and 3034 (in 2008 adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted. Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians.

  6. Aboriginal Identity in Education Settings: Privileging Our Stories as a Way of Deconstructing the Past and Re-Imagining the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Marnee; Wickes, Judi

    2017-01-01

    From Aboriginal Australian perspectives and experiences, Aunty Judi Wickes and Marnee Shay bring a cross-generational, critical race analysis of Aboriginal identities and how they are implicated in the schooling experiences of Aboriginal young people. Using autoethnography, Aunty Judi and Marnee discuss their educational experiences in the…

  7. Forest carbon trading : legal, policy, ecological and aboriginal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgie, S.

    2005-01-01

    Canada's forest ecosystems store 88 billion tonnes of carbon, with trees alone storing 13 billion tonnes, twice the global annual carbon emissions. Carbon trading could affect forest management. Certain types of forest carbon project will offer cost-effective carbon sequestration options. This paper addresses current concerns about forest carbon trading such as phony carbon gains, biodiversity impact and increased fossil fuel emissions. Statistics were presented with information on global carbon stocks. The Kyoto Protocol requires that Canada must count all changes in forest carbon stocks resulting from afforestation, reforestation or deforestation, and that Canada has the option of counting carbon stock changes from forest management. The decision must be made by 2006, and considerations are whether to present projected net source or sink, or whether to count current commercially managed areas or all timber productive areas. An outline of federal constitutional authority power regarding Kyoto was presented, including limits and risks of trade and treaty powers. The economics of forest carbon were outlined with reference to increasing forest carbon storage. A two-pronged approach was advised, with avoided logging and plantation and intensive management securing carbon and timber benefits. Examples of pre-Kyoto pilots were presented, including the SaskPower project, the Little Red River Cree project and the Labrador Innu project. The disadvantages of offset trading were presented. It was concluded that forest carbon markets are part of a larger vision for sustainable development in Canada's north, especially for aboriginal peoples, and may indicate a growing market for ecological services. Constitutional limits to federal power to regulate carbon trading are not insurmountable, but require care. Ownerships of forest carbon rights raises important policy and legal issues, including aboriginal right, efficiency and equity. An estimated cost of forest carbon projects

  8. A review of dental caries in Australian Aboriginal children: the health inequalities perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Bradley; Blinkhorn, Anthony S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) describe caries prevalence and experience among Aboriginal children; and (2) investigate the disparity in dental caries between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian children. As background, dental caries is a widespread disease within Aboriginal communities and it has a particularly severe impact on children. In recognition of the extent and severity of this disease, its impact on childhood nutrition, socialisation and schooling, the control of dental caries has been identified as a key indicator in the reduction of disadvantage among Aboriginal communities. Medline was the primary database used in the literature search. Other databases included: PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Australian National and State departments of health websites were also searched for relevant documents. Articles were included in the review if they reported information on either caries prevalence rates or experience scores or both, for Aboriginal children in Australia. Articles were excluded if the study sample was special needs children, and/or caries statistics were reported only for children over 12 years. Caries prevalence among 6-year-olds in rural non-fluoridated Western Australia in 1963 was 27%, and in 2004 was 85% among 6-year-olds in rural non-fluoridated Queensland. There was a corresponding increase in caries experience scores in this period from 2.07 in 1963 to 6.37 in 2004. National estimates for 2000-2003 reported a caries prevalence of 72% and caries experience (dmft: decayed, missing and filled primary teeth) of 3.68 for 6-year-old Aboriginal Australian children. For 12-year-olds the national estimates were a caries prevalence of 45% and experience (DMFT, Decayed, Missing and Filled Permanent Teeth) of 1.25 (SE=0.07). The magnitude of disparity (relative difference) in 6-year-old caries experience between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children was relatively consistent over the period 1983-2007, with Aboriginal children

  9. Does self-reported sleep quality predict poor cognitive performance among elderly living in elderly homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Motassem S; Hamza, Sarah A; El Akkad, Rania M; Abdel Galeel, Yamen I I

    2013-01-01

    Sleep complaints are common among elderly, especially institutionalized elderly, as they experience poorer sleep quality and higher use of sedative