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Sample records for abomasum

  1. Mucin profiles of the abomasum in bulls and rams: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoç, Zelal; Sağsöz, Hakan; Ketani, Muzaffer Aydın

    2016-09-01

    Many pathogens require direct binding to mucosal cells to cause an infection. The mucosal epithelium of the digestive tract, which is covered by a mucin layer, fulfills several protective functions that are essential to maintaining the health of the digestive tract. Mucins are glycoproteins, which are found on membranes and in mucus gels and protect the underlying mucosal cells. Both membrane-associated mucins and secreted mucins are critical components of mucosal defense. The aim of this study was to determine the localization and expression of mucin profile of the abomasum via histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The abomasums of 20 bulls and 20 rams were evaluated. Histochemical examination showed that neutral and acidic mucins were present in the mucosa and the glands of the pars cardiaca, fundus, and pars pylorica of the abomasums of both bulls and rams. However, the expression of acidic mucins was weak in the superficial glands and strong in the deep glands of the abomasum of rams. In both bulls and rams, MUC1, MUC5AC, and MUC6 were expressed in the glandular epithelial cells in all regions of the abomasum. Interestingly, while MUC2 was not expressed in the pars cardiaca and fundus, it was weakly expressed in the parietal cells of the pars pylorica in both species. In conclusion, the presence of neutral and acidic mucins and MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 proteins in luminal epithelial and glandular cells of abomasum in the bulls and rams support the hypothesis that mucins play a key role in the protection of the abomasal mucosa against infectious agents. PMID:27338724

  2. Characteristics of fluid composition of left displaced abomasum in beef cattle fed high-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichijo, Toshihiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuki; Murayama, Isao; Kikuchi, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid.

  3. Modification of abomasum contractility by flavonoids present in ruminants diet: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, M; Chłopecka, M; Dziekan, N; Karlik, W

    2016-09-01

    Flavonoid supplementation is likely to be beneficial in improving rumen fermentation and in reducing the incidence of rumen acidosis and bloat. Flavonoids are also said to increase the metabolic performance during the peripartum period. Ruminants are constantly exposed to flavonoids present in feed. However, it is not clear if these phytochemicals can affect the activity of the gut smooth muscle. Therefore, the aim of the study was to verify the effect of three flavonoids on bovine isolated abomasum smooth muscle. The study was carried out on bovine isolated circular and longitudinal abomasal smooth muscle specimens. All experiments were conducted under isometric conditions. The effect of apigenin, luteolin and quercetin (0.001 to 100 µM) was evaluated on acetylcholine-precontracted preparations. The effect of multiple, but not cumulative, treatment and single treatment with each flavonoid on abomasum strips was compared. Apigenin (0.1 to 100 µM) dose-dependently showed myorelaxation effects. Luteolin and quercetin applied in low doses increased the force of the ACh-evoked reaction. However, if used in high doses in experiments testing a wide range of concentrations, their contractile effect either declined (luteolin) or was replaced by an antispasmodic effect (quercetin). Surprisingly, the reaction induced by flavonoids after repeated exposure to the same phytochemical was not reproducible in experiments testing only single exposure of abomasum strips to the same flavonoid used in a high concentration. Taking into account the physicochemical properties of flavonoids, this data suggests the ability of flavonoids to interfere with cell membranes and, subsequently, to modify their responsiveness. Assuming ruminant supplementation with luteolin or quercetin or their presence in daily pasture, a reduction of the likelihood of abomasum dysmotility should be expected. PMID:27534882

  4. Blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations in cows with left displaced abomasum

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    Šamanc Horea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement is one of the most important disorders of the digestive tract in high-yield dairy cows. The etiology and pathogenesis of its occurrence has not been fully clarified to this day. The work examines calcaemia and phosphataemia in cows during the antepartal and postpartal periods and their connection with the incidence of abomasal displacement. The experiment covered 30 cows in advanced stages of gravidity. Blood samples were taken two weeks before expected parturition and two weeks after calving. In all blood samples (taken antepartal and postpartal, concentrations of calcium and an organic phosphorus were determined using a commercial test package (Bio-Merieux. Following parturition, left displacement of the abomasums was established in seven (23.33 % of the 30 cows covered by the experiment (experimental group. The remaining 23 cows in the experiment were clinically healthy, they were placed in a group and represented control animals. The average value of calcaemia for the control group of cows during the antepartal period was 2.72±0.25 mmol/l, and of phosphataemia 2.04±0.25 mmol/l. In the same cows postpartum, average calcaemia values were 2.46±0.22 mmol/l and phosphataemia 1.85±0.29 mmol/l. The average antepartal value for calcaemia in the experimental group of cows was 2.51±0.25 mmol/l, and for phosphataemia 1.73± 0.22 mmol/l. The average values for this group of cows postpartally was 2.13±0.31 mmol/l for calcaemia and 1.43±0.24 mmol/l for phosphataemia. The differences between the concentration values for calcium and phosphorus obtained postpartally between the experimental and control groups were statistically significant. .

  5. Metabolic Profile and Inflammatory Responses in Dairy Cows with Left Displaced Abomasum Kept under Small-Scaled Farm Conditions

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    Fenja Klevenhusen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Left displaced abomasum (LDA is a severe metabolic disease of cattle with a strong negative impact on production efficiency of dairy farms. Metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with this disease have been reported in earlier studies, conducted mostly in large dairy farms. This research aimed to: (1 evaluate metabolic and inflammatory responses in dairy cows affected by LDA in small-scaled dairy farms; and (2 establish an Animals 2015, 5 1022 association between lactation number and milk production with the outcome of metabolic variables. The cows with LDA had lower serum calcium (Ca, but greater concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and beta-hydroxy-butyrate (BHBA, in particular when lactation number was >2. Cows with LDA showed elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and serum amyloid A (SAA, regardless of lactation number. In addition, this study revealed strong associations between milk yield and the alteration of metabolic profile but not with inflammation in the sick cows. Results indicate metabolic alterations, liver damage, and inflammation in LDA cows kept under small-scale farm conditions. Furthermore, the data suggest exacerbation of metabolic profile and Ca metabolism but not of inflammation and liver health with increasing lactation number and milk yield in cows affected by LDA.

  6. Metabolic Profile and Inflammatory Responses in Dairy Cows with Left Displaced Abomasum Kept under Small-Scaled Farm Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevenhusen, Fenja; Humer, Elke; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara; Podstatzky-Lichtenstein, Leopold; Wittek, Thomas; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Left displaced abomasum (LDA) is a severe metabolic disease of cattle with a strong negative impact on production efficiency of dairy farms. Metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with this disease have been reported in earlier studies, conducted mostly in large dairy farms. This research aimed to: (1) evaluate metabolic and inflammatory responses in dairy cows affected by LDA in small-scaled dairy farms; and (2) establish an Animals 2015, 5 1022 association between lactation number and milk production with the outcome of metabolic variables. The cows with LDA had lower serum calcium (Ca), but greater concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxy-butyrate (BHBA), in particular when lactation number was >2. Cows with LDA showed elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and serum amyloid A (SAA), regardless of lactation number. In addition, this study revealed strong associations between milk yield and the alteration of metabolic profile but not with inflammation in the sick cows. Results indicate metabolic alterations, liver damage, and inflammation in LDA cows kept under small-scale farm conditions. Furthermore, the data suggest exacerbation of metabolic profile and Ca metabolism but not of inflammation and liver health with increasing lactation number and milk yield in cows affected by LDA. PMID:26479481

  7. Radiotracer studies with abomasum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-amino acid incorporation into the abomasal tissue proteins was studied in the presence of milk constituents and tissue extracts. Addition of either casein, α-lactalbumin or fresh milk in the assay system inhibited the incorporation phenomenon. Milk whey, boiled milk or tissue extracts from liver and kidney on the other hand, distinctly stimulated incorporation of amino acids. A 14C-labelled prorennin preparation was obtained in vitro from kid abomassum. Sephadex G-100 gel filtration resolved it into two components. The first protein positive component was associated with radioactivity. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO

  8. An evaluation of protein/fat ratio in first DHI test milk for prediction of subsequent displaced abomasum in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geishauser, T D; Leslie, K E; Duffield, T F; Edge, V L

    1998-04-01

    First DHI test milk that was sampled prior to displaced abomasum (DA) diagnosis was used to evaluate milk protein/fat ratio (PFR) for prediction of subsequent DA in dairy cows. Odds ratio, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio were determined. Twenty-seven DA cases were matched to 3 controls per case by herd and calving date. Milk was tested at a median of 19 d after calving, which was 8 d prior to the median time of DA diagnosis. Adjusted for parity and days in milk, a protein/fat ratio 0.72. Using the cut off value of 0.72, the sensitivity of PFR for DA was 80% and the specificity was 68%. A receiver operating characteristics curve indicated that the minimum sum of false negative and false positive results was at a PFR cut off value of 0.72. The likelihood ratio indicated that protein/fat ratios DHI test milk may predict subsequent DA in dairy cows.

  9. Avaliação morfológica do abomaso e ceco-cólon de bovinos Morphologic evaluation of the abomasum and cecum-colon of bovines

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    M.G. Cardoso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A morfofisiologia relacionada à absorção de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV ao longo do trato gastrintestinal de ruminantes não é totalmente caracterizada. Desse modo, os objetivos deste trabalho foram mensurar a extensão da superfície de absorção e determinar o índice mitótico (IM do abomaso, do ceco e da alça proximal do cólon ascendente (APCA. Dez bovinos mestiços adultos tiveram seu estômago e intestino grosso removidos imediatamente após o abate. A área total da superfície de absorção foi mensurada por meio de digitalização e análise de imagens. Cortes histológicos foram feitos para determinação do IM. A superfície absortiva do abomaso, 0,58m², foi menor (PThe morphology and physiology related to volatile fatty acid (VFA absorption throughout the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants is not totally characterized. The purpose of this work was to measure the abomasum and cecum-colon absorptive surface extension and determine the mitotic index (MI. Ten adult crossbred bovine had their stomach and large intestine removed after slaughter. The total area of the absorptive surface was measured through image capture and analysis. Histological sections were performed to measure the MI. The abomasum absorptive surface (0.58m² was lower (P<0.01 than that of the rumen (6.53m² and omasum (2.31m². The cecum-colon absorptive surface (0.23m² corresponded to 3.5% of the rumen and 10% of the omasum. The MI observed was 0.48%; 0.14%; 0.36% and 0.41% for the regions of spiral folds, pyloric, cecum and proximal loop of ascending colon, respectively. A positive correlation between abomasum tissue mass and the abomasum absorptive surface was observed. This phenomenon has also occurred in the cecum and colon. It was possible to establish regressions to facilitate measurements of the absorptive surface of the abomasum and cecum-colon.

  10. Study on the Tissue Structure and Mucosal Immunity-associated Cells in Abomasum of the Yak%牦牛皱胃组织结构及黏膜免疫相关细胞研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁延刚; 高世杰; 方梅; 相猛; 贾宁

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the tissue structure and the distribution and number changes of abomasum mucosal immunity-associated cells in the yak. The tissue structure and intraepithelial lymphocytes, plasma cells and mast cells of abomasum in the yak were investigated with histochemical method, the scion image software analysis techniques method and the electron microscope technique. The results showed that there were mucousmembrane, submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa in the abomasum of yak. The gastric pit was deepest in the pyloric gland region of abomasum, and this glandular region has also the longest gland and the thickest muscular layer. The thickness of muscular and glands length in each glandular region of abomasum are significantly different (P 0. 05) to the cardiac gland region. The number of intraepithelial lymphocyte and plasma cell ineach glandular region of abomasum are not significantly different(P>0. 05). The number of the mast cells between the fundus gland region and the pyloric gland region are significantly different (P0. 05). There are a lot of diffuse lymphatic cells and solitary lymphoid nodules in the lamina propria of abomasum. Under the electron microscope, gastric pit columnar epithelial cells are aligned tightly. There are lots of mucous cells in the lamina propria of pylorus gland region, these cells are tall columnar or cone shape, their nucleus are located basally part of the cell, there are the high electrons density particles are gathered in the top of these cells. There are a large number of parietal cells and chief cells in the fundus gland region and cardiac gland region. The structure of abomasum in the yak is similar to other ruminant animals, but each layer has its characteristics. There are quite a lot of diffuse lymphatic cells and solitary lymphoid nodules in the lamina propria of abomasum in the yak, it make the abomasum mucosal immunity function of the yak stronger than other ruminant animals.%为揭示牦

  11. 新生犊牛皱胃平滑肌细胞的原代培养——组织块培养法和胶原酶消化法的比较研究%Primary culture of abomasum smooth muscle cells in newborn calf Comparison research on methods of tissue culture and collagenase digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许远靖; 谢光洪; 刘芳宁; 贾艳; 田武林; 李彬; 魏腾; 张乃生; 靳朝; 刘国文

    2012-01-01

    Abomasum smooth muscle cells of newborn calf were isolated and cultured with tissue culture and collagenase digestion,and were indentified through immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence technique, and then the results and the cell growth curves were compared. The cell growth curves based on the two ways were almost the same;the cell purity was more than 95 % through tissue culture,and 90 % through the collagenase digestion with the immunocytochemistry identification, which is almost the same to immunofluorescence results: 96% through tissue culture and 89 % through collagenase digestion respectively. Tissue culture method is easy to operate and economical,but takes a long time;collagenase digestion method is rapid, easy to obtain more cells, but very expensive, so we would like to use the tissue culture-in combination with collagenase digestion in practice.%通过组织块培养法和胶原酶消化法分离培养犊奶牛皱胃平滑肌细胞,采用免疫细胞化学方法和免疫荧光化学方法对其进行鉴定,并将鉴定结果、细胞生长曲线进行比较。结果,两种方法培养出的细胞生长曲线基本相同,细胞纯度免疫细胞化学鉴定结果为:组织块培养法为95%以上,胶原酶消化法为90%;免疫荧光鉴定结果为:组织块培养法为96%,酶消化法为89%。组织块培养法操作简单、经济,但耗时较长;胶原酶消化法快速、获得细胞较多,但价格昂贵,故在实际操作中可将两种方法联合应用。

  12. Hematological, biochemical and ruminant parameters for diagnosis of left displacement of the abomasum in dairy cows from Southern Brazil Indicadores hematológicos, bioquímicos e ruminais no diagnóstico do deslocamento de abomaso à esquerda em vacas leiteiras do Sul do Brasil

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    Felipe Cardoso de Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate hematological, biochemical and ruminant parameters for diagnosis and treatment of the left displaced abomasum (LDA in dairy cows, in the Plateau Region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ruminant fluid, blood and urine samples were collected from 20 cows suffering LDA and from 20 healthy cows (control. The cows with LDA showed lower values of daily milk production, body weight and corporal condition score. The use of pH reagent strips showed to be functional in the field, when compared to a digital pH meter. Ruminant dynamics was damaged in cows affected by LDA, as it was evidenced by the higher reduction time of methylene blue. Serum values of lactate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, urea, albumin, free fatty acids and cholesterol shows to be auxiliary tools in the LDA characterization.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar indicadores hematológicos, bioquímicos e ruminais no diagnóstico e tratamento do deslocamento de abomaso à esquerda (DAE em vacas leiteiras, na Região do Planalto do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram coletadas amostras de líquido ruminal, sangue e urina de 40 animais, dos quais 20 vacas com DAE e 20 vacas clinicamente sadias utilizadas como grupo controle. Os animais com DAE, quando comparados ao grupo controle, apresentaram diminuição da produção de leite diária, do peso corporal e do escore condição corporal. A utilização de fitas reagentes para medição do pH ruminal demonstrou-se eficaz em campo, em comparação ao potenciômetro digital. A dinâmica ruminal apresentou-se prejudicada nos animais com DAE, o que foi evidenciado pelos valores aumentados do tempo de redução de azul de metileno. Os valores séricos de lactato, beta-hidroxibutirato, uréia, albumina, ácidos graxos livres e colesterol apresentam-se como ferramentas auxiliares na caracterização da doença.

  13. Responses to increasing amounts of high-oleic sunflower fatty acids infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drackley, J K; Overton, T R; Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Beaulieu, A D; Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M; Perkins, E G

    2007-11-01

    Increasing the oleic acid (18:1 cis-9) content of milk fat might be desirable to meet consumer concerns about dietary healthfulness and for certain manufacturing applications. The extent to which milk fat could be enriched with oleic acid is not known. Increasing the intestinal supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases dry matter intake (DMI) in cows, but the effects of oleic acid have not been quantified. In a crossover design, 4 multiparous Holstein cows were abomasally infused with increasing amounts (0, 250, 500, 750, or 1,000 g/d) of free fatty acids from high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSFA) or with carrier alone. Continuous infusions (20 to 22 h/d) were for 7 d at each amount. Infusions were homogenates of HOSFA with 240 g/d of meat solubles and 11.2 g/d of Tween 80; controls received carrier only. The HOSFA contained (by wt) 2.4% 16:0, 1.8% 18:0, 91.4% 18:1 cis-9, and 2.4% 18:2. The DMI decreased linearly (range 22.0 to 5.8 kg/d) as the infused amount of HOSFA increased. Apparent total tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and energy decreased as the infusion increased to 750 g/d and then increased when 1,000 g/d was infused. Digestibility of total fatty acids increased linearly as infused fatty acids increased. Yields of milk, fat, true protein, casein, and total solids decreased quadratically as infused amounts increased; decreases were greatest when 750 or 1,000 g/d of HOSFA were infused. Concentrations of fat and total solids increased at the higher amounts of HOSFA. The volume mean diameter of milk fat droplets and the diameter below which 90% of the volume of milk fat is contained both increased as HOSFA infusion increased. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, 12:0, 14:0, and 16:0 in milk fat decreased linearly as HOSFA increased. The concentration of 18:1 cis-9 (19.4 to 57.4% of total fatty acids) increased linearly as HOSFA infusion increased. Concentrations of 18:1 cis-9 in blood triglyceride-rich lipoproteins increased linearly as infusion increased, whereas contents of 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, total 18:1 trans, and 18:2n-6 decreased linearly. The composition and physical characteristics of milk fat can be altered markedly by an increased intestinal supply of 18:1 cis-9, which could influence processing characteristics and the healthfulness of milk fat. However, an increased supply of free 18:1 cis-9 to the intestine decreased DMI and milk production.

  14. Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Extracting Activity of Kid Rennet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fu-xin; LI Lin-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Using 2-3 weeks kid abomasums as materials, the ultrasound intensity, extracting time, NaC1 concentration and pH value in extracting solution and ratio of abomasums to extracting solution were studied by ultrasonic method. The results showed that the main factor affecting kid rennet activity during extraction was ultrasound intensity, and then NaC1concentration, extracting time and ratio of abomasums to extracting solution in order. Kid rennet activity reached peak with ultrasound intensity 30 W cm-2, extraction time 40 min, NaC1 concentration 8%, pH value 3.0, ratio of abomasums to extracting solution 1:15.

  15. Pyloro-duodenal hernia with formation of enterocutaneous fistula in a buffalo calf following a dog attack

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    G. Kamalakar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A body wall hernia entrapping abomasum and concurrent duodenal fistula in a buffalo calf aged about 8 months, secondary to a dog bite was successfully treated by closure of fistulous orifice and ventro lateral herniorrhaphy.

  16. Ultrasonographic findings in a cow with abomasal lymphosarcoma: Case report

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    Meyer Sven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This case report describes the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in a Swiss Braunvieh cow with lymphosarcoma of the abomasum. Case Presentation The main clinical findings were vomiting in response to eating and melena. The results of serum biochemistry and rumen fluid analysis were indicative of abomasal reflux syndrome. The main ultrasonographic findings were two enlarged lymph nodes caudal to the reticulum and a severely enlarged abomasum with thickening of the abomasal wall and folds. Based on all the findings, pyloric stenosis caused by lymphosarcoma was tentatively diagnosed and later confirmed at postmortem examination. Conclusions This is an interesting case, which broadens the spectrum of abomasal reflux syndrome.

  17. Fluoroscopic findings in bovine mass-screening with an X-ray car for large animals: Occurrence and nature of abomasal foreign bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence and nature of abomasal foreign bodies were investigated in 1, 976 clinically healthy cows in mass-screening with an X-ray car for large animals within 23 months period from January 1981 to November 1982 in northern and eastern districts of Hokkaido.Metallic foreign bodies (MFB) and sand-like substance were observed in the abomasum in 35.3% and 96.5% of the cows, respectively. This result suggested that most of the clinically healthy cows might always be exposed to the occurrence of traumatic abomasitis and/or abomasal ulcer, and turned down the theory that MFB were very seldom encounted in the abomasum.Of the cows, 826 had a magnet in the reticulum. MFB were found in the abomasum in 25.7% of them.Abomasal MFB were detected from 42.2% of 1, 147 cows which had no magnet in the reticulum. The presence of a magnet in the reticulum was effective to some extent to prevent the migration of MFB to the abomasum. (author)

  18. Balantidiasis in the gastric lymph nodes of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia): an incidental finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ho-Seong; Shin, Sung-Shik; Park, Nam-Yong

    2006-06-01

    A 4-year-old female Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) was found dead in the Gwangju Uchi Park Zoo. The animal had previously exhibited weakness and lethargy, but no signs of diarrhea. The carcass was emaciated upon presentation. The main gross lesion was characterized by severe serous atrophy of the fat tissues of the coronary and left ventricular grooves, resulting in the transformation of the fat to a gelatinous material. The rumen was fully distended with food, while the abomasum evidenced mucosal corrugation with slight congestion. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of Balantidium coli trophozoites within the lymphatic ducts of the gastric lymph node and the abdominal submucosa. On rare occasions, these organisms may invade extra-intestinal organs, in this case the gastric lymph nodes and abomasum. PMID:16645350

  19. Gastrointestinal distribution of albendazole metabolites following netobimin administration to cattle: relationship with plasma disposition kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, C E; Gascon, L H; Prichard, R K

    1993-03-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) distribution and plasma disposition kinetics of albendazole (ABZ) metabolites after oral administration of netobimin (NTB) to cattle were studied. Eight Holstein steers (150-180 kg) were surgically fitted with permanent cannulae in the rumen, abomasum and ileum. After post-surgical recovery, the animals were treated orally with a suspension of netobimin zwitterion (400 mg/ml) at 20 mg/kg. Jugular blood and ruminal, abomasal and ileal fluid samples were taken serially over a 96 h period and analysed by HPLC for NTB and its metabolites, including ABZ, ABZ sulphoxide (ABZSO), ABZ sulphone (ABZSO2) and amino-albendazole sulphone (NH2ABZSO2). NTB parent drug was only found in the GI tract and for only 12-18 h post-treatment. ABZSO and ABZSO2 were the main metabolites found in plasma, being present for 30-36 h. These metabolites were exchanged between plasma and different GI fluids and were greatly concentrated in the abomasum. This phenomenon may account for the presence of ABZ, ABZSO and ABZSO2 in the GI tract for 72 h post-treatment despite the fact that ABZ was not detected in plasma and ABZSO and ABZSO2 were detected for only 30-36 h in plasma. The presence of ABZ and ABZSO in the abomasum and intestine for this extended period of time is probably relevant for anthelmintic efficacy against GI parasites. The NH2 ABZSO2 metabolite was detected in plasma, abomasum and ileum and its disposition kinetics were characterized for the first time. PMID:8478999

  20. Ricobendazole kinetics and availability following subcutaneous administration of a novel injectable formulation to calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, C E; Virkel, G L; Sanchez, S F; Alvarez, L I; Lifschitz, A L; Imperiale, F; Monfrinotti, A

    1998-01-01

    The plasma and abomasal fluid disposition kinetics of ricobendazole (RBZ) after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of a novel injectable formulation to calves, and the comparative plasma availability after s.c. injection of RBZ and that obtained after oral treatment with albendazole (ABZ), were characterised. Six parasite-free Holstein calves received RBZ (solution 150 mg ml(-1)) by s.c. injection at 3.75 mg kg(-1) (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 was conducted in two experimental phases; in phase I, five calves (Group A) received RBZ by s.c. injection and five animals (Group B) were orally treated with ABZ (suspension 100 mg ml(-1)), at 5 mg kg(-1). Drug treatments were reversed for each group in phase II and given at 7.5 mg kg(-1). Samples of abomasal fluid (via cannula) and jugular blood were collected over 72 hours post-treatment and analysed by HPLC. RBZ and its sulphone metabolite were detected in plasma following its s.c. administration. RBZ was rapidly absorbed, reaching the plasma Cmax at 4.5 hours post-dosing. The sulphone metabolite followed a similar kinetic pattern. Both molecules were rapidly and extensively distributed into the abomasum, being detected in abomasal fluid between 30 minutes and 36 hours post-administration. An extensive plasma/abomasum exchange process, with ionic-trapping in the abomasum, accounted for the higher AUC value (>200 per cent) obtained for RBZ in abomasum compared with plasma. The s.c. treatment with RBZ formulated as a solution resulted in a significantly greater plasma availability (measured as ABZ sulphoxide) than the oral treatment with ABZ (suspension) given at the same dose rates. PMID:9769065

  1. The relationship between herd level disease incidence and a return over feed index in Ontario dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    McLaren, Chris J.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Duffield, Todd F.; Leslie, Ken E.; Kelton, David F.; Grexton, Bill

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current research was to examine the association of herd level disease incidence with the return over feed (ROF) (milk income minus feed cost) herd profit index offered through Canwest Dairy Herd Improvement. The lactational incidence risks (LIR) for displaced abomasum, retained placenta, clinical mastitis, milk fever, clinical ketosis, and lameness submitted by producers (n = 48) were similar to previous reports. However, there was no negative associatio...

  2. Systemic Conidiobolus incongruus infection and hypertrophic osteopathy in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Madson, D. M.; Loynachan, A.T.; Kariyawasam, S.; Opriessnig, T.

    2009-01-01

    Postmortem examination of a free-range white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) revealed severe emaciation, bilateral firm proliferation of the metatarsal diaphyses, and a large intrathoracic mass associated with the accessory lung lobe. Smaller masses were evident in the abomasum, duodenum, omentum, and the capsular surface of the liver. Microscopically, the masses were similar and were diagnosed as eosinophilic granulomas with intralesional fungal hyphae characteristic of Zygomycetes spp....

  3. Simulation and validation of the ruminal digestion of carbohydrates in cattle from kinetic parameters obtained by in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Cabral

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to validate the estimates of the ruminal degradation of total carbohydrates (TC, ruminal and total digestion of fibrous carbohydrates (FC and microbial nitrogen flow in the abomasum evaluated by in vitro gas production technique (IVGP. Six ruminally and abomasally cannulated steers arranged in a double 3 × 3 latin square were used to measure described parameters with indigestible neutral detergent fiber (INDF utilization as marker. Total and fibrous carbohydrates degraded in the rumen were estimated through digestion rates obtained for fibrous (FC and non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC using in vitro gas production technique, corrected for its respective ruminal and postruminal passage rates. The estimation of the total digestion of FC was done by the sum of ruminal and post-ruminal digestion of these compounds. The microbial nitrogen flow in the abomasum was estimated by the calculating the microbial efficiency of bacteria that ferment FC and NFC, utilizing the microbial growth rate obtained by the ruminal digestion rate for carbohydrate fractions in IVGP. The utilization of the in vitro gas production technique allows obtaining accurate estimates of the ruminal digestion of total carbohydrates, total and ruminal digestion of fiber carbohydrates and microbial protein flow in the abomasum.

  4. Notes on necropsy and herbage processing techniques for gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysker, M; Kooyman, F N

    1993-02-01

    Necropsy techniques for the digestive tract of ruminants used at the University of Utrecht differ from those used elsewhere in three respects: (1) the abomasum is opened immediately after slaughter and the "contents" are treated separately from the "washings"; (2) the first 10 m of the small intestine are treated separately from the remainder of the intestine; (3) the aliquots are coloured with iodine before being examined for worms. The majority of the worms are found in the washings of the abomasum and the first part of the small intestine, whereas the contents of the abomasum and the remainder of the small intestine contain the bulk of the digesta. Because inhibited stages of Ostertagia, Haemonchus and, particularly, the very small third stage larvae (L3) of Trichostrongylus can be overlooked easily in digesta, these methods imply a more rapid and accurate enumeration of worms. This is more important in small ruminants than in cattle because a much higher proportion of the inhibited larvae will be washed out of the mucosa and because Trichostrongylus is more important in small ruminants. Herbage sampling methods for monitoring gastrointestinal nematode infections on cattle pastures in northwest Europe should also be suitable for lungworm. The agar-bile technique of Jørgensen is an elegant method, but disadvantages are that many gastrointestinal nematode larvae exsheath, resulting in identification difficulties, and recovery of lungworm larvae decreases as a result of ageing. A simple sucrose flotation method, based on the principle that a sucrose solution does not mix easily with water containing nematodes, has been tested at our laboratory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8484211

  5. Genomic selection for producer-recorded health event data in US dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2014-05-01

    Emphasizing increased profit through increased dairy cow production has revealed a negative relationship of production with fitness and health traits. Decreased cow health can affect herd profitability through increased rates of involuntary culling and decreased or lost milk sales. The development of genomic selection methodologies, with accompanying substantial gains in reliability for low-heritability traits, may dramatically improve the feasibility of genetic improvement of dairy cow health. Producer-recorded health information may provide a wealth of information for improvement of dairy cow health, thus improving profitability. The principal objective of this study was to use health data collected from on-farm computer systems in the United States to estimate variance components and heritability for health traits commonly experienced by dairy cows. A single-step analysis was conducted to estimate genomic variance components and heritabilities for health events, including cystic ovaries, displaced abomasum, ketosis, lameness, mastitis, metritis, and retained placenta. A blended H matrix was constructed for a threshold model with fixed effects of parity and year-season and random effects of herd-year and sire. The single-step genomic analysis produced heritability estimates that ranged from 0.02 (standard deviation = 0.005) for lameness to 0.36 (standard deviation = 0.08) for retained placenta. Significant genetic correlations were found between lameness and cystic ovaries, displaced abomasum and ketosis, displaced abomasum and metritis, and retained placenta and metritis. Sire reliabilities increased, on average, approximately 30% with the incorporation of genomic data. From the results of these analyses, it was concluded that genetic selection for health traits using producer-recorded data are feasible in the United States, and that the inclusion of genomic data substantially improves reliabilities for these traits. PMID:24612803

  6. Comparison of abomasal emptying in neonatal calves with a nuclear scintigraphic procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappert, G; Lattimer, J C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate that nuclear medicine technology allows observation of the effect that milk clotting has on abomasal emptying in the living neonatal calf. Scintigraphic evaluation of abomasal emptying was carried out in 6 healthy male Holstein calves. The calves were fed 10% of their body weight daily as whole cow's milk that was divided equally and consumed as 2 feedings via a nipple bottle. One day before the nuclear scintigraphic procedure, the calves were randomly fed whole cow's milk, or an oral rehydration solution (ORS) containing bicarbonate and high levels of soluble fibre was fed for 3 consecutive feedings an hour before the portion of milk. For each calf, both feeding programs were repeated twice at a one-week interval. Immediately following administration of the 99mTC-sulfur-colloid-containing milk, the calves were imaged with the gamma camera positioned lateral and ventral to the abomasum. Additional right lateral and ventral views of the abomasum were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min after administration of the radionuclide. Blood glucose determination were performed at one-hour intervals for 7 h after feeding milk to evaluate milk digestibility in both feeding programs. No significant differences in the results of the glucose absorption test or in the radionuclide counts of the abomasum were found between both feeding programs. Scintigraphic evaluation of abomasal emptying was found to be a useful technique for visualization of milk clotting and to test the effect of an ORS on milk digestibility. PMID:11227195

  7. Bochdalek Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in an Adult Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R D; Katz, M G; Fargnoli, A S; Kendle, A P; Mihalko, K L; Bridges, C R

    2016-06-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare condition. The aetiology of CDH is often unclear. In our case, a hollow mass was noted on MRI. Cardiac ejection fraction was diminished (47.0%) compared to 60.5% (average of 10 other normal animals, P type) was made when the sheep underwent surgery. The hernia was right-sided and contained the abomasum. Lung biopsy demonstrated incomplete development with a low number of bronchopulmonary segments and vessels. The likely cause of this hernia was genetic malformation. PMID:26293994

  8. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic amino acid metabolism in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2009-01-01

    Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic AA metabolism. The experimental design was a split plot, with cow as the whole...... plot, treatment as the whole-plot factor and days in milk (DIM) as the subplot factor. Cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: control or infusion of 1,500 g/d of glucose into the abomasum from the day of calving to 29 DIM....

  9. Bochdalek Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in an Adult Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. D.; Katz, M. G.; Fargnoli, A. S.; Kendle, A. P.; Mihalko, K. L.; Bridges, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare condition. The aetiology of CDH is often unclear. In our case, a hollow mass was noted on MRI. Cardiac ejection fraction was diminished (47.0%) compared to 60.5% (average of 10 other normal animals, P < 0.05). The final diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (Bochdalek type) was made when the sheep underwent surgery. The hernia was right-sided and contained the abomasum. Lung biopsy demonstrated incomplete development with a low number of bronchopulmonary segments and vessels. The likely cause of this hernia was genetic malformation. PMID:26293994

  10. Expression of three intelectins in sheep and response to a Th2 environment

    OpenAIRE

    French, Anne T.; Knight, Pamela A.; Smith, W. David; Pate, Judith A.; Miller, Hugh R. P.; Pemberton, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    International audience Sheep intelectin1 and sheep intelectin3 (sITLN1 and sITLN3) were cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequences of sITLN1 and sITLN3 shared 86% and 91% homology with the previously cloned sheep intelectin2 (sITLN2), respectively. Expression of sITLN1 and sITLN3 transcript was demonstrated in abomasum, lung, colon and gastric lymph node, terminal rectum, skin, jejunum, mesenteric lymph node, ileal peyer's patches, brain, kidney, liver, spleen, skin, ear pinna, heart a...

  11. Modified plasma and abomasal disposition of albendazole in nematode-infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L I; Sánchez, S F; Lanusse, C E

    1997-05-01

    The influence of gastrointestinal nematode infection on the kinetics of albendazole (ABZ) and its metabolites, albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and sulphone (ABZSO2) in plasma and abomasal fluid was investigated in sheep. A micronised suspension of ABZ was administered intraruminally at 7.5 mg kg-1 to the following groups of sheep: (a) non-parasitised (control); (b) artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus; (c) naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus and other species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Plasma and abomasal fluid samples were obtained serially over 72 h post-treatment and they were analysed by HPLC for ABZ and its metabolites. The ABZ parent drug was not detected in plasma at any time post-treatment, however the metabolites ABZSO and ABZSO2 were recovered in the bloodstream. The active metabolite ABZSO was recovered in plasma between 0.5 and 48 (uninfected), 60 (H. contortus infected) or 72 h (naturally infected sheep) post-administration. The area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC) values for ABZSO were higher in both artificially infected (64.0 micrograms h ml-1) and naturally infected (79.3 micrograms h ml-1) sheep as compared with non-infected animals (41.8 micrograms h ml-1). Peak plasma concentrations for ABZSO and ABZSO2 were higher in both artificially and naturally infected sheep than in non-parasitised animals. No changes in the half-lives and mean residence times for these metabolites were observed in infected sheep. ABZ and its metabolites were found in the abomasum between 0.5 and 48 (infected animals) or 72 h (uninfected) post-treatment. The availability (total AUCs) of ABZ and its metabolites in abomasal fluid were lower in H. contortus infected sheep than in the uninfected control animals. The increased abomasal pH induced by the presence of the H. contortus infection may reduce the plasma/abomasum pH gradient, which results in a decreased ionic-trapping of ABZ and its metabolites in the abomasum. Such a

  12. Cryopreservation of roe deer abomasal nematodes for morphological identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo, Paola; Pascotto, Ernesto

    2014-02-01

    Conventional methods to preserve adult nematodes for taxonomic purposes involve the use of fixative or clearing solutions (alcohol, formaldehyde, AFA and lactophenol), which cause morphological alterations and are toxic. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative method based on glycerol-cryopreservation of nematodes for their subsequent identification. Adults of trichostrongylid nematodes from the abomasum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus) were glycerol-cryopreserved and compared with those fixed in formaldehyde, fresh and frozen without cryoprotectans. Morphology, transparency and elasticity of the anterior and posterior portion of male nematodes were compared, especially the caudal cuticular bursa and genital accessories. The method presented is quick and easy to use, and the quality of nematode specimens is better than that of nematodes fixed by previously used fixatives. Moreover, glycerol cryopreserved nematodes can be stored for a long time at -20 degrees C in perfect condition and they could be suitable for further analyses, such as histological or ultrastructural examinations.

  13. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K;

    2010-01-01

    plasma concentrations of ghrelin were greatest prepartum and lowest at 4 d postpartum, giving a quadratic pattern of change over the transition period. Positive portal venous-arterial and hepatic venous-arterial concentration differences were observed for glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide. A negative......Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design...... was a randomized block design with repeated measurements. Cows were assigned to one of 2 treatments: control or infusion of 1,500 g of glucose/d into the abomasum from the day of parturition to 29 d in milk. Cows were sampled 12 ± 6 d prepartum and at 4, 15, and 29 d in milk. Concentrations of glucose...

  14. Effect of polyethylene glycol on rumen volume and retention time of liquid and particulate matter along the digestive tract in goats fed tannin-rich carob leaves (Ceratonia siliqua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silanikove, N; Gilboa, N; Nitsan, Z

    2001-04-01

    The present work studied the effects of tannins in carob leaves (CL) on rumen volume and kinetics, and on the retention time of fluid and particulate components of the digesta along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in goats. The experimental design was a two factor crossover experiment, i.e. in phase 1, two goats were fed CL and 2 CL and polyethylene glycol (PEG) and in phase 2, the treatments were switched. The main effects of tannins were depression of the rumen fluid and particulate content of the rumen, acceleration of the passage of liquid from the abomasum, and delay of the passage of digesta in the intestine. The overall effect was a delay in the passage of fluid and particulate matter throughout the entire GIT. It is hypothesised that these responses are largely the consequence of the interaction of tannins with digestive enzymes and the epithelium lining of the digestive tract.

  15. Molecular characterization of the first internal transcribed spacer of rDNA of Parabronema skrjabini for the first time in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminasab, Seyed Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Parabronema skrjabini is a spirurid nematode of the family Habronematidae that lives in the abomasum of ruminants such as sheep and goats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular aspects of Parabronema skrjabini in sheep. The worms were collected from sheep in Sanandaj (west of Iran). The first internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) nucleotide fragments of Parabronema skrjabini were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two pairs of specific primers (Para-Ir-R and Para-Ir-F). ITS1 homology in the sequence of this study was 69% compared with the sequence data in GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the world exploring the genetic diversity of P. skrjabini in sheep based on ITS1. PMID:26878620

  16. Transport and recycling of radiocesium in the alimentary tract of reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Transport of radiocesium between the body pools and the alimentary tract was studied in 7 reindeer calves. Comparisons were made between reindeer receiving the Cs- binder Prussian blue (Ammon-ium-ironhexacyanoferrate and untreated animals. The calves were fed lichens contaminated with 134Cs + 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident (about 10 kBq/day for 4 weeks. Absorption and secretion of radiocesium, Na and K in the alimentary tract were calculated using 51Cr-EDTA as a reference substance. Thirteen sections of the alimentary tract were sampled and analysed for radionuclides and chemical composition. In 4 animals, feeding with contaminated lichens continued until they were slaughtered, whereas in the 3 others the lichen feeding terminated 4 days before slaughter. The activity concentration of Cs nuclides increased 5-17 - fold from duodenum to the distal colon, whereas the concentration of Na decreased and K remained almost constant. Radiocesium, Na and K were secreted into the rumen, the omasum and the abomasum, whereas Na and K also were secreted into the proximal small intestine. Prussian blue had no effect on Na and K recycling, but the flow of radiocesium from the abomasum to the anus and the fecal excretion increased markedly. In the 3 animals where feeding with contaminated lichens was disconutinued 4 days before slaughter, endogenous Cs was continuously recycled between the body pools and the alimentary tract. The net exchange of radiocesium between body pools and the alimentary tract was more than 4 times the amount ingested when lichens were fed. It is concluded that radiocesium is rapidly recycled between the alimentary tract and the other body pools. Cs-binders like ammonium-ironhexacyanoferrate may bind both endogenous Cs and Cs from feed.

  17. An epidemiologic study of disease in 32 registered Holstein dairy herds in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorp, R T; Martin, S W; Shoukri, M M; Noordhuizen, J P; Dekkers, J C

    1999-07-01

    Data recorded in a herd health management system were obtained from 32 registered Holstein dairy herds from British Columbia. Frequencies of disease were described, and the effect of herd, age, year, season, and the interrelationships between diseases within a lactation on the occurrence of disease were evaluated. Lactational incidence rates were computed for diseases with a short period of risk (ie, udder edema, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis), whereas for diseases with a longer period of risk (ie, cystic ovaries, mastitis and stable footrot), incidence densities were calculated. Overall, the disease incidence was low and showed an increase in frequency by year, which we attributed to more observing and complete recording by the owner, rather than an actual increase in disease incidence. Most diseases occurred early in lactation and their frequency increased with lactation number; the exception was udder edema, which occurred mainly during the first 2 lactations. An informal path model of disease interrelationships was made conditional on herd. Based on the results we inferred 2 independent pathways: one started by udder edema, and the other by milk fever. Udder edema was directly associated with mastitis occurrence from 0 to 30 d in lactation, metritis, and cystic ovaries. Mastitis from 0-30 d in lactation increased the risk of both mastitis from 31-150 d in lactation and cystic ovaries. Both of these increased the risk of late lactation mastitis. Milk fever was directly related with displaced abomasum, which increased the risk of footrot. In general, diseases that occurred in early lactation tended to increase the risk of other diseases later in lactation.

  18. Ischaemia/reperfusion injury in experimentally induced abomasal volvulus in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, K; Mostaghni, K; Maleki, M; Badiei, K

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ischaemia/reperfusion injury in simulated abomasal volvulus in sheep. Sixteen ewes were randomly allocated to three groups. The control group (n=4) served as sham-operated controls. The animals of the ischaemia group and reperfusion group (n=6, each) underwent a simulated 'abomasal volvulus'. The abomasum was exteriorized under general inhalation anesthesia and forced into a 180( composite function) anticlockwise rotation around its longitudinal axis, followed by another 270( composite function) anticlockwise rotation around its transectional axis. All ewes were monitored for 4 h. In the reperfusion group, volvulus was released after 3 h (i.e., 1 h of reperfusion). In the ischaemia group, the volvulus remained for 4 h (no reperfusion). Vital signs were monitored and some haematological and biochemical parameters were measured, without any significant differences. Full-section biopsy specimens were taken at the 3rd and 4th hours from the greater curvature of the abomasum. Histopathological lesions were scored according to the severity of mucosal oedema, submucosal oedema, haemorrhage submucosal and submuscularis layers, and polymorphonuclear infiltration on a scale of 0 to 4 (nil, mild, moderate, severe, and extreme). Another biopsy specimen was taken at the 4th hour for transmission electron microscopic examination. The scored lesions in light-microscopic examination were significantly different at the 3rd and 4th hours between the control and the experimental groups (p0.1). Within-group comparisons (3rd hour with 4th hour) revealed no significant differences. In transmission electron microscopic examination there were no remarkable changes in the control group, but in the ischaemia and reperfusion groups there were remarkable cellular (epithelial and goblet cells), mitochondrial and microvillous changes that strongly implied the occurrence of ischaemia (pmodel of simulated abomasal volvulus in sheep and that ischaemia

  19. [Lactational incidences of common diseases in dairy herds in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany): effect of first test-day milk yield, herd milk yield and number of lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundling, Natascha; Ruddat, Inga; Prien, Kristin; Hellerich, Birte; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to record common diseases in dairy cows in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and to describe associations between lactation number (LN: 1, 2, > 2), first test-day milk yield (TD1: 7500 kg), the latter parameter serving as a proxy for herd management (extensive vs. intensive). Data of 98 dairy herds (6439 lactations) were processed on cow level using mixed logistic regression models with LNmastitis (15.3%), subclinical mastitis (61.9%), ketosis (1.6%), displaced abomasum (0.4%), lameness (15.4%). Number of lactation (2, > 2 vs. 1) was a risk factor for hypocalcaemia (OR 3.715, 23.047), retained placental membranes (OR 1.764, 2.479), clinical mastitis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 2.118), subclinical mastitis (OR 1.668,4.397), ketosis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 3.936) and lameness (OR 1.275, 2.070). Older cows had a lower risk for dystocia (OR 0.373, 0.357). TD1 (≥ 30 kg) was not a risk factor of disease except for subclinical mastitis in first parity animals (OR 1.319). Herd milk yield (> 7500 kg) was a risk factor for clinical metritis/endometritis (OR 1.971), displaced abomasum (OR 7.764), lameness (OR 1.618) and hypocalcaemia (cows with high TD1 [OR 2.273]). In conclusion, not individual milk yield, but herd milk yield as an indicator of differences in intensity of herd management as well as number of lactation seemed to influence the frequency of common diseases in dairy cows. PMID:26054229

  20. Effect of protein supplementation on ruminal parameters and microbial community fingerprint of Nellore steers fed tropical forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C B P; Azevedo, A C; Gomes, D I; Batista, E D; Rufino, L M A; Detmann, E; Mantovani, H C

    2016-01-01

    In tropical regions, protein supplementation is a common practice in dairy and beef farming. However, the effect of highly degradable protein in ruminal fermentation and microbial community composition has not yet been investigated in a systematic manner. In this work, we aimed to investigate the impact of casein supplementation on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, specific activity of deamination (SAD), ammonia concentration and bacterial and archaeal community composition. The experimental design was a 4×4 Latin square balanced for residual effects, with four animals (average initial weight of 280±10 kg) and four experimental periods, each with duration of 29 days. The diet comprised Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.) hay with an average CP content of 9.8%, on a dry matter basis. Animals received basal forage (control) or infusions of pure casein (230 g) administered direct into the rumen, abomasum or divided (50 : 50 ratio) in the rumen/abomasum. There was no differences (P>0.05) in ruminal pH and microbial protein concentration between supplemented v. non-supplemented animals. However, in steers receiving ruminal infusion of casein the SAD and ruminal ammonia concentration increased 33% and 76%, respectively, compared with the control. The total concentration of VFA increased (P0.05) in species richness and diversity of γ-proteobacteria, firmicutes and archaea between non-supplemented Nellore steers and steers receiving casein supplementation in the rumen. However, species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were lower (P<0.05) for the phylum bacteroidetes in steers supplemented with casein in the rumen compared with non-supplemented animals. Venn diagrams indicated that the number of unique bands varied considerably among individual animals and was usually higher in number for non-supplemented steers compared with supplemented animals. These results add new knowledge about the effects of ruminal and postruminal protein supplementation on metabolic activities of

  1. Eficiência microbiana e parâmetros ruminais em bovinos alimentados com dietas à base de volumosos tropicais Microbial efficiency and ruminal parameters in cattle fed diets based on tropical forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Cabral

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o fluxo de compostos nitrogenados no abomaso, a degradação ruminal dos carboidratos totais e da matéria orgânica, a eficiência microbiana, a concentração de N-NH3 e o pH ruminal em bovinos alimentados com dietas à base de silagem de milho, silagem de capim-elefante ou feno de capim-tifton 85. Foram utilizados seis bovinos fistulados no rúmen e abomaso em um delineamento quadrado latino 3 × 3 duplo. Os fluxos de matéria seca da digesta e da matéria seca microbiana no abomaso foram determinados a partir da utilização de fibra em detergente neutro indigestível e das bases purinas como indicador microbiano, respectivamente. As concentrações de NH3 e o pH ruminal foram determinados antes e 2, 4 e 8 horas após a alimentação. As dietas à base de silagem de milho e de feno de capim-tifton 85 proporcionaram os maiores fluxos de compostos nitrogenados no abomaso. As bactérias isoladas do rúmen apresentaram em média 8,89% de N total e 18,40 para a relação N-RNA:N-total. A dieta à base de silagem de milho promoveu maior degradação ruminal da matéria orgânica (2,96 kg/dia e dos carboidratos totais (3,07 kg/dia e maior fluxo de massa microbiana para o abomaso (788,28 g/dia. As dietas à base de feno de capim-tifton 85 e de silagem de capim-elefante resultaram em maior eficiência microbiana, cujos valores foram 28,10 e 30,39 g de N microbiano/kg de carboidratos degradados no rúmen. As menores concentrações de NH3 e pH ruminal, considerando o tempo após a alimentação, ocorreram quando fornecida a dieta à base de silagem de milho, o que possivelmente afetou negativamente a eficiência microbiana.The objectives of the present work were to determine nitrogen compounds flow into the abomasum, total carbohydrate and organic matter ruminal degradation, microbial efficiency, N-NH3 concentration and ruminal pH in cattle fed with diets based on corn silage, elephant grass silage and Tifton

  2. A Study on Relationships between the Activities of Repsin,Chymosin, Lactase and Their mRNA Relative Expressional Volumes and Development of the Stomach and Intestines of 7-35 Day Old Lambs%7~35日龄羔羊胃肠胃蛋白酶、凝乳酶、乳糖酶活性与其 mRNA 相对表达量和胃肠发育的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛越峰; 雒秋江; 陈勇; 李凤鸣; 张慧玲

    2014-01-01

    Fifty six head of Small-tail Han lamb with body weight of (3 360±338)g were selected in ex-periment and were divided randomly into 14 groups (n =4,in each group).From 4 day old the lambs were fed with milk powder substitute (MPS)(n =28)or fish meal substitute (FMS)(n =28)respectively,and from 21 day old,8 of lamb fed with MPS or FMS were turned to be fed with starter ration respectively. Each group of lamb at 7,14,21,28 and 35 day old was sacrificed to take the abomasum and duodenum tis-sue,measuring the activities of the pepsin,chymosin and lactase and the corresponding relative expression of mRNA,for studying the development of 3 digestive enzymes of lamb fed with MPS,FMS and starter ra-tion respectively.The result showed that in abomasum or duodenum tissue of newborn lamb the activities of the chymosin and lactase were decreased with the age of lamb by 1.3 U/g (r 2 = 0.92,P 0.05)respectively,but the pepsin activity was weakly related with the age.The relationships be-tween the activities of the pepsin,chymosin and lactase and thier corresponding relative expression of mR-NA was poor,the mRNA expressions of the pepsin and chymosin were fluctuated by high-low-high with the age,however the activity of lactose was not significantly changed with the age of lamb.When FMS was fed,the activities of pepsin,and chymosinwere decreased,the weight of abomasum was (36.0 ±3.0)g at 7 day old of lamb,and was (38.3±5.4)g at 35 day old,suggesting a growth retardation.Turning to starter ration at 21 days of lamb fed priviously with MPS did not significantly affect the activities of the pepsin, chymosin and lactase.But the abomasum and duodenum and daily weight gains of the lambs reduced.Fur-thermore,the activities of pepsin,chymosin and lactase in the milk substitutes,which were fed priviously to the lambs,tended to declining which affected obviously abomasum and duodenum and daily weight gains of the lambs.It is concluded that the pepsin activity is weakly related with the age

  3. Produção Microbiana e Parâmetros Ruminais de Novilhos Alimentados com Dietas Contendo Vários Níveis de Concentrado Microbial Production and Ruminal Parameters in Bullos Fed Diets Containing Different Concentrate Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a eficiência de síntese microbiana e parâmetros ruminais em bovinos. Foram utilizados cinco bovinos da raça Nelore, não-castrados, com 165 kg, fistulados no rúmen, abomaso e íleo. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com cinco períodos de coleta e quatro tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis de concentrado na dieta (20, 40, 60 e 80%. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.. As dietas foram isonitrogenadas com 15% de proteína bruta. O indicador microbiano utilizado foi as bases purinas. As análises estatísticas do pH ruminal e das concentrações de N-NH3 foram realizadas em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo na parcela os tratamentos e na subparcela o tempo de coleta. As médias para compostos nitrogenados totais presentes no abomaso e N microbiano foram 68,58 e 60,75 g/dia, respectivamente. A quantidade de carboidratos totais degradados no rúmen (CHODR foi 1,37 kg/dia. Foi observado para a eficiência microbiana valor de 392,4 g MS microbiana/kg CHODR. A composição de bactérias e a eficiência de síntese microbiana não foram influenciadas pelo nível de concentrado das dietas.It was aimed to study the efficiency of microbial synthesis and ruminal parameters in bovine. It were used five 165 kg growing no-castrated Nellore bulls, rumen, abomasum and ileum fistulated.A randomized blocks design with four treatments and five collection periods was used. The treatments consisted of four concentrate levels (20, 40, 60 and 80%. The roughage used was Tifton 85' (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. Bermudagrass hay. The diets were isonitrogen with 15% of crude protein. The microbial marker used was purine basis. The averages for total compound nitrogen in the abomasum and microbial nitrogen were 68.58 and 60.75 g/day, respectively. The amount total rumen carbohydrates degraded (CHODR was 1.37 kg/day. It was observed for microbial efficiency 392.4 g DM

  4. The effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Ottesen, Nina; Larsen, Stig; Grøndahl, Ann Margaret

    2016-02-01

    It is commonly believed that young calves should not be fed more than about 2l of milk per meal. If calves are fed beyond this volume, it is said that the capacity of the abomasum may be exceeded and that milk could enter the rumen. This can disturb the microbial flora/fauna of the rumen and increase the risk of indigestion, diarrhoea and reduced growth. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves. Six calves (19-23days of age at the beginning of the experiment) were fed 2l of warm whole milk by teat bottle three times per day, which was the recommended Norwegian feeding regime at the time. The calves were given free access to hay, concentrates and water. During three morning feeding sessions, each separated by 48h, all calves were offered larger meals. The offered amounts were calculated according to the within patient 3-level Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design. The milk given on the three test days contained a contrast medium (barium sulphate), and the animals were radiographed before, during and immediately after intake to reveal whether milk entered the rumen. Four out of the six calves drank more than 5l in one meal and the highest voluntary intake was 6.8l in one meal (13.2% of BW). Abdominal radiographs showed that the abomasum has a large ability for distension. Milk in the rumen was not observed in any of the calves, regardless of intake. The behaviour of the calves was observed for 2h after each test session. No behaviour indicating abdominal pain or discomfort was observed regardless of intake. The results indicate that when warm whole milk is administered from a teat bottle, farmers can increase the amount of milk they offer their calves beyond the traditionally recommended portion size without risk of milk entering the rumen. Hence, farmers who want to feed their calves more milk can do so by increasing meal sizes, and not necessarily by introducing an additional meal

  5. The effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Ottesen, Nina; Larsen, Stig; Grøndahl, Ann Margaret

    2016-02-01

    It is commonly believed that young calves should not be fed more than about 2l of milk per meal. If calves are fed beyond this volume, it is said that the capacity of the abomasum may be exceeded and that milk could enter the rumen. This can disturb the microbial flora/fauna of the rumen and increase the risk of indigestion, diarrhoea and reduced growth. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves. Six calves (19-23days of age at the beginning of the experiment) were fed 2l of warm whole milk by teat bottle three times per day, which was the recommended Norwegian feeding regime at the time. The calves were given free access to hay, concentrates and water. During three morning feeding sessions, each separated by 48h, all calves were offered larger meals. The offered amounts were calculated according to the within patient 3-level Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design. The milk given on the three test days contained a contrast medium (barium sulphate), and the animals were radiographed before, during and immediately after intake to reveal whether milk entered the rumen. Four out of the six calves drank more than 5l in one meal and the highest voluntary intake was 6.8l in one meal (13.2% of BW). Abdominal radiographs showed that the abomasum has a large ability for distension. Milk in the rumen was not observed in any of the calves, regardless of intake. The behaviour of the calves was observed for 2h after each test session. No behaviour indicating abdominal pain or discomfort was observed regardless of intake. The results indicate that when warm whole milk is administered from a teat bottle, farmers can increase the amount of milk they offer their calves beyond the traditionally recommended portion size without risk of milk entering the rumen. Hence, farmers who want to feed their calves more milk can do so by increasing meal sizes, and not necessarily by introducing an additional meal.

  6. Comparação de Indicadores e Metodologia de Coleta para Estimativas de Produção Fecal e Fluxo de Digesta em Bovinos Comparison of Markers and Collection Methodology for Fecal Production and Digesta Flow Estimates in Bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a fibra em detergente ácido (FDAi indigestível com o óxido crômico para estimar a produção de matéria seca fecal e as digestibilidades dos nutrientes de dietas de bovinos, em dois esquemas de coletas (2 ou 6 dias. Foram utilizados cinco bovinos da raça Nelore, não-castrados, com 165 kg, fistulados no rúmen, abomaso e íleo. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e cinco períodos de coleta. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis de concentrado na dieta (20, 40, 60 e 80%, usando-se feno de capim-Tifton 85 como volumoso. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (MS foi menor quando estimada pelo óxido crômico, enquanto as digestibilidades da MS no rúmen e nos intestinos não diferiram entre os indicadores. Quando se comparou a metodologia de coleta (6 dias vs. 2 dias, não houve diferença para as digestibilidades totais e parciais dos nutrientes e também para a eficiência microbiana, demonstrando assim que a metodologia alternativa de dois dias de coleta pode ser utilizada para estimar a produção fecal e os fluxos de MS no abomaso e no íleo.It was aimed to compare the internal markers, indigestible neutral detergent (NDFi and acid fiber (ADFi, and ADFi with oxide chromic to esteem the dry matter fecal production and nutrients digestibility of diets of bovine, in two outlines of collections (2 or 6 days. For the comparison among internal markers, 32 Nelore growing bulls, with 240 kg, were maintained under feedlot, receiving diets with different concentrate levels (20, 40, 60 and 80%. For the comparison among internal and external marker, five 165 kg Nelore growing bulls, rumen, abomasum and ileum fistulated, were used. The design was in blocks with four treatments and 5 collection periods. The treatments consisted of four concentrate levels (20, 40, 60 and 80%. The roughage used was Tifton 85 hay. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM was smaller, when was estimated

  7. Cloning and Expression of Yak Active Chymosin in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fan; Jiang, Wei Hua; Yang, Yuan Xiao; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Ming Feng

    2016-09-01

    Rennet, a complex of enzymes found in the stomachs of ruminants, is an important component for cheese production. In our study, we described that yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could serve as a novel source for rennet production. Yaks total RNA was extracted from the abomasum of an unweaned yak. The yak preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes from total RNA were isolated using gene specific primers based on cattle chymosin gene sequence respectively and analyzed their expression pattern byreal time-polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that the chymosin gene expression level of the sucking yaks was 11.45 times higher than one of adult yaks and yak chymosin belongs to Bovidae family in phylogenetic analysis. To express each, the preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes were ligated into the expression vector pPICZαA, respectively, and were expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The results showed that all the recombinant clones of P. pastoris containing the preprochymosin, prochymosin or chymosin genes could produce the active form of recombinant chymosin into the culture supernatant. Heterologous expressed prochymosin (14.55 Soxhlet unit/mL) had the highest enzyme activity of the three expressed chymosin enzymes. Therefore, we suggest that the yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could provide an alternative source of rennet production. PMID:27004812

  8. Gastrointestinal Spatiotemporal mRNA Expression of Ghrelin vs Growth Hormone Receptor and New Growth Yield Machine Learning Model Based on Perturbation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Tao; Liu, Yong; Li, Hengzhi; Tang, Shaoxun; He, Zhixiong; Munteanu, Cristian R; González-Díaz, Humberto; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-01-01

    The management of ruminant growth yield has economic importance. The current work presents a study of the spatiotemporal dynamic expression of Ghrelin and GHR at mRNA levels throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of kid goats under housing and grazing systems. The experiments show that the feeding system and age affected the expression of either Ghrelin or GHR with different mechanisms. Furthermore, the experimental data are used to build new Machine Learning models based on the Perturbation Theory, which can predict the effects of perturbations of Ghrelin and GHR mRNA expression on the growth yield. The models consider eight longitudinal GIT segments (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum), seven time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 d) and two feeding systems (Supplemental and Grazing feeding) as perturbations from the expected values of the growth yield. The best regression model was obtained using Random Forest, with the coefficient of determination R(2) of 0.781 for the test subset. The current results indicate that the non-linear regression model can accurately predict the growth yield and the key nodes during gastrointestinal development, which is helpful to optimize the feeding management strategies in ruminant production system. PMID:27460882

  9. Tissue protein metabolism in parasitized animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection of mammals, particularly of the small intestine of the sheep, on protein metabolism of skeletal muscle, liver, the gastrointestinal tract and wool are described. These changes have been integrated to explain poor growth and production in the sheep heavily infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The rates of both synthesis and catabolism of muscle protein are depressed, but nitrogen is lost from this tissue because the depression of synthesis exceeds that of catabolism. Anorexia is the major cause of these changes. Although the effect on liver protein synthesis is unclear, it is probable that the leakage of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal tract stimulates an early increase in the rate of synthesis of these proteins, but this eventually declines and is insufficient to correct developing hypoalbuminaemia. Changes in the intestinal tract are complex. Exogenous nitrogen is reduced by anorexia, but the flow of nitrogen through the tract from abomasum to faeces is above normal because of the increase of endogenous protein from leakage of plasma protein and, presumably, from exfoliated epithelial cells. There is evidence that protein metabolism of intestinal tissue, particularly in the uninfected distal two-thirds, is increased. Synthesis of wool protein is decreased. As the result of anorexia, intestinal loss of endogenous protein and an increased rate of intestinal protein metabolism there is a net movement of amino nitrogen from muscle, liver and possibly skin to the intestine of the heavily infected sheep. Thus, the availability of amino nitrogen for growth and wool production is reduced. (author)

  10. Seneciosis in cattle associated with photosensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Senecio spp. poisoning is the main cause of cattle mortality in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. This paper reports an outbreak of seneciosis in cattle with high prevalence of photosensitization, where 83 out of 162 cows (51.3% presented this clinical sign. The outbreak occurred in September 2013, affecting adult cows that were held in a 205 hectare-pasture from April to October 2013 with abundant Senecio brasiliensis infestation. Main clinical signs were weight loss, excessive lacrimation or mucopurulent ocular discharge, nasal serous discharge, ventral diphteric glossitis, crusts in the nose, teats, dorsum of ears, and vulva. Liver biopsy was performed in all the cows under risk; the histopathological findings in the liver biopsies consisted of fibrosis, megalocytosis, and biliary ductal proliferation and were present in 73.4% of the biopsied animals. Six cows had increased serum activity of gamma glutamyl transferase. Three affected cows were necropsied. The main necropsy findings were a hard liver, distended gall bladder, edema of the mesentery and abomasum. Liver histological changes in the necropsied cows were similar to those of the biopsied livers. Spongiosis was detected in the brain of necropsied cows and is characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy.

  11. Metal exposure in cows grazing pasture contaminated by iron industry: Insights from magnetic particles used as tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; Catinon, Mickaël; Boudouma, Omar; Bordier, Louise; Agnello, Gregory; Reynaud, Stéphane; Tissut, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic particles (MP) emitted by an iron smelter were used to investigate the exposure of cows grazing on a grassland polluted by these MP and by large amounts of potentially toxic elements (PTE). The morphology as well as the chemical composition of the MP separated from cow dung were studied. Large amounts of typical MP were found (1.1 g kg(-1) dry weight) in the cow dung sampled from the exposed site, whereas these particles were absent from the reference unpolluted site. The ingested MP were mainly technogenic magnetic particles (TMP) emitted by the smelter. Considering the MP concentration in the grazed grass on the exposed site, it was concluded that cows absorb the MP not only from the grass but also from the soil surface. The results of a mild acidic leaching of the MP suggested that the particles were possibly submitted to a superficial dissolution in the abomasum, pointing at a potential route of transfer of the PTE originating from the TMP and leading into food chains. TMP were only a small part of the anthropogenic contamination having affected the soil and the dung. However, due to their unequivocal signature, TMP are a powerful tracer of the distribution of PTE in the different compartments constituting the food chains and the ecosystems. Furthermore, the measurement of the particle sizes gave evidence that a noticeable proportion of the MP could enter the respiratory tract.

  12. Enteric listeriosis in grazing steers supplemented with spoiled silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan A; Micheloud, Juan F; Campero, Carlos M; Morrell, Eleonora L; Odriozola, Ernesto R; Moreira, Ana R

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of enteric listeriosis in steers that were fed spoiled silage is reported. The outbreak started 2 days after ~200 animals in a single paddock were given a supplement of spoiled silage. Forty animals (20%) were affected, and 13 (6.5%) died over a period of 10 days. Affected animals were recumbent, depressed, and had diarrhea with mucus and fibrin. Gross and microscopic findings in 3 animals that were subjected to autopsy included excess peritoneal fluid, congestion and edema of abomasum, suppurative enteritis and colitis, and suppurative mesenteric lymphadenitis. Two strains of Listeria monocytogenes were isolated, one of serotype 1/2c from the gallbladder and one of serotype 1/2b from the spoiled silage. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal wall of 1 animal by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Clinical history and signs, gross and microscopic findings, bacterial isolation, and IHC results confirmed a diagnosis of enteric listeriosis. The source of infection was likely the spoiled silage.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND CALCIUM PROPIONATE IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of the oral administration of propylene glycol and calcium propionate on performance of dairy cows. Treatments were 10 l water (control, 10 l water+300 ml propylene glycol (GP and 10 l water+500 g calcium propionate (CP. Animals were mainly of Holstein breeds and were fed and managed in a commercial setting. The cows were divided randomly into an experimental group, n=24 (n=12 with PG and n=12 with CP and a control group, n=11. Cows received the assigned treatment within 10 hours of calving and 24 hours after calving. Health events were recorded during calving and for the first 21 days in milk (DIM. Health examinations were performed on cows that appeared not well. The cows were milked three times daily and milk production was recorded electronically. Milk solid content and somatic cell score were determinate from three consecutive milking weekly till 20 DIM and than monthly till 110 DIM. Retained placenta, hypocalcaemia, displaced abomasums, ketosis and metritis were low in treatment groups (with PG and CP. The cows receiving PG had 2.8 Kg/day grater milk production than control group. The cows receiving CP had 1.7 kg/day grater milk production than control group. Prophylactic administration of PG and CP drenches to Holstein cows may be justified by potentially higher milk yields and reduced health complications.

  14. Ovine haemonchosis: Digestive pathophysiology and vaccination trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection with Haemonchus contortus induced an increase in abomasal permeability, as indicated by an increased sodium concentration of the abomasal contents and a hypochlorhydria as revealed by high pH values and low concentrations of K+ and Cl-. Measurement of the abomasal transmural potential difference (PD) showed that the mucosal integrity was affected within 20 min after intraruminal administration of larvae. Electromyographic studies indicated a hypomotility of the rumen, reticulum and omasum, and a hypermotility of the abomasum and intestine. These disturbances were associated with an accelerated transit and an increased flow rate of digesta in the intestine. Irradiation of larvae (400 Gy) removed these effects, although there was a minor damage to the mucosal integrity, as detected by a slight increase in PD. In vaccinated sheep (two infections each of 10,000 gamma irradiated larvae given at an interval of 30 days) the adult worm populations resulting from challenge infections with H. contortus or Ostertagia circumcincta, given either separately or combined, were reduced by 86-97%, but the number of immature worms located in the mucosa was higher by 70-92%. In sheep exposed to natural multispecies infection, vaccination had a variable effect on faecal egg count. (author). 40 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  15. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  16. Gastrointestinal Spatiotemporal mRNA Expression of Ghrelin vs Growth Hormone Receptor and New Growth Yield Machine Learning Model Based on Perturbation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Tao; Liu, Yong; Li, Hengzhi; Tang, Shaoxun; He, Zhixiong; Munteanu, Cristian R.; González-Díaz, Humberto; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-01-01

    The management of ruminant growth yield has economic importance. The current work presents a study of the spatiotemporal dynamic expression of Ghrelin and GHR at mRNA levels throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of kid goats under housing and grazing systems. The experiments show that the feeding system and age affected the expression of either Ghrelin or GHR with different mechanisms. Furthermore, the experimental data are used to build new Machine Learning models based on the Perturbation Theory, which can predict the effects of perturbations of Ghrelin and GHR mRNA expression on the growth yield. The models consider eight longitudinal GIT segments (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum), seven time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 d) and two feeding systems (Supplemental and Grazing feeding) as perturbations from the expected values of the growth yield. The best regression model was obtained using Random Forest, with the coefficient of determination R2 of 0.781 for the test subset. The current results indicate that the non-linear regression model can accurately predict the growth yield and the key nodes during gastrointestinal development, which is helpful to optimize the feeding management strategies in ruminant production system. PMID:27460882

  17. Potential and existing mechanisms of enteric methane production in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Qiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane (CH4 emissions in ruminants have attracted considerable attention due to their impact on greenhouse gases and the contribution of agricultural practices to global warming. Over the last two decades, a number of approaches have been adopted to mitigate CH4 emissions. However, the mechanisms of methanogenesis have still not been fully defined. According to the genome sequences of M. ruminantium in the rumen and of M. AbM4 in the abomasum, the pathways of carbon dioxide (CO2 reduction and formate oxidation to CH4 have now been authenticated in ruminants. Furthermore, in the light of species or genera description of methanogens, the precursors of methanogenesis discovered in the rumen and research advances in related subjects, pathways of acetate dissimilation via Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta as well as metabolism of methanol to CH4 might be present in the rumen, although neither process has yet been experimentally demonstrated in the rumen. Herein the research advances in methanogenesic mechanisms including existing and potential mechanisms are reviewed in detail. In addition, further research efforts to understand the methanogenesis mechanism should focus on isolation and identification of more specific methanogens, and their genome sequences. Such increased knowledge will provide benefits in terms of improved dietary energy utilization and a reduced contribution of enteric CH4 emissions to total global greenhouse gas emissions from the ruminant production system.

  18. Pengaruh Formulasi Pakan Hijauan (Kaliandra, Gamal dan Rumput Gajah Terhadap Distribusi Protein dalam Saluran Pencernaan Domba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdus Firdus

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Feed formulation influence of forage (Caliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium and Penisetum sp. on distribution protein in sheep digestive tract ABSTRACT. It was assumed that feed formulation given to animals has an effect on digested nutrient of the animals. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate nutrient contribution mainly protein in digestive tracts of sheep by forage formulation treatment (Caliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium and Penisetum sp.. Thirty (30 sheep tails with the average body weight 15,42 kg (SD 2,68 were fed forage with the following formulation: A. Fresh Penisetum sp. (FP and fresh Caliandra calothyrsus (FC (7 : 3 or 70 % + 30 %, B. Fresh Penisetum sp. (FP and fresh Gliricidia sepium (FG (7 : 3 or 70 % + 30 %, C. Fresh Penisetum sp. (FP, fresh Caliandra calothyrsus (FC and fresh Gliricidia sepium (FG. The experiment was conducted for 90 days and water was provided ad libitum. Parameter recorded in this experiment were distribution of protein in sheep digestive tract, covers by protein rate in rumen, omasum, abomasum, small intestine, caecum, large intestine and rectal. Data recorded were processed by covariant analysis with body weight of sheep at the early experiment treatment as a covariant. Continuation test with Tukey test. The results of this research indicated that treatment had no significant effect on protein distribution of digestive tract. It was shown by protein content in digestive tract had no significantly difference among treatments ( P < 0,05, except for rectum part.

  19. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, L M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. PMID:26830740

  20. Metal exposure in cows grazing pasture contaminated by iron industry: Insights from magnetic particles used as tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; Catinon, Mickaël; Boudouma, Omar; Bordier, Louise; Agnello, Gregory; Reynaud, Stéphane; Tissut, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic particles (MP) emitted by an iron smelter were used to investigate the exposure of cows grazing on a grassland polluted by these MP and by large amounts of potentially toxic elements (PTE). The morphology as well as the chemical composition of the MP separated from cow dung were studied. Large amounts of typical MP were found (1.1 g kg(-1) dry weight) in the cow dung sampled from the exposed site, whereas these particles were absent from the reference unpolluted site. The ingested MP were mainly technogenic magnetic particles (TMP) emitted by the smelter. Considering the MP concentration in the grazed grass on the exposed site, it was concluded that cows absorb the MP not only from the grass but also from the soil surface. The results of a mild acidic leaching of the MP suggested that the particles were possibly submitted to a superficial dissolution in the abomasum, pointing at a potential route of transfer of the PTE originating from the TMP and leading into food chains. TMP were only a small part of the anthropogenic contamination having affected the soil and the dung. However, due to their unequivocal signature, TMP are a powerful tracer of the distribution of PTE in the different compartments constituting the food chains and the ecosystems. Furthermore, the measurement of the particle sizes gave evidence that a noticeable proportion of the MP could enter the respiratory tract. PMID:26986087

  1. Influence of level of urea and method of supplementation on characteristics of digestion of high-fiber diets by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihani, N; Garrett, W N; Zinn, R A

    1993-06-01

    Effects of level and method of urea supplementation of N utilization and characteristics of digestion of a N-deficient (.85% N), citrus pulp-based diet were evaluated in a 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment, using four ruminally and intestinally cannulated crossbred (D'man x Sardi) rams. Two levels of urea (15.1 and 8.8 g/d, providing total N intakes of 12.0 and 9.1 g/d, respectively) and two methods of supplementation (urea mixed with the diet or continuously infused in the rumen) were compared in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Ruminal pH varied between 6.2 and 7.0 across treatments and tended (P > .10) to be lower in animals receiving urea infusion. Ruminal ammonia concentrations were lower (P .10) by treatments. Site and extent of OM and fiber digestion were not influenced (P > .10) by either level of urea in the diet or method of supplementation. Average ruminal OM and ADF digestion were 53.1 and 64.5%, respectively. Total tract digestion values averaged 75.9 and 73.5%, respectively. With the exception of N efficiency (duodenal nonammonia N/total N intake) that was 31% lower (P .10) on characteristics of N utilization. Microbial N flow to the small intestine averaged (across treatments) 9.0 g/d and constituted 87% of the nonammonia N leaving the abomasum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8392052

  2. First description of gastrointestinal nematodes of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia): the case of Camelostrongylus mentulatus as a paradigm of phylogenic and specific relationship between the parasite and its ancient host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, E; Ortiz, J; Martínez-Carrasco, C; Garijo, M M; Espeso, G; Hervías, S; Ruiz de Ybáñez, M R

    2013-09-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 24 Barbary sheep or Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) maintained in the Parque de Rescate de la Fauna Sahariana (PRFS, CSIC, Almeria, Spain) was analyzed. Most animals (87.5 %) were parasitized, and multiple infections were highly present. The following species were identified: Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Marshallagia marshalli, Ostertagia ostertagi, O. leptospicularis, O. lyrata, Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, T. colubriformis, T. probolorus, T. capricola, Nematodirus spathiger, N. abnormalis, N. filicollis, N. helvetianus, Trichuris spp. and Skrjabinema ovis. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the most prevalent nematode in abomasum (52.6 %) followed by C. mentulatus (50 %). However, this latter nematode had the greater mean intensity and abundance. In the small intestine, T. colubriformis and T. vitrinus had the highest prevalence (36.4 %); the last one showed also the greater mean intensity and abundance. It should be emphasized the presence of Skrjabinema ovis (prevalence 39.1 %) in the large intestine, showing the greater mean abundance and intensity, although with a low values. Camelostrongylus mentulatus could be the most primitive nematode of the family trichostrongylidae recovered in this study; attending to its high prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity, the possible specificity between this parasite and the Aoudad is discussed.

  3. Phylogenetic Study of Haemonchus Species from Iran Based On Morpho-Molecular Characterization.

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    Behnam Meshgi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchosis has a negative effect on the farming industry throughout the world, especially in the tropic and sub-tropic countries. The present study was carried out to differentiate Haemonchus species from its main hosts in Iran, including sheep, goat and camel.The identification took place based on the morphometrics of the spicules and molecular characters. Two hundred seventy adult male nematodes were collected from the abomasums of different ruminants (90 samples from each animal at the slaughterhouses from different localities in Iran. Samples were morphologically identified according to the spicules' morphometric measurements. In the section on molecular study, 10 samples of each Haemonchus isolates were genetically examined. A simple PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA were described to confirm the PCR results.PCR-RFLP profile obtained from the restriction enzyme HPa1 in H. contortus and H. longistipes indicated 1 (278 bp and 2 (113 and 135 bp different fragments, respectively. The morphological parameters clearly distinguish H. contortus from H. longistipes. Moreover, regarding the ITS2-rDNA, sequences of 295 bp and 314 bp were obtained from H. contortus and H. longistipes, respectively.The genotypic results are in agreement with the phenotypic findings of both species.

  4. Replacement of Forage Fiber Sources with Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles and Corn Germ Meal in Holstein Calf Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; HOU Yu-jie; ZHAO Guo-qi; YU Ai-bing; SU Yan-jing; HUO Yong-jiu; ZHU Jian-ming

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of replacement of forage ifber sources from alfalfa and Leymus chinensis with nonforage ifber sources (NFFS) from dried distillers grains with solubles and corn germ meal on calves growth, rumen development and blood parameters. 48 female and 12 male calves ((110.55±15.36) kg of body weight and 12 wk of age) were assigned randomly to four dietary treatments (15 calves/treatment) in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were:0%NFFS (control), 9%NFFS (group 1), 18%NFFS (group 2), 27%NFFS (group 3), and contained equivalent neutral detergent ifber and total digestible nutrients, respectively. The dry matter intake was similar among diets, averaging 3.33 kg d-1, and no differences were detected for body weight, withers height, body length and heart girth. In addition, the development of rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum also were similar among diets. Dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent ifber digestibilities increased with the increasing levels of NFFS in the experimental diets, but had no signiifcant effect. Blood urea nitrogen, total protein and glubulin were not affected by the dietary treatment, but group 3 resulted in the highest (P<0.05) concentrations of glucose and the lowest (P<0.05) concentrations of triglycerides and albumin. In conclusion, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and corn germ meal (CGM) were available and alternative ifber sources for Holstein calf diets.

  5. Subchronic centrifugal mechanical assist in an unheparinized calf model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Mann, C; Curtis, J; Mann, F A; Turk, J; Demmy, T; Turpin, T

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the major centrifugal pumps currently in use in the United States (Medtronic, BioMedicus BioPump and Carmeda-coated BioPump, Sarns 3M centrifugal pump, and St. Jude Medical Lifestream) could function as left mechanical assist devices in the subchronic (72 h) unheparinized calf model. Calves were instrumented for left atrial to aorta ex vivo assist, and the pump flow was set at 3.5 +/- 0.4 L/min. Two calves (Sarns 3M and St. Jude) survived 72 h of pumping without clinical complications. The other 2 calves died at 62 and 66 h (Medtronic BioPump and Carmeda-coated BioPump, respectively); both had pelvic limb paralysis. The seal of the Sarns 3M pump head ruptured after approximately 36 h of pumping and required replacement. On postmortem examination, pump-associated thromboembolic lesions were detected in 3 of the 4 calves in one or more of the following organs: kidneys, pancreas, abomasum, duodenum, ileum, spleen, and lumbar spinal cord. The calf with the Sarns 3M pump had no discernable lesions. Because of the clinical abnormalities and postmortem lesions in the unheparinized calf model, it was suggested that anticoagulation is necessary for conducting centrifugal mechanical assist studies in calves using presently available technology.

  6. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

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    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  7. Growth rate, health and welfare in a dairy herd with natural suckling until 6–8 weeks of age: a case report

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    Mejdell Cecilie

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over a period of two years, growth rate and health were measured for dairy calves allowed to suckle their mothers up to 6–8 weeks of age. Thirty-one calves were weighted weekly, and the mean daily growth rate was 1.2 ± 0.03 kg from birth up to 13 weeks of age. Illness in calves and young stock was not observed. In the cows, the mean incidences of ketosis, displaced abomasum, puerperal paresis, mastitis, teat injury and retained placenta were 0, 0, 8, 22, 1 and 1%, respectively, during a 6-year period. The mean daily gain of 56 growing bulls was 1.4 kg when slaughtered at 15 months of age, which is higher than the mean daily gain of 0.95 kg in the population. Probiotics, hormones and vaccines were not used, and antibiotics were only used for treating illness. The present study indicates many advantages and few problems when dairy calves are penned together with the cows and allowed natural feeding up to 6–8 weeks of age. This production system was easy to manage, preferred by the farmer, and may satisfy the public concern regarding the practice of immediate separation of cow and calf in commercial milk production.

  8. Characterization of the abomasal transcriptome for mechanisms of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle

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    Li Robert W

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The response of the abomasal transcriptome to gastrointestinal parasites was evaluated in parasite-susceptible and parasite-resistant Angus cattle using RNA-seq at a depth of 23.7 million sequences per sample. These cattle displayed distinctly separate resistance phenotypes as assessed by fecal egg counts. Approximately 65.3% of the 23 632 bovine genes were expressed in the fundic abomasum. Of these, 13 758 genes were expressed in all samples tested and likely represent core components of the bovine abomasal transcriptome. The gene (BT14427 with the most abundant transcript, accounting for 10.4% of sequences in the transcriptome, is located on chromosome 29 and has unknown functions. Additionally, PIGR (1.6%, Complement C3 (0.7%, and Immunoglobulin J chain (0.5% were among the most abundant transcripts in the transcriptome. Among the 203 genes impacted, 64 were significantly over-expressed in resistant animals at a stringent cutoff (FDR

  9. Presence of Selected Methanogens, Fibrolytic Bacteria, and Proteobacteria in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Neonatal Dairy Calves from Birth to 72 Hours.

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    Cesar E Guzman

    Full Text Available The microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract of a young calf are essential for the anatomical and physiological development that permits a transition from milk to solid feed. Selected methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and proteobacteria were quantified in the rumen fluid and tissue, abomasum fluid, cecum fluid and tissue, and feces of Holstein bull calves on day 0 (0-20 mins after birth, day 1 (24 ± 1 h after birth, day 2 (48 ± 1 h after birth, and day 3 (72 ± 1 h after birth. Methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and Geobacter spp. were found to be already present from birth, indicating that microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract occurred before or during delivery. The abundance of methanogens and Geobacter spp. differed between the days tested and between compartments of the digestive tract and feces, but such difference was not observed for fibrolytic bacteria. Our findings suggests that methanogens might have an alternative hydrogen provider such as Geobacter spp. during these early stages of postnatal development. In addition, fibrolytic bacteria were present in the rumen well before the availability of fibrous substrates, suggesting that they might use nutrients other than cellulose and hemicellose.

  10. Computed tomography of the abdomen of calves during the first 105 days of life: II. Liver, spleen, and small and large intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Schnetzler, C; Augsburger, H; Müller, U; Dicht, S; Ohlerth, S

    2014-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) findings of the liver, spleen and intestines of five healthy calves during six examinations in the first 105 days of life were compared with corresponding cadaver slices. The liver was located in the right hemiabdomen adjacent to the diaphragm and right abdominal wall. The caudal vena cava was seen dorsomedially and the portal vein further ventrally. The umbilical vein was seen running from the navel to the liver in all calves in the first scan and in four calves in the second scan. The spleen ran dorsoventrally adjacent to the costal part of the left abdominal wall and appeared sickle-shaped on transverse images. Differentiation of small and large intestines was only possible when the former contained fluid content and the latter gaseous content. The small intestine was in the left hemiabdomen dorsal to the abomasum and caudodorsal to the rumen at the first two examinations. Growth of the forestomachs caused displacement of the small intestine to the right and toward the ventral abdomen caudal to the liver and adjacent to the right abdominal wall. The large intestine was located caudodorsally, and the typical features of the spiral colon were apparent in the dorsal plane. The location of the caecum varied from dorsal to the spiral colon to adjacent to the right abdominal wall with the apex always pointing caudally. The rectum was easily identified in the pelvic region. The size, volume and density of the described organs throughout the study are shown in several tables.

  11. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Robert W; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L; Urban, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health. PMID:26853110

  12. Desenvolvimento dos componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros Santa Inês e Bergamácia abatidos em diferentes pesos Development of live weight components from Santa Inês and Bergamácia lambs slaughtered at different weights

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    Cristiane Leal dos Santos-Cruz

    2009-05-01

    , carcass non-integrant parts, carcass parts and components of the abdominal and thoracic cavities was carried out by means of the non-linear model of the potency equation Y = αXβ, linearly transformed into a linear model, lnY = lnα + βlnX. Liver, pancreas, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine and thoracic cavity are parts of the empty body of the animals that presented early development, while spleen, abdominal cavity, carcass integrant and non-integrant parts presented isogonic growth (β=1; the fat stores presented negative heterogonic growth (β<1. The omasum and rumen/reticulum of Santa Inês lambs growth early, while in Bergamácia lambs, it grows late. Liver, pancreas, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine and thoracic cavity in both breeds present early development and spleen, abdominal cavity, carcass integrant and non-integrant parts present isogonic growth in relation to the weight of the empty body.

  13. Consumo e digestibilidades aparentes totais e parciais de rações contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado, em novilhos F1 Limousin x Nelore Intake and total and partial apparent digestibilities of diets with different concentrate levels, in F1 Limousin x Nellore Bulls

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    Rodrigo Carvalho Cardoso

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de cinco níveis de concentrados (25,0; 37,5; 50,0; 62,5; e 75,0% sobre os consumos e as digestibilidades aparentes totais e parciais da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, do extrato etéreo (EE, dos carboidratos totais (CHO e da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. Cinco novilhos F1 Limousin x Nelore, não-castrados, com peso médio inicial de 279 kg, fistulados no rúmen, abomaso e íleo, foram usados em um delineamento quadrado latino 5 x 5, com cinco tratamentos, cinco períodos experimentais e cinco animais. Cada período teve duração de 14 dias - 10 dias para adaptação dos animais à ração e quatro dias para coleta de fezes e de digestas de abomaso e íleo. Utilizou-se o óxido crômico em duas doses de 10 g/dia, como indicador, para medir os fluxos de nutrientes no trato digestivo. Os consumos de EE e NDT aumentaram e o de FDN diminuiu linearmente com o incremento dos níveis de concentrados das rações. O aumento de níveis de concentrado na MS da ração resultou em acréscimos lineares nas digestilidades totais de MS, MO, PB, EE e CHO. A digestibilidade aparente total de FDN e as digestões aparentes ruminais de MS, MO, PB, CHO e FDN não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de concentrado nas rações, observando-se médias de 45,91; 54,45; 64,67; -9,92; 79,29; e 95,90%, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o aumento dos níveis de concentrado nas rações não alterou os locais de digestão dos nutrientes.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of five dietary concentrate levels (25.0, 37.5, 50.0, 62.5, and 75.0% on intake and the total and partial apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (CHO and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. Five rumen, abomasum and ileum fistulated F1 Limousin x Nellore bulls, with average initial weight of 279 kg were used, in a 5 x 5 Latin square

  14. Effects of solid feed level and roughage-to-concentrate ratio on ruminal drinking and passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrates, and roughage in veal calves.

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    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Gilbert, M S; Zandstra, T; Pellikaan, W F; van Reenen, C G; Bokkers, E A M; Gerrits, W J J

    2015-08-01

    Effects of solid feed (SF) level and roughage-to-concentrate (R:C) ratio on ruminal drinking and passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrate, and roughage were studied in veal calves. In total, 80 male Holstein-Friesian calves (45±0.2kg of body weight) were divided over 16 pens (5 calves per pen). Pens were randomly assigned to either a low (LSF) or a high (HSF) SF level and to 1 of 2 R:C ratios: 20:80 or 50:50 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Roughage was composed of 50% corn silage and 50% chopped wheat straw on a DM basis. At 27 wk of age, measurements were conducted in 32 calves. During the measurement period, SF intake was 1.2kg of DM/d for LSF and 3.0kg of DM/d for HSF, and milk replacer intake averaged 2.3kg of DM/d for LSF and 1.3kg of DM/d for HSF. To estimate passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrate, and straw, indigestible markers (CoEDTA, hexatriacontane C36, Cr-neutral detergent fiber) were supplied with the feed as a single dose 4, 24, and 48h before assessment of their quantitative recovery in the rumen, abomasum, small intestine, and large intestine. Rumen Co recovery averaged 20% of the last milk replacer meal. Recoveries of Co remained largely unaffected by SF level and R:C ratio. The R:C ratio did not affect rumen recovery of C36 or Cr. Rumen fractional passage rate of concentrate was estimated from recovery of C36 in the rumen and increased from 3.3%/h for LSF to 4.9%/h for HSF. Rumen fractional passage rate of straw was estimated from Cr recovery in the rumen and increased from 1.3%/h for LSF to 1.7%/h for HSF. An increase in SF level was accompanied by an increase in fresh and dry rumen contents. In HSF calves, pH decreased and VFA concentrations increased with increasing concentrate proportion, indicating increased fermentation. The ratio between Cr and C36 was similar in the small and large intestine, indicating that passage of concentrate and straw is mainly determined by rumen and abomasum emptying. In conclusion, increasing SF level

  15. Níveis de proteína bruta em dietas para bovinos de corte: consumo e digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes Crude protein levels in diets of beef cattle: intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients

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    Maria Andréa Borges Cavalcante

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes em novilhos Holandês x Zebu recebendo dietas contendo quatro níveis de proteína bruta (10,5; 12; 13,5 e 15% de PB na matéria seca, constituídas de 65% de feno de capim-tifton 85 e 35% de concentrado. Foram utilizados quatro animais castrados, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, com peso vivo médio inicial de 487,3 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 20 dias - 10 para adaptação às dietas, seis para coletas de amostras de fezes e digestas de abomaso, um para a coleta de líquido ruminal, um para a coleta total de urina, em 24 horas, e dois para a coleta de conteúdo ruminal. Para determinação da excreção fecal, utilizou-se o óxido crômico como indicador. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT não foram influenciados pelos níveis de proteína bruta (PB das dietas, mas os consumos de PB aumentaram e os de extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF reduziram com o incremento de PB das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO e PB aumentaram linearmente com a concentração protéica das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes ruminal e intestinal dos nutrientes não foram afetadas pelos níveis de PB das dietas, com exceção à digestibilidade intestinal da PB, que aumentou 2,77 unidades para cada percentual de PB acrescentado à dieta.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of different dietary levels of crude protein (CP on intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients in Holstein x Zebu steers. The diets contained [dry matter (DM basis]: 10.5, 12, 13.5, or 15% of CP and a forage (Tifton 85:concentrate ratio of 65:35. Four castrated animals averaging 487.3 kg of body weight at the beginning of the trial and fitted with both abomasum and

  16. Componentes corporais e órgãos internos de cordeiros Texel x Bergamácia, Texel x Santa Inês e Santa Inês puros, terminados em confinamento, com casca de café como parte da dieta Body components and internal organs of Texel x Bergamácia, Texel x Santa Inês and purebred Santa Inês lambs finished in fedlot, with of coffee hull as part of the diet

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    Iraides Ferreira Furusho-Garcia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 12 cordeiros cruzas Texel x Bergamácia (TB, 12 cordeiros cruzas Texel x Santa Inês (TS e 12 cordeiros puros Santa Inês (SI, confinados individualmente por 50 dias (dos 130 aos 180 dias de idade. Cada grupo genético constou de seis machos inteiros e seis fêmeas, recebendo três dietas diferentes: 1 = sem casca de café (controle; 2 = com casca de café in natura; 3 = com casca de café tratada com uréia. O rúmen/retículo (RR dos animais que receberam as dietas 2 e 3 foram mais pesados em relação ao RR dos animais submetidos a dieta 1. O abomaso (ABO, fígado (FIG e pâncreas (PAN dos cordeiros alimentados com a dieta 3 foram mais leves comparados aos que receberam as dietas 1 e 2. Os cordeiros cruzas TB e TS apresentaram maior peso para a cabeça (CAB, pés/canelas (PEC, omaso (OMA, ABO, intestinos delgado (IND e grosso (ING. Os machos apresentaram sangue (SAN e RR mais pesados que as fêmeas. Os pesos de pele (PEL, gordura (GOR, esôfago/traquéia (ET, coração (COR e pulmão (PUL também foram analisados e não foram afetados pelas dietas, pelos grupos genéticos e pelo sexo. As fêmeas apresentaram tendência de maior proporção de GOR.Twelve crossbred Texel x Bergamácia (TB, 12 crossbred Texel x Santa Inês (TS and 12 purebred Santa Inês (SI lambs were individually finished in fedlot for 50 days (from 130 to 180 days of age. Each genetic group consisted of six males and six females, fed three different diets: 1 = without coffee hulls (control; 2 = with coffee hulls in nature; 3 = with coffee hulls treated of with urea. The rumen/reticulum (RR of the animals fed diets 1 and 3 were significantly heavier than those fed diet 1. The abomasum (ABO, liver (FIG and pancreas (PAN of the lambs fed diet 3 were lighter than the animals fed diet 2. The TB and TS of crossbred lambs showed greater weights of head (CAB, foot/shin (PEC, omasum (OMA, abomasum (ABO, small intestine (IND and large intestine (ING. The males showed

  17. Potassium and insulin affect the contractility of abomasal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türck, G; Leonhard-Marek, S

    2010-08-01

    Abomasal displacement is a frequent and important disease of high yielding dairy cows. Although several factors are related to its occurrence, the pathogenesis of the condition is still inadequately understood, particularly in regard to K(+) and insulin homeostasis. For this reason the aim was to investigate the effects of K(+) and insulin concentrations on in vitro motility of abomasal smooth muscle. The second aim was to determine whether the in vivo change in K(+) and insulin levels might be sufficient to induce reduced abomasal motility. Muscle strips were isolated from the abomasum of slaughtered cows and incubated in buffer solution under isometric conditions. Results show that a decrease in extracellular K(+) (between 5 and 1 mmol/L) or an increase in extracellular insulin concentrations (to 21 mU/L or higher) were able to affect the contraction activity of abomasal muscles. Contraction activity given as median (25th, 75th percentiles) changed from 28.1 mN/min (2.5, 49.9) at 5 mmol/L of K(+) to 9.4 mN/min (0.6, 35.7) at 1 mmol/L of K(+), and from 34.5 mN/min (10.8, 112.4) at 0 mU/L of insulin to 12.0 mN/min (7.6, 49.8) at 120 mU/L of insulin. Because the effect of insulin could be abolished by barium, glybenclamide, or ouabain, the underlying mechanisms of the insulin action could be an increased K(+) conductance or an increased Na/K-ATPase activity or both. Low K(+) or high insulin concentrations both reduced the activity of the circular muscle of the abomasal corpus (i.e., of the part that is responsible for the propulsion of abomasal chymus) and might play an important role in the pathogenesis of abomasal displacement. PMID:20655424

  18. Aislamiento de Clostridium perfringens tipo D en un ternero lactante afectado con abomasitis ulcerativa Isolation of Clostridium perfringens type D from a suckling calve with ulcerative abomasitis

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    R. A ASSIS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un brote de abomasitis ulcerativa asociada con infección por Clostridium perfringens tipo D en terneros lactantes. Seis terneros Holstein, de 2 semanas de edad, murieron después de presentar anorexia y apatía. Otros animales del mismo establecimiento habían muerto de la misma forma seis meses antes. A la necropsia el abomaso estaba muy distendido con contenido fluido y oscuro, la mucosa estaba edematosa y presentaba gran cantidad de úlceras milimétricas y habían depósitos de fibrina en la serosa. En el ciego de un animal se observaron extensas areas de infarto. En frotis de la mucosa abomasal se observaron bacilos cortos Gram positivos, no esporulados, aislándose de ella un cultivo rico de C. perfringens tipo D. Es probable que la baja inmunidad de los terneros debido a falta de calostro y estrés alimenticio, haya sido el predisponente para la infección por C. perfringens tipo DAn outbreak of ulcerative abomasitis in suckling calves associated with Clostridium perfrigens type D infection is described. Six twoweek old Holstein calves died after showing loss of appetite and lethargy. Other animals had died in similar circumstances during the previous six months. At necropsy, the abomasum was severely distended with dark fluid and the mucosa was oedematous and covered with many millimetric ulcers, while the serous surface of this organ was covered with fibrin. Several irregular black areas of infarcts were observed in the cecum of one animal. Histologically, the abomasal mucosa showed ulcers and haemorrhage, while the submucosa showed severe oedema and infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Short, thick, nonsporulated Gram positive rods were observed on smears of abomasal mucosa. C. perfringens type D was isolated from the abomasal mucosa. Low immunity and stress could have contributed to the pathogenesis of the lesions described

  19. Use of rumination and activity monitoring for the identification of dairy cows with health disorders: Part I. Metabolic and digestive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Caixeta, L S; Al-Abri, M A; Giordano, J O

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the performance of an automated health-monitoring system (AHMS) to identify cows with metabolic and digestive disorders-including displaced abomasum, ketosis, and indigestion-based on an alert system (health index score, HIS) that combines rumination time and physical activity; (2) the number of days between the first HIS alert and clinical diagnosis (CD) of the disorders by farm personnel; and (3) the daily rumination time, physical activity, and HIS patterns around CD. Holstein cattle (n=1,121; 451 nulliparous and 670 multiparous) were fitted with a neck-mounted electronic rumination and activity monitoring tag (HR Tags, SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel) from at least -21 to 80 d in milk (DIM). Raw data collected in 2-h periods were summarized per 24 h as daily rumination and activity. A HIS (0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated daily for individual cows with an algorithm that used rumination and activity. A positive HIS outcome was defined as a HIS of rumination, activity, and HIS for cows flagged by the AHMS were characterized by lower levels than for cows without a health disorder and cows not flagged by the AHMS from -5 to 5 d after CD, depending on the disorder and parameter. Differences between cows without health disorders and those flagged by the AHMS for blood markers of metabolic and health status confirmed the observations of the CD and AHMS alerts. The overall sensitivity and timing of the AHMS alerts for cows with metabolic and digestive disorders indicated that AHMS that combine rumination and activity could be a useful tool for identifying cows with metabolic and digestive disorders. PMID:27372591

  20. Disease-associated PrP in the enteric nervous system of scrapie-affected Suffolk sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Ragna; González, Lorenzo; Press, Charles McL; Gunnes, Gjermund; Espenes, Arild; Jeffrey, Martin

    2003-05-01

    Disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of 20- to 24-month-old Suffolk sheep in the late subclinical and early clinical phase of scrapie was studied. Sites in the alimentary tract extending from the forestomachs and abomasum to the colon from scrapie-affected sheep (PrP(ARQ/ARQ)) and scrapie-resistant sheep (PrP(ARR/ARQ) and PrP(ARR/ARR)) were examined. PrP(d) was found only in scrapie-affected sheep and was most prominent in the ENS when abundant deposits of PrP(d) were also present in adjacent lymphoid nodules. Immunolabelling with the nerve fibre markers PgP 9.5 and neuron-specific enolase and the satellite cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein revealed the extensive ganglionated networks of the myenteric and submucosal plexi. Fewer nerve fibres were present in the lamina propria, T-cell dominated interfollicular areas and dome regions of Peyer's patches. A substantial network of nerve fibres was detected in many lymphoid nodules of both the scrapie-affected and scrapie-resistant sheep. Nerve fibres were also detected within the capsule of lymphoid nodules. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of nerves in the lymphoid nodules, showing a close association with follicular dendritic cells, lymphocytes and tingible body macrophages. In demonstrating that lymphoid nodules in the Peyer's patches of scrapie-affected sheep possess a substantial network of nerve fibres, the present study shows that nodules provide close contact between nerve fibres and cell populations known to contain abundant PrP(d), including follicular dendritic cells and tingible body macrophages, and that gut-associated lymphoid nodules in sheep may represent an important site for neuroinvasion. PMID:12692300

  1. Integrated assessment of ivermectin pharmacokinetics, efficacy against resistant Haemonchus contortus and P-glycoprotein expression in lambs treated at three different dosage levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Luis; Suarez, Gonzalo; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Lifschitz, Adrián; Maté, Laura; Ballent, Mariana; Virkel, Guillermo; Lanusse, Carlos

    2015-05-30

    The main goals of the current work were: (a) to assess the ivermectin (IVM) systemic exposure and plasma disposition kinetics after its administration at the recommended dose, x5 and x10 doses to lambs, (b) to compare the clinical efficacy of the same IVM dosages in lambs infected with an IVM-resistant isolate of Haemonchus contortus, and (c) to assess the expression of the transporter protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in H. contortus recovered at 14 days after administration of the IVM dose regimens. There were two separated trials where IVM was administered either subcutaneously (SC, Experiment I) or intraruminally (IR, Experiment II). Each experiment involved twenty-four (24) lambs artificially infected with a highly resistant H. contortus isolate. Animals were allocated into 4 groups (n=6) and treated with IVM at either 0.2 (IVM x1), 1 (IVM x5) or 2mg/kg (IVM x10). Plasma samples were collected up to 12 days post-treatment and analysed by HPLC. An untreated-control Group was included to assess the comparative anthelmintic efficacy of the different treatments. The level of expression of Pgp in H. contortus specimens obtained from lambs both untreated and IR treated with the different IVM doses was quantified by real time PCR. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare the statistical significance of the results (PP-gp in adult H. contortus at 14 days post-treatment compared to samples collected from the untreated control group. An enhanced parasite exposure of the drug at the abomasum may explain the improved efficacy against this recalcitrant H. contortus isolate observed only after the IR administration at 5- and 10-fold the IVM therapeutic dosage.

  2. Survival and infectivity studies of in-vitro cultivated larvae of Haemonchus contortus in Sheep and Goats in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Sonibare

    Full Text Available The survival and infectivity of indigenous isolates of Haemonchus contortus and in vitro cultivated infective larvae (L3 were studied. Active motile gravid females, adult and immature parasites were morphologically and morphometrically characterized and isolated from Haemonchus infected goats. These were subsequently inoculated into the abomasum of parasite free lambs through left sided laparatomy for production of fertile eggs to be used for coproculture. Harvested faeces from these lambs were cultured in a nutritive medium and kept in the incubator at 320C and room temperature 24-280C to obtain in vitro cultivated L of H. contortus. The infectivity and survival of in vitro cultivated L3 stored in refrigerator at 4-80C and under room temperature 24-280C were evaluated. Incubation period of 3 coproculture was observed to be shorter in medium at 320C than under room temperature 24-280C. The storage of in vitro cultivated L under different temperature range showed that the quantity of active larvae in a given volume 3 decreased at p<0.05 from the 5th day under 24-280C while at 4-80C became significantly lower from 20th day. Infectivity of isolate kept at 4-80C was sustained for 18-20 days while at 24-280C it was maintained for 10-12 days. Laboratory invitro cultivated L of H. contortus had limited infectivity and larvae mortality increase with time under different 3 temperatures. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 533-536

  3. Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Haemonchus contortus in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, R B; Kahn, L P; Sargison, N D; Van Wyk, J A

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favour the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favourability. The clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis is based mostly on the detection of anaemia in association with a characteristic epidemiological picture, and confirmed at postmortem by the finding of large numbers of H. contortus in the abomasum. The detection of impending haemonchosis relies chiefly on periodic monitoring for anaemia, including through the 'FAMACHA' conjunctival-colour index, or through faecal worm egg counts and other laboratory procedures. A range of anthelmintics for use against H. contortus is available, but in most endemic situations anthelmintic resistance significantly limits the available treatment options. Effective preventative programmes vary depending on environments and enterprise types, and according to the scale of the haemonchosis risk and the local epidemiology of infections, but should aim to prevent disease outbreaks while maintaining anthelmintic efficacy. Appropriate strategies include animal management programmes to avoid excessive H. contortus challenge, genetic and nutritional approaches to enhance resistance and resilience to infection, and the monitoring of H. contortus infection on an individual animal or flock basis. Specific strategies to manage anthelmintic resistance centre on the appropriate use of effective anthelmintics, and refugia-based treatment schedules. Alternative approaches, such as biological control, may also prove useful, and vaccination against H. contortus appears to have significant potential in control programmes. PMID:27238006

  4. Desenvolvimento alométrico do trato gastrintestinal de bezerros da raça holandesa alimentados com diferentes dietas líquidas durante o aleitamento - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1729 Alometric growth of gastrointestinal tract of holstein calves fed with diferent liquid diets during milking period - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1729

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Martines Baraldi Artoni

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram utilizados 12 bezerros da raça Holandesa distribuídos em três tratamentos, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos leite integral e dois tipos de sucedâneos comerciais Lactal® e Destetor®, avaliaram o desenvolvimento alométrico do sistema digestório, altura da papila do rúmen e do retículo, e altura e comprimento das cristas do omaso. O aleitamento dos animais transcorreu por um período de 60 dias, e, ao serem abatidos, todos os órgãos do trato digestório foram pesados e comparados, com destaque para o estômago (rúmen, retículo, omaso e abomaso. Não foram observadas diferenças (p>0,05 nas proporções dos diferentes compartimentos do estômago dos bezerros submetidos aos tratamentos. No entanto, verificou-se diferença (pIn this work 12 Holstein calves were used distributed in three treatment, on a completely randomized desing with four replicatin. The treatments were used, integral milk and two types of comercial milk replacer Lactal® and Destetor® to evaluate the digestive system alometric growthof the including, rumen and reticulum papillae heigth and omasum rigde growth. The animals were milking for 60 days and after slaughtring, their digest system organs were weighed and stomach complex compared (rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. No difference (P>0.05 due to treatments were obseved for the proportions among the diferent stomach compartiments of the calves. However, differences (P<0.05 for the papillae height of rumen and for the rigde lenght of omasum were observed. The milk replacers in this work resulted in a good calve growth being an alternative source of feed during mlking period.

  5. An attempt to prevent production diseases in dairy cows by intense monitoring and ad hoc treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo G. Coiatelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A trial has been performed on 201 dairy cows from two Italian commercial herds in order to verify whether the mitigation of a recognized negative energy balance (NEB by a therapeutic mean may influence the incidence of peri-partum diseases. All animals were tested for beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-HOB and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA three times a week from 2 weeks before the expected due time to 2 weeks after calving. Animals whose blood levels were above β-HOB>1.2 or NEFA>0.5 mmol/L were declared POSITIVE and then split in two groups. Group T animals (n=57 were treated with a glycogenic treatment (ENERGAN KETOSIS, Virbac. The treatment was repeated daily as long as biochemical values remained abnormal. Group C animals (n=48 served as untreated controls. Animals with values within the physiological range over the study period were said NEGATIVE (n=96. This study confirmed that animals presenting excessive β-HOB or NEFA concentrations show a higher risk to get sick during the study period (P<0.05, the major risk being clinical ketosis (P<0.01 and in a lesser extend retention of the placenta (P=0.09. The application of a glycogenic treatment did not show an impact on blood metabolite levels due to huge individual differences. However, application of the treatment for an average duration of 5 days tends to reduce the incidence of all the diseases related to a NEB. Moreover, untreated control animals were more likely to get dislocation of the abomasum (P<0.05 than NEGATIVE animals whereas treated animals were not.

  6. Effects of wheat protein in milk replacers on abomasal emptying rate in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, T; Ernstberger, M; Muckenhuber, M; Flöck, M

    2016-04-01

    Diarrhoea is a condition with tremendous impact on calf health. Infectious agents play a dominant role; however, non-infective factors may also contribute to pathogenesis of diarrhoea. One factor, the abomasal emptying rate, is mainly influenced by the composition of feed. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of different protein sources in milk replacers on abomasal emptying rate and clinical parameters. The effect of increasing age of the calves on abomasal emptying was also evaluated. The study compared abomasal emptying rates and clinical parameters in calves, which were fed either milk replacer containing only whey protein or one which partially contained wheat protein. Abomasal emptying rate was estimated by ultrasonography. Ten calves were used in the study over 18 days, and each calf was fed 3 periods of 3 days length using different milk replacers in an alternating crossover design. The abomasum was emptied significantly faster when the wheat protein containing milk replacer was fed (half-emptying time wheat protein 49.1 ± 4.1 min, half-emptying time milk protein 59.1 ± 7.4 min); however, clinical parameters and weight gain did not differ between the feeding regimes. Age did not significantly influence abomasal emptying rate. As milk replacers containing wheat proteins increased abomasal emptying rate, they may have a higher potential to initiate diarrhoea, especially if high volumes are fed. Thus, the feeding regimes are likely to be even more important when such milk replacers are used.

  7. Incidence validation and relationship analysis of producer-recorded health event data from on-farm computer systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2012-09-01

    The principal objective of this study was to analyze the plausibility of health data recorded through on-farm recording systems throughout the United States. Substantial progress has been made in the genetic improvement of production traits while health and fitness traits of dairy cattle have declined. Health traits are generally expensive and difficult to measure, but health event data collected from on-farm computer management systems may provide an effective and low-cost source of health information. To validate editing methods, incidence rates of on-farm recorded health event data were compared with incidence rates reported in the literature. Putative relationships among common health events were examined using logistic regression for each of 3 timeframes: 0 to 60, 61 to 90, and 91 to 150 d in milk. Health events occurring on average before the health event of interest were included in each model as predictors when significant. Calculated incidence rates ranged from 1.37% for respiratory problems to 12.32% for mastitis. Most health events reported had incidence rates lower than the average incidence rate found in the literature. This may partially represent underreporting by dairy farmers who record disease events only when a treatment or other intervention is required. Path diagrams developed using odds ratios calculated from logistic regression models for each of 13 common health events allowed putative relationships to be examined. The greatest odds ratios were estimated to be the influence of ketosis on displaced abomasum (15.5) and the influence of retained placenta on metritis (8.37), and were consistent with earlier reports. The results of this analysis provide evidence for the plausibility of on-farm recorded health information. PMID:22916949

  8. Severe dental fluorosis in juvenile deer linked to a recent volcanic eruption in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Werner T; Smith-Flueck, Jo Anne M

    2013-04-01

    The Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic eruption deposited large amounts of tephra (ashes) on about 36 million ha of Argentina in June of 2011. Tephra was considered chemically innoxious based on water leachates, surface water fluoride levels were determined to be safe, and livestock losses were attributable to inanition and excessive tooth wear. To evaluate effects on wild ungulates, we sampled wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) at 100 km from the volcano in September-November 2012. We show that tephra caused severe dental fluorosis, with bone fluoride levels up to 5,175 ppm. Among subadults, tephra caused pathologic development of newly emerging teeth typical of fluorosis, including enamel hypoplasia, breakages, pitting, mottling, and extremely rapid ablation of entire crowns down to underlying pulp cavities. The loss of teeth functionality affected physical condition, and none of the subadults was able to conceive. Susceptibility to fluorosis among these herbivores likely resides in ruminant food processing: 1) mastication and tephra size reduction, 2) thorough and repeated mixing with alkaline saliva, 3) water-soluble extraction in the rumen, and 4) extraction in the acidic abomasum. Although initial analyses of water and tephra were interpreted not to present a concern, ruminants as a major component of this ecosystem are shown to be highly susceptible to fluorosis, with average bone level increasing over 38-fold during the first 15.5 mo of exposure to tephra. This is the first report of fluorosis in wild ungulates from a volcanic eruption. The described impact will reverberate through several aspects of the ecology of the deer, including effects on population dynamics, morbidity, predation susceptibility, and other components of the ecosystem such as scavenger and plant communities. We anticipate further impact on livestock production systems, yet until now, existence of fluorosis had not been recognized.

  9. Low cortisol levels in blood from dairy cows with ketosis: a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Bernt V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An elevated plasma glucose concentration has been considered to be a potential risk factor in the pathogenesis of left-displaced abomasums (DA. Therefore the present study was performed to investigate if spontaneous disease (parturient paresis, metritis, ketosis etc in dairy cows results in elevated concentrations of glucose and cortisol in blood as cortisol is the major regulator of glucose in ruminants. Methods Cortisol, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and serum calcium were analyzed in blood serum and glucose, in whole blood, from 57 spontaneously diseased cows collected at different farms. The cows were grouped according to the disease; parturient paresis, recumbent for other reasons, mastitis, metritis, ketosis, inappetance and others. Results No elevated concentrations of cortisol or glucose were found in cows with metritis and mastitis but both cortisol and glucose were elevated in cows stressed by recumbency. Cows with ketonemia (BHBA > 1.5 mmol/l did not have low concentration of glucose in blood but significantly low levels of cortisol. Some of these cows even had cortisol concentrations below the detection limit of the analysing method ( Conclusions The study gives patho-physiological support to the treatment strategies of ketosis, recommending glucocorticoids, insulin etc. However further studies of this problem are needed to understand why cows with ketosis have low levels of cortisol and normal levels of glucose. To what extent elevated cortisol and glucose levels in hypocalcemic and recumbent cows are involved in the ethiology and /or the pathogenesis of DA also will need further research.

  10. 饲草中缩合单宁的研究进展%Progress in Condensed Tannins of Forage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 陈鑫珠; 张建国

    2012-01-01

    Feeding a high concentration of condensed tannins will reduce protein degradation and voluntary feed intake, damage abomasum or intestine. However, appropriate concentration of condensed tannins have beneficial effects on prevention of bloat and pulmonary edema, reducing parasitic disease and pastoral flavour in meat products, improving animal performance. Condensed tannins are clearly a "double edged sword" for feeding value. Successful management of condensed tannins depends on a combination of chemical analysis and animal experimentation. This paper is a review on nutrition and anti-nutrition of condensed tannins for ruminants, the factors affecting content of condensed tannins in forage, and the methods of controling concentration of condensed tannins. Research on successful management of condensed tannins will offer a real benefit for farmers.%饲料中高浓度的缩合单宁会降低动物对营养物质的消化利用率,影响自愿采食量,甚至损伤肠胃.适宜含量的缩合单宁,又能阻止臌胀病、肺水肿的发生,降低寄生虫病害的影响,改善肉质品味,提高动物的生产性能.论文概述了缩合单宁的营养作用、抗营养作用,影响饲草缩合单宁含量的因素,以及控制缩合单宁含量的方法,以便在实践中合理应用缩合单宁.

  11. Molecular and morphological characterization of Parabronema skrjabini of sheep and goats at three different geographical zones in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminasab, Seyed Sajjad; Jalousian, Fatemeh; Meshgi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Parabronema skrjabini is a spirurid nematode of the family Habronematidae that lives in the abomasum of ruminants such as sheep and goats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular and morphological aspects of Parabronema skrjabini in sheep and goats in Iran. The worms were collected from these animal species from three different regions. An internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) fragment of Parabronema skrjabini was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a pair of specific primers (Para-Ir-R and Para-Ir-F). Morphological studies based on the body length, the frontal shield, spicules of male and egg dimensions were performed. ITS2-rDNA sequences were between 167 and 299 bp in different isolates. ITS2 homology in different isolates was between 68% and 77% compared with the sequence data in GenBank. Morphological results showed that the average length of male and female worms in sheep were 16.5 mm and 36 mm and in goats 16 mm and 35.5 mm, respectively. The average length of the small and large spicules in sheep were 657.5 μm and 304.07 μm and in goats 653.08 μm and 302.66 μm, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the world exploring the genetic diversity of Parabronema in sheep and goats. Add this sentence in discussion: the low ITS2-rDNA identity in different isolates from Iran as compared to the reference sequence in GenBank (68-77%) raise questions regarding the species identity of the parasites isolated in Iran.

  12. Molecular and morphological characterization of Parabronema skrjabini of sheep and goats at three different geographical zones in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminasab, Seyed Sajjad; Jalousian, Fatemeh; Meshgi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Parabronema skrjabini is a spirurid nematode of the family Habronematidae that lives in the abomasum of ruminants such as sheep and goats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular and morphological aspects of Parabronema skrjabini in sheep and goats in Iran. The worms were collected from these animal species from three different regions. An internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) fragment of Parabronema skrjabini was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a pair of specific primers (Para-Ir-R and Para-Ir-F). Morphological studies based on the body length, the frontal shield, spicules of male and egg dimensions were performed. ITS2-rDNA sequences were between 167 and 299 bp in different isolates. ITS2 homology in different isolates was between 68% and 77% compared with the sequence data in GenBank. Morphological results showed that the average length of male and female worms in sheep were 16.5 mm and 36 mm and in goats 16 mm and 35.5 mm, respectively. The average length of the small and large spicules in sheep were 657.5 μm and 304.07 μm and in goats 653.08 μm and 302.66 μm, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the world exploring the genetic diversity of Parabronema in sheep and goats. Add this sentence in discussion: the low ITS2-rDNA identity in different isolates from Iran as compared to the reference sequence in GenBank (68-77%) raise questions regarding the species identity of the parasites isolated in Iran. PMID:27262958

  13. A Study of Eimeria Species in Sheep in Mosul City

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    M. H. Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to diagnose and study species of Eimeria in sheep in Mosul city from beginning of September2009 to end May 2010, as well as to determine the percentage and intensity of infection of Eimeria species. Five hundredfecal samples of sheep with different ages were collected from different areas of the Mosul city. The results showed that totalpercentage of Emeria infection was 63.6%. The variations in percentage of infection were recorded according to month ofstudy. Highest percentage was recorded in March being 89.2% and the lowest in September 25.9%. The species E. ovinarecorded the highest infection rate 86.7%, while the species E. granulosa represented lowest infection rate 10%. Moreover theintensity of infection was higher in young ages and lower in adult. The results were detected that indoor sheep infection withhigh parasitic infection 69.9% whereas outdoor animals have an infection rate 25.3%. The morphological characters of oocystswere varied according to species of Eimeria has been studied. Fifty of intestinal and abomasal samples from both slaughteredin shops butchery in Mosul city and dead animals were examined to detect Eimeria infection, and results show that infectionpercentage was 56.4% in intestine of slaughtered animals and 36.3% in dead animal. Moreover no infection of Eimeria weredetected in abomasums in both slaughtered and dead animals. The oocysts of (E. parva, E.pallida and E. ovinoidalis detectedat more than 5000 oocysts per gram of intestinal contents. The intestinal secraping stained with Giemsa stain reveals thepresence of different developmental stages of parasites in wall of intestine. The histopathological sections of intestine revealedthe different pathological changes concerning of Eimeria infection.

  14. Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Haemonchus contortus in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, R B; Kahn, L P; Sargison, N D; Van Wyk, J A

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favour the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favourability. The clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis is based mostly on the detection of anaemia in association with a characteristic epidemiological picture, and confirmed at postmortem by the finding of large numbers of H. contortus in the abomasum. The detection of impending haemonchosis relies chiefly on periodic monitoring for anaemia, including through the 'FAMACHA' conjunctival-colour index, or through faecal worm egg counts and other laboratory procedures. A range of anthelmintics for use against H. contortus is available, but in most endemic situations anthelmintic resistance significantly limits the available treatment options. Effective preventative programmes vary depending on environments and enterprise types, and according to the scale of the haemonchosis risk and the local epidemiology of infections, but should aim to prevent disease outbreaks while maintaining anthelmintic efficacy. Appropriate strategies include animal management programmes to avoid excessive H. contortus challenge, genetic and nutritional approaches to enhance resistance and resilience to infection, and the monitoring of H. contortus infection on an individual animal or flock basis. Specific strategies to manage anthelmintic resistance centre on the appropriate use of effective anthelmintics, and refugia-based treatment schedules. Alternative approaches, such as biological control, may also prove useful, and vaccination against H. contortus appears to have significant potential in control programmes.

  15. Efeito da restrição alimentar pré e pós-natal sobre o crescimento dos órgãos internos de cordeiros Santa Inês Effects of pre and postnatal nutritional restriction on visceral mass growth of Santa Ines lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Geraseev

    2008-08-01

    restriction (POSR, and lambs without restriction (control. The lambs in each group were slaughted at birth, 10kg, 15kg, 25kg, 35kg, and 45kg of live weight. After slaughtering, heart, lungs, trachea and esophagus, liver, spleen, pancreas, rumen-reticulum, abomasum, omasum, and small and large intestines were individually weighted. At birth, PRER affected the weights of heart, lungs, trachea and esophagus, abomasum, pancreas, and spleen, with means of 54g, 16g, 22g, 16g, 2g, and 5g, respectively. However, the organs of the PRER lambs at 15kg of live weight showed the same weight of that organs of the others animals, indicating a compensatory growth. POSR did not affect the weight of the organs of thoracic cavity;however, in abdomen cavity, rumen, small intestine, and liver were affected, with means of 385g, 488g, and 371g, respectively. The allometric study showed that rumen and omasum presented a positive heterogonic development; while abomasum presented a negative heterogonic development; and liver, small and large intestines showed an isogonic development. The pancreas of control and POSR lambs presented an isogonic development, while pancreas of PRER lambs showed a positive heterogonic delevopment. In this experiment, the alimentary restriction affected weigth, growth, and type of development of internal organs of Santa Inês lambs, evidencing the importance of the feeding for ewes at the last third of gestation as well as for the lambs during the growth phase.

  16. Use of rumination and activity monitoring for the identification of dairy cows with health disorders: Part III. Metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Caixeta, L S; Al-Abri, M A; Giordano, J O

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the performance of an automated health-monitoring system (AHMS) to identify cows with metritis based on an alert system (health index score, HIS) that combines rumination time and physical activity; (2) the number of days between the first HIS alert and clinical diagnosis (CD) of metritis by farm personnel; and (3) the daily rumination time, physical activity, and HIS patterns around CD. In this manuscript, the overall performance of HIS to detect cows with all disorders of interest in this study [ketosis, displaced abomasum, indigestion (companion paper, part I), mastitis (companion paper, part II), and metritis] is also reported. Holstein cattle (n=1,121; 451 nulliparous and 670 multiparous) were fitted with a neck-mounted electronic rumination and activity monitoring tag (HR Tags, SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel) from at least -21 to 80 d in milk (DIM). Raw data collected in 2-h periods were summarized per 24 h as daily rumination and activity. An HIS (0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated daily for individual cows with an algorithm that used rumination and activity. A positive HIS outcome was defined as an HIS of rumination, activity, and HIS patterns around CD, alterations of blood markers of metabolic and health status around calving, reduced milk production, and were more likely to exit the herd than cows not flagged based on the HIS and cows without disease, suggesting that cows flagged based on the HIS had a more severe episode of metritis. Including all disorders of interest for this study, the overall sensitivity was 59%, specificity was 98%, positive predictive value was 58%, negative predictive value was 98%, and accuracy was 96%. The AHMS was effective for identifying cows with severe cases of metritis, but less effective for identifying cows with mild cases of metritis. Also, the overall accuracy and timing of the AHMS alerts for cows with health disorders indicated that AHMS that combine rumination and

  17. In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with 15N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg 15N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the 15N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded that the effect

  18. 绵羊混合感染捻转血矛线虫和美丽筒线虫的诊治%The Diagnosis and Treatment on the Sheep Mixed Infected with Haemonchus contortus and Gongylonema pulchrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾小龙; 刘红彬; 崔平

    2011-01-01

    Since November 2008, pathological laboratory received some sick sheep with the main symptoms of anemia and progressive angular from Zhangjiakou area. The necropsy results showed that a kind of nematode parasitized in the abomasums and the number was up to 2 120. Another kind of nematode was also found in the esophageal mucosa and the number was 14. Two kinds of parasitic ovum were found in the sheep faeces by floating method. One kind of the parasitic ovum contained 16~32 embryonic cells. It's ovi testa was thin, smooth and slightly yellow. The ovum size was (75~95)μm×(40~ 50)μm. Another kind of parasitic ovum with the size of (50~70)μm×(25~37)μm contained larva. Through the clinical symptoms, pathological changes and laboratory examination, it could be diagnosed that the sheep were mixed infected with Haemonchus contortus and Gongylonema pulchrum. The symptoms in the herd could disappear after two weeks when Levamisole and Albendazole were used.%2008年11月以来河北北方学院动物科技学院病理实验室先后接到张家口坝上地区养羊户送来的以贫血、渐进性消瘦为主要特征的病羊,剖检发现其真胃内有捻转血矛线虫寄生,最多达2120条.另在其食道黏膜内发现细长、乳白色的美丽筒线虫,共14条.漂浮法粪便检查时发现2种虫卵.一种虫卵内含16~32个胚细胞,卵壳薄,光滑稍带黄色,虫卵大小为(75 ~95)μm×(40~50)μm;另一种虫卵内含有幼虫,虫卵大小为(50~70)μm×(25~37)μm.经诊断为羊混合感染捻转血矛线虫和美丽筒线虫病.对羊群普遍用左旋咪唑片和丙硫咪唑口服驱虫,2周后羊群症状消失,病情得到控制.

  19. Milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia--an evaluation of parameters on incidence risk, diagnosis, risk factors and biological effects as input for a decision support system for disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houe, H; Østergaard, S; Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Larsen, T; Sørensen, J T; Agger, J F; Blom, J Y

    2001-01-01

    other diseases and the effect on milk production, body weight and culling. The reproductive disorders included most importantly dystocia, uterine prolapse, retained placenta, metritis and repeat breeding, and occurrence of other diseases included ketosis, displaced abomasum and mastitis. The documentation was substantial and often quantifiable within certain limits. Overall it is concluded that the present documentation on milk fever concerning incidence, diagnosis, risk factors and effects seems sufficient for a systematic inclusion in a decision support system. A model on milk fever should take into consideration the variation in biological data and individual herd characteristics. The inclusion of subclinical hypocalcaemia would be more uncertain and probably should await further documentation on possibilities of determining the herd level incidence and also the effect of this condition on production. PMID:11455889

  20. Efficiency of lysine utilization by growing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E D; Hussein, A H; Detmann, E; Miesner, M D; Titgemeyer, E C

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of Lys utilization by growing steers. Five ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (165 ± 8 kg) housed in metabolism crates were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design; data from a sixth steer was excluded due to erratic feed intake. All steers were limit fed (2.46 kg DM/d), twice daily, diets low in RUP (81% soybean hulls, 8% wheat straw, 6% cane molasses, and 5% vitamins and minerals). Treatments were 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 g/d of Lys continuously abomasally infused. To prevent AA other than Lys from limiting performance, a mixture providing all essential AA to excess was continuously abomasally infused. Additional continuous infusions included 10 g urea/d, 200 g acetic acid/d, 200 g propionic acid/d, and 50 g butyric acid/d to the rumen and 300 g glucose/d to the abomasum. These infusions provided adequate ruminal ammonia and increased energy supply without increasing microbial protein supply. Each 6-d period included 2 d for adaptation and 4 d for total fecal and urinary collections for measuring N balance. Blood was collected on d 6 (10 h after feeding). Diet OM digestibility was not altered ( ≥ 0.66) by treatment and averaged 73.7%. Urinary N excretion was decreased from 32.3 to 24.3 g/d by increasing Lys supplementation to 9 g/d, with no further reduction when more than 9 g/d of Lys was supplied (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Changes in total urinary N excretion predominantly were due to changes in urinary urea N. Increasing Lys supply from 0 to 9 g/d increased N retention from 21.4 to 30.7 g/d, with no further increase beyond 9 g/d of Lys (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Break-point analysis estimated maximal N retention at 9 g/d supplemental Lys. Over the linear response surface of 0 to 9 g/d Lys, the efficiency of Lys utilization for protein deposition was 40%. Plasma urea N tended to be linearly decreased ( = 0.06) by Lys supplementation in agreement with the reduction in urinary urea N excretion. Plasma concentrations

  1. Prepartum dietary energy intake affects metabolism and health during the periparturient period in primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovick, N A; Boisclair, Y R; Drackley, J K

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of prepartum plane of energy intake on metabolic profiles related to lipid metabolism and health in blood and liver. Primiparous (n=24) and multiparous (n=23) Holsteins were randomly assigned by expected date of parturition to 1 of 3 prepartum energy intakes. A high energy diet [1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE(L))/kg; 15% crude protein] was fed for either ad libitum intake or restricted intake to supply 150% (OVR) or 80% (RES) of energy requirements for dry cows in late gestation. To limit energy intake to 100% of National Research Council requirements at ad libitum intake, chopped wheat straw was included as 31.8% of dry matter for a control diet (CON; 1.21 Mcal of NE(L)/kg of dry matter; 14.2% crude protein). Regardless of parity group, OVR cows had greater concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin in blood prepartum compared with either CON or RES cows; however, dietary effects did not carry over to the postpartum period. Prepartum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were lower in OVR cows compared with either CON or RES cows. Postpartum, however, OVR cows had evidence of greater mobilization of triacylglycerol (TAG) from adipose tissue as NEFA were higher than in CON or RES cows, especially within the first 10 d postpartum. Prepartum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) was not affected by diet before parturition; however, within the first 10 d postpartum, OVR cows had greater BHBA than CON or RES cows. Prepartum diet did not affect liver composition prepartum; however, OVR cows had greater total lipid and TAG concentrations and lower glycogen postpartum than CON or RES cows. Frequency of ketosis and displaced abomasum was greater for OVR cows compared with CON or RES cows postpartum. Controlling or restricting prepartum energy intake yielded metabolic results that were strikingly similar both prepartum and postpartum, independent of parity group. The use of a bulky diet controlled prepartum energy intake in

  2. Histochemical study of the effects on abomasal mucins of Haemonchus contortus or Teladorsagia circumcincta infection in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, H V; Umair, S; Hoang, V C; Savoian, M S

    2016-08-15

    in both antrum and fundus contrasts with reported hypersecretion of mucus in the intestine, which is believed to aid in parasite expulsion. It has been proposed that intestinal goblet cell hypersecretion occurs only in resistant animals, therefore reduced mucins in the abomasum may be indicative of susceptibility to abomasal parasites. PMID:27387375

  3. Administração de somatotropina bovina no período pré-parto sobre parâmetros produtivos, sanitários e reprodutivos da primeira lactação de vacas holandesas Bovine somatotropin administration during pre-delivery period to productive, sanitary and reproductive parameters of holstein cows' first lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a administração de somatotropina bovina (bST no período pré-parto, sobre o desempenho na primeira lactação, foram utilizadas 18 novilhas gestantes, de modo que 9 receberam injeções subcutâneas de 500mg de bST nos dias 21 e 9 antes da data prevista para o parto. Os animais foram alimentados com dieta total, 2 vezes ao dia, e os dados coletados foram relativos a parâmetros sanitários, produtivos e reprodutivos na primeira lactação. A administração de bST não afetou os parâmetros sanitários (retenção de placenta, metrite, deslocamento de abomaso, febre do leite e cetose e reprodutivo (cisto folicular. Entretanto, o uso de bST no pré-parto levou à variação de escore de condição corporal (ECC 65% maior, adiantou o pico de produção de leite em 9,7 dias e diminuiu os dias em lactação em 21,8 dias em relação ao controle (P The effects of pre-delivery administration of bovine somatotropin (bST on first lactation performance were evaluated in this study, which involved eighteen Holstein pregnant heifers. Nine animals were supplemented with subcutaneous injections of 500 mg of bST, on days 21 and 9 prior expected delivery, and 9 were not supplemented (control group. Animals were fed total mixed ration, twice daily. Data evaluated in this experiment were related to sanitary, reproductive and productive parameters during first lactation. Administration of bST did not affect parameters related to sanity (retained placenta, metritis, displacement abomasum, milk fever, ketosis, reproduction (follicular cysts. However, heifers supplemented with bST showed changes of body condition score 65% greater, anticipated milk production peak in 9.7 days and decreased number of days in lactation in 21,8 days, compared to the non-supplemented ones (p < 0.05. Milk production peak and milk production corrected for 305 days were not affected by bST administration.

  4. Valine partitioning and kinetics between the gastrointestinal tract and hind limbs in lambs with an adult Trichostrongylus colubriformis burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, E N; McNabb, W C; Sinclair, B R; Tavendale, M H; Roy, N C

    2011-11-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection increases the demand for AA because of increased protein synthesis in the intestine and increased luminal losses of AA, and these increased demands may be supported by increased mobilization of AA from the skeletal muscles. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of parasitic infection on valine kinetics within the gastrointestinal tract and hind limbs of lambs fed fresh forages. On d 1, lambs were given 6,000 stage-3 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae per day for 6 d (n = 6) or kept as parasite-free controls (n = 6) and fed fresh lucerne (Medicago sativa; Exp. 1) or fresh sulla (Hedysarum coronarium; Exp. 2). On d 48, valine kinetics within the mesenteric- (MDV) and portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hind limbs were obtained by carrying out concurrent infusions of para-amminohippuric acid into the mesenteric vein and indocyanin green into the abdominal aorta (for blood flow), and [3,4-(3)H]valine into the jugular vein and [1-(13)C]valine into the abomasum for 8 h (for kinetics). During the infusions, blood was collected from the mesenteric and portal veins and from the mesenteric artery and vena cava, and plasma was harvested. After the 8-h infusion, lambs were euthanized, ileal digesta were collected, and tissues were sampled from the intestine and muscle (biceps femoris). Tissues, digesta, and plasma were analyzed for valine concentration, specific radioactivity, and isotopic enrichment. In both experiments, intestinal worm burdens on d 48 were greater in parasitized lambs (P = 0.0001 and 0.003). In Exp. 1, parasitic infection increased (P = 0.03) the total valine irreversible loss rate (ILR) in the MDV and PDV. In Exp. 2, luminal ILR of valine in the MDV was reduced (P = 0.01); however, ILR of valine in the PDV was unaffected. Despite these changes within the MDV and PDV, parasitic infection did not affect the ILR of valine within the hind limbs, and valine transport rates were largely unchanged. We suggest that

  5. Discovery of quantitative trait loci for resistance to parasitic nematode infection in sheep: I. Analysis of outcross pedigrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greer Gordon J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently most pastoral farmers rely on anthelmintic drenches to control gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in sheep. Resistance to anthelmintics is rapidly increasing in nematode populations such that on some farms none of the drench families are now completely effective. It is well established that host resistance to nematode infection is a moderately heritable trait. This study was undertaken to identify regions of the genome, quantitative trait loci (QTL that contain genes affecting resistance to parasitic nematodes. Results Rams obtained from crossing nematode parasite resistant and susceptible selection lines were used to derive five large half-sib families comprising between 348 and 101 offspring per sire. Total offspring comprised 940 lambs. Extensive measurements for a range of parasite burden and immune function traits in all offspring allowed each lamb in each pedigree to be ranked for relative resistance to nematode parasites. Initially the 22 most resistant and 22 most susceptible progeny from each pedigree were used in a genome scan that used 203 microsatellite markers spread across all sheep autosomes. This study identified 9 chromosomes with regions showing sufficient linkage to warrant the genotyping of all offspring. After genotyping all offspring with markers covering Chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 22 and 23, the telomeric end of chromosome 8 was identified as having a significant QTL for parasite resistance as measured by the number of Trichostrongylus spp. adults in the abomasum and small intestine at the end of the second parasite challenge. Two further QTL for associated immune function traits of total serum IgE and T. colubiformis specific serum IgG, at the end of the second parasite challenge, were identified on chromosome 23. Conclusion Despite parasite resistance being a moderately heritable trait, this large study was able to identify only a single significant QTL associated with it. The QTL

  6. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  7. Crescimento de cordeiros abatidos com diferentes pesos: 2. Constituintes corporais Growth of lambs slaughtered at different weights: 2. Body constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Cassol Pires

    2000-10-01

    - reticulum- omasum and abomasum , AT and IF. The remaining ones (liver, spleen, intestine, skin and carcass had the same growth rate as EBW.

  8. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m. The health  status of all the calves was satisfactory for the entire fattening period and no specific medical treatment was required  during the trial. Calves fed wheat straw showed a greater intake of solid feed (196 vs. 139 g/d; P  average daily gain (1288 vs. 1203 g/d; P  not affected by the type of solid feed and no milk refusal episodes were detected. The haemoglobin concentration was  similar in calves receiving the two feeding treatments despite the higher iron intake provided by the wheat straw through-  out the fattening period (2.12 vs. 1.15 g; P  calves’ metabolism. Feeding behaviour was affected by the provision of solid feeds. Eating and chewing were prolonged  in calves receiving ground wheat straw and the same solid feed reduced the frequency of oral stereotypies at the end of  the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, no differences were observed between the feeding treatments as regards  carcass weight and dressing percentage. The calves fed ground wheat straw had a heavier weight of the empty omasum  (518 vs. 341 g; P  fed barley grain. The incidence of abomasal erosions, ulcers and scars was similar in both treatments; however the index  of abomasal damage, which considers the number and the seriousness of different type of lesions, was higher in calves  receiving barley grain. Therefore, the grinding of straw particles, as opposed to barley grain, can reduce the abrasive-  ness of roughage at the abomasum level. Visual evaluation of the

  9. Immunohistochemical evidence for an endocrine/paracrine role for ghrelin in the reproductive tissues of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Yvonne A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut hormone, ghrelin, is involved in the neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to hunger. In monogastric species, circulating ghrelin levels show clear meal-related and body weight-related changes. The pattern of secretion and its role in ruminant species is less clear. Ghrelin acts via growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSR-1a to alter food intake, fat utilization, and cellular proliferation. There is also evidence that ghrelin is involved in reproductive function. In the present study we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the presence of ghrelin and GHSR-1a in sheep reproductive tissues. In addition, we examined whether ghrelin and GHSR-1a protein expression is developmentally regulated in the adult and fetal ovine testis, and whether there is an association with markers of cellular proliferation, i.e. stem cell factor (SCF and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Methods Antibodies raised against ghrelin and its functional receptor, GHSR-type 1a, were used in standard immunohistochemical protocols on various reproductive tissues collected from adult and fetal sheep. GHSR-1a mRNA presence was also confirmed by in situ hybridisation. SCF and PCNA immunoexpression was investigated in fetal testicular samples. Adult and fetal testicular immunostaining for ghrelin, GHSR-1a, SCF and PCNA was analysed using computer-aided image analysis. Image analysis data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, with differences in immunostaining between time-points determined by Fisher's least significant difference. Results In adult sheep tissue, ghrelin and GHSR-1a immunostaining was detected in the stomach (abomasum, anterior pituitary gland, testis, ovary, and hypothalamic and hindbrain regions of the brain. In the adult testis, there was a significant effect of season (photoperiod on the level of immunostaining for ghrelin (p Conclusion Evidence is presented for the presence of ghrelin and its receptor in various reproductive

  10. Retention time of digesta in the gastrointestinal tract of growing Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, R F; Krizsan, S J; Figueiredo, F O M; Carvalho, V B; Teixeira, I A M A; Huhtanen, P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effect of increased BW on mean retention time (MRT) of both particulate and solute marker, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and fiber digestion in the whole tract of growing Saanen goats using the slaughter technique. A total of 58 Saanen goats with initial BW of 15.7 ± 0.9 kg were allocated into 9 treatments with a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 sexes (female, castrated males, and intact males) and 3 slaughter weights (initial, intermediate, and final; target BW of 16, 23, and 30 kg at slaughter, respectively). They were fed twice daily (0700 and 1600 h) with the identical diets for ad libitum intake. Mean retention time of particulate matter was estimated by in situ determination of indigestible NDF (iNDF), and the MRT of solute marker was determined by Cr-EDTA. Treatment effects were evaluated in a split-plot design, with sex as the main plot and slaughter weight as the subplot. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts were used to determine linear and quadratic effects of slaughter weight, whereas the effect of sex was compared using the Tukey test. The effects of sex and sex × slaughter weight were not significant for most of variables evaluated. The results showed that DMI (% BW) linearly decreased as slaughter weight increased ( slaughter weight ( ≤ 0.05). The ratio of iNDF:NDF for both ingested diet and reticulorumen digesta linearly increased as slaughter weight increased ( ≤ 0.05). The MRT of particles did not change with increasing slaughter weight ( = 0.94). Mean retention time of particulate matter linearly increased in the omasum but linearly decreased in the abomasum with increasing slaughter weight ( slaughter weight ( < 0.01). The results revealed a decreased selectivity with increasing BW, as supported by a greater ratio of iNDF:NDF for ingested diet. Increasing BW led to neither a longer particle MRT in the reticulorumen nor a digestive advantage. The results also indicated that, on average, 91% of

  11. In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrabi, S.M.; Ritchie, M.M.; Stimson, C.; Horadagoda, A.; Hyde, M.; McNeill, D.M. [MC Franklin Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: karalue@bigpond.net.au

    2005-08-19

    To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with {sup 15}N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg {sup 15}N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the {sup 15}N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded

  12. Digestive development in neonatal dairy calves with either whole or ground oats in the calf starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2015-05-01

    A series of 3 trials was conducted to determine effects of whole or ground oats in starter grain on reticulorumen fermentation and digestive system development of preweaned calves. Male Holstein calves (43.1±2.3kg at birth; n=8, 9, and 7 for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were housed in individual pens in a heated facility; bedding was covered with landscape fabric to prevent consumption of bedding by the calves. In trials 1 and 2 only, calves were fitted with rumen cannulas by wk 2 of life. In all trials, a fixed amount of starter (containing 25% oats either ground and in the pellet or whole) was offered daily; orts were fed through the cannula in trials 1 and 2. Calves were randomly assigned to an all-pelleted starter or pellets plus whole oats. Rumen contents (trials 1 and 2) were sampled weekly at -8, -4, 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after grain feeding for determination of pH and volatile fatty acids. Calves were killed 3 wk (trial 1) or 4 wk (trials 2 and 3) after grain was offered; organs were harvested, emptied, rinsed, and weighed to gauge digestive organ development. Starter intake was not different between treatments. Weekly measurements of rumen digesta pH did not change and only subtle changes were observed in molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids. Molar proportion of butyrate and pH linearly decreased with age, whereas acetate proportion increased. Reticulorumen weight and papillae length tended to be greater for calves fed pelleted starter, whereas abomasum weight was greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Fecal particle size and starch content were greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Under the conditions of this study, physical form of oats in starter grain did not affect rumen fermentation measurements; greater rumen weight and papillae length in calves fed pelleted starter may be the result of greater nutrient availability of ground oats. Under the conditions of this study with young calves on treatments for oats

  13. Níveis de uréia em suplementos para terminação de bovinos em pastejo durante a época seca - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.560 Urea levels in supplements for finishing cattle at pasture during the dry season - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.560

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se níveis de inclusão de uréia em suplementos sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade e parâmetros do metabolismo dos compostos nitrogenados em bovinos, manejados em pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, no período de seca. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos Holandês x Zebu, não-castrados, com peso médio inicial de 250 kg, fistulados no esôfago, rúmen e abomaso. Foram fornecidos suplementos isoprotéicos (20% PB, constituídos de milho grão, farelo de algodão, mistura mineral e diferentes níveis de uréia, com base na matéria natural (0; 1,6; 3,2; e 4,8%, na quantidade de 1% do peso vivo. O experimento foi conduzido segundo delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4. Os níveis de uréia influenciaram de forma quadrática (p The effects of different urea levels in supplements evaluated on intake, digestibility, and metabolism of nitrogenous compounds of crossbreed steers grazing on a pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu during dry season. Four Holstein x Zebu steers, with average initial live weight of 250 kg, fistulated in the esophagus, rumen, and abomasum, were used. The animals received supplement (1% of live weight, containing 20% CP, based on corn grain, cottonseed meal, mineral mix, and urea in four levels, as fed (0, 1.6, 3.2, and 4.8%. The experiment was carried out according a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The urea levels showed a quadratic response (p < 0.10 to total dry matter (DM intake and DM intake from pasture, with better response close to 1.6% of urea. Total and rumen digestibilities of DM, organic matter, and CP, rumen ammonia concentration, and urine excretion of urea showed a positive linear relationship (p < 0.10 with urea levels in the supplements.

  14. A macro- and light microscopical study of the pathology of Calicophoron microbothrium infection in experimentally infected cattle

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    M. Mavenyengwa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Tuli weaner steers aged 1 year were randomly subdivided into three groups of four animals and infected with different doses of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae. Each animal in Group I received a low dose (LD of 5 000 metacercariae, Group II a medium dose (MD of 15 000 metacercariae, Group III a high dose (HD of 25 000 metacercariae and one additional animal was kept as an uninfected control (C. After infection, one animal from each group was slaughtered on Day 28, 42, 56 and 84 post infection (pi and samples from the ileum, jejunum, duodenum, abomasum and the rumen were collected for histopathological and cytological examination. On Day 28 pi, the gross pathological lesions observed in the duodenum of the LD and the MD animals were similar and comprised duodenal thickening, corrugation, hyperaemia, petechiation and ulceration. In the HD animal the duodenal lesions were similar but more severe. The abomasal folds were severely oedematous in the MD group and nearly occluded the abomasal lumen. Moderate oedema of the abomasal folds was also present in the LD and HD animals. The gross pathological lesions regressed in all the infected groups with increasing age of infection and had disappeared completely by Day 56 pi. On Day 28 pi the histopathological lesions in the duodenum and jejunum of the LD and MD groups were similar, comprising subtotal villous atrophy, hyperplasia of Brunner's glands and Peyer's patches and moderate infiltration of eosinophils, mast cells and a few globule leukocytes, basophils and lymphocytes in the lamina propria. The HD group had total villous atrophy, severe hyperplasia and cystic dilatation of Brunner's glands, which had expanded to cover the entire submucosa. On Day 42 pi the histopathological lesions were still present in the MD and the HD groups comprising subtotal villous atrophy and hyperplasia of Brunner's glands. Heavy infiltrations of eosinophils, moderate amounts of mast cells and a few

  15. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats.

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    Gujja, S; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Mechineni, A; Kommuru, D S; Shaik, S A; Lambert, B D; Cherry, N M; Burke, J M

    2013-01-16

    Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. A study was completed in which supplemental feeds (75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets and a commercial pellet, all fed at 0.91 kg/head/day) were offered to thirty growing male Spanish goats (9 months old, 20.6 ± 2.8 kg, 10/treatment) grazing perennial warm-season grass pastures in Fort Valley, GA, from September to November, 2010. Fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals weekly to determine fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively, and animal weights were recorded at the start and end of the trial. After 11 weeks grazing, animals were slaughtered for recovery, counting, and speciation of adult GIN from the abomasum and small intestines. There was no difference in FEC between goats fed the 75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets, but both groups had lower (P<0.05) FEC than the goats fed the commercial pellets from days 35 to 77. The PCV values were not affected by the dietary treatments. Animal gain per day averaged 102.0, 77.2, and 53.3g for goats fed 95% SL, commercial, and 75% SL pellets, respectively (P<0.05). The 95% SL leaf meal pellet goats had 93.0 and 47.3% fewer (P<0.05) total (male+female) adult Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, respectively, than control animals, while only male H. contortus were lower (47.6%; P<0.05) in 75% SL-fed goats compared with commercial pellet-fed animals. Feeding supplemental SL leaf meal pellets improved animal performance (95% SL pellets) and reduced worm burdens (75 and 95% SL pellets) in young grazing goats and is a useful tool for natural GIN control in small ruminants. PMID:22985929

  16. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

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    Moore, D A; Terrill, T H; Kouakou, B; Shaik, S A; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Vanguru, M; Kannan, G; Burke, J M

    2008-09-01

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics worldwide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, including use of forages containing condensed tannins (CT). An experiment was designed using infected and dewormed male kids (Kiko x Spanish, 6 mo old, 18.9 +/- 3.25 kg) fed diets containing 25% concentrate and either 75% sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don], a high CT forage (87 to 181 g of CT/kg), or 75% bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay (n = 10/treatment). The kids were weighed every 14 d, and fecal and blood samples were taken weekly for fecal egg counts and packed cell volume determination, respectively. Fecal cultures were processed every 14 d to determine CT effect on larval development. At slaughter, adult GIN were collected from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and speciation. Blood samples were also analyzed for plasma urea-N, and ruminal VFA and pH were determined. The infected SL-fed kids had consistently lower (P < 0.05) fecal egg counts than the infected BG goats throughout the trial and greater (P < 0.05) packed cell volume beginning by d 77. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.001) in kids fed SL- than BG-based diets, regardless of infection status (104.3 +/- 5.0 and 75.5 +/- 4.8 g/d, respectively). Total VFA and acetate concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in the BG- than in SL-fed goats, whereas propionate levels were unaffected by diet. Acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.01) and plasma urea-N (P = 0.03) levels were greater in BG-fed goats, whereas rumen pH was greater (P < 0.001) in the SL-fed goats. Feeding SL hay can reduce GIN infection levels and increase performance of goats compared with BG hay. PMID:18469053

  17. Efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats: dose titration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, T H; Dykes, G S; Shaik, S A; Miller, J E; Kouakou, B; Kannan, G; Burke, J M; Mosjidis, J A

    2009-07-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) parasitism is the greatest threat to economic sheep and goat production in the southern USA, and there is widespread prevalence of GIN resistance to broad-spectrum anthelmintics in this region. A natural alternative for controlling GIN in small ruminants is feeding hay of sericea lespedeza [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours., G. Don)], a perennial warm-season legume high in condensed tannins. To determine the level of SL needed to reduce GIN infection, a confinement study was completed with 32 Spanish/Boer/Kiko cross yearling bucks offered one of four diets with 75% hay and 25% concentrate (n=8, 2 pens/treatment, 4 goats/pen). The hay portion of each diet consisted of a combination of ground SL (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet) and bermudagrass [BG, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of the diet]. The bucks were allowed to acquire a natural GIN infection on pasture prior to moving to the pens. After a 3-week adjustment period in the pens, the goats were stratified by fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), randomly assigned to treatments and pens, and then fed the treatment diets for six weeks. During the experimental period, fecal and blood samples were collected from individual animals weekly to determine FEC and PCV, respectively. Adult worms from abomasum and small intestines were collected for counting and identification of species at slaughter. Goats fed SL hay at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet had 45.3% (P=0.2048), 66.3% (P=0.0134), and 74.5% (P=0.0077) lower FEC than control animals (75% BG hay) after 21 days. The 50% and 75% SL goats had 84.6% (P=0.0625) and 91.9% (P=0.0340) lower FEC than controls by day 42. The 75% SL-fed goats tended to have higher (P=0.0624) PCV and had fewer (P=0.035) abomasal worms than control animals, while PCV and adult worm numbers of the 50% and 25% SL goats were not different from controls. The optimum level of SL hay in the diet for reducing worm numbers of small

  18. Sobre um surto de envenenamento por derivado cumarínico em bovinos About an outbreak of cumarin poisoning in cattle

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    Marilene F. Brito

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um surto de envenenamento por derivado cumarínico em bovinos confinados, ocorrido no município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, no qual morreram duas vacas e um touro, de um total de 43 animais. Entre as principais manifestações clínicas observaram-se apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, diarréia sanguinolenta, incoordenação e dificuldade respiratória. À necropsia observaram-se principalmente hemorragias de intensidade e formas diversas, em vários órgãos. O exame histopatológico não evidenciou alterações, além de hemorragias. A pesquisa toxicológica em conteúdos de rúmen, retículo, omaso e abomaso, em amostras de fígado e rim, bem como da cevada coletada no cocho, resultou positiva para o grupo de derivados cumarínicos que inclui warfarina, bromadiolone e bromadifacoum. Não se pode excluir uma ação intencional ou acidental, visto que os animais que não estavam se alimentando no mesmo cocho, não adoeceram.An outbreak of cumarin poisoning which occurred in feedlot cattle in the county of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, is described. Three from 43 animal died. The main manifestations included bloody diarrhea, apathy, anorexia, sialorrhoe, incoordenation and dyspnoe. At post-mortem examinations there were mainly hemorrhages of varies forms and intensity in several organs, which also were seen at histopathological examination. Analysis for cumarin derivates of rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum contents, of liver and kidney samples, as well as of food collected from the trough, resulted positive for cumarin compounds which included warfarin, bromadiolone and brodifacoum. Feeding experiments with food stored at the property resulted negative. An intentional or accidental act could not be excluded. Animals that did not feed from the same trough did not get sick.

  19. Sawfly larval poisoning in cattle: Report on new outbreaks and brief review of the literature

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    Bianca Tessele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sawfly larval poisoning (SLP is an acute hepatotoxicosis documented in livestock in Australia, Denmark and in countries of South America. It is caused by the ingestion of the larval stage of insects of the suborder Symphyta, order Hymenoptera, commonly known as "sawfly". Three species of sawfly are reportedly involved in the toxicosis. The insect involved in Australian SLP is Lophyrotoma interrupta (Pergidae, in Denmark the cause of SLP is the ingestion of the larvae Arge pullata (Argidae, and in South American countries documented outbreaks of SLP were caused by the ingestion of yet another sawfly, Perreyia flavipes (Pergidae. In all geographical areas where it occurred, SLP causes important livestock losses. In cattle, as well as in other affected species, the disease has a short clinical course and in many outbreaks affected cattle can be found dead. When observed, clinical signs include apathy, recumbence, tremors, paddling movements and death in 24-48 hours. Neurological signs such aggressiveness attributable to hepatic encephalopathy are also observed. In cases with a more protracted course icterus and photodermatitis may develop. Gross findings included ascites, petechiae and ecchymosis over serosal surfaces of thoracic and abdominal cavities, and an enlarged liver that displays accentuation of the lobular pattern and edema of the gall bladder wall. Sawfly larval body fragments and heads are consistently found in the fore stomachs and occasionally abomasum of affected cattle. Main microscopic lesions are restricted to the liver and consist of centrolobular (periacinar to massive hepatocellular necrosis. In most lobules necrotic areas extended up to the portal triads where only a few viable hepatocytes remain. Mild to moderate lymphocyte necrosis is seen in lymphatic tissues. Cases occur in the winter months when the larval stages of the sawfly are developing. D-amino acid-containing peptides have been found to be the toxic principle in

  20. Eficiência microbiana, fluxo de compostos nitrogenados no abomaso, amônia e pH ruminais, em bovinos recebendo dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 de diferentes idades de rebrota Microbial efficiency, abomasal nitrogen compounds flow, ruminal ammonia and ruminal pH in cattle fed diets containing tifton 85 bermudagrass hays at different regrowth ages

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    Karina Guimarães Ribeiro

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a eficiência de síntese microbiana, o fluxo de compostos nitrogenados no abomaso, o balanço de compostos nitrogenados, a taxa de passagem da digesta ruminal, a concentração de amônia e o pH ruminais, em bovinos recebendo rações contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 de diferentes idades de rebrota. Utilizaram-se quatro animais zebu, com peso médio de 340 kg, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, distribuídos em um delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4. Todas as rações continham 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado. O volumoso foi constituído de feno de capim-tifton 85 de 28, 35, 42 e 56 dias de idade e o concentrado continha fubá de milho e mistura mineral. Os microorganismos ruminais foram quantificados utilizando-se as bases purinas como indicador. O pH e N-amoniacal foram mensurados, no fluido ruminal, antes e 2; 4 e 6 horas após o fornecimento da ração. A taxa de passagem foi determinada pelo modelo unicompartimental, utilizando-se o óxido crômico como indicador. As eficiências de síntese microbiana não foram influenciadas pela idade do feno na ração, apresentando valores médios de 31,32 g Nbact/kg MODR; 30,74 g Nbact/kg CHODR; 337,4 g MSbact/kg CHODR; e 12,5 g PBbact/100 g NDT. Estimaram-se máximos fluxos de compostos nitrogenados totais, amoniacais e não-amoniacais, de 119,0; 9,76; e 109,6 g/dia, com a inclusão de feno com 39,7; 37,6; e 39,9 dias de idade, respectivamente, e fluxo de compostos nitrogenados bacterianos de 80,54 g/dia, em média. O balanço de nitrogênio, a taxa de passagem, as concentrações de amônia e o pH ruminais também não foram influenciados pela idade do feno na ração, encontrando-se valores de 30,67 g/dia; 3,2%/h; 9,7 mg/100mL (máximo às 1,38h e 6,08 (mínimo às 6,64h, respectivamente.The microbial efficiency synthesis, the abomasum nitrogen compounds flow, the nitrogen compounds balance, the passage rate of ruminal digest, the ruminal ammonia concentration and ruminal pH in

  1. Intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae em bovinos Poisoning in cattle by Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae

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    Ingeborg Maria Langohr

    2005-12-01

    Baccharidastrum triplinervium in cattle from Paraná, Brazil, is described. The disease occurred during a severe drought in early summer. The onset of clinical signs was two days after 50 cows and 8 heifers had been introduced into a pasture with high density of B. triplinervium that showed signs of having been consumed by the animals. Fifteen animals (9 cows and 6 heifers got sick. Of these 15, two cows and four heifers died after a clinical course of 12-60 hours. Clinical signs included depression, ruminal atony, moderate bloat, marked dehydration, mild diarrhea and anorexia. The animals were restless, laying down and getting up constantly, remaining progressively longer periods in sternal recumbency. Once in that position, the animals had an extended head or the head turned to one of the sides of the body, and were groaning. Additionally, the cows had an abrupt fall in milk yield. The remaining affected cattle presented milder clinical signs and were partially back to their feed on the day following the onset of the clinical signs. The milk production was back to normal values within one week. The main gross lesions observed in two necropsied cows were in the forestomachs and abomasum, consisting of edema of the ruminal wall, as well as of diffuse reddening of the mucosae of the rumen, reticulum, abomasum and of some of the omasal folds. The main histological lesions included multifocal ballooning degeneration and necrosis of the lining epithelium of the rumen, associated with neutrophilic infiltrate. The diagnosis was based on the epidemiological data and on the experimental reproduction of the disease by force-feeding 3 bovine with the aeral fresh parts (20 and 30g/kg of B. triplinervium. Chemical analysis of dried material from B. triplinervium harvested at the site of the outbreak was negative for macrocyclic trichothecenes.

  2. Nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin-related diseases in dairy cows Nutrição, microbiota e doenças relacionadas à endotoxina em vacas leiteiras

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    Burim N. Ametaj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review article we present an overall summary of the role that high-grain/low forage diets have on rumen composition of microbiota and how changes in the diet affect the release of bacterial cell wall components that are toxic to the host. One of these toxic compounds is lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of all Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, data are provided that support the concept that endotoxin translocates into the blood circulation and show that rumen endotoxin is associated with multiple perturbations of blood variables related to carbohydrate, lipid, and mineral metabolism. In addition, endotoxin induces a general, nonspecific immune response known as acute phase response. We also pinpoint the fact that high-grain diets are associated with distinct clusters of plasma metabolites and immune variables suggesting that changing cereal grain to forage ratio in the diet is very important for the health of dairy cattle. Furthermore, we provide information that support the concept that endotoxin is involved in multiple metabolic diseases such as fatty liver, milk fever, laminitis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and downer cow syndrome. More research is warranted to clarify the mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin contribute to development of metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. It is concluded that besides the aforementioned causal agents other compounds generated in the gastrointestinal tract such as lipoteichoic acid or methylated amines might be involved in the etiology of several metabolic diseases.Neste artigo de revisão é apresentado um resumo total do papel que a dieta de alto teor de grãos e baixo teor de forragem tem sobre a composição da microbiota do rúmen e como as mudanças na dieta afetam a liberação de componentes da parede celular bacteriana tóxicos ao hospedeiro. Um destes compostos tóxicos é um lipopolisacarídeo ou endotoxina, um componente da

  3. Níveis de uréia na ração de novilhos de quatro grupos genéticos: estimativa da produção de proteína microbiana por meio dos derivados de purinas na urina utilizando duas metodologias de coleta Urea levels in diet for steers of four genetic groups: microbial protein production by the urinary purine derivatives, using two collection methodologies

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    Luciana Navajas Rennó

    2008-03-01

    urinary purine derivatives was evaluated by using two collection methodologies in steers of four genetic groups: Holstein in, ½ Holstein-Guzera, ½ Holstein-Gir and Zebu. Animals were fed diets with 50:50 tifton-85 bermudagrass hay to concentrate ratio and assigned to four 4 ´ 4 latin squares (genetic groups: four animals, four experimental periods and four treatments (diets and were. Diets approximately contained 12% CP. The urine samples, from each experimental period, were obtained from 24-h collection and spot urine collection, when the animals spontaneously urinated. Analyses of purine derivatives, allantoin and uric acid were performed in the urine. A comparison among the microbial production using the purine bases in the abomasum and urinary purine derivatives; determination of microbial production by purine derivatives using two different equations or purine bases method in the abomasum; and estimate of urinary of purine derivatives and microbial production by means of spot urine collection and by 24-h total urine collection, were performed. Production and microbial efficiency showed higher values for Holstein animals, intermediary values for crossbred and smaller values for Zebu. The estimation of microbial nitrogen compounds production could be performed from the excretion of urinary purine derivatives. The spot urine collection is a fast and efficient methodology to estimate the excretion of urinary purine derivatives and the microbial nitrogen compounds production.

  4. Partes não-integrantes da carcaça de tourinhos alimentados com diferentes níveis de concentrado na dieta Non-integrant components of the carcass from young bulls fed different concentrate levels

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    Regis Luis Missio

    2009-05-01

    in the diet. The animals were feedlot finished until reaching 400 kg of body weight. Sixteen bulls were randomly distributed into four treatments: 22; 40; 59 or 79% concentrate in the diet. The initial average age and weight were 9.3 months and 192.4 kg, respectively. The empty body weight (EBW and carcass dressing ajusted for empty body weight were similar among the different concentrate levels. The increase in the concentrate level in the diet promoted linear decrease for intestine absolute weight, and linear increase for ruminal and abomasum absolute fat weight. When the components were expressed as adjusted EBW values and slaughter weight (SW, linear increases were observed for weight of feet, heart, intestine, trim fat, ruminal fat, gastrintestinal tract content and internal fat, and linear decreases were observed for weight of head and omasum as the concentrate level increased. The response of the abomasum weight according to the concentrate level was quadratic, with the minimum values estimated for the concentrate levels of 68.0, 66.7 and 69.2%, in relation to the absolute weight, adjusted for EBW and SW, respectively. The increase in the concentrate level from 22 to 79% increased the ajusted weights of gastrintestinal tract content and internal fat; however, it did not affect the total internal organs, empty body weight and carcass dressing ajusted for empty body weight of bulls slaughtered at 14-16 months of age with 400 kg.

  5. Intoxicação por Cestrum laevigatum (Solanaceae em bubalinos Poisoning by Cestrum laevigatum (Solanaceae in buffaloes

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    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    ões necrosadas observou-se um halo de hepatócitos com vacuolização.Based on the history and clinical and pathological data, as well as on inspection of the pastures, a mortality of buffaloes in the county of Itaguaí/RJ, Brazil, was diagnosed as poisoning by Cestrum laevigatum Schlecht., a plant of the Solanaceae family. The poisoning was reproduced in two buffaloes. Dried leaves of the shrub were administered by hand, in single doses corresponding to 20g/kg and 40g/kg of the fresh leaves, to four buffaloes of the Murrah breed. The dose corresponding to 40g/kg of the fresh leaves caused signs of poisoning, as apathy, anorexia, absence of rumen movements, dysmetria, excitement and aggressiveness, followed by death of the two buffaloes within 65 hours after administration. From the two buffaloes that received the corresponding dose of 20g/kg of the fresh plant, one presented clinical signs characterized mainly by decrease of the rumen movements, but recovered 97h22min after the administration; the other buffalo did not show symptoms of poisoning. Laboratory analyses for biochemical evaluation accused hepatic alterations. In one buffalo that died, the main macroscopic finding was an orange liver with a clear nutmeg appearance; in the second buffalo, the orange liver had no nutmeg appearance. Other alterations found in these two buffaloes were slight edema of the gall bladder wall, a slightly reddish mucous membrane of the abomasum, extensive echymoses in the endocard of the left ventricle and few petechiae in the endocard of the right ventricle; the abomasum content was slightly dry, and the large intestine had little and slightly dry contents wrapped by mucus. Histopatological examination revealed severe coagulative necrosis of the liver parenchyma in the centrolobular and intermediate lobular areas, with a halo of vacuolated hepatocytes at the periphery of the necrotic areas.

  6. Supplementing Holstein cows with low doses of bovine somatotropin prepartum and postpartum reduces calving-related diseases.

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    Gulay, M S; Liboni, M; Hayen, M J; Head, H H

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether supplementing Holstein cows with bovine somatotropin (bST; 142.8 mg/14 d), beginning at 21 d (+/-3 d) before expected calving and continuing through 42 d in milk (+/-3 d), affected the incidence rates of retained fetal membranes (RFM), metritis (MET), clinical mastitis (MAS), digestive problems (DIG), ketosis (KET), milk fever (MF), displaced abomasum (DA, left or right), lameness (LAM), or number of sick cows during the first 60 d in milk. Data for multiparous Holstein cows from 3 separate trials were merged for analyses (n = 437). Cows in the bST-supplemented group (n = 162) received biweekly subcutaneous injections of Posilac, whereas control cows (n = 166) and a group of cohorts (n = 109) were not supplemented. Incidences of disease were collected from the herd health records. Across all treatment groups, the incidence rates (number of diseased cows divided by the total number of cows) for RFM, MET, MAS, DIG, KET, MF, DA, and LAM were 8.47, 18.31, 16.02, 4.35, 4.35, 3.66, 3.20, and 3.66%, respectively. The incidence rates of RFM, MET, MAS, DIG, KET, MF, DA, and LAM for cows in the bST-supplemented, control, and cohort groups were 6.79, 7.83, and 11.93%; 16.05, 7.47, and 22.94%; 10.49, 18.07, and 21.10%; 1.23, 5.42, and 7.34%; 1.23, 6.02, and 6.42%; 2.47, 4.22, and 4.59%; 2.47, 3.61, and 3.67%; and 3.70, 3.61, and 3.67%, respectively. The percentages of sick cows (number of cows having one or more cases of disease divided by the total number of cows) in the bST-supplemented, control, and cohort groups were 33.95, 43.37, and 49.54%, respectively. Significant chi-squared values were detected between the bST-supplemented and control groups for MAS, DIG, and KET, with a greater number of healthy cows in the bST-supplemented group. No differences in incidences of diseases or sick cows were detected between the control and cohort groups. Results indicated that a low dose of bST supplemented to Holstein cows for 3 wk

  7. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  8. Polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis Reação em cadeia da polimerase para o diagnóstico de campilobacteriose genital bovina

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    Ana C.M. Groff

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a common venereal disease of cattle; the prevalence of this disease can be underestimated mostly because of the nature of the etiological agent, the microaerobic Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the utilization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the diagnosis of genital campylobacteriosis in samples obtained from bull prepuce aspirate, cow cervical mucus, and abomasum contents of aborted fetuses, collected into enrichment medium. Five different DNA extraction protocols were tested: thermal extraction, lysis with proteinase K, lysis with guanidine isothiocyanate, lysis with DNAzol, and lysis with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. The specificity, sensitivity, and technical application of the PCR assay were also evaluated with clinical samples and compared to bacterial isolation by standard culture. DNA extraction by the CTAB protocol provided better results in PCR, and it was able to detect 63 colony-forming units per ml of C. fetus. Out of 277 clinical samples tested, 68 (24% were positive for Campylobacter fetus using PCR, while only 8 (2.8% of the samples were positive by bacterial isolation in solid medium, proving the superiority of the PCR technique when compared to the standard isolation method, and providing evidence for its usefulness as a better screening test in cattle for the diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis.Campilobacteriose genital bovina é uma doença venérea comum em bovinos. A prevalência desta doença pode ser subestimada na maioria das vezes pela natureza microaeróbica do agente etiológico, Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis. O propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar a utilização da reação de polimerase em cadeia (PCR no diagnóstico de campilobacteriose genital em amostras obtidas de aspirado prepucial de touros, muco cervical de vacas e conteúdo abomasal de fetos abortados, coletados em

  9. Effects of Genetically Modified Soybean Meal on Growth Performance, Meat Nutrient Composition, and Exogenous Gene Transformation to Tissues and Organs of Laoshan Dairy Goats%转基因豆粕对崂山奶山羊生长性能、肌肉营养成分及组织器官中外源基因转移的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 秦志华; 黄娟; 张廷荣; 刘文达; 王述柏

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the effects of genetically modified soybean meal on growth performance, meat nutrient composition, and exogenous gene transformation to tissues and organs of Laoshan dairy goats, thirty 50-day-old Laoshan dairy goats were randomly divided into two groups with three replicates in each group and five goats per replicate. Goats in different groups were fed concentrates containing non-genetically modified soybean meal and genetically modified soybean meal ( MON89788 and GTS40-3-2 ) , respectively, and were fed the same roughage ( Chinese wildrye) . The experiment lasted for 150 days. The results showed as fol-lows: average daily feed intake, average daily gain and feed to gain ratio in the two groups were not signifi-cantly different (P>0. 05); the contents of dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, ash, calcium and phos-phorus in muscle of dairy goats were not significantly different either ( P >0 . 05 ) . Moreover, no gene rag-ments of genetically modified soybean meal were detected from muscle, liver, pancreas, kidney, spleen, thy-mus, lung, heart, abomasum and small intestine of dairy goats by real-time quantification PCR. The results suggest that genetically modified soybean meal ( MON89788 and GTS40-3-2 ) had no significant effects on growth performance and muscle quality of Laoshan dairy goats, and no genetic horizontal transformation is ob-served in tissues and organs.%本试验旨在研究转基因豆粕对崂山奶山羊生长性能、肌肉营养成分及组织器官中外源基因转移的影响。选取30只50日龄崂山奶山羊随机分为2组,每组3个重复,每个重复5只。精饲料分别以非转基因豆粕和转基因豆粕( MON89788和GTS40-3-2)配制,粗饲料均为干草。试验期150 d。结果表明:2组奶山羊平均日采食量、平均日增重和料重比均无显著差异( P >0.05);奶山羊肌肉的干物质、粗脂肪、粗蛋白质、粗灰分、钙、磷含量2组间亦均无显著差异( P>0

  10. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ruidong; Oddy, Victor Hutton; Archibald, Alan L; Vercoe, Phillip E; Dalrymple, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    between the species and different between the rumen and colon in sheep. The importance of nitrogen and iodine recycling in sheep was highlighted by the highly preferential expression of SLC14A1-urea (rumen), RHBG-ammonia (intestines) and SLC5A5-iodine (abomasum). The gene encoding a poorly characterized member of the maltase-glucoamylase family (MGAM2), predicted to play a role in the degradation of starch or glycogen, was highly expressed in the small and large intestines. Discussion. The rumen appears to be a specialised stratified cornified epithelium, probably derived from the oesophagus, which has gained some liver-like and other specialized metabolic functions, but probably not by expression of pre-existing colon metabolic programs. Changes in gene transcription downstream of the rumen also appear have occurred as a consequence of the evolution of the rumen and its effect on nutrient composition flowing down the GIT. PMID:26989612

  11. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em ovinos Spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in sheep

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    Daniela B. Rozza

    2006-03-01

    , dry feces, sternal ou lateral decumbency, struggling movements, coma and death. Clinical evolution was from 5 to 48 hours. Other sheep that were already before on the pasture were not affected. Main necropsy findings were in the gastrointestinal tube, with wall and serosal oedema, mainly in the reticulo-ruminal fold and of the abomasum, reddening and detachment of the mucosa of forestomachs, and intense hemorrhage in the submucosa. Histopathological findings were degeneration and necrosis of the epithelium of the forestomachs with polymorphonuclear infiltration associated with bacterial colonies, congestion, hemorrhage and oedema, and lymphoid tissue necrosis.

  12. [Problems in the energy and nutritional requirements of feeding and welfare of food producing animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphues, J

    1998-03-01

    The efforts in optimizing feeding conditions of food producing animals in the past were focussed primarily on promoting performance and/or the products' quality (MEYER 1997). In spite of great success in this direction various risks occur due to the conflict between the increased requirements on the one hand and the species typical demands on the other (for example: need of roughage as well as of concentrates with high energy and nutrient density in ruminants). Especially in feeding high yielding dairy cows the conflict is obvious: Even in the case, that high amounts of concentrates are fed it becomes more and more difficult to meet the energy requirement when the milk yield exceeds 40 kg milk per day (FLACHOWSKY a. LEBZIEN 1997). A negative energy balance is accompanied by a forced predisposition for ketosis and infertility (KRUIP 1996). Insufficient proportions of roughage in those rations predispose the animals for rumen acidosis and associated problems (health of claws etc.) as well as for displacement of abomasum. Thereby in feeding high yielding dairy cows there is only the choice between different risks due to the fact that the feed intake capacity did not increase to the same extent as the milk production did. In fattening calves the use of roughage (in Germany required by law) is on debate in this direction (necessary to avoid disturbances in the behaviour). Further problems in feeding animals according to their species typical demands are related to the established conditions of housing, feeding and water supply (risks of mechanization and automatization due to potential disfunction). The generally increased feeding intensity results--for example in poultry--in a higher frequency of skeleton diseases; the more and more specialized pig production (separate units for piglet production, rearing units, fattening units) is accompanied by increased changes in diets and techniques of feed and water supply, to that the animals have to be accustomed, too. The

  13. Mixing sainfoin and lucerne to improve the feed value of legumes fed to sheep by the effect of condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufrère, J; Dudilieu, M; Andueza, D; Poncet, C; Baumont, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of sainfoin-based condensed tannins (CT) enhances feed value when given with tannin-free legumes (lucerne) to sheep. The experiments were conducted with fresh sainfoin and lucerne harvested at two stages (vegetative stage as compared with early flowering) in the first growth cycle. Fresh sainfoin and lucerne forages were combined in ratios of 100 : 0, 75 : 25, 25 : 75 and 0 : 100 (denoted S100, S75, S25 and S0, respectively). Voluntary intake, organic matter digestibility (OMD) and nitrogen (N) retention were measured in sheep fed the different sainfoin and lucerne mixtures. Loss of dry matter (DM) and N from polyester bags suspended in the rumen, abomasum and small intestine (SI) was also measured using rumen-fistulated sheep and intestinally fistulated sheep. The CT content in sainfoin (S100) decreased with increasing percentage of lucerne in the mixture (mean value from 58 g/kg DM for S100 to 18 g/kg DM for S25) and with growth stage (S100: 64 to 52 g/kg DM). OMD did not differ between different sainfoin/lucerne mixture ratios. Sainfoin and lucerne had an associative effect (significant quadratic contrast) on voluntary intake, N intake, total-tract N digestibility, N in faeces and urine (g/g N intake) and N retained (g/g N intake). Compared with lucerne mixtures (S0 and S25), high-sainfoin-content mixtures (S100 and S75) increased the in situ estimates of forage N escaping from the rumen (from 0.162, 0.188 for S0 and S25 to 0.257, 0.287 for S75 and S100) but decreased forage N intestinal digestibility (from 0.496, 0.446 for S0 and S25 to 0.469, 0.335 for S75 and S100). The amount of forage N disappearing from the bags in the SI (per g forage N) was the highest for high-sainfoin mixtures (from 0.082, 0.108 for S100 and S75 to 0.056, 0.058 for S25 and S0, P < 0.001). Rumen juice total N (tN) and ammonia N (NH3-N) values were the lowest in the high-sainfoin diet (mean tN 0.166 mg/g in S100 as compared with 0

  14. Simulação e validação de parâmetros da cinética digestiva em novilhos mestiços suplementados a pasto, por intermédio do sistema in vitro de produção de gases Simulation and validation of digestive kinetic parameters using an in vitro gas production system in crossbred steers with pasture supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2005-12-01

    production technique. In vivo estimates were obtained from five Holstein x Zebu steers averaging 304 kg of body weight and 24 months of age that were grazing on five paddocks of Brachiaria decumbens (0.34 ha. The supplements fed to the steers (4 kg/animal/day contained: grounded corn, whole soybean, urea, ammonium sulfate, and mineral salt and the following crude protein levels: 12, 16, 20, or 24% on as-fed basis. Statistical analyses were performed as a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-days periods. The fifth animal was not supplemented and was used only for descriptive comparisons. Data were obtained by regression of values predicted in vitro on values observed in vivo. Use of digestion rates obtained in vitro resulted in under- and over-estimation of the ruminal degradation of fiber (FC and nonfiber (NFC carbohydrates with overall biases of -25.27% and +33.58%, respectively. No significant relationship was found between predicted versus observed values for microbial efficiency showing lack of relationship between predicted and observed values for the abomasum flow of microbial nitrogen. Results showed that the ruminal incubation of feeds separately underestimates the digestion rate of FC.

  15. Consumo e dinâmica ruminal da fibra em detergente neutro em bovinos em pastejo no período das águas recebendo suplementação com nitrogênio não-proteico e/ou proteína verdadeira Intake and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fiber in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein nitrogen and, or true protein during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli Costa

    2011-12-01

    during rainy season. Five crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers, averaging 335±35 kg of body weight and fitted with rumen and abomasum canullaes were used. The treatments were: control (only pasture, and supplements based on urea, 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, and albumin. Two hundred grams/d of crude protein (CP were supplied from supplements. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five 15-day experimental periods. There were no effects of supplementation on voluntary intake, except for CP intake, which was increased by supplementation. The replacement of urea by albumin in the supplements caused linear effect on the CP intake. The intakes of the other diet components were not affected by the supplement composition. There was no effect on ruminal rate of passage of fibrous compounds. Supplementation increased the estimates of common rate of lag and degradation of NDF. However, no effect of supplement composition alteration was observed on this parameter. Supplementation of cattle with rumen degradable (protein or non-protein nitrogenous compounds for grazing cattle during rainy season does not affect voluntary intake of pasture.

  16. Comparative efficacy of ivermectin pour-on, albendazole, oxfendazole and fenbendazole against Ostertagia ostertagi inhibited larvae, other gastrointestinal nematodes and lungworm of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J C; DeRosa, A; Nakamura, Y; Loyacano, A F

    1997-12-15

    drugs for O. ostertagi, but especially for OXF and FBZ, under conditions of this experiment, were suggestive of drug tolerance to dosages employed or resistance. However, problems of drug availability/concentration in the abomasum, and the factor of IEL4 and DL4 replacing adult worms after treatment cannot be excluded. Efficacy of the BZ drugs against all other species were essentially similar to that of IVM-PO. PMID:9477494

  17. Surto de aflatoxicose em bezerros no Rio Grande do Sul Outbreak of aflatoxicosis in calves in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pierezan

    2010-05-01

    and rolling. The clinical course, as observed by the owners, was 2-3 days; however many calves in this lot that did not die, remained underdeveloped. Three calves were necropsied. Necropsy findings included firm, light tan livers and marked hydrothorax, ascites and edema of the mesentery, mesocolon and of the mucosal folds of the abomasum. Main histopathological changes were restricted to the liver and consisted of fibrosis, moderate megalocytosis, biliary duct hyperplasia and veno-occlusive disease. The search for Senecio spp. contamination in the alfalfa hay resulted negative. The analysis by thin layer chromatography of the corn fed to calves revealed 5,136 ppb of aflatoxin B1. A diagnosis of aflatoxicosis was made based on the characteristic clinical signs and pathology, on the absence of Senecio spp. in the food and on the presence of high levels of aflatoxin in the corn fed to the calves.

  18. Peso e rendimento dos componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros terminados em confinamento com dietas contendo proporções crescentes de resíduo úmido de cervejaria Weight and yield of liveweight components of feedlot finish lambs fed diets with increasing proportions of wet brewery residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Brochier

    2008-10-01

    mix and wet brewery residue, and its proportions varied in accordance with the treatments. There was a linear decrease in weights of blood, legs, head, liver, lungs, and spleen, and liver proportion, with the increase of the proportion of wet brewery residue on the diets. The proportion, in relation to live weight, of rumen/reticulum and of gastrointestinal tract with content, and the gastrointestinal tract content showed a linear increase; while the weights of rumen/reticulum, abomasum, small intestine, and gastrointestinal tract without content showed a linear decrease with the increase of wet brewery residue in the diets. A quadratic effect was observed in the proportion of rumen/reticulum without content.

  19. Effectiveness of Sr-binders tested using an in vitro model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The radioisotope 90Sr is a fission product that in biological systems will behave like calcium and accumulate in bone. Because of the dose effect and the long biological half life of radiostrontium in humans the best countermeasure is to avoid absorption. Low levels of radiostrontium in food products are therefore necessary. To obtain food products, particularly milk, with low radiostrontium levels, the use of Sr-binders in animals may be required. We have tested a number of potential Sr-binders that may be used in animal production. Preliminary studies testing the Sr-binding effect of several compounds in goats demonstrated that only zeolite A(Na) and zeolite P would be of practical interest. Given at a rate of up to 30 g/d the Sr transfer to milk was reduced by 40%. However, because of the chemical properties of the zeolites, they may also bind other cations like Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn, all important minerals for animals. We have therefore tested the binding kinetics of Sr, Ca and Mg by the zeolites in rumen liquid from cows. We used 85Sr to measure Sr binding and the stable elements of Ca and Mg naturally present in the rumen liquid to measure the binding of these minerals. In the rumen liquid mixture the pH was varied to simulate the pH variation in the digestive system of ruminants and the binding of the minerals to the zeolites were measured at each step. The time dependant 85Sr binding showed that zeolite A(Na), at 0.5% in rumen liquid, pH 7.3, bound 98% of the 85Sr already after 10 min. This proportion of Sr binding was persistent for the tested period of 24 h. The zeolite P at 0.5% in rumen liquid, pH 7.3, bound ca 85% and had a similar time dependant behavior. When pH was reduced to 2.5, similar to the pH in the abomasum, no Sr was bound to the zeolites. This was also the case at pH 3 and 4. At pH 5 ca 10% of the Sr was bound. Theses levels of pH simulated the conditions in the small intestine. To simulate the conditions in the large intestine the p

  20. 转基因豆粕对崂山奶山羊生长性能、肌肉营养成分及组织器官中外源基因转移的影响%Effects of Genetically Modified Soybean Meal on Growth Performance, Meat Nutrient Composition, and Exogenous Gene Transformation to Tissues and Organs of Laoshan Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 秦志华; 黄娟; 张廷荣; 刘文达; 王述柏

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the effects of genetically modified soybean meal on growth performance, meat nutrient composition, and exogenous gene transformation to tissues and organs of Laoshan dairy goats, thirty 50-day-old Laoshan dairy goats were randomly divided into two groups with three replicates in each group and five goats per replicate. Goats in different groups were fed concentrates containing non-genetically modified soybean meal and genetically modified soybean meal ( MON89788 and GTS40-3-2 ) , respectively, and were fed the same roughage ( Chinese wildrye) . The experiment lasted for 150 days. The results showed as fol-lows: average daily feed intake, average daily gain and feed to gain ratio in the two groups were not signifi-cantly different (P>0. 05); the contents of dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, ash, calcium and phos-phorus in muscle of dairy goats were not significantly different either ( P >0 . 05 ) . Moreover, no gene rag-ments of genetically modified soybean meal were detected from muscle, liver, pancreas, kidney, spleen, thy-mus, lung, heart, abomasum and small intestine of dairy goats by real-time quantification PCR. The results suggest that genetically modified soybean meal ( MON89788 and GTS40-3-2 ) had no significant effects on growth performance and muscle quality of Laoshan dairy goats, and no genetic horizontal transformation is ob-served in tissues and organs.%本试验旨在研究转基因豆粕对崂山奶山羊生长性能、肌肉营养成分及组织器官中外源基因转移的影响。选取30只50日龄崂山奶山羊随机分为2组,每组3个重复,每个重复5只。精饲料分别以非转基因豆粕和转基因豆粕( MON89788和GTS40-3-2)配制,粗饲料均为干草。试验期150 d。结果表明:2组奶山羊平均日采食量、平均日增重和料重比均无显著差异( P >0.05);奶山羊肌肉的干物质、粗脂肪、粗蛋白质、粗灰分、钙、磷含量2组间亦均无显著差异( P>0

  1. Intoxicação por Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Mimosoideae em bovinos Poisoning by Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Mimosoideae in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo V. Ferreira

    2009-11-01

    animais, mas não ocorreu fotossensibilização.Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of natural and experimental Stryphnodendron fissuratum poisoning in cattle in Central-Western Brazil were evaluated. The coiled pods of this tree are popularly known as "rosquinha" (small coil; they mature during July-September, when they fall to the ground, and are consumed by cattle causing mortalities. Spontaneous outbreaks of poisoning were investigated in the municipalities of Aruanã, State of Goias, Guiratinga and Rondonópolis State of Mato Grosso, and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Commonly the poisoning occurred in properties with Nelore cattle herds, which were raised extensively on Brachiaria spp. pastures. The clinical course in natural cases ranged from 24 hours to 10 days, and the morbidity and case fatality rates were 0.9-25% and 15-100%, respectively. The main clinical signs in the spontaneous poisoning were apathy, anorexia, agressiveness, jaundice, sialorrhoea, incoordination, dysmetria, retraction of the abdomen, uneasiness and pasty black feces with stings of mucus or blood, diarrhea, edema of the dewlap and photosensitization. At necropsy, jaundice, edema of the subcutaneous tissue, mainly of the cervical region, hemorrhages of serous membranes, ascitis and hidrotorax, edema of the mesentery, perirenal edema, increased size of liver and kidney, reddening of the ruminal mucosa, and abomasum ulcers were observed. The diagnosis of S. fissuratum poisoning was based on epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings, and in the experimental reproduction by the administration of the pods of this plant to cattle. Experimentally, daily doses of 4 and 20g of pods by kg body weight, respectively, were administered to two bovines. Both animals had digestive signs and died, but photosensitization was not observed.

  2. Consumo, digestibilidade e parâmetros ruminais em bovinos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo silagem de sorgo e pré-secado de capim-tifton 85 Intake, digestibility and ruminal parameters in beef cattle fed diets with sorghum silage and tifton 85 haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2007-12-01

    digesta, the pH and the ammonia ruminal concentration in beef cattle fed diets containing tifton 85 haylage and sorghum silage in the following proportions: 100:0; 68:32; 34:66 and 0:100, respectively in DM basis. Four crossed animals (H × Z fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, with average body weight of 364 kg were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square. The forage: concentrate ratio was 60:40, in DM basis. The daily intake of DM, OM, CP, total carbohydrates (TC, as well as the total apparent digestibility of CP, EE, NFC and NDF were not influenced by the diets, with mean values of 6.01, 5.69, 0.76, and 4.64kg/day and 67.94, 82.12, 84.43, and 53.57%, respectively. The intake of EE, NFC, NDF and TDN and the total apparent digestibility of DM, OM and TC linearly increased with the increment of sorghum silage in the forage. The ruminal and intestinal digestibility of DM, TC, NFC and NDF were not influenced by the diets. The pH was not influenced by the collection time or by the diets. The ammonia concentration was influenced by the collection times, estimating the maximum value of 13.14 mg/100 mL, at 2.90 hour after feeding. Ruminal digesta passage rates of 4.10, 4.22, 4.27, and 5.30%/hour were respectively estimated for diets containing 0, 32, 66, and 100% of sorghum silage in the forage. The level of sorghum silage in the diet did not influence the microbial efficiency. The use of Tifton 85 haylage associated with sorghum silage has shown to be a great alternative of forage for finishing beef cattle.

  3. Rendimento dos componentes não-carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar e dois níveis de concentrado Non-carcass components yield of lambs fed corn silage or sugar cane under two levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greicy Mitzi Bezerra Moreno

    2011-12-01

    with corn silage or sugarcane under two levels of concentrate. Thirty-two non-castrated Ile de France lambs fed on corn silage or sugar cane with two roughage:concentrate ratios: 60:40 or 40:60. Lambs were confined until they reached 32 kg of body weight (BW, when they were slaughtered. After the bleeding, all non-carcass components (blood, skin, head, feet, rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine, spleen, liver, heart, lung with trachea, pancreas, kidneys with perirenal fat, omental and mesenteric fat were separated and weighed, and their percentages were calculated in relation to the BW. The content of gastrointestinal tract was greater in lambs which fed on sugar cane (15.17% and 60% of roughage (14.55%; while omental and kidney fats were greater in lambs that received corn silage, 0.53 and 0.63%, respectively. The roughage:concentrate ratio and type of forage affected the proportions of rumen, omasum and small intestine in relation to the total weight of gastrointestinal tract. The roughage:concentrate ratio and type of forage influence the content of the gastrointestinal tract of lambs, indirectly affecting the carcass yields. The type of food has greater influence on the proportions of the organs responsible for digestion and absorption of nutrients. The factors that influence the non-carcass components of lambs are varied and contradictory, requiring more research that might encourage their use and, consequently, add more value to the production systems of sheep meat.

  4. Consumo e digestibilidade em bovinos em pastejo durante o período das águas sob suplementação com fontes de compostos nitrogenados e de carboidratos Intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing during rainy season and supplemented with different sources of nitrogenous compounds and carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli Costa

    2011-08-01

    suplemento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different chemical forms of nitrogenous compounds (protein and non-protein and carbohydrates (starch and soluble fiber on intake, digestibility, and ruminal synthesis of microbial protein in cattle supplemented during rainy season. It was used five crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers, with average initial body weight of 211 ± 35 kg and fistulated in the rumen and abomasum. The treatments were: control (only pasture, and supplements based on corn + soybean meal; corn + urea, citrus pulp + soybean meal, and citrus pulp + urea. The supplements were balanced to present 30% of crude protein (CP, on dry matter (DM basis, and provided at 3 g/kg BW. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, composed of two sources of nitrogenous compounds, two sources of carbohydrates and a control treatment. Pasture intake was reduced when supplements were fed to animals, with average substitution coefficient of 2.11 g of DM of pasture/g of DM of supplement. Supplementation did not alter the total and ruminal digestibility coefficients of DM and the dietary content of total digestible nutrients (TDN neither. Supplemented animals presented higher ruminal and total digestibility coefficients of CP than non-supplemented animals. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS, average of 123.1g of microbial CP/kg, was not changed by supplementation. However, animals supplemented with corn presented higher EMPS in comparison to animals supplemented with citrus pulp (137.6 and 106.1 g microbial CP/kg of TDN, respectively. Protein-energy supplementation for cattle grazing in tropical pastures during rainy season does not cause nutritional benefits, which reflects the high coefficient of substitution of forage by the supplement.

  5. Effects of Ambroxol on Concentration of Fluconazole in Rat Lung TissueΔ%氨溴索对大鼠肺组织中氟康唑药物浓度的影响Δ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂林; 翁春梅; 刘广军; 杜贯涛

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立测定大鼠肺组织中氟康唑的高效液相色谱-紫外吸收检测( HPLC-UV)法,探讨氨溴索对大鼠肺组织中氟康唑药物浓度的影响。方法:将实验大鼠按随机数字表法分为A、B组,每组各10只,A组大鼠首日经尾静脉给予72 mg/kg注射用氟康唑,以后给予1日36 mg/kg;B组大鼠先经胃灌注给予6 mg/kg氨溴索,1日2次,上午给予氨溴索30 min后给予注射用氟康唑。连续给药2 d后,第3日给予氟康唑后2 h对大鼠颈静脉取血后解剖,取肺组织备用。采用HPLC-UV法同时测定最后一次使用氟康唑后2 h大鼠的肺组织浓度。结果:氟康唑线性范围均为2.5~80μg/ml之间,回归方程为X=0.052C-0.0276,相关系数r=0.9999。 A组大鼠肺组织氟康唑的浓度(28.1±19.6)μg/ml,B组为(26.6±17.7)μg/ml,2组的差异无统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:氨溴索对肺组织中的氟康唑药物浓度无显著影响,但尚需结合临床实际行进一步的研究。%OBJECTIVE:To establish a HPLC-UC method of fluconazole and explore effects of ambroxol on concentration of fluconazole in rat lung tissue .METHODS:Rats were divided into group A and group B via the random number table , with 10 cases in each .And group A were treated with 72 mg/kg fluconazole injection by caudal vein in the first day , followed by 36 mg/kg for a day during the latter treatment .Group B received 6 mg/kg ambroxol by abomasum infusion , twice a day , and after the administration of ambroxol for 30 min in the morning , fluconazole injection was given.After administration of 2 d, 2 h after administration of fluconazole in the 3rd day, the blood was drawn from jugular vein of rats and then anatomy was conducted , lung tissue of rats were taken .HPLC-UV method was adopted to determine the concentration of rat lung tissue 2 hours after injecting fluconazole in the last administration . RESULTS:The calibration curve

  6. Uréia em suplementos protéico-energéticos para bovinos de corte durante o período da seca: características nutricionais e ruminais Urea in protein-energy supplements for beef cattle during the dry season: nutritional and ruminal traits

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    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade, o pH e a concentração de amônia do líquido ruminal, a concentração de nitrogênio sérico e urinário e a síntese microbiana em novilhos recebendo suplemento durante o período da seca. Utilizaram-se quatro novilhos mestiços Zebu × Holandês, castrados, com peso médio inicial de 430 kg, fistulados no esôfago, rúmen e abomaso e distribuídos em quatro piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens, cada um com 0,40 ha. Cada animal recebeu 4,0 kg/dia de suplemento, constituído de milho moído, farelo de algodão, mistura mineral e uréia/sulfato de amônia em quatro níveis (0; 1,2; 2,4 e 3,6% na matéria natural. Os consumos de matéria seca total, 2,0% (10,9 kg/dia, e de pasto, 2,3% (7,1 kg/dia, matéria orgânica, 2,2% (9,7 kg/dia, matéria orgânica do pasto, 2,3% (6,3 kg/dia, proteína bruta, 1,9% (1,3 kg/dia, extrato etéreo, 3,6% (0,4 kg/dia, fibra em detergente neutro, 1,9% (5,8 kg/dia, carboidratos totais, 2,3% (8,2 kg/dia, e carboidratos não-fibrosos, 2,9% (4,1 kg/dia, foram influenciados de forma quadrática pelos níveis de uréia nos suplementos. Apenas a digestibilidade total da matéria orgânica foi afetada, de forma linear positiva, pelos níveis de uréia no suplemento. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de uréia no suplemento sobre o pH ruminal, entretanto as concentrações de amônia aumentaram linearmente de acordo com os níveis de uréia, ocasionando aumento linear na excreção de nitrogênio sérico e urinário. A eficiência microbiana, em qualquer forma de expressão, não diferiu entre os níveis de uréia.Four Zebu × Holstein steers were fistulated in rumen, abomasums and esophagus, with 430 kg of live weight grazing in four paddocks of Brachiaria decumbens (.40 ha, feed supplements were used to evaluate intake, digestibility, pH and ammonia ruminal concentration, nitrogen in serum and urine and microbial yield. The animals received 4.0 kg/animal/day of

  7. Órgãos internos e trato gastrintestinal de novilhos de gerações avançadas do cruzamento rotativo entre as raças Charolês e Nelore terminados em confinamento Internal organs and gastrointestinal tract of feedlot finished steers of advanced generations of rotational crossbreeding between Charolais and Nellore

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    Luís Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes

    2007-02-01

    and gastrointestinal tract (GIT of feedlot purebred (Charolais C and Nellore N and crossbred steers from second (G2 (¾C ¼N and ¾N ¼C, third (G3 (5/8C 3/8N and 5/8N 3/8C and fourth (G4 (11/16C 5/16N and 11/16N 5/16C generations of rotational crossbreeding slaughtered at 23 month of age. Crossbred steers from G2, G3 and G4 had, respectively, 14.95, 17.25 and 18.46% higher empty body weight (EBW than that from purebred animals. A positive heterosis for cold carcass yield expressed as a proportion of EBW (CCYEBW was observed in G2, G3, and G4. Weights of heart, lungs, and kidneys adjusted for EBW were lower on crossbred compared to purebred steers; the heterosis was significant for the weights of heart (-18.29% and kidneys (-14.29% in G3 and for that of lungs (-13.45% in G4. Weights of all organs of the GIT either expressed as 100 kg of EBW or as proportion of slaughter body weight (SBW were lower on crossbred than on purebred steers with the exception of rumen weight in G2. Retained heterosis was positive and significant for EBW, CCYEBW and liver weight. However, it was negative for amount of blood and weights of heart and small plus large intestines when expressed as 100 kg of EBW and SBW. Within purebred animals, N showed greater CCYEBW (61.64% than C (57.09. Conversely, weights of rumen, abomasum, small plus large intestine, and GIT were all higher on C than N steers; excepting for small plus large intestine, the same was observed when weights of the remaining GIT components were expressed as proportion of EBW and SB. These differences partially explain the increased carcass yield on N steers.

  8. 早期断奶对舍饲肉用羔羊消化器官发育的影响%Effect of Early Weaning on Development of Digestive Organs of Barn Feeding Lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭江鹏; 郝正里; 李发弟; 马友记; 潘建忠; 张元兴

    2013-01-01

    slaughtered at 0,7 and 14 d after weaning accompanied by 5 animals from the control.The relative weight of liver and pancreas,compartments of stomach and intestines,and relative volume of compartments of stomach were determined,respectively.The results indicated that the relative weight of liver and pancreas (% live weight) were increased with age,and the range of increase in group B was greater than that in group A.Compared with the weaned day,the relative weight of reticulorumen (% live weight,% stomach weight) 7 days after weaning were increased by 107.28%,16.22% and 40.39%,13.24% in group A and B,respectively,29.04%,17.48% and 27.10%,4.26% in control at the corresponding time,respectively.Compared with the weaned days,relative weight of abomasums (% live weight) in group A were increased 25.39% and 7.42% after weaned 7 and 14 d,respectively,but the animals in group B were significantly declined 78.16% and 65.37% at the corresponding day,respectively.The effect of weaning on the relative volume (% gastrointestinal tract capacity) in stomach and every compartments of stomach were significant,and more acceleration appeared in more early weaned animals.There weren't significant influence on relative weight (% live weight,% intestinal weight) in every compartment of intestine with different weaned days (P>0.05).The results indicated that,7 days after weaning,the relative weight of forestomach and reticulorumen (% stomach weight) in weaned groups were close to the adult sheep.Under feeding conditions,the supplementary feed were offered at 7 d after birth,the relative weight and volume of reticulorumen fully developed at the 35 or 28 d of age for barn feeding lambs.The early weaning can be implemented at 28 or 35 d of age.

  9. Supplementation levels for growing beef cattle grazing in the dry-rainy transition season Níveis de suplementação para recria de bovinos de corte em pastejo durante o período de transição seca-águas

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    M.F.L. Sales

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of different levels of supplementation on the performance, intake, digestibility, pH and rumen ammonia concentration in growing bulls grazing Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. pasture, during the dry-rainy transition season. For evaluation of performance, intake and digestibility, it was used 25 non-castrated steers at 11 months of age and initial average body weight of 270 kg, grouped in five plots of five animals each, following a completely randomized design. Each plot received one of the following feeding treatments: mineral mixture and supplement at the proportion of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg/animal/day, corresponding to 0.18, 0.36, 0.54 and 0.72% of the average body weight of the animals. The area designated for the animals was constituted of five 2.0-ha paddocks. For the evaluation of the pH and rumen ammonia concentration, five crossbred non-castrated steers were used, with average body weight of 240 kg, fistulated in the esophagus, rumen and abomasum, disposed in a 5 × 5 Latin square, with five treatments and five experimental periods. Animal performance behaved in a positive linear manner according to the supplementation levels, responding with an increase of more than 80% on weight gains of the animals. Intakes of total and pasture dry matter (DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by supplementation. Intakes of crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrates, ether extract and total digestible nutrients as well as nutrient digestibility and rumen ammonia concentration showed a positive linear pattern in response to supplementation levels. Increasing levels of concentrate supplementation influence positively the performance of bulls growing on pastures during the dry-rainy transition season.Objetivou-se estudar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de suplementação sobre o desempenho, o consumo, a digestibilidade, o pH e a concentração de amônia ruminal em

  10. RUMINAL DEGRADATION OF THE DRY MATTER, PROTEIN AND THE AMINOACIDS OF THE CORN AND CORN GLUTENS MEAL DEGRADAÇÃO RUMINAL DA MATÉRIA SECA, DA PROTEÍNA E DOS AMINOÁCIDOS DO MILHO E DE GERMENS DE MILHO

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    Juliana Borbari Dourado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The present work was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Science, UNESP-Jaboticabal. Three ¾ Holstein x Zebu bovines fistulated on rumen, abomasum and intestine using a fixed cannula type T were used. Four types of feed: corn (M, 1% EE corn gluten meal (G1, 7% EE corn gluten meal and 10% EE corn gluten meal (G10 were tested.  All feed were also extruded: CornEx, G1Ex, G7Ex and G10EX. Ruminal incubation was done using the nylon bags technique, and degradability of dry matter, crude protein and disponibilization of amino acids were analyzed. Basic diet was composed of corn gluten meal, soybean meal and hay at roughage (70: concentrate (30 ratio. Ruminal degrading of dry matter feed M, G1, G7 and G10 presented the following values: 37.5%, 56.7%, 56.8% and 55.1% respectively.  Extruded feed: 52.3%, 68.9%; 69.0% and 61.6% for Mex, G1Ex, G7Ex and G10Ex. The corn was significantly inferior to others and extruded feed increased ruminal degradedly for all feed. The degradability of crude protein was 27.0%, 60.9%, 56.8% and 35.1% for M, G1, G7 and G10; 50.8, 52.2, 66.4 and 59.6 for MEx; G1Ex; G7Ex and G10Ex, respectively. Statistically the G1 feed was equal to M and both were inferior to G7 and G10. The extrusion process did not increase the degradability of crude protein of G1. The lysine presented high ruminal degradability for tested feed, showing values above 99%. The metionin presented values of degradability inferior for M (37.4% related to G1 (57.1%.  The treonine did not present differences between feed and extrusion. It can be concluded that the processing of corn to obtain by-products can increase the ruminal degradability of dry matter, protein and metionine, but depending on intensity of processing, the degradability of crude protein may not be altered when compared to corn. The extrusion increased the ruminal degradability of dry matter of corn and by-products.

    KEY-WORDS: Amino acids, degradability, extrusion

  11. Aspectos epidemiológicos da seneciose na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul Epidemiological aspects of seneciosis in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Fernando Sérgio Castilhos Karam

    2004-12-01

    of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This paper presents epidemiological data of 24 outbreaks in cattle and one in horses, diagnosed by the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory at Pelotas University in southern Rio Grande do Sul, from 1998 to 2000. Additionally, data of 54 outbreaks which occurred in 1978-1997 were analyzed. The farms where outbreaks occurred in 1998-2000 were visited to obtain clinical and epidemiological data and to verify the presence of Senecio spp. Eleven outbreaks (45.83% affected cattle up to 3 years of age, and 13 (54.16% cattle over 3 years. Nine (37.5% outbreaks affected females and 15 (62.5% males. Ten (41.66% outbreaks occurred in spring, 4 (16.66% in summer, 5 (20.83% in autumn, and 5 (20.83% in winter. Morbidity rate was estimated with 4.92% and case fatality with 95.59%. The predomionating Senecio species were S. brasiliensis on 12 farms (57.14%, S. selloi on 10 (47.61%, S. oxyphyllus on 6 (28.57%, S. heterotrichius on 3 (14.28%, and S. leptolobus on 1 farm (4.76%. The main clinical signs were progressive emaciation, incoordination, diarrhea, tenesmus, rectal prolapse and aggressiveness. The clinical manifestation periods of affected cattle observed during the farm visits, or of cattle sent for post-mortem examination,were 24-96 hours in 4 outbreaks (16.66%, 4-7 days in 7 (29.16%, 1-2 weeks in 4 (16.66%, 2-3 weeks in 2 (8.33%, 1-2 months in 2 (8.33%, and 2-3 months in 1 outbreak (4.16%. In 4 outbreaks (16.66% the clinical manifestation period was not established. In outbreaks with longer clinical manifestation periods some animals showed photosensitization. The main necropsy findings were a hard and enlarged liver, distended gall bladder, edema of the mesenterium and abomasum, and increased amount of liquid in the cavities. Histopathological findings were fibroplasia, megalocytosis and biliary ductal proliferation of the liver, and spongy degeneration of the cerebral white matter. Samples of different Senecio species, in different seasons, were