WorldWideScience

Sample records for abomasum

  1. [Right displacement of the abomasum in cattle. 2. New aspects of surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümper, H

    1995-10-01

    A dilated and dorsally displaced abomasum usually performs an additional counterclockwise rotation (1989-1994: 403 of 462 cases). A report is given about a repositioning technique that enables to correct nearly all cases of this counterclockwise rotation without removal of abomasal fluid. After the reposition the congested abomasal content flows to the intestine where it is resorbed, so that cases of right displaced abomasum (RDA, n = 275) recover without any parenteral fluid therapy within 24 to 48 hours. In cases of abomasal volvulus (AV, n = 187) the blood supply of the abomasum is disturbed, and after surgery the abomasal emptying is often delayed, due to a malfunction of the pylorus. This cases must be treated intravenously with large amounts of 0.9% NaCl-solution (20 to 30 liters) to correct volume deficit and hypochloremic blood alcalosis.

  2. Cooperia pectinata and C. punctata, parasites of the abomasum of cattle in northern Cameroon (Central Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, J Y; Jacquiet, P; Cardinale, E; Ndamkou-Ndamkou, C; Diop, C; Thiam, A; Dorchies, P

    2000-02-29

    Cooperia pectinata Ransom, 1907 and C. punctata von Linstow, 1907 are common trichostrongyles of zebu cattle in Africa. Their intestinal localization within the digestive tract is considered by many authors to be exclusive. Nevertheless, some limited surveys in Malagasy, Mauritania, The Gambia and Cameroon reported the presence of both Cooperia species in the abomasum. The present survey was carried out in a slaughterhouse of northern Cameroon on 17 zebu cattle and confirms the infection of the small intestine and the abomasum by the two species within the total number of cattle examined. Abomasal infections especially with Cooperia punctata were heavier than those in the intestine. Due to the movements of herdbreeders in Central Africa, and to the preliminary results obtained in Mauritania, The Gambia, Burkina Faso and Malagasy, abomasal localization of C. pectinata and C. punctata may be encountered in very large areas of Africa, and that cooperiosis may contribute together with Haemonchus species to the digestive disorders involving the abomasum.

  3. [Right displacement of the abomasum in cattle. 1. Pathogenesis, clinical course and prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümper, H

    1995-08-01

    A report is given about 462 cases (1989-1994) of abomasal displacement (RDA, n = 275) and abomasal volvulus (AV, n = 187) in cattle. The pathogenesis and the functional disturbances of abomasal hypotony, displacement, and volvulus are described. A right and dorsally displaced abomasum easily performs an additional rotation around a vertical axis. In 99% of all cases this rotation is performed to the left (counter-clockwise, seen from rear) and the duodenum twines round the abomasal fundus, where it is compressed and trapped between the abomasum and the omasum. The intestinal passage becomes obstructed. As long as the abomasal twist does not exceed 180 degrees, functional disturbances are caused mainly by a reduced abomasal outflow, resulting in dehydration and in disturbances of blood acid-base-balance (hypochloremic alcalosis). These cases have a very good prognosis (success of treatment 91.3%), when surgery is performed immediately. When the twist of the abomasum exceeds 180 degrees (abomasal volvulus), the twine gets more contracted, strangulating the abomasal nerves and blood vessels. Serious cases like this (n = 136) were treated successfully in 64.7%. When the abomasal volvulus is complicated by an omasal (RDAO, n = 31) or an omasal and reticular involvement (RDAOR, n = 20) the success of therapy decreases to about 40%.

  4. Blood parameters in Swedish dairy herds with high or low incidence of displaced abomasum or ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengärde, Lena; Holtenius, Kjell; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni; Tråvén, Madeleine

    2011-10-01

    Sixty dairy herds were studied to investigate the association between long-term incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis and body condition score and blood profiles, including parameters estimating energy metabolism and hepatic lipidosis in the periparturient period and early lactation. Blood samples were taken around parturition and in early lactation from cows without apparent clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders. A difference in metabolism between high and low incidence herds was shown post-partum by a lower metabolic index (the revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, RQUICKI), and tendencies for higher concentrations of glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids in the high incidence herds. High incidence herds had more cows and produced on average 1400kg energy-corrected milk per cow per year more than the low incidence herds. No differences were found in parameters reflecting liver cell damage. In the first 3weeks post-partum the RQUICKI was a more sensitive marker of herds with a high incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis than any of the individual parameters, but further research is needed before practical applications of the RQUICKI can be foreseen. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Usefulness of Acidity and Temperature of the Rumen and Abomasum in Diagnosing SARA in Dairy Cows after Calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanaitis, R; Žilaitis, V; Juozaitiene, V; Stoškus, R

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the acidity and temperature of the contents of the reticulorumen and abomasum in the first 10 days after calving and to evaluate these factors as predictive traits for the diagnosis of subclinical acidosis. The acidity and temperature of the contents of the reticulorumen and abomasum were measured using specific smaXtec boluses manufactured for animal care. According to the directions of the manufacturer, the boluses were inserted into the reticulorumen of the cows researched with the help of a specific tool. The boluses were inserted into the abomasa by way of surgery, laparotomy and abomasotomy through the right flank. The readings of 7 cows were taken on a total of 10 days, twice a day (at 9 a.m. and at 9 p.m.). In total, 140 measurements were taken. The acidity of the reticulorumen is associated with the acidity of the abomasum. The acidity of the rumen increases, if the acidity of the reticulorumen increases also. A negative correlation was observed between the pH of the contents of the abomasum and this temperature. The increase in the acidity (decrease of pH) of the contents of the reticulorumen increases its temperature and also increases the temperature of the contents of the abomasum. There is a positive statistically significant dependence between the reticulorumen content temperature and the rectal temperature. Through measurement of the ruminoreticular temperature, it is possible to predict the health status of a cow's stomach in regard to acidosis.

  6. Computed tomography of the abdomen of calves during the first 105 days of life: I. Reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Schnetzler, C; Ohlerth, S; Hatz, L; Augsburger, H

    2014-05-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) images of the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum of five healthy Holstein-Friesian bull calves were compared with anatomical transverse cadaver sections of the same calves. The calves were scanned in the transverse plane from the 5th thoracic vertebra to the sacrum six times three weeks apart from birth to 105 days of age. Multiplanar reconstruction was used to create images in sagittal and dorsal planes. After subjective assessment of various anatomical structures, the rumen, omasum and abomasum as well as the ruminal strata (gas cap, fibre mat and fluid phase) were measured. After the last CT scan, all calves were euthanised, and four were kept at -18 °C in sternal position for 14 days. Transverse sections 1.0 to 1.5 cm thick were made from two calves and dorsal and sagittal sections were made from one calf each using a band saw. The CT images and anatomical slices were compared and the structures on the CT images identified. Very clear CT images were obtained from the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum and there was excellent agreement between images and anatomical slices.

  7. Genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, A; Miglior, F; Jamrozik, J; Kelton, D F; Schenkel, F S

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins. Health data recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yields were obtained from the routine milk recoding scheme. Ketosis and displaced abomasum were defined as binary traits (0 = healthy; 1 = sick) based on whether or not the cow had at least 1 case of the respective disease in the period from calving to 100 d after calving. Mean frequencies of ketosis and displaced abomasum were 4.1 and 2.7%, respectively. The following milk production traits were considered: milk yield, fat percentage (Fat%), protein percentage (Prot%), fat-to-protein (F:P) ratio, and F:P ratio >1.5. The trait F:P ratio >1.5 was scored as 1 or 0, based on whether or not the cow had an F:P ratio >1.5. For milk production traits, the first (5-30 d in milk) and the second (31-60 d in milk) test days were considered. Data were analyzed using bivariate linear animal models. Average heritabilities of 0.02 and 0.04 were obtained for ketosis and displaced abomasum, respectively. For milk production traits, the lowest heritabilities were obtained for F:P >1.5 (0.04 to 0.08), whereas the highest estimates were found for Prot% (0.27 to 0.38). Ketosis and displaced abomasum were genetically uncorrelated with milk yield in early lactation. Moderate favorable correlations were found between metabolic diseases and milk composition traits. Ketosis was significantly correlated with Fat% (0.33), F:P ratio (0.30), and F:P ratio >1.5 (0.35) at the first test day, whereas all genetic correlations with milk composition traits at the second test day were not significant and close to zero. Significant favorable genetic correlations were also found between displaced abomasum and F:P ratio (0.26), F:P ratio >1.5 (0.25) and Prot% (-0.19) at the first test

  8. Risk factors for displaced abomasum or ketosis in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengärde, L; Hultgren, J; Tråvén, M; Holtenius, K; Emanuelson, U

    2012-03-01

    Risk factors associated with high or low long-term incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis were studied in 60 Swedish dairy herds, using multivariable logistic regression modelling. Forty high-incidence herds were included as cases and 20 low-incidence herds as controls. Incidence rates were calculated based on veterinary records of clinical diagnoses. During the 3-year period preceding the herd classification, herds with a high incidence had a disease incidence of DA or clinical ketosis above the 3rd quartile in a national database for disease recordings. Control herds had no cows with DA or clinical ketosis. All herds were visited during the housing period and herdsmen were interviewed about management routines, housing, feeding, milk yield, and herd health. Target groups were heifers in late gestation, dry cows, and cows in early lactation. Univariable logistic regression was used to screen for factors associated with being a high-incidence herd. A multivariable logistic regression model was built using stepwise regression. A higher maximum daily milk yield in multiparous cows and a large herd size (p=0.054 and p=0.066, respectively) tended to be associated with being a high-incidence herd. Not cleaning the heifer feeding platform daily increased the odds of having a high-incidence herd twelvefold (pketosis in Swedish dairy herds. These results confirm the importance of housing, management and feeding in the prevention of metabolic disorders in dairy cows around parturition and in early lactation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Peripartum back fat thickness of multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with displacement of the abomasum or ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Takahiro; Matsui, Motozumi; Yamada, Kazutaka; Ishii, Mitsuo

    2012-05-01

    To establish a method to predict postpartum diseases using prepartum back fat thickness (BFT), the peripartum BFTs of 54 healthy multiparous cows before calving, which were diagnosed with postpartum displacement of the abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis or subclinical ketosis were compared with those of healthy cows from 8 weeks before the expected calving date to 8 weeks after calving. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with DA or clinical ketosis were significantly higher than those of healthy cows. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with subclinical ketosis were not significantly higher than those of the healthy cows.

  10. Direct immunization of the abomasum or rectum of goats induces local lymph node responses against Haemonchus contortus mucosal antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, Douglas P; Brown, Wendy C; Parish, Steven

    2011-04-05

    We investigated several methods to immunize the abomasum (fourth and gastric stomach) of kid goats by direct (abomasal) or distal (rectal or nasal) routes utilizing mucosal antigens isolated from the abomasal parasite, Haemonchus contortus. Direct (ultrasound guided), immunization of the abomasal mucosa together with rectal immunization established lymphocyte proliferation responses in abomasal lymph nodes (ALNs), while distal methods, alone, produced equivocal results. The differential responses (cellular and antibody) induced by alternative immunization methods demonstrated an experimental system that can facilitate advances in mucosal immunization against H. contortus and other gastrointestinal pathogens of food animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the hormones responsible for the gastrointestinal motility in cattle with displacement of the abomasum; ghrelin, motilin and gastrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, A S; Guzel, M; Askar, T K; Aytekin, I

    2013-06-15

    This study provides the evidence of increased serum gastrointestinal motility hormone concentrations including ghrelin, motilin and gastrin in cattle with displacement of abomasum (DA). In this study, 38 cows with DA (21 left DA (LDA) and 17 right DA (RDA)) and 15 healthy controls were included. All cattle with DA were at the stage of postpartum one to eight weeks, and had clinical signs including anorexia, decreased milk yield and scanty, pasty faeces. Serum ghrelin, motilin and gastrin concentrations, and leptin concentration which is a functional antagonist of ghrelin, were determined by ELISA. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), Na, K, Cl, Ca and P concentrations were measured by spectrophotometer. In serum biochemical analysis, increases were seen on the serum ALT, AST and GGT activities; however, serum Na, K, Cl and P concentrations decreased in abomasal displacement compared with the control animals. The serum ghrelin, motilin and gastrin concentrations increased in the cattle with LDA and RDA, as compared with those in the healthy controls. On the other hand, serum leptin concentration decreased in the cattle with DA compared with the controls. Increases in the serum ghrelin, motilin and gastrin concentrations might be attributed to activation of gastrointestinal motility hormones to enhance of gastric emptying in impaired gastric motility and/or outlet occlusion in displaced abomasum.

  12. Metabolic Profile and Inflammatory Responses in Dairy Cows with Left Displaced Abomasum Kept under Small-Scaled Farm Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenja Klevenhusen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Left displaced abomasum (LDA is a severe metabolic disease of cattle with a strong negative impact on production efficiency of dairy farms. Metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with this disease have been reported in earlier studies, conducted mostly in large dairy farms. This research aimed to: (1 evaluate metabolic and inflammatory responses in dairy cows affected by LDA in small-scaled dairy farms; and (2 establish an Animals 2015, 5 1022 association between lactation number and milk production with the outcome of metabolic variables. The cows with LDA had lower serum calcium (Ca, but greater concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and beta-hydroxy-butyrate (BHBA, in particular when lactation number was >2. Cows with LDA showed elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and serum amyloid A (SAA, regardless of lactation number. In addition, this study revealed strong associations between milk yield and the alteration of metabolic profile but not with inflammation in the sick cows. Results indicate metabolic alterations, liver damage, and inflammation in LDA cows kept under small-scale farm conditions. Furthermore, the data suggest exacerbation of metabolic profile and Ca metabolism but not of inflammation and liver health with increasing lactation number and milk yield in cows affected by LDA.

  13. Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Lipid Profiles in Holstein Dairy Cattle with Displaced Abomasum: Before and After Surgical Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Khalphallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the pattern of changes in clinical findings and lipid metabolism profiles in dairy cattle with displacement of the abomasum (DA from day 0 until day 30 after operation. The study was conducted on DA cattle (n= 25 belonged to dairy farms in Hokkaido area, Japan. Cows were examined and sampled at days 0 (operation, 7 and 30. They were clinically and biochemically examined to estimate BCS and many serum biochemical constituents such as lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs and aspartate amino transferase (AST. Based on blood BHBA at day 0, DA cows were classified into three categories; DA only (<1.2 mmol/l, DA with subclinical ketosis (DA SCK (1.2-2.4 mmol/l and DA with clinical ketosis (DA CK (≥2.5 mmol/l. The changes in the pattern of serum biochemical constituents throughout this study indicated recovery of diseased cows and significant effect of surgical operation. Serum biochemical constituents returned to their physiological values indicating that these cows were restoring their normal physiological status. This was reflected through a significant (P<0.05 elevation of LCAT, apoB-100, and cholesterol and a significant (P<0.05 reduction in AST, NEFAs and BHBA (Not in DA group, in all DA groups particularly at day 30 when their values compared with those at day 0. The current study also recorded no remarkable changes (P>0.05 between the diseased groups except for NEFA and BHBA (at day 0 between DA group and the other two groups at any of the three sampling days.

  14. Experimental infection of calves with Haemonchus placei or Haemonchus contortus: Assessment of clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters and histopathological characteristics of abomasums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Buzzulini, Carolina; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Salatta, Bruna; Siniscalchi, Débora; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-11-01

    The present study had the primary objective of evaluating clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters, as well as observing anatomical and histopathological characteristics of abomasums, from calves prime-infected with Haemonchus contortus or H. placei. Ten male Holstein newborns were subdivided in three groups (GI placebo; GII infected with H. contortus; GIII inoculated with H. placei). Eye mucosa staining was evaluated. Hematological and biochemical tests were performed on animals. The euthanasia of all ten experimental calves was performed on the 42nd day post-inoculation. Fragments were collected from each of all 10 abomasums for histopathological analysis. Discrete submandibular edema was diagnosed in animals from both infected groups (H. contortus or H. placei). However, there were no significant changes (P > 0.05) in the color of the ocular mucosa of calves from all three experimental groups across the entire experimental period. Hematological and biochemical changes diagnosed on animals could not be linked to infections by species of Haemonchus spp. Regarding histopathological exams, it was possible to diagnose hypertrophy, hyperplasia, binucleated cells, inflammatory infiltrate, multifocal hemorrhage and edema in abomasums from calves of both groups infected with H. placei and H. contortus. It can, thus, be concluded that not only are calves susceptible to infections by both Haemonchus species, but they can also present clinical changes and similar anatomic histopathological lesions independent of being infected by Haemonchus placei or Haemonchus contortus. These results reflect a negative effect on helminth control by mixed grazing between sheep and cattle, especially when using calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of aging on distribution of IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells in aggregated lymphoid nodules area in abomasum of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wang-Dong; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Cui-Cui; Jia, Shuai; Liu, Lei; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2017-10-06

    The aggregated lymphoid nodules area (ALNA) in the abomasum is a special organized lymphoid tissue discovered only in Bactrian camels at present. This study aimed to explore the impact of aging on distribution of IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells in ALNA in abomasum of Bactrian camels. Twenty-four Alashan Bactrian camels were divided into the following four age groups: young (1-2years), pubertal (3-5years), middle-aged (6-16years) and old (17-20years). IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells in the lamina propria of ALNA were observed and analyzed using immunohistochemical and statistical techniques. The results showed that, in ALNA, the distribution of IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells were diffuse, and only a few were in subepithelium dome (SED) and most of them in non-SED. Meanwhile, there were significantly more IgA(+) cells than IgG(+) cells in SED from the young to the middle aged group, but which reversed in old group (PIgG(+) cells populations in non-SED (PIgG(+) cells, but which were both significantly lower in old group than those in young group (PIgG(+) cells populations and impacted on the defense barriers formed by IgA and IgG, but had no impact on the scattered characteristics. In inductive sites, the aging dramatically declined their densities, and they should have close relationships with immune memory. These findings lay the foundation for further researching the mucosal immune disorder or decline caused by aging, and especially underscore the importance of researching the impact of aging on the relationship between IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells populations and the microbiota colonized in abomasum of Bactrian camels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcription Factor Binding Site Polymorphism in the Motilin Gene Associated with Left-Sided Displacement of the Abomasum in German Holstein Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mömke, Stefanie; Sickinger, Marlene; Rehage, Jürgen; Doll, Klaus; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH) cows indicated motilin (MLN) as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C) located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (ORallele = 0.64; −log10Pallele = 6.8, −log10Pgenotype = 7.0) with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C). In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holstein cattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA. PMID:22536407

  17. Transcription factor binding site polymorphism in the motilin gene associated with left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Mömke

    Full Text Available Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH cows indicated motilin (MLN as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (OR(allele = 0.64; -log(10P(allele = 6.8, -log(10P(genotype = 7.0 with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C. In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holstein cattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA.

  18. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous and abdominal fat in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Leroy, J L M R; Van Ranst, J; Vlaeminck, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) profile and assess desaturase indices of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood, as well as in the abdominal (ABD) and subcutaneous (SUBC) fat stores, in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Blood, ABD, and SUBC samples were taken from 50 Holstein cows offered for surgery to correct LDA. The FA profile of the 3 compartments was determined by gas chromatography after lipid extraction, methylation, and, in the case of blood plasma, separation of lipid classes. The most abundant FA in all 3 compartments were 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 cis-9, with a total proportion of 82.5, 68.0, and 74.1g/100 g of FA in ABD, NEFA, and SUBC, respectively. A principal component analysis was performed on the entire FA profile as well as on the Δ(9)-desaturase indices (14:1 cis-9/14:0, 16:1 cis-9/16:0, 18:1 cis-9/18:0). The principal component analysis extracted 2 principal components (PC), representing 51.6% (PC1) and 21.1% (PC2) of the total variance in FA composition of the 3 compartments. The loading plot for the regression factors revealed a strong positive correlation between PC1 with the Δ(9)-desaturase indices and the proportions of 14:1 cis-9 and 16:1 cis-9, and revealed a negative correlation with the proportion of 18:0 and saturated FA. The correlation with PC2 was positive for the proportion of unsaturated FA, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3, and negative for the proportion of 14:0, 16:0, and saturated FA. The SUBC could be distinguished from the NEFA and ABD by a positive score for PC1, whereas differentiation among the latter 2 compartments could be made by a positive (NEFA) or negative (ABD) score for PC2. The Δ(9)-desaturase indices for C14 and C16 differed between all compartments but were numerically closer for NEFA and ABD versus NEFA and SUBC. The desaturase indices of the main FA (18:1 cis-9 and 18:0) did not differ between NEFA and ABD. These results support the existence of a different FA

  19. Nitrogen balance in lambs fed low-quality brome hay and infused with differing proportions of casein in the rumen and abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, K C; Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L

    2004-02-01

    Twenty wether lambs (46 +/- 2 kg) fitted with ruminal and abomasal infusion catheters were used in a completely randomized design to determine the effects of differing proportions of ruminal and abomasal casein infusion on N balance in lambs fed low-quality brome hay (0.8% N, DM basis) for ad libitum intake. Wethers were infused with 0 (control) or 10.7 g/d of N from casein with ratios of ruminal:abomasal infusion of 100:0 (100R:0A), 67:33 (67R:33A), 33:67 (33R:67A), or 0:100% (0R:100A), respectively, over a 12-d period. Total N supply (hay N intake + N from casein infusion) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls. Urinary N excretion (g/d) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls. Urinary N excretion decreased as casein infusion was shifted from 100R:0A to 33R:67A and then slightly increased in lambs receiving 0R:100A (quadratic, P = 0.02). Total N excretion was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls and decreased linearly (P = 0.005) as casein infusion was shifted to the abomasum. Retained N (g/d, % of N intake, and % of digested N) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein than in controls. Retained N increased as infusion was shifted from 100R:0A to 33R:67A and then slightly decreased in lambs receiving 0R: 100A (quadratic, P < 0.07). Based on regression analysis, the predicted optimum proportion of casein infusion to maximize N retention was 68% into the abomasum. The regression suggests that supplementation with undegradable intake protein had an additional benefit over supplementation with ruminally degradable intake protein (100R:0A) and that changing the percentage of ruminally undegradable intake protein in supplemental protein from 33 to 100% resulted in minimal differences in N retention. Apparent N, DM, OM, and energy digestibility (% of intake) was greater (P < 0.03) in lambs infused with casein than controls but did not differ among casein

  20. Avaliação morfológica do abomaso e ceco-cólon de bovinos Morphologic evaluation of the abomasum and cecum-colon of bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Cardoso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A morfofisiologia relacionada à absorção de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV ao longo do trato gastrintestinal de ruminantes não é totalmente caracterizada. Desse modo, os objetivos deste trabalho foram mensurar a extensão da superfície de absorção e determinar o índice mitótico (IM do abomaso, do ceco e da alça proximal do cólon ascendente (APCA. Dez bovinos mestiços adultos tiveram seu estômago e intestino grosso removidos imediatamente após o abate. A área total da superfície de absorção foi mensurada por meio de digitalização e análise de imagens. Cortes histológicos foram feitos para determinação do IM. A superfície absortiva do abomaso, 0,58m², foi menor (PThe morphology and physiology related to volatile fatty acid (VFA absorption throughout the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants is not totally characterized. The purpose of this work was to measure the abomasum and cecum-colon absorptive surface extension and determine the mitotic index (MI. Ten adult crossbred bovine had their stomach and large intestine removed after slaughter. The total area of the absorptive surface was measured through image capture and analysis. Histological sections were performed to measure the MI. The abomasum absorptive surface (0.58m² was lower (P<0.01 than that of the rumen (6.53m² and omasum (2.31m². The cecum-colon absorptive surface (0.23m² corresponded to 3.5% of the rumen and 10% of the omasum. The MI observed was 0.48%; 0.14%; 0.36% and 0.41% for the regions of spiral folds, pyloric, cecum and proximal loop of ascending colon, respectively. A positive correlation between abomasum tissue mass and the abomasum absorptive surface was observed. This phenomenon has also occurred in the cecum and colon. It was possible to establish regressions to facilitate measurements of the absorptive surface of the abomasum and cecum-colon.

  1. Localization of neonatal Fc receptor for IgG in aggregated lymphoid nodules area in abomasum of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Dong Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn plays a crucial role in transporting IgG and associated antigens across polarized epithelial barriers in mucosal immunity. However, it was not clear that FcRn expression in aggregated lymphoid nodules area (ALNA in abomasum, a unique and important mucosal immune structure discovered only in Bactrian camels. In the present study, 27 Alashan Bactrian camels were divided into the following five age groups: fetus (10–13 months of gestation, young (1–2 years, pubertal (3–5 years, middle-aged (6–16 years and old (17–20 years. The FcRn expressions were observed and analyzed in detail with histology, immunohistochemistry, micro-image analysis and statistical methods. Results The results showed that the FcRn was expressed in mucosal epithelial cells of ALNA from the fetus to the old group, although the expression level rapidly declined in old group; moreover, after the ALNA maturated, the FcRn expression level in the non-follicle-associated epithelium (non-FAE was significantly higher than that in FAE (P < 0.05. In addition, the FcRn was also expressed in the vessel endothelium, smooth muscle tissue, and macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs of secondary lymphoid follicles (sLFs. Conclusions It was demonstrated that FcRn was mainly expressed in non-FAE, the effector sites, although which was expressed in FAE, the inductive sites for mucosal immunity. And it was also expressed in DCs and macrophages in sLFs of all ages of Bactrian camels. The results provided a powerful evidence that IgG (including HCAb could participate in mucosal immune response and tolerance in ALNA of Bactrian camels through FcRn transmembrane transport.

  2. Use of decision analysis to evaluate the delivery method of veterinary health care on dairy farms as measured by correction of left displaced abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsburg, Darren W; Galligan, David T; Ferguson, James D

    2011-01-01

    To use decision and sensitivity analysis to examine the delivery of health care on US dairy farms as measured by correction of left displaced abomasum (LDA). 5 journal articles evaluating outcomes from veterinarian- or herd personnel-delivered correction of LDA via laparotomy or a roll-and-toggle procedure. Economic analysis. A decision tree was constructed on the basis of published outcome data for correction of LDAs performed by veterinarians and herd personnel. Sensitivity of the model to changing input assumptions was evaluated via an indifference curve and tornado graph. Decision tree analysis revealed that correction of an LDA provided by herd personnel had an expected economic advantage of $76, compared with correction provided by a veterinarian. Sensitivity of this analysis to variations in inputs indicated that changes of 2 input levels would shift the advantage to veterinarian-provided correction: a reduction (from 0.74 to 0.62) in the probability of success for correction provided by herd personnel or an increase (from 0.78 to 0.87) in the probability of success for correction provided by a veterinarian. In this model, LDA correction by herd personnel had a significant economic advantage, compared with veterinarian-provided correction. Continued absorption of traditional veterinary tasks by unlicensed herd personnel may threaten the veterinarian-client-patient relationship (VCPR), which could have profound economic and regulatory impacts. Food animal veterinarians need to evaluate their business model to ensure they continue to provide relevant, sustainable services to their clients within the context of a valid VCPR.

  3. Effect of preoperative administration of erythromycin or flunixin meglumine on postoperative abomasal emptying rate in dairy cows undergoing surgical correction of left displacement of the abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Thomas; Tischer, Katja; Gieseler, Tobias; Fürll, Manfred; Constable, Peter D

    2008-02-01

    To determine whether preoperative administration of erythromycin or flunixin meglumine altered postoperative abomasal emptying rate, rumen contraction rate, or milk production in dairy cattle undergoing surgical correction of left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Nonrandomized, controlled clinical trial. 45 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with LDA. Cows were alternately assigned to an erythromycin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], IM), flunixin (2.2 mg/kg [1.0 mg/lb], IV), or control group (n = 15/group). Treatments were administered once 1 hour before surgical correction of LDA. D-Xylose solution (50%; 0.5 g/kg [0.23 g/lb]) was injected into the abomasal lumen during surgery, and venous blood samples were periodically obtained to determine time to maximum serum D-xylose concentration. Abomasal emptying rate was significantly faster in cows treated with erythromycin (mean +/- SD time to maximum serum D-xylose concentration, 149 +/- 48 minutes) than in control cows (277 +/- 95 minutes) but was not significantly different between cows treated with flunixin (230 +/- 49 minutes) and control cows. Cows treated with erythromycin had significantly greater milk production, relative to production before surgery, on postoperative days 1 and 2 than did control cows. Cows in the erythromycin and flunixin groups had a significantly higher rumen contraction rate on the first postoperative day than did control cows. Results suggested that preoperative administration of a single dose of erythromycin increased abomasal emptying rate, rumen contraction rate, and milk production in the immediate postoperative period in cows undergoing surgical correction of LDA.

  4. Retrospective evaluation of milk production and culling risk following either surgical, toggle-pin suture or conservative treatment of left displaced abomasum in Chilean dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, P; Romero, C; Pithua, P; Marin, M P; Pinedo, P; Duchens, M

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To describe milk yield and culling risk in cows diagnosed with left displacement of abomasum (LDA) treated either conservatively, by right flank pyloric omentopexy, or rolling and toggling, compared with normal herdmates from four Chilean dairy herds. METHODS Historical records were obtained from four commercial dairy farms located in Central Chile for cows with a history of LDA between 2010 and 2012, and healthy herdmates. Cows with LDA were categorised into three groups: cows treated with right omentopexy (ST, n=58), cows treated by toggle suturing (TT, n=15) and cows treated conservatively (CT, n=56). Control cows (n=129) were selected from unaffected cows, matched by days in milk (DIM), parity and herd with affected cows. Groups were compared for risk of culling up to 300 DIM and for milk production up to 5 months of lactation using survival and Cox proportional hazard models and mixed models for repeated measures, respectively. RESULTS Compared with cows in the Control group, the risk of being culled up to 300 DIM was 9.1 (SE 0.62) times greater in ST cows, 10.4 (SE 0.68) times greater in TT cows, and 37.3 (SE 0.61) times greater in CT cows (pcows in the Control group, mean daily milk production was 23.3 (SE 1.5) kg less in ST cows, 15.3 (SE 1.6) kg less in TT cows, and 30.1 (SE 1.3) kg less in CT cows (pCows in four dairy herds in central Chile diagnosed and treated for LDA produced significantly less milk and had a higher risk of culling than healthy herdmates. Although cows treated surgically or with toggle suture never recovered to the extent of healthy cows, they produced more milk than cows treated conservatively. However, the retrospective nature of the data, the inclusion of only four herds and the non-random allocation to treatments means that these conclusions cannot be extrapolated to the overall dairy cattle population in Chile.

  5. Genetic analysis of milk β-hydroxybutyrate and its association with fat-to-protein ratio, body condition score, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, A; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S; Moore, R K; Lefebvre, D M; Kelton, D F; Miglior, F

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in early first lactation of Canadian Holstein cows and to examine its genetic association with indicators of energy balance (fat-to-protein ratio and body condition score) and metabolic diseases (clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum). Data for milk BHBA recorded between 5 and 100 d in milk was obtained from Valacta (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada), the Canadian Dairy Herd Improvement organization responsible for Québec and Atlantic provinces. Test-day milk samples were analyzed by mid-infrared spectrometry using previously developed calibration equations for milk BHBA. Test-day records of fat-to-protein ratio were obtained from the routine milk recording scheme. Body condition score records were available from the routine type classification system. Data on clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Data were analyzed using linear animal models. Heritability estimates for milk BHBA at different stages of early lactation were between 0.14 and 0.29. Genetic correlations between milk BHBA were higher between adjacent lactation intervals and decreased as intervals were further apart. Correlations between breeding values for milk BHBA and routinely evaluated traits revealed that selection for lower milk BHBA in early lactation would lead to an improvement of several health and fertility traits, including SCS, calving to first service, number of services, first service to conception, and days open. Also, lower milk BHBA was associated with a longer herd life, better conformation, and better feet and legs. A higher genetic merit for milk yield was associated with higher milk BHBA, and, therefore, a greater susceptibility to hyperketonemia. Milk BHBA at the first test-day was moderately genetically correlated with fat-to-protein ratio (0.49), body condition score (-0.35), and

  6. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on displaced abomasum, removal from herd, and reproduction in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2012-05-01

    The purpose was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Measured outcomes were development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 d in milk (DIM), conception to first service, and time to conception within 150 DIM. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Cows with SCK were randomized to treatment group (oral PG) or untreated control group (no PG); treatment cows were orally drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L until the day they tested <1.2 mmol/L. Mixed effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess the effect of PG on DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service; a semiparametric proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the days-to-conception outcome. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible enrolled cows had at least 1 β-hydroxybutyrate test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Of these, 372 were assigned to the PG treatment group and 369 to the control group. Thirty-nine cows (5.3%) developed a DA after testing positive for SCK and 30 cows (4.0%) died or were sold within the first 30 DIM. Based on risk ratios, control cows were 1.6 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.3 to 2.0] to develop a DA and 2.1 times more likely (95% CI=1.2 to 3.6) to die or be sold than cows treated with PG. In addition, PG-treated cows were 1.3 times more likely (risk ratio 95% CI=1.1 to 1.5) to conceive at first insemination than control cows in 3 of the herds. No difference was observed in days to conception within 150 DIM between treatment groups (hazard ratio for PG cows=1.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 1.4), with a median time to

  7. Parasitological characteristics and tissue response in the abomasum of sheep infected with Haemonchus spp. Características parasitológicas e resposta tissular do abomaso em cordeiros infectados por Haemonchus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.G. Oliveira-Sequeira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A histopathological study was conducted on the abomasal mucosa of 40 Corriedale sheep exposed to natural infection with Haemonchus spp. The sheep were allowed to graze on contaminated pastures for 14 days and, after being housed for 28 days, they were slaughtered. Fecal samples were collected for fecal egg counts (FEC and abomasum samples were obtained for histopathological examination and eosinophil, mast cell and globule leucocyte counts. The number of Haemonchus spp. present in the abomasum was estimated from a 10% aliquot of its content. The number of eggs per female was estimated for 10 Haemonchus spp. females collected from each animal. The following significant correlation coefficients were obtained between the characteristics analyzed: number of Haemonchus and FEC (r = 0.86, female length and number of eggs per female (r = 0.60, female length and FEC (r = 0.53, number of eosinophils and number of Haemonchus (r = 0.48, number of eosinophils and number of globule leucocytes (r = 0.54, number of mast cells and female length (r = -0.39, and number of mast cells and number of globule leucocyte (r = 0.34. The characteristics that showed the highest correlation with animal load was FEC.Realizou-se um estudo histopatológico da mucosa do abomaso de 40 cordeiros da raça Corriedale, expostos à infecção natural por Haemonchus spp. Os cordeiros foram colocados em pastagens contaminadas por 14 dias e após 28 dias de estabulação foram necropsiados. Por ocasião da necropsia, foram colhidas amostras de fezes para a realização da contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e amostras do abomaso para exame histopatológico e contagem do número de eosinófilos, mastócitos e leucócitos globulares. O número de Haemonchus spp. presente no abomaso foi estimado a partir de uma alíquota de 10% do conteúdo. O número de ovos por fêmea foi estimado em 10 fêmeas de Haemonchus spp. colhidas de cada animal. Coeficientes de correlação significativos

  8. Hematological, biochemical and ruminant parameters for diagnosis of left displacement of the abomasum in dairy cows from Southern Brazil Indicadores hematológicos, bioquímicos e ruminais no diagnóstico do deslocamento de abomaso à esquerda em vacas leiteiras do Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cardoso de Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate hematological, biochemical and ruminant parameters for diagnosis and treatment of the left displaced abomasum (LDA in dairy cows, in the Plateau Region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ruminant fluid, blood and urine samples were collected from 20 cows suffering LDA and from 20 healthy cows (control. The cows with LDA showed lower values of daily milk production, body weight and corporal condition score. The use of pH reagent strips showed to be functional in the field, when compared to a digital pH meter. Ruminant dynamics was damaged in cows affected by LDA, as it was evidenced by the higher reduction time of methylene blue. Serum values of lactate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, urea, albumin, free fatty acids and cholesterol shows to be auxiliary tools in the LDA characterization.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar indicadores hematológicos, bioquímicos e ruminais no diagnóstico e tratamento do deslocamento de abomaso à esquerda (DAE em vacas leiteiras, na Região do Planalto do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram coletadas amostras de líquido ruminal, sangue e urina de 40 animais, dos quais 20 vacas com DAE e 20 vacas clinicamente sadias utilizadas como grupo controle. Os animais com DAE, quando comparados ao grupo controle, apresentaram diminuição da produção de leite diária, do peso corporal e do escore condição corporal. A utilização de fitas reagentes para medição do pH ruminal demonstrou-se eficaz em campo, em comparação ao potenciômetro digital. A dinâmica ruminal apresentou-se prejudicada nos animais com DAE, o que foi evidenciado pelos valores aumentados do tempo de redução de azul de metileno. Os valores séricos de lactato, beta-hidroxibutirato, uréia, albumina, ácidos graxos livres e colesterol apresentam-se como ferramentas auxiliares na caracterização da doença.

  9. Strength and keeping quality of abomasum rennet and its influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Halloumi cheese was made from cow milk using commercial rennet, and bovine and ovine rennet. But in Ethiopia commercial rennet is expensive and unavailable for smallholder dairy farmers. To solve this problem an experiment was conducted to evaluate strength, quality and suitability of locally available bovine and ...

  10. Infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle affects mucus biosynthesis in the abomasum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Manuela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mucus layer in the gastrointestinal (GI tract is considered to be the first line of defense to the external environment. Alteration in mucus components has been reported to occur during intestinal nematode infection in ruminants, but the role of mucus in response to abomasal parasites remains largely unclear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the effects of an Ostertagia ostertagi infection on the abomasal mucus biosynthesis in cattle. Increased gene expression of MUC1, MUC6 and MUC20 was observed, while MUC5AC did not change during infection. Qualitative changes of mucins, related to sugar composition, were also observed. AB-PAS and HID-AB stainings highlighted a decrease in neutral and an increase in acidic mucins, throughout the infection. Several genes involved in mucin core structure synthesis, branching and oligomerization, such as GCNT3, GCNT4, A4GNT and protein disulphide isomerases were found to be upregulated. Increase in mucin fucosylation was observed using the lectin UEA-I and through the evaluation of fucosyltransferases gene expression levels. Finally, transcription levels of 2 trefoil factors, TFF1 and TFF3, which are co-expressed with mucins in the GI tract, were also found to be significantly upregulated in infected animals. Although the alterations in mucus biosynthesis started early during infection, the biggest effects were found when adult worms were present on the surface of the abomasal mucosa and are likely caused by the alterations in mucosal cell populations, characterized by hyperplasia of mucus secreting cells.

  11. Influence of casein and glucose or starch supplementation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In one experiment the effects of casein in the abomasum was compared to isonitrogenous quantities of casein or urea in the rumen. In another two experiments the effects of casein in the rumen or abomasum were compared to isocaloric quantities of glucose or starch or to treatments where casein was partially replaced by ...

  12. The effect of some molecules and ions on gastric function in the milk-fed calf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, F. R.; Razig, S. A. D.

    1973-01-01

    1. The abomasum of the milk-fed calf has been examined using an adaptation of the Serial Test Meal method devised by Hunt & Spurrell (1951). The emptying process, acid secretion and pepsin secretion were studied. 2. Using serial test meals of simple solutions instilled into the abomasum via a cannula, our investigation leaves no doubt that the osmolarity of the abomasal contents significantly modifies the rate of abomasal emptying. 3. Hypotonic and isotonic solutions of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate increase abomasal emptying but bicarbonate is most effective. 4. Increasing the concentration of solutes in the abomasal contents slows abomasal emptying. Sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, ammonium chloride and urea do not delay abomasal emptying until hypertonic concentrations are attained. Hypotonic solutions of potassium chloride, calcium chloride, glucose, lactose, hydrochloric acid and acetic acid delay abomasal emptying. 5. The results obtained in the calf show that the abomasum is under restraint probably from duodenal receptors as is the simple stomach (Hunt & Knox, 1968) and that an osmoreceptor as postulated by Hunt (1956) is an important factor in this mechanism. 6. Acid secretion is inhibited when hypertonic solutions are instilled into the abomasum. 7. Pepsin secretion is not affected by simple solutions in the abomasum. 8. Gastric function in the milk-fed calf appears to be controlled by mechanisms essentially similar to those already demonstrated in the simple stomach. PMID:4568911

  13. Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrues, Olivier; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Pellikaan, Wilbert F; Enemark, Heidi L; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2017-02-22

    Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close to those in the diets (6.3 and 1.5% of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively); thus, CTs remained potentially largely undegraded/unabsorbed. With the thiolysis assay, CTs concentration was much higher in the abomasum (2.3% of DM; expt 1) compared with the rumen and intestines, along with higher mean size and prodelphinidins percentage, corroborating CTs efficacy reported only against Ostertagia ostertagi in the abomasum. In expt 2, the dietary levels of CTs were probably too low to demonstrate anthelmintic effects in the rumen. Overall, the level of CTs accessible to thiolysis is favored under the acidic conditions of the abomasum, which seems critical for anthelmintic activity.

  14. Abomasal foreign body and left-sided displacement in a pregnant cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, L D; Penny, C D; Scott, P R

    1991-01-01

    By percussion left displaced abomasum (LDA) was identified in a 7-month pregnant Ayrshire cow which had presented with progressive abdominal distension despite a 5-day history of inappetence. An explorative laparotomy was performed and extensive fibrinous adhesions were identified between the abomasum, diaphragm and left abdominal wall. At the centre of these adhesions a 10 cm length of wire had penetrated the abomasal wall. Haematological analysis undertaken pre-surgery revealed a marked inflammatory response and profound disturbance of serum chloride and sodium concentrations. Following surgical correction of the LDA and intensive supportive therapy the cow made an uneventful recovery.

  15. Ultrasonographic findings in a cow with abomasal lymphosarcoma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Sven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This case report describes the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in a Swiss Braunvieh cow with lymphosarcoma of the abomasum. Case Presentation The main clinical findings were vomiting in response to eating and melena. The results of serum biochemistry and rumen fluid analysis were indicative of abomasal reflux syndrome. The main ultrasonographic findings were two enlarged lymph nodes caudal to the reticulum and a severely enlarged abomasum with thickening of the abomasal wall and folds. Based on all the findings, pyloric stenosis caused by lymphosarcoma was tentatively diagnosed and later confirmed at postmortem examination. Conclusions This is an interesting case, which broadens the spectrum of abomasal reflux syndrome.

  16. Influence of casein and glucose or starch supplementation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    did not balance treat- ments effectively. This makes it difficult to distinguish whether intake and production responses were due to rumen-protected protein or to the inevitable energy ... and to the abomasum in two equal portions in 150 ml. 0,9% NaCl solution. ... contents of hay, faeces and urine were determined by macro- ...

  17. BKR.2014.003 (Sonibare) b

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... ABSTRACT: Response of goats to natural helminth infection was investigated among 277 Nigerian indigenous goats belonging to three different .... omasal and the duodenal attachments. All samples (blood, faeces and ... Examination of abomasum for Haemonchus species. For each goat sampled, the ...

  18. Pyloro-duodenal hernia with formation of enterocutaneous fistula in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A body wall hernia entrapping abomasum and concurrent duodenal fistula in a buffalo calf aged about 8 months, secondary to a dog bite was successfully treated by closure of fistulous orifice and ventro lateral herniorrhaphy. Keywords: Abomaso-epiplocele, Buffalo calf, Duodenal fistula, Herniorrhaphy.

  19. Infusion of butyrate affects plasma glucose, butyrate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate but not plasma insulin in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects on plasma metabolites and rumen measures when butyrate was infused into the rumen or abomasum of lactating cows. Jugular catheters were inserted into 5 ruminally fistulated Holstein cows (94.2 ± 26.3 days in milk [DIM]; 717 ± 45 kg body w...

  20. The interaction between Cooperia spp. and Ostertagia spp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankena, K.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the presence of interaction between Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi, nematodes which parasitize the small intestine and the abomasum of cattle, respectively, has been investigated. Interaction is of epidemiological

  1. Effects of acetic, propionic and butyric acids given intraruminally at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... gluconeogenesis (Bergman, 1990). However, the contri- bution of propionate to blood glucose via gluconeogenesis could probably be covered by the glucose infused into the abomasum. Effects of acetic, propionic and butyric acids given individually on rumen papillae size, and IGF-I, IGFBP-. 3, GH and ...

  2. Live mass, carcass and wool growth responses to supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nutrients via the abomasum, either by infusion (Williams,. Robards & Saville, 1972; Black, Robards ... infusion study using mature wethers indicated that the opti- mum protein: energy ratio for wool growth ..... growth of lambs fed a basal diet of wheat straw plus urea (standard errors of the mean in parentheses). Index values ...

  3. Abomasal secretion and motility in sheep : effect of diet and digesta components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruchem, van J.

    1977-01-01

    In sheep fitted with re-entrant cannulas in the proximal duodenum, secretory rates of acid in the abomasum increased with protein or buffering content of the rations.

    In sheep fitted with an abomasal infusion tube and with duodenal re-entrant cannulas, proteins and inorganic buffers

  4. Effect of abomasal or ruminal administration of citrus pulp and soybean oil on milk fatty acid profile and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciano Soares; Santos, Geraldo T D; Schogor, Ana Luiza B; de Marchi, Francilaine E; de Souza, Moacir R; Santos, Nadine W; Santos, Fabio S; Petit, Hélène V

    2015-08-01

    Soybean oil (SBO) is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) and rumen bypass of SBO can contribute to increase the polyunsaturated FA proportion in milk fat. Citrus pulp (CPP) is a source of antioxidants but there is little information on the effects of CP administration on milk properties. This study was performed to determine the role of rumen microorganisms in the transfer of antioxidants from CPP into milk when cows receive SBO as a source of polyunsaturated FA. Four ruminally fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: (1) SBO administered in the rumen; (2) SBO infused in the abomasum; (3) SBO + CPP administered in the rumen; and (4) SBO + CPP infused in the abomasum. Product and site of administration had no effect on yield of milk components. Concentrations of total polyphenols and flavonoids, reducing power and production of conjugated diene (CD) hydroperoxides in milk were not affected by products, but infusion in the abomasum compared with administration in the rumen increased production of CD. Milk fat FA profile was not affected by products. However, cows infused in the abomasum compared with those administered in the rumen showed lower proportions of short-chain and monounsaturated FA and higher proportions of polyunsaturated, omega 3 and omega 6 FA in milk fat, which resulted in enhanced health-promoting index of milk. Administration of SBO and CPP (0.2 + 1.0 kg/d) in the rumen or the abomasum resulted in similar milk antioxidant properties, thus suggesting that the rumen microbes have little involvement in the metabolism of antioxidants from CPP.

  5. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis and relationships with postpartum diseases in European dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, V S; Canelas-Raposo, J; Deniz, A; Heuwieser, W

    2013-05-01

    Subclinical ketosis (SCK) is defined as concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) ≥ 1.2 to 1.4 mmol/L and it is considered a gateway condition for other metabolic and infectious disorders such as metritis, mastitis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum. Reported prevalence rates range from 6.9 to 43% in the first 2 mo of lactation. However, there is a dearth of information on prevalence rates considering the diversity of European dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine prevalence of SCK, (2) identify thresholds of BHBA, and (3) study their relationships with postpartum metritis, clinical ketosis, displaced abomasum, lameness, and mastitis in European dairy farms. From May to October 2011, a convenience sample of 528 dairy herds from Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, and Turkey was studied. β-Hydroxybutyrate levels were measured in 5,884 cows with a handheld meter within 2 to 15 d in milk (DIM). On average, 11 cows were enrolled per farm and relevant information (e.g., DIM, postpartum diseases, herd size) was recorded. Using receiver operator characteristic curve analyses, blood BHBA thresholds were determined for the occurrence of metritis, mastitis, clinical ketosis, displaced abomasum, and lameness. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were built for each disease, considering cow as the experimental unit and herd as a random effect. Overall prevalence of SCK (i.e., blood BHBA ≥ 1.2 mmol/L) within 10 countries was 21.8%, ranging from 11.2 to 36.6%. Cows with SCK had 1.5, 9.5, and 5.0 times greater odds of developing metritis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum, respectively. Multivariate binary logistic regression models demonstrated that cows with blood BHBA levels of ≥ 1.4, ≥ 1.1 and ≥ 1.7 mmol/L during 2 to 15 DIM had 1.7, 10.5, and 6.9 times greater odds of developing metritis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum, respectively, compared with cows with lower

  6. Balantidiasis in the gastric lymph nodes of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia): an incidental finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ho-Seong; Shin, Sung-Shik; Park, Nam-Yong

    2006-06-01

    A 4-year-old female Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) was found dead in the Gwangju Uchi Park Zoo. The animal had previously exhibited weakness and lethargy, but no signs of diarrhea. The carcass was emaciated upon presentation. The main gross lesion was characterized by severe serous atrophy of the fat tissues of the coronary and left ventricular grooves, resulting in the transformation of the fat to a gelatinous material. The rumen was fully distended with food, while the abomasum evidenced mucosal corrugation with slight congestion. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of Balantidium coli trophozoites within the lymphatic ducts of the gastric lymph node and the abdominal submucosa. On rare occasions, these organisms may invade extra-intestinal organs, in this case the gastric lymph nodes and abomasum.

  7. Abomasal or ruminal administration of flax oil and hulls on milk production, digestibility, and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, R; Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Zeoula, L M; Santos, G T D; Petit, H V

    2010-10-01

    Four ruminally fistulated primiparous lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of the site of administration (rumen or abomasum) of flax oil and flax hulls on diet digestibility and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows. The treatments were 1) oil and hulls administered in the rumen and abomasal infusion of water (RUM/RUM), 2) oil and hulls infused in the abomasum (ABO/ABO), 3) oil administered in the rumen and hulls infused in the abomasum (RUM/ABO), and 4) oil infused in the abomasum and hulls placed in the rumen (ABO/RUM). Cows on the ABO/ABO and RUM/RUM treatments had the highest and lowest amounts of basal dry matter eaten, respectively. Higher dry matter digestibility was obtained when flax oil bypassed the rumen (ABO/ABO and ABO/RUM) compared with when flax oil was administered directly in the rumen (RUM/ABO and RUM/RUM). Apparent digestibility of ether extract was higher when flax hulls were administered in the rumen (RUM/RUM and ABO/RUM) compared with when flax hulls were infused in the abomasum (ABO/ABO and RUM/ABO). The lowest digestibility of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber was obtained when both flax products were added in the rumen, which may be attributed to the high amount of oil present in the rumen (7.8% of total dry matter input). The lowest yield of 4% fat-corrected milk was obtained for cows on the RUM/RUM treatment, probably as a result of lower dry matter intake and digestibility of fiber. Milk concentrations of protein, fat, total solids, and lactose were similar among treatments. Administration of oil and hulls in the rumen resulted in the highest concentrations of intermediate products of biohydrogenation and total trans fatty acids in milk fat compared with the other treatments. All ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in milk fat were lower than the 4 to 1 ratio recommended to improve human health. These results suggest that the presence of both flax oil and flax hulls in

  8. Prognostic value of plasma L-lactate concentration measured cow-side with a portable clinical analyzer in Holstein dairy cattle with abomasal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Monica D; Nydam, Daryl V; Perkins, Gillian A; Mitchell, Hilda M; Divers, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    L-Lactate has been used as a prognostic indicator for ill humans and animals. A portable analyzer that measures L-lactate could help veterinarians decide to proceed with correction of a displaced abomasum. The likelihood of a dairy cow with a displaced abomasum remaining in the herd can be predicted by lactate concentration and other variables. Thirty-four healthy early-lactation dairy cows, and 131 cows with abomasal displacements (DA) presented to Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Plasma L-lactate was measured using a commercial analyzer (i-STAT). A cow had a positive outcome (PO) if she remained in the herd 30 days after surgical correction of the displaced abomasum and a negative outcome (NO) if she was culled or died in that time. A multivariable model with physical examination and clinicopathologic variables for predicting NO for cows with right-sided abomasal displacements was constructed. The median plasma L-lactate was 0.54 mM/L (interquartile range, 0.42-0.74) in healthy lactating Holstein cows. In cows with right-sided displaced abomasa, median plasma L-lactate concentrations were higher in cows with NO (5.88 mM/L) versus PO (3.23 mM/L) (P = .002). In a multivariable model, which identified chloride, heart rate, and L-lactate as the best fitting variables for cows with right-sided displacements, the probability of NO increased as L-lactate increased. Plasma L-lactate concentration might be a useful predictor of productive outcomes in cows with right-sided abomasal disorders.

  9. Genomic selection for producer-recorded health event data in US dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2014-05-01

    Emphasizing increased profit through increased dairy cow production has revealed a negative relationship of production with fitness and health traits. Decreased cow health can affect herd profitability through increased rates of involuntary culling and decreased or lost milk sales. The development of genomic selection methodologies, with accompanying substantial gains in reliability for low-heritability traits, may dramatically improve the feasibility of genetic improvement of dairy cow health. Producer-recorded health information may provide a wealth of information for improvement of dairy cow health, thus improving profitability. The principal objective of this study was to use health data collected from on-farm computer systems in the United States to estimate variance components and heritability for health traits commonly experienced by dairy cows. A single-step analysis was conducted to estimate genomic variance components and heritabilities for health events, including cystic ovaries, displaced abomasum, ketosis, lameness, mastitis, metritis, and retained placenta. A blended H matrix was constructed for a threshold model with fixed effects of parity and year-season and random effects of herd-year and sire. The single-step genomic analysis produced heritability estimates that ranged from 0.02 (standard deviation = 0.005) for lameness to 0.36 (standard deviation = 0.08) for retained placenta. Significant genetic correlations were found between lameness and cystic ovaries, displaced abomasum and ketosis, displaced abomasum and metritis, and retained placenta and metritis. Sire reliabilities increased, on average, approximately 30% with the incorporation of genomic data. From the results of these analyses, it was concluded that genetic selection for health traits using producer-recorded data are feasible in the United States, and that the inclusion of genomic data substantially improves reliabilities for these traits. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  10. Contextual herd factors associated with cow culling risk in Québec dairy herds: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Denis; Delgado, Hector; Cue, Roger; Sewalem, Asheber; Wade, Kevin; Lacroix, René; Lefebvre, Daniel; Arsenault, Julie; Bouchard, Émile; Dubuc, Jocelyn

    2017-09-01

    Several health disorders, such as milk fever, displaced abomasum, and mastitis, as well as impaired reproductive performance, are known risk factors for the removal of affected cows from a dairy herd. While cow-level risk factors are well documented in the literature, herd-level associations have been less frequently investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cow- and herd-level determinants on variations in culling risk in Québec dairy herds: whether herd influences a cow's culling risk. For this, we assessed the influence of herd membership on cow culling risk according to displaced abomasum, milk fever, and retained placenta. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on data from dairy herds in the Province of Québec, Canada, by extracting health information events from the dairy herd health management software used by most Québec dairy producers and their veterinarians. Data were extracted for all lactations starting between January 1st and December 31st, 2010. Using multilevel logistic regression, we analysed a total of 10,529 cows from 201 herds that met the inclusion criteria. Milk fever and displaced abomasum were demonstrated to increase the cow culling risk. A minor general herd effect was found for the culling risk (i.e. an intra-class correlation of 1.0% and median odds ratio [MOR] of 1.20). The proportion of first lactation cows was responsible for this significant, but weak herd effect on individual cow culling risk, after taking into account the cow-level factors. On the other hand, the herd's average milk production was a protective factor. The planning and management of forthcoming replacement animals has to be taken into consideration when assessing cow culling risks and herd culling rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bochdalek Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in an Adult Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R D; Katz, M G; Fargnoli, A S; Kendle, A P; Mihalko, K L; Bridges, C R

    2016-06-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare condition. The aetiology of CDH is often unclear. In our case, a hollow mass was noted on MRI. Cardiac ejection fraction was diminished (47.0%) compared to 60.5% (average of 10 other normal animals, P hernia (Bochdalek type) was made when the sheep underwent surgery. The hernia was right-sided and contained the abomasum. Lung biopsy demonstrated incomplete development with a low number of bronchopulmonary segments and vessels. The likely cause of this hernia was genetic malformation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K

    2010-01-01

    was a randomized block design with repeated measurements. Cows were assigned to one of 2 treatments: control or infusion of 1,500 g of glucose/d into the abomasum from the day of parturition to 29 d in milk. Cows were sampled 12 ± 6 d prepartum and at 4, 15, and 29 d in milk. Concentrations of glucose......Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design...

  13. Spontaneous poisoning by Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S.C. Albuquerque

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report cases of spontaneous poisoning of cattle by Ricinus communis (castor beans in Paraíba, a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. The cases were observed in 2 herds on neighboring properties in 2013. Clinical signs developed within 6-24 h and consisted of weakness, tachycardia, dyspnea, profuse watery diarrhea, dehydration, depression, instability, cramps, permanent lateral recumbency and death within 48-72 h. Of the 60 cattle at risk, 19 were affected and 14 died. Five fully recovered after the course of 12 days. Three animals were necropsied. The main gross lesions were hemopericardium, hemothorax, pulmonary edema, petechial hemorrhages in the epicardium and endocardium, ecchymoses at the papillary muscles and suffusions on the intercostal muscles. Hemorrhages were also observed in the abdominal cavity, spleen and mucosa of the abomasum and small intestine. The rumen content was liquid with a large amount of castor bean seeds. There were circular, whitish and focally diffuse areas in the liver parenchyma. The main microscopic lesions consisted of multifocal coagulative myocardial necrosis with the presence of mononuclear cell infiltration and varying degrees of bleeding between cardiac muscle fibers. The abomasum and small intestine mucosae and submucosa had mild edema and mononuclear and polymorphonuclear inflammatory cell infiltration. The diagnosis of R. communis was based on the history of plant consumption, clinical signs, pathology of the disease and the presence of large amounts of castor bean seeds in the forestomachs.

  14. [Sanitary and technologic evaluation of the rural processing of fresh goat cheese in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, L; Sierra, C

    1988-12-01

    A sanitary and technological diagnosis of the goat cheese rural process was carried out. The purpose was to obtain more information for the planning of a program aimed to the improvement of this small agroindustry. Samples of milk, curdle, dry abomasum, rennet, water and cheese of 10% of the small industries of two rural villages in two agricultural seasons, were taken. Moreover, dilutions of the utensils and goat udders were prepared. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis of mesophilic aerobic bacteria count, most probable number of total and fecal coliforms, and detection of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase (+), Salmonella typhi and Brucella melitensis. Proximate chemical analysis and determinations of sodium chloride and titratible acidity in milk, cheese, dry abomasum and rennet, were carried out. Goat milk was also subjected to analysis of density. It was found that significant sanitary failures are present during th whole goat cheese process, although the highest bacteria contamination occurred at the milking, curdling and filling stages. These are characterized by excessive handling and absolute lack of hygiene. The pathogen B. melitensis was absent; therefore the causes of poisoning were attributed to the toxin produced by S. aureus and to the significant count of fecal coliforms found in the goat cheese. Even though the goats are fed under a poor feeding system, the milk presented a normal physical and chemical composition. Nevertheless, protein and fat matter losses occur during cheese preparation, as a result of handling practices and lack of process control.

  15. Estimating US dairy clinical disease costs with a stochastic simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Arnold, L M; Stowe, C J; Harmon, R J; Bewley, J M

    2017-02-01

    A farm-level stochastic model was used to estimate costs of 7 common clinical diseases in the United States: mastitis, lameness, metritis, retained placenta, left-displaced abomasum, ketosis, and hypocalcemia. The total disease costs were divided into 7 categories: veterinary and treatment, producer labor, milk loss, discarded milk, culling cost, extended days open, and on-farm death. A Monte Carlo simulation with 5,000 iterations was applied to the model to account for inherent system variation. Four types of market prices (milk, feed, slaughter, and replacement cow) and 3 herd-performance factors (rolling herd average, product of heat detection rate and conception rate, and age at first calving) were modeled stochastically. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to study the relationship between total disease costs and selected stochastic factors. In general, the disease costs in multiparous cows were greater than in primiparous cows. Left-displaced abomasum had the greatest estimated total costs in all parities ($432.48 in primiparous cows and $639.51 in multiparous cows). Cost category contributions varied for different diseases and parities. Milk production loss and treatment cost were the 2 greatest cost categories. The effect of market prices were consistent in all diseases and parities; higher milk and replacement prices increased total costs, whereas greater feed and slaughter prices decreased disease costs. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation and early postnatal growth in sheep differentially reset the control of energy metabolism in the gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebert, S P; Dellschaft, N S; Chan, L L Y; Street, H; Henry, M; Francois, C; Sharma, V; Fainberg, H P; Patel, N; Roda, J; Keisler, D; Budge, H; Symonds, M E

    2011-07-01

    Fetal growth restriction followed by accelerated postnatal growth contributes to impaired metabolic function in adulthood. The extent to which these outcomes may be mediated centrally within the hypothalamus, as opposed to in the periphery within the digestive tract, remains unknown. In a sheep model, we achieved intrauterine growth restriction experimentally by maternal nutrient restriction (R) that involved a 40% reduction in food intake through late gestation. R offspring were then either reared singly to accelerate postnatal growth (RA) or as twins and compared with controls also reared singly. From weaning, all offspring were maintained indoors until adulthood. A reduced litter size accelerated postnatal growth for only the first month of lactation. Independently from postnatal weight gain and later fat mass, R animals developed insulin resistance as adults. However, restricted accelerated offspring compared with both the control accelerated and restricted restricted offspring ate less and had higher fasting plasma leptin as adults, an adaptation which was accompanied by changes in energy sensing and cell proliferation within the abomasum. Additionally, although fetal restriction down-regulated gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1-dependent pathways in the abomasum, RA offspring compensated for this by exhibiting greater activity of AMP-activated kinase-dependent pathways. This study demonstrates a role for perinatal nutrition in the peripheral control of food intake and in energy sensing in the gastric mucosal and emphasizes the importance of diet in early life in regulating energy metabolism during adulthood.

  17. Responses to Starch Infusion on Milk Synthesis in Low Yield Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starch infusion on production, metabolic parameters and relative mRNA abundance was investigated in low yield lactating cows from 86 days in milk. Six Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were arranged into one of two complete 3×3 Latin squares and infused with a starch solution containing 800 grams starch for 16 days. The three treatments were: i ruminal and abomasal infusion with water (Control; ii ruminal infusion with cornstarch solution and abomasal infusion with water (Rumen; iii ruminal infusion with water and abomasal infusion with cornstarch solution (Abomasum. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 among the three treatments with low yield lactating cows in feed and energy intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolism, or even on gene expression. However, cows receiving starch through rumen performed better than directly through the abomasum during the glucose tolerance test procedure with a higher area under the curve (AUC; p = 0.08 and shorter half-time (t1/2; p = 0.11 of plasma insulin, therefore, it increased glucose disposal, which stated a lipid anabolism other than mobilization after energy supplementation. In conclusion, extra starch infusion at concentration of 800 g/d did not enhance energy supplies to the mammary gland and improve the lactating performance in low yield lactating cows.

  18. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with abomasal ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Tajik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA in water buffaloes with abomasal ulcers, the abomasums of 100 randomly selected water buffaloes were examined after slaughter. Type I abomasal ulcers were found in 56 out of 100 buffaloes. Serum concentrations of Hp and SAA were measured. There was no significant difference between affected and non-affected buffaloes in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA. The serum concentrations of Hp and SAA had no significant correlation with age and the serum SAA revealed no significant correlation with the number of abomasal ulcers. A significant correlation was found between the serum Hp and the number of abomasal ulcers (r =0.29, p = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA between buffaloes with different ulcer locations in the abomasums. Although more work on a larger number of animals is required in this area, it seems that the measurement of the serum Hp can be used to predict the abundance of type I abomasal ulcers.

  19. Utilization of digital differential display to identify differentially expressed genes related to rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Daichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Haga, Satoshi; So, KyoungHa; Yamauchi, Eri; Nakano, Miwa; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Choi, Kichoon; Katoh, Kazuo; Roh, Sang-Gun

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to identify the genes associated with the development of the rumen epithelium by screening for candidate genes by digital differential display (DDD) in silico. Using DDD in NCBI's UniGene database, expressed sequence tag (EST)-based gene expression profiles were analyzed in rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum and other tissues in cattle. One hundred and ten candidate genes with high expression in the rumen were derived from a library of all tissues. The expression levels of 11 genes in all candidate genes were analyzed in the rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum of nine Japanese Black male calves (5-week-old pre-weaning: n = 3; 15-week-old weaned calves: n = 6). Among the 11 genes, only 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2), aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1-like (AKR1C1), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) showed significant changes in the levels of gene expression in the rumen between the pre- and post-weaning of calves. These results indicate that DDD analysis in silico can be useful for screening candidate genes related to rumen development, and that the changes in expression levels of three genes in the rumen may have been caused by weaning, aging or both. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Phenotypic relationships of common health disorders in dairy cows to lactation persistency estimated from daily milk weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Cassell, B G; Dechow, C D; Cole, J B

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the phenotypic relationship between common health disorders in dairy cows and lactation persistency, uncorrelated with 305-d yield. The relationships with peak yield and days in milk (DIM) at peak were also studied. Daily milk weights and treatment incidence records of 991 Holstein lactations from experimental dairy herds at Virginia Tech and Pennsylvania State University were used. Persistency was calculated as a function of daily yield deviations from standard lactation curves, developed separately for first (FL) and later lactations (LL), and deviations of DIM around reference dates: 128 for FL and 125 for LL. Days in milk at peak and peak yield were computed for each lactation by using Wood's function. The disease traits studied were mastitis (MAST) only during the first 100 d (MAST1), only after 100 DIM (MAST2), both before and after 100 DIM (MAST12), and at any stage of lactation (MAST1/2), as well as metritis, displaced abomasums, lameness, and metabolic diseases. Each disease was defined as a binary trait, distinguishing between lactations with at least one incidence (1) and lactations with no incidences (0). The relationships of diseases to persistency, DIM at peak, and peak yield were investigated separately for FL and LL for all disease traits except MAST12, which was investigated across parities. The relationships of persistency to probability of the diseases in the same lactation and in the next lactation were examined using odds ratios from a logistic regression model. Metritis and displaced abomasums in FL and LL were associated with significantly higher persistencies. Metabolic diseases and MAST1 in LL were significantly related to higher persistencies. The relationships of MAST2 in both FL and LL, and MAST12 across parities were significant but negative. Cows affected by MAST tended to have less persistent lactations. Most of the diseases had a significant impact on DIM at peak in LL. In LL, metritis

  1. Condensed Tannin Changes along the Digestive Tract in Lambs Fed with Sainfoin Pellets or Hazelnut Skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Jessica; Drake, Christopher; Gaudin, Elodie; El-Korso, Ramzi; Hoste, Hervé; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2018-02-21

    The variable anthelmintic efficacy of condensed tannins (CT) against gastrointestinal nematodes may depend on CT concentration, composition, or fate along the digestive tract. We analyzed CT concentration and composition by acetone-HCl-butanol and thiolysis coupled to HPLC-MS in digesta and feces of lambs. Lambs had been infected with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis and received sainfoin pellets and hazelnut skins of contrasting prodelphinidin/procyanidin ratios. The digesta and feces had lower CT concentrations than the original feeds but similar concentration patterns across the digestive compartments. The changes in assayable CT concentrations between rumen, abomasum, and small intestine may be due to complex formation between CT and other dietary components. However, the large CT disappearance (61-85%) from feed to feces could also indicate that CT may have been structurally modified, degraded, or absorbed during digestion. Interestingly, there were no changes in the structural features of assayable CT in the digesta.

  2. /sup 203/Hg excretion and tissue distribution in Holstein calves following single tracer intravenous doses of methyl mercury chloride or mercuric chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stake, P.E.; Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    Eight male Holstein calves were given a single tracer intravenous dose of /sup 203/Hg as mercuric chloride or methyl mercury chloride 7 days before sacrifice. Total 7-day fecal and urinary Hg excretions were much higher from mercuric chloride dosing than from methyl mercury chloride. Retention of Hg from mercuric chloride was greater in kidney, liver, spleen, lung, testicle, rib shaft, tibia joint, tibia shaft, abomasum, small intestine, cecum, large intestine and pancreas and less in brain cerebellum and cerebrum, supraspinatus muscle and heart, and substantially lower in psoas and semitendinosus muscles. Fifteen minutes after dosing, whole blood Hg was lower from mercuric chloride followed by a similar rapid clearance for both Hg forms. Throughout the 7-day period, plasma Hg was greater from mercuric chloride. In red blood cells, Hg from methyl mercury chloride was higher during the first 2 hr after dosing, with no significant differences thereafter. 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Preliminary results on the effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed condensed tannins on in vitro intestinal digestibility of the lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) seed protein fraction in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno-Soares, A M; Soares-Pereira, A L; Matos, T J S; Ricardo-da-Silva, J M

    2011-08-01

    Condensed tannins (CT) from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) were added to complex the protein fraction of Lupinus angustifolius seeds. Three CT/protein ratios were used: 96 mg/g (T(1)), 180 mg/g (T(2)) and 0 mg/g (T(0)). The CP losses in the rumen were assessed by the nylon-bag technique and CP intestinal digestibility (CPID) was estimated using an in vitro assay applying a three-step procedure: samples were subject to rumen degradation (in situ, 16 h) and the remaining residues were subject to the digestive enzymes of the abomasum and pancreas in vitro. A positive effect (p 0.05) by the presence of CT. These findings suggest that the use of grape seed CT might have the potential to improve the efficiency of utilisation of the protein fraction from lupin seeds. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Management and design of hospital pens relative to behavior of the compromised dairy cow: A questionnaire survey of Iowa dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Herskin, Mette S.; Gorden, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    management of hospital pens, as well as decisions concerning humane endpoints when euthanasiais considered. The survey was sent to 300 Iowa dairy farmers including organic, large (>500 cows) andordinary (≤500 cows) dairy farms, with overall response rate of 41%. Eighty-two percent of respondentshad...... on best prac-tices for housing and management of compromised cows. The purpose of this study was to providedescriptive information about management and husbandry practices of compromised cows on dairyfarms in Iowa. A questionnaire-based survey was designed to examine demographic information, designand...... that are soon to calve (35%), dry cows (15%), or other cattle (8%), including heifers, calvesand bulls. Half of the farms had standard management protocols for non-ambulatory cows. Calving diffi-culties, injury, milk fever, lameness and displaced abomasum were the most frequently cited conditionsfor moving cows...

  5. A pathological study of experimental long-standing Schistosoma bovis infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras-Estrada, M C; García-Iglesias, M J; Pérez-Martínez, C; Manga-González, M Y; Ramajo-Martín, V; Escudero-Diez, A; García-Marín, J F

    1998-11-01

    The pathological response of sheep to two dose levels (400 or 10,000 cercariae) of Schistosoma bovis was evaluated 24 weeks after infection. The results confirmed that a single low or high dose causes lesions in the liver and intestine, and that the lungs, lymph nodes, pancreas and abomasum are affected in sheep given a single high dose. In addition, the study showed that pathological changes (mainly a granulomatous inflammatory reaction) were induced not only by eggs but also by adult worms, and that their severity was in general related to the dose of S. bovis. Hoeppli reaction product, observed on the surface of adult schistosomes in some parasitic granulomas, showed no immunoreaction for IgG, IgA or IgM.

  6. [Pathomorphological studies of experimental thiazole-80 poisoning in sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, P

    1979-01-01

    Investigations on the pathomorphological changes occurring in the organisms of 4 sheep poisoned experimentally by varying Thiazole-80 doses applied orally were made. It was established macroscopically that after opening the rumen a smell of sulfuric hydrogen is felt. The abomasum was with rusty brown haemorrhages and liver distrophy as well as enlarged gall bladder were observed. The histological studies of parenchymal organs revealed vascular disturbances, hyperemia, oedema and intervascular haemolysis. A heavy diffuse nephrosis, hyaline and protein cylinders were found in the kidney cortex, while in the ganglial cells of medula oblongata were evident degenerative changes. Histochemically, in sheep poisoned by thiazole-80, a well expressed reaction to iron in the lungs, leptomeniges and distrophic hepatocytes were established. Glycogen quantity in the liver was considerably reduced.

  7. Inclusion of psyllium in milk replacer for neonatal calves. 1. Effects on growth, digesta viscosity, rate of passage, nutrient digestibilities, and metabolites in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S J; Fahey, G C; Murphy, M R; Dikeman, C L; Miller, B L; Drackley, J K

    2010-08-01

    Based on research in other species, inclusion of psyllium in milk replacer might improve nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal function in neonatal calves. Male Holstein calves were fed a milk replacer (22% crude protein, 20% fat) either without or with psyllium (1.1% of dry matter) from 2 d through 28 d of age. Milk replacer was reconstituted to 12.5% dry matter (DM) and fed at 12% of calf body weight (BW), adjusted weekly. Water was offered ad libitum but no starter was fed. Three calves per treatment were harvested weekly to sample digesta from the rumen, abomasum, jejunum, proximal colon, and distal colon. Mean daily intakes of water, DM, crude protein, and metabolizable energy did not differ between treatments. Average daily gain of BW did not differ between treatments. Digesta from the abomasum and colon of calves fed psyllium was more viscous than digesta from control calves. Mean retention time of digesta in the total digestive tract tended to be greater for calves supplemented with psyllium (9.7 vs. 8.4h). Feces and digesta from the proximal and distal colon of calves fed psyllium had lower DM content than feces and digesta from control calves. Total-tract apparent digestibility of DM (92.8 vs. 94.1%) was lower for psyllium-fed calves, likely as an effect of the addition of the more poorly digestible psyllium; digestibilities of energy and ash also tended to be lower. The prefeeding plasma glucose concentration (10h after previous feeding) tended to be greater for psyllium-fed calves but concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, urea N, and total protein did not differ between treatments. Blood components did not differ between treatments at 2h postfeeding. Inclusion of psyllium in the milk replacer of neonatal calves increased digesta viscosity and slowed passage of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Duodenal control of gastric emptying in the milk-fed calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, F R; Mostaghni, K

    1975-01-01

    1. It has been ascertained experimentally that an open duodenal cannula does not cause any marked variation in emptying of the abomasum when compared to the rate of emptying of the normal viscus or when the cannulae are closed. 2. Duodenal re-entrant cannulae provide a preparation whereby it is possible to infuse the duodenum via the distal cannula and to collect simultaneously the effluent fluid of the abomasum from the proximal arm of the cannula (Fig. 1). 3. With this preparation the duodenal infusate is not contaminated by the gastric effluent and thus the duodenal stimulus can be restricted to the single non-varying effect of the infusate. 4. In the milk-fed calf using this preparation the following facts have been established. (a) On infusion into the duodenum, hypotonic and isotonic solutions of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate increase abomasal emptying; bicarbonate being the more effective stimulus. (b) Potassium chloride, calcium chloride, glucose and hydrochloric acid inhibit gastric emptying when infused into the duodenum. (c) Ammonium chloride, urea, lactose and acetic acid have little effect. (d) Hypertonic solutions of all substances tested were inhibitory to gastric emptying when infused into the duodenum. 5. It has been demonstrated unequivocally that it is the effect of the infusate in the duodenum which controls gastric emptying for when the stomach is isolated from the duodenum, gastric emptying can be manipulated from the duodenum whatever the stomach contents may be. 6. Our results bring firm experimental confirmation of the views discussed by Hunt & Knox (1968) that gastric outflow is regulated by mechanisms initiated from receptors situated in the duodenum. PMID:1142171

  9. Characterization of the microbial communities along the gastrointestinal tract of sheep by 454 pyrosequencing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The gastrointestinal tract of sheep contain complex microbial communities that influence numerous aspects of the sheep’s health and development. The objective of this study was to analyze the composition and diversity of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract sections (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum of sheep. Methods This analysis was performed by 454 pyrosequencing using the V3-V6 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from five healthy, small tailed Han sheep aged 10 months, obtained at market. The bacterial composition of sheep gastrointestinal microbiota was investigated at the phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species levels. Results The dominant bacterial phyla in the entire gastrointestinal sections were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. In the stomach, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Prevotella, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Butyrivibrio. In the small intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Escherichia, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcus. In the large intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Ruminococcus, unclassified Ruminococcaceae, and Prevotella. R. flavefaciens, B. fibrisolvens, and S. ruminantium were three most dominant species in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. Principal Coordinates Analysis showed that the microbial communities from each gastrointestinal section could be separated into three groups according to similarity of community composition: stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and large intestine (cecum, colon, and rectum. Conclusion This is the first study to characterize the entire gastrointestinal microbiota in sheep by use of 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, expanding our knowledge of the gastrointestinal bacterial community of sheep.

  10. Pre-slaughter mortality and post-slaughter wastage in bobby veal calves at a slaughter premises in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G W; Jordaan, P

    2013-05-01

    To determine the reasons for pre-slaughter mortality and post-slaughter wastage in New Zealand bobby veal calves, and to assess compliance with the national animal welfare codes at a slaughter premises in New Zealand. The study was conducted at a single slaughter premises in Southland, New Zealand, during the 2011 bobby veal processing season. Calves that died during the pre-slaughter period underwent post-mortem examination to identify the reasons for death and notable secondary findings. Data from calves condemned at official post-mortem meat inspection were also analysed. The mortality risk in the pre-slaughter period was 0.7% (288/42,494) and post-slaughter condemnation losses were 0.4% (180/42,206), resulting in a total loss to food production of 1.1%. Of the calves that were examined after dying in the pre-slaughter period (n=247), digestive tract disorders (41%) and omphalitis (23%) were the most common primary diagnoses. Secondary findings in these calves included absence of curd in the abomasum (25%), immaturity (21%) and emaciation (9%). Omphalitis (54%) and septicaemia (37%) were the most common causes of post-mortem wastage. Digestive tract disorders, omphalitis and septicaemia were the most common reasons for pre-slaughter mortality and post-mortem wastage. Further investigation of pre-transportation husbandry and feeding practices is indicated to determine compliance with animal welfare codes by farmers that supplied calves that had no curd in the abomasum, or were immature or emaciated on arrival at the slaughter premises.

  11. Effect of protein supplementation on ruminal parameters and microbial community fingerprint of Nellore steers fed tropical forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C B P; Azevedo, A C; Gomes, D I; Batista, E D; Rufino, L M A; Detmann, E; Mantovani, H C

    2016-01-01

    In tropical regions, protein supplementation is a common practice in dairy and beef farming. However, the effect of highly degradable protein in ruminal fermentation and microbial community composition has not yet been investigated in a systematic manner. In this work, we aimed to investigate the impact of casein supplementation on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, specific activity of deamination (SAD), ammonia concentration and bacterial and archaeal community composition. The experimental design was a 4×4 Latin square balanced for residual effects, with four animals (average initial weight of 280±10 kg) and four experimental periods, each with duration of 29 days. The diet comprised Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.) hay with an average CP content of 9.8%, on a dry matter basis. Animals received basal forage (control) or infusions of pure casein (230 g) administered direct into the rumen, abomasum or divided (50 : 50 ratio) in the rumen/abomasum. There was no differences (P>0.05) in ruminal pH and microbial protein concentration between supplemented v. non-supplemented animals. However, in steers receiving ruminal infusion of casein the SAD and ruminal ammonia concentration increased 33% and 76%, respectively, compared with the control. The total concentration of VFA increased (P0.05) in species richness and diversity of γ-proteobacteria, firmicutes and archaea between non-supplemented Nellore steers and steers receiving casein supplementation in the rumen. However, species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were lower (P<0.05) for the phylum bacteroidetes in steers supplemented with casein in the rumen compared with non-supplemented animals. Venn diagrams indicated that the number of unique bands varied considerably among individual animals and was usually higher in number for non-supplemented steers compared with supplemented animals. These results add new knowledge about the effects of ruminal and postruminal protein supplementation on metabolic activities of

  12. Post-ruminal or intravenous infusions of carbohydrates or amino acids to dairy cows 2. Late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, I; Danfær, A; Mydland, L T; Volden, H

    2007-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of post-ruminal and intravenous infusions of wheat starch or glucose (CHO) or a mixture of amino acids (AA) on milk protein yield, nitrogen (N) utilisation, plasma metabolites and mammary extraction rate of dairy cows in late lactation. Eight cow, ruminally fistulated, was assigned to two 4 × 4 Latin squares during 14-day periods, where the last 7 days were for infusions. Infusions were: (1) starch in the abomasum (SP), (2) glucose in the blood (GB), (3) AA in the abomasum (AP), and (4) AA in the blood (AB). The experiment started 165 ± 4 days (mean ± s.e.) post partum (milk yield 22.5 ± 1.1 kg) Daily amounts of nutrients infused were 257, 283, 233, and 260 g for SP, GB, AP and AB, respectively. The cows were fed a basal diet consisting of a concentrate mixture and grass silage (55:45 on a dry-matter (DM) basis), where total dry-matter intake (DMI) was 13.3 kg/day. Milk production was affected by site of infusion within substrate, whereas infusion substrates within infusion site (CHO or AA) were of minor importance. Responses to intravenous infusions (GB or AB) were similar to those in early lactation, but more pronounced. Compared with SP infusion, GB infusion increased ( P 0.05) on plasma EAA or BCAA. It is concluded that it is the nutrient supply and not the lactation stage per se that is important for the response in milk production. Nevertheless, stage of lactation affects the N metabolism and the response in plasma hormone concentrations even when cows are in negative energy balance in both lactation stages.

  13. Herd-level association of serum metabolites in the transition period with disease, milk production, and early lactation reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapinal, N; Leblanc, S J; Carson, M E; Leslie, K E; Godden, S; Capel, M; Santos, J E P; Overton, M W; Duffield, T F

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to identify herd-level indicators expressed as a proportion of sampled animals with increased nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) or β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), or decreased calcium in wk -1 and wk +1 relative to calving that were associated with herd-level incidence of retained placenta, metritis and displaced abomasum, milk production, and probability of pregnancy at the first artificial insemination (AI). Fifty-five Holstein freestall dairy herds in the United States and Canada were visited weekly. Blood was collected from 2,365 cows around parturition, and serum concentrations of NEFA, BHBA, and calcium were determined. Different cow-level metabolite thresholds associated with detrimental health or productivity in previous studies were used to classify animals into high- and low-risk metabolite concentration groups. For wk -1 and wk +1 relative to calving, a herd-level threshold was determined as the proportion of sampled animals in the high-risk metabolite concentration groups with the strongest association with increased incidence of disease, milk loss, or decreased pregnancy at the first AI. The odds of displaced abomasum after calving were higher in herds that had ≥ 25% of the animals with BHBA ≥ 1,400 μmol/L in wk +1 [odds ratio (OR)=2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.0-4.2)] or ≥ 35% of the animals with calcium ≤ 2.1 mmol/L in wk +1 (OR=2.4; CI=1.3-4.3). Herd-level thresholds of ≥15% of the cows with BHBA ≥ 800 μmol/L in wk -1 and ≥ 15% of the cows with calcium ≤2.1mmol/L in wk +1 were associated with milk loss (±SE) of 4.4±1.7 and 3.8 ± 1.4 kg/d per cow, respectively. When only multiparous cows were considered, herds with ≥30% of the multiparous cows with NEFA ≥0.5 mEq/L in wk -1 were associated with a 3.0 ± 1.5 kg/d per cow milk loss. The odds of pregnancy at first AI were lower in herds that had ≥ 5% of the cows with calcium ≤ 2.1 mmol/L in wk -1 (OR=0.7; CI=0.5-1.0), or ≥ 30% of the cows with NEFA

  14. Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvan Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was envisaged to elucidate the pathomorphological and microbiological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorders of sheep/lambs. Materials and Methods: Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination. Results: Gross pathological changes in various organs noticed were abomasitis, congestion and hemorrhages in intestine; necrotic foci on liver surface; enlarged, hard, and indurated mesenteric lymph nodes, hydropericardium, congestion, hemorrhages and consolidation of lungs and congestion and soft kidneys as the major change. On histopathological examination, there were abomasitis with leukocyte infiltration, enteritis with desquamation of mucosal epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia, lymphadenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of lymphoid follicle, and splenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the white pulp. In the liver congestion, degenerative changes in hepatocytes including cloudy swelling, fatty changes, congestion in sinusoids, and dilatation of sinusoids leading to atrophy of hepatocytes. Lungs evidenced edema, congestion, emphysema, serous inflammation, thickening of interlobular septa, fibrinous pleuritis, and peribronchiolar lymphoid follicle formation. Heart revealed sarcocystosis, fibrinous pericarditis, and hyalinization of the myocardium. In kidneys, congestion, focal interstitial nephritis, hyaline degeneration, and coagulative necrosis were seen. For microbiological aspects; cultural isolation was done from samples of liver, abomasum, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, heart blood, lungs, and kidneys from the carcasses of sheep/lambs. Escherichia coli was the only bacterium isolated during present studies. E. coli isolates from

  15. Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sarvan; Jakhar, K K; Nehra, Vikas; Pal, Madan

    2015-08-01

    The present study was envisaged to elucidate the pathomorphological and microbiological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders of sheep/lambs. Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination. Gross pathological changes in various organs noticed were abomasitis, congestion and hemorrhages in intestine; necrotic foci on liver surface; enlarged, hard, and indurated mesenteric lymph nodes, hydropericardium, congestion, hemorrhages and consolidation of lungs and congestion and soft kidneys as the major change. On histopathological examination, there were abomasitis with leukocyte infiltration, enteritis with desquamation of mucosal epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia, lymphadenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of lymphoid follicle, and splenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the white pulp. In the liver congestion, degenerative changes in hepatocytes including cloudy swelling, fatty changes, congestion in sinusoids, and dilatation of sinusoids leading to atrophy of hepatocytes. Lungs evidenced edema, congestion, emphysema, serous inflammation, thickening of interlobular septa, fibrinous pleuritis, and peribronchiolar lymphoid follicle formation. Heart revealed sarcocystosis, fibrinous pericarditis, and hyalinization of the myocardium. In kidneys, congestion, focal interstitial nephritis, hyaline degeneration, and coagulative necrosis were seen. For microbiological aspects; cultural isolation was done from samples of liver, abomasum, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, heart blood, lungs, and kidneys from the carcasses of sheep/lambs. Escherichia coli was the only bacterium isolated during present studies. E. coli isolates from different tissues of carcasses of sheep/lambs were

  16. Comparação de Indicadores e Metodologia de Coleta para Estimativas de Produção Fecal e Fluxo de Digesta em Bovinos Comparison of Markers and Collection Methodology for Fecal Production and Digesta Flow Estimates in Bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a fibra em detergente ácido (FDAi indigestível com o óxido crômico para estimar a produção de matéria seca fecal e as digestibilidades dos nutrientes de dietas de bovinos, em dois esquemas de coletas (2 ou 6 dias. Foram utilizados cinco bovinos da raça Nelore, não-castrados, com 165 kg, fistulados no rúmen, abomaso e íleo. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e cinco períodos de coleta. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis de concentrado na dieta (20, 40, 60 e 80%, usando-se feno de capim-Tifton 85 como volumoso. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (MS foi menor quando estimada pelo óxido crômico, enquanto as digestibilidades da MS no rúmen e nos intestinos não diferiram entre os indicadores. Quando se comparou a metodologia de coleta (6 dias vs. 2 dias, não houve diferença para as digestibilidades totais e parciais dos nutrientes e também para a eficiência microbiana, demonstrando assim que a metodologia alternativa de dois dias de coleta pode ser utilizada para estimar a produção fecal e os fluxos de MS no abomaso e no íleo.It was aimed to compare the internal markers, indigestible neutral detergent (NDFi and acid fiber (ADFi, and ADFi with oxide chromic to esteem the dry matter fecal production and nutrients digestibility of diets of bovine, in two outlines of collections (2 or 6 days. For the comparison among internal markers, 32 Nelore growing bulls, with 240 kg, were maintained under feedlot, receiving diets with different concentrate levels (20, 40, 60 and 80%. For the comparison among internal and external marker, five 165 kg Nelore growing bulls, rumen, abomasum and ileum fistulated, were used. The design was in blocks with four treatments and 5 collection periods. The treatments consisted of four concentrate levels (20, 40, 60 and 80%. The roughage used was Tifton 85 hay. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM was smaller, when was estimated

  17. On-farm evaluation of the effect of metabolic diseases on the shape of the lactation curve in dairy cows through the MilkBot lactation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostens, M; Ehrlich, J; Van Ranst, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-06-01

    The effects of metabolic diseases (MD) occurring during the transition period on milk production of dairy cows have been evaluated in many different ways, often with conflicting conclusions. The present study used a fitted lactation model to analyze specific aspects of lactation curve shape and magnitude in cows that avoided culling or death in the first 120 d in milk (DIM). Production and health records of 1,946 lactations in a 1-yr follow-up study design were collected from a transition management facility in Germany to evaluate both short- and long-term effects of MD on milk production. Milk production data were fitted with the nonlinear MilkBot lactation model, and health records were used to classify cows as healthy (H), affected by one MD (MD), or by multiple MD (MD+). The final data set contained 1,071 H, 348 MD, and 136 MD+ cows, with distinct incidences of 3.7% twinning, 4.8% milk fever, 3.6% retained placenta, 15.4% metritis, 8.3% ketosis, 2.0% displaced abomasum, and 3.7% mastitis in the first 30 DIM. The model containing all healthy and diseased cows showed that lactations classified as H had milk production that increased faster (lower ramp) and also declined faster (lower persistence) compared with cows that encountered one or more metabolic problems. The level of production (scale) was only lowered in MD+ cows compared with H and MD cows. Although the shape of the lactation curve changed when cows encounter uncomplicated (single) MD or complicated MD (more than one MD), the slower increase to a lower peak seemed to be compensated for by greater persistency, resulting in the overall 305-d milk production only being lowered in MD+ cows. In the individual disease models, specific changes in the shape of the lactation curve were found for all MD except twinning. Milk fever, retained placenta, ketosis, and mastitis mainly affected the lactation curve when accompanied by another MD, whereas metritis and displaced abomasum affected the lactation curve

  18. Post-ruminal or intravenous infusions of carbohydrates or amino acids to dairy cows 1. Early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, I; Danfær, A; Boman, I A; Volden, H

    2007-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of post-ruminal and intravenous infusions of wheat starch or glucose (CHO) or a mixture of amino acids (AA) on milk protein yield, nitrogen utilisation, plasma metabolites and mammary extraction rate of dairy cows in early lactation. Eight cow, ruminally fistulated, was assigned to two 4 × 4 Latin squares during 14-day periods, where the last 7 days were for infusions. Infusions were: (1) starch in the abomasum (SP), (2) glucose in the blood (GB), (3) AA in the abomasum (AP), and (4) AA in the blood (AB). The experiment started 54 ± 4 days (mean ± s.e.) post partum (milk yield 33.4 ± 1.7 kg). Daily amounts of nutrients infused were 378, 365, 341, and 333 g for SP, GB, AP and AB, respectively. The cows were fed a basal diet consisting of a concentrate mixture and grass silage (55:45 on dry-matter (DM) basis), and DM intake was 17.2 kg/day. Milk production was affected by site of infusion within substrate, whereas infusion substrates within infusion site (CHO or AA) were of minor importance. Compared with SP infusion, GB infusion increased ( P 0.10) plasma glucose or insulin concentrations above that of SP infusion. Compared with the SP infusion, the GB infusion had minor effect on plasma AA. AP infusion increased ( P 0.05) on essential AA (EAA) or branched-chain AA (BCAA). Although a higher milk protein synthesis was observed for AB infusion, the mammary extraction rate was not higher ( P>0.05) than for AP infusion. Across infusion site, AP and AB infusions increased plasma concentration of EAA and BCAA, but compared with GB infusion, the mammary extraction rates tended ( P < 0.10) to be lower. It is concluded that abomasal nutrient infusion increases loss of MFN and that the gastrointestinal metabolism influences the nutrients available for milk synthesis. Our conclusion is that when glucose was infused, AA limited a further milk protein synthesis, but when AA was infused, glucose or

  19. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  20. Growth rate, health and welfare in a dairy herd with natural suckling until 6–8 weeks of age: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdell Cecilie

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over a period of two years, growth rate and health were measured for dairy calves allowed to suckle their mothers up to 6–8 weeks of age. Thirty-one calves were weighted weekly, and the mean daily growth rate was 1.2 ± 0.03 kg from birth up to 13 weeks of age. Illness in calves and young stock was not observed. In the cows, the mean incidences of ketosis, displaced abomasum, puerperal paresis, mastitis, teat injury and retained placenta were 0, 0, 8, 22, 1 and 1%, respectively, during a 6-year period. The mean daily gain of 56 growing bulls was 1.4 kg when slaughtered at 15 months of age, which is higher than the mean daily gain of 0.95 kg in the population. Probiotics, hormones and vaccines were not used, and antibiotics were only used for treating illness. The present study indicates many advantages and few problems when dairy calves are penned together with the cows and allowed natural feeding up to 6–8 weeks of age. This production system was easy to manage, preferred by the farmer, and may satisfy the public concern regarding the practice of immediate separation of cow and calf in commercial milk production.

  1. Intestinal atresia and ectopia in a bovine fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, B; Miclard, J; Stoffel, M H; Meylan, M

    2011-07-01

    A 2-year-old Red Holstein cow was presented with uterine torsion at 235 days of pregnancy. The fetus extracted by cesarean section had weak vital signs and marked abdominal distention. An edematous pouch that contained tubular structures with peristaltic activity was associated with the umbilical cord. Because of poor prognosis, both dam and fetus were euthanized. At necropsy, the fetus had severe distention of the forestomachs, abomasum, and proximal small intestine; absence of distal small intestine, cecum, and proximal colon; atresia of the 2 blind ends of the intestine; and atrophy of distal colon and rectum. The tubular structures associated with the umbilical cord were identified as the segments of intestine that were absent in the fetus. Intestinal atresia combined with ectopia may be caused by local ischemia during temporary herniation and rotation of the fetal gut into the extraembryonic coelom. The close connection between ectopic intestine and amniotic sheath of the umbilical cord in this case may have facilitated vascularization and allowed development and viability of the ectopic intestine. © The Authors 2011

  2. Comparison of parasitological and productive traits of Criollo lambs native to the central Mexican Plateau and Suffolk lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Hurtado, F; Romero-Escobedo, E; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Torres-Hernández, G; Becerril-Pérez, C M

    2010-09-20

    The study compares the parasitological and productive traits of Criollo lambs native to the central Mexican Plateau (CNCMP) and Suffolk (SU) lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. CNCMP lambs (n=20) and SU lambs (n=15) were infected with L3 of H. contortus while five lambs of each genotype were kept as controls. Fecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), blood eosinophil number (BEN), ocular mucous membrane color (as measured by the FAMACHA index), changes in body condition score (BCS) and cumulative live weight gain (CLWG) were measured weekly during a 20-week period. On week 20, all animals were euthanized and the number of adult worms (AW) in the abomasum was counted. Infected SU lambs had higher (pFAMACHA index. BCS tended to decline for infected SU lambs and increased slightly for infected CNCMP lambs. CLWG differed in all groups (p<0.05); infected SU lambs gained 12.1+/-1.9kg, infected CNCMP lambs gained 18.8+/-0.7kg, control SU lambs gained 34.6+/-1.6kg, and control CNCMP lambs gained 26.9+/-0.8kg. In conclusion, CNCMP lambs had a smaller worm burden, a better ability to maintain their productive traits, and were less affected by infection with Haemonchus contortus.

  3. Presence of Selected Methanogens, Fibrolytic Bacteria, and Proteobacteria in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Neonatal Dairy Calves from Birth to 72 Hours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar E Guzman

    Full Text Available The microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract of a young calf are essential for the anatomical and physiological development that permits a transition from milk to solid feed. Selected methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and proteobacteria were quantified in the rumen fluid and tissue, abomasum fluid, cecum fluid and tissue, and feces of Holstein bull calves on day 0 (0-20 mins after birth, day 1 (24 ± 1 h after birth, day 2 (48 ± 1 h after birth, and day 3 (72 ± 1 h after birth. Methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and Geobacter spp. were found to be already present from birth, indicating that microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract occurred before or during delivery. The abundance of methanogens and Geobacter spp. differed between the days tested and between compartments of the digestive tract and feces, but such difference was not observed for fibrolytic bacteria. Our findings suggests that methanogens might have an alternative hydrogen provider such as Geobacter spp. during these early stages of postnatal development. In addition, fibrolytic bacteria were present in the rumen well before the availability of fibrous substrates, suggesting that they might use nutrients other than cellulose and hemicellose.

  4. Seneciosis in cattle associated with photosensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Senecio spp. poisoning is the main cause of cattle mortality in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. This paper reports an outbreak of seneciosis in cattle with high prevalence of photosensitization, where 83 out of 162 cows (51.3% presented this clinical sign. The outbreak occurred in September 2013, affecting adult cows that were held in a 205 hectare-pasture from April to October 2013 with abundant Senecio brasiliensis infestation. Main clinical signs were weight loss, excessive lacrimation or mucopurulent ocular discharge, nasal serous discharge, ventral diphteric glossitis, crusts in the nose, teats, dorsum of ears, and vulva. Liver biopsy was performed in all the cows under risk; the histopathological findings in the liver biopsies consisted of fibrosis, megalocytosis, and biliary ductal proliferation and were present in 73.4% of the biopsied animals. Six cows had increased serum activity of gamma glutamyl transferase. Three affected cows were necropsied. The main necropsy findings were a hard liver, distended gall bladder, edema of the mesentery and abomasum. Liver histological changes in the necropsied cows were similar to those of the biopsied livers. Spongiosis was detected in the brain of necropsied cows and is characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy.

  5. Molecular cloning and expression in yeast of caprine prochymosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Hernández, Maria C; Gómez-Coello, Alicia; Villar, Jesús; Claverie-Martín, Félix

    2004-10-19

    We cloned and characterized a preprochymosin cDNA from the abomasum of milk-fed kid goats. This cDNA contained an open reading frame that predicts a polypeptide of 381 amino acid residues, with a signal peptide and a proenzyme region of 16 and 42 amino acids, respectively. Comparison of the caprine preprochymosin sequence with the corresponding sequences of lamb and calf revealed 99 and 94% identity at the amino acid level. The cDNA fragment encoding the mature portion of caprine prochymosin was fused in frame both to the killer toxin signal sequence and to the alpha-factor signal sequence-FLAG in two different yeast expression vectors. The recombinant plasmids were transformed into Kluyveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, respectively. Culture supernatants of both yeast transformants showed milk-clotting activity after activation at acid pH. The FLAG-prochymosin fusion was purified from S. cerevisiae culture supernatants by affinity chromatography. Proteolytic activity assayed toward casein fractions indicated that the recombinant caprine chymosin specifically hydrolysed kappa-casein.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND CALCIUM PROPIONATE IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of the oral administration of propylene glycol and calcium propionate on performance of dairy cows. Treatments were 10 l water (control, 10 l water+300 ml propylene glycol (GP and 10 l water+500 g calcium propionate (CP. Animals were mainly of Holstein breeds and were fed and managed in a commercial setting. The cows were divided randomly into an experimental group, n=24 (n=12 with PG and n=12 with CP and a control group, n=11. Cows received the assigned treatment within 10 hours of calving and 24 hours after calving. Health events were recorded during calving and for the first 21 days in milk (DIM. Health examinations were performed on cows that appeared not well. The cows were milked three times daily and milk production was recorded electronically. Milk solid content and somatic cell score were determinate from three consecutive milking weekly till 20 DIM and than monthly till 110 DIM. Retained placenta, hypocalcaemia, displaced abomasums, ketosis and metritis were low in treatment groups (with PG and CP. The cows receiving PG had 2.8 Kg/day grater milk production than control group. The cows receiving CP had 1.7 kg/day grater milk production than control group. Prophylactic administration of PG and CP drenches to Holstein cows may be justified by potentially higher milk yields and reduced health complications.

  7. Effect of abomasal ferrous lactate infusion on phosphorus absorption in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; Duncan, S

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ferrous lactate infusion on postruminal P absorption in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with 14 d per period. Cows were fed a basal diet containing 0.39% P, providing 100% of the calculated P requirement. On d 8 to 14 of each period, each cow was infused with 0, 200, 500, or 1,250mg of Fe/d in the form of ferrous lactate solution (ferrous lactate in 1L of double-distilled water) into the abomasum. Infusate was formulated to approximate 0, 2, 5, or 12.5mg of Fe/L in drinking water with 100L of water intake/d. Total fecal collection was conducted in the last 4 d of each period to measure nutrient digestion and excretion. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and nitrogen decreased linearly with increasing ferrous lactate infusion. Infusion of ferrous lactate did not affect intake and digestibility of total P, inorganic P, or phytate P. In lactating cows, P absorption was not negatively influenced by abomasally infused ferrous lactate up to 1,250mg of Fe/d. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Computed tomography of the abdomen of calves during the first 105 days of life: II. Liver, spleen, and small and large intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Schnetzler, C; Augsburger, H; Müller, U; Dicht, S; Ohlerth, S

    2014-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) findings of the liver, spleen and intestines of five healthy calves during six examinations in the first 105 days of life were compared with corresponding cadaver slices. The liver was located in the right hemiabdomen adjacent to the diaphragm and right abdominal wall. The caudal vena cava was seen dorsomedially and the portal vein further ventrally. The umbilical vein was seen running from the navel to the liver in all calves in the first scan and in four calves in the second scan. The spleen ran dorsoventrally adjacent to the costal part of the left abdominal wall and appeared sickle-shaped on transverse images. Differentiation of small and large intestines was only possible when the former contained fluid content and the latter gaseous content. The small intestine was in the left hemiabdomen dorsal to the abomasum and caudodorsal to the rumen at the first two examinations. Growth of the forestomachs caused displacement of the small intestine to the right and toward the ventral abdomen caudal to the liver and adjacent to the right abdominal wall. The large intestine was located caudodorsally, and the typical features of the spiral colon were apparent in the dorsal plane. The location of the caecum varied from dorsal to the spiral colon to adjacent to the right abdominal wall with the apex always pointing caudally. The rectum was easily identified in the pelvic region. The size, volume and density of the described organs throughout the study are shown in several tables.

  9. Gastrointestinal Spatiotemporal mRNA Expression of Ghrelin vs Growth Hormone Receptor and New Growth Yield Machine Learning Model Based on Perturbation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Tao; Liu, Yong; Li, Hengzhi; Tang, Shaoxun; He, Zhixiong; Munteanu, Cristian R; González-Díaz, Humberto; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-07-27

    The management of ruminant growth yield has economic importance. The current work presents a study of the spatiotemporal dynamic expression of Ghrelin and GHR at mRNA levels throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of kid goats under housing and grazing systems. The experiments show that the feeding system and age affected the expression of either Ghrelin or GHR with different mechanisms. Furthermore, the experimental data are used to build new Machine Learning models based on the Perturbation Theory, which can predict the effects of perturbations of Ghrelin and GHR mRNA expression on the growth yield. The models consider eight longitudinal GIT segments (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum), seven time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 d) and two feeding systems (Supplemental and Grazing feeding) as perturbations from the expected values of the growth yield. The best regression model was obtained using Random Forest, with the coefficient of determination R(2) of 0.781 for the test subset. The current results indicate that the non-linear regression model can accurately predict the growth yield and the key nodes during gastrointestinal development, which is helpful to optimize the feeding management strategies in ruminant production system.

  10. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  11. Low cortisol levels in blood from dairy cows with ketosis: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Kristina B; Ljungvall, Orjan A; Jones, Bernt V

    2010-05-20

    An elevated plasma glucose concentration has been considered to be a potential risk factor in the pathogenesis of left-displaced abomasums (DA). Therefore the present study was performed to investigate if spontaneous disease (parturient paresis, metritis, ketosis etc) in dairy cows results in elevated concentrations of glucose and cortisol in blood as cortisol is the major regulator of glucose in ruminants. Cortisol, insulin, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), non esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and serum calcium were analyzed in blood serum and glucose, in whole blood, from 57 spontaneously diseased cows collected at different farms. The cows were grouped according to the disease; parturient paresis, recumbent for other reasons, mastitis, metritis, ketosis, inappetance and others. No elevated concentrations of cortisol or glucose were found in cows with metritis and mastitis but both cortisol and glucose were elevated in cows stressed by recumbency. Cows with ketonemia (BHBA > 1.5 mmol/l) did not have low concentration of glucose in blood but significantly low levels of cortisol. Some of these cows even had cortisol concentrations below the detection limit of the analysing method (ketosis, recommending glucocorticoids, insulin etc. However further studies of this problem are needed to understand why cows with ketosis have low levels of cortisol and normal levels of glucose. To what extent elevated cortisol and glucose levels in hypocalcemic and recumbent cows are involved in the ethiology and /or the pathogenesis of DA also will need further research.

  12. Use of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) flower extract as a substitute for bovine rennet in the manufacture of Gouda-type cheese: characterization of aspartic proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Berta E; Obregón, Walter David; Avilés, Francesc X; Caffini, Néstor O; Vairo-Cavalli, Sandra

    2014-09-15

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) flower extract was assayed with the aim of replacing animal rennet in the manufacture of Gouda-type cheeses from bovine milk. Floral extract coagulated milk within a suitable time for use on an industrial scale, while the yield of cheese obtained was equal to that achieved with bovine abomasum. Five proteolytic fractions with milk-clotting activity were isolated in a two-step purification protocol, three belonging to the cardosin group. Cheeses made with C. scolymus proteases must be brined for a longer period (40 h) to prevent overproteolysis and avoid the development of a background flavor. The type of coagulant (bovine or vegetable) had no significant effect on the cheeses' chemical parameters analyzed throughout ripening, and no significant organoleptic differences were detected between those manufactured with C. scolymus or animal rennet. The results indicate that C. scolymus flower extract is suitable for replacing animal rennet in the production of Gouda-type cheeses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased blood concentration of isopropanol in ketotic dairy cows and isopropanol production from acetone in the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate acetone and isopropanol metabolism in bovine ketosis, the blood concentrations of isopropanol, acetone, plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and other metabolites were analyzed in 12 healthy controls and 15 ketotic dairy cows including fatty liver and inferior prognosis after laparotomy for displaced abomasum. In ruminal fluid taken from 6 ketotic cows, ruminal isopropanol and acetone were also analyzed. Ketotic cows showed higher concentrations of isopropanol, acetone, 3-HB and nonesterified fatty acid, and higher activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase than control cows. Blood samples had higher concentration of isopropanol accompanied by increased acetone. In the ketotic cows, acetone was detected not only in blood but also in ruminal fluid, while higher ruminal isopropanol did not necessarily accompany its elevation in the blood. Using 2 steers with rumen cannula, all ruminal content was emptied and then substituted with artificial saliva to evaluate the importance of ruminal microbes in isopropanol production. Under each condition of intact and emptied rumen, acetone was infused into the rumen and blood isopropanol was analyzed. The elevation in the blood isopropanol concentration after acetone infusion was markedly inhibited by the emptying. Here, increased blood concentrations of isopropanol and acetone were observed in ketotic cows, and the importance of ruminal microbes in isopropanol production was confirmed.

  14. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection of slaughtered sheep (Zel breed in Fereidoonkenar city, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Naem

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine parasitic infection of sheep with gastrointestinal helminthes in a slaughterhouse in Fereidoonkenar city, Iran. A total number of 50 sheep were examined from April to September 2008. Nematodes were removed from abomasums, small and large intestines, and kept in A.F.A. solution (alcohol, formaldeyde, acetic acid, distilled water, and glycerine for further diagnosis. Cestodes were removed from small intestine, washed with water, and stained with carmine acid. The results of this study indicated that 70% of examined animals were infected as follows: Ostertagia circumcincta and Marshallagia marshalli (38%, Trichostrongylus colubriformis (16%, Nematodirus spathiger (14%, Skrjabinema ovis (12%, Haemonchus contortus (10%, Camelostrongylus mentolatus (4%, and Gongylonema pulchrum, Cooperia punctata, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Chabertia ovina (2%. Among examined animals, 14% infected with Moniezia expansa, 10% with Avitellina centripunctata and 2% with Helicometra giardi. The infection rate in younger animals was higher than in adults. The maximum infection rate was with O. circumcincta and M. marshali. No infection was found in examined rumens.

  15. Arterial supply of the stomach of the Egyptian native goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the origin, course and distribution of the arteries supplying the stomach of the goat which is of extreme clinical importance for surgeon during caprine rumenotomy. Materials and methods: Fifteen adult goats were used in this study to demonstrate the arterial supply of the stomach by injection of the thoracic aorta with red gum milk latex after general anesthesia and slaughtering of the animals. Gross dissection of the arteries of the stomach was done to detect the origin, course and distribution of these arteries. Results: The study revealed that the rumen was richly supplied by the right and left ruminal arteries as well as ruminal branches from the reticular artery. The reticulum was supplied with reticular branches of reticular and accessory reticular arteries. The omasum was vascularized by omasal branches of the left gastric artery. While the abomasum received its entire arterial supply from abomasal branches of the left gastric, left gastroepiploic, right gastric and right gastroepiploic arteries. Conclusion: The stomach of the goat receives its arterial supply from the branches of the right ruminal, left ruminal, reticular, left gastric and hepatic arteries. Rumenotomy could be done in the left aspect of the dorsal ruminal sac, between the area of anastomoses of the terminal branches of the left and right ruminal arteries as the blood supply was minimal, so that bleeding will be low. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 80-87

  16. UT-B Urea Transporter Localization in the Bovine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, J; McDaid, S; Walpole, C; Stewart, Gavin S

    2016-04-01

    Facilitative UT-B urea transporters play an important role in the urea nitrogen salvaging process that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, particularly ruminants. Gastrointestinal UT-B transporters have previously been reported in various ruminant species-including cow, sheep and goat. In this present study, UT-B transporter localization was investigated in tissues throughout the bovine gastrointestinal tract. RT-PCR analysis showed that UT-B2 was the predominant UT-B mRNA transcript expressed in dorsal, ventral and cranial ruminal sacs, while alternative UT-B transcripts were present in other gastrointestinal tissues. Immunoblotting analysis detected a strong, glycosylated ~50 kDa UT-B2 protein in all three ruminal sacs. Immunolocalization studies showed that UT-B2 protein was predominantly localized to the plasma membrane of cells in the stratum basale layer of all ruminal sac papillae. In contrast, other UT-B protein staining was detected in the basolateral membranes of the surface epithelial cells lining the abomasum, colon and rectum. Overall, these findings confirm that UT-B2 cellular localization is similar in all ruminal sacs and that other UT-B proteins are located in epithelial cells lining various tissues in the bovine gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Molecular identification of abomasal bacteria associated with genetic resistance and susceptibility to Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Holtz Tirabassi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The widespread occurrence of anthelmintic-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs, particularly Haemonchus contortus, in sheep production systems has magnified the need to identify and develop alternative control strategies. Strategies include the selection of genetically GIN-resistant sheep and the implementation of biological parasite control to reduce dependence on anthelmintic drugs. In this study, we aimed to establish the molecular identity of bacterial communities present in the abomasum of sheep classified as resistant or susceptible to H. contortus, an abomasal parasite. Thirty-eight sheep were experimentally infected with L3 Haemonchus contortus and analyzed for fecal egg count (FEC and hematocrit (Ht to establish haemonchosis resistance or susceptibility. Four resistant sheep (RS and four susceptible sheep (SS were selected for microbial sampling and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Molecular identification of the bacteria was based on amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, construction of a 16S rDNA clone library, and subsequent gene sequencing. Significant differences (p = 0.05 were observed in the occurrence of different phyla identified in RS and SS libraries: Firmicutes (61.4% and 37.2%, respectively, Proteobacteria (10.2% and 37.2%, respectively, Bacteroidetes (12.8% and 5.8%, respectively, and unclassified bacteria (12.8% and 17%, respectively. Differences between the proportions of bacterial communities present in the RS and SS pool samples were observed, contributing as a first step toward the assessment of the association between the gastrointestinal tract microbiota and nematode resistance in sheep.

  18. Approach for Diagnosis of Complicated Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis in Cattle using Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Abdellah Khalphallah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study indicated that the complicated sequellae of traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP in cattle could be efficiently diagnosed by using of ultrasonography and some other diagnostic tools. The affections in these cases included reticulum and spleen with extension to one or more of the other organs such as rumen and abomasum. This study included two groups of animals; one of them kept as a control one (n.=16 and the other was a diseased group (n.= 12. All animals were subjected to clinical examination, whole blood profiling, blood serum biochemical assay, radiography and ultrasonographic examination. Rumenotomy was carried out in some cases. The reticulum was mostly displaced in cases of complicated TRP by a distance of 3-6 cm. Sometimes, the reticulum was not displaced such as in case of diaphragmatic hernia. The reticular contractions in the complicated traumatic cows were either reduced to 2 or 1/3mins, or completely reduced to 0/3mins. Reticular abscess and peritoneal effusions were imaged in all these diseased cases. Here, Vagus indigestion syndrome and diaphragmatic hernia were successfully diagnosed by using of ultrasonography with the aid of radiography and rumenotomy. Ultrasonography was useful in imaging non metal objects (Ropes and plastic tubes within the rumen especially in cases of severe ruminal distension.

  19. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  20. Conservation of a microRNA cluster in parasitic nematodes and profiling of miRNAs in excretory-secretory products and microvesicles of Haemonchus contortus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Y Gu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression in a range of animals, including nematodes. We have analysed a cluster of four miRNAs from the pathogenic nematode species Haemonchus contortus that are closely linked in the genome. We find that the cluster is conserved only in clade V parasitic nematodes and in some ascarids, but not in other clade III species nor in clade V free-living nematodes. Members of the cluster are present in parasite excretory-secretory products and can be detected in the abomasum and draining lymph nodes of infected sheep, indicating their release in vitro and in vivo. As observed for other parasitic nematodes, H. contortus adult worms release extracellular vesicles (EV. Small RNA libraries were prepared from vesicle-enriched and vesicle-depleted supernatants from both adult worms and L4 stage larvae. Comparison of the miRNA species in the different fractions indicated that specific miRNAs are packaged within vesicles, while others are more abundant in vesicle-depleted supernatant. Hierarchical clustering analysis indicated that the gut is the likely source of vesicle-associated miRNAs in the L4 stage, but not in the adult worm. These findings add to the growing body of work demonstrating that miRNAs released from parasitic helminths may play an important role in host-parasite interactions.

  1. Gastric helicobacters in domestic animals and nonhuman primates and their significance for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Baele, Margo; Meyns, Tom; Decostere, Annemie; Ducatelle, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated "H. heilmannii," but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable "Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii." These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. "Candidatus Helicobacter bovis" is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host.

  2. Potential and existing mechanisms of enteric methane production in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Qiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane (CH4 emissions in ruminants have attracted considerable attention due to their impact on greenhouse gases and the contribution of agricultural practices to global warming. Over the last two decades, a number of approaches have been adopted to mitigate CH4 emissions. However, the mechanisms of methanogenesis have still not been fully defined. According to the genome sequences of M. ruminantium in the rumen and of M. AbM4 in the abomasum, the pathways of carbon dioxide (CO2 reduction and formate oxidation to CH4 have now been authenticated in ruminants. Furthermore, in the light of species or genera description of methanogens, the precursors of methanogenesis discovered in the rumen and research advances in related subjects, pathways of acetate dissimilation via Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta as well as metabolism of methanol to CH4 might be present in the rumen, although neither process has yet been experimentally demonstrated in the rumen. Herein the research advances in methanogenesic mechanisms including existing and potential mechanisms are reviewed in detail. In addition, further research efforts to understand the methanogenesis mechanism should focus on isolation and identification of more specific methanogens, and their genome sequences. Such increased knowledge will provide benefits in terms of improved dietary energy utilization and a reduced contribution of enteric CH4 emissions to total global greenhouse gas emissions from the ruminant production system.

  3. First description of gastrointestinal nematodes of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia): the case of Camelostrongylus mentulatus as a paradigm of phylogenic and specific relationship between the parasite and its ancient host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, E; Ortiz, J; Martínez-Carrasco, C; Garijo, M M; Espeso, G; Hervías, S; Ruiz de Ybáñez, M R

    2013-09-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 24 Barbary sheep or Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) maintained in the Parque de Rescate de la Fauna Sahariana (PRFS, CSIC, Almeria, Spain) was analyzed. Most animals (87.5 %) were parasitized, and multiple infections were highly present. The following species were identified: Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Marshallagia marshalli, Ostertagia ostertagi, O. leptospicularis, O. lyrata, Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, T. colubriformis, T. probolorus, T. capricola, Nematodirus spathiger, N. abnormalis, N. filicollis, N. helvetianus, Trichuris spp. and Skrjabinema ovis. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the most prevalent nematode in abomasum (52.6 %) followed by C. mentulatus (50 %). However, this latter nematode had the greater mean intensity and abundance. In the small intestine, T. colubriformis and T. vitrinus had the highest prevalence (36.4 %); the last one showed also the greater mean intensity and abundance. It should be emphasized the presence of Skrjabinema ovis (prevalence 39.1 %) in the large intestine, showing the greater mean abundance and intensity, although with a low values. Camelostrongylus mentulatus could be the most primitive nematode of the family trichostrongylidae recovered in this study; attending to its high prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity, the possible specificity between this parasite and the Aoudad is discussed.

  4. Desenvolvimento dos componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros Santa Inês e Bergamácia abatidos em diferentes pesos Development of live weight components from Santa Inês and Bergamácia lambs slaughtered at different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Leal dos Santos-Cruz

    2009-05-01

    , carcass non-integrant parts, carcass parts and components of the abdominal and thoracic cavities was carried out by means of the non-linear model of the potency equation Y = αXβ, linearly transformed into a linear model, lnY = lnα + βlnX. Liver, pancreas, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine and thoracic cavity are parts of the empty body of the animals that presented early development, while spleen, abdominal cavity, carcass integrant and non-integrant parts presented isogonic growth (β=1; the fat stores presented negative heterogonic growth (β<1. The omasum and rumen/reticulum of Santa Inês lambs growth early, while in Bergamácia lambs, it grows late. Liver, pancreas, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine and thoracic cavity in both breeds present early development and spleen, abdominal cavity, carcass integrant and non-integrant parts present isogonic growth in relation to the weight of the empty body.

  5. Epidemiologia das helmintoses gastrintestinais de ovinos no Planalto Catarinense Epidemiology of sheep gastrintestinal helminthosis in "Planalto Catarinense" Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Itaqui Ramos

    2004-12-01

    Catarina Plateau. The prevalence, intensity and seasonal variation of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths in three farms of Lages, São Joaquim, and Campos Novos in Santa Catarina State, Brazil were assessed. Monthly, three tracer lambs were used by property. They had been previously housed for 30 days and suppressively treated by anthelmintics with different active ingredients followed by weekly parasitological examinations to assure the total elimination of parasitic infection. After this, they were taken back to their respective farms, where they grazed for 28 days and housed again for another 20 days. After this period, they were sacrificed for estimating the total worm burden, and 10% of abomasum and small intestine material was sampled as well as all the helminthes from the large intestine and the lungs. The heaviest Haemonchus contortus infection was registered from October to March. Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Trichostrongylus axei had increased rates through the experimental years, showing the peak from May to October of 1999. The most prevailing species in the abomasum were H. contortus (100%, T. axei (98.7%, T. colubriformis (1.3%, Teladorsagia circumcincta (100% and Ostertagia ostertagi (100%; in the small intestine: T. colubriformis (100%, Cooperia punctata (69.1%, C. pectinata (18.4%, C. curticei (6.9%, C. oncophora (4.8%, C. spatulata (0.8% and Nematodirus spathiger (100%. In the large intestine: Oesophagostomum venulosum (100% and Trichuris ovis (100%. No worms were detected in the lungs.

  6. Componentes corporais e órgãos internos de cordeiros Texel x Bergamácia, Texel x Santa Inês e Santa Inês puros, terminados em confinamento, com casca de café como parte da dieta Body components and internal organs of Texel x Bergamácia, Texel x Santa Inês and purebred Santa Inês lambs finished in fedlot, with of coffee hull as part of the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraides Ferreira Furusho-Garcia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 12 cordeiros cruzas Texel x Bergamácia (TB, 12 cordeiros cruzas Texel x Santa Inês (TS e 12 cordeiros puros Santa Inês (SI, confinados individualmente por 50 dias (dos 130 aos 180 dias de idade. Cada grupo genético constou de seis machos inteiros e seis fêmeas, recebendo três dietas diferentes: 1 = sem casca de café (controle; 2 = com casca de café in natura; 3 = com casca de café tratada com uréia. O rúmen/retículo (RR dos animais que receberam as dietas 2 e 3 foram mais pesados em relação ao RR dos animais submetidos a dieta 1. O abomaso (ABO, fígado (FIG e pâncreas (PAN dos cordeiros alimentados com a dieta 3 foram mais leves comparados aos que receberam as dietas 1 e 2. Os cordeiros cruzas TB e TS apresentaram maior peso para a cabeça (CAB, pés/canelas (PEC, omaso (OMA, ABO, intestinos delgado (IND e grosso (ING. Os machos apresentaram sangue (SAN e RR mais pesados que as fêmeas. Os pesos de pele (PEL, gordura (GOR, esôfago/traquéia (ET, coração (COR e pulmão (PUL também foram analisados e não foram afetados pelas dietas, pelos grupos genéticos e pelo sexo. As fêmeas apresentaram tendência de maior proporção de GOR.Twelve crossbred Texel x Bergamácia (TB, 12 crossbred Texel x Santa Inês (TS and 12 purebred Santa Inês (SI lambs were individually finished in fedlot for 50 days (from 130 to 180 days of age. Each genetic group consisted of six males and six females, fed three different diets: 1 = without coffee hulls (control; 2 = with coffee hulls in nature; 3 = with coffee hulls treated of with urea. The rumen/reticulum (RR of the animals fed diets 1 and 3 were significantly heavier than those fed diet 1. The abomasum (ABO, liver (FIG and pancreas (PAN of the lambs fed diet 3 were lighter than the animals fed diet 2. The TB and TS of crossbred lambs showed greater weights of head (CAB, foot/shin (PEC, omasum (OMA, abomasum (ABO, small intestine (IND and large intestine (ING. The males showed

  7. Anti-parasitic activity of pelleted sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrues, Olivier; Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Hansen, Tina V A; Enemark, Heidi L; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2016-06-10

    Increasing anthelmintic-resistance in nematodes of ruminants emphasises the need for sustainable parasite control. Condensed tannin-containing legume forages such as sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) have shown promising anthelmintic properties in small ruminants but this has never been explored in cattle. Therefore, our aim was to examine the efficacy of sainfoin against cattle nematodes in vivo. Fifteen Jersey male calves (2-4 month-old) were allocated into two groups and fed isoproteic and isoenergetic diets mainly composed of sainfoin pellets (Group SF; n = 9, three pens) or concentrate and grass-clover hay (Group CO; n = 6, two pens). After 16 days of adaptation, all animals were experimentally infected with 10,000 and 66,000 third-stage larvae of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora, respectively. Egg excretion, blood parameters and bodyweights were recorded throughout the study. Worms were harvested by sieving for quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 42 days post-infection (dpi) when the calves were necropsied. The number of O. ostertagi adults in the abomasum was reduced by 50 % in Group SF compared with Group CO (P  0.05). Likewise, no statistical difference in total worm burdens of C. oncophora was found between the groups. Weight gains were lower for Group SF (P < 0.05), which may reflect lower digestibility and phosphorus levels in the SF diet, despite similar feed intake at pen-level. Overall, the effect of sainfoin on abomasal nematodes corroborates results from studies with small ruminants and encourages further investigations of the use of this crop for control of cattle nematodes.

  8. Severe dental fluorosis in juvenile deer linked to a recent volcanic eruption in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Werner T; Smith-Flueck, Jo Anne M

    2013-04-01

    The Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic eruption deposited large amounts of tephra (ashes) on about 36 million ha of Argentina in June of 2011. Tephra was considered chemically innoxious based on water leachates, surface water fluoride levels were determined to be safe, and livestock losses were attributable to inanition and excessive tooth wear. To evaluate effects on wild ungulates, we sampled wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) at 100 km from the volcano in September-November 2012. We show that tephra caused severe dental fluorosis, with bone fluoride levels up to 5,175 ppm. Among subadults, tephra caused pathologic development of newly emerging teeth typical of fluorosis, including enamel hypoplasia, breakages, pitting, mottling, and extremely rapid ablation of entire crowns down to underlying pulp cavities. The loss of teeth functionality affected physical condition, and none of the subadults was able to conceive. Susceptibility to fluorosis among these herbivores likely resides in ruminant food processing: 1) mastication and tephra size reduction, 2) thorough and repeated mixing with alkaline saliva, 3) water-soluble extraction in the rumen, and 4) extraction in the acidic abomasum. Although initial analyses of water and tephra were interpreted not to present a concern, ruminants as a major component of this ecosystem are shown to be highly susceptible to fluorosis, with average bone level increasing over 38-fold during the first 15.5 mo of exposure to tephra. This is the first report of fluorosis in wild ungulates from a volcanic eruption. The described impact will reverberate through several aspects of the ecology of the deer, including effects on population dynamics, morbidity, predation susceptibility, and other components of the ecosystem such as scavenger and plant communities. We anticipate further impact on livestock production systems, yet until now, existence of fluorosis had not been recognized.

  9. Managing anthelmintic resistance in small ruminant livestock of resource-poor farmers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattaa, A F; Lindberg, A L E

    2006-03-01

    Gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the most important disease complexes of sheep and goats impacting on the resource-poor livestock farmer. Of the responsible nematodes, Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking worm of the abomasum, poses possibly the greatest threat. Over the past several decades, the worm has been controlled through the use of anthelmintics, but the emergence of anthelmintic resistance has threatened this chemotherapeutic approach. In Africa, the overall prevalence of anthelmintic resistance has not been extensively investigated, particularly within the resource-poor farming sector, but resistance has been reported from at least 14 countries with most of the reports emanating from Kenya and South Africa and the majority concerning H. contortus. While levels of resistance under commercial sheep farming systems in South Africa is considered to be amongst the worst in the world, resistance has also been reported from the resource-poor farming sector. Increases in productivity and reproduction of livestock and the development of markets for sale of animals are seen by international funding bodies as a way out of poverty for communities that keep livestock. This must lead to the greater need for parasite control. At such times, the risk of levels of anthelmintic resistance escalating is much greater and there is therefore a need to look at alternatives to their use. Proposed strategies include the appropriate, but judicious use of anthelmintics by application of the FAMACHA system and the use of alternatives to anthelmintics such as strategic nutrient supplementation. It is also very clear that there is a strong demand for knowledge about animal diseases, including helminthosis, and their effective management in the resource-poor livestock farming communities. This is an important challenge to meet.

  10. Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Haemonchus contortus in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, R B; Kahn, L P; Sargison, N D; Van Wyk, J A

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favour the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favourability. The clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis is based mostly on the detection of anaemia in association with a characteristic epidemiological picture, and confirmed at postmortem by the finding of large numbers of H. contortus in the abomasum. The detection of impending haemonchosis relies chiefly on periodic monitoring for anaemia, including through the 'FAMACHA' conjunctival-colour index, or through faecal worm egg counts and other laboratory procedures. A range of anthelmintics for use against H. contortus is available, but in most endemic situations anthelmintic resistance significantly limits the available treatment options. Effective preventative programmes vary depending on environments and enterprise types, and according to the scale of the haemonchosis risk and the local epidemiology of infections, but should aim to prevent disease outbreaks while maintaining anthelmintic efficacy. Appropriate strategies include animal management programmes to avoid excessive H. contortus challenge, genetic and nutritional approaches to enhance resistance and resilience to infection, and the monitoring of H. contortus infection on an individual animal or flock basis. Specific strategies to manage anthelmintic resistance centre on the appropriate use of effective anthelmintics, and refugia-based treatment schedules. Alternative approaches, such as biological control, may also prove useful, and vaccination against H. contortus appears to have significant potential in control programmes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing anthelmintic resistance in small ruminant livestock of resource-poor farmers in South Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Vatta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the most important disease complexes of sheep and goats impacting on the resource-poor livestock farmer. Of the responsible nematodes, Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking worm of the abomasum, poses possibly the greatest threat. Over the past several decades, the worm has been controlled through the use of anthelmintics, but the emergence of anthelmintic resistance has threatened this chemotherapeutic approach. In Africa, the overall prevalence of anthelmintic resistance has not been extensively investigated, particularly within the resource-poor farming sector, but resistance has been reported from at least 14 countries with most of the reports emanating from Kenya and South Africa and the majority concerning H. contortus. While levels of resistance under commercial sheep farming systems in South Africa is considered to be amongst the worst in the world, resistance has also been reported from the resource-poor farming sector. Increases in productivity and reproduction of livestock and the development of markets for sale of animals are seen by international funding bodies as a way out of poverty for communities that keep livestock. This must lead to the greater need for parasite control. At such times, the risk of levels of anthelmintic resistance escalating is much greater and there is therefore a need to look at alternatives to their use. Proposed strategies include the appropriate, but judicious use of anthelmintics by application of the FAMACHA(c system and the use of alternatives to anthelmintics such as strategic nutrient supplementation. It is also very clear that there is a strong demand for knowledge about animal diseases, including helminthosis, and their effective management in the resource-poor livestock farming communities. This is an important challenge to meet.

  12. Intravaginal Lactic Acid Bacteria Modulated Local and Systemic Immune Responses and Lowered the Incidence of Uterine Infections in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qilan; Odhiambo, John F.; Farooq, Umar; Lam, Tran; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cocktail around parturition could influence the immune response, incidence rate of uterine infections, and the overall health status of periparturient dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups as follows: 1) one dose of LAB on wk -2 and -1, and one dose of carrier (sterile skim milk) on wk +1 relative to the expected day of parturition (TRT1); 2) one dose of LAB on wk -2, -1, and +1 (TRT2), and 3) one dose of carrier on wk -2, -1, and +1 (CTR). The LAB were a lyophilized culture mixture composed of Lactobacillus sakei FUA3089, Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3138, and Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3140 with a cell count of 108-109 cfu/dose. Blood samples and vaginal mucus were collected once a week from wk -2 to +3 and analyzed for content of serum total immunoglobulin G (IgG), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and vaginal mucus secretory IgA (sIgA). Clinical observations including rectal temperature, vaginal discharges, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and laminitis were monitored from wk -2 to +8 relative to calving. Results showed that intravaginal LAB lowered the incidence of metritis and total uterine infections. Intravaginal LAB also were associated with lower concentrations of systemic LBP, an overall tendency for lower SAA, and greater vaginal mucus sIgA. No differences were observed for serum concentrations of Hp, TNF, IL-1, IL-6 and total IgG among the treatment groups. Administration with LAB had no effect on the incidence rates of other transition cow diseases. Overall intravaginal LAB lowered uterine infections and improved local and systemic immune responses in the treated transition dairy cows. PMID:25919010

  13. Low cortisol levels in blood from dairy cows with ketosis: a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Bernt V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An elevated plasma glucose concentration has been considered to be a potential risk factor in the pathogenesis of left-displaced abomasums (DA. Therefore the present study was performed to investigate if spontaneous disease (parturient paresis, metritis, ketosis etc in dairy cows results in elevated concentrations of glucose and cortisol in blood as cortisol is the major regulator of glucose in ruminants. Methods Cortisol, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and serum calcium were analyzed in blood serum and glucose, in whole blood, from 57 spontaneously diseased cows collected at different farms. The cows were grouped according to the disease; parturient paresis, recumbent for other reasons, mastitis, metritis, ketosis, inappetance and others. Results No elevated concentrations of cortisol or glucose were found in cows with metritis and mastitis but both cortisol and glucose were elevated in cows stressed by recumbency. Cows with ketonemia (BHBA > 1.5 mmol/l did not have low concentration of glucose in blood but significantly low levels of cortisol. Some of these cows even had cortisol concentrations below the detection limit of the analysing method ( Conclusions The study gives patho-physiological support to the treatment strategies of ketosis, recommending glucocorticoids, insulin etc. However further studies of this problem are needed to understand why cows with ketosis have low levels of cortisol and normal levels of glucose. To what extent elevated cortisol and glucose levels in hypocalcemic and recumbent cows are involved in the ethiology and /or the pathogenesis of DA also will need further research.

  14. Intravaginal lactic Acid bacteria modulated local and systemic immune responses and lowered the incidence of uterine infections in periparturient dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilan Deng

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB cocktail around parturition could influence the immune response, incidence rate of uterine infections, and the overall health status of periparturient dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups as follows: 1 one dose of LAB on wk -2 and -1, and one dose of carrier (sterile skim milk on wk +1 relative to the expected day of parturition (TRT1; 2 one dose of LAB on wk -2, -1, and +1 (TRT2, and 3 one dose of carrier on wk -2, -1, and +1 (CTR. The LAB were a lyophilized culture mixture composed of Lactobacillus sakei FUA3089, Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3138, and Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3140 with a cell count of 108-109 cfu/dose. Blood samples and vaginal mucus were collected once a week from wk -2 to +3 and analyzed for content of serum total immunoglobulin G (IgG, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP, serum amyloid A (SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, and vaginal mucus secretory IgA (sIgA. Clinical observations including rectal temperature, vaginal discharges, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and laminitis were monitored from wk -2 to +8 relative to calving. Results showed that intravaginal LAB lowered the incidence of metritis and total uterine infections. Intravaginal LAB also were associated with lower concentrations of systemic LBP, an overall tendency for lower SAA, and greater vaginal mucus sIgA. No differences were observed for serum concentrations of Hp, TNF, IL-1, IL-6 and total IgG among the treatment groups. Administration with LAB had no effect on the incidence rates of other transition cow diseases. Overall intravaginal LAB lowered uterine infections and improved local and systemic immune responses in the treated transition dairy cows.

  15. Effect of Calcium Borogluconate Injection pre and Immediately Postpartum on Production Performance, Incidence of Metabolic Disorders and Situation of the Uterus After Calving in Cows Fed Anionic Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Amanlou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of calcium borogluconate injection 48 and 24 hours prepartum and immediately after parturition on dry matter intake at day of calving, milk yield, incidence of metabolic disorders and uterine conditions during the first 21 days postpartum in cows fed anionic diets. Thirty six lactating dairy cows were balanced by parity (1, 2, 3+ and allocated to 4 subcutaneous injection treatments of 15.2 gr calcium as borogluconate at different times pre and postpartum than expected calving date . Group 1 consisted of 9 cows receiving no treatment before or after parturition. Group 2 consisted of 9 cows receiving calcium borogluconate 48 h prepartum.Group 3 consisted of 9 cows receiving calcium borogluconate 24 h prepartum. Group 4 consisted of 9 cows receiving 15.2 gr of ca as borogluconate immediately postpartum. Dry matter intake was in treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 10.87, 12.32, 12.63 and 15.03 kg in the first 24 h after calving, respectively And indicated significantly difference among treatments. milk yield in 2, 3 and 4 treatments was significantly greater than group 1 in the first 21 days of lactation (38.7, 38.9, 40.3 vs 36.07 kg/d. Treatment had a significant effect on the subclinical hypocalcemia incidence so incidence risk of subclinical hypocalcemia in 1 treatment was 10 times more likely than 4 treatment. Data regression analysis indicated that 4 treatment had a significant effect on the ketosis incidence. So that the cows no calcium injection 2.43 times more likely to experience ketosis than 4 treatment. But experimental treatments were not significantly effect on the incidence of milk fever, displacement abomasum, retained placenta, metritis and endometritis. In general, calcium injection, especially immediately after parturation increased the dry matter intake in day of calving and reduced metabolic disorders such as hypocalcaemia and ketosis.

  16. Desenvolvimento alométrico do trato gastrintestinal de bezerros da raça holandesa alimentados com diferentes dietas líquidas durante o aleitamento - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1729 Alometric growth of gastrointestinal tract of holstein calves fed with diferent liquid diets during milking period - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1729

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Martines Baraldi Artoni

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram utilizados 12 bezerros da raça Holandesa distribuídos em três tratamentos, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos leite integral e dois tipos de sucedâneos comerciais Lactal® e Destetor®, avaliaram o desenvolvimento alométrico do sistema digestório, altura da papila do rúmen e do retículo, e altura e comprimento das cristas do omaso. O aleitamento dos animais transcorreu por um período de 60 dias, e, ao serem abatidos, todos os órgãos do trato digestório foram pesados e comparados, com destaque para o estômago (rúmen, retículo, omaso e abomaso. Não foram observadas diferenças (p>0,05 nas proporções dos diferentes compartimentos do estômago dos bezerros submetidos aos tratamentos. No entanto, verificou-se diferença (pIn this work 12 Holstein calves were used distributed in three treatment, on a completely randomized desing with four replicatin. The treatments were used, integral milk and two types of comercial milk replacer Lactal® and Destetor® to evaluate the digestive system alometric growthof the including, rumen and reticulum papillae heigth and omasum rigde growth. The animals were milking for 60 days and after slaughtring, their digest system organs were weighed and stomach complex compared (rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. No difference (P>0.05 due to treatments were obseved for the proportions among the diferent stomach compartiments of the calves. However, differences (P<0.05 for the papillae height of rumen and for the rigde lenght of omasum were observed. The milk replacers in this work resulted in a good calve growth being an alternative source of feed during mlking period.

  17. Diagnose of the ingestion of Asclepias mellodora St. Hil. by sheep through microhistological analysis of their digestive contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvia Cid

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Asclepias mellodora St. Hil. is a native acute toxic species frequent in the grasslands of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina, whose toxicity had not been assessed until now. This study evaluates the minimal lethal dose of this species for sheep, and the possibility of microscopically recognizing its fragments in gastrointestinal contents as a complementary diagnostic tool in necropsies. Three Frisona sheep (average LW=55±4.5 kg were dosed via an esophageal tube with each one of the following doses of asclepias: 8.0, 5.0, 2.0 and 0.8 g DM.kg LW-1. Sheep poisoned with the three higher doses died between 10 and 85 h after intoxication, but those receiving the lower dose did not. During necropsies we: 1 determined the dry weight of the contents of rumen+reticulum, omasum+abomasum, and large intestine, 2 estimated the percentages of asclepias fragments by microanalysis correcting for digestion effects on fragment recognition, and 3 calculated the total mass of asclepias in the digestive tract of each animal. For the three higher doses, the mass of asclepias identified in the total ingesta was 12.3±3.4% of the amount supplied, possibly because of the strong diarrhea its ingestion produced. The percentages of asclepias in rumen+reticulum did not differ from the average quantified for the entire tract. The results of this study indicate that the minimal lethal doses of asclepias for sheep is between 2.0 and 0.8g DM·kg LW-1, and that the microhistological analysis of the rumen+reticulum, the easiest region to sample, can be used to confirm the ingestion of this toxic species, although the estimated percentage will be not a good estimator of the ingested percentage.

  18. Clinical and pathological effects of Calotropis procera exposure in sheep and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Joseney Maia; de Freitas, Francisco Joelson Correia; Amorim, Raimundo Neilson Lima; Câmara, Antônio Carlos Lopes; Batista, Jael Soares; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the toxic effects resulting from the administration of Calotropis procera (Aiton) W. T. Aiton latex to rats and C. procera leaves to sheep. We studied male sheep that received C. procera leaves by gavage. Twenty male rats were separated into 5 groups and were subjected to an intra-peritoneal injection of fresh C. procera latex (without carrier solvent) at 1.0, 0.6, 0.3 or 0.1 ml of latex/kg of body weight, and control animals were injected with 0.9% NaCl. All rats were treated with the highest dose, but none of the rats from the other groups, died. The histological lesions were restricted to rats dosed with 1.0 ml of latex/kg body weight and included multi-focal coagulation necrosis of cardiac fibers and vacuolized hepatocytes. Subsequently, three groups of two sheep were treated with (1) a single dose of 30 g/kg, (2) a single dose of 60 g/kg or (3) 60 g/kg per day for 10 consecutive days. Exposure to the C. procera leaves was responsible for tachycardia and transitory cardiac arrhythmias in sheep from all groups. Gross pathological analysis of sheep dosed with 60 g/kg per day for 10 days revealed mild ascites, exudates on the trachea, pulmonary edema, mild hemorrhage in the liver, hydropericardium, flaccid heart, ulcers on the abomasum and kidneys presenting pale juxtamedullary cortex. The histological findings of the rat and sheep studies were similar and included multi-focal coagulation necrosis of cardiac fibers and vacuolized hepatocytes. In conclusion, our findings indicate that C. procera is a cardiotoxic and hepatotoxic plant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Herd characteristics and cow-level factors associated with Prototheca mastitis on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, L; Godkin, A; Roesler, U; Polleichtner, A; Slavic, D; Leslie, K E; Kelton, D F

    2012-10-01

    Prototheca spp. are algae that cause incurable acute or chronic mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of this case-control study was the identification of cow- and herd-level risk factors for this unusual mastitis pathogen. Aseptically collected composite milk samples from 2,428 milking cows in 23 case and 23 control herds were collected between January and May 2011. A questionnaire was administered to the producers, and cow-level production and demographic data were gathered. In 58 of 64 isolates, Prototheca spp. and Prototheca zopfii genotypes were differentiated using PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. All isolates were identified as Prototheca zopfii genotype 2. The mean within-herd prevalence for Prototheca spp. was 5.1% (range 0.0-12.5%). Case herds had a significantly lower herd-level prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and a higher prevalence of yeasts than did control herds. The final logistic regression model for herd-level risk factors included use of intramammary injections of a non-intramammary drug [odds ratio (OR) = 136.8], the number of different injectable antibiotic products being used (OR = 2.82), the use of any dry cow teat sealant (external OR = 80.0; internal OR = 34.2), and having treated 3 or more displaced abomasums in the last 12 mo OR = 44.7). The final logistic regression model for cow-level risk factors included second or greater lactation (OR = 4.40) and the logarithm of the lactation-average somatic cell count (OR = 2.99). Unsanitary or repeated intramammary infusions, antibiotic treatment, and off-label use of injectable drugs in the udder might promote Prototheca udder infection. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Study of Eimeria Species in Sheep in Mosul City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to diagnose and study species of Eimeria in sheep in Mosul city from beginning of September2009 to end May 2010, as well as to determine the percentage and intensity of infection of Eimeria species. Five hundredfecal samples of sheep with different ages were collected from different areas of the Mosul city. The results showed that totalpercentage of Emeria infection was 63.6%. The variations in percentage of infection were recorded according to month ofstudy. Highest percentage was recorded in March being 89.2% and the lowest in September 25.9%. The species E. ovinarecorded the highest infection rate 86.7%, while the species E. granulosa represented lowest infection rate 10%. Moreover theintensity of infection was higher in young ages and lower in adult. The results were detected that indoor sheep infection withhigh parasitic infection 69.9% whereas outdoor animals have an infection rate 25.3%. The morphological characters of oocystswere varied according to species of Eimeria has been studied. Fifty of intestinal and abomasal samples from both slaughteredin shops butchery in Mosul city and dead animals were examined to detect Eimeria infection, and results show that infectionpercentage was 56.4% in intestine of slaughtered animals and 36.3% in dead animal. Moreover no infection of Eimeria weredetected in abomasums in both slaughtered and dead animals. The oocysts of (E. parva, E.pallida and E. ovinoidalis detectedat more than 5000 oocysts per gram of intestinal contents. The intestinal secraping stained with Giemsa stain reveals thepresence of different developmental stages of parasites in wall of intestine. The histopathological sections of intestine revealedthe different pathological changes concerning of Eimeria infection.

  1. Antepartal insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 concentrations are indicative of ketosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechotta, M; Mysegades, W; Ligges, U; Lilienthal, J; Hoeflich, A; Miyamoto, A; Bollwein, H

    2015-05-01

    A study involving a small number of cows found that the concentrations of insulin-like growth hormone 1 (IGF1) may be a useful predictor of metabolic disease. Further, IGF1 may provide also a pathophysiological link to metabolic diseases such as ketosis. The objective of the current study was to test whether the low antepartal total IGF1 or IGF1 binding protein (IGFBP) concentrations might predict ketosis under field conditions. Clinical examinations and blood sampling were performed antepartum (262-270 d after artificial insemination) on 377 pluriparous pregnant Holstein Friesian cows. The presence of postpartum diseases were recorded (ketosis, fatty liver, displacement of the abomasum, hypocalcemia, mastitis, retention of fetal membranes, and clinical metritis or endometritis), and the concentrations of IGF1, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, and nonesterified fatty acids were measured. Cows with postpartum clinical ketosis had lower IGF1 concentrations antepartum than healthy cows. The sensitivity of antepartal IGF1 as a marker for postpartum ketosis was 0.87, and the specificity was 0.43; a positive predictive value of 0.91 and a negative predictive value of 0.35 were calculated. The cows with ketosis and retained fetal membranes had lower IGFBP2 concentrations compared with the healthy cows. It can be speculated that lower IGF1 production in the liver during late pregnancy may increase growth hormone secretions and lipolysis, thereby increasing the risk of ketosis. Lower IGFBP2 concentrations may reflect the suppression of IGFBP2 levels through higher growth hormone secretion. In conclusion, compared with nonesterified fatty acids as a predictive parameter, IGF1 and IGFBP2 may represent earlier biomarkers of inadequate metabolic adaptation to the high energy demand required postpartum. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Equilíbrio eletrolítico e ácido-base em bovinos Eletroctrolyte and acid-base balance in bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Dias Freitas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento sobre a fisiologia e regulação dos eletrólitos e do equilíbrio ácido-base é necessário, pois a saúde do animal depende diretamente da composição normal dos fluídos nos diversos compartimentos corporais. Esta regulação está intimamente entrelaçada em um rigoroso e preciso controle, de modo que uma anormalidade em um destes compartimentos reflete na alteração dos demais. A avaliação do equilíbrio eletrolítico e ácido-base pode fornecer informações fundamentais para o diagnóstico, prognóstico e decisão terapêutica de diversas enfermidades nos bovinos, tais como diarreias neonatais, hemoparasitoses (anaplasmose e a babesiose, deslocamento de abomaso e processos de sépticos. As correções destas alterações com medidas terapêuticas adequadas são pontos chave para minimizar as perdas por mortalidade causadas por estas enfermidades.The knowledge of the physiology and regulation of electrolytes and blood gas parameters is necessary because the health of the animal depends directly on the normal composition of fluid in body compartments. The regulation of these is closely intertwined with a rigorous and precise control so that an abnormality in one of these compartments reflects the change in the other. The evaluation of electrolyte and acid-base balance can provide key information for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic decision for several diseases in animals such as neonatal diarrhea, anaplasmosis and babesiosis, displacement of abomasum and septic processes. The corrections of these changes with appropriate treatment are key to minimizing losses due to mortality in these diseases.

  3. The digestive morphophysiology of wild, free-living, giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G; Roberts, D G; van Sittert, S J

    2015-09-01

    We have measured rumen-complex (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum) and intestine (small and large combined) mass in 32 wild giraffes of both sexes with body masses ranging from 289 to 1441 kg, and parotid gland mass, tongue length and mass, masseter and mandible mass in 9 other giraffes ranging in body mass from 181 to 1396 kg. We have estimated metabolic and energy production rates, feed intake and home range size. Interspecific analysis of mature ruminants show that components of the digestive system increase linearly (Mb(1)) or positively allometric (Mb(>1)) with body mass while variables associated with feed intake scale with metabolic rate (Mb(.75)). Conversely, in giraffes ontogenetic increases in rumen-complex mass were negatively allometric (Mb(<1)), and increases in intestine mass, parotid gland mass, masseter mass, and mandible mass were isometric (Mb(1)). The relative masseter muscle mass (0.14% of Mb) and the relative parotid mass (0.03% of Mb) are smaller than in other ruminants. Increases in tongue length scale with head length(0.72) and Mb(.32) and tongue mass with Mb(.69). Absolute mass of the gastrointestinal tract increased throughout growth but its relative mass declined from 20% to 15% of Mb. Rumen-complex fermentation provides ca 43% of daily energy needs, large intestine fermentation 24% and 33% by digestion of soluble carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Dry matter intake (kg) was 2.4% of body mass in juveniles and 1.6% in adults. Energy requirements increased from 35 Mj/day to 190 Mj/day. Browse production rate sustains a core home range of 2.2-11.8 km(2). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Resistance of Cooperia to ivermectin treatments in grazing cattle of the Humid Pampa, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiel, C A; Saumell, C A; Steffan, P E; Rodriguez, E M

    2001-06-12

    A field experiment and a controlled efficacy trial were conducted to demonstrate resistance of cattle trichostrongylid nematodes to endectocidal compounds in grazing cattle on the Humid Pampa, Argentina. Male Polled Hereford calves, aged 9-11 months old, with a history of frequent treatments with compounds of the avermectin/milbemycin class, were used for the trial. The field experiment involved six groups of 10 animals each, which were subcutaneously treated with either ivermectin (IVM), long-acting ivermectin (LA-IVM), moxidectin (MXD) or doramectin (DRM) at a dosage of 0.2mg/kg BW. A fifth group was treated orally with fenbendazole at a dosage of 5mg/kg BW; the sixth group of calves served as non-treated control. Faecal samples were collected from each animal on the day of treatment and at 14 days after treatment. Nematode egg counts were performed to estimate the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). The FECRT showed that reductions were 65% (IVM), -20% (LA-IVM) and 85% (DRM). Egg counts from calves treated with MXD or fenbendazole were reduced by 95 and 100%, respectively. For the controlled efficacy trial, six animals with the highest egg counts from the IVM, LA-IVM and non-treated control groups, were necropsied on day 18 after treatment to determine numbers and nematode species in the abomasum and small intestine. The results indicated that efficacy against Cooperia oncophora was 62.7 and 48% for IVM and LA-IVM, respectively. Neither of the IVM formulations showed efficacy against Trichostrongylus spp. in the small intestine. However, the absence of Trichostrongylus spp. in some animals of both treated and control groups precluded a valid assessment of efficacy or resistance. It was concluded that resistance of trichostrongylid nematodes to the avermectin/milbemycin class of compounds in grazing cattle of the Humid Pampa, Argentina, may be strongly established on farms where cattle are treated at frequent intervals throughout the year.

  5. Anthelmintic resistance of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora to macrocyclic lactones in cattle from the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M D; Johnson, E G; Edmonds, J D

    2010-06-24

    In June 2008, 122 yearling heifers with a history of anthelmintic resistance were obtained from pastures in northern California and transported to a dry lot facility in southwestern Idaho, USA. Fifty heifers with the highest fecal egg counts were selected for study enrollment. Candidates were equally randomized to treatment with either injectable ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial, 0.2 mg kg(-1) BW), injectable moxidectin (Cydectin), Fort Dodge, 0.2 mg kg(-1) BW), oral fenbendazole (Safe-Guard), Intervet, 5.0 mg kg(-1) BW), oral oxfendazole (Synanthic), Fort Dodge, 4.5 mg kg(-1) BW), or saline. At 14 days post-treatment, nematodes were recovered from the abomasum, small intestine, and large intestine. Parasitism was confirmed in the control group when 10/10 animals were infected with adult Ostertagia ostertagi and 9/10 animals with both developing and early L(4) stages of O. ostertagi. Similarly, 9/10 animals were parasitized with adult Cooperia spp. Fenbendazole and oxfendazole efficacy verses controls were >90% against adult Cooperia spp., while moxidectin caused an 88% parasite reduction post-treatment (PCooperia spp. Based on geometric mean percent reduction versus saline controls, all four treatments were >or=90% efficacious against adults of O. ostertagi, while moxidectin and fenbendazole were equally effective against developing and inhibited early L(4) stages (P90% but was efficacious for inhibited early L(4) larvae. Based on the results of this study, a source of multi-species anthelmintic resistance in cattle has been identified in the western United States. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Comparison of two methods of local anaesthesia for laparotomy in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, K; Eiberle, B J; Sauter-Louis, C

    2012-01-01

    To compare the feasibility and efficacy of two methods of local anaesthesia with procaine 2% for flank laparotomy in cattle. MATERIAL UND METHODS: A total of 100 cattle undergoing laparotomy were divided into two groups of 50: one group underwent a modified infiltration anaesthesia (MIA) technique consisting of an incisional line block combined with an inverted L-block, and the other group underwent proximal paravertebral anaesthesia (PPVA). Indications for laparotomy were displaced abomasum, caecal disorders, rumenotomy and exploratory laparotomy. The two methods were compared with regard to the reaction of the cows to the application of anaesthesia, the degree of difficulty and the amount of time and anaesthetic agent required. The reactions of the cattle to incision of the various layers of the abdominal wall, abdominal exploration and surgical closure of the abdomen were assessed. Both techniques required a mean of 8 minutes to complete but the MIA method was considered more difficult than the PPVA (p=0.13). The PPVA required significantly (pprocaine than the MIA (144 vs. 195ml). Comparison of the two techniques with respect to different types of pain reactions (no reaction, non-specific reaction, specific reaction) during cutting of the different layers of the abdominal wall revealed that PPVA provided significantly (p=0.01) better analgesia than the MIA. After PPVA, pain reactions to incision of the external oblique abdominal muscle were more severe, but reactions to abdominal exploration and to suturing the two oblique abdominal muscles were significantly (pprocaine and mild tranquillization (Xylazine; 0.01mg/kg i.v.) before laparotomy. For PPVA, a combination of procaine and epinephrine should be used. It would be advantageous to have anaesthetic agents, e.g. lidocaine, that are more potent than procaine 2% for local analgesia in cattle.

  7. Effects of isovalerate supplements on morphology and functional gene expression of rumen mucosa in pre- and post-weaning dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Wang, C; Guo, G; Huo, W J; Zhang, Y L; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Wang, H

    2017-08-02

    Isovalerate supplements could stimulate rumen development by improving morphology and function of rumen mucosa, and then promote the growth of calves. This study was done to evaluate the effects of isovalerate supplements on morphology and functional gene expression of rumen mucosa in dairy calves. In total, 48 Chinese Holstein male calves with 15 days of age and 45.1±0.36 kg of BW were randomly assigned to four groups. The treatments were: control, low-isovalerate, moderate-isovalerate and high-isovalerate with 0, 3, 6 and 9 g isovalerate per calf per day, respectively. Supplementary isovalerate was hand-mixed into milk in pre-weaning calves and into concentrate portion in post-weaning calves. The study consisted of a 15-day-adaptation period and a 60-day-sampling period. Calves were weaned at 60 days of age. Three calves were slaughtered from each of the four treatments at 30, 60 and 90 days of age. The weight of body and stomach were measured, samples of ruminal tissues and blood were analyzed. Total stomach weight, total stomach to BW ratio, rumen wall and keratinized layer thickness, serum growth hormone and IGF-1 for both pre- and post-weaning calves increased linearly with increasing isovalerate supplements. Rumen to total stomach weight ratio, the length and width of rumen papillae, and serum β-hydroxybutyrate increased linearly for post-weaning calves. However, abomasum weight to total stomach weight ratio decreased linearly for both pre- and post-weaning calves. The relative messenger RNA expression for growth hormone receptor, IGF-1 receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 in rumen mucosa increased linearly for post-weaning calves. Our results suggested that isovalerate supplements promoted rumen development in a dose-dependent manner. The optimum dose was 6.0 g isovalerate per calf per day.

  8. An attempt to prevent production diseases in dairy cows by intense monitoring and ad hoc treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo G. Coiatelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A trial has been performed on 201 dairy cows from two Italian commercial herds in order to verify whether the mitigation of a recognized negative energy balance (NEB by a therapeutic mean may influence the incidence of peri-partum diseases. All animals were tested for beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-HOB and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA three times a week from 2 weeks before the expected due time to 2 weeks after calving. Animals whose blood levels were above β-HOB>1.2 or NEFA>0.5 mmol/L were declared POSITIVE and then split in two groups. Group T animals (n=57 were treated with a glycogenic treatment (ENERGAN KETOSIS, Virbac. The treatment was repeated daily as long as biochemical values remained abnormal. Group C animals (n=48 served as untreated controls. Animals with values within the physiological range over the study period were said NEGATIVE (n=96. This study confirmed that animals presenting excessive β-HOB or NEFA concentrations show a higher risk to get sick during the study period (P<0.05, the major risk being clinical ketosis (P<0.01 and in a lesser extend retention of the placenta (P=0.09. The application of a glycogenic treatment did not show an impact on blood metabolite levels due to huge individual differences. However, application of the treatment for an average duration of 5 days tends to reduce the incidence of all the diseases related to a NEB. Moreover, untreated control animals were more likely to get dislocation of the abomasum (P<0.05 than NEGATIVE animals whereas treated animals were not.

  9. Developing a conceptual model of possible benefits of condensed tannins for ruminant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, L O; Ramírez-Restrepo, C A; Muir, J P

    2014-07-01

    Enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants have compelled a wide range of research initiatives to identify environmental abatement opportunities. However, although such mitigations can theoretically be attained with feed additives and feeding strategies, the limited empirical evidence on plant extracts used as feed additives does not support extensive or long-term reductions. Nevertheless, their strategic use (i.e. alone or combined in a simultaneous or consecutive use) may provide not only acceptable CH4 abatement levels, but also relevant effects on animal physiology and productivity. Condensed tannins (CT) represent a range of polyphenolic compounds of flavan-3-ol units present in some forage species that can also be added to prepared diets. Methods to determine CT, or their conjugated metabolites, are not simple. Although there are limitations and uncertainties about the methods to be applied, CT are thought to reduce CH4 production (1) indirectly by binding to the dietary fibre and/or reducing the rumen digestion and digestibility of the fibre and (2) directly by inhibiting the growth of rumen methanogens. On the basis of their role in livestock nutrition, CT influence the digestion of protein in the rumen because of their affinity for proteins (e.g. oxidative coupling and H bonding at neutral pH) that causes the CT-protein complex to be insoluble in the rumen; and dissociate in the abomasum at pH 2.5 to 3.0 for proteolysis and absorption in the small intestine. CT may also reduce gastro-intestinal parasite burdens and improve reproductive performance, foetal development, immune system response, hormone serum concentrations, wool production and lactation. The objectives of this paper are to discuss some of the beneficial and detrimental effects of CT on ruminant production systems and to develop a conceptual model to illustrate these metabolic relationships in terms of systemic physiology using earlier investigations with the CT-containing legume Lotus

  10. Inclusion of psyllium in milk replacer for neonatal calves. 2. Effects on volatile fatty acid concentrations, microbial populations, and gastrointestinal tract size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S J; Fahey, G C; Pope, L L; Bauer, L L; Wallace, R L; Miller, B L; Drackley, J K

    2010-10-01

    Fermentable fibers such as psyllium increase volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in the lower digestive tract and increase the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) mass of many mammals. We reasoned that psyllium inclusion in milk replacer might produce similar effects in neonatal dairy calves, which could lead to improved growth and health. Male Holstein calves were fed a milk replacer (22% crude protein, 20% fat) either without or with psyllium (1.1% of dry matter, DM) from 2 d through 28 d of age. Milk replacer was reconstituted to 12.5% DM and fed at 12% of calf body weight, adjusted weekly. Water was offered ad libitum but no starter was fed. Three calves per treatment were harvested weekly to sample digesta from the reticulo-rumen, abomasum, jejunum, proximal colon, and distal colon, and to determine length and mass of GIT components. Psyllium in milk replacer increased the proportion of butyrate in reticulo-rumen contents from 2.4 to 3.2% of total but did not affect total VFA concentrations. Total VFA concentrations were very low in the jejunum but psyllium tended to increase total VFA, acetate, and valerate concentrations; valerate accounted for 15.9 and 16.7% of total VFA (molar basis) for control and psyllium calves, respectively. Psyllium increased total VFA concentrations in the proximal and distal colon by 104.4 and 45.6%, respectively, but had little effect on the profile of VFA. Psyllium in milk replacer increased populations of bifidobacteria (from 9.7 to 10.3 log(10) cfu/g of DM) and lactobacilli (from 8.2 to 9.4 log(10) cfu/g of DM) in the reticulo-rumen, but did not affect populations in jejunum or colon. Calves fed psyllium had 12.0% greater total GIT mass and 9.4% greater GIT as a percentage of body weight. Psyllium tended to increase mass of the reticulo-rumen and significantly increased mass of duodenum (34.2%), jejunum (14.5%), and colon (14.6%). Density of intestinal tissues from calves fed psyllium-supplemented milk replacer was 25.9% greater

  11. In vivo and in situ measurements of the digestive characteristics of sainfoin in comparison with lucerne fed to sheep as fresh forages at two growth stages and as hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufrère, J; Dudilieu, M; Poncet, C

    2008-09-01

    In vivo and in situ digestive characteristics of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia L., a tannin-rich forage) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L., a tannin-free forage) were compared to evaluate the effects of condensed tannins (CT) and growth stage (vegetative v. early flowering) in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the hays of the two forages, harvested at early flowering, were compared. Ingestibility, organic matter digestibility (OMD) and nitrogen (N) retention were measured in sheep fed sainfoin and lucerne fresh forages and hays. The loss of dry matter (DM) and N from polyester bags suspended in the rumen, abomasum and small intestine was also measured using rumen fistulated sheep and other intestine fistulated sheep. Nitrogen content was lower in sainfoin than in lucerne. Content of CT in sainfoin decreased with growth stage (3.5 to 2.5 g CT/kg DM) and was lower for sainfoin hay (0.6 g CT/kg DM). Ingestibility and OMD did not differ between fresh-fed forage species. Total N tract digestibility in vivo was much lower for sainfoin than for lucerne fresh forages (mean value 0.540 v. 0.721, P < 0.001) and for sainfoin hay than lucerne hay (0.464 v. 0.683, P < 0.001). In both species, N digestibility was not altered by growth stage. The rumen degradation of N was lower in sainfoin than in lucerne, resulting in a lower proportion of N intake excreted in urine. The intestinal digestibility of sainfoin was also lower than that of lucerne, resulting in a higher N excretion in faeces. Hence the efficiency of N utilisation by sheep (ENr) was similar (mean value 0.205 and 0.199 g N retained/g N intake for fresh sainfoin and lucerne, respectively). The coefficient of N retention by the animal was higher for sainfoin at the vegetative stage than for all the other forages. Nitrogen degradability in the rumen determined by the nylon bag technique (DegN) was lower for sainfoin than for lucerne when forages were studied both fresh (mean value 0.608 and 0.818, respectively) and as hays

  12. Effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage and hay on established populations of Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia curticei in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, Felix; Häring, Dieter Adrian; Maurer, Veronika; Zinsstag, Jakob; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hertzberg, Hubertus

    2006-12-20

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of dried and ensiled sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on established populations of Haemonchus contortus (abomasum) and Cooperia curticei (small intestine) in lambs under controlled conditions. Twenty-four parasite naïve lambs were inoculated with a single dose of infective larvae of these parasites 28 days prior to the start of the feeding experiment. Twenty-four days post-infection, 4 days prior to the start of the feeding experiment, animals were allocated to four groups according to egg excretion, live weight and sex. Groups A and B received sainfoin hay and control hay, respectively, for 16 days. Groups C and D were fed on sainfoin silage or control silage for the same period. Feeds were offered ad libitum and on the basis of daily refusals were supplemented with concentrate in order to make them isoproteic and isoenergetic. Individual faecal egg counts on a dry matter basis (FECDM) were performed every 3-4 days and faecal cultures and packed cell volume (PCV) measurements were done weekly. After 16 days of experimental feeding, all animals were slaughtered and adult worm populations were determined. The consumption of conserved sainfoin was associated with a reduction of adult H. contortus (47% in the case of hay, P<0.05; 49% in the case of silage, P=0.075) but had little effect on adult C. curticei. Compared to the controls, H. contortus specific FECDM was reduced by 58% (P<0.01) in the sainfoin hay group and by 48% (P=0.075) in the sainfoin silage group. For both sainfoin feeds FECDM specific to C. curticei were significantly decreased when compared to the control feeds (hay 81% and silage 74%, both tests P<0.001). Our data suggest that different mechanisms were responsible for the reduction in FECDM in response to feeding tanniferous fodder. For H. contortus, the decrease seemed to be due to a nematocidal effect towards adult H. contortus. In contrast for C. curticei, the reduction in FECDM appeared to

  13. Efeito da substituição do feno de Tifton 85 pelo caroço de algodão como fonte de fibra na dieta de bezerros Effect of substitution of Tifton 85 hay by whole cotton seed as fiber source in the diets of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Bernardes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a substituição do feno Tifton 85 pelo caroço de algodão como fonte de fibra na dieta foram utilizados 24 bezerros da raça Holandesa, distribuídos em dois grupos. O grupo-feno recebeu feno e concentrado separados, fornecidos à vontade, e o grupo- algodão recebeu caroço de algodão incorporado ao concentrado (13,5%, à vontade. O consumo de alimentos, o peso, as alturas da cernelha e do íleo, as circunferências torácica e abdominal, a concentração de glicose sangüínea, as concentrações de acetato, propionato e butirato, o pH do fluido ruminal e os pesos dos compartimentos do estômago foram mensurados. O consumo de alimentos, o desenvolvimento ponderal dos animais, as concentrações de acetato, propionato e butirato, o pH do fluido ruminal, as concentrações de glicose sangüíneas e o peso dos compartimentos do estômago foram semelhantes entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. À necropsia, não foram observadas alterações sugestivas de intoxicação por gossipol. Concluiu-se que o caroço de algodão substituiu, sem prejuízos, o feno como fonte de fibra na dieta de bezerros.Twenty-four Holstein calves divided into two groups were used to evaluate Tifton 85 hay or whole cotton seed as fiber source in their diets. One group received Tifton 85 hay and concentrate ad libitum (hay group and the other received ad libitum (cotton group only concentrate with whole cotton seed incorporated (13,5%. Feed intake; weight; whither and ileum heights; thoracic and abdominal circumferences; acetate, propionate and butyric concentrations; pH of ruminal content; blood glucose; and rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum weights were measured. Feed intake; animal performance; acetate, propionate and butyric concentrations; pH of ruminal content; blood glucose and weight of stomach compartments did not differ between the groups (P>0.05. No clinical evidence of gossypol intoxication was observed. It was concluded that whole cotton seed

  14. Study of the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on rumen fermentation and microbial protein contribution to the chyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, A; Abecia, L; Holtrop, G; Guada, J A; Castrillo, C; de la Fuente, G; Balcells, J

    2011-12-01

    bacterial-N flow through the abomasum by 33%, whereas the protozoa-N contribution to the microbial N flow increased from 1.9 to 14.1% when barley grain was added to the alfalfa hay. Absolute data related to intestinal flow must be treated with caution because the limitations of the sampling and maker system employed.

  15. Use of rumination and activity monitoring for the identification of dairy cows with health disorders: Part III. Metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Caixeta, L S; Al-Abri, M A; Giordano, J O

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the performance of an automated health-monitoring system (AHMS) to identify cows with metritis based on an alert system (health index score, HIS) that combines rumination time and physical activity; (2) the number of days between the first HIS alert and clinical diagnosis (CD) of metritis by farm personnel; and (3) the daily rumination time, physical activity, and HIS patterns around CD. In this manuscript, the overall performance of HIS to detect cows with all disorders of interest in this study [ketosis, displaced abomasum, indigestion (companion paper, part I), mastitis (companion paper, part II), and metritis] is also reported. Holstein cattle (n=1,121; 451 nulliparous and 670 multiparous) were fitted with a neck-mounted electronic rumination and activity monitoring tag (HR Tags, SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel) from at least -21 to 80 d in milk (DIM). Raw data collected in 2-h periods were summarized per 24 h as daily rumination and activity. An HIS (0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated daily for individual cows with an algorithm that used rumination and activity. A positive HIS outcome was defined as an HIS of cows (n=459) at -11±3, -4±3, 0, 3±1, 7±1, 14±1, and 28±1 DIM. The overall sensitivity of HIS was 55% for all cases of metritis (n=349), but it was greater for cows with metritis and another disorder (78%) than for cows with metritis only (53%). Cows diagnosed with metritis and flagged based on HIS had substantial alterations in their rumination, activity, and HIS patterns around CD, alterations of blood markers of metabolic and health status around calving, reduced milk production, and were more likely to exit the herd than cows not flagged based on the HIS and cows without disease, suggesting that cows flagged based on the HIS had a more severe episode of metritis. Including all disorders of interest for this study, the overall sensitivity was 59%, specificity was 98%, positive predictive value was

  16. Toxico-kinetics, recovery efficiency and microsomal changes following administration of deltamethrin to black Bengal goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet, S; Chakraborty, A K; Koley, K M; Mandal, T K; Bhattacharyya, A

    2001-03-01

    A study of the toxico-kinetics, recovery percentage from different substrates, cytotoxicity and role of cytochrome P450 and b5 of liver microsome in the metabolism of deltamethrin were carried out in female black Bengal goat. The ALD50 value of deltamethrin in goat by intravenous route lies between 0.2 and 0.6 mg kg-1. Intravenous disposition kinetics using a dose of 0.2 mg kg-1 showed that the maximum blood concentration of deltamethrin was recorded at 0.5 min, followed by rapid decline, and a minimum concentration was detected at 6 min after administration. The following values were obtained: Vdarea 0.148 (+/- 0.02) litre kg-1; t1/2 (alpha) 0.22 (+/- 0.02) min; t1/2 (beta) 2.17 (+/- 0.37) min; Kel 1.05 (+/- 0.24) min-1; AUC 4.30 (+/- 0.45) micrograms min ml-1; ClB 0.05 (+/- 0.006) litre kg-1 min-1; T-B 1.93 (+/- 0.58); fc 0.40 (+/- 0.05). After 10 min, liver retained the maximum residue, and heart, adrenal gland, kidney, spleen, fat and brain also held the insecticide; liver, fat, heart and spleen retained residue after 30 min, and bone, liver and fat retained residue after 60 min of intravenous administration. Oral absorption of deltamethrin was poor and inconsistent, and approximately 65% of administered dose was recovered from faeces and gastrointestinal contents. The excretion of deltamethrin through urine was meagre, and only 0.01 and 0.013% of the administered dose was recovered after 3 and 5 days of oral administration respectively. All the tissues retained the residue after 3 days; while fat, rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, large and small intestine and bone retained the residue after 5 days of oral administration; and the percentage recoveries were 1.73 and 0.027 respectively. Deltamethrin reduced the level of cytochrome P450 content of liver microsomal pellet of goat after 5 days of oral administration. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney, heart, spleen brain and lung sections of treated goats did not reveal any pathological changes.

  17. Functional properties of butter oil made from bovine milk with experimentally altered fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Jimenez-Flores, R; Bremmer, D R; Clark, J H; DePeters, E J; Schmidt, S J; Drackley, J K

    2007-11-01

    Modification of milk fat composition might be desirable to alter manufacturing characteristics or produce low saturated fat dairy products that more closely meet consumer dietary preferences. The aim of this research was to evaluate functional properties of butter oil obtained from milks with fat composition modified by altering the profile of long-chain fatty acids (FA) absorbed from the small intestine of cows. A control and 5 mixtures of long-chain free FA were infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows in a 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were 1) control (no FA infused), 2) mostly saturated FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 3) low-linoleic palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.85), 4) palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 5) soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.10), and 6) high-palmitic soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.68). All treatments included meat solubles and Tween 80 as emulsifiers. Solid fat content (from 0 to 40 degrees C), melting point, and force at fracture were determined in butter oil. Milk fat from cows infused with palm FA (treatment 4) exhibited functionality equal to or better than control butter oil. Infusion with palm FA increased amounts of triglyceride (TG) fractions with 48, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, 36, and 42 carbon numbers. Infusion with soy FA increased TG with 26, 38, 40, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 34, 42, and 46 carbons. Infusion of the mostly saturated FA increased TG with 38, 50, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, and 42 carbon numbers. These TG groups were consistently correlated with functional properties of butter oils from different treatments. The content of palmitic acid is important for maintaining functionality in the presence of increased polyunsaturated FA. The composition of milk fat may be able to be optimized through nutritional manipulation of diets for dairy cows if the optimal composition of FA and TG is defined for a particular dairy product.

  18. Inferring causal relationships between reproductive and metabolic health disorders and production traits in first-lactation US Holsteins using recursive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, K; Tiezzi, F; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2015-04-01

    Health disorders in dairy cows have a substantial effect on the profitability of a dairy enterprise because of loss in milk sales, culling of unhealthy cows, and replacement costs. Complex relationships exist between health disorders and production traits. Understanding the causal structures among these traits may help us disentangle these complex relationships. The principal objective of this study was to use producer-recorded data to explore phenotypic and genetic relationships among reproductive and metabolic health disorders and production traits in first-lactation US Holsteins. A total of 77,004 first-lactation daughters' records of 2,183 sires were analyzed using recursive models. Health data contained information on reproductive health disorders [retained placenta (RP); metritis (METR)] and metabolic health disorders [ketosis (KETO); displaced abomasum (DA)]. Production traits included mean milk yield (MY) from early lactation (mean MY from 6 to 60 d in milk and from 61 to 120 d in milk), peak milk yield (PMY), day in milk of peak milk yield (PeakD), and lactation persistency (LP). Three different sets of traits were analyzed in which recursive effects from each health disorder on culling, recursive effects of one health disorder on another health disorder and on MY, and recursive effects of each health disorder on production traits, including PeakD, PMY, and LP, were assumed. Different recursive Gaussian-threshold and threshold models were implemented in a Bayesian framework. Estimates of the structural coefficients obtained between health disorders and culling were positive; on the liability scale, the structural coefficients ranged from 0.929 to 1.590, confirming that the presence of a health disorder increased culling. Positive recursive effects of RP to METR (0.117) and of KETO to DA (0.122) were estimated, whereas recursive effects from health disorders to production traits were negligible in all cases. Heritability estimates of health disorders ranged

  19. Decreasing the pH of milk replacer containing soy flour affects nutrient digestibility, digesta pH, and gastrointestinal development of preweaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Diao, Q-Y; Zhou, Y; Yun, Q; Deng, K-D; Qi, D; Tu, Y

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of feeding soy flour-containing milk replacer (MR) with a lower than normal pH on growth, nutrient digestibility, digesta pH, and gastrointestinal development of preweaned calves. The study consisted of 48 neonatal calves, allocated to 8 treatments in a 2-factor 4×2 randomized design. The calves received 2 types of MR containing soy flour. The proportion of soy crude protein (CP) to total CP (SP/CP) in MR was 50% (MR50 treatment) or 80% (MR80 treatment), respectively. The pH of the reconstituted MR was decreased by 1 N HCl from to 6.2 to 5.5, 5.0, or 4.5. We measured body weight and dry matter intake and calculated feed conversion rate in the MR50 treatment. We monitored urinary and fecal pH consecutively for 5h when calves were 25d old. We also conducted a digestion trial to determine nutrient digestibility from 49 to 55d of age. At 63d old, calves were slaughtered, and gastrointestinal pH, mass index, and morphology were evaluated. Reducing the pH of MR containing soy flour improved average daily gain and feed conversion rate, increased Ca digestibility, and reduced urinary, fecal, and digesta pH in the rumen, reticulum, and omasum. Although treatments had no effect on gastrointestinal mass index, the pH 5.0 treatment led to favorable ruminal epithelium growth, and the pH 5.5 treatment led to better intestinal epithelium growth. Increasing SP/CP from 50 to 80% decreased P digestibility and fecal and digesta pH in rumen, reticulum, and omasum. Moreover, the MR80 treatment reduced the mass index of the abomasums and jejunum. In conclusion, decreasing the pH of MR containing soy flour to a pH of 5.0 to 5.5 improved the digestive tract of preweaned calves. A pH reduction to 4.5 had adverse effects on intestinal epithelium growth. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D A; Terrill, T H; Kouakou, B; Shaik, S A; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Vanguru, M; Kannan, G; Burke, J M

    2008-09-01

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics worldwide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, including use of forages containing condensed tannins (CT). An experiment was designed using infected and dewormed male kids (Kiko x Spanish, 6 mo old, 18.9 +/- 3.25 kg) fed diets containing 25% concentrate and either 75% sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don], a high CT forage (87 to 181 g of CT/kg), or 75% bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay (n = 10/treatment). The kids were weighed every 14 d, and fecal and blood samples were taken weekly for fecal egg counts and packed cell volume determination, respectively. Fecal cultures were processed every 14 d to determine CT effect on larval development. At slaughter, adult GIN were collected from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and speciation. Blood samples were also analyzed for plasma urea-N, and ruminal VFA and pH were determined. The infected SL-fed kids had consistently lower (P < 0.05) fecal egg counts than the infected BG goats throughout the trial and greater (P < 0.05) packed cell volume beginning by d 77. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.001) in kids fed SL- than BG-based diets, regardless of infection status (104.3 +/- 5.0 and 75.5 +/- 4.8 g/d, respectively). Total VFA and acetate concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in the BG- than in SL-fed goats, whereas propionate levels were unaffected by diet. Acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.01) and plasma urea-N (P = 0.03) levels were greater in BG-fed goats, whereas rumen pH was greater (P < 0.001) in the SL-fed goats. Feeding SL hay can reduce GIN infection levels and increase performance of goats compared with BG hay.

  1. Discovery of quantitative trait loci for resistance to parasitic nematode infection in sheep: I. Analysis of outcross pedigrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greer Gordon J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently most pastoral farmers rely on anthelmintic drenches to control gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in sheep. Resistance to anthelmintics is rapidly increasing in nematode populations such that on some farms none of the drench families are now completely effective. It is well established that host resistance to nematode infection is a moderately heritable trait. This study was undertaken to identify regions of the genome, quantitative trait loci (QTL that contain genes affecting resistance to parasitic nematodes. Results Rams obtained from crossing nematode parasite resistant and susceptible selection lines were used to derive five large half-sib families comprising between 348 and 101 offspring per sire. Total offspring comprised 940 lambs. Extensive measurements for a range of parasite burden and immune function traits in all offspring allowed each lamb in each pedigree to be ranked for relative resistance to nematode parasites. Initially the 22 most resistant and 22 most susceptible progeny from each pedigree were used in a genome scan that used 203 microsatellite markers spread across all sheep autosomes. This study identified 9 chromosomes with regions showing sufficient linkage to warrant the genotyping of all offspring. After genotyping all offspring with markers covering Chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 22 and 23, the telomeric end of chromosome 8 was identified as having a significant QTL for parasite resistance as measured by the number of Trichostrongylus spp. adults in the abomasum and small intestine at the end of the second parasite challenge. Two further QTL for associated immune function traits of total serum IgE and T. colubiformis specific serum IgG, at the end of the second parasite challenge, were identified on chromosome 23. Conclusion Despite parasite resistance being a moderately heritable trait, this large study was able to identify only a single significant QTL associated with it. The QTL

  2. Events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for early lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P J; Fleming, C; Risco, C A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between mastitis events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and the peripartum period on the incidence of early lactation mastitis in cows receiving ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin as intramammary dry cow antibiotic therapy. Cows (n=402) from 2 large dairy farms in Central Florida were enrolled in the study at the time of dry-off processing and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry cow therapies: ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin. Composite milk samples were collected at dry-off and after calving for bacteriological examination and somatic cell count. Peripartal health disorders were monitored during the first 30 d of lactation and included calving difficulty, metritis, ketosis, and left displaced abomasum. Milk production and individual somatic cell scores (SCS) were recorded monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The main outcome variables were the risk of clinical mastitis during the first 30 and 60 d of lactation, and the risk of subclinical mastitis at the first 2 monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests after calving (up to 70 d in milk). Additionally, the SCS and the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk at dry-off and at calving were analyzed. Explanatory variables consisted of events occurring during the previous lactation, at dry-off and during the dry period, at calving, and within the first 30 d after calving. Multiple events occurring during the previous lactation had a significant effect on the incidence of mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These events included low milk yield, intermediate lactation length, clinical mastitis, and lactation SCS average. Similarly, intramammary infections with environmental bacteria at dry-off increased the chances of clinical mastitis the first month after calving. Dry-off therapy had a significant effect on mastitis incidence; cows treated with ceftiofur

  3. Sawfly larval poisoning in cattle: Report on new outbreaks and brief review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Tessele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sawfly larval poisoning (SLP is an acute hepatotoxicosis documented in livestock in Australia, Denmark and in countries of South America. It is caused by the ingestion of the larval stage of insects of the suborder Symphyta, order Hymenoptera, commonly known as "sawfly". Three species of sawfly are reportedly involved in the toxicosis. The insect involved in Australian SLP is Lophyrotoma interrupta (Pergidae, in Denmark the cause of SLP is the ingestion of the larvae Arge pullata (Argidae, and in South American countries documented outbreaks of SLP were caused by the ingestion of yet another sawfly, Perreyia flavipes (Pergidae. In all geographical areas where it occurred, SLP causes important livestock losses. In cattle, as well as in other affected species, the disease has a short clinical course and in many outbreaks affected cattle can be found dead. When observed, clinical signs include apathy, recumbence, tremors, paddling movements and death in 24-48 hours. Neurological signs such aggressiveness attributable to hepatic encephalopathy are also observed. In cases with a more protracted course icterus and photodermatitis may develop. Gross findings included ascites, petechiae and ecchymosis over serosal surfaces of thoracic and abdominal cavities, and an enlarged liver that displays accentuation of the lobular pattern and edema of the gall bladder wall. Sawfly larval body fragments and heads are consistently found in the fore stomachs and occasionally abomasum of affected cattle. Main microscopic lesions are restricted to the liver and consist of centrolobular (periacinar to massive hepatocellular necrosis. In most lobules necrotic areas extended up to the portal triads where only a few viable hepatocytes remain. Mild to moderate lymphocyte necrosis is seen in lymphatic tissues. Cases occur in the winter months when the larval stages of the sawfly are developing. D-amino acid-containing peptides have been found to be the toxic principle in

  4. Preoperative cow-side lactatemia measurement predicts negative outcome in Holstein dairy cattle with right abomasal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, G; Francoz, D; Doré, E; Dufour, S; Veillette, M; Badillo, M; Bélanger, A-M; Buczinski, S

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were (1) to determine the gain in prognostic accuracy of preoperative l-lactate concentration (LAC) measured on farm on cows with right displaced abomasum (RDA) or abomasal volvulus (AV) for predicting negative outcome; and (2) to suggest clinically relevant thresholds for such use. A cohort of 102 cows with on-farm surgical diagnostic of RDA or AV was obtained from June 2009 through December 2011. Blood was drawn from coccygeal vessels before surgery and plasma LAC was immediately measured by using a portable clinical analyzer. Dairy producers were interviewed by phone 30 d following surgery and the outcome was determined: a positive outcome if the owner was satisfied of the overall evolution 30 d postoperatively, and a negative outcome if the cow was culled, died, or if the owner reported being unsatisfied 30 d postoperatively. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve for LAC was 0.92 and was significantly greater than the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve of heart rate (HR; 0.77), indicating that LAC, in general, performed better than HR to predict a negative outcome. Furthermore, the ability to predict a negative outcome was significantly improved when LAC measurement was considered in addition to the already available HR data (area under the curve: 0.93 and 95% confidence interval: 0.87, 0.99). Important inflection points of the misclassification cost term function were noted at thresholds of 2 and 6 mmol/L, suggesting the potential utility of these cut-points. The 2 and 6 mmol/L thresholds had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for predicting a negative outcome of 76.2, 82.7, 53.3, and 93.1%, and of 28.6, 97.5, 75, and 84%, respectively. In terms of clinical interpretation, LAC ≤2 mmol/L appeared to be a good indicator of positive outcome and could be used to support a surgical treatment decision. The

  5. A field study to determine the prevalence, dairy herd management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Anna C; Vertenten, Geert

    2014-01-01

    , respectively) than the odds of ketosis in parity 1. The odds of ketosis was significantly smaller in parity 2 compared with parity 3 to 7. Ketosis was associated with significantly higher odds of all common fresh cow conditions: metritis, mastitis, displaced abomasum, clinical ketosis, lameness, and gastrointestinal disorders. Odds of ketosis in cows having had twins or dystocia were not increased, whereas higher odds of ketosis were observed in cows with milk fever or retained placenta. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m. The health  status of all the calves was satisfactory for the entire fattening period and no specific medical treatment was required  during the trial. Calves fed wheat straw showed a greater intake of solid feed (196 vs. 139 g/d; P  average daily gain (1288 vs. 1203 g/d; P  not affected by the type of solid feed and no milk refusal episodes were detected. The haemoglobin concentration was  similar in calves receiving the two feeding treatments despite the higher iron intake provided by the wheat straw through-  out the fattening period (2.12 vs. 1.15 g; P  calves’ metabolism. Feeding behaviour was affected by the provision of solid feeds. Eating and chewing were prolonged  in calves receiving ground wheat straw and the same solid feed reduced the frequency of oral stereotypies at the end of  the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, no differences were observed between the feeding treatments as regards  carcass weight and dressing percentage. The calves fed ground wheat straw had a heavier weight of the empty omasum  (518 vs. 341 g; P  fed barley grain. The incidence of abomasal erosions, ulcers and scars was similar in both treatments; however the index  of abomasal damage, which considers the number and the seriousness of different type of lesions, was higher in calves  receiving barley grain. Therefore, the grinding of straw particles, as opposed to barley grain, can reduce the abrasive-  ness of roughage at the abomasum level. Visual evaluation of the

  7. Gastrointestinal parasites of sheep, municipality of Lajes, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil Parasitos do trato gastrintestinal de ovinos, município de Lajes, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima de Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the gastrointestinal parasitism by helminths and protozoa in sheep (Ovis aries Santa Inês breed, municipality of Lajes, Rio Grande do Norte. Monthly, from April 2005 to August 2007, stool samples were collected from two tracer lambs in the first day of the experiment and performed a necropsy of these animals in 44th day. A total of 64 lambs were sampled, but only 62 lambs were slaughtered. The fecal samples were examined by sedimentation in water. The contents of the abomasum, small intestine and large intestine were examined for the recovery of helminths. The parasitological examination revealed eggs of the following groups of helminths: Strongyloidea, Strongyloides sp., Trichuris sp., and Moniezia sp. Also were found oocysts of Eimeria spp., cysts of Entamoeba ovis and Giardia duodenalis. The helminths identified from examining the contents were: Haemonchus contortus, Cooperia pectinata, Cooperia punctata, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Moniezia expansa, Oesophagostomum sp. Skrjabinema ovis and Trichuris sp.O presente estudo investigou o parasitismo gastrintestinal por helmintos e protozoários em ovinos (Ovis aries da raça Santa Inês, no município de Lajes, Rio Grande do Norte. Mensalmente, entre abril de 2005 e agosto de 2007, foram coletadas amostras fecais de dois cordeiros traçadores no primeiro dia do experimento e realizada a necropsia desses animais no 44º dia. O total de cordeiros amostrados foi 64, mas apenas 62 foram necropsiados. As amostras fecais foram examinadas pela técnica de sedimentação espontânea em água. Os conteúdos do abomaso, intestino delgado e intestino grosso dos cordeiros necropsiados foram examinados para a recuperação dos helmintos. Os exames parasitológicos evidenciaram ovos dos seguintes grupos de helmintos: Strongyloidea, Strongyloides sp. , Trichuris sp., e Moniezia sp. Também foram encontrados oocistos de Eimeria spp., cistos de Entamoeba ovis e de Giardia duodenalis

  8. Administração de somatotropina bovina no período pré-parto sobre parâmetros produtivos, sanitários e reprodutivos da primeira lactação de vacas holandesas Bovine somatotropin administration during pre-delivery period to productive, sanitary and reproductive parameters of holstein cows' first lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a administração de somatotropina bovina (bST no período pré-parto, sobre o desempenho na primeira lactação, foram utilizadas 18 novilhas gestantes, de modo que 9 receberam injeções subcutâneas de 500mg de bST nos dias 21 e 9 antes da data prevista para o parto. Os animais foram alimentados com dieta total, 2 vezes ao dia, e os dados coletados foram relativos a parâmetros sanitários, produtivos e reprodutivos na primeira lactação. A administração de bST não afetou os parâmetros sanitários (retenção de placenta, metrite, deslocamento de abomaso, febre do leite e cetose e reprodutivo (cisto folicular. Entretanto, o uso de bST no pré-parto levou à variação de escore de condição corporal (ECC 65% maior, adiantou o pico de produção de leite em 9,7 dias e diminuiu os dias em lactação em 21,8 dias em relação ao controle (P The effects of pre-delivery administration of bovine somatotropin (bST on first lactation performance were evaluated in this study, which involved eighteen Holstein pregnant heifers. Nine animals were supplemented with subcutaneous injections of 500 mg of bST, on days 21 and 9 prior expected delivery, and 9 were not supplemented (control group. Animals were fed total mixed ration, twice daily. Data evaluated in this experiment were related to sanitary, reproductive and productive parameters during first lactation. Administration of bST did not affect parameters related to sanity (retained placenta, metritis, displacement abomasum, milk fever, ketosis, reproduction (follicular cysts. However, heifers supplemented with bST showed changes of body condition score 65% greater, anticipated milk production peak in 9.7 days and decreased number of days in lactation in 21,8 days, compared to the non-supplemented ones (p < 0.05. Milk production peak and milk production corrected for 305 days were not affected by bST administration.

  9. Metastasizing oral melanoma in a cow Melanoma oral metastático em uma vaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene de Farias Brito

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A malignant dendritic melanoma of the oral cavity with metastases widely spread in a cow is described. The clinicopathological manifestations, developed during a two-year period, was characterized by the difficulty in mastication and swallowing, progressive weight loss, weakness and profuse sialorrhea. At the necropsy, an ulcerated black mass was found at the left jaw projecting into the oral cavity. The tumor reached the chin, inferior lip and tongue. Metastases were detected within the tongue, parotid gland, lymph nodes, trachea, thyroid, pleura, lungs, heart, peritoneum, omentum, and serosal membranes of the forestomach and abomasum, liver, and intima of some hepatic vessels, mammary gland, and muscles and fasciae of the left hind leg. No reference to metastasizing oral dendritic melanoma in the oral cavity of the cattle has been mentioned in the literature.Neste trabalho, descreve-se um caso de melanoma dendrítico maligno da cavidade oral em uma vaca, com metástases amplamente disseminadas. A evolução clínica foi de dois anos, e o quadro clínico-patológico caracterizou-se por dificuldade na mastigação e deglutição, perda de peso progressiva, fraqueza e sialorréia profusa. À necropsia, uma massa enegrecida e ulcerada foi encontrada na mandíbula esquerda e projetava-se para a cavidade oral. O tumor envolvia principalmente a porção cranial do ramo horizontal esquerdo da mandíbula e alcançou o mento, o lábio inferior, a gengiva e a língua. Metástases foram detectadas na língua, na glândula parótida, nos linfonodos, na traquéia, na tireóide, na pleura, nos pulmões, no coração, no peritônio, no omento e na serosa dos pré-estômagos e do abomaso, do fígado e da íntima de alguns vasos hepáticos, da glândula mamária e das fáscias e dos músculos do membro posterior esquerdo. Histologicamente o tumor primário e as metástases eram do tipo dendrítico. Não encontramos referências a melanomas primários de mand

  10. Effects of duration of moderate increases in grain feeding on endotoxins in the digestive tract and acute phase proteins in peripheral blood of yearling calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaizier, J C; Li, S; Le Sciellour, M; Schurmann, B L; Górka, P; Penner, G B

    2014-11-01

    Effects of duration of grain feeding on the concentration of endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in digesta throughout the digestive tract and on acute phase proteins and LPS in peripheral blood were determined in Holstein yearling calves. Twenty-five Holstein yearling steer calves received either a forage-based diet containing 92% hay and 8% of a mineral and vitamin pellet on a dry matter basis (CON) or a moderate-grain diet, obtained by replacing 41.5% of the hay in the forage-based diet with barley grain, for 3 (MG3), 7 (MG7), 14 (MG14), or 21 d (MG21) before slaughter. Immediately before slaughter, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Immediately after slaughter, digesta samples were collected from the rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum. Rumen liquid digesta, digesta from the intestines, and peripheral blood plasma were analyzed for LPS. Peripheral blood plasma and serum were analyzed for the acute phase proteins amyloid A, haptoglobin, and LPS-binding protein. Feeding the grain diet increased the LPS concentration in rumen fluid linearly from 15,488 endotoxin units (EU)/mL for CON to 70,146 EU/mL for MG7. Concentrations of LPS in rumen fluid in MG14 and MG21 were 61,944 and 56,234 EU/mL, respectively, and did not differ. The LPS concentrations in jejunal digesta were much lower than that in digesta elsewhere in the digestive tract, which suggests that ruminal LPS is broken down in the abomasum or proximal jejunum. The concentration of digesta LPS in the ileum was higher than that of digesta elsewhere in the intestines and similar to that in rumen fluid. The duration of grain feeding increased the LPS concentration in digesta in the ileum and cecum and tended to increase that in the colon cubically. Concentrations of LPS in this part of the digestive tract were highest in the MG3 and MG21 groups. The highest concentrations of LPS in digesta in the cecum, colon, and rectum were 3.7, 3.8, and 5.6 times higher than that in CON

  11. The effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on infection with the nematodes Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, K N; Scaife, J R; Lomax, M A; Jackson, F; Huntley, J; Coop, R L

    2005-05-15

    Diet-induced changes in the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of immune cells influences the immune phenotype that develops following infection. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating dietary PUFA supply on tissue fatty acids composition and immunity to a mixed infection with an abomasal and an intestinal nematode parasite in calves. Calves (n=24) were allocated into two treatment groups and fed 25 g/day of either fish oil (n-3 group) or a binary mixture of palm/rapeseed oil (normal group) as a supplement in milk replacer. Within each treatment group eight calves were infected with 2000 L3 Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora, three times per week for 8 weeks, the remaining calves were pair-fed uninfected controls. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were carried out twice weekly. At slaughter, the whole gut was removed intact for worm counts and tissue samples were taken for fatty acid analysis. Samples of abomasum, duodenum and mid-gut were also collected for immunohistological analysis. FEC were not significantly influenced by oil supplement but tended to remain higher in the palm/rapeseed oil-fed group (normal infected). The number of intestinal immature worms was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the n-3 group. Mucosal mast cell (MMC) and eosinophil numbers were significantly increased (p<0.05) by infection and were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the intestinal tissue of the fish oil supplemented and infected group (n-3 infected group). These results suggest that feeding an n-3 PUFA-rich supplement (fish oil) can influence cellular mediators of immunity to nematode infection. This is the first report of the establishment of patency and the subsequent development of immunity to a mixed infection with O. ostertagi and C. oncophora in calves undergoing early rumen development. The trend in the FEC, MMC and eosinophil numbers in the n-3 group suggests that decreasing the dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio may be a worthwhile immunonutritional

  12. A controlled study on gastrointestinal nematodes from two Swedish cattle farms showing field evidence of ivermectin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is an increasing problem for the ruminant livestock sector worldwide. However, the extent of the problem is still relatively unknown, especially for parasitic nematodes of cattle. The effect of ivermectin (IVM) (Ivomec inj.®, Merial) was investigated in Swedish isolates of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) populations showing signs of AR in the field to further characterise the AR status by a range of in vivo and in vitro methods. Methods Three groups, each of 11 calves, were infected with an equal mixture of third stage larvae (L3) of Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi. Group A was inoculated with an IVM-susceptible laboratory isolate and groups B and C with isolates originating from ‘resistant’ cattle farms. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were monitored from 0 to 45 days post infection (d.p.i.), and L3 were harvested continuously for larval migration inhibition testing (LMIT) and species-specific PCR (ITS2). At 31 d.p.i., one calf from each group was necropsied and adult worms were recovered pre-treatment. At 35 d.p.i., calves from all groups were injected with IVM at the recommended dose (0.2 mg/kg bodyweight). At 45 d.p.i., another two animals from each group were sacrificed and established gastrointestinal worms were collected and counted. Results A few animals in all three groups were still excreting eggs (50-150 per g faeces) 10 days post IVM injection. However, there was no significant difference in the FEC reductions in groups A (95%; 95% CI 81-99), B (98%; 92-100) and C (99%; 97-100) between 35 and 44 d.p.i. Furthermore, LMIT showed no significant difference between the three groups. Approximately 100 adult O. ostertagi were found in the abomasum of one calf (group B), whereas low to moderate numbers (400-12 200) of C. oncophora remained in the small intestine of the calves in all three groups at 45 d.p.i. PCR on L3 harvested from faecal samples up to 10 days post treatment showed a ratio of 100% C. oncophora

  13. Effects of early rumen development and solid feed composition on growth performance and abomasal health in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van Reenen, C G; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Gerrits, W J J

    2012-06-01

    the abomasum in ERD calves was decreased compared with non-ERD calves. This may indicate that ERD provided protection against abomasal lesions. In conclusion, early compared with late rumen development improves feed utilization and may be beneficial for abomasal health. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A macro- and light microscopical study of the pathology of Calicophoron microbothrium infection in experimentally infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mavenyengwa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Tuli weaner steers aged 1 year were randomly subdivided into three groups of four animals and infected with different doses of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae. Each animal in Group I received a low dose (LD of 5 000 metacercariae, Group II a medium dose (MD of 15 000 metacercariae, Group III a high dose (HD of 25 000 metacercariae and one additional animal was kept as an uninfected control (C. After infection, one animal from each group was slaughtered on Day 28, 42, 56 and 84 post infection (pi and samples from the ileum, jejunum, duodenum, abomasum and the rumen were collected for histopathological and cytological examination. On Day 28 pi, the gross pathological lesions observed in the duodenum of the LD and the MD animals were similar and comprised duodenal thickening, corrugation, hyperaemia, petechiation and ulceration. In the HD animal the duodenal lesions were similar but more severe. The abomasal folds were severely oedematous in the MD group and nearly occluded the abomasal lumen. Moderate oedema of the abomasal folds was also present in the LD and HD animals. The gross pathological lesions regressed in all the infected groups with increasing age of infection and had disappeared completely by Day 56 pi. On Day 28 pi the histopathological lesions in the duodenum and jejunum of the LD and MD groups were similar, comprising subtotal villous atrophy, hyperplasia of Brunner's glands and Peyer's patches and moderate infiltration of eosinophils, mast cells and a few globule leukocytes, basophils and lymphocytes in the lamina propria. The HD group had total villous atrophy, severe hyperplasia and cystic dilatation of Brunner's glands, which had expanded to cover the entire submucosa. On Day 42 pi the histopathological lesions were still present in the MD and the HD groups comprising subtotal villous atrophy and hyperplasia of Brunner's glands. Heavy infiltrations of eosinophils, moderate amounts of mast cells and a few

  15. Association between body energy content in the dry period and post-calving production disease status in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G L; Friggens, N C; Ashworth, C J; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-09-01

    The transition from gestation to lactation is marked by significant physiological changes for the individual cow such that disease incidence is highest in early lactation. Around the time of calving, cows rely on mobilisation of body energy reserves to fill the energy deficit created by an increase in nutrient demands at a time of restricted feed intake. It is well established that monitoring of body energy reserves in lactation is an important component of herd health management. However, despite their influence on future health and productivity, monitoring of body energy reserves in the dry period is often sparse. Further, there is increasing concern that current dry off management is inappropriate for modern cattle and may influence future disease risk. This study aimed to identify candidate indicators of early lactation production disease from body energy data collected in the dry period and production data recorded at the time of dry off. Retrospective analysis was performed on 482 cow-lactations collected from a long-term Holstein-Friesian genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd in Scotland. Cow-lactations were assigned to one of four health groups based on health status in the first 30 days of lactation. These four groups were as follows: healthy, reproductive tract disorders (retained placenta and metritis), subclinical mastitis and metabolic disorders (ketosis, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia and left displaced abomasum). ANOVA, employing a GLM was used to determine effects for the candidate indicator traits. Cows which were diagnosed with a reproductive tract disorder in the first 30 days of lactation experienced a significantly greater loss in body energy content, body condition score and weight in the preceding dry period than healthy cows. The rate of change in body energy content during the first 15 days of the dry period was -18.26 MJ/day for cows which developed reproductive tract disorder compared with +0.63 MJ/day for healthy cows

  16. Immunohistochemical evidence for an endocrine/paracrine role for ghrelin in the reproductive tissues of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Yvonne A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut hormone, ghrelin, is involved in the neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to hunger. In monogastric species, circulating ghrelin levels show clear meal-related and body weight-related changes. The pattern of secretion and its role in ruminant species is less clear. Ghrelin acts via growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSR-1a to alter food intake, fat utilization, and cellular proliferation. There is also evidence that ghrelin is involved in reproductive function. In the present study we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the presence of ghrelin and GHSR-1a in sheep reproductive tissues. In addition, we examined whether ghrelin and GHSR-1a protein expression is developmentally regulated in the adult and fetal ovine testis, and whether there is an association with markers of cellular proliferation, i.e. stem cell factor (SCF and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Methods Antibodies raised against ghrelin and its functional receptor, GHSR-type 1a, were used in standard immunohistochemical protocols on various reproductive tissues collected from adult and fetal sheep. GHSR-1a mRNA presence was also confirmed by in situ hybridisation. SCF and PCNA immunoexpression was investigated in fetal testicular samples. Adult and fetal testicular immunostaining for ghrelin, GHSR-1a, SCF and PCNA was analysed using computer-aided image analysis. Image analysis data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, with differences in immunostaining between time-points determined by Fisher's least significant difference. Results In adult sheep tissue, ghrelin and GHSR-1a immunostaining was detected in the stomach (abomasum, anterior pituitary gland, testis, ovary, and hypothalamic and hindbrain regions of the brain. In the adult testis, there was a significant effect of season (photoperiod on the level of immunostaining for ghrelin (p Conclusion Evidence is presented for the presence of ghrelin and its receptor in various reproductive

  17. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  18. Crescimento de cordeiros abatidos com diferentes pesos: 2. Constituintes corporais Growth of lambs slaughtered at different weights: 2. Body constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Cassol Pires

    2000-10-01

    - reticulum- omasum and abomasum , AT and IF. The remaining ones (liver, spleen, intestine, skin and carcass had the same growth rate as EBW.

  19. Determination of Salbutamol Residues in Goat Various Tissues After Exposure to Growth-promoting Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yujuan; Gu, Xu; Dong, Yingchao; Li, Junguo; Ni, Haiqiu; Xue, Moyong; Zhao, Zhen; Sun, Zhiwei; Qin, Yuchang

    2017-09-04

    In order to monitor salbutamol (SAL) use in goats as a repartitioning, we determined SAL residues in various tissues of goats after repeated oral SAL administration at a dose of 0.15 mg/kg daily for 21 days. SAL concentrations were measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in extracts of tissues from goats sacrificed 0.25, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the last dose. Our results showed that on Day 0.25 of the withdrawal period, the residual proportions of SAL (expressed as percentage) in liver, kidney, lung, hair, stomachs and muscle were 19.5%, 15.3%, 3.3%, 9.6%, 28.2% and 0.8%, respectively. As the withdrawal time increased, the SAL concentrations in most tissues (except hair) decreased rapidly over the first 3 days and more slowly in the following 25 days. After a 28-day withdrawal period, hair, lung, muscle, liver, fat, eyes, rumen, kidney and abomasum still contained ~32.3%, 15.3%, 7.1%, 6.5%, 5.6%, 1.5%, 0.8% and 0.5% compared to the initial residual concentrations determined on Day 0.25, respectively. On withdrawal Day 28, the highest concentrations of SAL were found in hair (16.58 ± 9.48 μg/kg), followed by liver (7.01 ± 0.94 μg/kg), lung (2.81 ± 1.23 μg/kg), kidney (0.64 ± 0.56 μg/kg), whereas the concentrations in other tissues were lower than limit of quantification (0.50 μg/kg). SAL residues were not detected in bile, plasma and brain on Days 7, 7 and 3 after discontinuation of dosing. These findings indicated that the distribution and depletion rates of SAL differed between tissues. It should be noted that SAL residues in stomach were higher than those in muscles during the early withdrawal. We conclude that hair is the preferred tissue to monitor the administration of SAL to living goats, whereas liver can be used to monitor SAL in the carcass for determination of compliance with food safety regulation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  20. Níveis de uréia em suplementos para terminação de bovinos em pastejo durante a época seca - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.560 Urea levels in supplements for finishing cattle at pasture during the dry season - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.560

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se níveis de inclusão de uréia em suplementos sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade e parâmetros do metabolismo dos compostos nitrogenados em bovinos, manejados em pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, no período de seca. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos Holandês x Zebu, não-castrados, com peso médio inicial de 250 kg, fistulados no esôfago, rúmen e abomaso. Foram fornecidos suplementos isoprotéicos (20% PB, constituídos de milho grão, farelo de algodão, mistura mineral e diferentes níveis de uréia, com base na matéria natural (0; 1,6; 3,2; e 4,8%, na quantidade de 1% do peso vivo. O experimento foi conduzido segundo delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4. Os níveis de uréia influenciaram de forma quadrática (p The effects of different urea levels in supplements evaluated on intake, digestibility, and metabolism of nitrogenous compounds of crossbreed steers grazing on a pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu during dry season. Four Holstein x Zebu steers, with average initial live weight of 250 kg, fistulated in the esophagus, rumen, and abomasum, were used. The animals received supplement (1% of live weight, containing 20% CP, based on corn grain, cottonseed meal, mineral mix, and urea in four levels, as fed (0, 1.6, 3.2, and 4.8%. The experiment was carried out according a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The urea levels showed a quadratic response (p < 0.10 to total dry matter (DM intake and DM intake from pasture, with better response close to 1.6% of urea. Total and rumen digestibilities of DM, organic matter, and CP, rumen ammonia concentration, and urine excretion of urea showed a positive linear relationship (p < 0.10 with urea levels in the supplements.

  1. Intoxicação por Cestrum laevigatum (Solanaceae em bubalinos Poisoning by Cestrum laevigatum (Solanaceae in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    ões necrosadas observou-se um halo de hepatócitos com vacuolização.Based on the history and clinical and pathological data, as well as on inspection of the pastures, a mortality of buffaloes in the county of Itaguaí/RJ, Brazil, was diagnosed as poisoning by Cestrum laevigatum Schlecht., a plant of the Solanaceae family. The poisoning was reproduced in two buffaloes. Dried leaves of the shrub were administered by hand, in single doses corresponding to 20g/kg and 40g/kg of the fresh leaves, to four buffaloes of the Murrah breed. The dose corresponding to 40g/kg of the fresh leaves caused signs of poisoning, as apathy, anorexia, absence of rumen movements, dysmetria, excitement and aggressiveness, followed by death of the two buffaloes within 65 hours after administration. From the two buffaloes that received the corresponding dose of 20g/kg of the fresh plant, one presented clinical signs characterized mainly by decrease of the rumen movements, but recovered 97h22min after the administration; the other buffalo did not show symptoms of poisoning. Laboratory analyses for biochemical evaluation accused hepatic alterations. In one buffalo that died, the main macroscopic finding was an orange liver with a clear nutmeg appearance; in the second buffalo, the orange liver had no nutmeg appearance. Other alterations found in these two buffaloes were slight edema of the gall bladder wall, a slightly reddish mucous membrane of the abomasum, extensive echymoses in the endocard of the left ventricle and few petechiae in the endocard of the right ventricle; the abomasum content was slightly dry, and the large intestine had little and slightly dry contents wrapped by mucus. Histopatological examination revealed severe coagulative necrosis of the liver parenchyma in the centrolobular and intermediate lobular areas, with a halo of vacuolated hepatocytes at the periphery of the necrotic areas.

  2. Intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae em bovinos Poisoning in cattle by Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Maria Langohr

    2005-12-01

    Baccharidastrum triplinervium in cattle from Paraná, Brazil, is described. The disease occurred during a severe drought in early summer. The onset of clinical signs was two days after 50 cows and 8 heifers had been introduced into a pasture with high density of B. triplinervium that showed signs of having been consumed by the animals. Fifteen animals (9 cows and 6 heifers got sick. Of these 15, two cows and four heifers died after a clinical course of 12-60 hours. Clinical signs included depression, ruminal atony, moderate bloat, marked dehydration, mild diarrhea and anorexia. The animals were restless, laying down and getting up constantly, remaining progressively longer periods in sternal recumbency. Once in that position, the animals had an extended head or the head turned to one of the sides of the body, and were groaning. Additionally, the cows had an abrupt fall in milk yield. The remaining affected cattle presented milder clinical signs and were partially back to their feed on the day following the onset of the clinical signs. The milk production was back to normal values within one week. The main gross lesions observed in two necropsied cows were in the forestomachs and abomasum, consisting of edema of the ruminal wall, as well as of diffuse reddening of the mucosae of the rumen, reticulum, abomasum and of some of the omasal folds. The main histological lesions included multifocal ballooning degeneration and necrosis of the lining epithelium of the rumen, associated with neutrophilic infiltrate. The diagnosis was based on the epidemiological data and on the experimental reproduction of the disease by force-feeding 3 bovine with the aeral fresh parts (20 and 30g/kg of B. triplinervium. Chemical analysis of dried material from B. triplinervium harvested at the site of the outbreak was negative for macrocyclic trichothecenes.

  3. Níveis de uréia na ração de novilhos de quatro grupos genéticos: estimativa da produção de proteína microbiana por meio dos derivados de purinas na urina utilizando duas metodologias de coleta Urea levels in diet for steers of four genetic groups: microbial protein production by the urinary purine derivatives, using two collection methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Navajas Rennó

    2008-03-01

    urinary purine derivatives was evaluated by using two collection methodologies in steers of four genetic groups: Holstein in, ½ Holstein-Guzera, ½ Holstein-Gir and Zebu. Animals were fed diets with 50:50 tifton-85 bermudagrass hay to concentrate ratio and assigned to four 4 ´ 4 latin squares (genetic groups: four animals, four experimental periods and four treatments (diets and were. Diets approximately contained 12% CP. The urine samples, from each experimental period, were obtained from 24-h collection and spot urine collection, when the animals spontaneously urinated. Analyses of purine derivatives, allantoin and uric acid were performed in the urine. A comparison among the microbial production using the purine bases in the abomasum and urinary purine derivatives; determination of microbial production by purine derivatives using two different equations or purine bases method in the abomasum; and estimate of urinary of purine derivatives and microbial production by means of spot urine collection and by 24-h total urine collection, were performed. Production and microbial efficiency showed higher values for Holstein animals, intermediary values for crossbred and smaller values for Zebu. The estimation of microbial nitrogen compounds production could be performed from the excretion of urinary purine derivatives. The spot urine collection is a fast and efficient methodology to estimate the excretion of urinary purine derivatives and the microbial nitrogen compounds production.

  4. Mixing sainfoin and lucerne to improve the feed value of legumes fed to sheep by the effect of condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufrère, J; Dudilieu, M; Andueza, D; Poncet, C; Baumont, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of sainfoin-based condensed tannins (CT) enhances feed value when given with tannin-free legumes (lucerne) to sheep. The experiments were conducted with fresh sainfoin and lucerne harvested at two stages (vegetative stage as compared with early flowering) in the first growth cycle. Fresh sainfoin and lucerne forages were combined in ratios of 100 : 0, 75 : 25, 25 : 75 and 0 : 100 (denoted S100, S75, S25 and S0, respectively). Voluntary intake, organic matter digestibility (OMD) and nitrogen (N) retention were measured in sheep fed the different sainfoin and lucerne mixtures. Loss of dry matter (DM) and N from polyester bags suspended in the rumen, abomasum and small intestine (SI) was also measured using rumen-fistulated sheep and intestinally fistulated sheep. The CT content in sainfoin (S100) decreased with increasing percentage of lucerne in the mixture (mean value from 58 g/kg DM for S100 to 18 g/kg DM for S25) and with growth stage (S100: 64 to 52 g/kg DM). OMD did not differ between different sainfoin/lucerne mixture ratios. Sainfoin and lucerne had an associative effect (significant quadratic contrast) on voluntary intake, N intake, total-tract N digestibility, N in faeces and urine (g/g N intake) and N retained (g/g N intake). Compared with lucerne mixtures (S0 and S25), high-sainfoin-content mixtures (S100 and S75) increased the in situ estimates of forage N escaping from the rumen (from 0.162, 0.188 for S0 and S25 to 0.257, 0.287 for S75 and S100) but decreased forage N intestinal digestibility (from 0.496, 0.446 for S0 and S25 to 0.469, 0.335 for S75 and S100). The amount of forage N disappearing from the bags in the SI (per g forage N) was the highest for high-sainfoin mixtures (from 0.082, 0.108 for S100 and S75 to 0.056, 0.058 for S25 and S0, P < 0.001). Rumen juice total N (tN) and ammonia N (NH3-N) values were the lowest in the high-sainfoin diet (mean tN 0.166 mg/g in S100 as compared with 0

  5. Effects of milk replacer feeding strategies on performance, ruminal development, and metabolism of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Carvalho, A U; Ferreira, C S; Franzoni, A P S; Lima, J A M; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2014-02-01

    Performance, rumen development, and metabolism of male Holstein calves (n=54) were evaluated according to 1 of 3 liquid feeding strategies: 4 L of milk replacer (MR)/d until 60 d old (4 L-60 d), 6L of MR/d until 29 d old and 4 L/d from 30 to 60 d (6L-29 d/4 L-60 d), or 6L of MR/day until 60 d old (60 d-6L). Water and starter were provided ad libitum. Intakes of MR and starter were monitored daily and body weight (BW) weekly. Blood samples for glucose and insulin concentrations and ruminal content samples for volatile fatty acids and ruminal ammonia concentrations were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d of age. Six calves on each treatment were euthanized at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Empty weights of forestomach and abomasum, papillae length, and mitotic index were measured. Average MR intake/d (expressed as a percent of BW) was greater for calves receiving 6L/d than for those receiving 4 L/d until 30 d of age. Calves on the 6 L-29 d/4 L-60 d had the smallest MR intake from 30 to 60 d old, followed by the 4 L-60 d and 6L-60 d treatments. Starter intake (kg of dry matter/day) did not differ between groups. It increased from 0.065 kg/d in the first month to 0.386 kg/d in the second month, and to 2.065 kg/d after weaning. Weight gain was greater for calves fed more MR in the first month, but no difference was observed during the second month. After weaning, 6L-60 d calves had greater rate of weight gain than others and were heavier at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Weight of empty forestomachs, ruminal pH, and ammoniac nitrogen concentration were not different among groups. Propionate concentration was lower for 6 L-60 d calves, but acetate and butyrate concentrations were not influenced by MR feeding strategy. Calves fed more MR until d 30 had greater ruminal epithelium mitotic index. The different MR feeding strategies did not influence papillae length or ruminal epithelium thickness. Lesions such as ruminal parakeratosis or hyperkeratosis were not observed. The MR

  6. Evaluation of propylene glycol and glycerol infusions as treatments for ketosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, P; Allen, M S

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (G) as potential treatments for ketosis, we conducted 2 experiments lasting 4 d each in which cows received one bolus infusion per day. Blood was collected before infusion, over 240min postinfusion, as well as 24 h postinfusion. Experiment 1 used 6 ruminally cannulated cows (26±7 d in milk) randomly assigned to 300-mL infusions of PG or G (both ≥99.5% pure) in a crossover design experiment with 2 periods. Within each period, cows were assigned randomly to infusion site sequence: abomasum (A)-cranial reticulorumen (R) or the reverse, R-A. Glucose precursors were infused into the R to simulate drenching and the A to prevent metabolism by ruminal microbes. Glycerol infused in the A increased plasma glucose concentration the most (15.8mg/dL), followed by PG infused in the R (12.6mg/dL), PG infused in the A (9.11mg/dL), and G infused in the R (7.3mg/dL). Infusion of PG into the R increased plasma insulin and insulin area under the curve (AUC) the most compared with all other treatments (7.88 vs. 2.13μIU/mL and 321 vs. 31.9min×μIU/mL, respectively). Overall, PG decreased plasma BHBA concentration after infusion (-6.46 vs. -4.55mg/dL) and increased BHBA AUC (-1,055 vs. -558min ×mg/dL) compared with G. Plasma NEFA responses were not different among treatments. Experiment 2 used 8 ruminally cannulated cows (22±5 d in milk) randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a Latin square design experiment balanced for carryover effects. Treatments were 300mL of PG, 300mL of G, 600mL of G (2G), and 300mL of PG + 300mL of G (GPG), all infused into the R. Treatment contrasts compared PG with each treatment containing glycerol (G, 2G, and GPG). Propylene glycol increased plasma glucose (14.0 vs. 5.35mg/dL) and insulin (7.59 vs. 1.11μIU/mL) concentrations compared with G, but only tended to increase glucose and insulin concentrations compared with 2G. Propylene glycol increased AUC for glucose (1,444 vs. 94.3mg/dL) and insulin (326

  7. Intoxicação por larvas de Perreyia flavipes em bovinos na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul Perreyia flavipes larvae poisoning in cattle in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro P. Soares

    2008-03-01

    enlarged with increased lobular pattern, the mesenteric lymph nodes were edematous and Peyer patches of the small gut were depressed. Petechial hemorrhages and ecchymosis were observed in the mesentery and abomasum. On histologic examination the liver showed centrolobular or massive necrosis. Hemosiderosis and necrosis of the germinative centers of lymph nodes, white pulp of the spleen and Peyer patches were also observed. The poisoning occurred probably due to an intense drought in October-December 2005, when the insect stayed as a cocoon underground. The dry conditions probably avoided a higher number of adult sawflies to emerge from the cocoons, what resulted in greater egg production. The large amount of decaying grass due to almost normal rain fall during summer seemed to have provided favorable environmental conditions for the development of larvae in winter.

  8. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Xiang

    2016-03-01

    different between the species and different between the rumen and colon in sheep. The importance of nitrogen and iodine recycling in sheep was highlighted by the highly preferential expression of SLC14A1-urea (rumen, RHBG-ammonia (intestines and SLC5A5-iodine (abomasum. The gene encoding a poorly characterized member of the maltase-glucoamylase family (MGAM2, predicted to play a role in the degradation of starch or glycogen, was highly expressed in the small and large intestines. Discussion. The rumen appears to be a specialised stratified cornified epithelium, probably derived from the oesophagus, which has gained some liver-like and other specialized metabolic functions, but probably not by expression of pre-existing colon metabolic programs. Changes in gene transcription downstream of the rumen also appear have occurred as a consequence of the evolution of the rumen and its effect on nutrient composition flowing down the GIT.

  9. Simulação e validação de parâmetros da cinética digestiva em novilhos mestiços suplementados a pasto, por intermédio do sistema in vitro de produção de gases Simulation and validation of digestive kinetic parameters using an in vitro gas production system in crossbred steers with pasture supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2005-12-01

    production technique. In vivo estimates were obtained from five Holstein x Zebu steers averaging 304 kg of body weight and 24 months of age that were grazing on five paddocks of Brachiaria decumbens (0.34 ha. The supplements fed to the steers (4 kg/animal/day contained: grounded corn, whole soybean, urea, ammonium sulfate, and mineral salt and the following crude protein levels: 12, 16, 20, or 24% on as-fed basis. Statistical analyses were performed as a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-days periods. The fifth animal was not supplemented and was used only for descriptive comparisons. Data were obtained by regression of values predicted in vitro on values observed in vivo. Use of digestion rates obtained in vitro resulted in under- and over-estimation of the ruminal degradation of fiber (FC and nonfiber (NFC carbohydrates with overall biases of -25.27% and +33.58%, respectively. No significant relationship was found between predicted versus observed values for microbial efficiency showing lack of relationship between predicted and observed values for the abomasum flow of microbial nitrogen. Results showed that the ruminal incubation of feeds separately underestimates the digestion rate of FC.

  10. Consumos e digestibilidades totais e parciais de carboidratos totais, fibra em detergente neutro e carboidratos não-fibrosos em novilhos submetidos a três níveis de ingestão e duas metodologias de coleta de digestas abomasal e omasal Intake and total and partial digestibility of total carbohydrates, neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates in steers under three ingestion regimes and two method of digesta collections: abomasal and omasal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ignez Leão

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Seis novilhos ½ sangue Holandês-Zebu castrados, fistulados no rúmen e no abomaso, foram distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos 3x3 (três animais, três níveis de oferta - 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5% PV e três períodos para determinar os consumos e as digestibilidades totais e parciais dos carboidratos totais (CHO, da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e dos carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF. As digestibilidades foram determinadas com óxido crômico. Os consumos de CHO, FDN, CNF e NDT (kg/dia e de CHO, FDN e CNF (% do peso vivo - PV aumentaram linearmente com os níveis de oferta. O teste de identidade de modelos, realizado para as equações de regressão para as digestibilidades total, ruminal e intestinais dos CHO, em função dos níveis de oferta, indicou não existir diferenças entre as metodologias de coleta. As digestibilidades total, ruminal e intestinais dos CHO não foram influenciadas pelos tratamentos. A digestibilidade total da FDN diminuiu linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de oferta, enquanto as digestões ruminal e intestinais da FDN não foram influenciadas pelos tratamentos. Não foi observado efeito dos níveis de oferta para as digestibilidades totais dos CNF. Utilizando a metodologia de coleta de digesta no omaso, foi observado aumento linear da digestibilidade ruminal dos CNF. Quando foi usada a coleta no abomaso, não houve efeito do aumento do consumo sobre a digestão ruminal dos CNF. A coleta de digesta abomasal pode ser substituída pela coleta de digesta omasal, via fístula ruminal. A coleta de digesta omasal é vantajosa, tornando o estudo de digestão parcial um processo menos invasivo.Six half-bred ½ Holstein-Zebu steers, fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, were randomly assigned to two 3 x3 Latin squares (animal, ingestion regime - 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% LW and period to determine the intake and total and partial digestibility of total carbohydrates (CHO, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non fiber carbohydrates (NFC

  11. Epidemiology of subclinical ketosis in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows in early lactation and determine the association of (1) days in milk (DIM) at onset of SCK, and (2) blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at onset of SCK with development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 DIM, conception to first service, days to conception within 150 DIM, and early lactation milk yield. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a BHBA concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Mixed-effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate days to conception, and repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate milk yield in the first 30 DIM. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible cows had a least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Peak incidence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 22.3% of cows had their first SCK-positive test. Peak prevalence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 28.9% of cows had a SCK-positive test. Median time from first positive SCK test until BHBA test <1.2 mmol/L was 5d. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 5 DIM were 6.1 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3 to 16.0] to develop a DA than cows first testing SCK positive at 6 DIM or later. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 7 DIM were 4.5 times more likely (95% CI = 1.7 to 11.7) to be removed from the herd, were 0.7 times as likely (95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8) to conceive to first service, and produced 2.2 kg less milk per day for the first 30 DIM than cows first testing positive at 8 DIM or later. Each 0.1 mmol/L increase in BHBA at first SCK-positive test increased the risk of developing a DA by a factor of 1.1 (95% CI = 1.0 to 1

  12. Peso e rendimento dos componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros terminados em confinamento com dietas contendo proporções crescentes de resíduo úmido de cervejaria Weight and yield of liveweight components of feedlot finish lambs fed diets with increasing proportions of wet brewery residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Brochier

    2008-10-01

    mix and wet brewery residue, and its proportions varied in accordance with the treatments. There was a linear decrease in weights of blood, legs, head, liver, lungs, and spleen, and liver proportion, with the increase of the proportion of wet brewery residue on the diets. The proportion, in relation to live weight, of rumen/reticulum and of gastrointestinal tract with content, and the gastrointestinal tract content showed a linear increase; while the weights of rumen/reticulum, abomasum, small intestine, and gastrointestinal tract without content showed a linear decrease with the increase of wet brewery residue in the diets. A quadratic effect was observed in the proportion of rumen/reticulum without content.

  13. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ruidong; Oddy, Victor Hutton; Archibald, Alan L; Vercoe, Phillip E; Dalrymple, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    between the species and different between the rumen and colon in sheep. The importance of nitrogen and iodine recycling in sheep was highlighted by the highly preferential expression of SLC14A1-urea (rumen), RHBG-ammonia (intestines) and SLC5A5-iodine (abomasum). The gene encoding a poorly characterized member of the maltase-glucoamylase family (MGAM2), predicted to play a role in the degradation of starch or glycogen, was highly expressed in the small and large intestines. Discussion. The rumen appears to be a specialised stratified cornified epithelium, probably derived from the oesophagus, which has gained some liver-like and other specialized metabolic functions, but probably not by expression of pre-existing colon metabolic programs. Changes in gene transcription downstream of the rumen also appear have occurred as a consequence of the evolution of the rumen and its effect on nutrient composition flowing down the GIT.

  14. Supplementing Holstein cows with low doses of bovine somatotropin prepartum and postpartum reduces calving-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, M S; Liboni, M; Hayen, M J; Head, H H

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether supplementing Holstein cows with bovine somatotropin (bST; 142.8 mg/14 d), beginning at 21 d (+/-3 d) before expected calving and continuing through 42 d in milk (+/-3 d), affected the incidence rates of retained fetal membranes (RFM), metritis (MET), clinical mastitis (MAS), digestive problems (DIG), ketosis (KET), milk fever (MF), displaced abomasum (DA, left or right), lameness (LAM), or number of sick cows during the first 60 d in milk. Data for multiparous Holstein cows from 3 separate trials were merged for analyses (n = 437). Cows in the bST-supplemented group (n = 162) received biweekly subcutaneous injections of Posilac, whereas control cows (n = 166) and a group of cohorts (n = 109) were not supplemented. Incidences of disease were collected from the herd health records. Across all treatment groups, the incidence rates (number of diseased cows divided by the total number of cows) for RFM, MET, MAS, DIG, KET, MF, DA, and LAM were 8.47, 18.31, 16.02, 4.35, 4.35, 3.66, 3.20, and 3.66%, respectively. The incidence rates of RFM, MET, MAS, DIG, KET, MF, DA, and LAM for cows in the bST-supplemented, control, and cohort groups were 6.79, 7.83, and 11.93%; 16.05, 7.47, and 22.94%; 10.49, 18.07, and 21.10%; 1.23, 5.42, and 7.34%; 1.23, 6.02, and 6.42%; 2.47, 4.22, and 4.59%; 2.47, 3.61, and 3.67%; and 3.70, 3.61, and 3.67%, respectively. The percentages of sick cows (number of cows having one or more cases of disease divided by the total number of cows) in the bST-supplemented, control, and cohort groups were 33.95, 43.37, and 49.54%, respectively. Significant chi-squared values were detected between the bST-supplemented and control groups for MAS, DIG, and KET, with a greater number of healthy cows in the bST-supplemented group. No differences in incidences of diseases or sick cows were detected between the control and cohort groups. Results indicated that a low dose of bST supplemented to Holstein cows for 3 wk

  15. Consumo e dinâmica ruminal da fibra em detergente neutro em bovinos em pastejo no período das águas recebendo suplementação com nitrogênio não-proteico e/ou proteína verdadeira Intake and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fiber in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein nitrogen and, or true protein during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli Costa

    2011-12-01

    during rainy season. Five crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers, averaging 335±35 kg of body weight and fitted with rumen and abomasum canullaes were used. The treatments were: control (only pasture, and supplements based on urea, 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, and albumin. Two hundred grams/d of crude protein (CP were supplied from supplements. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five 15-day experimental periods. There were no effects of supplementation on voluntary intake, except for CP intake, which was increased by supplementation. The replacement of urea by albumin in the supplements caused linear effect on the CP intake. The intakes of the other diet components were not affected by the supplement composition. There was no effect on ruminal rate of passage of fibrous compounds. Supplementation increased the estimates of common rate of lag and degradation of NDF. However, no effect of supplement composition alteration was observed on this parameter. Supplementation of cattle with rumen degradable (protein or non-protein nitrogenous compounds for grazing cattle during rainy season does not affect voluntary intake of pasture.

  16. Surto de aflatoxicose em bezerros no Rio Grande do Sul Outbreak of aflatoxicosis in calves in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pierezan

    2010-05-01

    and rolling. The clinical course, as observed by the owners, was 2-3 days; however many calves in this lot that did not die, remained underdeveloped. Three calves were necropsied. Necropsy findings included firm, light tan livers and marked hydrothorax, ascites and edema of the mesentery, mesocolon and of the mucosal folds of the abomasum. Main histopathological changes were restricted to the liver and consisted of fibrosis, moderate megalocytosis, biliary duct hyperplasia and veno-occlusive disease. The search for Senecio spp. contamination in the alfalfa hay resulted negative. The analysis by thin layer chromatography of the corn fed to calves revealed 5,136 ppb of aflatoxin B1. A diagnosis of aflatoxicosis was made based on the characteristic clinical signs and pathology, on the absence of Senecio spp. in the food and on the presence of high levels of aflatoxin in the corn fed to the calves.

  17. Polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis Reação em cadeia da polimerase para o diagnóstico de campilobacteriose genital bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.M. Groff

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a common venereal disease of cattle; the prevalence of this disease can be underestimated mostly because of the nature of the etiological agent, the microaerobic Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the utilization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the diagnosis of genital campylobacteriosis in samples obtained from bull prepuce aspirate, cow cervical mucus, and abomasum contents of aborted fetuses, collected into enrichment medium. Five different DNA extraction protocols were tested: thermal extraction, lysis with proteinase K, lysis with guanidine isothiocyanate, lysis with DNAzol, and lysis with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. The specificity, sensitivity, and technical application of the PCR assay were also evaluated with clinical samples and compared to bacterial isolation by standard culture. DNA extraction by the CTAB protocol provided better results in PCR, and it was able to detect 63 colony-forming units per ml of C. fetus. Out of 277 clinical samples tested, 68 (24% were positive for Campylobacter fetus using PCR, while only 8 (2.8% of the samples were positive by bacterial isolation in solid medium, proving the superiority of the PCR technique when compared to the standard isolation method, and providing evidence for its usefulness as a better screening test in cattle for the diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis.Campilobacteriose genital bovina é uma doença venérea comum em bovinos. A prevalência desta doença pode ser subestimada na maioria das vezes pela natureza microaeróbica do agente etiológico, Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis. O propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar a utilização da reação de polimerase em cadeia (PCR no diagnóstico de campilobacteriose genital em amostras obtidas de aspirado prepucial de touros, muco cervical de vacas e conteúdo abomasal de fetos abortados, coletados em

  18. Parâmetros de fermentação e medidas morfométricas dos compartimentos ruminais de bezerros leiteiros suplementados com milho processado (Floculado vs. Laminado a vapor e monensina Ruminal fermentation parameters and metric measurements of the rumen of dairy calves fed processed corn (Steam-rolled vs. Steam-flaked and monensin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maris Bittar Nussio

    2003-08-01

    -rolled concentrate. There was a tendency for higher total VFA (P = .11 and butyrate (P = .13 for steam-rolled corn. Monensin tended to reduce ruminal N-NH3 concentration (P = .12. Weight of reticulum-rumen (as % total tract tended (P = .09 to be higher for calves on steam-rolled and monensin concentration. However, the capacity of reticulum-rumen was increased by steam-rolled and monensin feeding. Steam-flaked concentrate resulted on heavier abomasum, as % total tract.

  19. Impact of hyperketonemia in early lactation dairy cows on health and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, T F; Lissemore, K D; McBride, B W; Leslie, K E

    2009-02-01

    Data from 1,010 lactating lactating, predominately component-fed Holstein cattle from 25 predominately tie-stall dairy farms in southwest Ontario were used to identify objective thresholds for defining hyperketonemia in lactating dairy cattle based on negative impacts on cow health, milk production, or both. Serum samples obtained during wk 1 and 2 postpartum and analyzed for beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations that were used in analysis. Data were time-ordered so that the serum samples were obtained at least 1 d before the disease or milk recording events. Serum BHBA cutpoints were constructed at 200 micromol/L intervals between 600 and 2,000 micromol/L. Critical cutpoints for the health analysis were determined based on the threshold having the greatest sum of sensitivity and specificity for predicting the disease occurrence. For the production outcomes, models for first test day milk yield, milk fat, and milk protein percentage were constructed including covariates of parity, precalving body condition score, season of calving, test day linear score, and the random effect of herd. Each cutpoint was tested in these models to determine the threshold with the greatest impact and least risk of a type 1 error. Serum BHBA concentrations at or above 1,200 micromol/L in the first week following calving were associated with increased risks of subsequent displaced abomasum [odds ratio (OR) = 2.60] and metritis (OR = 3.35), whereas the critical threshold of BHBA in wk 2 postpartum on the risk of abomasal displacement was >or=1,800 micromol/L (OR = 6.22). The best threshold for predicting subsequent risk of clinical ketosis from serum obtained during wk 1 and wk 2 postpartum was 1,400 micromol/L of BHBA (OR = 4.25 and 5.98, respectively). There was no association between clinical mastitis and elevated serum BHBA in wk 1 or 2 postpartum, and there was no association between wk 2 BHBA and risk of metritis. Greater serum BHBA measured during the first and second week

  20. Doenças do sistema digestório de caprinos e ovinos no semiárido do Brasil Diseases of the digestive system of sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena A. Aragão de Lira

    2013-02-01

    Federal University of Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, from January 2000 to December 2011. The records were reviewed to determine the occurrence, epidemiology, and the main clinicopathological features of the gastrointestinal diseases diagnosed during the studied period. Out of a total of 512 cases (23.9% of gastrointestinal disorders in small ruminants, 367 (71.7% occurred in goats and 145 (28.1% in sheep. Gastrointestinal helminthiasis and coccidiosis were the most frequent diseases (330 cases. The disorders of the rumen and reticulum (acidosis, simple indigestion, bloat, and ruminal compaction constituted 94 cases. The abomasum was affected by primary and secondary ulcers, and obstruction and compression of the gastrointestinal tract were also observed. Malformations, such as anal atresia and cleft palate were recorded in both species, the latter being associated with ingestion of Mimosa tenuiflora. Among the infectious diseases, five outbreaks of contagious ecthyma, two cases of paratuberculosis, and two cases of gastrointestinal pythiosis were observed. Suspected seven cases of enterotoxemia and nonspecific enteritis were identified. The lack of an integrated control of parasites and the use of inadequate food during the period of lack of forage contributes to the occurrence of a great number of gastrointestinal diseases in small ruminants in the studied area. The practice of conservation of fodder could substantially reduce the occurrence of digestive disorders in the semiarid region.

  1. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em ovinos Spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. Rozza

    2006-03-01

    , dry feces, sternal ou lateral decumbency, struggling movements, coma and death. Clinical evolution was from 5 to 48 hours. Other sheep that were already before on the pasture were not affected. Main necropsy findings were in the gastrointestinal tube, with wall and serosal oedema, mainly in the reticulo-ruminal fold and of the abomasum, reddening and detachment of the mucosa of forestomachs, and intense hemorrhage in the submucosa. Histopathological findings were degeneration and necrosis of the epithelium of the forestomachs with polymorphonuclear infiltration associated with bacterial colonies, congestion, hemorrhage and oedema, and lymphoid tissue necrosis.

  2. Conidiobolomicose em ovinos no Estado de Mato Grosso Conidiobolomycosis in sheep in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana M. Boabaid

    2008-01-01

    noisy breathing with dyspnea, and mucous or serohemorrhagic nasal discharge. In three sheep there was unilateral exophthalmia, keratitis and corneal ulceration. A firm whitish, multi-lobulated, friable growth was evident in the ethmoturbinate region at the coronal sections of the head from six affected sheep. In all sheep the choana had similar nodular infiltration which resulted in local obstruction. In three of those there was exophthalmia. There was infiltration in the cribiform plate and brain (2 cases, regional lymph nodes (2, lungs (3, and abomasums (1. Microscopic findings were granulomatous inflammation of the rhinoetimoidal region, with necrosis, lymphocytic infiltration, epithelioid multinucleated giant cells and fibrovascular tissue, surrounding Splendore-Hoeppli material wich contained unstained ghost images of hyphae. The methenamine-silver stain uncover fungi hyphae, rarely ramified with bulbous dilatation in their extremities. Conidiobolus sp. was isolated from nasal tissue lesions of four sheep.

  3. Dinâmica dos nutrientes no trato gastrintestinal de novilhos holandeses alimentados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar Dynamic of the nutrients in the gastrintestinal tract of holstein steers fed sugar cane based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2003-12-01

    sugar cane NDF were used as internal and external markers to estimate the daily fecal production and the ruminal particle passage rates. The dynamics of the nutrients was based on the determination of the total nitrogen and the abomasal nitrogen flows of microbial origin and total carbohydrate digested in the rumen. The microbial yield was not influenced by nitrogen sources or by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Cornell system overestimated the total ruminal carbohydrates digestion and the nitrogen flow of microbial origin and underestimated total nitrogen flow in the abomasum.

  4. Consumo, digestibilidade e parâmetros ruminais em bovinos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo silagem de sorgo e pré-secado de capim-tifton 85 Intake, digestibility and ruminal parameters in beef cattle fed diets with sorghum silage and tifton 85 haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2007-12-01

    digesta, the pH and the ammonia ruminal concentration in beef cattle fed diets containing tifton 85 haylage and sorghum silage in the following proportions: 100:0; 68:32; 34:66 and 0:100, respectively in DM basis. Four crossed animals (H × Z fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, with average body weight of 364 kg were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square. The forage: concentrate ratio was 60:40, in DM basis. The daily intake of DM, OM, CP, total carbohydrates (TC, as well as the total apparent digestibility of CP, EE, NFC and NDF were not influenced by the diets, with mean values of 6.01, 5.69, 0.76, and 4.64kg/day and 67.94, 82.12, 84.43, and 53.57%, respectively. The intake of EE, NFC, NDF and TDN and the total apparent digestibility of DM, OM and TC linearly increased with the increment of sorghum silage in the forage. The ruminal and intestinal digestibility of DM, TC, NFC and NDF were not influenced by the diets. The pH was not influenced by the collection time or by the diets. The ammonia concentration was influenced by the collection times, estimating the maximum value of 13.14 mg/100 mL, at 2.90 hour after feeding. Ruminal digesta passage rates of 4.10, 4.22, 4.27, and 5.30%/hour were respectively estimated for diets containing 0, 32, 66, and 100% of sorghum silage in the forage. The level of sorghum silage in the diet did not influence the microbial efficiency. The use of Tifton 85 haylage associated with sorghum silage has shown to be a great alternative of forage for finishing beef cattle.

  5. Consumo e digestibilidade em bovinos em pastejo durante o período das águas sob suplementação com fontes de compostos nitrogenados e de carboidratos Intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing during rainy season and supplemented with different sources of nitrogenous compounds and carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli Costa

    2011-08-01

    suplemento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different chemical forms of nitrogenous compounds (protein and non-protein and carbohydrates (starch and soluble fiber on intake, digestibility, and ruminal synthesis of microbial protein in cattle supplemented during rainy season. It was used five crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers, with average initial body weight of 211 ± 35 kg and fistulated in the rumen and abomasum. The treatments were: control (only pasture, and supplements based on corn + soybean meal; corn + urea, citrus pulp + soybean meal, and citrus pulp + urea. The supplements were balanced to present 30% of crude protein (CP, on dry matter (DM basis, and provided at 3 g/kg BW. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, composed of two sources of nitrogenous compounds, two sources of carbohydrates and a control treatment. Pasture intake was reduced when supplements were fed to animals, with average substitution coefficient of 2.11 g of DM of pasture/g of DM of supplement. Supplementation did not alter the total and ruminal digestibility coefficients of DM and the dietary content of total digestible nutrients (TDN neither. Supplemented animals presented higher ruminal and total digestibility coefficients of CP than non-supplemented animals. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS, average of 123.1g of microbial CP/kg, was not changed by supplementation. However, animals supplemented with corn presented higher EMPS in comparison to animals supplemented with citrus pulp (137.6 and 106.1 g microbial CP/kg of TDN, respectively. Protein-energy supplementation for cattle grazing in tropical pastures during rainy season does not cause nutritional benefits, which reflects the high coefficient of substitution of forage by the supplement.

  6. RUMINAL DEGRADATION OF THE DRY MATTER, PROTEIN AND THE AMINOACIDS OF THE CORN AND CORN GLUTENS MEAL DEGRADAÇÃO RUMINAL DA MATÉRIA SECA, DA PROTEÍNA E DOS AMINOÁCIDOS DO MILHO E DE GERMENS DE MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Borbari Dourado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The present work was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Science, UNESP-Jaboticabal. Three ¾ Holstein x Zebu bovines fistulated on rumen, abomasum and intestine using a fixed cannula type T were used. Four types of feed: corn (M, 1% EE corn gluten meal (G1, 7% EE corn gluten meal and 10% EE corn gluten meal (G10 were tested.  All feed were also extruded: CornEx, G1Ex, G7Ex and G10EX. Ruminal incubation was done using the nylon bags technique, and degradability of dry matter, crude protein and disponibilization of amino acids were analyzed. Basic diet was composed of corn gluten meal, soybean meal and hay at roughage (70: concentrate (30 ratio. Ruminal degrading of dry matter feed M, G1, G7 and G10 presented the following values: 37.5%, 56.7%, 56.8% and 55.1% respectively.  Extruded feed: 52.3%, 68.9%; 69.0% and 61.6% for Mex, G1Ex, G7Ex and G10Ex. The corn was significantly inferior to others and extruded feed increased ruminal degradedly for all feed. The degradability of crude protein was 27.0%, 60.9%, 56.8% and 35.1% for M, G1, G7 and G10; 50.8, 52.2, 66.4 and 59.6 for MEx; G1Ex; G7Ex and G10Ex, respectively. Statistically the G1 feed was equal to M and both were inferior to G7 and G10. The extrusion process did not increase the degradability of crude protein of G1. The lysine presented high ruminal degradability for tested feed, showing values above 99%. The metionin presented values of degradability inferior for M (37.4% related to G1 (57.1%.  The treonine did not present differences between feed and extrusion. It can be concluded that the processing of corn to obtain by-products can increase the ruminal degradability of dry matter, protein and metionine, but depending on intensity of processing, the degradability of crude protein may not be altered when compared to corn. The extrusion increased the ruminal degradability of dry matter of corn and by-products.

    KEY-WORDS: Amino acids, degradability, extrusion

  7. Compactação primária do abomaso em 14 bovinos no estado de Pernambuco Primary abomasal impaction in 14 cattle from Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Lopes Câmara

    2009-05-01

    roughage for feeding cows in many regions, especially during the dry season, impaction of the abomasum has been poorly reported in Brazil, probably because the condition is misdiagnosed by practitioners. The present paper aimed to accomplish a retrospective study on primary abomasal impaction in 14 cattle from Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. Eight moderate cases, without severe abdominal distention and with no rumen compaction, were treated conservatively, and four severe cases, with severe abdominal distention and rumen compaction, were treated surgically. One bull was slaughtered and one cow died without treatment. The greater number of abomasal impaction cases was in Holstein cows with six cases (42.9%, followed by crossbred cattle with five cases (35.8%, and the breeds Brown-Swiss, Nelore and Marchigiana, each with one case (21.3%. The food composition was characterized by low quality fibers and varied greatly among cases. Most frequent clinical signs were apathy, dehydration, hypomotility and ruminal bloat, intestinal hypomotility and scanty or absent feces with mucus. The hematological findings revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia and hyperfibrinogenemia in most cases. Ruminal fluid analysis showed compromised flora and fauna dynamics and increased chlorine ion concentration. Clinical (4/8 and chirurgical (2/4 recovery rate achieved 50%. The clinical and chirurgical methods remain as viable options for the treatment of light and severe impaction, but the prognosis is always reserved especially when associated to late pregnancy.

  8. Uréia em suplementos protéico-energéticos para bovinos de corte durante o período da seca: características nutricionais e ruminais Urea in protein-energy supplements for beef cattle during the dry season: nutritional and ruminal traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade, o pH e a concentração de amônia do líquido ruminal, a concentração de nitrogênio sérico e urinário e a síntese microbiana em novilhos recebendo suplemento durante o período da seca. Utilizaram-se quatro novilhos mestiços Zebu × Holandês, castrados, com peso médio inicial de 430 kg, fistulados no esôfago, rúmen e abomaso e distribuídos em quatro piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens, cada um com 0,40 ha. Cada animal recebeu 4,0 kg/dia de suplemento, constituído de milho moído, farelo de algodão, mistura mineral e uréia/sulfato de amônia em quatro níveis (0; 1,2; 2,4 e 3,6% na matéria natural. Os consumos de matéria seca total, 2,0% (10,9 kg/dia, e de pasto, 2,3% (7,1 kg/dia, matéria orgânica, 2,2% (9,7 kg/dia, matéria orgânica do pasto, 2,3% (6,3 kg/dia, proteína bruta, 1,9% (1,3 kg/dia, extrato etéreo, 3,6% (0,4 kg/dia, fibra em detergente neutro, 1,9% (5,8 kg/dia, carboidratos totais, 2,3% (8,2 kg/dia, e carboidratos não-fibrosos, 2,9% (4,1 kg/dia, foram influenciados de forma quadrática pelos níveis de uréia nos suplementos. Apenas a digestibilidade total da matéria orgânica foi afetada, de forma linear positiva, pelos níveis de uréia no suplemento. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de uréia no suplemento sobre o pH ruminal, entretanto as concentrações de amônia aumentaram linearmente de acordo com os níveis de uréia, ocasionando aumento linear na excreção de nitrogênio sérico e urinário. A eficiência microbiana, em qualquer forma de expressão, não diferiu entre os níveis de uréia.Four Zebu × Holstein steers were fistulated in rumen, abomasums and esophagus, with 430 kg of live weight grazing in four paddocks of Brachiaria decumbens (.40 ha, feed supplements were used to evaluate intake, digestibility, pH and ammonia ruminal concentration, nitrogen in serum and urine and microbial yield. The animals received 4.0 kg/animal/day of

  9. Órgãos internos e trato gastrintestinal de novilhos de gerações avançadas do cruzamento rotativo entre as raças Charolês e Nelore terminados em confinamento Internal organs and gastrointestinal tract of feedlot finished steers of advanced generations of rotational crossbreeding between Charolais and Nellore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes

    2007-02-01

    and gastrointestinal tract (GIT of feedlot purebred (Charolais C and Nellore N and crossbred steers from second (G2 (¾C ¼N and ¾N ¼C, third (G3 (5/8C 3/8N and 5/8N 3/8C and fourth (G4 (11/16C 5/16N and 11/16N 5/16C generations of rotational crossbreeding slaughtered at 23 month of age. Crossbred steers from G2, G3 and G4 had, respectively, 14.95, 17.25 and 18.46% higher empty body weight (EBW than that from purebred animals. A positive heterosis for cold carcass yield expressed as a proportion of EBW (CCYEBW was observed in G2, G3, and G4. Weights of heart, lungs, and kidneys adjusted for EBW were lower on crossbred compared to purebred steers; the heterosis was significant for the weights of heart (-18.29% and kidneys (-14.29% in G3 and for that of lungs (-13.45% in G4. Weights of all organs of the GIT either expressed as 100 kg of EBW or as proportion of slaughter body weight (SBW were lower on crossbred than on purebred steers with the exception of rumen weight in G2. Retained heterosis was positive and significant for EBW, CCYEBW and liver weight. However, it was negative for amount of blood and weights of heart and small plus large intestines when expressed as 100 kg of EBW and SBW. Within purebred animals, N showed greater CCYEBW (61.64% than C (57.09. Conversely, weights of rumen, abomasum, small plus large intestine, and GIT were all higher on C than N steers; excepting for small plus large intestine, the same was observed when weights of the remaining GIT components were expressed as proportion of EBW and SB. These differences partially explain the increased carcass yield on N steers.

  10. Formas de utilização do milho em suplementos para novilhos na fase de terminação em pastagem no período das águas: desempenho e parâmetros nutricionais Corn, in different forms, in multiple supplements for finishing crossbred steers on pasture during rainy season: performance and nutrition parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Oliveira Porto

    2008-12-01

    season was evaluated. Sixteen crossbred steers with initial weight of 384 kg and 18 mo old were distributed to four supplements mineral mix (MM (control and three multiple supplements with different feeding forms of corn: ground corn (GC; ground ear-corn (GEC and ground whole-plant corn (GWPC - in a completely randomized experimental design with four replicates. The animals were kept in pasture, 6 ha of signal grass, divided into four paddocks of 1.5 ha, with total dry matter and potentially digestible dry matter availabilities of 4.77 t/ha and 3.14 t/ha, respectively. Four esophagus, rumen and abomasum fistulated crossbred animals with initial weight of 390 kg, were used to evaluate the nutritional parameters. Animals were distributed to a 4 × 4 Latin square, composed of four supplements and four experimental periods. The animals in the control group were fed daily with 60 g/day of MM, while the others were fed with 1.0 kg/day of the multiple supplements different. Multiple supplements did not influence the performance of animals, but serum urea concentrations were higher in animals fed with the different multiple supplements. Crude protein and intake and digestibility increased with the use multiple supplements. Animals of the control showed higher dry matter and organic matter intake from the pasture. The different multiple supplements (1 kg/day promoted numerical increase of up to 165 g/animal/day in relation to control during rainy season. Ground whole-plant corn and ground ear-corn are equivalent to ground corn for steers in the finishing phase in pasture in the rainy season.

  11. Intoxicação por Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Mimosoideae em bovinos Poisoning by Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Mimosoideae in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo V. Ferreira

    2009-11-01

    animais, mas não ocorreu fotossensibilização.Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of natural and experimental Stryphnodendron fissuratum poisoning in cattle in Central-Western Brazil were evaluated. The coiled pods of this tree are popularly known as "rosquinha" (small coil; they mature during July-September, when they fall to the ground, and are consumed by cattle causing mortalities. Spontaneous outbreaks of poisoning were investigated in the municipalities of Aruanã, State of Goias, Guiratinga and Rondonópolis State of Mato Grosso, and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Commonly the poisoning occurred in properties with Nelore cattle herds, which were raised extensively on Brachiaria spp. pastures. The clinical course in natural cases ranged from 24 hours to 10 days, and the morbidity and case fatality rates were 0.9-25% and 15-100%, respectively. The main clinical signs in the spontaneous poisoning were apathy, anorexia, agressiveness, jaundice, sialorrhoea, incoordination, dysmetria, retraction of the abdomen, uneasiness and pasty black feces with stings of mucus or blood, diarrhea, edema of the dewlap and photosensitization. At necropsy, jaundice, edema of the subcutaneous tissue, mainly of the cervical region, hemorrhages of serous membranes, ascitis and hidrotorax, edema of the mesentery, perirenal edema, increased size of liver and kidney, reddening of the ruminal mucosa, and abomasum ulcers were observed. The diagnosis of S. fissuratum poisoning was based on epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings, and in the experimental reproduction by the administration of the pods of this plant to cattle. Experimentally, daily doses of 4 and 20g of pods by kg body weight, respectively, were administered to two bovines. Both animals had digestive signs and died, but photosensitization was not observed.

  12. Fermentação ruminal e eficiência microbiana em bezerros holandeses alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado Ruminal fermentation and microbial efficiency in Holstein calves fed diets with different concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johann Bürger

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de concentrado sobre os parâmetros da fermentação ruminal, as digestibilidades aparente, total, ruminal e intestinal de N, a eficiência microbiana e o balanço de N. Cinco bezerros holandeses, inteiros, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, com idade média inicial de 5,8±0,7 meses e 107,4±11,0 kg PV médio inicial, foram distribuídos em quadrado latino 5x5 (tratamento x período. Os animais foram alojados em baias individuais e alimentados à vontade com dietas contendo 30,0; 45,0; 60;0; 75,0; e 90,0% de concentrado, com base na MS, em rações contendo como volumoso, o feno de capim coast-cross e no concentrado, o farelo de soja, fubá de milho. Os valores de pH foram influenciados pelos níveis de concentrado das rações, e , 11,3 horas após a alimentação, foram estimandos os valores mínimos de 6,10; 5,89; 5,67; 5,46; e 5,24, para as rações com níveis de 30,0; 45,0; 60,0; 75,0; e 90,0%de concentrado nas rações, respectivamente. A concentração de amônia ruminal reduziu linearmente, em função dos tempos pós-alimentação, apresentando comportamento quadrático, com valores mínimos de 6,84; 7,14; 7,63; 7,82; 8,09; e 8,00 mg/dL, para 86,31; 84,86; 83,41; 81,95; 77,59; e 68,86% de concentrado nas rações. O numero de protozoários ruminais reduziu linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de concentrado nas rações. A eficiência de síntese de compostos nitrogenados microbianos aumentou linearmente com os níveis de concentrado nas rações.ABSTRACT - This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrate levels on the parameters of at ruminal fermentation, the apparent, total, ruminal and intestinal N digestibilities, the microbial efficiency and the N balance. Five rumen and abomasum fistulated bull Holstein calves, with an initial average age of 5.8±0.7 months and initial average of 107.4±11.0 kg LW were allotted to a 5x5

  13. Digestibilidade total e parcial e balanço nitrogenado em bovinos em pastejo no período das águas recebendo suplementos com nitrogênio não-proteico e/ou proteína verdadeira Total and partial digestibility and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein and, or true protein nitrogen during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli Costa

    2011-12-01

    this study was to evaluate the effect of different true protein:non-protein nitrogen ratios in supplements on digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle during rainy season. Five crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers, averaging 335±35 kg of body weight and fitted with rumen and abomasum canullae were used. The treatments were: control (only pasture, and supplements based on urea, 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, and albumin. Two hundred grams of crude protein (CP were daily supplied from supplements. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five 15-day experimental periods. Supplementation did not affect the total digestibility coefficients or the diet content of total digestible nutrients. Supplementation increased ruminal apparent digestibility coefficient of CP, which moved from negative for the control treatment to positive, but not different from zero, for treatments involving supplementation. Supplementation increased the rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration. Nitrogen balance was enhanced by supplementation. The replacement of urea by albumin caused a cubic effect on the nitrogen balance, with the higher value obtained at 1/3 of supplemental CP as urea. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was not influenced by supplementation or supplement composition. Supplementation with ruminal degradable nitrogenous compounds for grazing cattle during the rainy season increases the efficiency of use of pasture mainly by improving the body nitrogenous compounds retention.

  14. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento experimental por Bothrops alternatus em bovinos Clinic and pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by Bothrops alternatus venom in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo A. Caldas

    2008-06-01

    apathy. The laboratory exams revealed progressive normocytic normochromic anemia, thrombocytopenia, reduction in fibrinogen and total plasma proteins, decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin, and slight increase in creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. When subjected to necropsy, the animals that received the venom through the subcutaneous route showed large hematomas and hemorrhagic areas in the subcutaneous tissue, extending from the site of inoculation. The animals in which inoculation was performed intramuscularly exhibited, in addition, intramuscular hemorrhage. The left endocardium showed extensive hemorrhagic lesions, and petechiae were found on the serosae of rumen, omasum, abomasum and gall bladder. The colon, rectum and perirenal areas were surrounded by clotted blood in three animals. Besides hemorrhage, the histological examination revealed hemorrhage and coagulative muscle necrosis in the vicinities of the inoculation site in the animals that received the venom by the intramuscular route. These lesions were mild in the muscles close to the site of inoculation in the animals inoculated by the subcutaneous route. The swelling on the site of inoculation and its surroundings was a consequence of blood accumulation and not merely edema. Myoglobinuria and gross or microscopic lesions were not observed in the kidneys. This study indicates that B. alternatus can lead adult bovines to death if they release all their venom during a bite. Conversely, since venomous ophidians can control the amount of poison they inoculate and they probably do not identify bovines as potential preys, it is likely that the number of accidents involving this species is small, which is in agreement with the findings of the majority of the centers for anatomical-pathological diagnosis in Brazil.